WorldWideScience

Sample records for reservoir hong kong

  1. Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    This discussion of Hong Kong focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; and the economy. In 1984 the population of Hong Kong totaled 5.4 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000; life expectancy is 76 years. Hong Kong adjoins Guangdong province on the southeastern coast of the Chinese mainland. It consists of Hong Kong and Lan Tao islands, the Kowloon Peninsula, and more than 200 smaller islands. Hong Kong's population consists of about 98% ethnic Chinese and 2% other ethnic groups, mostly European. Only 57.2% of the population were born in Hong Kong. Cantonese is the Chinese dialect spoken by most of the territory's population, but English is widely understood. Not until after 1949 did Hong Kong develop into a leading manufacturing, commercial, and tourist center. Hong Kong's foreign relations are the responsibility of the British government, but considerable autonomy has been permitted in the area of commercial relations. Following the June 30, 1997, expiration date of the lease on the New Territories, which comprise 92% of Hong Kong's total area, Hong Kong will become a Special Administrative Region of China in 1997. Hong Kong has little arable land and virtually no natural resources. The colony always has depended on foreign trade. Hong Kong has developed into a center of light manufacturing and international finance. In 1984, Hong Kong's foreign trade was valued at $57 billion. Hong Kongs economy has recovered strongly from the 1981-82 recession.

  2. Update Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Martin F.

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Hong Kong. Following an overview of the history and culture of Hong Kong, 12 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapter topics include: before leaving, on arrival, language, doing business in Hong Kong, customs and courtesies,…

  3. Hong Kong - Aalborg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver nogle forløb i SARS epidemien fra efteråret 2002 til sommeren 2003 i Hong Kong. Epidemien blev starten på samarbejdet mellem universitet i Hong Kong og Aalborg Universiter, hvor man i en årrække har forsket i udviklingen af ventilationssystemer der kan forhindre sygdomsspredning...

  4. Hong Kong: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozzard, A

    1988-09-01

    In the 1840s, the small fishing community that is now Hong Kong became a British colony and an important naval base for the Opium Wars. Now it is a leading capitalist center operating on mainland communist China. Hong Kong is scheduled to go back to China in 1997. In the agreement signed between the British government and China, Hong Kong's present lifestyle is guaranteed for at least 50 years. Textbook colonialism rules here. Foreigners hold the key jobs and earn much more than do the indigenous people. They even receive subsidized housing in this very high rent colony. As for the Hong Kong Chinese, overcrowding into 2 room apartments is the norm even though the government tries to provide more housing units. The large skyscrapers in the New Territories breed their unique social and mental health problems, such as poverty, drug abuse and frustration. Essentially all food is imported from communist China, yet agriculture in Hong Kong does exist--pig farms, duck lakes, and fields of the popular vegetable choi sum. Major industry comprise textiles and sweat shops which pay their workers (mostly illegal immigrants and children with no legal protection) wages that are 1/4 of those paid in Great Britain. Financial services, trade, and tourism may soon dominate Hong Kong's economy. Almost 4 million tourists visit Hong Kong yearly, often looking for bargains. Despite Hong Kong's active Western-like business climate, Chinese culture still abounds. Traditional incense burns in Buddhist temples. Snake soup is served in restaurants. Plus traditional medicine practiced alongside Western medicine contributes to Hong Kong having 1 of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world (9/1000) and to its high life expectancy of 76 years.

  5. Retrocession of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    part of the Colony of Hong Kong. 9Edgar Holt, The Opium Wars in China (London: Putnam and Company, Ltd., 1964), p. 253; Hong Kong, Laws, Statutes, etc...stateless 8 8 Hilary Ng’weno, "Uganda and Racism," New York Times, 9 November 1972, p. 47. 67 . . . .. . . . . . .I These done in duplicate, each of the...1 and 2. London: His Majesty’s Stationary Office, 1908. Holt, Edgar, The Opium Wars in China. London: Putnam and Company, Ltd, 1964. Hong Kong

  6. Hong Kong's Consumption Function Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Li-gang Liu; Laurent Pauwels; Andrew Tsang

    2007-01-01

    This paper revisits the relationship among consumption, income and wealth using Hong Kong data. We find that the permanent income hypothesis is weakly supported by Hong Kong¡¦s consumption data prior to 1997, but it is not supported for the sample period after 1997 and the whole sample period spanning from 1984 to 2006. Furthermore, we find that both anticipated and unanticipated income and wealth effects have influences on Hong Kong¡¦s consumption. While temporary tax changes may have some i...

  7. Hong Kong: Ten Years After the Handover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F

    2007-01-01

    ... to where they stood prior to the Handover. There also is unease about the independence of Hong Kong's judicial system and the protection provided by Hong Kong's Basic Law in light of decisions made by the Chinese government...

  8. Neoliberalism in Two Hong Kong School Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the link between the governance of Hong Kong's international school and Direct Subsidy Scheme school categories and changes in the broader Hong Kong society through a neoliberal framework. As Hong Kong's economy has grown since the 1997 handover to the People's Republic of China, an increasing number of people have come to…

  9. Unschooling In Hong Kong: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina RILEY

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although homeschooling, and more recently, unschooling, is slowly gaining acceptance in the United States; unschooling in Hong Kong is rare and considered risky. The Educational Bureau of Hong Kong (EDB tends to discourage alternative forms of education, believing that traditional schooling is the best way to educate students. This case study focuses on the unschooling experience of Karen Chow and her family. Karen is one of the first individuals to choose to unschool her children in Hong Kong. She is also the founder and executive member of EDiversity.org, an organization focused on rethinking education and educational alternatives in Hong Kong.

  10. Historical Development of Hong Kong Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Felix; Lo, Connie; Lo, Lisa; Chu, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the origins of Hong Kong Sign Language (hereafter HKSL) and its subsequent development in relation to the establishment of Deaf education in Hong Kong after World War II. We begin with a detailed description of the history of Deaf education with a particular focus on the role of sign language in such development. We then…

  11. Enhancing Preschool Education in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala; Koong, Maggie

    2000-01-01

    Presents overview of Hong Kong preschool education. Considers the history of preschool education, early childhood curriculum, training of early childhood professionals, and monitoring of standard services. Discusses trends in Hong Kong preschool education and problems in early childhood education, including exclusion from the main education…

  12. The Preparation of Educational Psychologists in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong

    2014-01-01

    Modeled after the British system, school psychologists in Hong Kong are called educational psychologists. Hong Kong is the first location in Asia to have a recognized specialty vocation in educational psychology and a program for their professional preparation. The first program in Hong Kong, established by the University of Hong Kong in 1981…

  13. Unschooling In Hong Kong: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gina RILEY

    2016-01-01

    Although homeschooling, and more recently, unschooling, is slowly gaining acceptance in the United States; unschooling in Hong Kong is rare and considered risky. The Educational Bureau of Hong Kong (EDB) tends to discourage alternative forms of education, believing that traditional schooling is the best way to educate students. This case study focuses on the unschooling experience of Karen Chow and her family. Karen is one of the first individuals to choose to unschool her children in Hong Ko...

  14. Education Reform in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dowson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the pace of educational reform in Hong Kong has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost all areas of schooling. The reforms introduced during this period can be subsumed under what has generally been labelled the quality movement. In this paper, we review and comment on a number of policy reform initiatives in the four areas of "Quality Education," English Language Benchmarking, Initial Teacher Training and the Integration of Pupils with Special Needs into Ordinary Classrooms. Following a brief description of each policy initiative, the reforms are discussed in terms of their consistency, coherence and cultural fit.

  15. Prehospital care in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C B; Lai, K K; Mak, K P

    2000-09-01

    A quick and efficient prehospital emergency response depends on immediate ambulance dispatch, patient assessment, triage, and transport to hospital. During 1999, the Ambulance Command of the Hong Kong Fire Services Department responded to 484,923 calls, which corresponds to 1329 calls each day. Cooperation between the Fire Services Department and the Hospital Authority exists at the levels of professional training of emergency medical personnel, quality assurance, and a coordinated disaster response. In response to the incident at the Hong Kong International Airport in the summer of 1999, when an aircraft overturned during landing, the pre-set quota system was implemented to send patients to designated accident and emergency departments. Furthermore, the 'first crew at the scene' model has been adopted, whereby the command is established and triage process started by the first ambulance crew members to reach the scene. The development of emergency protocols should be accompanied by good field-to-hospital and interhospital communication, the upgrading of decision-making skills, a good monitoring and auditing structure, and commitment to training and skills maintenance.

  16. Aircraft Wake Vortex Observations in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon Kaikwong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA is among the busiest airports in the world, with total aircraft movement exceeding 400,000 in 2016. The Hong Kong Observatory (HKO, provider of aviation meteorological services to HKIA, has recently begun making the first sets of aircraft wake vortex observations at HKIA using short-range LIDARs. This paper briefly describes the preliminary observation results obtained from field measurements between 2014 and 2016, and discusses the way forward on the monitoring and prediction of wake vortex behaviour in Hong Kong.

  17. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N.K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  18. Analysis of Storm Surge in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    A storm surge is a type of coastal flood that is caused by low-pressure systems such as tropical cyclones. Storm surges caused by tropical cyclones can be very powerful and damaging, as they can flood coastal areas, and even destroy infrastructure in serious cases. Some serious cases of storm surges leading to more than thousands of deaths include Hurricane Katrina (2005) in New Orleans and Typhoon Haiyan (2013) in Philippines. Hong Kong is a coastal city that is prone to tropical cyclones, having an average of 5-6 tropical cyclones entering 500km range of Hong Kong per year. Storm surges have seriously damaged Hong Kong in the past, causing more than 100 deaths by Typhoon Wanda (1962), and leading to serious damage to Tai O and Cheung Chau by Typhoon Hagupit (2008). To prevent economic damage and casualties from storm surges, accurately predicting the height of storm surges and giving timely warnings to citizens is very important. In this project, I will be analyzing how different factors affect the height of storm surge, mainly using data from Hong Kong. These factors include the windspeed in Hong Kong, the atmospheric pressure in Hong Kong, the moon phase, the wind direction, the intensity of the tropical cyclone, distance between the tropical cyclone and Hong Kong, the direction of the tropical cyclone relative to Hong Kong, the speed of movement of the tropical cyclone and more. My findings will also be compared with cases from other places, to see if my findings also apply for other places.

  19. Retirement Income Protection in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Iris

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives background information on work, retirement, and labor force participation in Hong Kong. A brief development of social security is described followed by introducing the current retirement income protection programs in Hong Kong. The paper also discusses the financial disposition of current older adults and the soon-to-be old generation. These discussions raise the potential problems of the retirement income protection schemes. Finally, this paper provides recommendations for i...

  20. When the Hong Kong Dream Meets the Anti-Mainlandisation Discourse: Mainland Chinese Students in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Cora Lingling Xu; University of Cambridge

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at identity constructions of mainland Chinese undergraduate students in a Hong Kong university. These students shared a “Hong Kong Dream” characterised by a desire for change in individual outlooks, a yearning for international exposure, and rich imaginations about Hong Kong and beyond. However, when their Hong Kong Dream met Hong Kong’s “anti-mainlandisation discourse,” as was partially, yet acutely, reflected in the recent Occupy Central movement, most students constructe...

  1. College Psychotherapy at a Hong Kong Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Eugenie Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an online interview about college psychotherapy at a Hong Kong counseling center. The interview discusses how students generally feel about going for counseling or therapy and how common it is in Hong Kong.

  2. Intra-Nationalization of Higher Education: The Hong Kong Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Roger Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the internationalization of higher education initiatives of Hong Kong, being one of the Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of China, within the context of the Chinese Mainland-Hong Kong (CM-HK) relations. Historical, social, economic, and political ties between Hong Kong and the Mainland of China, their economic and political…

  3. Quality Assurance and School Monitoring in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on the Hong Kong education quality assurance and school monitoring system. Three research questions were addressed: (1) Who controls the quality of school education in Hong Kong? (2) What strategies are used in the Hong Kong school education quality assurance process? (3) Agenda for Future Research on quality assurance and…

  4. Strategic environmental assessment in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kay Leng; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the development and application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) process in the planning framework of Hong Kong. Two strategic planning case studies are evaluated within the context of SEA, namely the Territorial Development Strategy Review (TDS Review) and the Third Comprehensive Transport Study (CTS-3). Rapid population growth and urbanisation in Hong Kong, coupled with a historic lack of planning controls and inherent conflicts between government departments have been major obstacles to achieving sustainable development in the territory. Despite these challenges, Hong Kong was one of the first Asian countries to apply SEA to major development plans, where the implementation of the 'SUSDEV 21' study on sustainable development has demonstrated the government's commitment towards integrated environmental protection. The application of SEA has provided decision-makers with key information on potential environment impacts arising from proposed developments, resulting in greater accountability and transparency in the decision-making process. SEA in Hong Kong has also prompted an increased level of environmental awareness and co-operation between government departments and agencies responsible for the management of Hong Kong's natural and urban environments. However, the application of SEA in Hong Kong continues to have notable limitations. SEA needs to evolve beyond its current sectoral application to examine ways in which development decisions can not only pre-empt and prevent environmental damage, but also positively enhance and restore existing natural resources. Current land use plans and transportation strategies still largely determine the pattern of development in the near future without adequate longer-term environmental cost-benefit analysis. Sustainable development includes environmental, social and economic considerations, and these inter-related elements need be suitably balanced. SEA is not a means to obstruct development

  5. Measuring bulky waste arisings in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung Shanshan; Lau, Ka-yan Winifred; Zhang Chan

    2010-01-01

    All too often, waste authorities either assume that they know enough about their bulky waste stream or that it is too insignificant to deserve attention. In this paper, we use Hong Kong as an example to illustrate that official bulky waste figures can actually be very different from the reality and therefore important waste management decisions made based on such statistics may be wrong too. This study is also the first attempt in Hong Kong to outline the composition of bulky waste. It was found that about 342 tonnes/day of wood waste were omitted by official statistics owing to incomplete records on actual bulky waste flow. This is more than enough to provide all the feedstock needed for one regular-sized wood waste recycling facility in Hong Kong. In addition, the proportion of bulky waste in the municipal solid waste (MSW) streams in Hong Kong should be about 6.1% instead of the officially stated 1.43%. Admittedly, there are limitations with this study. Yet, present findings are suggestive of significant MSW data distortion in Hong Kong.

  6. Residential outage cost estimation: Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Ho, T.; Shiu, A.; Cheng, Y.S.; Horowitz, I.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Hong Kong has almost perfect electricity reliability, the result of substantial investments ultimately financed by electricity consumers who may be willing to accept lower reliability in exchange for lower bills. But consumers with high outage costs are likely to reject the reliability reduction. Our ordered-logit regression analysis of the responses by 1876 households to a telephone survey conducted in June 2013 indicates that Hong Kong residents exhibit a statistically-significant preference for their existing service reliability and rate. Moreover, the average residential cost estimate for a 1-h outage is US$45 (HK$350), topping the estimates reported in 10 of the 11 studies published in the last 10 years. The policy implication is that absent additional compelling evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its service reliability. - Highlights: • Use a contingent valuation survey to obtain residential preferences for reliability. • Use an ordered logit analysis to estimate Hong Kong's residential outage costs. • Find high outage cost estimates that imply high reliability requirements. • Conclude that sans new evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its reliability

  7. Hong Kong's electricity market beyond 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Pun Lee

    2004-01-01

    In Hong Kong, electricity is supplied by two private utilities: Hongkong Electric and CLP Power (CLP). Both are regulated under the Scheme of Control (SOC). The SOC is a formal, long-term regulatory contract of 15 years, signed between a private firm and the Hong Kong Government. Under the SOC, the two electric utilities are subject to both rate-of-return control and price control. The current scheme will expire by 2008. In this paper, we propose a gradual and cautious approach to the introduction of market reform into the electricity industry in Hong Kong. For regulated markets, the government should consider replacing the SOC with performance-based regulation for wire businesses and the non-contestable market. For competitive markets, the government should consider introducing competitive tendering for new sources in the generation market and liberalising the supply market in phases. (author)

  8. Hong Kong's electricity market beyond 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.-L.

    2004-01-01

    In Hong Kong, electricity is supplied by two private utilities: Hongkong Electric and CLP Power (CLP). Both are regulated under the Scheme of Control (SOC). The SOC is a formal, long-term regulatory contract of 15 years, signed between a private firm and the Hong Kong Government. Under the SOC, the two electric utilities are subject to both rate-of-return control and price control. The current scheme will expire by 2008. In this paper, we propose a gradual and cautious approach to the introduction of market reform into the electricity industry in Hong Kong. For regulated markets, the government should consider replacing the SOC with performance-based regulation for wire businesses and the non-contestable market. For competitive markets, the government should consider introducing competitive tendering for new sources in the generation market and liberalising the supply market in phases

  9. Rising Strengths Hong Kong SAR in Bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; George Priya Doss, C; Zhu, Hailong; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2017-06-01

    Hong Kong's bioinformatics sector is attaining new heights in combination with its economic boom and the predominance of the working-age group in its population. Factors such as a knowledge-based and free-market economy have contributed towards a prominent position on the world map of bioinformatics. In this review, we have considered the educational measures, landmark research activities and the achievements of bioinformatics companies and the role of the Hong Kong government in the establishment of bioinformatics as strength. However, several hurdles remain. New government policies will assist computational biologists to overcome these hurdles and further raise the profile of the field. There is a high expectation that bioinformatics in Hong Kong will be a promising area for the next generation.

  10. Effectiveness of cognitive training for Chinese elderly in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, Timothy; Wong, Anita; Chan, Grace; Shiu, YY; Lam, Ko-Chuen; Young, Daniel; Ho, Daniel WH; Ho, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Timothy Kwok,1,2 Anita Wong,3 Grace Chan,4 YY Shiu,3 Ko-Chuen Lam,2 Daniel Young,2 Daniel WH Ho,2 Florence Ho21Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Shatin, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 3The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 4...

  11. An Analysis of Hong Kong Export Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Yin-wong Cheung

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the Hong Kong export performance. A standard export demand formulation is used as the benchmark. Then, we investigate the effects of real exchange rate volatility, ¡§third¡¨ country competition, domestic wages and costs of imports from China on export volume. The study models the Hong Kong domestic exports and re-exports separately, compares the performance of exports to the rest of the world, the U.S. and Japan, and uses destination-and-export-type specific unit value in...

  12. Preserving Corporate Memory in Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Heritage Project Archive

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Hong Kong is perhaps best known as an international centre for finance and trading, rather than its cultural heritage or other artistic offerings. Once a tiny fishing village, Hong Kong has transformed itself into one of the freest economies in the world, creating a uniquely dynamic culture that embraces internationalism and diversity. The former 150 years of British colonization, the political separation from Communist China, combined with elements of the traditional Chinese culture have r...

  13. Hong Kong young people's blood donation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Juliana; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2011-01-01

    Similar to other developed countries, only 3% of the total population in Hong Kong donate blood (Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service 2003). More than 20% of annual donations come from youngsters aged 18-25. However, this category of donors has decreased gradually from 24.6% in 2004 to 22.9% in 2008. This study aims to examine the characteristics and intention of young blood donors versus nondonors in Hong Kong; and to explore the factors that may influence Hong Kong young people's donation behavior. This is a cross-sectional study using questionnaire to solicit information from young people including both blood donors and non-donors. It showed that more non-donors were underweight (26%) than blood donors (16.9%). Blood donors demonstrated to have more knowledge on the usage of donated blood (87.2%). Nearly half of youngster admitted that they made use of donation as a means for blood testing (53.1%) or free physical check-up (47.3%). Recruitment strategies should focus on the enhancement of health education programs related to blood and blood donation for young people to increase their awareness of blood and alleviate their misconceptions about blood donation.

  14. Hong Kong's Cross-System University Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, Gerard A.; Yunyun, Qin; Te, Alice Y. C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the special case of Hong Kong higher education's institutional partnerships in the Chinese mainland. After noting the rise of cross-system university partnership in Asia, it provides a neoinstitutional perspective on the differences between the two China higher education systems. Finally, a case study of the experience of the…

  15. Sibling Incest: A Hong Kong Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsun, O. K. Angela

    1999-01-01

    Presents a case study of a Hong Kong Chinese adult survivor of brother-sister incest. Discusses her symptoms, feelings toward incest, parental response at disclosures, and implications for practice. Also discusses Chinese cultural influences that affect the family and lead to secrecy and shame. (CR)

  16. Timetabling in Hong Kong Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Lam-For; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a survey that was conducted to understand the scope of timetabling in Hong Kong secondary schools. The use of computers for timetabling is explored, and it is concluded that further research on appropriate software to automate timetabling is needed. (LRW)

  17. English Language Teaching Profile: Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Hong Kong provides a brief background of the social, economic, and linguistic situation, and covers the following topics: the role of English, English within the educational system, the teaching cadre, teaching materials, English outside the educational system, and British…

  18. Ayuntamiento de Hong-Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitch, A.

    1963-11-01

    Full Text Available This town hall comprises five buildings, each with a particular function, but all expressing a mutual coherence and architectural unity. The main building features a large entrance hall, leading to the concert hall and the theatre. On the first floor there is a dancing hall with accommodation for 500 people. The banquet hall can seat 500, it is situated on the second floor, and is fitted to supply both Chinese and European food. It can operate as an ordinary restaurant. The concert hall has been designed for an audience of 1,500, with a stage suitable for an orchestra of 100 players and 120 dancers. Although its primary purpose is the holding of symphony concerts, it can be adapted to Chinese opera and other types of stage displays. The theatre has 467 seats, and its acoustical properties are such that chamber music can also be performed in it. Another building of this project is a 12 storey tower. On the lower floor weddings and civil ceremonies are held. There are libraries on the second and sixth floors. An exhibition hall occupies the seventh floor. On the eighth there are two lecture rooms, and on the ninth offices and a workshop. A museum and an art gallery take up the tenth and eleventh floors. The air conditioning installations, engine room and other ancillary services are situated on the top of the building. Part of the project includes a garden commemorating the Hong-Kong volunteers who died in the period 1941-45: it stands on an elevated site, and a polygonal shaped chapel completes this memorial. On the outside the tower is faced in marble, whilst the concert hall walls are in polished granite. A sole of blue enamelled brick extends along the whole perimeter of the central block, including the wall surrounding the memorial garden.Comprende un grupo de cinco edificios dedicados a fines diversos, pero a. los que se les ha imprimido una coherencia y unidad que aumenta su valor individual. La edificación principal presenta el gran hall

  19. Hong Kong: workfare in the world's freest economy

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, CK

    2011-01-01

    Workfare was introduced in many countries to suppress welfare dependency and reduce social security expenditures. However, workfare was launched in Hong Kong when there was only a relatively small social security budget and its citizens still strongly adhered to the ideologies of self-reliance. It was found that workfare has performed several functions in Hong Kong. Firstly, it has forced unemployed claimants to give up benefits so that Hong Kong's social security expenditures can be saved. S...

  20. Hong Kong as international banking center: present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Garcia-Herrero

    2011-01-01

    The banking industry is key for Hong Kong’s economy but Hong Kong is not a big international banking center, at least not when compared with other centers belonging to large economic areas, such as New York and, to a lesser extent, Tokyo. Within Asia, Hong Kong has a larger banking sector as a whole but similar if we focus on the off-shore side of it and growing faster than in Hong Kong. Furthermore, Singapore is being more active as a banking platform for international corporates while...

  1. Adolescent developmental issues in Hong Kong: Relevance to positive youth development programs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2006-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental issues and problems in Hong Kong are examined in this paper. First, the changing adolescent substance abuse patterns are described. Second, although the overall youth crime trend was relatively stable in the past decade, shoplifting and stealing crimes deserve our concern. Third, adolescent mental health problem is a growing problem. Fourth, statistics show that unhealthy life styles, such as smoking, early sex and moral confusion are issues of concern. Fifth, the proportion of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage has increased. Sixth, youth unemployment and non-engaged youth are growing problems when the economy of Hong Kong is undergoing re-structuring. Seventh, family and parenting problems in families with adolescents deserve our attention. Finally, the Social Development Index showed that the development of young people has gradually deteriorated in the past decade. These adolescent issues and problems provide useful pointers for designing the positive youth development program financially sponsored by the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.

  2. Aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W.K. Lam

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In a 1993 survey, allergic rhinitis was identified as the most common allergic disease in Hong Kong, affecting 29.1% of schoolchildren. Recently (1995, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC also reported 44.5% current rhinitis among Hong Kong teenagers. Our objective was to study the aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong using serological tests of allergen sensitization. In 57 allergic rhinitis patients and in the same number of age- and sex-matched controls the following were measured: serum total IgE, mixed aeroallergen IgE (Phadiatop™ and specific IgE versus house dust mite (HDM, cockroach, cat and dog dander, mould mixture (Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Alternaria species and four local pollens (Bermuda grass, Timothy, ragweed and mugwort. Compared with controls, allergic rhinitis patients (26 males, 31 females; mean (± SD age 25 ±11 years had a significantly elevated serum total IgE concentration (mean ± SEM: 496 ± 88 vs 179 ± 38 kU/L and an increased proportion of positive Phadiatop (95 vs 33% and specific IgE tests versus HDM (90 vs 44% and cockroach (42 vs 9%; Mann-Whitney U-test and χ2 tests all P < 0.005. There was no significant difference in sensitization to other allergens tested. House dust mite and cockroach are ubiquitous in Hong Kong with a warm, humid climate and crowded living conditions. Their identification as aetiological agents of allergic rhinitis should help in the development of environmental strategies for reducing the inhalant allergen load to prevent and control this prevalent and costly health problem in our community.

  3. Organic foods consumers in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew H. T. Yap

    2012-01-01

    Asian organic foods consumers’ behaviour is worth investigating to sustain the continuous growth of organic foods consumption. Hence, Fiona has the ambition to employ the innovation diffusion theory to profile and understand organic foods consumers in Hong Kong in her research proposal. The process of writing an acceptable research proposal is challenging, tedious and time consuming as depicted in Fiona’s experience. Hence, this case study provides the opportunity for educators, students, and...

  4. Legislations combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C W; Chan, W K

    2013-08-01

    To understand legislation combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two parts. In part I, counterfeit drugs–related ordinances and court cases were reviewed. In part II, indepth interviews of the stakeholders were described. Hong Kong. All Hong Kong ordinances were screened manually to identify those combating counterfeit drugs. Court cases were searched for each of the identified cases. Then, the relevant judgement justifications were analysed to identify sentencing issues. Indepth interviews with the stakeholders were conducted to understand their perceptions about such legislation. Trade Marks Ordinance, Patents Ordinance, Trade Descriptions Ordinance, and Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance were current legislative items combating counterfeit drugs. Sentencing criteria depended on: intention to deceive, quantity of seized drugs, presence of expected therapeutic effect or toxic ingredients, previous criminal records, cooperativeness with Customs officers, honest confessions, pleas of guilty, types of drugs, and precautionary measures to prevent sale of counterfeit drugs. Stakeholders’ perceptions were explored with respect to legislation regarding the scale and significance of the counterfeit drug problem, penalties and deterrents, drug-specific legislation and authority, and inspections and enforcement. To plug the loopholes, a specific law with heavy penalties should be adopted. This could be supplemented by non-legal measures like education of judges, lawyers, and the public; publishing the names of offending pharmacies; and emphasising the role of pharmacists to the public.

  5. Computerization of clinical practice in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, G M; Johnston, J M; Ho, L M; Wong, F K; Cameo, S C

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the current level of computerization in clinical practice in Hong Kong through a population-based, physician survey conducted in 2000.A self-completed, 20-question, postal questionnaire was sent to 4850 randomly selected doctors in Hong Kong. We received 897 completed responses. Over one-third of doctors in the overall sample were already recording patient summaries, processing laboratory results and specialist reports, and preparing referral notes electronically. Patient registration (52.2%), billing systems (40.2%), appointment scheduling (39.9%), and payroll (36.9%), were the commonest administrative functions to have been computerized. Seventy per cent of doctors in solo or small-group ('individual') practices did not yet have any clinical function computerized compared with only 30.7% for those working in large, corporate organizations. Similarly, approximately two-thirds of administrative tasks in 'individual' clinics were not computerized, while corporate physicians reported a corresponding percentage of 39.3%. Younger age, male gender, specialist qualifications, more computers in the practice, higher numbers of administrative tasks already computerized, higher levels of knowledge about and positive attitudes towards computer applications in clinical practice were all positively associated with more clinical tasks already computerized in the practice. The present study has systematically documented the extent of clinical computer use in Hong Kong and identified areas for improvement as well as specific groups of physicians who might benefit from targeted efforts promoting computerization in practice.

  6. Assessing Hong Kong's Blueprint for Internationalising Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a critical assessment of the key recommendations for internationalising higher education in Hong Kong issued by the University Grants Committee in December 2010. Key topics include the rationale for internationalisation, the process by which internationalisation will be carried out, the proposal that Hong Kong aspire to become…

  7. School Experience of Chinese Sexual Minority Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Diana K.

    2016-01-01

    Heterosexism faced by sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer/questioning [LGBQ]) students has been extensively studied internationally in the past 2 decades but has only recently received attention from Hong Kong Chinese society. Chinese LGBQ students are not guaranteed to be included in Hong Kong schools, where antidiscrimination…

  8. Elder Learning in Hong Kong: Policies, Programmes, Provisions, and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the notions of active ageing and elder learning in Hong Kong where a strategic approach to elderly education is applied by the government to encourage lifelong learning. The paper outlines the policy development and support for elder learning in Hong Kong in two distinct periods: pre-1997 and post-1997. The post-1997 period is…

  9. Hong Kong Perspectives on Educational Technology Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; Yuen, H. K.; Wang, Minhong; Churchill, Daniel; Law, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This is the 25th anniversary of the Hong Kong Association for Educational Communications and Technology (HKAECT; see http://www.hkaect.org/). The silver anniversary annual meeting will be held at the University of Hong Kong December 8--10, with the theme of the conference being "Communication and Education: New Media, Knowledge Practices, and…

  10. Trilingual Education in Hong Kong Primary Schools: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixun; Kirkpatrick, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Hong Kong is linguistically complex and diverse with three principal languages: Cantonese, English and Putonghua. A substantial debate on the language policies governing the three principal languages has continued for more than two decades among policy-makers and educators. The political transition in 1997 has greatly affected Hong Kong society,…

  11. The Provision for Music in Hong Kong Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    Reports a study of music education in Hong Kong's secondary schools. States that an ambivalent attitude toward music education has resulted in shortages of teaching periods, space, and resources. Notes that most Hong Kong students do not enjoy classical music and generally consider music education to be less important than other school subjects.…

  12. Imperialism and the English Language in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Considers whether the charge of linguistic imperialism can be appropriately leveled against the British government during its colonial rule of Hong Kong. The article analyzes the concept of linguistic imperialism, considers landmarks in the history of the English language in Hong Kong, and applies the concept of linguistic imperialism to the…

  13. Hong kong chemical waste treatment facilities: a technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuwang, Chu [Enviropace Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1993-12-31

    The effective management of chemical and industrial wastes represents one of the most pressing environmental problems confronting the Hong Kong community. In 1990, the Hong Kong government contracted Enviropace Limited for the design, construction and operation of a Chemical Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment and disposal processes, their integration and management are the subject of discussion in this paper

  14. Inclusive Education Policy in the Hong Kong Primary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk

    2016-01-01

    An education reform policy and inclusive education policy have been implemented in Hong Kong for over a decade. As more students with special educational needs have entered the mainstream education system under these policies, Hong Kong's primary music classrooms offer a site where three policies interact--the education reform policy entitled…

  15. Hong Kong in Transition: A Look at Economic Interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Selena

    Economic interdependence has played an important role in Hong Kong's history, from its earliest days as a British colony to its current status as a center of international trade and finance. Hong Kong occupies a unique place in history because of its unprecedented transfer of power in 1997 from Britain to the People's Republic of China. The future…

  16. Early Childhood Education in Hong Kong and Its Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lorna K. S.; Chan, Lily

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on the existing educational practices in early childhood education in Hong Kong, highlights issues that require attention in order to improve quality, and outlines reforms introduced by the Hong Kong Education Commission. Discusses the implications of these reforms and the associated challenges in the areas of…

  17. Immigrants and tuberculosis in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, C C; Chan, C K; Chang, K C; Law, W S; Lee, S N; Tai, L B; Leung, Eric C C; Tam, C M

    2015-08-01

    To examine the impact of immigrant populations on the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Hong Kong. Longitudinal cohort study. Hong Kong. Socio-demographic and disease characteristics of all tuberculosis notifications in 2006 were captured from the statutory tuberculosis registry and central tuberculosis reference laboratory. Using 2006 By-census population data, indirect sex- and age-standardised incidence ratios by place of birth were calculated. Treatment outcome at 12 months was ascertained from government tuberculosis programme record forms, and tuberculosis relapse was tracked through the notification registry and death registry up to 30 June 2013. Moderately higher sex- and age-standardised incidence ratios were observed among various immigrant groups: 1.06 (Mainland China), 2.02 (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh), 1.59 (Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Nepal), and 3.11 (Vietnam). Recent Mainland migrants had a lower sex- and age-standardised incidence ratio (0.51 vs 1.09) than those who immigrated 7 years ago or earlier. Age younger than 65 years, birth in the Mainland or the above Asian countries, and previous treatment were independently associated with resistance to isoniazid and/or rifampicin. Older age, birth in the above Asian countries, non-permanent residents, previous history of treatment, and resistance to isoniazid and/or rifampicin were independently associated with poor treatment outcome (other than cure/treatment completion) at 1 year. Birth outside Hong Kong was an independent predictor of relapse following successful completion of treatment (adjusted hazard ratio=1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.89; P=0.025). Immigrants carry with them a higher tuberculosis incidence and/or drug resistance rate from their place of origin. The higher drug resistance rate, poorer treatment outcome, and excess relapse risk raise concern over secondary transmission of drug-resistant tuberculosis within the local community.

  18. Human embryo cloning prohibited in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Athena

    2005-12-01

    Since the birth of Dolly (the cloned sheep) in 1997, debates have arisen on the ethical and legal questions of cloning-for-biomedical-research (more commonly termed "therapeutic cloning") and of reproductive cloning using human gametes. Hong Kong enacted the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance (Cap 561) in 2000. Section 15(1)(e) of this Ordinance prohibits the "replacing of the nucleus of a cell of an embryo with a nucleus taken from any other cell," i.e., nucleus substitution. Section 15(1)(f) prohibits the cloning of any embryo. The scope of the latter, therefore, is arguably the widest, prohibiting all cloning techniques such as cell nucleus replacement, embryo splitting, parthenogenesis, and cloning using stem cell lines. Although the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance is not yet fully operative, this article examines how these prohibitions may adversely impact on basic research and the vision of the Hong Kong scientific community. It concludes that in light of recent scientific developments, it is time to review if the law offers a coherent set of policies in this area.

  19. Hong Kong: legal aspects of family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong and the International Federation of Women Lawyers of Hong Kong have decided that legislative and other measures should be taken to ensure the right of couples and individuals to decide freely the number and spacing of their children. Family planning workers must not work under threat of potential prosecution. Equal rights for women and men should be established. The legal status of menstrual regulation and other new technologies for termination of pregnancy should be clarified. A Family Court should be instituted to deal with matrimonial disputes. A married woman should have the right to use her maiden name and file separate tax returns. Legislation restricting women's right to work in factories should be rescinded. Working conditions of men and women should be measured by the standards of the ILO. Children and young persons should be given the same protection whether they work in shops, factories or other places of employment. Female workers qualified for maternity leave under the Employment Ordinance should be given paid leave.

  20. Corporate Finance Under Low Interest Rates: Evidence from Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Mizen; Cihan Yalcin

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the dramatic reduction in interest rates by the Federal Reserve on Hong Kong. Using a panel of several hundred firms in Hong Kong we find that firms increase all types of debt, but shift from short-term to long-term debt as rates fall. This can be attributed in part to a supplyside effect as the benign monetary policy environment has improved creditworthiness. The most noticable result from our analysis is the high level of bank dependence among Hong Kong fir...

  1. Urban Renewal and Environmental Planning in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, C. Y.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the objectives of environmental planning to rejuvenate old city districts in Hong Kong in relation to their limitations and potential. The prospects of environmental improvement through new institutional framework and legislative measures are discussed. (LZ/Author)

  2. Taxation of Financial Intermediation Activities in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Jack M. Mintz; Stephen R. Richardson

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses issues related to the taxation of financial intermediation in Hong Kong in the context of Hong Kong's position as a major regional financial centre. It first provides some background analysis as to the definition of financial intermediation and identification of the providers of financial services. This is then followed by a discussion of the principles of taxation applicable to financial intermediation, including a comparison of income taxes to consumption taxes. Some sp...

  3. Consumer support for a public utilities commission in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Cheng, Y.S.; Law, A.; Zarnikau, J.; Ho, S.T.; Leung, H.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hong Kong's electricity service is superbly reliable and price-reasonable when compared to those of the major cities in the OECD countries. Based on the rate of return regulation in the U.S., the current scheme of control agreement (SCA) regulating the two local integrated investor-owned utilities (IOUs) will expire in 2018 (or in 2023 after an optional 5-year extension), thus offering an opportune time to consider proposals with long lead time to modify or replace the SCA. The proposals made to date range from modifications of the SCA to electricity market restructure. These proposals, however, overlook two important aspects of regulatory governance: transparency and public involvement. This paper estimates consumer support for the proposal to establish a Hong Kong public utilities commission (HKPUC) to improve the current regulatory process. Based on the responses collected in mid-2014 via a face-to-face survey of 1100 Hong Kong residents, we find that at the 1.5% bill surcharge, about 70% the respondents are estimated to support an HKPUC. Thus, there is sufficient consumer support for a financially viable HKPUC, implying that Hong Kong should consider the possibility of establishing an HKPUC, notwithstanding the substantial challenges to be overcome prior to its implementation. - Highlights: • Hong Kong's regulatory process lacks transparency and public involvement. • A survey data analysis indicates a majority support for a Hong Kong PUC. • A Hong Kong PUC can be financially viable without public funding. • A Hong Kong PUC proposal deserves further consideration

  4. Hong Kong students' approaches to learning: cross-cultural comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Dasari, Bhoomiah

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds in Hong Kong to the effect that students entering tertiary education are predisposed to a “rote” learning approach. With the internalisation of higher education in many countries, there is still insufficient understanding of how Chinese students approach their learning. Except few studies were conducted locally, there have been no systematic studies undertaken and there is a tendency to rely on anecdotal statements about Hong Kong students’ approaches to...

  5. Bank Lending and Property Prices in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, Stefan; Peng, Wensheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between residential property prices and lending in Hong Kong. This is an interesting topic for three reasons. First, swings in property prices have been extremely large and frequent in Hong Kong. Second, under the currency board regime, monetary policy can not be used to guard against asset price swings. Third, despite the collapse in property prices since 1998, the banking sector remains sound. While the contemporaneous correlation between lending and prop...

  6. Perception of high-density living in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence H. Travers

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of the Hong Kong experience of adaptation to urban living can provide insights into some of the problems that can be expected to occur in the rapidly expanding cities of the Third World. Population densities in Hong Kong are among the highest in the world, exceeding 400,000 persons per square mile in parts of Kowloon. Research based upon residence in a worker...

  7. Aging in Hong Kong: the institutional population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jean; Chau, Patsy P H

    2009-09-01

    The Hong Kong population is aging rapidly, such that there are concerns about residential care adequacy in terms of number of places as well as quality of care. A total of 1820 residents living in a representative sample of residential care facilities were surveyed. The survey showed a substantial proportion with cognitive dysfunction, mood problems, communication and vision problems, chronic disabling diseases, impairment in activities of daily living, and undernutrition. Programs of activities and rehabilitation were generally unavailable. Those in for-profit facilities had a worse profile. An approximate estimation of numbers of staff required based on case mix revealed considerable understaffing among the for-profit facilities. Issues of quality of care would be all the more important with anticipated future increase in the institutional population of older people.

  8. Rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in Hong Kong children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Karene Hoi Ting; Tate, Jacqueline E; Chan, Ching Ching; Chan, Martin C W; Chan, Paul K S; Poon, Kin Hung; Siu, Sylvia Luen Yee; Fung, Genevieve Po Gee; Ng, Kwok Leung; Chan, Iris Mei Ching; Yu, Pui Tak; Ng, Chi Hang; Lau, Yu Lung; Nelson, E Anthony S

    2016-09-22

    Rotavirus is a common infectious cause of childhood hospitalisation in Hong Kong. Rotavirus vaccines have been used in the private sector since licensure in 2006 but have not been incorporated in the government's universal Childhood Immunisation Programme. This study aimed to evaluate rotavirus vaccine effectiveness against hospitalisation. This case-control study was conducted in the 2014/2015 rotavirus season in six public hospitals. Hospitalised acute gastroenteritis patients meeting inclusion criteria were recruited and copies of their immunisation records were collected. Case-patients were defined as enrolled subjects with stool specimens obtained in the first 48h of hospitalisation that tested positive for rotavirus, whereas control-patients were those with stool specimens obtained in the first 48h of hospitalisation testing negative for rotavirus. Vaccine effectiveness for administration of at least one dose of either Rotarix(®) (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) or RotaTeq(®) (Merck Research Laboratories) was calculated as 1 minus the odds ratio for rotavirus vaccination history for case-patients versus control-patients. Among the 525 eligible subjects recruited, immunisation records were seen in 404 (77%) subjects. 31% (162/525 and 126/404) tested positive for rotavirus. In the 404 subjects assessed for vaccine effectiveness, 2.4% and 24% received at least 1 dose of either rotavirus vaccine in case- and control-patients respectively. The unmatched vaccine effectiveness against hospitalisation for administration of at least one dose of either rotavirus vaccines was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 75%, 98%). The matched analyses by age only and both age and admission date showed 96% (95% CI: 72%, 100%) and 89% (95% CI: 51%, 97%) protection against rotavirus hospitalisation respectively. Rotavirus vaccine is highly effective in preventing hospitalisation from rotavirus disease in young Hong Kong children. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  9. Virtual blood banking in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K F; Kwan, Angela M Y; Wong, Michael L G; Lam, Clarence C K; Yip, S C

    2012-08-01

    OBJECTIVE. To review our experience in virtual blood banking for intra-operative transfusion in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Retrospective study. SETTING. Three major acute hospitals and a specialised centre for joint replacement surgery with installation of an Operating Theatre Blood Transaction System. PATIENTS. Patients undergoing surgery under anaesthesia and requiring intra-operative transfusion for the period from the implementation of the system in individual institutes (Queen Elizabeth Hospital: June 1997; Princess Margaret Hospital: May 2001; Queen Mary Hospital: October 2009; and Hong Kong Buddhist Hospital: December 2010) till September 2011. RESULTS. Under the system, 58 923 units of red cells were released intra-operatively for 18 264 patients (11% of the total number of blood units issued by the blood banks in these institutes during the study period). About 1% of them (613 units) entailed unmatched red cells given to 183 patients for emergency transfusions during surgery. The mean time required for the issue of the first unit of red cells was less than 1 minute. A total of 1231 units of red cells were returned unused after being released. Among them, 95 units were deemed unfit for re-issue because they had left the temperature-monitored blood storage refrigerators in the operating theatres for more than 30 minutes. There was no delay in transfusion or postponement of surgery due to problems or downtime of the Operating Theatre Blood Transaction System. CONCLUSION. Our experience has shown that our virtual blood banking system was efficient and effective, and helped ensure that the right patient received the right amount of the right blood at the right time. The system can be implemented either locally in the same hospital with a central blood bank, or in a more remote and networked site without a nearby supporting blood bank.

  10. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to acrylamide: results of the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Waiky W K; Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Chi-ho; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide is a processing contaminant in food formed during cooking at high temperature, such as frying and baking. To assess the associated health risk of the Hong Kong population, the dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to acrylamide was estimated in the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study (TDS), where food samples were collected and prepared "as consumed". A total of 532 composite food samples were analysed for acrylamide using LC-MS/MS. Dietary exposures were estimated by combining the analytical results with the food consumption data of the Hong Kong adults. The mean and 95th percentile exposures to acrylamide of the Hong Kong population were 0.213 and 0.538 μg kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) day⁻¹, respectively, and their margins of exposure (MOEs) were all below 10,000. The main dietary source of acrylamide was "Vegetables and their products" (52.4% of the total exposure), particularly stir-fried vegetables (44.9%), followed by "Cereals and their products" (14.7%) and "Mixed dishes" (9.43%). The study findings suggest that the relatively low figures for MOE for a genotoxic carcinogen may indicate human health concern of the Hong Kong population. Efforts should continue to be made in the interest of reducing acrylamide levels in food locally.

  11. Perception of wine labels by Hong Kong Chinese consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Chi Man Tang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite Hong Kong׳s growing wine consumption and the abundance of retail brands available there, the demanding choice task faced by its wine consumers, who are more subject to a mix of Chinese and Western cultural influences than consumers in other South Asian countries, has not been studied until now. This exploratory study aims to delve into the importance of wine label attributes for Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers, and to shed light on the ways in which their perceptions affect their choice of wine. Employing an online survey, the results suggest that Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers look for the top three most searched attributes: wine origin, grape variety, and food and wine pairing. A simple means differences test indicated that a traditional label design is favored over modern and contemporary wine labels, and that yellow is the most preferred color. However, a data-driven segmentation analysis reveals that about 95% of young Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers prefer “elegant contemporary” labels with red as the dominant color. These findings could be useful for wineries entering this market and for wine label designers who wish to better understand how Hong Kong wine consumers assess alternatives when choosing a bottle of wine.

  12. Sport Culture of Hong Kong: Recent Development and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie T. C. Lam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong is well-known for its beautiful natural harbor, vibrant nightlife, as well as tremendous entertainment and shopping opportunities. It is a paradise for outdoor activities such as golfing, hiking, fishing, and water sports. Throughout the city, there are extensive hiking trails that are over 30 miles long and navigate through beautiful scenic areas and parks. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the sport culture of Hong Kong, including the development and administration of sports and sporting events. After a thorough review on the sports development of Hong Kong, it was found that the following three main themes would guide the direction of future sports development: (a promoting “Sports for All,” (b fostering high performance sports, and (c equipping Hong Kong to host international sports events. In this regard, the Hong Kong Government provides a wide range of sports facilities and funding to support the development of sports. In addition, sport development is also supported by the business sector in Hong Kong. Among those different departments, the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD takes an active role in promoting sports in the community and administers funding support for relevant organizations under the established sports policy. The LCSD not only develops and manages a wide range of sports and recreational facilities for use by the general public, but also supports and organizes sports and recreational programs for the community. For instance, the most exciting projects people cannot wait to see their completion are the HK$19.7 billion Kai Tak Sports Complex and the Tseung Kwan O Football Training Centre that is supported with a grant of HK$133 million from the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.

  13. Grade level and achievement of immigrants’ children: academic redshirting in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Pong, Suet-ling

    2009-01-01

    Data from Hong Kong PISA 2003 show that 15-year-old Hong Kong students who have immigrant parents from mainland China are grossly overrepresented in grades below the modal grade attended by most native Hong Kong students. Same-age comparison, when grade level is not taken into account, puts immigrants’ children at a disadvantaged position in the mathematics, reading, and science literacy tests. The academic advantage of immigrants’ children in Hong Kong is only revealed after grade is statist...

  14. Intermediaries in Entrepot Trade: Hong Kong Re-Exports of Chinese Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon H. Hanson; Robert C. Feenstra

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we examine Hong Kong's role in intermediating trade between China and the rest of the world. Hong Kong distributes a large fraction of China's exports. Net of customs, insurance, and freight charges, re-exports of Chinese goods are much more expensive when they leave Hong Kong than when they enter. Hong Kong markups on re-exports of Chinese goods are higher for differentiated products, products with higher variance in export prices, products sent to China for further processing...

  15. The Discrepancy between Teachers' Beliefs and Practices: A Study of Kindergarten Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Ling

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the discrepancy between teachers' beliefs and practices in Hong Kong kindergartens and the factors that influence this discrepancy. Three kindergartens, considered by the Hong Kong Education Bureau to be of varying quality, were chosen from different areas of Hong Kong. Questionnaires about teaching beliefs were administered to…

  16. Implementation of the Hong Kong Language Policy in Pre-School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cheung-Shing Sam; Lim, Swee Eng Audrey; Li, Yuen Ling

    2013-01-01

    In the past, the Curriculum Development Council in Hong Kong [Curriculum Development Council (CDC). (1996). "Guide to the Pre-Primary Curriculum." Hong Kong: Government Printer; CDC. (2000). "Consultation Document: Learning to Learn: The Way Forward in Curriculum Development." Hong Kong: Government Printer; CDC. (2001).…

  17. From Capitalism to Socialism? Hong Kong Education within a Transitional Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, Gerard A.

    1991-01-01

    Examines implications for educational policy formation of Hong Kong's 1997 return to China. Discusses the economic interdependence of Hong Kong and China; the potential for educational policy to reconcile or heighten the contradictions among capitalism, socialism, and patriotism; and the crisis of cultural identity among Hong Kong youth. (SV)

  18. Grade Level and Achievement of Immigrants' Children: Academic Redshirting in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Suet-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Data from Hong Kong PISA 2003 show that 15-year-old Hong Kong students who have immigrant parents from mainland China are grossly overrepresented in grades below the modal grade attended by most native Hong Kong students. Same-age comparison, when grade level is not taken into account, puts immigrants' children at a disadvantaged position in the…

  19. Transnational Education--Competition or Complementarity: The Case of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Nigel J.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of the Hong Kong system of higher education and the roles of the government, the Education Commission, the University Grants Committee, and the Hong Kong Council for Academic Accreditation in relation to the planning, development, funding, and quality assurance of higher education in the Hong Kong Special Administrative…

  20. Effectiveness of cognitive training for Chinese elderly in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok T

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Kwok,1,2 Anita Wong,3 Grace Chan,4 YY Shiu,3 Ko-Chuen Lam,2 Daniel Young,2 Daniel WH Ho,2 Florence Ho21Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Shatin, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 3The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 4The Hong Kong Council of Social Service, Hong Kong, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: In Hong Kong, the evidence for cognitive-training programs in fighting against memory complaints is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Active Mind cognitive-training program in improving the cognitive function and quality of life (QoL for local community-dwelling Chinese older adults. A total of 200 subjects were recruited from 20 different district elderly community centers (DECCs. Centers were randomly assigned into either the intervention group or control group. The intervention group underwent eight 1-hour sessions of cognitive training, while the control group were included in the usual group activities provided by the DECCs. Standardized neuropsychological tests (the Chinese version of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale [CDRS] and the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the QoL questionnaire SF12 were used to assess participants' cognitive function and QoL before and after the trial. A total of 176 subjects completed the study. The intervention group showed greater improvement in the cognitive function measured by total CDRS score (treatment: 12.24 ± 11.57 vs control: 4.37 ± 7.99; P < 0.001 and QoL measured by total SF12 score (treatment: 7.82 ± 13.19 vs control: 3.18 ± 11.61; P = 0.014. Subjects with lower education level were associated with better cognitive response to the cognitive-training program. The current findings indicated that the Active

  1. The Hong Kong Early Child Development Scale: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan; Ma, Kitty; Becher, Yvonne; Lee, Diana; Lau, Carrie; Zhang, Li; Chow, Chun Bong; Ip, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on the development and validation of the Hong Kong Early Child Development Scale (HKECDS), a holistic measure of child development designed specifically for preschool children in Hong Kong. Scale development was an iterative process and the first version of the scale contained 190 items whereas the final version includes only 95. Children ranging in age from three to six years were administered trial versions of the HKECDS in Studies 1 (n = 60) and 2 (n = 240). Item analyses indicated that it is a developmental scale and that it has an appropriate level of difficulty for preschool children. It also discriminates between three- to six-year-olds from different social backgrounds in Hong Kong. The final version of the HKECDS includes items from the following eight subscales: Personal, Social and Self-Care (7 items), Language Development (13 items), Pre-academic Learning (27 items), Cognitive Development (10 items), Gross Motor (12 items), Fine Motor (9 items), Physical Fitness, Health and Safety (7 items), and Self and Society (10 items). The HKECDS is the first early child development scale which considers both the holistic development of preschool children and incorporates current expectations of early child development in Hong Kong. In this era of evidence-based decision making, it can be used to evaluate both the efficacy of targeted interventions and broader child-related public policies on early child development in Hong Kong.

  2. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being.

  3. Hong Kong's health spending projections through 2033.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Gabriel M; Tin, Keith Y K; Chan, Wai-Sum

    2007-04-01

    To derive actuarial projection estimates of Hong Kong's total domestic health expenditure to the year 2033. Disaggregating health expenditure by age, sex, unit cost and utilisation level, we estimated future health spending by projecting utilisation (by public/private, inpatient/outpatient care) to reflect demographic changes and associated increase in demand (from higher expectations and greater intensity of care), and then multiplying such by the projected unit costs (incorporating the impact of key cost drivers such as public expectations, technological changes and potential productivity gains) to obtain total expenditure estimates. The model was most sensitive to the excess health care price inflation rate, i.e. the annual price/cost growth of medical goods and services over and above per capita GDP growth. Population ageing and growth per se, without taking into account related technologic innovation for chronic conditions that particularly afflict older adults, contribute relatively little to overall spending growth. Given the model assumptions, it is possible to limit total health spending to below 10% of GDP by 2033, where the public share would gradually decline from the current 57% to between 46% and 49%. Expenditure control through global budgeting, technology assessment and demand-side constraints should be considered although their effectiveness remains inconclusive.

  4. Criminal recidivism of incarcerated male nonviolent offenders in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Lo, T Wing; Zhong, Lena Y; Chui, Wing Hong

    2015-02-01

    Criminal recidivism of the incarcerated population in Hong Kong has rarely been studied. The purpose of this study is to explore the recidivism rates and to identify significant predictors of reoffending among incarcerated male offenders convicted of a nonviolent offense in Hong Kong. Using a self-reported methodological design, 278 offenders were sampled. These offenders' immediate past incarceration is used as the benchmark for this recidivism study. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year recidivism rates are 21%, 68%, and 87%, respectively. The findings denote that offending history, psychological attributes, interpersonal relationships, and environmental influences are significant reoffending risk factors. These findings, especially the alarming failure rates, highlight the need to seriously assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies used by the Hong Kong correctional system in preventing future offending. Implications for intervention strategies with emphasis on the risk factors for recidivism are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. From SARS to Avian Influenza Preparedness in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andrew T Y; Chen, Hong; Liu, Shao-Haei; Hsu, Enoch K; Luk, Kristine S; Lai, Christopher K C; Chan, Regina F Y; Tsang, Owen T Y; Choi, K W; Kwan, Y W; Tong, Anna Y H; Cheng, Vincent C C; Tsang, Dominic N C

    2017-05-15

    The first human H5N1 case was diagnosed in Hong Kong in 1997. Since then, experience in effective preparedness strategies that target novel influenza viruses has expanded. Here, we report on avian influenza preparedness in public hospitals in Hong Kong to illustrate policies and practices associated with control of emerging infectious diseases. The Hong Kong government's risk-based preparedness plan for influenza pandemics includes 3 response levels for command, control, and coordination frameworks for territory-wide responses. The tiered levels of alert, serious, and emergency response enable early detection based on epidemiological exposure followed by initiation of a care bundle. Information technology, laboratory preparedness, clinical and public health management, and infection control preparedness provide a comprehensive and generalizable preparedness plan for emerging infectious diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Building a House Prices Forecasting Model in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Janet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds a house prices forecasting model for private residential houses in HongKong, based on general macroeconomic indicators, housing related data and demographicfactors for the period of 1980 to 2001. A reduce form economic model has been derivedfrom a multiple regression analysis where three sets and eight models were derived foranalysis and comparison. It is found that household income, land supply, population andmovements in the Hang Seng Index play an important role in explaining house pricemovements in Hong Kong. In addition, political events, as identified, cannot be ignored.However, the results of the models are unstable. It is suggested that the OLS may nota best method for house prices model in Hong Kong situation. Alternative methods aresuggested.

  7. Energy use and management in hotels in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Shiming; Burnett, J. [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China). Department of Building Services Engineering

    2002-12-01

    This paper reports on a study of energy use in 16 quality hotels in Hong Kong. An overview of energy use in these hotels is firstly presented, and this is followed by a detailed analysis of energy use in one of the 16 hotels. The overview indicates that the energy use situation in hotels in Hong Kong is very much diversified. The total energy use in a hotel is dominated by electricity, with the greatest portion for air conditioning because of sub-tropical climate. A detailed multiple variable regression analysis indicated that a number of hotel operating parameters as well as climatic condition can affect electricity, diesel and gas use in a hotel building. In order to achieve both operating cost saving and environmental protection, it is recommended that an energy management programme be established, and key elements of such a programme based on the experience of implementing energy conservation strategies in hotels in Hong Kong are highlighted. (author)

  8. Child slavery in Hong Kong: case report and historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A C W; So, K T

    2006-12-01

    An 11-year-old girl was admitted with multiple injuries sustained during a 1-year servitude of domestic labour. She was acquired from her parents in Mainland China by a relative in Hong Kong. The child's parents received a sum of money that the child had to repay with work. Her hardship was characterised by long hours of incessant labour and physical torture when she failed to meet the demands of her mistress or her mistress' children. This case resembles Mui Tsai, a form of child slavery and exploitative domestic labour that was rife in Hong Kong a century ago, and illustrates the new challenges to child rights and protection consequent to the increasing social and economic integration between the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Mainland China.

  9. An energy system model for Hong Kong in 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tao; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Yang, Hongxing; Lu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and energy security are forcing Hong Kong to shift from a fossil fuel-based to a clean and low-carbon energy structure. In this article, a simulation model for Hong Kong's energy system is developed to examine the present energy structure and analyse alternative future sustainable energy strategies. First, a reference model is established and validated based on year 2009 data. Secondly, three scenarios are modelled. The BAU (business-as-usual) scenario for Hong Kong's energy system in 2020 is presented and simulated. To address the energy security and environmental sustainability challenges posed by the BAU outcomes, two alternative scenarios are then studied. The first alternative is a fuel mix for 2020 proposed by the government which is characterized by importing more nuclear power from the mainland. As a result of the Fukushima nuclear incident, however, this proposal has been held in abeyance. Therefore, a second alternative for Hong Kong in 2020 is proposed in this study, using more RE (renewable energy) to replace nuclear power. The results show that both the governmentally proposed scenario and the RE scenario can achieve the carbon reduction target. However, the RE scenario would be much better than the government scenario in terms of environmental, social benefits and long-term sustainability. - Highlights: • A reference model is established and validated based on year 2009 data. • The business-as-usual scenario for Hong Kong's energy system in 2020 is examined. • The governmentally proposed fuel mix for 2020 is analysed. • The renewable energy scenario to replace nuclear power in 2020 is studied. • Carbon reduction target of Hong Kong is examined in the three scenarios

  10. Increased genetic diversity of HIV-1 circulating in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Hon-Kwan Chen

    Full Text Available HIV-1 group M strains are characterized into 9 pure subtypes and 48 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs. Recent studies have identified the presence of new HIV-1 recombinants in Hong Kong and their complexity continues to increase. This study aims to characterize the HIV-1 genetic diversity in Hong Kong. Phylogenetic analyses were performed by using HIV-1 pol sequences including protease and partial reverse transcriptase isolated from 1045 local patients in Hong Kong from 2003 to 2008. For the pol sequences with unassigned genotype, the evidence of recombination was determined by using sliding-window based bootscan plots and their env C2V3 region were also sequenced. Epidemiological background of these patients was further collected. The pol phylogenetic analyses highlighted the extent of HIV-1 genetic diversity in Hong Kong. Subtype B (450/1045; 43.1% and CRF01_AE (469/1045; 44.9% variants were clearly predominant. Other genotypes (126/1045; 12.1% including 3 defined subtypes, 10 CRFs, 1 unassigned subtype and 33 recombinants with 11 different mosaic patterns were observed. Recombinants of subtype B and CRF01_AE were mainly found among local Chinese MSM throughout 2004 to 2008, while the CRF02_AG and subtype G recombinants were circulating among non-Chinese Asian population in Hong Kong through heterosexual transmission starting from 2008. Our study demonstrated the complex recombination of HIV-1 in Hong Kong and the need in developing surveillance system for tracking the distribution of new HIV-1 genetic variants.

  11. A Brief Overview of Adolescent Developmental Problems in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

  12. An investigation of the ingestion exposure pathways in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, Mankit Ray; Lui, Wai Sing

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of the food supply and the dietetic pattern of Hong Kong was conducted and some of the important factors affecting the ingestion exposure pathways following a severe nuclear accident were examined. It was found that the nuclide concentrations in the vegetables are very sensitive to time and substantial saving in effective dose resulted from ingesting contaminated vegetables can be achieved by appropriate imposition of restriction on the consumption of local produce. The consumption of locally grown vegetables in large quantity and the proximity of the Hong Kong vegetable farms to the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station suggests that the vegetable-human pathway is important and warrants special attention

  13. Loan Loss Provisions Practices in Hong Kong Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Mingrui

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the global financial crisis, the Basel Committee encourages a dynamic provisioning system. Reducing the pro-cyclical effect of loan loss provisioning is a way to achieve this. Therefore, this dissertation’s main objective is to determine if the provisioning system in Hong Kong commercial banks is pro-cyclical. Based on a sample of 35 commercial banks in Hong Kong ranging a decade from 2005 to 2014, and by applying the methodology of system GMM, this dissertation proves that the...

  14. History of Asbestos Ban in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Wan, Sabrina Hei-Man; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2017-01-01

    As millions of immigrants moved to Hong Kong (HK) from China in the recent decades, large amount of residential housings were built in the early years and a substantial proportion of those buildings used asbestos-containing materials (ACMs). Since the number of new cases of ARDs diagnosed has increased year by year since 1990’s, the remarkable increase of incidences had drawn the attention of the public and most importantly the HK government. It became one of the trigger points leading to asbestos ban in HK history. Comparatively, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), labor unions and patients’ self-help organizations demonstrated a more aggressive and proactive attitude than the HK government and have played a key role in the development of asbestos banning policy in HK. After numerous petitions and meetings with the government representatives by those parties in the past decade, the HK government eventually changed its attitude and started to consider terminating the endless threat from asbestos by amending the policy, and the new clause of legislation for banning of all forms of asbestos was enacted on 4 April 2014. Other than the restriction of asbestos use, the compensation system about ARDs has also made some great moves by the effort of those parties as well. Based on the experience we learnt through the years, efforts from different stakeholders including patients’ self-help organizations, NGOs, legislative councilors, and media power are absolutely essential to the success of progression and development in today’s asbestos banning in HK. PMID:29088113

  15. History of Asbestos Ban in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kwan Wong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As millions of immigrants moved to Hong Kong (HK from China in the recent decades, large amount of residential housings were built in the early years and a substantial proportion of those buildings used asbestos-containing materials (ACMs. Since the number of new cases of ARDs diagnosed has increased year by year since 1990’s, the remarkable increase of incidences had drawn the attention of the public and most importantly the HK government. It became one of the trigger points leading to asbestos ban in HK history. Comparatively, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, labor unions and patients’ self-help organizations demonstrated a more aggressive and proactive attitude than the HK government and have played a key role in the development of asbestos banning policy in HK. After numerous petitions and meetings with the government representatives by those parties in the past decade, the HK government eventually changed its attitude and started to consider terminating the endless threat from asbestos by amending the policy, and the new clause of legislation for banning of all forms of asbestos was enacted on 4 April 2014. Other than the restriction of asbestos use, the compensation system about ARDs has also made some great moves by the effort of those parties as well. Based on the experience we learnt through the years, efforts from different stakeholders including patients’ self-help organizations, NGOs, legislative councilors, and media power are absolutely essential to the success of progression and development in today’s asbestos banning in HK.

  16. School-Based Management in Hong Kong: Centralizing or Decentralizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, I-Wah

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined the debate on a reform of school-based management in Hong Kong, which was to set up the Incorporated Management Committee (IMC) to manage the subsidized school. The nature of the debate during legislation and the characteristics of the reform were examined. The advantages, disadvantages and the implications of the reform were…

  17. Politics, Culture, and School Curriculum: The Struggles in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Hong Kong (HK) school curriculum, especially the general curriculum for civic education and other social subjects, in relation to the political events of the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration, the 1989 Tiananmen Square Incident, and the return of HK's sovereignty from the United Kingdom (UK) to the…

  18. Mathematics Achievement of Mainland Immigrant Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Leung, Frederick K. S.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main features of globalization is the increasing mobility of population. As an immigrant society, Hong Kong has witnessed waves of Mainland Chinese arrivals and assimilation into her mainstream, particularly around the change of sovereignty period. School-aged children constitute a substantial fraction of the new population. Given their…

  19. Explaining Hong Kong Students' International Achievement in Civic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kerry J.; Lijuan, Li

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies predictors of Hong Kong students' civic learning. It has adopted a cross-sectional quantitative design using secondary data from the 2009 International Civics and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS 2009; Schulz et al., 2010). Multi-level analysis reveals that most of the variance in student achievement can be accounted for by…

  20. Involving Students in Residence Halls in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S. Raymond; Chan, Rebecca; Lee, Esther

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a study based on A. W. Astin's (1984) involvement theory applied in residence halls at a public university in Hong Kong, China. The resident students who were involved as participants or student leaders in this study were found to be better developed in terms of leadership, career development, multicultural experience,…

  1. Hong Kong young people’s blood donation behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Juliana; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Similar to other developed countries, only 3% of the total population in Hong Kong donate blood (Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service 2003). More than 20% of annual donations come from youngsters aged 18-25. However, this category of donors has decreased gradually from 24.6% in 2004 to 22.9% in 2008. This study aims to examine the characteristics and intention of young blood donors versus nondonors in Hong Kong; and to explore the factors that may influence Hong Kong young people’s donation behavior. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using questionnaire to solicit information from young people including both blood donors and non-donors. Results: It showed that more non-donors were underweight (26%) than blood donors (16.9%). Blood donors demonstrated to have more knowledge on the usage of donated blood (87.2%). Nearly half of youngster admitted that they made use of donation as a means for blood testing (53.1%) or free physical check-up (47.3%). Conclusions: Recruitment strategies should focus on the enhancement of health education programs related to blood and blood donation for young people to increase their awareness of blood and alleviate their misconceptions about blood donation. PMID:21572717

  2. The Evolution from Integration to Inclusion: The Hong Kong Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong

    2014-01-01

    As a worldwide movement, some forms or stages of inclusive education have been experimented and/or mandated in various countries since the mid-1970s. Integration was piloted in Hong Kong in 1997 and remains the official rhetoric and policy. Three developmental phases of inclusive education, namely, integration, integration in transition to…

  3. Life Satisfaction and Family Structure among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Ying-Keung

    2008-01-01

    Relationships between family structure and perceived life satisfaction in overall life and five domains of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, family life, friendships, school experience, myself, and where I live were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong. Bivariate analyses showed…

  4. Active Ageing, Active Learning: Policy and Provision in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between ageing and learning, previous literature having confirmed that participation in continued learning in old age contributes to good health, satisfaction with life, independence and self-esteem. Realizing that learning is vital to active ageing, the Hong Kong government has implemented policies and…

  5. Cinematography in Motherhood: a Hong Kong film adaptation of Ghosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-kan Tam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of a Hong Kong Chinese film adaptation of Ghosts made in 1960. It deals with processes of cross-cultural and cross-media adaptation, and probes issues of how stage techniques are turned into cinematographic devices. Ibsen’s plays, except Ghosts, have been adapted numerous times for the Chinese stage and screen in Hong Kong and China. Unlike in China, the reception of Ibsen in Hong Kong is not meant for political purposes. In most Hong Kong adaptations, Ibsen is valued for the purpose of theatrical experimentation. Among the stage adaptations, A Doll’s House and The Master Builder are the most popular. However, there was a film adaptation of Ghosts in 1960, which has never been discussed in Ibsen scholarship. In this adaptation, Director Tso Kea borrowed the plot from Ghosts and made a perfect Chinese melodrama film highlighting the Chinese emotions and relations in a wealthy family that undergoes a crisis. In traditional Chinese drama, there is the lack of psychological rendering in characterization and characters act according to moral considerations. In Tso Kea’s film, the portrayal of the mother provides a new sense of characterization by combining Mrs Alving with the traditional Chinese mother figure. The borrowing from Ibsen makes it possible for the Chinese film to create a character with emotional and psychological complexities. Images from the film are selected as illustration in the article.

  6. Policy of Quality Assurance in Hong Kong Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dora, Ho Choi-wa

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the sources, processes and impact of the quality assurance policy implemented in Hong Kong preschools. Regarded as a sort of policy alignment between the subsystems of pre-primary, primary and secondary education, the introduction of a quality assurance policy has been directly and indirectly transforming the settlements in…

  7. Teacher Stress in Working with Challenging Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, I-Wah

    2012-01-01

    This article first illustrates how recent social, economic and educational development in Hong Kong contributes to teacher stress. It then presents data from an international study on teacher stress with respect to working with challenging students, i.e. students with behavioural problems. Teachers were asked to report on the perceived behavioural…

  8. Gender Differences in Financial Literacy among Hong Kong Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kar-Ming; Wu, Alfred M.; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chou, Kee-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Using a phone survey conducted in 2012, we examined whether there is a gender difference in financial literacy among Hong Kong workers; and if such a difference exists, whether it can be explained by gender differences in sociodemographic variables, social or psychological factors, and/or the outcomes of retirement planning. Results show a gender…

  9. Faculty Research Productivity in Hong Kong across Academic Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jisun

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the research productivity of Hong Kong academics. Specifically, it explores the individual and institutional factors that contribute to their productivity while also comparing determinants across academic disciplines. We have conducted OLS regression analysis using the international survey data from "The Changing Academics…

  10. Sleep and Academic Performance in Hong Kong Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lo, Wing-Sze; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems may have different influences on students' academic performance. We investigated the prevalence of sleep patterns, naps, and sleep disorders, and their associations with academic performance in Hong Kong adolescents. Methods: In 2007-2008, 22,678 students aged 12-18 (41.6% boys) completed a questionnaire on…

  11. Physical Activity in the Lives of Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy S.; Macdonald, Doune; Pang, Bonnie O. H.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the physical activity culture in the lives of Hong Kong Chinese children and their parents, 48 young people between the ages 9 and 16 and their parents, with different socio-economic backgrounds and geographical locations, were interviewed for this study. By applying Confucianism and postcolonialism, this study aimed to investigate…

  12. Home Literacy and Chinese Reading in Hong Kong Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jasmine Yuet-Han; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Measures of Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, and interest in reading were administered to 92 second grade children in Hong Kong, while questionnaires on parental literacy practices were administered to their parents. In a hierarchical regression equation, maternal education, children's age and vocabulary skill predicted 18% of the…

  13. Correlates of Victimization in Hong Kong Children's Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Shelley R.; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Xu, Yiyuan

    2010-01-01

    This study reports two separate cross-sectional investigations that focus on bully/victim problems among Hong Kong school children. Study 1 included 1361 children (670 boys, 691 girls; mean age = 12.6 years) and Study 2 included 288 children (153 boys, 135 girls; mean age = 9.6 years). Children's social and academic functioning was assessed with…

  14. Effects of school closures, 2008 winter influenza season, Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, GM; Chan, KH; Lam, CLH; Cowling, BJ; Cheng, CKY; Lau, EHY; Kovar, J; Peiris, JSM

    2008-01-01

    In winter 2008, kindergartens and primary schools in Hong Kong were closed for 2 weeks after media coverage indicated that 3 children had died, apparently from influenza. We examined prospective influenza surveillance data before, during, and after the closure. We did not find a substantial effect on community transmission.

  15. Teaching Business Ethics in Hong Kong: Challenges and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Dennis P.; Lam, Joanna Kit Chun; Chiu, Randy K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a program for teaching business ethics to undergraduate business students at the Hong Kong Baptist University. Provides an anecdotal account to illustrate that in non-Western cultural contexts, figurative rather than scientific language often captures the essence of qualitative phenomena. Underscores the importance of understanding and…

  16. Revisiting the Antecedents of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Ching Yin; Wu, Shih-Chia; Liu, Huei-Ching; Liang, Chaoyun

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how empathy, moral obligation, social entrepreneurial self-efficacy, perceived social support, and prior experience with social problems are associated with social entrepreneurial intentions. Through a survey, a sample of 252 Hong Kong students was used for analyses. Factor analyses supported that the antecedents of social…

  17. Educational Stratification, School Expansion, and Public Policy in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    1994-01-01

    Reviews recent changes in Hong Kong's policy to extend free and compulsory education to the first three years of secondary schooling. Examines the consequences of this expansion and finds that the changes in public policy had a substantial impact on the ability of young people, especially girls, to go to secondary school, regardless of income.…

  18. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Eunice; Chung, Edsoulla; Li, Eddy; Yeung, Steven

    2016-01-01

    In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an e-learning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and…

  19. Hong Kong Students' Approaches to Learning: Cross-Cultural Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Bhoomiah

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds in Hong Kong to the effect that students entering tertiary education are predisposed to a "rote" learning approach. With the internalisation of higher education in many countries, there is still insufficient understanding of how Chinese students approach their learning. Except few studies were conducted…

  20. Multicultural Hong Kong: Alternative New Media Representations of Ethnic Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Liz; Nesterova, Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities experience misrecognition, prejudice and discrimination in Hong Kong. In response to these challenges, multicultural education there aims to enable young people to recognize diversity in a more tolerant, open-minded way. Educators have been encouraged to not rely only on textbooks, but to include news and digital media…

  1. Hong Kong and Australian Seniors: Views of Aging and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Tam, M.; Buys, Laurie; Chui, Ernest Wing-tak

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants and 39 participants in Hong Kong who either did or did not engage in organized learning in the last 6 months. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the experiences and perspectives of these…

  2. School Characteristics, Student Mobility Rates and Outlets in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yee Lay Jack

    This survey compares mobility and outlets of secondary students in Hong Kong by the type of schools within the educational system. Student mobility is defined as transfer to other local schools, transfer to overseas schools, and dropping out. The six types of schools within the system include three Anglo-Chinese instructed schools -- government,…

  3. Excess mortality for operated geriatric hip fracture in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, L P; Ho, A Wh; Wong, S H

    2016-02-01

    Geriatric hip fracture places an increasing burden to health care systems around the world. We studied the latest epidemiology trend of geriatric hip fracture in Hong Kong, as well as the excess mortality for patients who had undergone surgery for hip fracture. This descriptive epidemiology study was conducted in the public hospitals in Hong Kong. All patients who underwent surgery for geriatric hip fracture in public hospitals from January 2000 to December 2011 were studied. They were retrieved from the Clinical Management System of the Hospital Authority of Hong Kong. Relevant data were collected using the Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System of the Hospital Authority. The actual and projected population size, and the age- and sex-specific mortality rates were obtained from the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. The 30-day, 1-year and 5-year mortality, and excess mortality following surgery for geriatric hip fracture were calculated. There was a steady increase in the incidence of geriatric hip fracture in Hong Kong. The annual risk of geriatric hip fracture was decreasing in both sexes. Female patients aged 65 to 69 years had the lowest 1-year and 5-year mortality of 6.91% and 23.80%, respectively. Advancing age and male sex were associated with an increase in mortality and a higher excess mortality rate following surgery. The incidence of geriatric hip fracture is expected to increase in the future. The exact reason for a higher excess mortality rate in male patients remains unclear and should be the direction for future studies.

  4. Oral health status and behaviours of preschool children in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Chu Chun-Hung; Ho Ping-Lit; Lo Edward CM

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries is a major public health problem in many countries. Since the last territority-wide dental survey of Hong Kong preschool children was conducted in 2001, a survey to update the information is necessary. This study aimed to describe the dental caries experience of preschool children in Hong Kong and factors affecting their dental caries status. Methods A stratified random sample of children from seven kindergartens in Hong Kong was surveyed in 2009. Ethical app...

  5. Service Quality and Behavioral Intentions: A Study of Hong Kong Mobile Services Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Man Huen Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Studies on service quality are popular but specifically on service quality of mobile network services industry in Hong Kong are scarce. This paper aims at developing a service quality dimension for the mobile network services industry in Hong Kong. The study investigates the service quality of the six network operators in Hong Kong and explores the determinants of service quality in the industry. It studies the impact of service quality on both customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions....

  6. Technology-Supported Educational Innovations in Finland and Hong Kong: A Tale of Two Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Nance; Kankaanranta, Marja; Chow, Angela

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a comparison of case studies about innovative ICT-supported pedagogical practices in two educational systems, namely Finland and Hong Kong. The two systems were selected for this in-depth comparison for three main reasons. First, Finland and Hong Kong performed well in several international comparative studies of educational achievement. Second, the case studies collected via the SITES Module 2 indicated rather different profiles between Finnish and Hong Kong schools in ter...

  7. Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China [4 April 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-09

    On December 19, 1984, the Chinese and British Governments signed the joint declaration allowing the Peoples' Republic of China to resume sovereignty over Hong Kong effective July 1, 1997. To assure the prosperity and stability of Hong Kong, China will establish a Hong Kong Special Administrative Region allowing the socialist system and the policies practiced in Hong Kong to co-exist under the principle of "one country, two systems" as elaborated by the Chinese Government in the Sino-British joint declaration. Under the laws of China, the following Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is enacted, prescribing the systems to be practiced in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, necessary in order to assure implementation of the policies of China toward Hong Kong. The law covers: 1) General Principles, allowing the previous capitalist system to remain unchanged for 50 years, etc. 2) It establishes the relationship between the Central Authorities and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; e.g., China will defend Hong Kong, Hong Kong will possess independent judicial power. Chapter 3 defines the fundamental rights and duties of Hong Kong residents, and defines in chapter 4) the political structure that includes the Chief Executive, the Executive Authorities, the Legislature, the Judiciary, the District Organizations, and Public Servants. Chapter 5 contains information about the economy, public finance, monetary affairs, trade, industry, commerce, land leases, shipping, and civil aviation. Chapter 6 deals with education, science, culture, sports, religion, and labor and social services. Chapter 7 defines the responsibilities for external affairs. Chapter 8 specifies the interpretation and amendment of the Basic Law, ending with chapter 9 Supplementary Provisions, selection of the Chief Executive, formation of the Legislative Council, voting procedures, and the national laws to be applied in the Hong Kong

  8. French banks in Hong Kong (1860s-1950s): Challengers to British banks?

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert BONIN (GREThA-GRES)

    2007-01-01

    French banking expansion in China and South-East Asia had to respect the powerful influence of British banks there. From the 1860s French merchant and banking interests had been involved in Hong Kong business because of the colonial developments in Indochina and the links between this area and the Hong Kong centre. The growth of commercial links between the colony and China favoured further integration of banking and currency exchanges with Hong Kong, through the Banque de l’Indochine corpora...

  9. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 subtype B among the men-having-sex-with-men (MSM population in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Hon-Kwan Chen

    Full Text Available The men-having-sex-with-men (MSM population has become one of the major risk groups for HIV-1 infection in the Asia Pacific countries. Hong Kong is located in the centre of Asia and the transmission history of HIV-1 subtype B transmission among MSM remained unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the transmission dynamics of HIV-1 subtype B virus in the Hong Kong MSM population. Samples of 125 HIV-1 subtype B infected MSM patients were recruited in this study. Through this study, the subtype B epidemic in the Hong Kong MSM population was identified spreading mainly among local Chinese who caught infection locally. On the other hand, HIV-1 subtype B infected Caucasian MSM caught infection mainly outside Hong Kong. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis also indicated that 3 separate subtype B epidemics with divergence dates in the 1990s had occurred. The first and latest epidemics were comparatively small-scaled; spreading among the local Chinese MSM while sauna-visiting was found to be the major sex partner sourcing reservoir for the first subtype B epidemic. However, the second epidemic was spread in a large-scale among local Chinese MSM with a number of them having sourced their sex partners through the internet. The epidemic virus was estimated to have a divergence date in 1987 and the infected population in Hong Kong had a logistic growth throughout the past 20 years. Our study elucidated the evolutionary and demographic history of HIV-1 subtype B virus in Hong Kong MSM population. The understanding of transmission and growth model of the subtype B epidemic provides more information on the HIV-1 transmission among MSM population in other Asia Pacific high-income countries.

  10. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 subtype B among the men-having-sex-with-men (MSM) population in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jonathan Hon-Kwan; Wong, Ka-Hing; Chan, Kenny Chi-Wai; To, Sabrina Wai-Chi; Chen, Zhiwei; Yam, Wing-Cheong

    2011-01-01

    The men-having-sex-with-men (MSM) population has become one of the major risk groups for HIV-1 infection in the Asia Pacific countries. Hong Kong is located in the centre of Asia and the transmission history of HIV-1 subtype B transmission among MSM remained unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the transmission dynamics of HIV-1 subtype B virus in the Hong Kong MSM population. Samples of 125 HIV-1 subtype B infected MSM patients were recruited in this study. Through this study, the subtype B epidemic in the Hong Kong MSM population was identified spreading mainly among local Chinese who caught infection locally. On the other hand, HIV-1 subtype B infected Caucasian MSM caught infection mainly outside Hong Kong. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis also indicated that 3 separate subtype B epidemics with divergence dates in the 1990s had occurred. The first and latest epidemics were comparatively small-scaled; spreading among the local Chinese MSM while sauna-visiting was found to be the major sex partner sourcing reservoir for the first subtype B epidemic. However, the second epidemic was spread in a large-scale among local Chinese MSM with a number of them having sourced their sex partners through the internet. The epidemic virus was estimated to have a divergence date in 1987 and the infected population in Hong Kong had a logistic growth throughout the past 20 years. Our study elucidated the evolutionary and demographic history of HIV-1 subtype B virus in Hong Kong MSM population. The understanding of transmission and growth model of the subtype B epidemic provides more information on the HIV-1 transmission among MSM population in other Asia Pacific high-income countries.

  11. Hong Kong and its hinterland: a case of international rural-to-urban migration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, R

    1986-01-01

    "The historical background of migration to Hong Kong from China is reviewed. The focus is, however, on the 'wave' of migration that occurred in the late 1970s. Two distinct streams of migration are identified, legal and illegal, each with different characteristics." Data are primarily from official Hong Kong sources. The author notes the high levels of education among immigrants and the relative ease with which they have been absorbed into the labor force. "Political conditions in China are seen to be a major factor in explaining fluctuations in the volume of migration to Hong Kong. No relaxation of controls on future movement is seen as Hong Kong becomes part of China." excerpt

  12. Currency Substitution between Hong Kong Dollar and Renminbi in South China

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth S. Chan

    2001-01-01

    This paper estimates the demand for the Hong Kong currency circulating in the Guangdong Province of China and Macau. The amount of Hong Kong Dollar circulating in the Guangdong (Macau) region is reckoned to be 7.4 (3.2) per cent of the total amount issued in Hong Kong. The estimated coefficients in the currency demand equation suggest that the Hong Kong currency in Guangdong is used mainly for transactions. Therefore, in spite of strong evidence of currency substitution of the renminbi with t...

  13. Self-reported Stress Problems among Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alan H. S.; Chen, K.; Chong, Elaine Y. L.

    2010-10-01

    The present study was developed to comprehensively investigate the occupational health problems among teachers of primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. A random sample of 1,710 respondents was generated from the database of Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union (HKPTU) members. A self-administrated questionnaire was designed and sent by mail to the teachers of primary and secondary schools in HK. The results indicated that comparing with one year and five years ago, 91.6% and 97.3% of the responding teachers reported an increase of perceived stress level, respectively. Heavy workload and time pressure, education reforms, external school review, pursuing further education, and managing students' behaviour and learning were the most frequently reported sources of work stress. The four most frequently reported stress management activities were sleeping, talking to neighbors and friends, self-relaxing, and watching television, while the least frequently reported activity was doing more exercises or sports.

  14. Stock Market Manipulation on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionigi Gerace

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to empirically examine stock market manipulation on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. The dataset contains 40 cases of market manipulation from 1996 to 2009 that were successfully prosecuted by the Hong Kong Securities & Futures Commission. Manipulation is found to negatively impact market efficiency measures such as the bid-ask spread and volatility. Markets appear incapable of efficiently responding to the presence of manipulators and are characterised by information asymmetry. Manipulators were successfully able to raise prices and exit the market. This finding contradicts views that trade-based manipulation is entirely unprofitable and self-deterring. The victimisation of information-seeking investors and the market as a whole provides a strong rationale for all jurisdictions, including Australia, to have effective laws that prohibit manipulation and for robust enforcement of those laws to further deter market manipulation.

  15. Dental hygienists in Hong Kong: present and future status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, D S; Schwarz, E; Tong, A C; Wong, M C

    1996-01-01

    This study assessed the current employment status of dental hygienists practicing in Hong Kong, investigated factors affecting their employment, evaluated the satisfaction of local dental hygienists and their employers, and explored the career prospects of dental hygienists in Hong Kong. All registered dental hygienists (n = 64), all dentists who employed dental hygienists (n = 25), and a systematic sample of dentists who did not employ dental hygienists (n = 278) were surveyed in June 1994 concerning employment situation, salaries, job satisfaction, and opinions on future prospects for dental hygienists. Response rates were 86% for dental hygienists (n = 55), 88% for employers (n = 22), and 63% for dentists at large (n = 175). Among the dental hygienists, 87% still were employed as dental hygienists, and both the dental hygienists and their employers agreed that the employment situation was satisfactory; however, several dental hygienists were considered to be working below their level of qualification. Major reasons for dentists not to employ a dental hygienist were having only one operatory and having an inadequate number of patients. In general, employers expressed satisfaction with the performance of the dental hygienists. Major reasons for employing a dental hygienist were that a dental hygienist would add professional and economical benefit to their clinic. Few dentists would support expanded duties for dental hygienists. In Hong Kong, dental hygienists and their employers comprise a small group with limited impact on oral healthcare services. Dental hygienists' perceptions of their future roles and ambitions are higher than those of their employers. To further the development of dental services in Hong Kong and meet documented oral healthcare needs in the population, greater utilization of dental hygienists should be promoted.

  16. Dysmenorrhoea among Hong Kong university students: prevalence, impact, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, C F; Lai, Joyce H Y; Cheung, P K; Kwong, L T; Lau, Fiona P M; Leung, K H; Leung, M T; Wong, Francis C H; Ngu, S F

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the prevalence of dysmenorrhoea, its impact, and management approaches in Hong Kong university students, and to compare between medical and non-medical students for any potential differences in coping strategies. DESIGN. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. SETTING. The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS. A total of 240 undergraduate (128 medical and 112 non-medical) students. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Data on the presence and severity of dysmenorrhoea, its impact on daily life, management approaches, specific strategies, and their self-perceived effectiveness were obtained and analysed. RESULTS. In these subjects, the prevalence of dysmenorrhoea was 80% (95% confidence interval, 75-85%) with a mean (standard deviation) pain score of 5.0 (1.7). The most common impacts on daily life included reduced ability to concentrate and/or disturbance with study (75%) and changes in normal physical activity (60%). Only 6% sought medical advice, while 70% practised self-management. Pain scores and pain affecting normal physical activities were important predictive factors for self-management and for management based on pharmacological or non-pharmacological means. The commonest specific strategies used were a warm beverage (62%), paracetamol (57%), and sleeping (45%), while the most effective strategies were non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (100%), traditional Chinese medicine (93%), and dietary/nutritional supplements (92%). Regarding the comparison of medical and non-medical students, the former used fewer pharmacological strategies among the various management approaches investigated. CONCLUSION. With data showing dysmenorrhoea as a very common condition having a significant impact in the Hong Kong community, primary care doctors should reassure young women with dysmenorrhoea that it is a common experience in the same age-group. Health education on the existence of effective treatment from medical practitioners could help women whose

  17. Herbal Medicines Induced Anticholinergic Poisoning in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2016-03-18

    In the present review, the main objective was to report the incidence and causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning in Hong Kong during 1989-2012 and to emphasize the importance of pharmacovigilance, investigations and preventive measures. Relevant papers, official figures and unpublished data were obtained from Medline search, the Department of Health and the Drug and Poisons Information Bureau. In the New Territories East (where ~20% of the Hong Kong population lived), the incidence of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning during 1989-1993 was 0.09 per 100,000 population. There were no confirmed cases during 1994-1996. In the whole of Hong Kong, the incidence during 2000-June 2005 was 0.03 per 100,000 population. Contamination of Rhizoma Atractylodis (50%) and erroneous substitution (42%) were the main causes. The incidence during 2008-2012 was 0.06 per 100,000 population. Contamination of non-toxic herbs (50%) and erroneous substitution (41%) were the main causes. In Hong Kong, contamination of non-toxic herbs by tropane alkaloids and substitution of Flos Campsis by toxic Flos Daturae Metelis were the predominant causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning. Systematic studies along the supply chain are necessary to identify the likely sources of contamination. If erroneous substitution of Flos Campsis by Flos Daturae Metelis could be prevented, 40% of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning would not have occurred. Regular inspection of the retailer, continuing education for the staff in the herbal trade and repeated publicity measures will also be required. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines should help determine the incidence and causes of adverse reactions and monitor the effectiveness of preventive measures.

  18. A conceptual critique of parenting research in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Hung-Kit; Shek, Daniel T L

    2011-01-01

    Parenting processes have been investigated for over 30 years in Hong Kong. Three conceptual limitations are identified, based on 90 studies selected from the PsycINFO database: lack of investigation of indigenous parenting concepts; lack of investigation of causes, concomitants and consequences of the parenting process; and lack of alternative explanations for results. Suggestions for improvement are also made in each area. Limitations of the present study are discussed.

  19. Health Profile of Construction Workers in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Construction is a manual, heavy, and complex sector concerning the most fatal accidents and high incidence of occupational illnesses and injuries resulting in days away from work. In Hong Kong, “Pilot Medical Examination Scheme for Construction Workers” was launched in 2014 to detect the health problems of their construction workforce. All registered workers under the Construction Workers Registration Board are eligible to join the scheme. The purpose of this paper is to assess the physical c...

  20. Osteoporosis: should there be a screening programme in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Y

    2002-08-01

    Osteoporosis is rapidly becoming a major health problem in Hong Kong with the ever-increasing population of elderly people. Its importance lies in the predisposition to fragility fractures of patients with the disease. These fractures incur morbidity and mortality to the elderly. Measures are needed to reduce the prevalence of osteoporosis and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures. A screening programme is potentially the way forward in achieving such a goal. The need for, and the feasibility of, a screening programme for osteoporosis in Hong Kong were evaluated. A comprehensive examination of the relevant issues was carried out within the framework of the World Health Organization criteria on screening of diseases. Major studies from abroad and Hong Kong were discussed and the strength of evidence was assessed. Osteoporosis satisfies some of the World Health Organization criteria for screening of diseases: it is a significant health problem, the natural history is fairly well understood, and early detection is possible. Nevertheless, there remain unresolved issues related to the screening tests, the treatments currently available, and the selection criteria for treatment. Several therapeutic options have been tested in trials. However, more work is needed to determine whether, in addition to increasing bone mass, they reduce the incidence of fracture. Moreover, the duration of therapy needed to achieve long-term benefit has yet to be established. More studies are also needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of such a programme. There undoubtedly needs to be a means of identifying individuals who have osteoporosis and are susceptible to fragility fractures. However, based on the currently available evidence, large-scale screening is not a valid option. Before instituting such a programme in Hong Kong, more studies are needed to determine the most appropriate and cost-effective way forward.

  1. Lead contamination in street dust in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y B

    1979-03-01

    Lead levels were generally found to be high in road-side dust samples collected from different sites throughout the Island of Hong Kong during winter 1977-78. Considerable differences in the concentration of lead amongst these sites were detected but such differences bore no direct relationship to the traffic volumes of the sites from which the samples were collected. Different districts within the city varied widely in the mean concentration of lead in their road-side dust samples.

  2. Hong Kong's Currency Board and Changing Monetary Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Yum K. Kwan; Francis T. Lui

    1996-01-01

    The paper discusses the historical background and institutional details of Hong Kong's currency board. We argue that its experience provides a good opportunity to test the macroeconomic implications of the currency board regime. Using the method of Blanchard and Quah (1989), we show that the parameters of the structural equations and the characteristics of supply and demand shocks have significantly changed since adopting the regime. Variance decomposition and impulse response analyses indica...

  3. Health care without managed care in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, P P

    1995-10-01

    Although managed care may be more effective than fee-for-service in containing health care costs in the United States, it is less effective in countries with a national health service. In Hong Kong, costs have been contained despite the fact that 95% of general practitioners still practice on a solo, fee-for-service basis. The author describes in detail how the system of tax-based hospitals guarantees universal access without escalating costs.

  4. The Mouse That Roared: The Democratic Movement in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Dirlik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The popular uprising in recent years in Hong Kong – “Occupy Central” a.k.a. Umbrella Movement – has again brought to the fore the question of the Special Administrative Region’s relationship with Mainland China post-1997 “handover” of the territory by the British colonial government to the People’s Republic of China. This article argues that the protests have their origins in a consciousness born of the anxieties provoked by the prospect of unification in the 1980s and 1990s, further evolved against the background of the unstable “one country, two systems” arrangement openly favoring the corporate and financial ruling class in Hong Kong which is in turn prepared to align its interests with those of the Communist regime in a mutually beneficial relationship. It also posits while the upheaval in Hong Kong bears similarities to other “Occupy” movements elsewhere in the economic issues that inform it, it may be viewed as the latest chapter in a narrative that goes back to the 1980s – the emergence of a neoliberal global capitalism of which the PRC has been an integral component, and the Tiananmen movement which was one of the earliest expressions of the social and political strains created by shifts in the global economy.

  5. Smoking pattern during pregnancy in Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace W S; Tam, Wing Hung; Sahota, Daljit S; Nelson, Edmund A S

    2008-06-01

    While the prevalence of young female smokers is rising among the Hong Kong Chinese population, data on their smoking pattern during pregnancy are limited. To investigate the smoking habit of Hong Kong Chinese women and their partners during pregnancy. Postal questionnaires were sent to 479 couples to explore their smoking patterns during pregnancy at one to two years after the index delivery. Questionnaires were completed by 247 subjects. Among 117 women who were ever-smokers, 26% had stopped smoking before the index pregnancy, while 60% stopped and 14% reduced smoking during the pregnancy. Most women stopped smoking in the first trimester (93%) and prior to the first antenatal visit (79%). Those who used to smoke fewer cigarettes before pregnancy were more likely to stop smoking during pregnancy but women with a history of recreational drug use were more likely to continue smoking during pregnancy. The post-partum smoking relapse rate was 59% in women who had stopped smoking before or during their pregnancy. Only 2.6% of the partners who were ever-smokers stopped smoking before the pregnancy while smoking habits remained unchanged in 52%. Approximately one-fifth of an unselected sample of Hong Kong mothers had a history of smoking prior to pregnancy. Pregnancy is an opportune time to implement smoking intervention programs for female smokers and their partners with an emphasis on the maintenance of post-partum smoking abstinence.

  6. Marital Satisfaction Trends in Hong Kong Between 2002 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul

    2016-07-03

    Macrosocial changes may generate influences on marital quality. This study used data from the 2002-2012 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice surveys conducted by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong to track the trends of marital satisfaction of both husbands and wives over a 10-year period in Hong Kong, with associated factors. Results indicated that 85% of the husbands and around 80% of the wives reported that they were satisfied with their marital relationships, and no significant changes in general were observed for them between 2002 and 2012 except for some subgroups. Husbands aged 45-49 years, in employment and whose monthly household income between 25,000 HKD and 39,999 HKD, reported marital satisfaction decreased over the past 10 years and wives with primary education or below also reported a decreasing trend during this period. Education and family income had positive influences on the husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction, and husbands were more likely to be sensitive to the unemployment. Less than one-third of couples needed professional counseling on family-related issues, and couple conflicts and work-family conflicts were the urgent needs that should be given priority in delivering services. The implications of this study are discussed in the Chinese context of Hong Kong.

  7. Hair as an indicator of environmental exposure in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, L.S.

    1978-01-01

    Eleven human hair samples were taken from the Chinese residents of Hong Kong for the study of hair trace elemental level and environmental exposure. Absolute neutron-activation analysis and Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometry were applied for the determination of the trace elemental level. After washing, each hair sample was air-dried at room temperature in acetone and water. The hair was weighed and encapsulated into the irradiation container. Typical sample weight was about 150 mg. The samples were irradiated at a neutron flux of 4.4x10 13 nxcm -2 xs -1 . Conditions of the irradiations and counting are tabulated. The trace element content of hair from a drug addict was found to be considerably different from other sampled peopie. Comparison of the normal concentrations of the trace elements of the Chinese residents of Hong Kong was made with those from people of various other national, socio-cultural and environmental backgrounds. It was found that together with a few other trace elements, Ni, Sr, Zr, and Hg content of the Chinese residents of Hong Kong show a higher level than those of the other sampled people. Tabulated data are given. (T.G.)

  8. An exploratory study of illegal gamblers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tessler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigates the nature and behaviour of illegal gamblers in Hong Kong. A face-to-face street survey of 512 gamblers was conducted in Hong Kong between September and December 2015 with supplementary convenience sampling allowing for analysis of a total sample of 103 illegal gamblers. 56% of illegal gamblers recorded results consistent with this study’s definition of ‘excessive gambling’ [i.e. moderate risk and problem gamblers under the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI]. 81% of surveyed illegal gamblers were male, 77% were aged between 30 and 49 and 67% were in blue collar occupations. Illegal gamblers bet more frequently on both legal and illegal games than their legal counterparts and spent more when they did bet. While this research did not indicate the direction of causality between illegal and excessive gambling, international work (de Bruin et al. in verslingerd aan meer dan een spel: Een onderzoek naar de aard en omvang van kansspelproblematiek in Nederland, WODC/CVO, Utrecht, http://www.lexandgaming.eu/nl/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Verslingerd-aan-meer-dan-een-spel.pdf , 2005; Binde in What are the most harmful forms of gambling? Analysing problem gambling prevalence surveys, http://www.utbildning.gu.se/digitalAssets/1327/1327132_cefos-wp12.pdf , 2011 suggests that excessive gamblers are drawn to illegal gambling. Reform could allow excessive gambling by illegal gamblers to be better addressed and initial work suggests some financial benefits to Hong Kong.

  9. Workplace violence towards nurses in Hong Kong: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S F

    2017-02-14

    Nurses are especially vulnerable to violent and other forms of aggression in the workplace. Nonetheless, few population-based studies of workplace violence have been undertaken among working-age nurse professionals in Hong Kong in the last decade. The study estimates the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of workplace violence (WPV) among professional nurses in Hong Kong. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Multivariate logistic regression examines the weighted prevalence rates of WPV and its associated factors for a population of nurses. A total of 850 nurses participated in the study. 44.6% had experienced WPV in the preceding year. Male nurses reported more WPV than their female counterparts. The most common forms of WPV were verbal abuse/bullying (39.2%), then physical assault (22.7%) and sexual harassment (1.1%). The most common perpetrators of WPV were patients (36.6%) and their relatives (17.5%), followed by colleagues (7.7%) and supervisors (6.3%). Clinical position, shift work, job satisfaction, recent disturbances with colleagues, deliberate self-harm (DSH) and symptoms of anxiety were significantly correlated with WPV for nurses. WPV remains a significant concern for healthcare worldwide. Hong Kong's local health authority should put in place a raft of zero-tolerance measures to prevent WPV in healthcare settings.

  10. Intake fraction of nonreactive motor vehicle exhaust in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhiwen; Li, Yuguo; Nazaroff, William W.

    2010-05-01

    The intake fraction ( iF) of nonreactive constituents of exhaust from mobile vehicles in the urban area of Hong Kong is investigated using available monitoring data for carbon monoxide (CO) as a tracer of opportunity. Correcting for regional transport of carbon monoxide into Hong Kong, the annual-average iF for nonreactive motor vehicle emissions within the city is estimated to be around 270 per million. This estimated iF is much higher than values previously reported for vehicle emissions in US urban areas, Helsinki and Beijing, and somewhat lower than those reported for a densely populated street canyon in downtown Manhattan, New York City, or for emissions into indoor environments. The reported differences in intake fractions in various cities mainly result from the differences in local population densities. Our analysis highlights the importance of accounting for the influence of upwind transport of pollutants when using ambient data to estimate iF for an urban area. For vehicle exhaust in Hong Kong, it is found that the in/near vehicle microenvironment contributes similarly to the indoor home environment when accounting for the overall iF for children and adults.

  11. Adolescent cough medicine abuse in Hong Kong: implications for the design of positive youth development programs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Lam, Ching-man

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the phenomenon of adolescent cough medicine abuse in Hong Kong. Quantitative data obtained from questionnaire survey with 225 adolescents showed that there were personal, peer, family and community factors influencing adolescent cough medicine abuse. Part 2 of the study obtained qualitative data from focus group interviews with cough medicine abusers (N = 8), their family members (N = 5) and service providers (N = 6). The accounts of the participants revealed that the primary factors accounting for adolescent cough medicine abuse were social pressure (peer and environmental influences), family (difficult relationships or harmful incidents), availability (ease of access), and ignorance (unaware of the consequence of cough medicine use and belief that cough medicine was non-addictive). The present findings provide useful pointers for the development of the positive youth development program supported by the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.

  12. Perceptions of Disadvantaged Youth on Social and Economic Asymmetry: A Case Study in Hong Kong's New Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spires, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Many social issues exist for marginalized youth in the New Territories of Hong Kong, despite Hong Kong's high standard of living. Increasingly, attention is being paid to social mobility of Hong Kong's younger generations. Youth in the New Territories face academic, economic, social and cultural barriers, in part due to tracking into low-ranked…

  13. Assessment for Learning, A Decade On: Self-Reported Assessment Practices of Secondary School Music Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina W. Y.

    2014-01-01

    "Assessment for Learning" (Afl) is integral to the decade-old reform of Hong Kong education. To investigate the assessment practices of secondary music teachers in Hong Kong ostensibly following Afl, this quantitative study investigates the self-reported assessment practices and perception of assessment modes of Hong Kong secondary…

  14. The Long-Term Impact of Service-Learning on Graduates' Civic Engagement and Career Exploration in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hok-ka, Carol Ma; Wing-fung, Chad Chan; Cheung-ming, Alfred Chan

    2016-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is a relatively new pedagogy in Hong Kong and so far, no study of SL's long-term impact in Hong Kong exists. To explore SL's impacts on Hong Kong students, researchers conducted a quantitative study to compare graduates with SL experience to graduates without SL experience in terms of three domains: (1) adaptability, brain…

  15. Stumbling Blocks in the Implementation of Accounting Education Reform: Evidence from Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Theodore T. Y.

    2016-01-01

    In determining whether stumbling blocks exist in the implementation of accounting education reform in Hong Kong, a survey questionnaire was sent to all accounting departments at public universities representing accounting academics, and the Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants representing the profession. The survey showed that both…

  16. A Comparative Study of Singapore's School Excellence Model with Hong Kong's School-Based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pak Tee; Chan, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine and compare the school excellence model (SEM) approach adopted by Singapore and the school-based management (SBM) approach adopted by Hong Kong. It discusses the implications of such a strategy and the challenges that both Singapore and Hong Kong schools face in navigating a new paradigm of managerialism while…

  17. Hong Kong and China: 'One Country, Two Systems'? Headline Series No. 310.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Frank

    This booklet chronicles the emergence of Hong Kong through its stormy history and examines the current status as changes are underway with the return of Hong Kong to China. Maps and charts illustrate the text. Chapters include: (1) Prelude; (2) "The Tiananmen Massacre and Its Aftermath"; (3) "Transition Years: 1991-96"; (4)…

  18. Examining Factors Affecting Science Achievement of Hong Kong in PISA 2006 Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Terence Yuk Ping; Lau, Kwok Chi

    2014-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling to examine the influence of a range of factors on the science performances of Hong Kong students in PISA 2006. Hong Kong has been consistently ranked highly in international science assessments, such as Programme for International Student Assessment and Trends in International Mathematics and Science…

  19. Implementing Effective Group Work for Mathematical Achievement in Primary School Classrooms in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutnick, Peter; Fung, Dennis C. L.; Mok, Ida. A. C.; Leung, Frederick K. S.; Li, Johnson C. H.; Lee, Betty P.-Y.; Lai, Veronica K. W.

    2017-01-01

    The Hong Kong Education Bureau recommends that primary school pupils' mathematical achievement be enhanced via collaborative discussions engendered by group work. This pedagogic change may be hindered by Confucian heritage classroom practices and Western-dominated group work approaches that predominate in Hong Kong. To overcome these obstacles, we…

  20. The financial centres of Shanghai and Hong Kong: Compentition or complementarity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Karreman (Bas); G.A. van der Knaap (Bert)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe contemporary rise of China in the new geo-economy is increasingly pressurising the spatial distribution of financial activity in mainland China and Hong Kong. With the reemergence of Shanghai, many people foresee the future demise of Hong Kong as the most important financial centre

  1. Student Behaviour and Emotional Challenges for Teachers and Parents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlin, Chris; Cooper, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Social, emotional, and behavioural disorders of children, within the context of a whole-school approach to inclusion as adopted by Hong Kong, can be challenging for teachers and parents. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature and feedback from a range of experts and parent groups in Hong Kong, specific scales were developed to measure…

  2. Transnational higher education for capacity development? An analysis of British degree programmes in Hong Kong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, W.H.M.; Waters, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon a project on British transnational education (TNE) programmes offered in Hong Kong, this paper interrogates the capacity development impact of TNE on the students, the Hong Kong Government and the programme providers. It addresses the questions: ‘What capacity is being developed in

  3. Language, Academic, Socio-Cultural and Financial Adjustments of Mainland Chinese Students Studying in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C. K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine language, academic, social-cultural and financial adjustments facing mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach: The current study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods and included over 300 mainland Chinese students from seven major universities in Hong Kong.…

  4. The Development of Local Private Primary and Secondary Schooling in Hong Kong, 1841-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Randall, E. Vance; Tam, Man Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is a historical review of the development of private primary and secondary education in Hong Kong from 1841-2012. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolving relationship between the state and private schools in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes sources from published official documents,…

  5. Transnational Higher Education for Capacity Development? An Analysis of British Degree Programmes in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Maggi W. H.; Waters, Johanna L.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon a project on British transnational education (TNE) programmes offered in Hong Kong, this paper interrogates the capacity development impact of TNE on the students, the Hong Kong Government and the programme providers. It addresses the questions: "What capacity is being developed in TNE operations?" and "For whom?"…

  6. Making Sense of Divergent Perceptions of Racial-Ethnic Discrimination in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Carol Wing Sze; Lam, Beatrice Oi-yeung; Teng, Yue; Lee, Moosung

    2015-01-01

    Behind a veneer of cosmopolitanism in Hong Kong, racial-ethnic discrimination is pervasively experienced by ethnic minorities such as South and South East Asians (hereafter referred to as South/South East Asians). It is the aim of this study to examine why Hong Kong Chinese and South/South East Asians express what seem to be divergent perceptions…

  7. The Quality of Hong Kong's Self-Financing Sub-Degree Education from an Economic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi Wai

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the quality of Hong Kong's sub-degree level education provided by the self-financing institutes in terms of its impact on the earnings of workers, based on Hong Kong's 2006 by-census data. Education is an investment in human capital that enhances the productivity of workers and increases their lifetime incomes; and a more…

  8. A Model of Active Ageing through Elder Learning: The Elder Academy Network in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the Elder Academy (EA) Network as the policy and practice in promoting active ageing through elder learning in Hong Kong. First, the article examines how the change in demographics and the prevalent trend of an ageing population have propelled the government in Hong Kong to tackle issues and challenges brought about by an…

  9. Dancing with Global Trends: Higher Education Policy and University Governance in Hong Kong, 1997-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Tang, Hei-Hang Hayes

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the significance of global trends in higher education (HE) development in Hong Kong between 1997 and 2012. Two trends, massification and internationalisation, are considered key driving forces that shaped Hong Kong's HE policy during the period. The former refers to government measures to widen participation in HE. The latter…

  10. The Pre-Primary Education Voucher Scheme of Hong Kong: A Promise of Quality Education Provision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Chanel Kit-Ho; Lam, Chi-Chung

    2008-01-01

    The issue of education vouchers has been widely researched as they are seen by many people as an effective strategy for improving the quality of education services. Striving to enhance the quality of the kindergarten education service in Hong Kong, the government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region has committed a substantial sum of…

  11. Analysing Complex Policy Change in Hong Kong: What Role for Critical Discourse Analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Annie Y. N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The Hong Kong government recently reformed pre-primary education with the introduction of a voucher scheme. At the time this policy caused considerable opposition from across Hong Kong Society. This paper seeks to use Fairclough's model of critical discourse analysis to explore a key policy text and seeks to assess to what extent such an…

  12. Managing Human Capital in World Cities: The Development of Hong Kong into an Education Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ada; Maclean, Rupert

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, the Hong Kong government has sought to build a regional education hub and develop an education industry. However, the rationales and intentions behind this move and the implications these have for the nurturing of local human capital and economic capacity are not always clear. This article seeks to contextualize Hong Kong's economic…

  13. Revisiting the Notion of Hong Kong as a Regional Education Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Yat Wai

    2015-01-01

    Hong Kong has tried to develop itself as a regional education hub for a decade. However, the policy is being criticized because Hong Kong has neither diversified its student population ethnically and culturally nor expanded its share in the global higher education market. This paper explores this context to examine the significance of the…

  14. Predictors of Suicide Ideation and Depression in Hong Kong Adolescents: Perceptions of Academic and Family Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Margaret T. Y.; Wong, Betty P.; Chow, Bonnie W.-Y.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The unique dimensions of perceptions of school and family contributing to depression and suicide ideation in Hong Kong adolescents were examined in two studies. In Study 1, among 327 Hong Kong Chinese female students ages 13-18, 47% reported some suicide ideation. Suicide ideation was significantly associated with depression, test anxiety,…

  15. Popularity and Acceptance as Distinct Dimensions of Social Standing for Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David; Tom, Shelley R.; Chang, Lei; Xu, Yiyuan; Duong, Mylien T.; Kelly, Brynn M.

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to validate distinctions between popularity and social acceptance in the cultural context of Hong Kong. We recruited 280 Chinese children (132 girls, 148 boys, mean age = 9.5) from Hong Kong primary schools. These children completed a peer nomination inventory assessing popularity, social acceptance, social rejection,…

  16. Workplace Communication in a Time of Transition: The Case of Hong Kong's Construction Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Examines language in the workplace, specifically the construction industry in Hong Kong. Provides detailed information on language use in a professional context at the time of Hong Kong's return to China and shows that written communication is mainly in English, while spoken language is predominately Cantonese. (Author/VWL)

  17. The Decision to Send Local Children to International Schools in Hong Kong: Local Parents' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Vinci

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that investigates why some local Hong Kong parents decide to give up local education and send their children to international schools in Hong Kong. Data were gathered from 25 parents across eight selected school sites grouped as four cases based on the continental origins of those…

  18. The Challenges for Educational Achievements of Young Mainland Chinese Migrants in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu-Cheung

    2011-01-01

    Hong Kong's population has increased by around one million per decade from the end of World War II till the 1990s. A large proportion of this growth came from the mass influx of migrants from Mainland China, and the children born to them. During the 1960s and 1970s when Hong Kong's economy was booming rapidly, career advancement opportunities were…

  19. School Adjustment, Social Support, and Mental Health of Mainland Chinese College Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Raymond Chi-Fai; Chan, Chi-Keung

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of school adjustment and social support with the mental health of mainland Chinese college students studying in Hong Kong. During the spring semester in 2011, 384 mainland Chinese college students across the postsecondary institutions in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire. Results showed that better school…

  20. The (Un)Changing Role of Mandarin Chinese in Language Education in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cheung-Shing Samuel; Yuen-Fan, Lomita Wong

    1996-01-01

    Explains how the education system in Hong Kong has helped to shape Hong Kong's past diglossia and how the country is preparing to face the changes inherent in the new political context in which Putonghua will be another element. Reports on the status and use of Cantonese and Putonghua (the national language of the People's Republic of China). (33…

  1. Voices of Donors: Case Reports of Body Donation in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hei Yeung; Ng, Kwok Sing; Ma, Sin Kwan; Chan, Chi Hung; Ng, Sheung Wah; Tipoe, George L.; Chan, Lap Ki

    2012-01-01

    Body donation is important for medical education and academic research. However, it is relatively rare in Hong Kong when compared with many Western countries. Comprehensive research has been performed on the motivation for body donation in Western countries; however, there is still insufficient research on body donation in Hong Kong to provide…

  2. Emotional Autonomy and Perceived Parenting Styles: Relational Analysis in the Hong Kong Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok Wai; Chan, Siu Mui

    2009-01-01

    Three hundred and seven teacher education students of a Hong Kong university were administered two questionnaires, one measuring emotional autonomy (EAS) and the other measuring perceived parenting styles (PAQ) of their parents. It was found that the Hong Kong teacher education students tended to be autonomous and they characterized their parents…

  3. Prevalence of Insomnia and Its Psychosocial Correlates among College Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, C. Y.; Wong, W. S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the prevalence of insomnia and its psychosocial correlates among college students in Hong Kong. Participants: A total of 529 Hong Kong college students participated in the study. Methods: Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Revised Life…

  4. Western Perceptions of Hong Kong Ten Years on: A Corpus-Driven Critical Discourse Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winnie; Lam, Phoenix W. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the Western perceptions of and relations with Hong Kong a decade after the reversion of the sovereignty from Britain to China in 1997. Previous studies have demonstrated that the West had a significantly negative view on the future of Hong Kong with respect to the handover. According to recent observations, however, the…

  5. Letter from Hong Kong: A Report on Chinese Food, Fake Apples, and IBM's Asian Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, A. Richard

    1984-01-01

    Notes that microcomputer use in Hong Kong's small business community does not reflect the growth of its high-tech electronics industry and discusses IBM's influence in Hong Kong and Asia, the counterfeiting of Apple microcomputers and software, and why Apple currently has no recourse. (MBR)

  6. A Pilot Study of Using Jazz Warm Up Exercises in Primary School Choir in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jason Chi Wai; Lee, Han Wai

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study is to examine whether it is valuable to implement jazz choral practice in Hong Kong primary school setting. The findings can serve as a reference to explore the possibilities of promoting jazz education in Asian countries or in China. The participants were 70 public primary school students from grade 2 to 5 in Hong Kong. All…

  7. Ideology, Linguistic Capital and the Medium of Instruction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Keith; Lui, Icy

    2000-01-01

    Examines the links between linguistic capital, cultural capital, linguistic imperialism, and the use of English as the medium of instruction (MOI) in Hong Kong. Suggests that the notion of linguistic imperialism in Hong Kong is superceded by the notion of linguistic capital, although neither presents a complete analysis of the MOI issue in Hong…

  8. Implementing the Project Approach: A Case Study of Hybrid Pedagogy in a Hong Kong Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer J.; Li, Hui; Wang, Jing-ying

    2017-01-01

    The Project Approach has been promoted in Hong Kong kindergartens since the 1990s. However, the dynamic processes and underlying mechanisms involved in the teachers' implementation of this pedagogical method there have not yet been fully investigated. This case study of one typical kindergarten in Hong Kong documented how and why eight teachers…

  9. Acculturation Attitudes and Sociocultural Adaptation of Chinese Mainland Sojourners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanyi; Wang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Within these years, there has been a significant increase in the number of Chinese Mainland sojourners studying in Hong Kong. Due to the huge differences in various aspects like language, culture, cultural value, it would be considerably difficult for the Chinese Mainland students to adapt to the Hong Kong environment. This article investigates…

  10. Dealing with Change in Hong Kong Schools Using Strategic Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung; Pisapia, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation into the strategic thinking skills of school leaders in Hong Kong. By adapting the Strategic Thinking Questionnaire in the school context and based on data self-reported from 543 Hong Kong school leaders, three cognitive capabilities with strategic thinking were identified: reflection, systems thinking and…

  11. Parental Account of Support for Specific Learning Difficulties in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong; McBrayer, Philip Allen

    2013-01-01

    Parents play a significant role in the education of children with special needs. Recent national policies have aimed to improve support for students with specific learning difficulties and their families in Hong Kong. Literature on the experiences of children with specific learning difficulties in Hong Kong is scarce. This study, by Kim Fong…

  12. The Education of New Chinese Immigrant Children in Hong Kong: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Ting, Cynthia Law Man

    2011-01-01

    In describing the current status of the education of new Chinese immigrant children (NCIC) in Hong Kong and to provide data useful for designing new policies, this article highlights the region's rise of new Chinese immigrants and the characteristics of the NCIC. Challenges to improve access to and equity in education in Hong Kong, overall quality…

  13. Chinese Children with ASD in Hong Kong (SAR): Development of Inclusive Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brenda; Forlin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The advancement of inclusive educational provision in the Asia-Pacific region has been guided by international research. As one example, Hong Kong has developed a unique and cultural response to inclusive practice within the region. This paper reviews Hong Kong's development of inclusive education practice for children with autism spectrum…

  14. Exploraton of the aging phenomenon in Hong Kong from a leisure perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam Hung; John L. Crompton

    2007-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of a sample of Hong Kong's elderly on aging and life satisfaction, and suggests implications for leisure service delivery. Interviews were conducted with 25 elderly in Tsuen Wan District in Hong Kong. The study found that some of the propositions which have been developed in western countries to explain aging appear to be...

  15. Developing a Rasch Measurement Physical Fitness Scale for Hong Kong Primary School-Aged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi; Bond, Trevor G.

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop a Rasch Measurement Physical Fitness Scale (RMPFS) based on physical fitness indicators routinely used in Hong Kong primary schools. A total of 9,439 records of students' performances on physical fitness indicators, retrieved from the database of a Hong Kong primary school, were used to develop the…

  16. Flânerie and Acrophilia in the Postmetropolis: Rooftops in Hong Kong Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Y.F.; de Kloet, J.

    2014-01-01

    Living in the spectacle of Hong Kong's skyscape, how often do its dwellers actually see, not to mention reach, its rooftops? Intriguingly, despite their apparent ephemerality and inaccessibility, the vertical fringes of the city feature frequently in Hong Kong cinema: the rooftop. In this article,

  17. Indicators and Implications of Zero Tolerance of Corruption: The Case of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Wang, Shiru

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding the voluminous studies of Hong Kong's anticorruption experience and the admiration the ICAC has earned from other governments as a model for "institutional engineering," little is known about how the public in Hong Kong has perceived and responded to corruption. Less clear is what factors beyond a powerful and independent…

  18. Higher Education in Hong Kong--The Approach to 1997 and the China Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Joseph Y. S.

    1995-01-01

    A discussion of higher education in Hong Kong looks at the current economic context, government and public support, rapid expansion and its effect on academic and faculty hiring standards, and issues related to Hong Kong's change in political status in 1997, including emigration patterns, faculty morale, and finance and censorship concerns.…

  19. The Financial Centres of Shanghai and Hong Kong: Competition or Complementarity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Karreman (Bas); G.A. van der Knaap (Bert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe contemporary rise of China in the new geo-economy is increasingly pressurising the spatial distribution of financial activity in mainland China and Hong Kong. With the re-emergence of Shanghai, many people foresee the furture demise of Hong Kong as the most important financial centre

  20. Strategies for Financing Higher Education: Perspectives from Hong Kong and Macau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Despite Hong Kong and Macau's cultural, economic, and political similarities, their higher education systems differ. Hong Kong has a well-established system and tradition of government control. Macau's system is smaller, younger, and began as a private enterprise. Trends in government financing, policies, and student loans are bringing the systems…

  1. Opening up a Road to Somewhere: Development of Associate Degree Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wincy W. S.

    2014-01-01

    Associate (community college) degrees have expanded rapidly in the past decade in Hong Kong, but their value has been questioned due to the limited number of government-funded articulation opportunities available. This paper argues that associate degrees in Hong Kong are not valued solely for articulation purposes, but also for nurturing students'…

  2. Earth Sciences as a Vehicle for Gifted Education--The Hong Kong Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Phillip J.; Chan, Lung Sang; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The development and delivery of an Earth-science-focused short course designed to prepare Hong Kong students for university level study is described. Earth sciences provide an inspirational and challenging context for learning and teaching in Hong Kong's increasingly skills-based curriculum. (Contains 3 figures and 4 online resources.)

  3. Vietnam and Britain agree to forced return of Vietnamese boat people in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-31

    On 29 October 1991, the Governments of the United Kingdom and Viet Nam reached an Agreement on the return of certain categories of Vietnamese "boat people," i.e., persons who fled from Viet Nam to Hong Kong. Under the Agreement, Vietnamese who arrive in Hong Kong after the date of the Agreement and who do not qualify for refugee status will be returned first. The determination of such status is to occur within six weeks of their arrival. Later, Vietnamese in Hong Kong who have already failed to qualify for refugee status will be returned. The Agreement follows an Agreement earlier in October to return Vietnamese arriving in Hong Kong who are known as "double backers," i.e., persons who had previously voluntarily been repatriated to Viet Nam only to return to Hong Kong.

  4. The stroller in the virtual city: Spatial practice of Hong Kong players in Sleeping Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping Dogs is an open-world role-playing game developed by United Front Games, a Canadian Studio based in Vancouver, in conjunction with Square Enix London Studios and released by Square Enix in 2012. The game features the city of Hong Kong and the society of Chinese Triads. While the game itself is mainly a representation of post-colonial Hong Kong targeting a transnational audience entrenched in similar gameplay mechanics of the genre, the native Hong Kong players react to these reconstructions of Hong Kong through their own gameplay and unique interpretations. The virtual city is not a static representation but a congruence of vigorous interactions between the originally designed space and gamic actions of the players. This paper seeks to explore the spatial and bodily practices of Sleeping Dogs players in the virtual terrain of Hong Kong through the lens of Lefebvre’s spatial theory.

  5. Post-Umbrella Movement: Localism and Radicalness of the Hong Kong Student Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-po Chan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong student movements before the Umbrella Movement showed a political outlook of voicing within norm of the establishment, using “peaceful, rational and non-violent” approaches, acknowledging the authorities of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR and mainland Chinese governments and recognizing attachment to the motherland China. Today’s new emerging political outlook of the Hong Kong student movement has a profile of anti-establishment, using more assertive means and not excluding radical behaviour, distrust of the HKSAR and mainland authorities and assertion of radical localism. In the last two years, Hong Kong students have undergone a rapid change in their orientation, resulting in today’s outlook. This paper argues that the Umbrella Movement is the key for the turnaround and it testifies to the birth of a new social and political consciousness amongst Hong Kong students.

  6. Economic and socio-cultural impacts of Mainland Chinese tourists on Hong Kong residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisa Piuchan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the economic and socio-cultural impacts from the burgeoning mainland Chinese tourists on Hong Kong residents. Ten individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect Hong Kong residents' views. Content analysis was employed to analyze the data. The results showed that the socio-cultural aspects were reported negatively with regard to culture, shopping and dining, and transportation but conversely, it had a positive impact on education and infrastructure. The economic aspect showed that residents accepted and appreciated the economic benefits brought by the inflow of mainland Chinese tourists. The Hong Kong government should consider these impacts, and then provide better solutions for residents' lives and plans to cope with the upcoming scenario which might arise regarding Hong Kong's economic boom and more tourists traveling to Hong Kong. Recommendations are also suggested in this study for further development. Keywords: Chinese tourists, economic impacts, socio-cultural impacts, tourism impacts

  7. Workplace violence towards nurses in Hong Kong: prevalence and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses are especially vulnerable to violent and other forms of aggression in the workplace. Nonetheless, few population-based studies of workplace violence have been undertaken among working-age nurse professionals in Hong Kong in the last decade. Methods The study estimates the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of workplace violence (WPV among professional nurses in Hong Kong. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Multivariate logistic regression examines the weighted prevalence rates of WPV and its associated factors for a population of nurses. Results A total of 850 nurses participated in the study. 44.6% had experienced WPV in the preceding year. Male nurses reported more WPV than their female counterparts. The most common forms of WPV were verbal abuse/bullying (39.2%, then physical assault (22.7% and sexual harassment (1.1%. The most common perpetrators of WPV were patients (36.6% and their relatives (17.5%, followed by colleagues (7.7% and supervisors (6.3%. Clinical position, shift work, job satisfaction, recent disturbances with colleagues, deliberate self-harm (DSH and symptoms of anxiety were significantly correlated with WPV for nurses. Conclusions WPV remains a significant concern for healthcare worldwide. Hong Kong’s local health authority should put in place a raft of zero-tolerance measures to prevent WPV in healthcare settings.

  8. Relationship between Vision and Visual Perception in Hong Kong Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wing-Cheung; Tang, Minny Mei-Miu; Fu, Ching-Wah; Leung, Ka-Yan; Pang, Peter Chi-Kong; Cheong, Allen Ming-Yan

    2015-05-01

    Although superior performance in visual motor and visual perceptual skills of preschool children has been documented in the Chinese population, a normative database is only available for the US population. This study aimed to determine the normative values for these visuomotor and visual perceptual tests for preschool children in the Hong Kong Chinese population and to investigate the effect of fundamental visual functions on visuomotor and visual perceptual skills. One hundred seventy-four children from six different kindergartens in Hong Kong were recruited. Distance visual acuity, near visual acuity, and stereopsis were tested, along with two measures of visual perception (VP): Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) and Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (TVPS). Raw VMI and TVPS scores were converted into standard/scaled scores. The impact of basic visual functions on VP (VMI and TVPS) was examined using multiple regression. Visual functions were generally good: only 9.2 and 4.6% of subjects had unilateral and bilateral reduced habitual vision, respectively (distance visual acuity in the better eye >0.3 logMAR [logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution]). Performance in the VMI and in the visual memory and spatial relationships subtests of the TVPS exceeded that reported for age-matched children from the United States. Multiple regression analysis provided evidence that age had the strongest predictive value for the VMI and VP skills. In addition, near visual acuity was weakly associated with performance in the VMI and the visual discrimination and spatial relationships subtests of the TVPS, accounting for a limited proportion of the intersubject variability (R memory/spatial relationships of TVPS subtests, perhaps attributed to greater exposure to such material during their preschool home education. This study provided normality data for VMI and four subtests of the TVPS for Hong Kong Chinese preschool children as a reference for future studies.

  9. Molar incisor hypomineralization in Hong Kong Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Shiu-Yin; Ki, Yung; Chu, Vanessa

    2008-09-01

    Most prevalence studies on molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) were carried out in European countries, and data from the East-Asian populations were lacking. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of MIH in Hong Kong Chinese children. Since 2006, charting of teeth with MIH was included into the routine dental examination in a school dental clinic. The dental records of grade 6 primary school children who attended annual check-up in this clinic in 2006 were subsequently reviewed retrospectively. The records were selected for this study if the charting indicated that the children were affected by MIH. A total of 2635 records were reviewed and 73 cases of MIH were identified. The prevalence of MIH in this group of children was 2.8%. Their mean age was 12, and the male-to-female ratio was 1 : 1.2. The mean decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth value of those affected was 1.5, which was higher than that of the general Hong Kong Chinese children aged 12 years old (0.8). A total of 192 teeth were affected. The most commonly affected teeth were permanent maxillary first molars, followed by mandibular first molars and maxillary central incisors. Dental fillings and fissure sealants were found in 52 (38%) and 65 (47%) permanent first molars with hypomineralization, respectively. Medical histories were unremarkable in 60 children, whereas early childhood diseases were reported in 13 cases. The prevalence of MIH in the permanent dentition of Hong Kong Chinese children was 2.8%. Children with MIH showed higher caries experience in the permanent dentition than the general population of similar age.

  10. Occupational stress and burnout among Hong Kong dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, H B; Wong, M Cm

    2017-10-01

    Professional burnout has been described as a gradual erosion of a person and may be one of the possible consequences of chronic occupational stress. Although occupational stress has been surveyed among dentists in Hong Kong, no study has been published about burnout in the profession. This study aimed to evaluate burnout among Hong Kong dentists and its association with occupational stress. We surveyed a random sample of 1086 registered dentists in Hong Kong, which formed 50% of the local profession. They were mailed an anonymous questionnaire about burnout and occupational stress in 2015. The questionnaire assessed occupational stress, coping strategies, effects of stress, level of burnout, and socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. Occupational stress assessment concerned 33 stressors in five groups: patient-related, time-related, income-related, job-related, and staff-/technically related. Level of burnout was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (22 items) with three scores: emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and personal accomplishment. Completed questionnaires were received from 301 dentists (response rate, 28.3%), of whom 25.4% had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 17.2% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 39.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Only 7.0% of respondents, however, had a high level of overall burnout (high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalisation, and low personal accomplishment). A high level of overall burnout was significantly associated with a higher mean score for job-related stressors and lack of postgraduate qualifications (Pburnout. There was a positive association between occupational stress and level of burnout.

  11. Dental health behaviours among early adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, K K; Day, J R

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and socioeconomic differences in dental health behaviours among Hong Kong early adolescents.  A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4927 students (44.7% boys) aged 14-15 from 36 secondary schools in 2000-2001. Students reported their socioeconomic information and dental health behaviours using the Health Related Behaviour General Questionnaire (HRBGQ). Logistic regression models were used to determine the adjusted odds ratios of regular tooth brushing (at least twice daily), weekly use of dental floss (in the past 7days) and annual dental visit (in the past 12months) for different socioeconomic characteristics. Of the subjects, 77.8% reported to have brushed regularly, but only 22.3% used dental floss weekly and 37.9% had annual dental visit. Male gender and Chinese ethnicity were significantly associated with lower odds of regular brushing, use of dental floss and annual dental visit. Two or more siblings and not living with both parents were also significantly associated with lower odds of regular brushing and annual dental visit. Furthermore, students living in non-private housing were significantly less likely to have annual dental visit than those in private housing. Regular brushing was common, but not use of dental floss and annual dental visits among Hong Kong early adolescents. In general, socioeconomic disparity in dental health behaviours was observed. Extending the existing government-run dental health programmes to secondary school students in Hong Kong is warranted. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Health Profile of Construction Workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert

    2016-12-13

    Construction is a manual, heavy, and complex sector concerning the most fatal accidents and high incidence of occupational illnesses and injuries resulting in days away from work. In Hong Kong, "Pilot Medical Examination Scheme for Construction Workers" was launched in 2014 to detect the health problems of their construction workforce. All registered workers under the Construction Workers Registration Board are eligible to join the scheme. The purpose of this paper is to assess the physical condition, physiological status, and musculoskeletal disorders of 942 construction workers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a two-phase design, which includes a basic medical examination to measure the workers' physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, resting heart rate, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, liver function test, and renal function test; as well as a face-to-face interview following the medical examination to collect their demographic information and pain experience. Individual characteristics, including gender, age, obesity, alcohol drinking habit, and sleeping habit influenced the health condition of construction workers. Among the participants, 36.1% and 6.5% of them were overweight and obese, respectively. In addition, 43.0%, 38.4%, 16.2%, and 13.9% of the participants exceeded the thresholds of cholesterol, blood pressure, urea nitrogen, and uric urea, correspondingly. Moreover, 41.0% of the participants suffered musculoskeletal pain, where the most frequent painful parts occur in the lower back, shoulder, knees, leg, and neck. Through these findings, a series of important issues that need to be addressed is pointed out in terms of maintaining the physical well-being and reducing musculoskeletal disorders of construction workers. The finding may have implications for formulating proper intervention strategies for the sustainable development of Hong Kong's construction industry.

  13. Carbonaceous characteristics of atmospheric particulate matter in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K F; Lee, S C; Yu, Jimmy C; Zou, S C; Fung, Kochy

    2002-12-02

    To determine the characteristic of carbonaceous species in atmospheric particles in Hong Kong, PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected using high volume (hi-vol.) air samplers from November 2000 to February 2001. The organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were analyzed by the selective thermal manganese dioxide oxidation (TMO) method. The ratios of PM2.5/PM10 mass ratios were 0.61, 0.78 and 0.53 for particulate matter collected at PolyU station (PolyU, near a major traffic corridor), Kwun Tong station (KT, mixed residential/commercial/industrial) and the Hok Tsui background station (HT), respectively. These results indicate that the PM2.5 concentrations constitute the majority of the PM10) concentrations, especially in urban and industrial areas of Hong Kong. The average concentrations at the three sites ranged from 73.11 to 83.52 microg/m3 for PM10 and from 42.37 to 57.38 microg/m3 for PM2.5. The highest daily mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 125.89 microg/m3 and 116.89 microg/m3 at KT, respectively. The correlation between PM10 and PM2.5 was high at KT and HT (r > 0.9, P Hong Kong. OC/EC ratios for PM10 and PM2.5 were less than 2 at PolyU and KT stations while the ratio exceeded 3 at HT background station. This indicates that OC measured in the urban area may be emitted directly as a primary aerosol.

  14. Dose construction for vegetable ingestion exposure in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, W.S.; Walton, A.; Yeung, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The author presents the mathematical model TERRA used for the construction of ingestion doses resulting from the consumption of contaminated vegetables during a nuclear accident in Hong Kong. Using the ground surface deposited radionuclide densities as input, TERRA calculates the concentrations of 54 radionuclides on the surfaces and within the tissue of vegetables as a function of time and the radiation doses delivered to the various vital organs following their consumption by humans. The present model provides a convenient tool to determine the time histories of 54 radionuclides in vegetables and to back track or project the ingestion dose after a major accident such that more appropriate and timely countermeasures can be implemented

  15. Deflation and relative prices: Evidence from Japan and Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, Stefan; Kugler, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We test the menu cost model of Ball and Mankiw (1994, 1995), which implies that the impact of price dispersion on inflation should differ between inflation and deflation episodes, using data for Japan and Hong Kong. We use a random cross-section sample split when calculating the moments of the distribution of price changes to mitigate the small-cross-sectionsample bias noted by Cecchetti and Bryan (1999). The parameter on the third moment is positive and significant in both countries during b...

  16. A review of selected derived intervention levels for Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, S.L.; Tso, M.Y.W.; Leung, J.K.C.

    1993-01-01

    A review on the computation of derived intervention levels (DILs) for the internal pathways of exposure namely inhalation of plume and of resuspended radionuclides and ingestion of contaminated food and water is provided. The main parameters which depend on individual metabolism and habit (i.e., inhalation rate and food consumption pattern) of local population are revised. The DILs so calculated are very different from those based on parameters adopted by the Radiological Protection Advisory Group (RPAG) of the Hong Kong Government. Thus it is worthwhile to have an intensive review on the DILs based on more realistic local parameters. (6 tabs.)

  17. Occlusion therapy in amblyopia: an experience from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Emily W H; Li, Brian C Y; Yeung, Ian Y L; Li, Kenneth K W

    2014-02-01

    OBJECTIVES. To review the results of patching for amblyopia management in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Retrospective case series. SETTING. Regional hospital, Hong Kong. PATIENTS. Records of all patients attending Paediatric Ophthalmology Clinic at United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong from 1 January 2009 to 31 March 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Records of all children who underwent patching for amblyopia in the study period were evaluated. RESULTS. The mean age of 50 children (50 eyes) was 4 (standard deviation, 1; range, 2-7) years and mean pretreatment visual acuity was 0.35 (0.15; 0.02-0.63) [~20/60]. The values for mean, standard deviation, and range of treatment duration were 27, 16, 4-67 months respectively, and corresponding values for prescribed patching per day were 4, 1, 2-8 hours. The mean, standard deviation, and range of visual acuity at final post-treatment assessment were 0.66, 0.16, 0.1-1.0 (~20/30), respectively. The overall success rate (ie final visual acuity >0.7 or 20/30) was 62%. Children with moderate amblyopia (20/40-20/80) and severe amblyopia (20/100-20/400) had success rates of 74% and 55%, respectively. The mean visual acuity improvements for moderate and severely amblyopic children were 2.3 lines and 5.8 lines, respectively. The mean, standard deviation, and range of patching prescriptions for moderate and severely amblyopic children were 5, 1, 2-7 hours and 5, 1, 3-6 hours, respectively. Recurrence ensued in 7% of the children with moderate amblyopia and 46% of those with severe amblyopia. Reported compliance was good (>75% of the time) in 68% of the children. CONCLUSION. Occlusion therapy is the mainstay of treatment in Hong Kong. The overall success rate was comparable to that achieved in the Amblyopia Treatment Study. Recurrence was more common in patients with severe amblyopia, for whom maintenance therapy may reduce the risk of recurrence. The duration of treatment was much longer in our locality than in western countries. Reported

  18. A radiological accident consequence assessment system for Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.C.; Lam, H.K.

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of the Hong Kong Radiological Accident Consequence Assessment System which would be used to assess the potential consequences of an emergency situation involving atmospheric release of radioactive material. The system has the capability to acquire real-time meteorological information from the Observatory's network of automatic stations, synoptic stations in the nearby region as well as forecast data from numerical prediction models. The system makes use of these data to simulate the transport and dispersion of the released radioactive material. The effectiveness of protective action on the local population is also modeled. The system serves as a powerful aid in the protective action recommendation processes

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation in Hong Kong: A Review of Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The rising public health concern regarding traumatic brain injury (TBI implies a growing need for rehabilitation services for patients surviving TBI. Methods. To this end, this paper reviews the practices and research on TBI rehabilitation in Hong Kong so as to inform future developments in this area. This paper begins by introducing the general situation of TBI patients in Hong Kong and the need for rehabilitation. Next, the trauma system in Hong Kong is introduced. Following that is a detailed description of the rehabilitation services for TBI patients in Hong Kong, as exemplified by a rehabilitation hospital in Hong Kong. This paper will also review intervention studies on rehabilitating brain-injured populations in Hong Kong with respect to various rehabilitation goals. Lastly, the implications of culture-related issues will be discussed in relation to TBI. Results/Conclusions. The intervention studies conducted in Hong Kong are generally successful in achieving various rehabilitative outcomes. Additionally, certain cultural-related issues, such as the stigma associated with TBI, may impede the rehabilitative process and lead to various psychosocial problems.

  20. Oral health of Hong Kong children: a historical and epidemiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G Hm; Pang, H N; McGrath, C; Yiu, C Ky

    2016-08-01

    To provide a historical and epidemiological overview of the oral health of Hong Kong children. Literature published before 2014 related to the oral health of Hong Kong children, supplemented with information accessed from government-archived oral health reports, was sourced using electronic databases and hand searches. Dental caries experience, periodontal health, enamel defects, and malocclusion of Hong Kong children were reviewed. A decline in the prevalence and extent of dental caries was observed among Hong Kong schoolchildren and adolescents after the 1960s. Among preschool children, however, dental caries remains common and the extent appears to have increased. The periodontal health of Hong Kong children remains unsatisfactory. Recently, enamel defects/dental fluorosis have considerably reduced. Information about malocclusion in Hong Kong children is limited. Since the 1960s, following public health policies, health promotion activities, and the introduction of a School Dental Care Service, improvements in the oral health of schoolchildren are evident. Nonetheless, the oral health of preschool children remains a concern. Policies and practices to improve the oral health of preschool children in Hong Kong are required.

  1. An update of the Hong Kong Epilepsy Guideline: consensus statement on the use of antiepileptic drugs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, J Ky; Chan, E Ly; Leung, H; Chan, I; Chang, R Sk; Fong, G Cy; Fung, E Lw; Lui, C Ht; Fung, B Bh; Poon, T L; Siu, D; Wong, H T; Yeung, E; Yung, A Wy; Zhu, C Xl

    2017-02-01

    New information about antiepileptic drugs has arisen since the publication of the Hong Kong Epilepsy Guideline in 2009. This article set out to fill the knowledge gap between 2007 and 2016 on the use of antiepileptic drugs in Hong Kong. Between May 2014 and April 2016, four consensus meetings were held in Hong Kong, where a group comprising 15 professionals (neurologists, paediatricians, neurosurgeons, radiologists, and clinical psychologists) from both public and private sectors aimed to review the best available evidence and update all practising physicians on a range of clinical issues including drug-related matters. All participants were council members of The Hong Kong Epilepsy Society. A literature review of the clinical use of antiepileptic drugs as monotherapy suggested Level A evidence for levetiracetam and Level B evidence for lacosamide. No change in the level of evidence was found for oxcarbazepine (Level A evidence) or pregabalin (undesignated), and no evidence was found for perampanel. A literature review on the clinical use of antiepileptic drugs as adjunctive therapy suggested Level A evidence for both lacosamide and perampanel. No change to the level of evidence was found for levetiracetam (Level A evidence), oxcarbazepine (Level A evidence), or pregabalin (Level A evidence). A literature search on the use of generic antiepileptic drugs suggested Level A evidence for the use of lamotrigine in generic substitution. Three lead authors of the Subcommittee drafted the manuscript that consisted of two parts-part A: evidence on new antiepileptic drugs, and part B: generic drugs. The recommendations on monotherapy/adjunctive therapy were presented during the meetings. The pros and cons for our health care system of generic substitution were discussed. The recommendations represent the 'general consensus' of the participants in keeping with the evidence found in the literature. Recommendations for the use of levetiracetam, lacosamide, oxcarbazepine

  2. Perceptions of professional attributes in medicine: a qualitative study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Danny C; Hsu, Enoch K; Hui, Edwin C

    2012-08-01

    OBJECTIVE. Medical professionalism has been widely discussed in western scholarly literature. However, since Hong Kong has a mixed Chinese-western culture, it remains uncertain whether Hong Kong health care professionals, medical students, and patients see medical professionalism in exactly the same way as westerners. The objective of the present study was to explore perceptions of medical professionalism in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Individual semi-structured interviews. SETTING. Medical faculty preceptors, residents, interns, nurses, and students from the Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine of the University of Hong Kong. Subjects were recruited at an out-patient clinic of Queen Mary Hospital. PARTICIPANTS. We interviewed 39 subjects, including six medical faculty preceptors, six hospital residents, four medical interns, eight nurses, eight out-patients, and seven medical students. The interviews were transcribed and coded. Grounded theory was employed for framing and analysing the interviews. RESULTS. A total of 30 primary themes were identified and grouped under three secondary themes, ie 'Expectations of a professional doctor', 'Work values', and 'Patient care'. In general, the primary themes were consistent with recognised professional attributes in western bioethics, such as knowledge and skills, holistic care, and communication skills. A closer analysis suggested that traditional Chinese thought also played an important role in shaping the medical professionalism of Hong Kong. Challenges to be faced by Hong Kong doctors due to recent social changes were also identified. CONCLUSIONS. Medical professionalism in Hong Kong is shaped by both western medical ethics and traditional Chinese thought. The values treasured by Hong Kong health care professionals as well as technological advance, and the city's proximity to Mainland China makes Hong Kong health care unique. It is important to maintain the present work attitudes and at the same time adapt to new social changes.

  3. Association of Human Mortality with Air Pollution of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka-In Hoi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to investigate the general statistical association of air pollution with the cardiovascular and respiratory mortality of the elderly in Hong Kong. Based on six years of measurements including the major air pollutant concentrations (PM10, SO2, NO, NO2, O3, CO, ambient temperature, and mortality (respiratory, cardiovascular between 2005 and 2010, correlation analysis was carried out in annual, monthly and weekly time scales. From an annual perspective, it was found that the air pollution species may pose a constant effect on the respiratory and the cardiovascular mortality during the studied period since the elderly mortality rates and the air pollution annual concentrations show obvious constant trends. From a monthly time scale, it was found that NO2 and CO have high positive cross correlation with the respiratory mortality of the following 1 to 2 months. In addition, PM10 and CO also have similar delayed influence on the cardiovascular mortality. Among these four pollutants, only CO was found to exhibit high statistical association in the weekly time scale and it is most related to the cardiovascular mortality of the week after next. Therefore, it was concluded that the effect of air pollution on the elderly mortality of Hong Kong should be cumulative. This study implies that the establishment of weekly or monthly air quality indices is necessary for health implications.

  4. Internet Addiction Phenomenon in Early Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the prevalence and demographic correlates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents as well as the change in related behavior at two time points over a one-year interval. Two waves of data were collected from a large sample of students (Wave 1: 3,328 students, age =12.59±0.74 years; Wave 2: 3,580 students, age =13.50±0.75 years at 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Comparable to findings at Wave 1 (26.4%, 26.7% of the participants met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 2 as measured by Young’s 10-item Internet Addiction Test. The behavioral pattern of Internet addiction was basically stable over time. While the predictive effects of demographic variables including age, gender, family economic status, and immigration status were not significant, Internet addictive behaviors at Wave 1 significantly predicted similar behaviors at Wave 2. Students who met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 1 were 7.55 times more likely than other students to be classified as Internet addicts at Wave 2. These results suggest that early detection and intervention for Internet addiction should be carried out.

  5. Patch testing of 490 patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T Y; Lam, T H

    1996-07-01

    Patch testing, using European standard allergens and suspected causative substances brought in by patients, was carried out in 490 patients with eczema in Hong Kong and 437 completed the test. Before patch testing, 244, 141 and 105 patients were diagnosed as having contact dermatitis, endogenous eczema and unclassified eczema, respectively. After patch testing, the diagnosis of the causal agent was changed in 54 contact dermatitis patients, and 18% of endogenous eczema patients and 34% of unclassified eczema patients were re-diagnosed as contact dermatitis. In the patients with a final diagnosis of contact dermatitis, 19.5% were positive to fragrance mix, followed by nickel sulfate (16.4%) and cobalt chloride (11.3%). The commonest causative agents for contact dermatitis were soap or detergent (22.0%) and traditional Chinese medicine (17.3%); the latter was a more common cause of contact dermatitis than Western medicine (9.0%) or metals (13.4%). The prevalence of allergic reaction to fragrance in Hong Kong was higher than among Chinese in Beijing, Shanghai, Taipei or Singapore (78% ethnic Chinese). Dermatologists should have a high index of suspicion about traditional medications and should patch test with the suspected substance when patients give a history of use.

  6. Epidemiology of occupational hand injury in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Cheung, Jason P Y; Fung, Boris K K; Ip, W Y

    2012-04-01

    To study the epidemiology of occupational hand injuries and associated social and industrial factors. DESIGN. For this retrospective case series of patients with occupational hand injuries, case records were retrieved to gather data. In addition, all the subjects were interviewed by a single interviewer using a predesigned questionnaire. Division of Hand Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. A total of 250 patients with occupational hand injuries were treated during the period from 1999 to 2001. This period was chosen to obtain 10 years of follow-up data to assess return to work and any secondary injuries. Personal particulars (gender, age, marital status, education level, length of stay in Hong Kong, type of employment, wage system, personal habits, family size, number of breadwinners, income), type of industry and mode of injury, causes of injury according to the worker, work conditions, type of injury, and treatment given. Two groups of workers in our study had more occupational hand injuries, namely those with less than 1 year of experience on a new job and immigrants from China. Factors associated with a large proportion of occupational hand injuries were male gender with personal risk factors (smoking and regular consumption of alcohol, long working hours), and in the case of machine operators, inadequate training and use of safety devices. Occupational hand injuries lead to loss of working hours and compensation. For prevention, the workplace should be made into a safer and work-friendly environment. Workers should also have sufficient training.

  7. Impact Evaluation of Low Flow Showerheads for Hong Kong Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-tim Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The voluntary Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme (WELS on showers for bathing in Hong Kong is a water conservation initiative of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR Government. As shower water consumption has been identified as a potential area for carbon emissions reductions, this study examines, from a five-month measurement survey of the showering practices of 37 local residents, a range of showerheads with resistance factors k = 0.54–4.05 kPa·min2·L−2 with showering attributes including hot shower temperature, temperature difference between hot and cold water supply, flow rate and water consumption and shower duration. A Monte Carlo model is proposed for evaluating the water consumption and carbon-reducing impacts of WELS on showers for bathing at confidence intervals with input parameters determined from the measurement survey. The simulation results indicate that full implementation of WELS rated showerheads with k ≥ 4.02 can reduce water consumption by 37%, energy use by 25% and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions by 26%. This study is also a useful source of reference for policymakers and practitioners to evaluate the impacts of water efficient showerheads on water consumption, energy use, and CO2 emissions.

  8. Contextual barriers to lifestyle physical activity interventions in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves, Frank F; Masters, Rich S W; McManus, Alison; Leung, Moon; Wong, Peggy; White, Mike J

    2008-05-01

    Increased lifestyle physical activity, for instance, use of active transport, is a current public health target. Active transport interventions that target stair climbing are consistently successful in English-speaking populations yet unsuccessful in Hong Kong. We report two further studies on active transport in the Hong Kong Chinese. Pedestrians on a mass transit escalator system (study 1) and in an air-conditioned shopping mall (study 2) were encouraged to take the stairs for their cardiovascular health by point-of-choice prompts. Observers coded sex, age, and walking on the mass transit system, with the additional variables of presence of children and bags coded in the shopping mall. In the first study, a 1-wk baseline was followed by 4 wk of intervention (N = 76,710) whereas in the second study (shopping mall) a 2-wk baseline was followed by a 2-wk intervention period (N = 18,257). A small but significant increase in stair climbing (+0.29%) on the mass transit system contrasted with no significant changes in the shopping mall (+0.09%). The active transport of walking on the mass transit system was reduced at higher rates of humidity and temperature, with steeper slopes for the effects of climate variables in men than in women. These studies confirm that lifestyle physical activity interventions do not have universal application. The context in which the behavior occurs (e.g., climate) may act as a barrier to active transport.

  9. Psychological correlates of physical abuse in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Chan, Kam Kuen; Lam, Peggo K W; Choi, Philemon Y W; Lai, Kelly Y C

    2003-01-01

    To understand the associations between adolescent family physical maltreatment and psychiatric morbidity or psychological problems. questionnaire survey on 489 secondary school students in Form 2 from 10 schools in Hong Kong. Questions regarding three forms of family physical maltreatment were measured: corporal punishment within the past 6 months, beaten without any reason within the past 6 months, or ever been beaten to injury. Corporal punishment was not associated with the psychological variables after Bonferroni adjustment was made. Those who experienced the two other forms of physical maltreatment had significant and strong associations with positive Achenbach CBCL outcome (OR from 3.26 to 3.27), drug abuse problems (OR from 2.60 to 20.38), self-injurious behaviors (OR from 3.34 to 8.47) and poor perceived parental support. In addition, those who had ever been beaten to injury scored significantly lower in the "physical appearance" and "behavioral conduct" subscales of the Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. In Hong Kong, some forms of family physical maltreatment (beaten for no reason and beaten to injury) were associated with a number of psychiatric/psychological problems. Further studies should be carried out to clarify whether the relationships are causal in nature. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  10. Prevalence of workplace violence against nurses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R P W; Law, Y K; Li, K E; Ng, Y C; Cheung, M H; Fung, V K P; Kwok, K T T; Tong, J M K; Yen, P F; Leung, W C

    2006-02-01

    To determine the prevalence and nature of workplace violence against nurses, and how nurses deal with such aggression; and to identify the risk factors related to violence in the hospital environment. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. University teaching hospital, Hong Kong. All nursing staff in the hospital, except nurses who were unable to read Chinese or who did not have patient contact (eg those worked in administrative positions), were invited to complete a questionnaire. Demographic data of the respondents, incidence of and risk factors contributing to workplace violence. A total of 420 nurses returned the completed questionnaire (response rate, 25%). Three hundred and twenty (76%; 95% confidence interval, 72-80%) nurses reported abuse of any kind--verbal abuse, 73%; bullying, 45%; physical abuse, 18%; and sexual harassment, 12%. Most (82%) nurses who experienced verbal abuse tended to confide in friends, family members, or colleagues. Some (42%) ignored the incident. Risk factors for workplace violence included: working in male wards and in certain specialties such as the Accident and Emergency Department, Community Nursing Service, and the Orthopaedics and Traumatology Department. Workplace violence against nurses is a significant problem in Hong Kong. Further large-scale studies should be conducted to more closely examine the problem.

  11. Interaction patterns of major air pollutants in Hong Kong territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.Z.; Wang, X.K.

    2004-01-01

    Air pollution in a metropolitan city like Hong Kong is a major obstacle to improve air quality and living environment due to the high population density and the vehicle emission increases. The high air pollutant levels impose harm to the human health and impair the city image. The characteristic analysis of air pollutants is very important and necessary to pollutant monitoring, forecasting and controlling. In this study, the interaction patterns of principle air pollutants, e.g. nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxides (NO x ) and ozone (O 3 ), a secondary pollutant, are investigated based on the measured database in four selected areas, which covers two urban types (i.e. residential area, mixed residential/commercial/industrial area) in Hong Kong, during the period of 1999-2001. The study involves analyzing the chemical and physical properties, the characteristics of air pollutants and the factors affecting such interactions using statistical method. The results reveal several routines in urban air pollutants' variations, interaction and trends from macro aspect

  12. Hong Kong architecture 1945-2015 from colonial to global

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Charlie Q L

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the transformation from colonial to global – the formation, mechanism, events, works and people related to urban architecture. The book reveals hardships the city encountered in the 1950s and the glamour enjoyed in the 1980s. It depicts the public and private developments, and especially the public housing which has sheltered millions of residents. The author identifies the architects practising in the formative years and the representatives of a rising generation after the 1980s. Suffering from land shortage and a dense environment, the urban development of Hong Kong has in the past 70 years met the changing demands of fluctuating economic activities and a rising population. Architecture on the island has been shaped by social demands, the economy and technology. The buildings have been forged by the government, clients, planners, architects, many contractors and end-users. The built environment nurtures our life and is visual evidence of the way the city has developed. Hong Kong is a ...

  13. Internet Addiction Phenomenon in Early Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and demographic correlates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents as well as the change in related behavior at two time points over a one-year interval. Two waves of data were collected from a large sample of students (Wave 1: 3,328 students, age = 12.59 ± 0.74 years; Wave 2: 3,580 students, age = 13.50 ± 0.75 years) at 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Comparable to findings at Wave 1 (26.4%), 26.7% of the participants met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 2 as measured by Young's 10-item Internet Addiction Test. The behavioral pattern of Internet addiction was basically stable over time. While the predictive effects of demographic variables including age, gender, family economic status, and immigration status were not significant, Internet addictive behaviors at Wave 1 significantly predicted similar behaviors at Wave 2. Students who met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 1 were 7.55 times more likely than other students to be classified as Internet addicts at Wave 2. These results suggest that early detection and intervention for Internet addiction should be carried out. PMID:22778694

  14. Vicissitudes in the Hong Kong oil market, 1980-97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.-H.

    2000-01-01

    Hong Kong, devoid of natural resources, has to import all the energy it consumes. Up to 1981, oil accounted for almost 100 per cent of the total primary energy requirement, of which about 59 per cent was used to generate electricity. Starting in 1982, the electricity sector switched to coal generation, leading to plummeting oil consumption. The conversion process was essentially completed by 1988. Local sales of oil products declined from 5.790 million kilolitres in 1981 to 3.470m kl in 1987, but climbed back to 5.157m kl in 1997; oil consumption stagnated between 1981 and 1997. This paper analyses the fluctuations in oil consumption during the period, covering use by the utility and non-utility sectors. Next, it deals with consumption of, and the factors involved in, the six major oil products, i.e. fuel oil, diesel, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, kerosene and jet fuel. Interestingly, bunker sales, including air and sea transport, rose noticeably during these years, partly offsetting the effect of slumping oil sales to the power plants and helping boost total oil demand in the 1990s. Lastly, a glimpse into the future of the Hong Kong oil market is taken. (author)

  15. Adolescent Internet Addiction in Hong Kong: Prevalence, Change, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2016-02-01

    Prevalence, change, and correlates of adolescent Internet addiction were examined in this study on the basis of six waves of longitudinal data collected over 6 years. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Over 6 years, students responded to a questionnaire containing measures of sociodemographic characteristics, positive youth development, family processes, and Internet addiction behavior. The prevalence rates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents ranged from 17% to 26.8% during the high school years. Male students consistently showed a higher prevalence rate of Internet addiction and more Internet addictive behaviors than did female students. Longitudinal data suggested that although family economic disadvantage served as a risk factor for youth Internet addiction, the effects of family intactness and family functioning were not significant. Students' overall positive youth development and general positive youth development qualities were negatively related to Internet addictive behaviors and prosocial attributes had a positive relationship with youth Internet addiction. The results suggest that promotion of positive youth development is a promising direction for preventing Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. Gender and family economic disadvantage must be considered in design of the related prevention programs. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Angelman syndrome in Hong Kong Chinese: A 20 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, H M; Lo, Ivan F M

    2016-06-01

    AS(OMIM #105830) is a neurodevelopmental disease that characterized by severe intellectual disability, lack of speech, happy disposition, ataxia, epilepsy and distinct behavioural profile. A tertiary wide study was performed in Hong Kong with aim to examine the clinical and molecular features, genotype-phenotype correlation of the Angelman syndrome (AS) patients. There were total 55 molecularly confirmed AS between January 1995 to September 2015 for review. 65.5% of them were caused by maternal microdeletion, 10.9% by paternal uniparental disomy, 3.6% by imprinting center defect and 14.5% by UBE3A gene mutation. Genotype-phenotype correlation showed epilepsy and microcephaly is more common in microdeletion type as compared with non-microdeletional type. We have concluded that the incidence rate, clinical features and underlying genetic mechanisms in Hong Kong Chinese were comparable with other western populations. The overall average age of diagnosis in this cohort was 6.2 years old (95% C.I was 5.0-7.5 years old). It is hope that by increasing awareness and early referral could result in early diagnosis and better management for AS patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Viability of the health protection account in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C K; Yip, P S F

    2002-08-01

    To evaluate the viability of the Health Protection Account proposed by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government. Retrospective study. The Hospital Authority of Hong Kong. Data were obtained from hospital and specialist out-patient clinic admissions. The expected health cost for each patient from the age of 65 years to the average age of life expectancy (83 years) was estimated, as was the contribution to these health costs from the Health Protection Account. If individuals contribute 1% of their salary to the Health Protection Account from age 40 to 65 years, the Account can only cover 4% of the actual health costs. The Health Protection Account, as proposed, does not ease the financial burden of increasing health care costs in the elderly. Increasing the contribution rate or reducing the age at which contributions to the scheme are started are possible viable options for making the scheme sustainable. However, the current economic situation is such that the public would not favour either of these alternatives. It is envisaged that the Government will need to continue to finance the health care of its citizens by taxation. A gradual increase in user charges might be the only future option for controlling government health expenditure.

  18. Factors Affecting the Understanding and Use of Psychoanalysis in Hong Kong, Mainland China, and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busiol, Diego

    2015-06-01

    The majority of Western psychotherapies are known and practiced in Hong Kong, while psychoanalysis still has little resonance. A recent study finds that psychoanalysis is perceived neither as ineffective nor as necessarily in conflict with Hong Kong Chinese values. Nevertheless, Hong Kong Chinese culture influences how psychoanalysis is received and understood, when compared to Mainland China and Taiwan. It is argued that a better reception in the latter two was possible because of different social and historical backgrounds, different clinical backgrounds of those who receive training, and the more active role of Western psychoanalysts. © 2015 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  19. The impact of environmental factors on bank efficiency: A parametric analysis of Hong Kong banking sector

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Wenyang

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the X-efficiency of Hong Kong banks cover the period of year 2006 to 2011. The goal of this analysis is to identify the impacts brought by environmental variables on Hong Kong banking’s efficiency, especially the tighter business cooperation between Hong Kong and Mainland China and 2008 sub-prime financial crisis erupted in USA. To conduct this analysis, a stochastic input distance function is utilized and a two-stage research structure is constructed. Results show t...

  20. Determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cuiling; Perera, Ranawaka A P M; Chan, Yap-Hang; Fang, Vicky J; Ng, Sophia; Ip, Dennis K M; Kam, Andrea May-Sin; Leung, Gabriel M; Peiris, J S Malik; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2015-07-14

    Vitamin D plays an important role in skeletal health throughout life. Some studies have hypothesised that vitamin D may reduce the risk of other diseases. Our study aimed to estimate age-specific and sex-specific serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and to identify the determinants of serum 25(OH)D status in Hong Kong, a subtropical city in southern China. In 2009-2010, households in Hong Kong were followed up to identify acute respiratory illnesses, and sera from 2694 subjects were collected in three to four different study phases to permit measurement of 25(OH)D levels at different times of the year. A questionnaire survey on diet and lifestyle was conducted among children, with simultaneous serum collection in April and May 2010. The mean of serum 25(OH)D levels in age groups ranged from 39 to 63 nmol/l throughout the year with the mean values in all age groups in spring below 50 nmol/l. Children aged 6-17 years, and girls and women had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D levels than adults, and boys and men, respectively (all PHong Kong followed a lagged pattern relative to climatic season by 5 weeks with lowest observed levels in early spring (March). For children aged 6-17 years, reporting a suntan, having at least 1 servings of fish/week and having at least 1 serving of eggs/week were independently associated with higher serum 25(OH)D levels. Adequate sunlight exposure and increased intake of dietary vitamin D could improve vitamin D status, especially for children and females in the winter and spring.

  1. Health Profile of Construction Workers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Yi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction is a manual, heavy, and complex sector concerning the most fatal accidents and high incidence of occupational illnesses and injuries resulting in days away from work. In Hong Kong, “Pilot Medical Examination Scheme for Construction Workers” was launched in 2014 to detect the health problems of their construction workforce. All registered workers under the Construction Workers Registration Board are eligible to join the scheme. The purpose of this paper is to assess the physical condition, physiological status, and musculoskeletal disorders of 942 construction workers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a two-phase design, which includes a basic medical examination to measure the workers’ physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, resting heart rate, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, liver function test, and renal function test; as well as a face-to-face interview following the medical examination to collect their demographic information and pain experience. Individual characteristics, including gender, age, obesity, alcohol drinking habit, and sleeping habit influenced the health condition of construction workers. Among the participants, 36.1% and 6.5% of them were overweight and obese, respectively. In addition, 43.0%, 38.4%, 16.2%, and 13.9% of the participants exceeded the thresholds of cholesterol, blood pressure, urea nitrogen, and uric urea, correspondingly. Moreover, 41.0% of the participants suffered musculoskeletal pain, where the most frequent painful parts occur in the lower back, shoulder, knees, leg, and neck. Through these findings, a series of important issues that need to be addressed is pointed out in terms of maintaining the physical well-being and reducing musculoskeletal disorders of construction workers. The finding may have implications for formulating proper intervention strategies for the sustainable development of Hong Kong’s construction industry.

  2. The Role of Hong Kong’s Financial Regulations in Improving Corporate Governance Standards in China: Lessons from the Panama Papers for Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Bryane; Goo, Say-Hak

    2016-01-01

    Hong Kong contributes to poor corporate governance on the Mainland. Could regulatory reform in Hong Kong help improve corporate governance standards/practices (and thus firm value) on the Mainland? In this paper, we discuss ways to incentivize Mainland firms to improve their corporate governance by adopting numerous market-value increasing reforms in Hong Kong. These include the limited extra-territorial application of corporate governance provisions, changes to the Listing Rules to ‘contract...

  3. Determinants on the quality of social networks among Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, Tina L; Chan, O F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine prospectively the quality of social networks of Hong Kong Chinese adults. A randomized household survey was employed. A total of 1170 Hong Kong Chinese respondents were recruited to the study. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 79 years, 43% of respondents were male. Findings revealed a negative association between familial trust and social network size. Network trust, social identification, and structural networks were all found to be positively associated with social network size and perceived respect from social network. The importance of family and the prioritization of the needs of the family over individual needs has implications on social network size and formation for Hong Kong Chinese individuals. More research is needed to further examine the importance of familial relationships and the prioritization of family and the impact this has on social network development and maintenance among Hong Kong Chinese.

  4. Hong Kong at the Pearl River Estuary: A hotspot of microplastic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Lincoln; Cheung, P K

    2015-10-15

    Large plastic (>5mm) and microplastic (0.315-5mm) debris were collected from 25 beaches along the Hong Kong coastline. More than 90% consisted of microplastics. Among the three groups of microplastic debris, expanded polystyrene (EPS) represented 92%, fragments represented 5%, and pellets represented 3%. The mean microplastic abundance for Hong Kong was 5595items/m(2). This number is higher than international averages, indicating that Hong Kong is a hotspot of marine plastic pollution. Microplastic abundance was significantly higher on the west coast than on the east coast, indicating that the Pearl River, which is west of Hong Kong, may be a potential source of plastic debris. The amounts of large plastic and microplastic debris of the same types (EPS and fragments) were positively correlated, suggesting that the fragmentation of large plastic material may increase the quantity of beach microplastic debris. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Rise of Civic Nationalism: Shifting Identities in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin P. Kwan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The rise of civic nationalism in both Hong Kong and Taiwan indicates a prominence of democratic liberal values which are contributing to the further rejection of an ethnonational Chinese identity imposed by Beijing. Using the 2014 Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong and the Sunflower Movement in Taiwan as case studies, this paper examines how the rise of civic nationalism is furthering the nation-building project of Hong Kong and Taiwanese identities. Following a comparison between the Umbrella Movement and the Sunflower Movement in terms of the sequence of events, the paper identifies the impact of the movements on both societies through an examination of the successes and failures of each movement, the rise of new political forces and party politics, as well as political institutions. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of the widening identity gap of Hong Kong and Taiwan from China.

  6. A new species of Lophiotrema from wild fruit in Hong Kong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, A.M.C.; Hyde, K.D.; Tsui, K.M.; Corlett, R.T.

    2003-01-01

    Lophiotremapsychotrii spec. nov. is described and illustrated based on specimens occurring on Psychotria asiatica and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa fruits in Hong Kong. This species is characterized by small, hyaline, guttulate, uniseptate, fusiform ascospores bearing a narrow mucilaginous sheath, which is

  7. Physical activity research in Hong Kong from 1987 to 2012: evidence on children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Huang, Wendy Yajun; Wong, Stephen H

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive understanding of research on the physical activity (PA) of Hong Kong youth is necessary to develop specific and effective intervention strategies. This review summarizes existing evidence in studies on PA among the Hong Kong youth. An electronic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, ERIC, and HighWire database. Forty-five studies published from 1987 to 2012 were included in this review. The findings are presented in five categories, namely, health benefits of PA, participation in PA, assessment of PA, correlates of PA, and interventions to promote PA. The results indicate that PA among the youth in Hong Kong has attracted concern in the past decade. Specifically, extensive studies focused on the areas of health benefits of PA, participation in PA, and correlates of PA. Research into context-specific correlates of PA and tailored PA promotion programs for the Hong Kong youth is warranted in the future. © 2013 APJPH.

  8. Comparision of Istanbul with Hong Kong and Singapore for Regional Treasury Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Selçuk DİZKIRICI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is examining Istanbul to find out whether or not it has the ability to become an appropriate location to host regional treasury centers. Hence; Simkova’s 11 location criteria are compared across Istanbul additionally Hong Kong and Singapore, being already attractive locations in South East Asia for multinational corporations to set up their regional finance offices, to specify Istanbul’s weaker facilities even if it is not regarded as a rival for Hong Kong and Singapore. The study contributes to the understanding of Simkova’s location criteria assessment before establishing a regional treasury center in any location, as it is applied to some European countries and three Asian countries: Brunei, Hong Kong and Singapore, previously. Lastly, it is concluded that Istanbul is not as superior as Hong Kong and Singapore but it has reasonable conditions to become an attractive location for regional treasury centers.

  9. University Financial Management under a Contraction of Government Funding: the Case of Hong Kong China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuen, Alex P. C.

    2000-01-01

    Examines changes in funding methodology for higher education in Hong Kong following the change in sovereignty, problems in financial management faced by universities because of these changes, and the actions they have taken to address the issues. (EV)

  10. Reorganizing Hospital Space: The 1894 Plague Epidemic in Hong Kong and the Germ Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan

    2017-04-01

    This paper examined whether the preventive measures taken by the Hong Kong's colonial authorities were legitimate during the 1894 Hong Kong plague epidemic, and illuminated the correlation between the plague epidemic and hospital space in Hong Kong in the late 19th century. The quarantine measures taken by the colonial authorities were neither a clear-cut victory for Western medicine nor for a rational quarantine based on scientific medical knowledge. Hong Kong's medical officials based on the miasma theory, and focused only on house-to-house inspections and forced quarantine or isolation, without encouraging people to wear masks and without conducting disinfection. Even after Hong Kong plague spread, the Hong Kong's colonial authorities were not interested in what plague bacilli were, but in where they were to be found and how to prevent and control an outbreak of the disease. The germ theory brought significant changes to the disease classification system. Until the 1890s, Hong Kong's colonial authority had classified cause of death mainly on the basis of symptoms, infectious diseases, parts of the body and diseases of systems. Microbiological analysis of the cause of death in Hong Kong was started by Hunter, a bacteriologist, in 1902. He used bacteriological tests with a microscope to analyze the cause of death. New disease recognition and medical recognition brought large changes to hospital space as well. In particular, from the 1880s to the early 1900s, Western medical circles witnessed shifts from miasma theory to the germ theory, thereby influencing Hong Kong's hospital spaces. As the germ theory took ground in Hong Kong in 1894, the bacteriological laboratory and isolation ward became inevitable facilities, and hospital space were reorganized accordingly. However, the colonial authorities and local elites' strategy was different. As a government bacteriologist, Hunter established a central facility to unify several laboratories and to manage urban space

  11. What is the True Loss Due to Piracy?: Evidence from Microsoft Office in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Tin Cheuk

    2011-01-01

    Software piracy remains rampant despite the successful measures the Hong Kong government has taken to eradicate street piracy. This is because most people prefer substituting a counterfeit copy of a software CD (street piracy) with an illegal download of the software (Internet piracy). To support this claim, I construct a unique data set from 281 college students in Hong Kong to demonstrate two things. First, I estimate a random-coefficient discrete choice demand system for Microsoft Office f...

  12. Sex knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Yip, Paul SF; Zhang, Huiping; Lam, Tai-Hing; Lam, Kwok Fai; Lee, Antoinette Marie; Chan, John; Fan, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about sex knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong. It is of public health importance to investigate this topic to inform sex education, policymaking, and prevention and intervention programs. Methods Based on the Youth Sexuality Survey conducted by Hong Kong Family Planning Association (FPAHK) in 2011, this study explored the characteristics of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among 1,126 unm...

  13. Identifying Core Competencies of Infection Control Nurse Specialists in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Fong; Bond, Trevor G; Adamson, Bob; Chow, Meyrick

    2016-01-01

    To confirm a core competency scale for Hong Kong infection control nurses at the advanced nursing practice level from the core competency items proposed in a previous phase of this study. This would serve as the foundation of competency assurance in Hong Kong hospitals. A cross-sectional survey design was used. All public and private hospitals in Hong Kong. All infection control nurses in hospitals of Hong Kong. The 83-item proposed core competency list established in an earlier study was transformed into a questionnaire and sent to 112 infection control nurses in 48 hospitals in Hong Kong. They were asked to rate the importance of each infection prevention and control item using Likert-style response categories. Data were analyzed using the Rasch model. The response rate of 81.25% was achieved. Seven items were removed from the proposed core competency list, leaving a scale of 76 items that fit the measurement requirements of the unidimensional Rasch model. Essential core competency items of advanced practice for infection control nurses in Hong Kong were identified based on the measurement criteria of the Rasch model. Several items of the scale that reflect local Hong Kong contextual characteristics are distinguished from the overseas standards. This local-specific competency list could serve as the foundation for education and for certification of infection control nurse specialists in Hong Kong. Rasch measurement is an appropriate analytical tool for identifying core competencies of advanced practice nurses in other specialties and in other locations in a manner that incorporates practitioner judgment and expertise.

  14. Availability, Affordability and Volatility: the case of Hong Kong Housing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Charles Ka Yui; Tang, Edward Chi Ho

    2014-01-01

    Housing prices in Hong Kong have gained international attention. This study suggests that the housing supply may be insufficient. Consistent with previous studies, we confirm that merely increasing the land supply may not increase the housing supply. We also find preliminary evidence for widening income inequality, which, when combined with unavailability, can lead to unaffordability in the housing market. Given the current housing supply elasticity with respect to price, Hong Kong is not mor...

  15. Dental anxiety in Hong Kong preschool children: Prevalence and associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mildred Lok Wun Wong; Sarah Hiu Fong Lai; Hai Ming Wong; Yu Xin Yang; Cynthia Kar Yung Yiu

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study is designed to determine the prevalence of dental anxiety and contributing factors in Hong Kong preschool children. Methods: All first-time visitors between the ages of three and five to the Prince Philip Dental Hospital, Hong Kong between were recruited between August 2014 and June 2015. Questionnaires on background information, parent’s self-reported Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS), and parental proxy of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (MCD...

  16. Chinese Middle Classes: Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2018-01-01

    Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846......Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846...

  17. Why Hong Kong students favour more face-to-face classroom time in blended learning

    OpenAIRE

    Henri,James; Lee,Sandra

    2007-01-01

    A three year study in student characteristics, needs and learning styles guided instructors at the University of Hong Kong Faculty of Education to improve teaching and learning in a core module: Information Literacy. A mixed-method approach analyzed data collected from undergraduate, in-service teachers in a BEd program, and helped instructors in the program to gain insight into the Hong Kong teacher working, post-service towards a BEd in Library and Information Science. Part-time students in...

  18. Banking sector governance: Lessons from Hong Kong listed bands. A three year perspective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Sh. D.

    2011-01-01

    Hong Kong's financial sector is popular within the banking industry for the range of service providers themselves. Using the case study approach, this paper explores the changes to the boards of directors and governance issues of the 12 listed banks on Hong Kong stock exchange over a three year period. It focuses on issues such as the number of directors on the boards, their qualifications, type of directors in terms of independence, outside directorships held, and the auditors of the financi...

  19. Off-the-Record Target Zones: Theory with an Application to Hong Kong's Currency Board

    OpenAIRE

    Funke, Michael; Chen, Yu-Fu; Glanemann, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a modelling framework for evaluating the exchange rate dynamics in target zone regime with undisclosed bands. We generalize the literature to allow for asymmetric one-sided regimes. Market participants' expectation formation about the undisclosed band change as they learn about central bank intervention policy. We apply the model to Hong Kong's one-sided currency board mechanism. In autumn 2003, the Hong Kong dollar appreciated from close to 7.80 per US dollar to 7.70, as ...

  20. The Preferences and Investment Behaviour of Small Investors in the Hong Kong Bank Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Tai-Yuen HON

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the behaviour of small investors in the Hong Kong bank stock market.The objective of this study was to researchthe factors, investing characteristics, and decision making processes. Informed by behavioural finance, we develop four hypotheses regarding the opinions and investment behaviour of small investors in the Hong Kong bank stock market. These hypotheses are then tested with the data collected from 1,054 small investors via a survey. By doing so, we hope to contri...

  1. Conceptualizing Partner Abuse Among South Asian Women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsing, Jenny Chingkhannem

    2014-07-01

    This qualitative study was conducted with 14 South Asian women in Hong Kong to explore their perception and experiences of domestic violence by an intimate partner. All interviews were transcribed and then coded based on the process of coding suggested by Strauss and Corbin, including both open and axial coding. Data analysis resulted in two main core categories, "Women's perception of domestic violence" and "Cultural factors that influence their help-seeking behavior," denoting that the context in which domestic violence is experienced influences women's perception and understanding of domestic violence. Participants also drew on the discourse of culture to explain its role in their experiences of domestic violence. Domestic violence is a concern among this group of South Asian women. Culturally appropriate domestic violence services and public education on domestic violence are needed for this community. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Hong Kong Junk: Plague and the Economy of Chinese Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Histories of the Third Plague Pandemic, which diffused globally from China in the 1890s, have tended to focus on colonial efforts to regulate the movement of infected populations, on the state's draconian public health measures, and on the development of novel bacteriological theories of disease causation. In contrast, this article focuses on the plague epidemic in Hong Kong and examines colonial preoccupations with Chinese "things" as sources of likely contagion. In the 1890s, laboratory science invested plague with a new identity as an object to be collected, cultivated, and depicted in journals. At the same time, in the increasingly vociferous anti-opium discourse, opium was conceived as a contagious Chinese commodity: a plague. The article argues that rethinking responses to the plague through the history of material culture can further our understanding of the political consequences of disease's entanglement with economic and racial categories, while demonstrating the extent to which colonial agents "thought through things."

  3. The air pollution index system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.Y.P.; Gervat, G.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

  4. The impact of immigration on the breastfeeding practices of Mainland Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Kris Yuet Wan; Bai, Dorothy Li; Chan, Noel P T; Wong, Janet Y H; Tarrant, Marie

    2018-03-01

    Researchers have found breastfeeding disparities between immigrant and native-born women in many countries. However, most studies on immigration and breastfeeding practices have been in Western countries. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of length of time since immigration on the breastfeeding practices of Mainland Chinese immigrants living in Hong Kong. We recruited 2704 mother-infant pairs from the postnatal wards of four public hospitals in Hong Kong. We examined the effect of migration status on the duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding duration was progressively shorter as the time since immigration increased. When compared with mothers who had lived in Hong Kong for Hong Kong-born participants had a 30% higher risk of stopping any breastfeeding (hazard ratio [HR] 1.34 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.10-1.63]) and exclusive breastfeeding (HR 1.33 [95% CI 1.11-1.58]). In both Hong Kong-born and immigrant participants, breastfeeding cessation was associated with return to work postpartum and the husband's preference for infant formula or mixed feeding. Intention to exclusively breastfeed and to breastfeed for >6 months, and previous breastfeeding experience substantially reduced the risk of breastfeeding cessation for both Hong Kong-born and immigrant participants. Health care professionals should consider immigration history in their assessment of pregnant women and provide culturally adapted breastfeeding support and encouragement to this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Physical Activity and Constipation in Hong Kong Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lo, Wing-Sze; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of constipation with exercise, non-exercise physical activity, and sedentary behaviours in Hong Kong adolescents. Methods In 2006–2007, 42 secondary schools were randomly selected to participate in the Hong Kong Student Obesity Surveillance (HKSOS) project. A total of 33692 Form 1–7 students (44.9% boys; mean age 14.8, SD 1.9 years) completed an anonymous questionnaire on lifestyle behaviours. Constipation was defined as a frequency of evacuation of less than once every two days. Exercise (moderate-to-vigorous levels) and non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) were each considered insufficient when less than 1 hour per day, and sedentary behaviours were considered excessive when over 4 hours per day. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for constipation in relation to exercise, NEPA, and sedentary behaviours, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Constipation was identified in 15.6% (95% CI 15.2% – 16.0%) of adolescents overall, 14.0% in those with sufficient exercise and 19.6% in those without. Constipation was associated with insufficient exercise (AOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.16 – 1.36), insufficient NEPA 1.21 (1.10 – 1.33) and excessive sedentary behaviours (1.25, 1.17 – 1.34). Compared with having none of the above 3 inactive behaviours, increasing AORs of constipation were observed for having 1 (AOR 1.23), 2 (AOR 1.57) and 3 (AOR 1.88) inactive behaviours (p for trend Constipation was associated with insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behaviours among Chinese adolescents with a dose-response relation. If the association is causal, constipation could be prevented by promotion of physical activity. PMID:24587274

  6. Dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of Hong Kong adults: results of the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Waiky W K; Yip, Yiu-chung; Choi, Koon-kay; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) covered by the Stockholm Convention on POPs. To assess the associated health risk of the Hong Kong population, the dietary exposure of the Hong Kong population and various age-gender subgroups to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs was estimated in the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study (TDS), where food samples were collected and prepared "as consumed". A total of 142 composite food samples, mainly foods of animal origin and their products and oily food, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like PCBs by the high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) system. Dietary exposures were estimated by combining the analytical results with the food consumption data of Hong Kong adults. The mean and 95th percentile exposures to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of the Hong Kong population were 21.9 and 59.7 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) month⁻¹ respectively, which amounted to 31.3% and 85.2% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The main dietary source of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs was "Fish and seafood and their products" (61.9% of the total exposure), followed by "Meat, poultry and game and their products" (20.0%) and "Mixed dishes" (6.95%). The study findings suggest that the Hong Kong population is unlikely to experience the major undesirable health effects of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

  7. Telephone-delivered psychoeducational intervention for Hong Kong Chinese dementia caregivers: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, Timothy; Wong, Bel; Ip, Isaac; Chui, Kenny; Young, Daniel; Ho, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Timothy Kwok,1,2 Bel Wong,2 Isaac Ip,2 Kenny Chui,2 Daniel Young,2 Florence Ho2 1Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region Purpose: Many family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) are unable to participate in community center-based caregiver support services because of logistical constraints. This study evaluated the effectivene...

  8. Self-Esteem: A Comparison between Hong Kong Children and Newly Arrived Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung

    2004-01-01

    The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…

  9. Cross-Border Fund Flows and Hong Kong Banks' External Transactions vis-a-vis Mainland China

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Shi; Andrew Tsang

    2006-01-01

    The paper explores what information on cross-border fund flows between Hong Kong and the Mainland can be extracted from existing statistics on banking transactions. As the stock of gross liabilities has been larger than claims since mid-1999, the Mainland remains a net supplier of funds (in terms of both Hong Kong dollar and foreign currency) to the banking system in Hong Kong. Hong Kong ran a current account surplus with the Mainland in the past few years, thereby contributing to a rise in c...

  10. The Behaviour of Small Investors in the Hong Kong Derivatives Markets: A Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Yuen Hon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behaviour of small investors in Hong Kong’s derivatives markets. The study period covers the global economic crisis of 2011- 2012, and we focus on small investors’ behaviour during and after the crisis. We attempt to identify and analyse the key factors that capture their behaviour in derivatives markets in Hong Kong. The data were collected from 524 respondents via a questionnaire survey. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to analyse the data, and some interesting findings were obtained. Our study enhances our understanding of behavioural finance in the setting of an Asian financial centre, namely Hong Kong.

  11. Internationalization: the Hong Kong-China experience as a model for collaborative education in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Paul K H; Wong, Kenneth K Y; Li, Long; Zhang, J Z

    2013-10-01

    The Hong Kong model for collaboration in education in Asia is based on internationalization. Hong Kong benefits from being an international city combining an Eastern heritage and a Western society. The University of Hong Kong ranks among the world's top 25 universities (2012/2013 QS world university rankings), and its Division of Paediatric Surgery has an international reputation in research and training. In the past two decades, Hong Kong has leading roles in major international pediatric surgical organizations including Pacific Association of Pediatric Surgeons, International Pediatric Endosurgery Group, Asian Association of Pediatric Surgeons and World Federation of Associations of Pediatric Surgeons. While Hong Kong has close collaboration with Japan and other advanced economies, the talk will focus on our transfer of international experience to Mainland China. (1) A Train-the-Trainer scheme consisting of a 1-year structured education program for next-generation leaders from selected centers enabled replication and proliferation of similar training nationwide. (2) A series of laparoscopic workshops resulted in training of over 1,300 surgeons in basic and advanced skills in minimally invasive surgery within 5 years and the establishment of a national specialist organization overseeing development and quality assurance. (3) A series of Cross-Strait Symposia on Pediatric Oncology established the foundation of multidisciplinary, multicenter collaboration in education and research in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. (4) Initiation of a scientific writing course will enhance surgical research and training in China. The Hong Kong experience may serve as a model of collaboration with other developing economies in Asia.

  12. Regular Source of Care for the Elderly: A Cross-National Comparative Study of Hong Kong With 11 Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; Zou, Dan; Chung, Roger Y; Sit, Regina W; Zhang, Dexing; Chan, Dicken; Yeoh, Eng Kiong; Woo, Jean W

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to give an international perspective of health service gaps for caring for elderly individuals and explore the role of primary care for caring for elderly individuals with chronic conditions in Hong Kong. Cross-sectional, telephone survey. Hong Kong. A sample of 1000 Chinese participants in Hong Kong aged 60 or older. Questionnaire extracted from the Commonwealth Fund 2014 International Health Policy Survey of Older Adults. Similar to the 11 countries, more than half (about 65%) of Hong Kong respondents suffered from chronic conditions, whereas approximately one-third of them had at least 2 chronic conditions. US respondents had highest rate of having chronic conditions. Only 65% of Hong Kong respondents reported having a regular source of care and a higher proportion of elderly reported having poor self-rated health when compared with overseas counterparts. However, the proportion of elderly individuals who could access same-day or next-day medical care was higher compared with findings of other countries. Both Hong Kong and US respondents were more likely to report cost-related problems when accessing care. Waiting time for specialists in Hong Kong was much longer and coordination between regular doctors was poorer than in all other countries. Although half of Hong Kong respondents had a management plan for chronic conditions, a smaller proportion of them considered it helpful. Hong Kong has the lowest rate of regular source of care when compared with 11 developed countries, although people in Hong Kong were more likely to be able to access same-day or next-day medical care. To cope with increasing needs of chronic disease care, there may be a need to further develop the provision of regular source of care for elderly individuals, including the development of quality primary care in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Local and regional anthropogenic influence on PM 2.5 elements in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, G. S. W.; Bergin, M. H.; Salmon, L. G.; Yu, J. Z.; Wan, E. C. H.; Zheng, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Kiang, C. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Schauer, J. J.

    Hong Kong's persistent unhealthy level of fine particulate matter is a current public health challenge, complicated by the city being located in the rapidly industrializing Pearl River Delta Region of China. While the sources of the region's fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) are still not well understood, this study provides new source information through ground measurements and statistical analysis of 24 elements associated with particulate matter collected on filters. Field measurements took place over 4 months (October 2002, December 2002, March 2003, and June 2003) at seven sites throughout the Pearl River Delta, with three sites located in Hong Kong and four sites in the neighboring province, Guangdong. The 4-month average element concentrations show significant variation throughout the region, with higher levels of nearly every species seen among the northern Guangdong sites in comparison to Hong Kong. The high correlation (Pearson r>0.8) and similar magnitudes of 11 species (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br, Rb, and Pb) at three contrasting sites in Hong Kong indicate that sources external to Hong Kong dominate the regional levels of these elements. Further correlative analysis compared Hong Kong against potential source areas in Guangdong Province (Shenzhen, Zhongshan, and Guangzhou). Moderate correlation of sulfur for all pairings of Hong Kong sites with three Guangdong sites in developed areas (average Pearson r of 0.52-0.94) supports the importance of long-distance transport impacting the region as a whole, although local sources also clearly impact observed concentrations. Varying correlative characteristics for zinc when Hong Kong sites are paired with Shenzhen (average r=0.86), Guangzhou (average r=-0.65) and Zhongshan (average r=0.45) points to a source area located south of Guangzhou and locally impacting Zhongshan. The concentration distribution and correlative characteristics of bromide point to sources located within the Pearl River Delta, but the

  14. Fingerprinting metals in urban street dust of Beijing, Shanghai, and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Peter A; Ma, Hoi-Ling; Yu, Peter K N

    2008-10-01

    Street dust samples were taken between July and December 2005 at 25 locations in Shanghai, Beijing, and Hong Kong and sieved to 63 microm particle size before elemental analyses by CHN analyzer, XRF and ICP-MS. About 60% of the particles from the Beijing and Shanghai sieved samples were < 10 microm mean diameter, and approximately 20% were < 2 microm mean diameter, so that they are readily resuspendable and respirable with increased risk of adverse health impacts. The optical size distributions determined by electron microscopy were reasonably similar to the mass size distributions of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) at these two megacities. Hong Kong street dust particles were coarser with only about 3% of the sieved samples being < 10 microm. The elemental composition profile of Hong Kong street dust differs considerably from those of Beijing and Shanghai, being more abundant in C, S, Cr, Cu, Ce, and Zn due to higher traffic density. In particular, the vehicle contribution to Hong Kong street dust is shown by order-of-magnitude relative enhancements of Fe and Cr compared with those in TSP sampled nearby, attributed to vehicle iron and stainless-steel wear and tear and rusting contributing to street dust in the street canyons. The concentrations of Cr in Hong Kong street dust, measured from 52Cr and 53Cr by ICP-DRC-MS after a modified three-stage microwave-assisted acid digestion, are higher than those reported elsewhere.

  15. Managing the Accessibility on Mass Public Transit: the Case of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siman Tang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Public transit services (PTS improve mobility and accessibility, and reduce car dependence. It is ideal if PTS are financially sustainable, with affordable fares and expedient quality. The success of PTS on accessibility improvement can be reflected by their level of patronage: do travelers choose to use them in lieu of their private cars? PTS in Hong Kong are renowned for their quality and profitability, superbly addressing the accessibility need for the city; they carry over 90% of the 11 million daily trips. A comparison of the per capita train-car and bus-vehicle kilometer run of PTS in Hong Kong with those in London and Singapore, however, suggests that it is not purely the supply that affects the use or accessibility of PTS in Hong Kong. By tracing and analyzing the development of PTS in Hong Kong over the past two decades, we found evidence that the high level of accessibility on mass public transit in the territory can be attributed to the land use policy of developing compact, high-density township, accompanying transport policies of granting high priority to the development of mass transit facilities and providing ways to ensure the financial viability of privately operated PTS, especially the innovative approach of integrating the development of public transport facility and property so as to exploit their synergy. In this paper, we study and highlight elements that contribute to the development of high accessibility on mass public transit in Hong Kong.

  16. The current treatment landscape of irritable bowel syndrome in adults in Hong Kong: consensus statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J Cy; Chan, A Oo; Chan, Y W; Cheung, G Cl; Cheung, T K; Kwan, A Cp; Leung, V Ks; Mak, A Dp; Sze, W C; Wong, R

    2017-12-01

    The estimated prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in Hong Kong is 6.6%. With the increasing availability of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, the Hong Kong Advisory Council on Irritable Bowel Syndrome has developed a set of consensus statements intended to serve as local recommendations for clinicians about diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome. A multidisciplinary group of clinicians constituting the Hong Kong Advisory Council on Irritable Bowel Syndrome-seven gastroenterologists, one clinical psychologist, one psychiatrist, and one nutritionist-convened on 20 April 2017 in Hong Kong. Published primary research articles, meta-analyses, and guidelines and consensus statements issued by different regional and international societies on the diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome were reviewed. An outline of consensus statements was drafted prior to the meeting. All consensus statements were finalised by the participants during the meeting, with 100% consensus. Twenty-four consensus statements were generated at the meeting. The statements were divided into four parts covering: (1) patient assessment; (2) patient's psychological distress; (3) dietary and alternative approaches to managing irritable bowel syndrome; and (4) evidence to support pharmacological management of irritable bowel syndrome. It is recommended that primary care physicians assume the role of principal care provider for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The current statements are intended to guide primary care physicians in diagnosing and managing patients with irritable bowel syndrome in Hong Kong.

  17. Compare the difference of architecture design in Hong Kong and Penang – Exterior wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen Tao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the exterior wall of architecture design of Hong Kong and Penang, it also analyzes how light pollution affects human life. As we know, Hong Kong prefers to use steel to build skyscrapers and middle or high rise buildings. However, Penang prefers to use concrete to do the construction. So, there are some advantages and disadvantages between the glass curtain wall and concrete wall in Hong Kong and Penang. The researcher used 400 samples to determine effect of the glass curtain wall and concrete wall on human life in Hong Kong and Penang separately. The result is light pollution created by glass curtain wall in Hong Kong is a serious problem to residents’ life. The glass curtain wall seriously glaze people’s eyes who drive or walk on the street. Thus, many car accidents were caused by this problem. The concrete wall is more often contaminated by fungus and difficult to clean. But, concrete wall is more natural and green for humans. Therefore, from the sustainable aspect that concrete is more healthy for humans, the previous researchers suggest that if the exterior wall is a mixture of both glass curtain and concrete it will not cause light pollution and will be easily involved in the natural environment.

  18. An Integrative Study of Photochemical Air Pollution in Hong Kong: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.

    2014-12-01

    Hong Kong is situated in the Pearl River delta of Southern China. This region has experienced phenomenal economic growth in the past 30 years. Emissions of large amount of pollutants from urban areas and various industries coupled with subtropical climate have led to frequent occurrences of severe photochemical air pollution. Despite the long-term control efforts of the Hong Kong government, the atmospheric levels of ozone have been increasing in the past decade. To obtain an updated and more complete understanding of photochemical smog, an integrative study has been conducted during 2010-2014. Several intensive measurement campaigns were carried out at urban, suburban and rural sites in addition to the routine observations at fourteen air quality monitoring stations in Hong Kong. Meteorological, photochemical, and chemical-transport modeling studies were conducted to investigate the causes/processes of elevated photochemical pollution . The main activities of this study were to (1) examine the situation and trends of photochemical air pollution in Hong Kong, (2) understand some underlying chemical processes in particular the poorly-understood heterogeneous processes of reactive nitrogen oxides, (3) quantify the local, regional, and super-regional contributions to the ozone pollution in Hong Kong, and (4) review the control policy and make further recommendations based on the science. This paper will give an overview of this study and present some key results on the trends and chemistry of the photochemical pollution in this polluted subtropical region.

  19. A report on a randomly sampled questionnaire survey about renal stone disease in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S Wh; Ng, C F; Man, C W; Chung, R; Li, S K

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of patients with renal stone in Hong Kong, and awareness of corresponding prevention strategies. Telephone public survey. Hong Kong community. PARTICIPANTS. A public telephone survey concerning the occurrence of renal stone disease and the public awareness of the condition was performed. Respondents whose telephone numbers were randomly selected by computer and the family member of the household who had the closest birthday to that date was chosen for interview. Data collected were further adjusted for the gender and age distribution of the Hong Kong population in mid-2007. A total of 1010 Hong Kong citizens aged 18 years or above were successfully interviewed in November 2007. Among them, 25 respondents themselves had a history of renal stones, yielding a point prevalence of 2.5%. In addition, 70 respondents had family members with a history of renal stones, yielding an estimated household point prevalence of 6.9%. Stone patients were mainly older, male, and imbibed less fluids than the average for all respondents. The public's concepts with regard to the diet necessary and the importance of taking more fluid to prevent stone formation was poor. Hong Kong has a relatively low prevalence of renal stone disease, compared to neighbouring areas. However, the local public and affected patients had little knowledge and awareness about this important health problem.

  20. Why is Design-Build Commonly Used in the Public Sector? An Illustration from Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond Lam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Design and Build (D&B procurement method is one of the systems advocated to overcome inadequacies with the traditional procurement method. In recent years, this innovative procurement method has been put to practice in Hong Kong where a vast amount of infrastructure works is taking place. This paper aims to illustrate the applicability of design-build in the Hong Kong setting.As most D&B projects are undertaken by the public sector of Hong Kong, the main features of a public sector project and reasons for its wider use on D&B are fully examined in the paper. To further explore the benefits of D&B in actual practice, structured interviews have been conducted with clients, contractors and consultants running D&B projects in Hong Kong. Summary of major problems of running D&B projects from the previous study by the authors is also outlined. With the increasing use of D&B in the public sector of Hong Kong and worldwide, more research can be undertaken on the quantitative comparison of the traditional mode of procurement and how to carry out a D&B project successfully so as to develop a knowledge base for the D&B procurement method.

  1. Allergy in Hong Kong: an unmet need in service provision and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y T; Ho, H K; Lai, Christopher K W; Lau, C S; Lau, Y L; Lee, T H; Leung, T F; Wong, Gary W K; Wu, Y Y

    2015-02-01

    Many children in Hong Kong have allergic diseases and epidemiological data support a rising trend. Only a minority of children will grow out of their allergic diseases, so the heavy clinical burden will persist into adulthood. In an otherwise high-quality health care landscape in Hong Kong, allergy services and training are a seriously unmet need. There is one allergy specialist for 1.5 million people, which is low not only compared with international figures, but also compared with most other specialties in Hong Kong. The ratio of paediatric and adult allergists per person is around 1:460 000 and 1:2.8 million, respectively, so there is a severe lack of adult allergists, while the paediatric allergists only spend a fraction of their time working with allergy. There are no allergists and no dedicated allergy services in adult medicine in public hospitals. Laboratory support for allergy and immunology is not comprehensive and there is only one laboratory in the public sector supervised by accredited immunologists. These findings clearly have profound implications for the profession and the community of Hong Kong and should be remedied without delay. Key recommendations are proposed that could help bridge the gaps, including the creation of two new pilot allergy centres in a hub-and-spoke model in the public sector. This could require recruitment of specialists from overseas to develop the process if there are no accredited allergy specialists in Hong Kong who could fulfil this role.

  2. The Currency of Historicity in Hong Kong: Deconstructing Nostalgia through Soy Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s, as the end of the millennium approached, the production of nostalgia exploded all around the world. For Hong Kong, nostalgia became a reminder of the golden age that had transformed the city into one of the “Four Asian Tigers” in the decades following the end of the Second World War. While yearning for the better days of the past, Hong Kong coincidentally experienced destabilisation. As the rest of the world, especially the “baby boomers,” mourned the end of a productive era, Hong Kong locals were disturbed by the affirmation of the handover to China in 1997. In the context of these events, a creative rush to nostalgia in cultural manufacturing swept across the city. In the hope of highlighting the uniqueness of nostalgic production in Hong Kong, this study analyses two sets of TV commercials produced by local beverage company Vitasoy. Through the deconstruction of selected historical events, Vitasoy successfully reinvented its brand and, in contrast to general criticism of the concept, generated a positive connotation for nostalgia on the path towards Hong Kong’s search for an identity.

  3. Examining Factors Affecting Science Achievement of Hong Kong in PISA 2006 Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Terence Yuk Ping; Lau, Kwok Chi

    2014-10-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling to examine the influence of a range of factors on the science performances of Hong Kong students in PISA 2006. Hong Kong has been consistently ranked highly in international science assessments, such as Programme for International Student Assessment and Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study; therefore, an exploration of the factors that affect science performances of Hong Kong students can give a lens to examine how science education can be improved in Hong Kong and other countries. The analyses reveal that student backgrounds as male, at higher grade levels, and born in mainland (when in the same grade) are associated with better science performance. Among the attitudinal factors, enjoyment of science and self-efficacy in science play important roles in scientific achievements. Most of the parental factors, on the other hand, are not having significant impacts on achievement after student attitudes are taken into account, with only parents' value of science having a small effect. School student intake is found to be a strong predictor of school average achievement, as well as a major mediator of the effects of school enrollment size and school socio-economic status. The findings differ from recently reported results, which suggested that school enrollment size was associated with achievement. This study also points out the problems of the use of science instruction time as a school-level variable to explain science achievement in Hong Kong.

  4. Profiling the careers of Thoroughbred horses racing in Hong Kong between 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velie, B D; Stewart, B D; Lam, K; Wade, C M; Hamilton, N A

    2013-11-01

    Research in Thoroughbred racehorses is often specific to horses from a given racing population or region. In order to investigate trends in racehorse careers across populations accurately, population-specific benchmarks for performance outcomes must be established. To provide summary statistics for performance outcomes for Thoroughbreds racing in Hong Kong between 2000 and 2010 and to document and provide evidence on the current differences in racing careers across sexes and regions of origin for horses racing in Hong Kong. Performance data on the population of Thoroughbreds racing in Hong Kong between 3 September 2000 and 12 March 2011 (n = 4950) were acquired and used to describe and compare the careers of Thoroughbred racehorses in Hong Kong. Career length, number of career starts and number of spells from racing per year were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier survival curves, stratified by sex, age group, country of origin and region of origin were produced for career length. A Cox's proportional hazards model was fitted to assess factors influencing the risk of retirement from racing in Hong Kong. Log-rank tests for equality of career length survivor functions showed significant differences (Phorse originates, with specific effects on each performance outcome also varying between regions. Future research should take into account these potential differences when comparing results across populations. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of British-Chinese, White British and Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the self-esteem scores of 1303 children, including Chinese children from Britain and Hong Kong and white British children, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Finds that British Chinese have significantly higher self-esteem than the Hong Kong children, but there is little difference among white British children. (CMK)

  6. Correlates of In-Law Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence against Chinese Pregnant Women in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Ho, Pak Chung

    2009-01-01

    This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete…

  7. Developing Students' Critical Thinking Skills through Visual Literacy in the New Secondary School Curriculum in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chi-Kim; Jhaveri, Aditi Dubey

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that the planned introduction of visual literacy into the New Secondary School Curriculum can play a crucial role in enabling students to think critically and creatively in Hong Kong's highly visual landscape. As Hong Kong's educational system remains entrenched in long-established and conventional pedagogies, the primacy given…

  8. Enhancing Quality of Higher Education for World-Class Status: Approaches, Strategies, and Challenges for Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2014-01-01

    Aspiring to become an international city in Asia, the government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) has been investing more in higher education. In order to enhance its global competitiveness, all public universities in Hong Kong have gone through different forms of quality assurance exercises, including teaching and learning…

  9. Students' Choice of Sub-Degree Programmes in Self-Financing Higher Education Institutions in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Phoebe; Ng, Peggy M. L.; Mak, Connie K. Y.; Chan, Jason K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The higher education sector in Hong Kong has restructured substantially from elite to mass higher education since the introduction of education reform by the Hong Kong government in 2000. To stay ahead in this competitive environment in the education sector, management teams of self-financing institutions have to compete for students and identify…

  10. The Impact of Curiosity and External Regulation on Intrinsic Motivation: An Empirical Study in Hong Kong Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon-keung, Yau; Man-shan, Kan; Lai-fong, Cheng Alison

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to identify: (1) the factors affecting the intrinsic motivation of university students in Hong Kong; and (2) gender differences in the perception of intrinsic motivation in Hong Kong higher education environment. The factors of curiosity and external regulation with intrinsic motivation are taken into investigation…

  11. Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

  12. Application of Sociology of Education on Early Childhood Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices in Hong Kong: Insight from David Riesman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Grace; Ho, Kwok Keung

    2016-01-01

    This paper will present multiple themes that are intermingled with one another, aiming to bring an overview of sociology of education and its application in the Hong Kong situation. One of the themes concerns how sociology of education has intertwined with the socio-political aspect of Hong Kong before and after year 1997 resulting in different…

  13. Aspects of the Two Language System and Three Language Problem in the Changing Society of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Benjamin K.

    1996-01-01

    Presents details of the language shifts among the various sections of the Chinese-speaking population in Hong Kong and analyzes patterns of allegiance. Notes that complex social, economic, and political pressures will affect future language in Hong Kong and that, within the domains of family, work, and others, the use of Modern Standard Chinese is…

  14. The "Magic" of Tutorial Centres in Hong Kong: An Analysis of Media Marketing and Pedagogy in a Tutorial Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Why do more than three-quarters of Hong Kong's senior secondary students flock to tutorial centres like moths to light? What is the "magic" that is driving the popularity of the tutorial centre enterprise? Indeed, looking at the ongoing boom of tutorial centres in Hong Kong (there are almost 1,000 of them), it is difficult not to ask…

  15. Challenges to Globalisation, Localisation and Sinophilia in Music Education: A Comparative Study of Hong Kong, Shanghai and Taipei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung; Law, Wing-Wah

    2006-01-01

    In the past, the music curricula of Hong Kong (HK), Mainland China and Taiwan have focused on Western music, but with the advent of music technology and the new tripartite paradigm of globalisation, localisation and Sinophilia this has begun to change. Hong Kong, Shanghai and Taipei share a common historical culture and their populations are…

  16. Education for All: Quasi-Experimental Estimates of the Impacts of Compulsory Primary Education in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Dongshu

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the causal impacts of Hong Kong's 1971 policy of free compulsory education on students' educational attainment. Using a regression discontinuity method and Hong Kong Census data, this study compares children born just before and just after the month in which the compulsory-education law came into effect. The results show that…

  17. Implementation of Geographic Information System (GIS) in Secondary Geography Curriculum in Hong Kong: Current Situations and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chi-Chung; Lai, Edith; Wong, Janice

    2009-01-01

    Using geographic information system (GIS) in teaching and learning geography is an important direction in the secondary geography curriculum in Hong Kong. In the present study, interviews were conducted individually with 28 geography teachers from different secondary schools in Hong Kong, with a view to finding their views on the inclusion of GIS…

  18. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...

  19. Cross-Cultural Adjustment of Native-Speaking English Teachers (NETs) in Hong Kong: A Factor in Attrition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chau Kan; Morrison, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that, despite government support in financial and contractual matters, ongoing problems of retention of Native-speaking English Teachers (NETs) in Hong Kong stem, in part, from problems of cross-cultural adjustment. The paper reports a small-scale qualitative investigation into the experiences of NETS in Hong Kong and finds…

  20. Social Foundations of Public-Private Partnerships in Education: The Historical Cases of Post-War Singapore and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares public-private partnerships (PPPs) in education in post-war Singapore and Hong Kong. After the Second World War the Singapore government shied away from PPPs, while the state in Hong Kong collaborated extensively with the non-state sector in education. Singapore was a small city-state flanked by two Muslim nations, and its…

  1. Building a Connected Classroom: Teachers' Narratives about Managing the Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2013-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…

  2. Influenza Vaccination Uptake and Associated Factors among Elderly Population in Hong Kong: The Application of the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, P. K. H.; Lau, J. T. F.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of influenza on elderly can be severe and fatal. Influenza vaccination (IV) has been shown to be effective in reducing influenza-related complications, but the IV uptake among elderly in Hong Kong remains low. This study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with IV among Chinese elderly in Hong Kong using the Health Belief…

  3. Not so great expectations: sex and housewives in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ho, Petula Sik

    2008-01-01

    The study explores the life of married women who are being described as having "good," "normal," "blessed" sexuality. The case of si-nais (housewives) in Hong Kong shows that we can never assume that married women (or any social category) are privileged by virtue of their status on the sexual hierarchy. The blessings of social respectability apparently enjoyed by these women may work to enable or hinder women's expression of their erotic desires and sexual fulfillment, depending on their special social circumstances. These women's imagination and experience of good sex is composed of a multitude of components. Women may feel good because they can achieve other psychological and social aims that are important in their lives (which could be related to the maintenance of marriage or the peace of the family). Women may feel good because of the erotic satisfaction that they derive from different pursuits including interests, leisure or other intimate relationships, rather than sexual fulfillment in terms of orgasm or physical pleasure. Women may reformulate their pleasure variously at different stages of their lives. Social respectability, orgasm, emotional intimacy, or any other specific element, may all enter or leave the formula for good sex.

  4. It Takes Two to Tango: Inclusive Schooling in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy H. Greenberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of students with autism and other special needs into the general education curriculum continues to be a challenging process for school communities in the United States of America (US and increasingly abroad. Although inclusion is a challenging process for those involved, the global demand is growing. Traditionally this initiative has originated from advocates such as parents and communities who represent the students. With enough pressure from constituents of the system, those efforts may be converted into policy through the local education department. The US has led the inclusion movement and many other developed nations have followed suit in recent decades. Consequently more and more schools are focused on building inclusive school communities. These programs see the value of a balanced approach that emphasizes curriculum coupled with pedagogy. This paper provides an overview of the history of the inclusion movement in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China. Three main types of school systems in the region are explained, and one successful inclusive school model will be described with outcome data included. Multiple factors that affect the development of the inclusion movement will also be discussed.

  5. Forecasting the manpower demand for quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H K Ho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a massive infrastructure development and an increasing demand for public and private housing, resulting in a shortage of qualified quantity surveyors. This study aims to forecast the demand for qualified quantity surveyors in Hong Kong from 2013 to 2015. Literature review indicates that the demand for quantity surveyors is a function of the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works. The proposed forecasting method consists of two steps. The first step is to estimate the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works by time series methods and the second step is to forecast the manpower demand for quantity surveyors by causal methods. The data for quantity surveyors and construction outputs are based on the ‘manpower survey reports of the building and civil engineering industry’ and the ‘gross value of construction works performed by main contractors’ respectively. The forecasted manpower demand for quantity surveyors in 2013, 2014 and 2015 are 2,480, 2,632 and 2,804 respectively. Due to the low passing rate of the assessment of professional competence (APC and the increasing number of retired qualified members, there will be a serious shortage of qualified quantity surveyors in the coming three years.

  6. Phylloplane fungi in Hong Kong mangroves: evaluation of study methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Olive H K; Hyde, Kevin D

    2002-01-01

    Many methods have been used to study phylloplane fungi, most of which have constraints and may result in biased results. This study used light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate fungal abundance on the leaves of the most common mangrove trees in Hong Kong, Kandelia candel and Aegiceras corniculatum. Species richness was investigated using light microscopy and a leaf washing method. Methods to study phylloplane fungi are discussed and the performances of these three investigation methods are evaluated. Seven mitosporic fungal taxa were found by light microscopy, while 30 sporulating taxa and 18 Mycelia sterilia were isolated using the leaf washing method. Fungal abundance in terms of percentage cover investigated with light microscopy was similar using the SEM method, and was significantly higher on Aegiceras corniculatum than on Kandelia candel. Fungal abundance peaked in the summer and was lowest in the winter. This study indicates that light microscopy reveals the most typical phylloplane fungi and is more efficient than SEM, while the leaf washing method reveals many casual species and is not quantitative.

  7. Cadmium and lead in Hong Kong school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Iris H S; Kong, Alice P S; Leung, Ting F; Tsui, Teresa K C; Cheung, Robert C K; Osaki, Risa; Ho, Chung S; Wong, Gary W K; Wong, Chun K; Lam, Christopher W K; Chan, Juliana C N; Chan, Michael H M

    2012-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are toxic elements in our environment. This study is to determine the reference intervals of Cd and Pb in blood and urine from Hong Kong school children and to identify their determinants. A total of 2209 secondary school children and 893 preschool children were recruited. Cd and Pb in blood and urine were measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Blood Cd was affected by age, smoking and residential district, while urine Cd was influenced by age and blood Cd. Blood Cd was positively correlated with smoking as confirmed by urinary cotinine (rho  = 0.183, p  <  0.001, n = 2074). Blood Pb was dependent on gender and residential district, while urinary Pb was dependent on gender and blood Pb. Students from schools of lower academic grading had higher blood Cd and Pb than those from higher academic grading schools (p < 0.001, respectively). Urinary albumin was positively associated with urinary Cd and Pb. Using a non-occupationally exposed population, the reference ranges are: blood Cd < 21.9  nmol/L for smokers and < 8.8  nmol/L for non-smokers, and blood Pb < 203.8  nmol/L. Reference intervals for urinary Cd and Pb are also reported.

  8. The first year of an independent hospice in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, M K; Wee, B L

    1994-03-01

    Two hundred and ninety-nine patients admitted to the Bradbury Hospice, Hong Kong, during the period from 1 June 1992 to 31 May 1993 were studied. While a majority of the patients held realistic expectations of the hospice service, a small percentage expected cure, prolongation of life or even euthanasia. Physical symptoms were the main concern in a vast majority of patients, the commonest being pain. Only 1.7% regarded psycho-social problems as their main distress. Morphine was widely used for pain control, although 68% of patients required co-analgesics or palliative radiotherapy as well. Morphine was also the mainstay of treatment for dyspnoea. It might be worthwhile for hospices to be equipped with oxygen, as approximately 71% of our patients with dyspnoea as their main distress benefited from oxygen therapy. Many patients expressed fear of death; more worried about suffering. While 17.7% were assessed to be in the stage of acceptance on admission, 14.7% expressed self-pity when their search for meaning failed. Although many patients were atheists, a majority of patients with religious beliefs found that they could get support from their faith. A significant number of patients believed in Shumei. Increased knowledge of this religion would be helpful in taking care of these patients.

  9. Dietary exposure to aluminium of the Hong Kong population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Waiky W K; Chung, Stephen W C; Kwong, K P; Yin Ho, Yuk; Xiao, Ying

    2010-04-01

    A total of 256 individual food samples were collected in Hong Kong for aluminium testing. Most of food samples were analysed in ready-to-eat form. High aluminium levels were found in steamed bread/bun/cake (mean: 100-320 mg kg(-1)), some bakery products such as muffin, pancake/waffle, coconut tart and cake (mean: 250, 160, 120 and 91 mg kg(-1), respectively), and jellyfish (ready-to-eat form) (mean: 1200 mg kg(-1)). The results demonstrated that aluminium-containing food additives have been widely used in these food products. The average dietary exposure to aluminium for a 60 kg adult was estimated to be 0.60 mg kg(-1) bw week(-1), which amounted to 60% of the new PTWI established by JECFA. The main dietary source was "steamed bread/bun/cake", which contributed to 60% of the total exposure, followed by "bakery products" and "jellyfish", which contributed to 23 and 10% of the total exposure, respectively. However, the estimation did not include the intake of aluminium from natural food sources, food contact materials or other sources (e.g. drinking water). Although the results indicated that aluminium it is unlikely to cause adverse health effect for the general population, the risk to some populations who regularly consume foods with aluminium-containing food additives cannot be ruled out.

  10. Experience with Hong Kong influenza in tropical areas*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buescher, E. L.; Smith, T. J.; Zachary, I. H.

    1969-01-01

    Following the introduction of A2/Hong Kong/68 influenza virus into 2 different susceptible populations residing in Thailand and the Panama Canal Zone, epidemic disease occurred within approximately 1 month. The establishment and transmission of the virus, and the disease it caused, were studied in detail. The rates of progression and extent of overt epidemic disease and the proportions of overt to subclinical infection in the 2 areas were different. In Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base, only 8% of US servicemen became ill, although 13% of them were infected. The epidemic progressed slowly, so that no more than 1.5% of the population were ill at any one time during the 3 months of its recognized presence. In contrast, in the Canal Zone the clinical attack rate approached 50%, and subclinical infection occurred in 5% or less of the population during a 6-week period when absenteeism from schools and work was quite obvious. Factors such as immunization status of the populations and virulence of virus seemed not to be primarily responsible for the differences. Rather, the latter appear to be related to differences in environmental circumstances, with crowding contributing to the higher disease incidence in the Canal Zone. The data show that this variant A2 virus may produce different epidemiological patterns of disease in tropical areas, similar to those observed in temperate zones. PMID:5309443

  11. Suicide news reporting accuracy and stereotyping in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qijin; Yip, Paul S F

    2012-12-10

    The mass media are often criticized for oversimplifying the causes of suicide and overlooking some of the risk factors. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence to support this assertion. The study aims to examine the accuracy of news reports in Hong Kong (HK) and in particular whether or not such reports stereotype victims according to gender and suicide method. Data from a case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study of 150 HK suicides were utilized. The reports of the PA cases from five major HK newspapers were collected and reviewed to identify whether or not there was a match in terms of the cases' profile and risk factors. The age, gender, and method of the suicides were largely reported correctly (>70%) but accounts of risk factors were seldom accurate (Media stereotyping of gender-specific suicide and charcoal-burning suicide was identified. The study was based on a HK sample so the findings are not necessarily applicable elsewhere. The HK mass media generally demonstrated poor accuracy in reporting suicide risk factors. Their reporting was also problematic in terms of stereotyping gender- and method-specific suicides. Clinical practitioners should be alerted to these findings when working with the media. They can also adopt this novel usage of PA data to extract further information from other PA studies and thereby broaden the investigation of reporting accuracy and stereotyping of suicide to more diverse social contexts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sentinel Events in Ophthalmology: Experience from Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu Ting Mak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To arouse ophthalmologists’ awareness in patient safety by reviewing sentinel events in Ophthalmology submitted to a web-based incident reporting system involving all public hospitals in Hong Kong. Methods. Sentinel events in Ophthalmology reported from November 2007 to October 2014 were identified and classified into different categories for further presentation and analysis. Key contributing factors attributing to the occurrence of the incidents were described. Suggestions aiming to prevent future occurrence of similar events were made. Relevant literature and case law were discussed. Results. Twelve sentinel events were included in this observational case series. They were classified into 4 main categories, namely “wrong eye” (5 cases, 41%, “wrong prescription” (3 cases, 25%, “wrong patient and surgery” (2 cases, 17%, and “retained surgical items” (2 cases, 17%. The key contributing factor leading to the occurrence of the incidents was largely human error. Increased staff awareness and proper time-out procedures were recommended to help prevent occurrence of these errors. Conclusion. Sentinel events in Ophthalmology do occur. Many of these incidents were attributed to human error. Surgeon’s awareness and willingness to prevent occurrence of sentinel events are warranted.

  13. Gerontechnology acceptance by elderly Hong Kong Chinese: a senior technology acceptance model (STAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Chan, Alan Hoi Shou

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a senior technology acceptance model (STAM) aimed at understanding the acceptance of gerontechnology by older Hong Kong Chinese people. The proposed STAM extended previous technology acceptance models and theories by adding age-related health and ability characteristics of older people. The proposed STAM was empirically tested using a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with a sample of 1012 seniors aged 55 and over in Hong Kong. The result showed that STAM was strongly supported and could explain 68% of the variance in the use of gerontechnology. For older Hong Kong Chinese, individual attributes, which include age, gender, education, gerontechnology self-efficacy and anxiety, and health and ability characteristics, as well as facilitating conditions explicitly and directly affected technology acceptance. These were better predictors of gerontechnology usage behaviour (UB) than the conventionally used attitudinal factors (usefulness and ease of use).

  14. Trigeneration: A new way for landfill gas utilization and its feasibility in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xiaoli; Yang Hongxing; Zhang Guoqiang

    2008-01-01

    Application of landfill gas (LFG) means a synergy between environmental protection and energy production. This paper presents a review of the status of LFG application. To more efficiently utilize the LFG in Hong Kong, a trigeneration scheme is proposed as a new way of LFG utilization. The feasibility of LFG trigeneration in Hong Kong is evaluated from the views of primary energy-saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction as well as economic benefit. The proposed scenario is compared with the conventional scenarios of LFG treatment and utilization. It is shown that LFG for trigeneration has a higher energy saving and GHG emission reduction potentials. The new scheme is also more economical than the conventional way of LFG utilization. Some policy recommendations are also given to promote the biomass energy utilization from waste landfills in Hong Kong

  15. The Occupation Campaign in Hong Kong: A Participant’s View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Yu-shek Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Occupation Campaign in Hong Kong ended on December 15, 2014 after 79 days reflected the protesters and pro-democracy groups’ wish to tell the world that they are not going to give up the cause of democracy and that they will continue to fight despite the understanding that it will be extremely difficult to change the decision of the Chinese leadership in the short term. In the eyes of the supporters of the pro-democracy movement, the challenge facing Hong Kong people is not just fighting for a democratic electoral system, but also struggle to maintain their core values, their lifestyles, and their individual dignity – an uphill battle given that the local business community firmly toes the Beijing line. While the political struggles of the young people of Hong Kong are perceived to have brought hope to the pro-democracy movement, the prospects for democracy remain far from promising.

  16. Treatment intensity in everyday clinical management of speech sound disorders in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K S; Law, Thomas; Cheung, Pamela S P

    2012-10-01

    Much evidence supports the efficacy of different treatment approaches for speech sound disorders (SSD) in children. Minimal research in the field has been conducted using treatment intensity as a research variable. This study examined the current practice of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in Hong Kong regarding the treatment intensity prescribed to children with SSD and potential factors that were associated with the intensity. Participants were 102 SLPs working in different settings in Hong Kong who completed an online questionnaire. SLPs who had a heavier caseload offered significantly less frequent and shorter treatment duration to clients with SSD. Public and private settings differed significantly in treatment duration. Treatment approaches and clinicians' consideration about a client's conditions did not affect treatment intensity. SLPs in Hong Kong do not plan treatment duration and frequency in an evidence-based direction because of their heavy workloads and the dearth of research evidence on treatment intensity to guide their clinical practice.

  17. Risk reduction by population sheltering during nuclear emergency in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung Mankit Ray; Leung Sze Cheung; Liu Wai Sing

    2004-01-01

    A survey of the Hong Kong building types and a grouping scheme is developed such that a set of population-weighted effective shielding and inhalation factors can be devised for nuclear accident consequence analysis. By using a variable trajectory dispersion/consequence model RADIS and the Hong Kong weather data, the present study obtains sets of occurrence frequency distributions of early fatality, early injuries and latent cancers for four different emergency response countermeasures which include no sheltering, sheltering with no action, sheltering with actions and sheltering with rigorous actions. It is found that proper countermeasures can significantly reduce the risk of early effects to the Hong Kong public by eliminating the possibility of early fatality and drastically reducing of 1-2 orders of magnitude in early injuries. Similar reduction in the risk of latent cancers can be also seen but the savings are not as drastic as those of the early effects. (author)

  18. Acculturation Attitudes and Sociocultural Adaptation of Chinese Mainland Sojourners in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyi Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within these years, there has been a significant increase in the number of Chinese Mainland sojourners studying in Hong Kong. Due to the huge differences in various aspects like language, culture, cultural value, it would be considerably difficult for the Chinese Mainland students to adapt to the Hong Kong environment. This article investigates the ways for a group of doctoral students from Chinese Mainland to acculturate in Hong Kong. With the help of questionnaires, the difficulties that the sojourners have encountered in social situations are measured. It is found out that age and gender may have influenced the participants’ acculturation strategies, and interpersonal relationship is that which the subjects have the most difficulties with, while academic domain is the area with the least difficulties. Meanwhile, the results have shown that competence of local language is not a determinant factor of the sociocultural adaptation, and female subjects seem to adapt better than male subjects. Keywords: sojourner, acculturation, sociocultural adaptation, acculturation strategy

  19. The growth pattern and fuel life cycle analysis of the electricity consumption of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, W M; Lai, T M; Lo, W C; Lam, K H; Chung, W L

    2012-06-01

    As the consumption of electricity increases, air pollutants from power generation increase. In metropolitans such as Hong Kong and other Asian cities, the surge of electricity consumption has been phenomenal over the past decades. This paper presents a historical review about electricity consumption, population, and change in economic structure in Hong Kong. It is hypothesized that the growth of electricity consumption and change in gross domestic product can be modeled by 4-parameter logistic functions. The accuracy of the functions was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, mean absolute percent error, and root mean squared percent error. The paper also applies the life cycle approach to determine carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions for the electricity consumption of Hong Kong. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to determine the confidence intervals of pollutant emissions. The implications of importing more nuclear power are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy and water uses and their performance explanatory indicators in hotels in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper firstly presents a case study on analyzing the electrical load profiles recorded in a Hong Kong hotel over a period of 12 months to examine the potential energy saving opportunities (ESOs) in its building services installations. The case study is followed by a report of the survey results of energy and water use in 36 quality hotels in Hong Kong. Finally, a regression analysis where the surveyed energy and water use data were correlated to a number of hotel background or operational parameters to search for suitable energy and water use performance explanatory indicators is presented. The survey results depict a diversified energy and water use situation in Hong Kong's hotels, but the regression analysis indicates that, while some of the correlations obtained are weak, there do exist a few strong energy and water explanatory indicators. (author)

  1. A mathematical model for municipal solid waste management - A case study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C K M; Yeung, C L; Xiong, Z R; Chung, S H

    2016-12-01

    With the booming economy and increasing population, the accumulation of waste has become an increasingly arduous issue and has aroused the attention from all sectors of society. Hong Kong which has a relative high daily per capita domestic waste generation rate in Asia has not yet established a comprehensive waste management system. This paper conducts a review of waste management approaches and models. Researchers highlight that mathematical models provide useful information for decision-makers to select appropriate choices and save cost. It is suggested to consider municipal solid waste management in a holistic view and improve the utilization of waste management infrastructures. A mathematical model which adopts integer linear programming and mixed integer programming has been developed for Hong Kong municipal solid waste management. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to simulate different scenarios which provide decision-makers important information for establishing Hong Kong waste management system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Technology-Supported Educational Innovations in Finland and Hong Kong: A Tale of Two Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Law

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of case studies about innovative ICT-supported pedagogical practices in two educational systems, namely Finland and Hong Kong. The two systems were selected for this in-depth comparison for three main reasons. First, Finland and Hong Kong performed well in several international comparative studies of educational achievement. Second, the case studies collected via the SITES Module 2 indicated rather different profiles between Finnish and Hong Kong schools in terms of ICT infrastructure and pedagogical practices. Third, further analysis of the case studies data indicated differences in emergent pedagogical characteristics between the cases collected in Asia and in Western Europe. The paper aims at exploring in detail two research questions with regard to innovative pedagogical practices using technology. Firstly, are there systemic differences in the nature of the educational innovations across countries? Secondly, are there systemic differences in the change mechanisms and factors influencing change across countries?

  3. Social and psychological barriers to private retirement savings in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Yu, Kar-Ming; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chan, Alfred C M; Lum, Terry Y S; Zhu, Alex Y F

    2014-01-01

    Using a phone survey conducted among Hong Kong workers, we examined the association of institutional, social, and psychological factors with engagement in both private retirement savings and the total amount of savings. Alarmingly, this study demonstrates that approximately 42% of Hong Kong workers do not save privately for their retirement. We found that age, education, number of children, support from spouse and friends, social regulation, perceived financial knowledge, and financial management capacity are associated with engagement in private retirement savings. Among those who saved, age, education, perceived financial knowledge, and financial management capacity are related to the amount of savings. Measures that could increase the social support for retirement savings as well as enhance their financial knowledge and management ability should be developed and implemented so that more workers engage in private retirement savings. A promising policy option for the Hong Kong government is to offer a tax incentive to promote additional savings for old-age income protection.

  4. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Wang, Xiaming; Yuan, Xueru; Yang, Li; Xue, Yu; Xie, Qian

    2016-01-01

    China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p < 0.05), especially for Mainland China, with a 59.50-fold increase experienced. From 2011, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81), followed by Hong Kong (720.39) and Mainland China (583.94). The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46) was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42) and Mainland China (1.33). Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392), followed by Hong Kong (3,785) and Mainland China (1,493). The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65) was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57) and Mainland China (3.41). The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count.

  5. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Methods: Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. Results: There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p < 0.05, especially for Mainland China, with a 59.50-fold increase experienced. From 2011, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81, followed by Hong Kong (720.39 and Mainland China (583.94. The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46 was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42 and Mainland China (1.33. Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392, followed by Hong Kong (3,785 and Mainland China (1,493. The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65 was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57 and Mainland China (3.41. The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Discussion: Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count.

  6. Reorganizing Hospital Space: The 1894 Plague Epidemic in Hong Kong and the Germ Theory*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-hwan Sihn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined whether the preventive measures taken by the Hong Kong’s colonial authorities were legitimate during the 1894 Hong Kong plague epidemic, and illuminated the correlation between the plague epidemic and hospital space in Hong Kong in the late 19th century. The quarantine measures taken by the colonial authorities were neither a clear-cut victory for Western medicine nor for a rational quarantine based on scientific medical knowledge. Hong Kong’s medical officials based on the miasma theory, and focused only on house-to-house inspections and forced quarantine or isolation, without encouraging people to wear masks and without conducting disinfection. Even after Hong Kong plague spread, the Hong Kong’s colonial authorities were not interested in what plague bacilli were, but in where they were to be found and how to prevent and control an outbreak of the disease. The germ theory brought significant changes to the disease classification system. Until the 1890s, Hong Kong’s colonial authority had classified cause of death mainly on the basis of symptoms, infectious diseases, parts of the body and diseases of systems. Microbiological analysis of the cause of death in Hong Kong was started by Hunter, a bacteriologist, in 1902. He used bacteriological tests with a microscope to analyze the cause of death. New disease recognition and medical recognition brought large changes to hospital space as well. In particular, from the 1880s to the early 1900s, Western medical circles witnessed shifts from miasma theory to the germ theory, thereby influencing Hong Kong’s hospital spaces. As the germ theory took ground in Hong Kong in 1894, the bacteriological laboratory and isolation ward became inevitable facilities, and hospital space were reorganized accordingly. However, the colonial authorities and local elites’ strategy was different. As a government bacteriologist, Hunter established a central facility to unify several

  7. Attitudes of Hong Kong residents toward the Daya Bay nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, William; Yeung, Iris M.H.

    2013-01-01

    A survey was conducted to study the attitudes of Hong Kong residents toward the safety of operations of the nuclear power plant in Daya Bay and their possible actions in case of leakage. Only 34.5% of the respondents were confident about the operational safety of the nuclear power plant, whereas 23% stated they would immediately leave Hong Kong when leakage occurs. Chi-square tests and multinomial logit analysis indicate that the degree of confidence is significantly related to the perceived ability of the Hong Kong (HK) government and the nuclear power plant company, China Light and Power Co. Ltd. (CLP), knowledge of emergency plan and responsibility, gender, and age. However, the degree of confidence is not significantly related to the distance of the residential area from the nuclear power plant. In addition, the higher the perceived ability of the HK Government and CLP to handle nuclear leakage, the greater the degree of confidence becomes. The chi-square tests suggest that higher perceived ability of the HK Government and CLP are also significantly associated with less likelihood of residents immediately leaving Hong Kong in case of leakage. Hence, the HK Government and CLP are recommended to improve their perceived ability for safety and social stability. - Highlights: • Survey results of HK resident′s attitudes towards nuclear power plant accident. • Negative attitudes of the Hong Kong people towards nuclear power plant accident. • 23% of respondents claiming they will leave Hong Kong immediately. • Simply following the countermeasures according to the EPZ is not enough. • Distance from nuclear power plants is insignificant in the degrees of confidence

  8. Biomass Burning Related Pollutions and Their Contributions to the Local Air Quality in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. L.; Qin, K.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we present a quantitative estimation of the impacts of biomass burning emissions from different source regions to the local air quality in Hong Kong in 2014 using global chemistry transport model simulations, sun photometer measurements, satellite observations and local monitoring network data. This study focuses on two major biomass burning pollutants, black carbon aerosols and carbon monoxide (CO). The model simulations of atmospheric black carbon and CO show excellent agreement with sun photometer aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, satellite CO columns observations and local monitoring stations data. From the model simulation results, we estimated that biomass burning contributes 12 % of total black carbon and 16 % of atmospheric CO in Hong Kong on annual average. South East Asia shows the largest influence to the black carbon and CO levels in Hong Kong, accounts for 11 % of the total atmospheric black carbon and 8 % of CO. Biomass burning in North East Asia and Africa also show significant impacts to Hong Kong. Elevated levels of atmospheric black carbon aerosols and CO were observed during springtime (March and April) which is mainly due to the enhancement of biomass burning contributions. Black carbon and CO originating from biomass burning sources are estimated to contribute 40 % of atmospheric black carbon and 28 % of CO in Hong Kong during March 2014. An investigation focusing on the biomass burning pollution episode during springtime suggests the intensified biomass burning activities in the Indochinese Peninsula are the major sources of black carbon and CO in Hong Kong during the time.

  9. BIOMASS BURNING RELATED POLLUTIONS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LOCAL AIR QUALITY IN HONG KONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Chan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a quantitative estimation of the impacts of biomass burning emissions from different source regions to the local air quality in Hong Kong in 2014 using global chemistry transport model simulations, sun photometer measurements, satellite observations and local monitoring network data. This study focuses on two major biomass burning pollutants, black carbon aerosols and carbon monoxide (CO. The model simulations of atmospheric black carbon and CO show excellent agreement with sun photometer aerosol optical depth (AOD measurements, satellite CO columns observations and local monitoring stations data. From the model simulation results, we estimated that biomass burning contributes 12 % of total black carbon and 16 % of atmospheric CO in Hong Kong on annual average. South East Asia shows the largest influence to the black carbon and CO levels in Hong Kong, accounts for 11 % of the total atmospheric black carbon and 8 % of CO. Biomass burning in North East Asia and Africa also show significant impacts to Hong Kong. Elevated levels of atmospheric black carbon aerosols and CO were observed during springtime (March and April which is mainly due to the enhancement of biomass burning contributions. Black carbon and CO originating from biomass burning sources are estimated to contribute 40 % of atmospheric black carbon and 28 % of CO in Hong Kong during March 2014. An investigation focusing on the biomass burning pollution episode during springtime suggests the intensified biomass burning activities in the Indochinese Peninsula are the major sources of black carbon and CO in Hong Kong during the time.

  10. Comparing quality of public primary care between Hong Kong and Shanghai using validated patient assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaolin; Li, Haitao; Yang, Nan; Wong, Samuel Y S; Owolabi, Onikepe; Xu, Jianguang; Shi, Leiyu; Tang, Jinling; Li, Donald; Griffiths, Sian M

    2015-01-01

    Primary care is the key element of health reform in China. The objective of this study was to compare patient assessed quality of public primary care between Hong Kong, a city with established primary care environment influenced by its colonial history, and Shanghai, a city leading primary care reform in Mainland China; and to measure the equity of care in the two cities. Cross sectional stratified random sampling surveys were conducted in 2011. Data were collected from 1,994 respondents in Hong Kong and 811 respondents in Shanghai. A validated Chinese version of the primary care assessment tool was employed to assess perceived quality of primary care with respect to socioeconomic characteristics and health status. We analyzed 391 and 725 respondents in Hong Kong and Shanghai, respectively, who were regular public primary care users. Respondents in Hong Kong reported significant lower scores in first contact accessibility (1.59 vs. 2.15), continuity of care (2.33 vs. 3.10), coordination of information (2.84 vs. 3.64), comprehensiveness service availability (2.43 vs. 3.31), comprehensiveness service provided (2.11 vs. 2.40), and the total score (23.40 vs. 27.40), but higher scores in first contact utilization (3.15 vs. 2.54) and coordination of services (2.67 vs. 2.40) when compared with those in Shanghai. Respondents with higher income reported a significantly higher total primary care score in Hong Kong, but not in Shanghai. Respondents in Shanghai reported better quality of public primary care than those in Hong Kong, while quality of public primary care tended to be more equitable in Shanghai.

  11. Comparing quality of public primary care between Hong Kong and Shanghai using validated patient assessment tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Wei

    Full Text Available Primary care is the key element of health reform in China. The objective of this study was to compare patient assessed quality of public primary care between Hong Kong, a city with established primary care environment influenced by its colonial history, and Shanghai, a city leading primary care reform in Mainland China; and to measure the equity of care in the two cities.Cross sectional stratified random sampling surveys were conducted in 2011. Data were collected from 1,994 respondents in Hong Kong and 811 respondents in Shanghai. A validated Chinese version of the primary care assessment tool was employed to assess perceived quality of primary care with respect to socioeconomic characteristics and health status.We analyzed 391 and 725 respondents in Hong Kong and Shanghai, respectively, who were regular public primary care users. Respondents in Hong Kong reported significant lower scores in first contact accessibility (1.59 vs. 2.15, continuity of care (2.33 vs. 3.10, coordination of information (2.84 vs. 3.64, comprehensiveness service availability (2.43 vs. 3.31, comprehensiveness service provided (2.11 vs. 2.40, and the total score (23.40 vs. 27.40, but higher scores in first contact utilization (3.15 vs. 2.54 and coordination of services (2.67 vs. 2.40 when compared with those in Shanghai. Respondents with higher income reported a significantly higher total primary care score in Hong Kong, but not in Shanghai.Respondents in Shanghai reported better quality of public primary care than those in Hong Kong, while quality of public primary care tended to be more equitable in Shanghai.

  12. A Study of Incentive Policies for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Technology in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aotian Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Installing sustainable and renewable energy systems is a promising way of relieving Hong Kong’s dependence on imported fossil fuels. Solar photovoltaic (PV technology is a perfect solution for Hong Kong as it fits the economic and geographic situation. Through a review of the PV development history of five leading PV countries, Germany, Japan, Italy, Mainland China, and the USA, this paper serves as a useful policy toolbox to aid PV development. Based on the forerunners’ successful PV industry experiences and Hong Kong’s unique local situations, a series of incentive strategies were proposed for Hong Kong to help promote the utilization of solar PV systems by reducing the initial investment and providing reasonable subsidies at the initial stages and during the operation period of the PV systems. These results could be a practical reference for promoting renewable energy applications for local policy-makers.

  13. Distribution and current infection status of Biomphalaria straminea in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xin; Yiu, Wing Chung; Cheung, Kwan Ho; Yip, Ho Yin; Nong, Wenyan; He, Ping; Yuan, Dongjuan; Rollinson, David; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Fung, Ming Chiu; Wu, Zhongdao; Hui, Jerome Ho Lam

    2017-07-25

    Schistosomiasis, also generally known as snail fever, is a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. In Hong Kong and mainland China, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria straminea has been introduced and has the potential to transmit intestinal schistosomiasis caused by S. mansoni, a parasite of man which has a wide distribution in Africa and parts of the New World, especially Brazil. The first identification of B. straminea in Hong Kong dates back to the 1970s, and its geographical distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and infection status have not been updated for more than 30 years. Thus, this study aims to reveal the distribution and current infection status of B. straminea in contemporary Hong Kong. Snails were collected from different parts of Hong Kong from July 2016 to January 2017. Both anatomical and molecular methods were applied to identify B. straminea. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8S rDNA, internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were sequenced from individual snails and analyzed. To detect the presence of S. mansoni, both biopsy and PCR analyses were carried out. Using both anatomical and molecular analyses, this study demonstrated the existence of black- and red-coloured shell B. straminea in different districts in the New Territories in Hong Kong, including places close to the mainland China border. None of the B. straminea (n = 87) investigated were found to be infected with S. mansoni when tested by biopsy and PCR. The Hong Kong B. straminea are genetically indistinguishable, based on the chosen molecular markers (cox1, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, and 16S rDNA), and are similar to those obtained in mainland China and South America. Biomphalaria straminea is now well established in freshwater habitats in Hong Kong. No evidence of infection with S. mansoni has been found. Surveillance should be continued to monitor and better understand this

  14. Statutory Instrument No. 126, The Nuclear Installations (Hong Kong) Order 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This Order extends to Hong Kong, with the exceptions, adaptations and modifications specified in the Schedule to the Order, certain provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, as amended. It is the 1965 Act which implements the provisions of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention in the United Kingdom. The provisions so extended impose a duty on the nuclear operator to secure that no nuclear occurrence taking place within the territorial limits of Hong Kong causes nuclear injury or damage, and relate to the right to compensation for breach of that duty, the bringing and satisfaction of claims and other matters. (NEA) [fr

  15. Injustice in family care of the Chinese elderly in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, R; Wong, W

    1995-01-01

    With increasing longevity, family care of the Chinese elderly in Hong Kong is evolving as a "caring trap" for female caregivers, especially unmarried daughters. Despite this, as Hong Kong is still a patriarchal Chinese society, most of the major decisions affecting the destiny of frail elders are made by sons or other male members of the family. The unequal gender roles, obligations, and division of caregiving responsibilities within the Chinese family and their effects on the caring relationship are discussed. Implications of this injustice based on gender regarding family care of the elderly and the possibility of its elimination are examined.

  16. How Does Millennials’ Perception on Their Employers Affect Their Work Ethic? A Study in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsun-Lok Kwong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Work ethic of millennial employees has raised considerable attention in Hong Kong. Current article examined how the millennials’ perception on their employers would have an effect on their own work ethic. A survey study of 212 millennial respondents showed that the millennials in general perceived their employers positively and embraced good work ethic. Two variables – perception and work ethic – are significantly related. The study also revealed that millennials in Hong Kong hold peculiar interpretations of work and leisure, and of work and success. It was suggested that parenting, educational system, and modern working environments might have caused these interpretations.

  17. Ductal carcinoma in situ of breast: detection and treatment pattern in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, T K; Chan, A; Cheung, P Sy

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ has been widely reported in the western and other Asian countries, but the relevant data in Hong Kong are relatively limited. This study aimed to evaluate the latest detection and treatment pattern for ductal carcinoma in situ in Hong Kong so as to guide planning of future service provision. This was a retrospective case series study. A total of 573 patients who registered with the Hong Kong Breast Cancer Registry, and were diagnosed and treated in Hong Kong from January 2001 to December 2011 were reviewed. Compared with invasive breast cancer patients, patients with ductal carcinoma in situ were younger (median, 48.6 vs 50.3 years; Pincome (PHong Kong, ductal carcinoma in situ is more frequently found in the higher social classes and managed in the private sector. The clinical outcome of ductal carcinoma in situ is excellent and more than half of the patients can be successfully managed with breast-conserving surgery.

  18. Enforcing the Right to Family Life in Hong Kong Courts: The Case of Dependant Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Chuen Ngai Tang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the Hong Kong courts’ seemingly robust protection of fundamental rights and civil liberties, enforcing family rights remains extremely difficult. While the right to family life is safeguarded by both domestic and international human right instruments, applicants in judicial review cases are usually not able to rely on it to challenge the decisions made by the immigration authority. This paper examines the challenges in enforcing the right to family life in Hong Kong’s Dependant Policy with a particular focus on the Hong Kong Court of Appeal’s recent decision in BI v Director of Immigration. The immigration reservation, entered into by the United Kingdom when ratifying the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, has become a justification for a restrictive immigration regime even after the transfer of sovereignty. The Hong Kong courts also repeatedly accord wide discretion to immigration authority. The courts’ reluctance to scrutinize socio-economic policies reveals one of the key weaknesses in enforcing fundamental rights in Hong Kong by the way of judicial review.

  19. The Behaviour of Small Investors in the Hong Kong Derivatives Markets: A Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hon, Tai-Yuen

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the behaviour of small investors in Hong Kong’s derivatives markets. The study period covers the global economic crisis of 2011- 2012, and we focus on small investors’ behaviour during and after the crisis. We attempt to identify and analyse the key factors that capture their behaviour in derivatives markets in Hong Kong. The data were collected from 524 respondents via a questionnaire survey. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to analyse the data, and some inter...

  20. Supermodernity, distraction, schizophrenia: walking in Tokyo & Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Ho-Yin Fong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The architecture in a supermodern city has no sense of the place where it is located. This paper discusses how schizophrenia and distraction, through walking, respond to supermodernity by referring to how three dislocated subjects, Fumiya Takemura, Aiichiro Fukuhara and Fai in Tokyo and Hong Kong, are respectively depicted in the novel, Adrift in Tokyo written by Fujita Yoshinaga in 1999, with a film adaptation by Satoshi Miki (2007, and the film To Live and Die in Mongkok directed by Wong Jing in 2009. It suggests that Hong Kong is more supermodern than Tokyo. After his release from prison, Fai in To Live and Die in Mongkok finds that Mongkok is a completely different place from the one in which he used to live. The living conditions are no better than those in the prison. He hallucinates about the past. Adrift in Tokyo can be read as a story about walking. Fukuhara, a debt collector, killed his wife; before surrendering to the police, he orders his debtor, Takemura, to walk with him in Tokyo in order to re-experience the walks he enjoyed with his wife. If Takemura agrees, the debt can be paid off. This paper discusses how the repressed heterogeneous time and place can be approached by walking in a way that the rhythm of life can be (re-experienced; in other words, when the body moves forward physically, the past appears as specter haunting the walker. This paper discusses how Adrift in Tokyo and To Live and Die in Mongkok read cities in distractive and schizophrenic ways. In the film version of Adrift in Tokyo, Takemura’s failed relationship with his father may unconsciously drive him to walk with Fukuhara. The novel may imply that the lost relationship with his mother drives him to walk. The film and the novel both address a kind of locality which should be inseparable from the birth parents. To Live and Die in Mongkok suggests that supermodernity kills mother and father. The Father-son relationship disappears at the very beginning of the

  1. Immunocontraception for managing feral cattle in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massei, Giovanna; Koon, Ka-Kei; Benton, Steven; Brown, Richard; Gomm, Matt; Orahood, Darcy S; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Eckery, Douglas C

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts between human interests and feral cattle in Hong Kong derive from growing numbers of free-roaming cattle. Public antipathy towards lethal population control led the local authorities to consider fertility control to reduce cattle numbers. This study assessed the potential side effects of the immunocontraceptive GonaCon on individual female cattle and established the effectiveness of GonaCon to induce infertility. We evaluated GonaCon in 34 captive cattle assigned to four groups: Control administered a sham solution; Webbed (surgically sterilized through removal of the oviducts), administered one dose of GonaCon; Webbed, administered one dose of GonaCon and a booster dose three months later, and Treated, administered one dose of GonaCon. The side effects of GonaCon were assessed by monitoring injection site, body weight, body condition, size of lymph nodes, body temperature, and feeding behaviour 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after vaccination and by haematological and biochemical variables at vaccination and three months post-vaccination. The effectiveness of GonaCon to cause infertility was monitored by quantifying anti-GnRH antibody titres and by using kits to detect cycling and pregnancy. GonaCon-treated cattle showed no injection site reaction, limping, or abnormal behaviour. No differences were observed in all physiological and welfare indicators between control and vaccinated cattle. All control cattle and 4 of the 12 cattle in the Treated group became pregnant. Cattle administered a booster dose had higher anti-GnRH antibody titres than cattle that received one dose. We concluded that GonaCon does not compromise the animals' welfare and is effective in reducing fertility in cattle. A booster dose is likely to increase the duration of infertility. Further studies are required to assess the feasibility and costs of immunocontraception for controlling free-roaming cattle populations.

  2. Immunocontraception for managing feral cattle in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Massei

    Full Text Available Conflicts between human interests and feral cattle in Hong Kong derive from growing numbers of free-roaming cattle. Public antipathy towards lethal population control led the local authorities to consider fertility control to reduce cattle numbers. This study assessed the potential side effects of the immunocontraceptive GonaCon on individual female cattle and established the effectiveness of GonaCon to induce infertility. We evaluated GonaCon in 34 captive cattle assigned to four groups: Control administered a sham solution; Webbed (surgically sterilized through removal of the oviducts, administered one dose of GonaCon; Webbed, administered one dose of GonaCon and a booster dose three months later, and Treated, administered one dose of GonaCon. The side effects of GonaCon were assessed by monitoring injection site, body weight, body condition, size of lymph nodes, body temperature, and feeding behaviour 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after vaccination and by haematological and biochemical variables at vaccination and three months post-vaccination. The effectiveness of GonaCon to cause infertility was monitored by quantifying anti-GnRH antibody titres and by using kits to detect cycling and pregnancy. GonaCon-treated cattle showed no injection site reaction, limping, or abnormal behaviour. No differences were observed in all physiological and welfare indicators between control and vaccinated cattle. All control cattle and 4 of the 12 cattle in the Treated group became pregnant. Cattle administered a booster dose had higher anti-GnRH antibody titres than cattle that received one dose. We concluded that GonaCon does not compromise the animals' welfare and is effective in reducing fertility in cattle. A booster dose is likely to increase the duration of infertility. Further studies are required to assess the feasibility and costs of immunocontraception for controlling free-roaming cattle populations.

  3. Gaming behavior and addiction among Hong Kong adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lai Kuen Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated with the activity. Methods A convenient sample of 13 male high school students aged 12–15 years (mean age = 13.6 years were interviewed at two Internet cafes. Young’s (Caught in the net, Wiley, New York, 1998 criteria of Internet addiction were modified to assess gaming addiction. Results Internet cafes were described as a safe and ideal rendezvous for gamers. The benefits of gaming included fun and satisfaction, fostering social support and teamwork, meeting new friends and becoming sociable, boosting cognitive techniques and intellectual agility, improved responsiveness and quick thinking. Perceived harms of gaming addiction were reduced time and interest in other important activities, poor academic performance, physical harms and emotional distress, disrupted friendship with non-gaming peers, risked family relationship and financial problems. Five interviewees (38.5 % could be categorized as pathological gamers and two were problem gamers (15.4 %. The psychological factors associated with gaming addiction include low self-esteem, a strong desire for aggressive and exciting experiences, reliance on gaming to kill time and to obtain satisfaction, coping with problems and negative emotions, and obsession with achieving higher rankings in games. The social and environmental risk factors are accessibility to the Internet cafés, aggressive promotional activities at the Internet cafes, peer pressure, family influence and early gaming experiences, perceived parental approval, lack of parental supervision, and poor family relationship. Conclusions The study results throw light on prevention programs.

  4. Gaming behavior and addiction among Hong Kong adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Irene Lai Kuen; Lam, Millicent Pui Sze

    Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated with the activity. A convenient sample of 13 male high school students aged 12-15 years (mean age = 13.6 years) were interviewed at two Internet cafes. Young's (Caught in the net, Wiley, New York, 1998) criteria of Internet addiction were modified to assess gaming addiction. Internet cafes were described as a safe and ideal rendezvous for gamers. The benefits of gaming included fun and satisfaction, fostering social support and teamwork, meeting new friends and becoming sociable, boosting cognitive techniques and intellectual agility, improved responsiveness and quick thinking. Perceived harms of gaming addiction were reduced time and interest in other important activities, poor academic performance, physical harms and emotional distress, disrupted friendship with non-gaming peers, risked family relationship and financial problems. Five interviewees (38.5 %) could be categorized as pathological gamers and two were problem gamers (15.4 %). The psychological factors associated with gaming addiction include low self-esteem, a strong desire for aggressive and exciting experiences, reliance on gaming to kill time and to obtain satisfaction, coping with problems and negative emotions, and obsession with achieving higher rankings in games. The social and environmental risk factors are accessibility to the Internet cafés, aggressive promotional activities at the Internet cafes, peer pressure, family influence and early gaming experiences, perceived parental approval, lack of parental supervision, and poor family relationship. The study results throw light on prevention programs.

  5. Prevalence of Mental Illness among Homeless People in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Larina Chi-Lap; Leung, Henry Chi-Ming; Chan, Wai Chi; Lam, Marco Ho-Bun; Lim, Vivian Wai-Man

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I) and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists. The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18%) of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study. The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals.

  6. Trans Fatty Acids in the Hong Kong Food Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. C. Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine trans fatty acids (TFA content of 142 individual food items, including bakery, fast food, and other fatty food that may contain high level of TFA. TFA was detected in all samples, except for four samples including one plain bread, one sponge cake, and two batter-made foods (egg roll and eggette samples. For those found to contain detectable TFA, the content ranged up to 4.7 g/100 g of food or 17.3% of total lipids. On a per 100 grams of food basis, the highest mean TFA content among the 18 food subgroups was the doughnuts/French toast subgroup (0.95 g, followed by the other pastries subgroup (0.49 g and the bread with filling/topping subgroup (0.44 g. Among the samples, the highest TFA content is from a doughnut (4.7 g/100 g, followed by two cream-filled bread with shredded coconut (1.8 and 1.4 g/100 g and a sweetheart cake (1.7 g/100 g. Only consuming one whole piece of doughnut would have reached 100% of the maximum daily TFA intake as recommended by WHO based on a 2000 kcal diet. About 78% of samples had TFA ≤0.3 g/100 g food. For the majority of the food samples available in Hong Kong, if TFA was present, C18:1 trans would possibly be the predominant one.

  7. Prevalence of Mental Illness among Homeless People in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larina Chi-Lap Yim

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists.The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18% of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study.The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals.

  8. Prevalence of Mental Illness among Homeless People in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Chi; Lam, Marco Ho-Bun; Lim, Vivian Wai-Man

    2015-01-01

    Metholodogy This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I) and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists. Findings The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18%) of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study. Conclusion The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals. PMID:26484889

  9. Sleep and academic performance in Hong Kong adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lo, Wing-Sze; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-11-01

    Sleep problems may have different influences on students' academic performance. We investigated the prevalence of sleep patterns, naps, and sleep disorders, and their associations with academic performance in Hong Kong adolescents. In 2007-2008, 22,678 students aged 12-18 (41.6% boys) completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, sleep patterns and problems, and lifestyle factors including exercise, smoking, alcohol drinking, and academic performance. The prevalence of having >8 hours of sleep was higher on holiday nights (86.4%) than on school-day nights (27.4%). Sleeping after midnight was more common before holidays (49.3%) than before school days (19.9%). Symptoms of insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were reported by 21.5% and 34.4% of students. Having >2 hours of weekend sleep delay was associated with poor academic performance with an odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) of 1.46 (1.29-1.65). However, having 1-2 hours and >2 hours of weekend wake-up delay were both associated with less likelihood of poor academic performance with ORs of 0.64 (0.56-0.73) and 0.69 (0.59-0.80). Other factors associated with poor academic performance included >2 hours of sleep debt, OR of 1.17 (1.03-1.33); having any insomnia symptoms in the past 30 days, OR of 1.27 (1.17-1.37); and having any OSA symptoms at least weekly, OR of 1.23 (1.14-1.32). Napping in the past 5 school days was only marginally associated with poor school performance with an OR of 1.08 (1.00-1.16). Poorer academic performance was associated with sleep debt, and symptoms of insomnia and OSA. Sleep compensation but not naps may be a protective factor of poor academic performance. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  10. Frailty and Its Contributory Factors in Older Adults: A Comparison of Two Asian Regions (Hong Kong and Taiwan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruby; Wu, Wan-Chi; Leung, Jason; Hu, Susan C; Woo, Jean

    2017-09-21

    This study aimed to compare the prevalence of frailty across three Chinese populations: Hong Kong, Taiwan-urban and Taiwan-rural. Contributing factors to disparities in frailty were also examined. Data were derived from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOs) and Women (MsOs) (Hong Kong) Study ( n = 4000) and the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging ( n = 2392). Frailty was defined as an index calculated from 30 multiple deficits. The ratio of the frailty index to life expectancy at birth (FI/LE) was used as an indicator of compression of morbidity. Frailty was more prevalent in Taiwan-urban (33.1%) and Taiwan-rural (38.1%) compared to Hong Kong (16.6%, p Hong Kong (0.20, p Hong Kong and Taiwan-urban populations, but not in Taiwan-rural. Living alone was associated with frailty in Hong Kong men, but not in Hong Kong women or Taiwanese people. For all study populations, older age and being a woman constituted the highest attributable factor. This comparison provides useful data to inform government policies.

  11. The adaptation of Chinese adolescents in two societies: a comparison of Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Karnilowicz, Wally

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the adaptation of two groups of migrant Chinese adolescents with their nonmigrant peers. The migrant adolescents included 55 Chinese migrant adolescents who migrated to Australia (Chinese-Australian) and 111 China-born adolescents who migrated to Hong Kong (Chinese-Hong Kong). The nonmigrant adolescents included 157 Anglo-Australian adolescents residing in Australia and 456 Hong Kong-born Chinese adolescents residing in Hong Kong. There were three research questions in this study. First, would there be any differences in the adaptation of Chinese migrant adolescents in different societies of settlement? Second, would migrant adolescents experience more adaptation problems than nonmigrant adolescents? Third, would there be any differences in the adaptation of adolescents in the two societies, Australia and Hong Kong? It was hypothesized that: (1) mainland Chinese migrant adolescents in Hong Kong would experience more adaptation problems than Chinese migrant adolescents in Australia; (2) migrant adolescents would report better adaptation than nonmigrant adolescents; (3) adolescents in Hong Kong would report poorer adaptation than adolescents in Australia. The participants were requested to complete a questionnaire on various adaptation outcome measures including life satisfaction, self-esteem, psychological symptoms, academic satisfaction, and behaviour problems. The results indicated that Chinese-Australian adolescents reported better psychological adaptation but Chinese-Hong Kong adolescents reported better sociocultural adaptation. Adolescents resident in Australia reported higher psychological adaptation but lower sociocultural adaptation than those in Hong Kong. Migrant adolescents reported better psychological and sociocultural adaptation than their nonmigrant counterparts. The results were discussed in relation to the social and educational systems of the two societies.

  12. Validation of the Beliefs against Volunteering Scale among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ben M. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2011-01-01

    Participation in volunteer service is an indicator of quality of life. This study attempts to validate the Beliefs Against Volunteering Scale (BAV), an assessment of the negative beliefs about volunteerism among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. The BAV was administered to 5,946 Chinese adolescents. The BAV and its subscales were found to be…

  13. Mapping the Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Hong Kong Secondary Schools with High Ethnic Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Yuet Mui Celeste; Lee, Moosung

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to map the life satisfaction of adolescents from ethnic minority/immigrant backgrounds in schools with high concentrations of co-ethnic peers by comparing them with their mainstream counterparts in Hong Kong. The life satisfaction of 1,522 students was measured by the validated Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction…

  14. A Re-Examination of Leadership Style for Hong Kong School-Based Management (SBM) Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Sammy King-fai; Cheung, Hoi Yan

    2006-01-01

    Leadership style has always been a controversial topic in educational administration and management. Following the recommendation of the Education Commission to introduce school-based management (SBM) into Hong Kong schools in the early 1990s, discussions about the kind of leadership style that is appropriate for SBM schools have never ceased. The…

  15. Exporting Hong Kong's Higher Education in Asian Markets: A SWOT Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan Chi Keung; Yuen, Timothy Wai Wa; Yuen, Celeste Yuet Mui

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid growth and expansion of the Asian economies in recent years, there has been a continued rise of students in Asia who are studying outside their home countries. This study attempts to highlight the major strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of Hong Kong's higher education in relation to its potential of being a regional…

  16. Quantifying the waste reduction potential of using prefabrication in building construction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaillon, L; Poon, C S; Chiang, Y H

    2009-01-01

    As Hong Kong is a compact city with limited available land and high land prices, the construction of high-rise buildings is prevalent. The construction industry produces a significant amount of building waste. In 2005, about 21.5 million tonnes of construction waste were generated, of which 11% was disposed of in landfills and 89% in public filling areas. At the present rate, Hong Kong will run out of both public filling areas and landfill space within the next decade. The government is taking action to tackle the problem, such as by introducing a construction waste landfill charge, and promoting prefabrication to reduce on-site waste generation. This paper reports an ongoing study on the use of prefabrication in buildings and its impact on waste reduction in Hong Kong. A questionnaire survey was administered to experienced professionals, and case studies of recently completed building projects were conducted. The results revealed that construction waste reduction is one of the major benefits when using prefabrication compared with conventional construction. The average wastage reduction level was about 52%. This implies that a wider use of prefabrication could considerably reduce construction waste generation in Hong Kong and alleviate the burdens associated with its management.

  17. Foreign Media Exposure and Perceptions of Americans in Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willnat, Lars; He, Zhou; Xiaoming, Hao

    1997-01-01

    Finds that foreign TV consumption is related to negative stereotypical perceptions of and feelings toward Americans among undergraduate students attending universities in Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Singapore; but that different types of foreign media, such as newspaper, radio, video, and movies, exhibit distinct and different relationships with…

  18. Outdoor Adventure Education in East Asia: Interpreting Data from Outward Bound Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Funnell, Aaron; Riley, Mike; Chan, Bacon; Meerts-Brandsma, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor adventure education (OAE) is philosophically rooted in Western values, yet it has been implemented in non-Western cultures, such as East Asia. This paper examines how OAE functions in East Asia, through data from Hong Kong. Although some cultural differences are clear, there is no compelling evidence that OAE cannot provide benefits in…

  19. University Support, Adjustment, and Mental Health in Tertiary Education Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi Hung

    2017-01-01

    Depression, anxiety, and stress of moderate to severe levels were found in 21, 41, and 27% of university students in Hong Kong, respectively. The development of a screening tool for assessing adjustment difficulties among tertiary education students is helpful for counseling professionals in university. The Student Perception of University Support…

  20. Identifying the Gaps in Practice for Combating Lead in Drinking Water in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Ling Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Excessive lead has been found in drinking water in Hong Kong in tests carried out in 2015. Investigations have identified that the problem in public rental housing estates was caused by the problematic solders used in the plumbing, and recommendations on enhancing the quality control system and strengthening the relevant water quality standards have been proposed. The cause for the same problem happening in other premises where soldering has not been adopted for water pipe connections is left unidentified. Considering the unidentified cause and the recommendations made, this study aims to identify the gaps in practice followed in Hong Kong for safeguarding the water quality of new installations. A holistic review of governing ordinances and regulations, products and materials used and the testing and commissioning requirements adopted in Hong Kong and elsewhere in the world were conducted. Based on international practices and parametric analysis, it was found that there are gaps in practices followed in Hong Kong, which are directly and indirectly leading to the lead-in-water crisis. Recommendations for improvement in the quality control system, and the water quality standards including the allowable lead content and leaching limit for products and materials and the testing and commissioning requirements on plumbing installations have been made. The review and the identified gaps would become useful reference for countries in strengthening their relevant water quality standards.

  1. Quality Improvement in Early Years Settings in Hong Kong and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Dora; Campbell-Barr, Verity; Leeson, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    With a growing awareness of the importance of early childhood education, the governments of Hong Kong and England have both increased investment through providing fee assistance to parents for buying services and providing funding to providers for offering "free" places, respectively. Alongside the increased funding of early childhood…

  2. University Students' Conceptions of the Good Teacher: A Hong Kong Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Bruce; Evans, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    One way that universities assess teaching effectiveness is by eliciting student feedback. However, what standards do students themselves use to judge whether a lecturer is a 'good' teacher? As part of a study carried out at a Hong Kong university, students were interviewed about their first-year learning experience and asked what they felt…

  3. Intergenerational Comparisons of Child-Rearing Attitudes and Practices in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, David Y. F.; Kang, T. K.

    1984-01-01

    Reports two studies, one focusing on maternal childrearing attitudes and practices and the other on paternal roles and attitudes in Hong Kong. Informants were 17 pairs of grandmothers and mothers and 20 pairs of grandfathers and fathers from the same families. Despite important changes in paternal roles, continuity with the past was found to…

  4. A Study on the Sleep Patterns and Problems of University Business Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Y. Y.; Wing, Y. K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate sleep patterns and problems of university business students. Participants: Undergraduate Chinese business students in Hong Kong. Methods: Self-reported questionnaires were completed during class lectures and through online system. Results: Of the 620 participating students (mean age 19.9 years), sleep duration was…

  5. Exploring School Ethos: An Investigation of Children's Human Rights in Two Secondary Institutions in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yan Lam; Leung, Yan Wing; Yuen, Wai Wa

    2015-01-01

    From 2009 to 2011, the authors launched the Basic Law Education Project: Education for Human Rights and the Rule of Law in Hong Kong. This article focuses on a subset of the overarching data-set and discusses the findings that resulted from a comparative analysis of two participating schools. A survey was deployed to assess the extent to which a…

  6. Regional Education Profile: Asia. China, Hong Kong, Macau, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Developments in international education in Asia during 1985 are considered in three essays presented in the Biennial International Education Seminars conducted by the Institute of International Education. Countries covered by the essays and the authors are: China, Hong Kong, and Thailand (Jay Henderson); Macau (Josef Silny and Jay Henderson); and…

  7. Transition for a Student with Special Educational Needs from Primary to Secondary School in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlin, Chris; Sin, Kenneth Kuen-Fung; Maclean, Rupert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors employ a case study approach to investigate the transition process for a student with special educational needs from a Hong Kong subsidised primary school into a secondary school. An analysis of transcripts from individual and focus group interviews with the student, his parents, his 4 primary teachers and his 10…

  8. Screening for Chinese Children with Dyslexia in Hong Kong: The Use of the Teachers' Behaviour Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han; Chung, Kevin K. H.

    2004-01-01

    Primary school teachers rated the frequency of occurrence of 65 reading-related behavioural characteristics in a sample of 251 Grade 1 to Grade 6 Chinese school children in Hong Kong. These behavioural characteristics were in the areas of general performance, reading, dictation, writing, mathematics, language, memory, concentration, sequential…

  9. A Case Study: Reading Strategies Training Scheme in a Hong Kong Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Cheung

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a case study on a reading programme, named Reading Strategies Training Scheme (RSTS), for second language learning in a Hong Kong primary (elementary) school. The scheme, serving learners of English as a second language from Primary One to Six (ages 6--12), was developed by the school's English teaching team. As it was being…

  10. Emotions and Pair Trust in Asynchronous Hospitality Cultural Exchange for Students in Taiwan and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-jung; Chen, Hsueh Chu

    2012-01-01

    Social and emotional dynamics have an impact on students' learning processes in online-learning situations. This study explores university students' emotions and trust levels resulting from collaborative communication behaviors when they interacted as part of a Food and Tourism course in Taiwan and Hong Kong. More specifically, students' emotions…

  11. Children's After-School Physical Activity Participation in Hong Kong: Does Family Socioeconomic Status Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Peggy PY

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and children's physical activity (PA) behaviour during after-school hours. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Participants included 663 schoolchildren (aged between 10 and 13 years) and their parents from nine primary schools in Hong Kong.…

  12. Personality Types of Hong Kong Kindergarten Teachers: Implications for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yau-ho Paul; Li-fang, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    While an individual's personality is related to his or her well-being, little research has examined kindergarten teachers' personality. This research was the first to investigate Hong Kong kindergarten teachers' personality types using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Three hundred and seventy-one kindergarten teachers voluntarily responded…

  13. South Asian Students' Needs for Cantonese and Written Chinese in Hong Kong: A Linguistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David C. S.; Chuk, Joanne Y. P.

    2015-01-01

    Based on qualitative data obtained from 15 South Asian (SA) B.Ed. (EL) (Bachelor of Education in English Language) students, this study reports on SA students' difficulty in mastering Mandarin-based written Chinese and the vernacular Cantonese in Hong Kong. For convenience, SA here also refers to students whose homeland is the Philippines. Since…

  14. Attitudes toward Euthanasia in Hong Kong--A Comparison between Physicians and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-lin; Fok, Shiu-yeu

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that compared the attitudes of 618 respondents of a general household survey and a random sample of 1,197 physicians toward different types of euthanasia in Hong Kong. The general public was found to agree with active euthanasia and non-voluntary euthanasia and was neutral about passive…

  15. Developing and Implementing Quality Inclusive Education in Hong Kong: Implications for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlin, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The government in Hong Kong has mandated that all schools should start to accept children with special educational needs by employing a whole school approach. This is not a simple move for teachers as inclusive education is complex, involving a range of issues including developing appropriate government and school policy; providing relevant…

  16. The Development of Learning as the Leading Activity for Hong Kong Immigrant Families in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pui Ling; Fleer, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Many parents work hard to foster a culture of learning early in their children's development. The desire for children to learn as early as possible is common among Hong Kong-Australian families. These children continue to perform well academically. Little is known about the pedagogy that underpins such development in the family or on the…

  17. Musical Free Play: A Case for Invented Musical Notation in a Hong Kong Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wing Chi Margaret; Grieshaber, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Drawn from a larger mixed methods study, this case study provides an account of aspects of the music education programme that occurred with one teacher and a kindergarten class of children aged three and four years. Contrary to transmission approaches that are often used in Hong Kong, the case depicts how musical creativity was encouraged by the…

  18. Development of Parent--School Partnerships in Times of Educational Reform in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shun Wing

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, parents' rights of participating in children's education have been recognized in Hong Kong. Parents have been consulted and invited to participate in PTAs, manage the school, organize school activities, and assist in school functions. However, implementation of parent-school partnerships signifies the notion of parent empowerment that…

  19. A Mixed-Methods Study of Paternal Involvement in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Eva Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here examined Chinese fathers' direct interaction or engagement in children's education both at home and in preschool during the early childhood years using a Hong Kong sample in two studies. In Study 1, comparisons between father and mother involvement practices and examination of the associations between family background…

  20. Identity and Cross-Border Student Mobility: The Mainland China-Hong Kong Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cora Lingling

    2015-01-01

    This article is drawn from research in an ongoing multiple case study of the identity constructions of tertiary-level border-crossing students from mainland China to Hong Kong. It begins by outlining the contextual and conceptual background of the study, followed by the presentation and discussion of the three aspects of identity being…

  1. Educational Reforms and the Practices of Professional Learning Community in Hong Kong Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung; Wang, Ting; Leung, Zoe Lai-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the characteristics of professional learning communities (PLCs) in Hong Kong primary schools. It investigated the profiles of the strengths of professional learning community in schools under study and particularly examined the practices in schools which were identified as strong PLCs. It extends research on PLCs in the Hong…

  2. Civic Education Stuck in a Quagmire: A Critical Review of Civic Education in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Timothy Wai Wa

    2016-01-01

    Civic education is considered as a way to nurture good citizens who work to develop the polity. However, in real politics, education often mirrors instead of shaping the political development. Reviewing civic education of Hong Kong from a historical development perspective, this article explains that civic education has for long been used a tool…

  3. Identifying the Gaps in Practice for Combating Lead in Drinking Water in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wai Ling; Jia, Jie; Bao, Yani

    2016-01-01

    Excessive lead has been found in drinking water in Hong Kong in tests carried out in 2015. Investigations have identified that the problem in public rental housing estates was caused by the problematic solders used in the plumbing, and recommendations on enhancing the quality control system and strengthening the relevant water quality standards have been proposed. The cause for the same problem happening in other premises where soldering has not been adopted for water pipe connections is left unidentified. Considering the unidentified cause and the recommendations made, this study aims to identify the gaps in practice followed in Hong Kong for safeguarding the water quality of new installations. A holistic review of governing ordinances and regulations, products and materials used and the testing and commissioning requirements adopted in Hong Kong and elsewhere in the world were conducted. Based on international practices and parametric analysis, it was found that there are gaps in practices followed in Hong Kong, which are directly and indirectly leading to the lead-in-water crisis. Recommendations for improvement in the quality control system, and the water quality standards including the allowable lead content and leaching limit for products and materials and the testing and commissioning requirements on plumbing installations have been made. The review and the identified gaps would become useful reference for countries in strengthening their relevant water quality standards. PMID:27706062

  4. Improving Teaching Self-Efficacy for Teachers in Inclusive Classrooms in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chih Nuo Grace; Forlin, Chris; Ho, Fuk Chuen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated changes in teacher self-efficacy for inclusive practice using a mixed method research design. Participants were 417 in-service teachers in Hong Kong taking a 1-week basic teacher-training course about inclusive education. Data were collected pre and post participation in the course using the Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive…

  5. Social-Motivational Factors Affecting Business Students' Cheating Behavior in Hong Kong and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Anna Po Yung; Ngo, Hang-Yue

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined how three social-motivational factors--approachability of teacher, relationship goal of students, and perception of cheating norms--affect the cheating behavior of business students in China and Hong Kong. It was found that the relationship goal of students and perceived cheating norms were significant predictors of their…

  6. Internationalising Teacher Education for a "Glocal" Curriculum: South Koreans Learning to Teach Hong Kong Liberal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Liz; Han, Ana Yoon Jin

    2016-01-01

    Internationalisation in education facilitates student and teacher mobility. Though Hong Kong has embraced internationalisation in education, international university students can face challenges related to cultural difference. In teacher education, these challenges can be amplified, as student-teachers face expectations to teach schoolchildren…

  7. The Economic Effect of Education in an Information Technology-Penetrating Economy: Evidence from Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi Wai

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the economic effect of education in terms of its impact on the earnings of workers in an information technology (IT)-diffusing economy, based on data from Hong Kong's 2006 by-census and survey on the usage and penetration of IT in industries. Education enhances the productivity of workers and increases their lifetime incomes.…

  8. English-Speaking Foreign Domestic Helpers and Students' English Reading Attainment in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Shek Kam; Lam, Raymond Y. H.; Loh, Elizabeth K. Y.; Ip, Olivia K. M.; Lam, Joseph W. I.; Chan, Yiu Man

    2009-01-01

    The English reading comprehension ability of 4,352 Grade 4 Hong Kong students was tested. The students' parents completed questionnaires about home factors, including monthly income, language habitually spoken at home, whether the mother was employed, and whether an English-speaking domestic helper resided there. Analyses revealed statistically…

  9. Perceived Family Functioning and Family Resources of Hong Kong Families: Implications for Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Joyce L. C.; Wong, Timothy K. Y.; Lau, Luk King; Pun, Shuk Han

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a telephone survey (n = 1,015 respondents) that aims to identify the perceived general family functioning and family resources of Hong Kong Chinese families and their linkage to each other in a rapidly transforming society. The perceived general family functioning of the respondents was average, and the five…

  10. Environmental Attitudes and Behaviour of Secondary School Students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara K. W.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the environmental attitudes of students in Hong Kong and their readiness to engage in pro-environmental behavior that could involve change in personal lifestyle. Students' over-optimism towards technological development and the perceived importance of the benefits of modern consumer goods were major factors that…

  11. Components of Leadership Giftedness and Multiple Intelligences among Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between components of leadership giftedness and multiple intelligences among 510 Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. These students perceived their strengths in intrapersonal, interpersonal and verbal-linguistic intelligences, and their weaknesses in bodily-kinesthetic and naturalist intelligences. They also…

  12. Work Values of University Students in Chinese Mainland, Taiwan, and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shui Wai; Yuen, Mantak

    2012-01-01

    Leuty and Hansen ("Journal of Vocational Behavior" 79:379-390, 2011) identified six domains of work values in undergraduate students in the West. The review undertaken in this paper suggests that the factor structure of work values of university students in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong essentially matches these six domains,…

  13. Global and Specific Self-Concepts of Gifted Adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Global and domain-specific self-concepts of 205 Chinese gifted adolescents in Hong Kong were assessed using 7 scales of the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. They differentiated 6 self-concept domains: scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic competence, physical appearance, behavioral conduct, and class friendship. Homogeneous…

  14. Social Impacts of the Marking Scheme in Public Housing in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Yung

    2012-01-01

    To improve environmental hygiene in public housing estates in Hong Kong, the Housing Department launched the Marking Scheme for Tenancy Enforcement in Public Housing Estates in 2003. The marking scheme operates as a penalty-point system where sitting tenants will be expelled from their public housing units if they receive penalty points up to a…

  15. Strategic Enrolment Management (SEM) in Self-Financed Higher Education of Hong Kong: Evaluation and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Peggy; Galbraith, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how the dimensions of strategic enrolment management (SEM) tie to the success metrics in the area of enrolment, retention and graduation from senior and programme management perspectives of a self-financed institution in Hong Kong. The literature on SEM has demonstrated that managing enrolment is a global…

  16. Constructions of Civic Education: Hong Kong Teachers' Perceptions of Moral, Civic and National Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Koon Lin; Lee, Chi Kin John; Chan, Kin Sang Jacqueline; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2017-01-01

    Various terms have been used to define civic education (CE) in Hong Kong since the colonial era. This has been particularly true since 2011, when CE has been given many names, causing confusion among educators. Mixed methods were employed to examine teachers' perceptions of different conceptions of CE expressed as moral, civic and national…

  17. Nighttime eating and breast cancer among Chinese women in Hong Kong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Mengjie; Tse, Lap Ah; Chan, Wing-Cheong; Kwok, Chi-Hei; Leung, Siu-Lan; Wu, Cherry; Yu, Wai-Cho; Lee, Priscilla Ming-Yi; Tsang, Koon-Ho; Law, Sze-Hong; Vermeulen, Roel; Gu, Fangyi; Caporaso, Neil E; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Wang, Feng; Yang, Xiaohong Rose

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A novel line of research suggests that eating at nighttime may have several metabolic consequences that are highly relevant to breast cancer. We investigated the association between nighttime eating habits after 10 p.m. and breast cancer in Hong Kong women. METHODS: A hospital-based

  18. The Behavioral Intentions of Hong Kong Primary Teachers in Adopting Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gary K. W.

    2016-01-01

    The use of educational technology by Hong Kong primary school teachers has been realized by the government's long-term support to the technology infrastructure, professional training, technical support, and development of teaching resources in local primary schools. However, the high adoption rate may not reflect the willingness of teachers to…

  19. Crossing the Binary Line: The Founding of the Polytechnic in Colonial Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Using the case of the Hong Kong Polytechnic (HKP), this paper examines academic drift in colonial settings. The HKP, like polytechnics in the UK, was supposedly a service sector institution. Under the binary system in the UK, schools in the service division were governed by the state educational bureaucracy, while the universities--the autonomous…

  20. Promoting Hong Kong's Higher Education to Asian Markets: Market Segmentations and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Yuen, Timothy W. W.; Yuen, Celeste Y. M.; Cheng, Yin Cheong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is threefold: to analyze the current conditions of higher education services offered in the three target markets; to conduct market segmentation analysis of these markets; and to recommend the most appropriate market entry strategies for Hong Kong's education service providers. Design/methodology/approach:…

  1. Teachers' Professional Identity, Educational Change and Neo-Liberal Pressures on Education in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan

    2011-01-01

    Education reforms underpinned by neo-liberal values have been criticised for bringing an adverse impact on teachers' professional identity. This article presents a qualitative study of teachers' professional identity in three historical periods in Hong Kong: Phase 1: 1965-84; Phase 2: 1984-97; and Phase 3: the post-1997 period. By juxtaposing the…

  2. Hong Kong and U.S. Teachers' Perceptions of Mathematical Disagreements and Their Resolution Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Angela T.; Huang, Rongjin; Law, Huk-Yuen; Chan, Yip Cheung; Zhang, Qiaoping; Baxter, Wesley A.; Gaddy, Angeline K.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical disagreements occur when students challenge each other's ideas related to a mathematical concept. In this research, we examined Hong Kong and U.S. elementary teachers' perceptions of mathematical disagreements and their resolutions using a video-stimulated survey. Participants were directed to give particular attention to the…

  3. End-of-life (EoL) mobile phone management in Hong Kong households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wen-Jing; Giesy, John P; So, C S; Zheng, Hai-Long

    2017-09-15

    A questionnaire survey and interviews were conducted in households and end-of-life (EoL) mobile phone business centres in Hong Kong. Widespread Internet use, combined with the rapid evolution of modern social networks, has resulted in the more rapid obsolescence of mobile phones, and thus a tremendous increase in the number of obsolete phones. In 2013, the volume of EoL mobile phones generated in Hong Kong totalled at least 330 tonnes, and the amount is rising. Approximately 80% of electronic waste is exported to Africa and developing countries such as mainland China or Pakistan for recycling. However, the material flow of the large number of obsolete phones generated by the territory's households remains unclear. Hence, the flow of EoL mobile phones in those households was analysed, with the average lifespan of a mobile phone in Hong Kong found to be just under two years (nearly 23 months). Most EoL mobile phones are transferred to mainland China for disposal. Current recycling methods are neither environmentally friendly nor sustainable, with serious implications for the environment and human health. The results of this analysis provide useful information for planning the collection system and facilities needed in Hong Kong and mainland China to better manage EoL mobile phones in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Utility of the Child and Adolescent Psychopathy Construct in Hong Kong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Annis Lai-Chu; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the nature of child and adolescent psychopathy using the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in 3,675 schoolchildren (ages 11-16) in Hong Kong, China. A confirmatory factor analysis observed a good fit for the three-factor model (callous-unemotional, impulsivity, narcissism) of APSD, with boys scoring…

  5. Identifying teachers at risk in Hong Kong: Psychosomatic symptoms and sources of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Putai; Yeung, Alexander S; Tang, Tak-On; Low, Renae

    2008-10-01

    The present study attempts to examine the relationships between certain common psychosomatic symptoms and sources of stress in Hong Kong teachers. A total of 261 teachers (134 males and 127 females) from 13 high schools in different regions of Hong Kong responded to the Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI) with a return rate of 52.2%. Retired and in-service teachers were involved in the development of TSI, which included items related to sources of stress in the context of Hong Kong education system, psychosomatic symptoms in the form of stress arousal, and global stress. Confirmatory factor analysis identified six distinct teacher stress sources: students, others, curriculum, nonteaching duties, teaching workload, and recognition. These stress sources were positively correlated with a global teacher stress measure, supporting their construct validity. Structural equation models showed that each stress source was positively related to teachers' psychosomatic symptoms, to which the path coefficient from teaching workload was the highest (beta=.47, Pteachers that is directly related to the daily teaching routine tends to be the most detrimental to their health conditions. Measures such as reducing teacher-student ratio by adopting smaller class sizes, increasing teacher numbers, and reframing teaching practice should be given due consideration in Hong Kong. There is a need for the inclusion of stress management programs for both trainees and in-service teachers.

  6. The Relationship between Teacher Stress and Burnout in Hong Kong: Positive Humour and Gender as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sammy K.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report on the relationship between positive humour and burnout among 379 secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and explore whether the relationship varies according to gender. The moderating effects of both affiliative and self-enhancing humour on each burnout component were then examined. High affiliative and self-enhancing…

  7. Exploring the Impact of School Principals on Teacher Professional Communities in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinger, Philip; Lee, Moosung; Ko, James

    2014-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, teacher professional community has achieved increasing influence as a strategy for facilitating productive change in schools. This study investigates the impact of principal quality and leadership on the development of teacher professional community in Hong Kong primary schools. More specifically, we examine the means by which…

  8. The Adoption Features of Government Initiatives for the Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ping-Man; Cheung, Alan

    2015-01-01

    This article is one of a series of papers generated from the Curriculum Reform study in Hong Kong with the purpose of understanding the impact of government's role in the change process of the reform. This paper specifically examines the 17 government initiatives in the Curriculum Reform in terms of their adoption percentages of schools from…

  9. Preparation for Work with Young Pre-Primary Children in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Betty

    1984-01-01

    Describes some of the training opportunities available to adults working or wanting to work with preschool children in Hong Kong. Describes courses which prepare staff for two main forms of existing preprimary child care: day-care centers and kindergartens. Government proposals in the White Paper "Primary Education and Pre-Primary…

  10. Affordability, Accessibility, and Accountability: Perceived Impacts of the Pre-Primary Education Vouchers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wong, Jessie Ming Sin; Wang, X. Christine

    2010-01-01

    Hong Kong launched the "Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme" (PEVS) in 2007 to promote the "3A's" of early childhood education (ECE): affordability, accessibility, and accountability. The PEVS has three unique features: discriminating against profit kindergartens, promoting teacher professional development, and limiting…

  11. School Choice with Education Vouchers: An Empirical Case Study from Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amelia N. Y.; Bagley, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to question what impact education vouchers have on the process of school choice. The context examined in the paper is the Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme ("Voucher Scheme") introduced in 2007 in Hong Kong. Using a Straussian grounded theory method, data collected from 40 parent interviews are coded, analysed and…

  12. Teachers' Environmental Literacy and Teaching--Stories of Three Hong Kong Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Irene Nga Yee; So, Winnie Wing Mui

    2015-01-01

    Environmental education has been widely promoted in Hong Kong schools since the 1990s. Teachers have a crucial role in educating students to be well-informed, environmentally aware and responsible green citizens. The environmental literacy and tendencies of teachers are seen as having far-reaching influences on the development of environmental…

  13. The Impacts of Climate Change in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, A.; Trumbull, K.; Loh, C.

    2006-11-01

    Civic Exchange added climate change to their research agenda some time ago, recognising that it is a cross-cutting issue that will have substantial impact, not only on Hong Kong but on the entire Pearl River Delta. The Hong Kong region is the wealthiest part of China. Along with growing material wealth, Hong Kong's ecological footprint and particularly it's greenhouse gas emissions - have increased exponentially. Therefore, there exists a special responsibility to contribute to finding effective mitigation measures that can help to slow the process; as well as a pressing need to find ways to adapt to those effects of climate change that cannot be forestalled. This paper represents a first attempt to pull together the relevant materials, with the aim of providing a broad-brush view of how climate change may affect Hong Kong, Macao and the Pearl River Delta. The key recommendation is that more region-specific research must be carried out. Civic Exchange has also taken note of the recently published Stern Review, which was commissioned by the United Kingdom government, to assess the economics of climate change. The report calls for urgent action. In this respect, this report therefore doubles as a funding proposal

  14. English Vocabulary Instruction in Six Early Childhood Classrooms in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Carrie; Rao, Nirmala

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary instruction during English language learning was observed for one week in six classrooms (three K2 classes for four-year olds and three K3 classes for five-year olds) from three kindergartens in two districts of Hong Kong. From 23 sessions of observations and 535 minutes of data, field notes were coded to identify instances of…

  15. Colonialism and Secondary Technical Education in Hong Kong: 1945-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wai Wah; Kan, Flora

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the colonial experience (1945-1997) on the planning of secondary technical education in Hong Kong. Specifically, the origins of secondary technical institutions and their positioning in secondary education are examined. Primary source materials are used as the basis of investigation and analysis, supplemented…

  16. Occupational Stress, Mental Health Status and Stress Management Behaviors among Secondary School Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sharron S. K.; Mak, Yim Wah; Chui, Ying Yu; Chiang, Vico C. L.; Lee, Angel C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine occupational stress and mental health among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and to identify the differences between those actively engaged in stress management behaviors and those who were not. Design: Survey design was adopted using validated instruments including Occupational Stress Inventory…

  17. Gratitude, Gratitude Intervention and Subjective Well-Being among Chinese School Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the dispositional gratitude and its relationships with orientations to happiness and burnout in a sample of 96 Chinese school teachers in Hong Kong and investigated the effectiveness of an eight-week gratitude intervention programme using a pre-test/post-test design with outcome measures of subjective well-being in the same…

  18. Professional Formation in Hong Kong: Yin & Yang in a Free-Market Economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Victor

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between the professional formation of beginning teachers, education reforms and Hong Kong's free-market economy is explored. An overview of educational change and then beginning teachers' professional formation within the context of economic cycles provides a contextual background against which two research projects are…

  19. Cultural Identity in Teaching across Borders: Mainland Chinese Pre-Service Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study explores transformations in the cultural identities of a group of pre-service teachers from mainland China during their educational experiences in Hong Kong, and how these transformations subsequently impact their professional identity. Individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 16 cross-border pre-service teachers from a…

  20. The Relations between Filial Piety, Goal Orientations and Academic Achievement in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among filial piety, goal orientations, and academic achievement among Chinese students. A survey of 336 university students in Hong Kong was carried out to collect information on their filial piety beliefs, goal orientations and grade point averages. Structural equation modelling indicated that reciprocal…

  1. Hong Kong Teacher Education Students' Goal Orientations and Their Relationship to Perceived Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok-Wai; Chan, Siu-Mui

    2007-01-01

    The study examined goal orientations, perceived parenting styles, and their relationships in a sample of Hong Kong teacher education students. It was found that students adopted both learning and performance goals but tended to be more performance goal-oriented. Females were more performance goal-oriented than males. As well, students perceived…

  2. Chinese Parenting in Hong Kong: Links among Goals, Beliefs and Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S. M.; Bowes, J.; Wyver, S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among parental goals, parental beliefs and parenting styles. Questionnaires were completed during interviews with 189 Hong Kong-Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years. Results indicated that these mothers embraced Chinese parental beliefs (guan) and Chinese parental goals of…

  3. Human Resource Management in Hong Kong Preschools: The Impact of Falling Rolls on Staffing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Choi-Wa Dora

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the impact of falling rolls on human resource management in local preschools in Hong Kong. It aims to argue that the developing role of leadership in creating a culture and procedures for collective participation in staff appraisal is important for human resource management in preschool settings.…

  4. The Challenges of Attracting Asian Students to Study Higher Education in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shun Wing

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a commissioned research project on exploring the emerging issues and challenges of attracting Asian students to study in Hong Kong's higher education institutions. Findings reveal the rapidly growing demand for quality transnational education in Asia and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of exporting Hong…

  5. Quality Assurance of Non-Local Accounting Programs Conducted in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mei-Ai; Leung, Noel W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the current government policy and institutional practice on quality assurance of non-local accounting programs conducted in Hong Kong. Both international guidelines, national regulations and institutional frameworks in higher education and transnational higher education, and professional practice in accounting education are…

  6. Training Needs of Purchasing and Supply Management Personnel in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Antonio K. W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The importance of purchasing and supply management (PSM) for business performance has received considerable attention in recent years. However, research on PSM training and education is inadequate. This paper aims to present initial findings from PSM practitioners about current PSM training and education needs in Hong Kong.…

  7. Initial Investigation of Hong Kong Post-Secondary Students' Learning Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Dennis C. S.; Meyer, Jan H. F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to report the initial analyses of relationships between various components of the learning patterns exhibited by a group of 1,572 post-secondary students in Hong Kong as operationalized via the Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS), a quantitative instrument developed by Vermunt originally for the Dutch…

  8. Trends in preterm birth in singleton deliveries in a Hong Kong population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hui, Annie S. Y.; Lao, Terence T.; Leung, Tak Yeung; Schaaf, Jelle M.; Sahota, Daljit S.

    2014-01-01

    To examine trends in preterm birth and its relationship with perinatal mortality in Hong Kong. In a retrospective cohort study, data were reviewed from singletons delivered between 1995 and 2011 at a university teaching hospital. Trends in preterm birth (between 24 and 36 weeks of pregnancy),

  9. General University Requirements at Hong Kong Polytechnic University: Evaluation Findings Based on Student Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel Tan Lei; Yu, Lu; Wu, Florence Ka Yu; Chai, Wen Yu

    2015-01-01

    Under the new four-year undergraduate programme, a general education framework titled "General University Requirements" (GUR) has been developed and implemented since 2012/2013 at Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU). To evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of the GUR in its first year, focus group interviews with students…

  10. Globalisation and Localisation in Music Education in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyse and discuss the influences of globalisation and localisation on music education in Hong Kong and Taiwan. It argues that the reform of music education concerns changes to the contents of the curriculum that envisage the cultural and political developments that arise from processes of globalisation and…

  11. Corporal Punishment and Physical Maltreatment against Children: A Community Study on Chinese Parents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine rates and associated factors of parent-to-child corporal punishment and physical maltreatment in Hong Kong Chinese families. Method: Cross-sectional and randomized household interviews were conducted with 1,662 Chinese parents to collect information on demographic characteristics of parents and children,…

  12. Use of Animation in Engaging Teachers and Students in Assessment in Hong Kong Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cecilia K. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Animations have long been perceived as an effective tool in teaching and learning. While students' reception towards animations has often been studied, there is also literature covering how teachers perceive and incorporate animations into their classes. At a research intensive university in Hong Kong, animations on the topic of university…

  13. The shortage of solid organs for transplantation in Hong Kong: part of a worldwide problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, T A

    2000-12-01

    To review the factors involved in determining the availability of solid organs for transplantation in Hong Kong and to identify methods that have been used in other countries to increase organ donation rates. Medline and non-Medline search of the relevant English literature, local data, and personal experience. Articles describing approaches to solid organ procurement for transplantation. Data were extracted and analysed by the author. There is a severe shortage of solid organ donors in Hong Kong, which is compounded by an ever-increasing pool of potential recipients. Limited local data suggest public support for organ donation. The most common reason for objection to organ donation is a lack of knowledge of the wishes of the deceased. Despite the implementation of numerous legislative models worldwide, none has been shown to be superior as a facilitator of organ donation. Despite the lack of legislation in Hong Kong, the medical profession has adopted the expressed consent model. The use of non-heart-beating donors, elective ventilation of futile cases, and financial incentives pose significant ethical and legal barriers as well as resource implications for intensive care. Greater effort should be directed through public education at the importance of telling one's family what one's wishes are concerning organ donation. More information is required in Hong Kong as to why families agree to organ donation and how best to approach families to request organ donation.

  14. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  15. Group Work and the Learning of Critical Thinking in the Hong Kong Secondary Liberal Studies Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis; Howe, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a one-year longitudinal study that investigated the impact of group work on the development of students' critical thinking in Hong Kong secondary schools. It explores whether the participation of teachers in a group-based teaching intervention adapted from an earlier study conducted in the United Kingdom (UK)…

  16. Quality of Life of Poor People Living in Remote Areas in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hung

    2011-01-01

    Based on three surveys carried out for studying living conditions of youth, women and elderly living in six remote areas (Tuen Mun, Yuen Long, Tin Shui Wai, Sheung Shui, Fan Ling and Tai Po) in the New Territories of Hong Kong, this paper reports the poverty and social exclusion of these three groups of people. The quality of life of youth, women…

  17. Research Productivity of Returnees from Study Abroad in Korea, Hong Kong, and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Jung, Jisun; Postiglione, Gerard A.; Azman, Norzaini

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes whether academics with advanced degrees from foreign universities are more research productive than their domestic counterparts in the three selected East Asian higher education systems--Korea, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. The three systems have relatively large proportions of foreign degree holders among their professoriates. The…

  18. Play and Theory of Mind in Early Childhood: A Hong Kong Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin; Wong, Richard Kwok Shing; Wong, Paul Yau Ho; Ho, Fuk Chuen; Cheng, Doris Pui Wah

    2017-01-01

    The study seeks to understand the relation between preschool children's mode of participation and negotiation strategies during play and their theory of mind (ToM) development in the Hong Kong context. Forty-two 5-year-old children were recruited. Their emotional and cognitive ToMs were assessed along with expressive language ability. Children's…

  19. Stress, Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Psychological Distress among Prospective Chinese Teachers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Examines teacher stress, self-efficacy, social support, and psychological distress in a sample of Chinese prospective teachers (n=83) in Hong Kong. Reports that the teachers experienced higher levels of symptoms in somatic problems followed by anxiety and dysphoria. Discusses self-efficacy and social support as protective factors for teacher…

  20. The Professionalization of Hong Kong Teachers: Dilemma between Technical Rationality and Individual Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Grace C. L.

    2003-01-01

    This article studies the dilemma between professionalization and professionalism in the development of teaching into a bureaucratic organization in Hong Kong. Professionalization and bureaucratization are simultaneous processes. Teaching as an occupation has grown from a state of idiosyncrasy to a profession with defined boundaries. However,…

  1. Understanding Hong Kong Business Teachers in Action: The Case of Formulation of Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Christina Wai Mui

    2009-01-01

    This article examines four categories of teaching strategy used in business classes by a group of 26 secondary school business teachers in Hong Kong, using grounded theoretical coding techniques in the analysis. Each of the teaching categories is illustrated with typical extracts from interviews and is discussed in relation to its effectiveness…

  2. Primary Health Care Theory to Practice: Experience of First-Year Nursing Students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Peggy; Chan, Mun Che; Cheung, Lai Yin; Hui, Tze Shau; Li, Ka Ying; Tang, Hiu Tung; Tong, Hoi Ning; Wong, Sik Kwan; Wong, Po Ming

    2002-01-01

    Eight first-year nursing students in Hong Kong implemented a primary health care project involving health assessments of older adults. Clients improved health knowledge and were satisfied with assessments. Students demonstrated high competence in health assessment, needs assessment, evaluation strategies, and health promotion skills. (Contains 27…

  3. Hong Kong Secondary School Students' Attitudes towards Science: A Study of Structural Models and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhi Hong; Lee, John Chi Kin

    2017-01-01

    This study explored two under-researched areas on students' attitudes towards science, that is, the structural models representing these attitudes and the role played by school bands in moderating the gender differences in such attitudes. The participants were 360 ninth graders in Hong Kong from 3 school bands. The structural equation modelling…

  4. The Rise of African Drumming among Adult Music Learners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hung Kun

    2010-01-01

    The present study aims at further examining an interesting finding of a recent empirical research on Hong Kong adults' participation in African drumming from a sociological perspective by adopting some Bourdieuan concepts. Results of the semi-structured interviews with 82 informants with diverse musical backgrounds and occupations concur that…

  5. Gender Differences in Instrumental Learning among Secondary School Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the extent of gender differences, and discusses the role of gender in musical instrument learning. It focuses on the collective instrumental experiences of 1493 Chinese students (774 boys and 719 girls attending grades 7-13) within Western and non-Western musical traditions in Hong Kong. The discussion draws attention to gender…

  6. Hopelessness, Parent-Adolescent Communication, and Suicidal Ideation among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. Lai; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the responses of 5,557 Chinese secondary students in Hong Kong, the relationships among perceived hopelessness, family functioning, and suicidal ideation were examined. Results showed that suicidal ideation was positively related to hopelessness, but negatively related to parent-adolescent communication. Compared with father-adolescent…

  7. Personal and Family Correlates of Suicidal Ideation among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai Kwok, Sylvia Y. C.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the family ecological model, personal (hopelessness, social problem solving, emotional competence) and family (parent-adolescent communication, family functioning) quality of life measures related to adolescent suicidal ideation were examined in 5,557 Secondary 1 to Secondary 4 students in Hong Kong. Results showed that suicidal ideation…

  8. Situation Report--Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, and Sarawak. Information is provided where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning…

  9. Differences in Perceived Approaches to Learning and Teaching English in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Barley; Chik, Pakey

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates differences in approaches to learning and teaching English as a second language (ESL) as reported by 324 mixed-ability Grade 7 Hong Kong ESL students and 37 ESL secondary school teachers with different backgrounds. Information about participants' perceived approaches to learning/teaching English were collected through a…

  10. Perception of the Most Creative Chinese by Undergraduates in Beijing, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ziao Dong; Rudowicz, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 489 undergraduates in Beijing, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Taipei, found politicians were nominated by all four samples as being the most creative individuals in the past and at present. Scientists and inventors ranked second in position. Artists, musicians, and businessmen were rarely nominated. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  11. Secular changes in height, weight and body mass index in Hong Kong Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Youfa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large population growth surveys of children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 y were undertaken in Hong Kong in 1963 and 1993. The global epidemic of obesity is a major public health concern. To monitor the impact of this epidemic in Hong Kong children and to identify secular changes in growth, a further growth survey was undertaken in 2005/6. Methods Cross-sectional height and weight measurements of 14,842 children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 y from Hong Kong's 18 districts were obtained during the 2005/6 school year. Percentile curves were constructed using LMS method and sex-specific percentile values of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and BMI-for-age were compared with those data from 1963 and 1993. Results Secular changes in height, weight and BMI were noted between 1963 and 1993 and between 1993 and 2005/6. In the latter period, greater changes were observed at younger ages, and particularly in boys. On an annual basis, the 1993–2005/6 changes were less than those during 1963–1993. Using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs, 16.7% of children were overweight or obese in 2005/6, which was a 5.1% increase since 1993. Conclusion These data provide policy-makers with further evidence of the secular changes in child growth and the increasing obesity epidemic among Hong Kong children.

  12. The Recalibration of Neoliberalisation: Repoliticising Higher Education Policy in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Yat Wai

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses a recent policy change in higher education in Hong Kong to determine the significance of politics in the conceptual understanding of higher education governance. To achieve this objective, the article examines the tension between the global agenda, which is characterised by neoliberal ideology and practices, and local needs,…

  13. A Study of Organizational Identification of Faculty Members in Hong Kong Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Po Yung; Ngo, Hang-Yue

    2015-01-01

    The authors examine how four organizational antecedents affect the organizational identification (OI) and in-role and extra-role performance of Hong Kong business school faculty. OI was tested to be a mediator. The survey results indicated a high level of OI, consistent with the collectivist cultural value of Chinese employees. However, OI was…

  14. Hong Kong-Based TEFL/TESOL Global Academics: Life, Culture, Mobility, Globalisation and Cosmopolitanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lydia S. T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about a qualitative research concerning a group of expatriates' (TEFL/TESOL English language teachers) experiences in Hong Kong. Data related to their life, attitudes and cultural dispositions are discussed under four different states, namely, Adaptation, Drifting in Global Comfort, Drifting in Global Discomfort and Bitter/Sweet…

  15. The Challenges and Strategies of Internationalizing Hong Kong's Higher Education in a Globalized World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shun-wing; Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a study of how to attract students from the Asian markets to pursue higher education in Hong Kong. The study found that the strategies of internationalization, at both the system level and the institutional level, attempted to address problems generated from the barriers of exporting higher education and so build on the…

  16. Expectations versus Reality: The Case of Liberal Studies in Hong Kong's New Senior Secondary Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a five-year longitudinal study investigating the introduction of Liberal Studies in the context of Hong Kong's new senior secondary educational reforms. The aim of this empirical research, which adopted diachronic analysis to allow comparisons over time, was to compare teachers' and students' perceptions of the…

  17. Antecedents of Career Exploration among Hong Kong Chinese University Students: Testing Contextual and Developmental Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Raysen; Arnold, John

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the antecedents of career exploration. We apply the perspectives of Flum and Blustein [Flum, H., & Blustein, D. L. (2000). Reinvigorating the study of vocational exploration: A framework for research. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56", 380-404] for the first time in Hong Kong, and we also test…

  18. Television viewing time in Hong Kong adult population: associations with body mass index and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao Jie; Stewart, Sunita M; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is increasing dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region particularly China. The population of Hong Kong was exposed to modernization far earlier than the rest of China, reflecting conditions that are likely to be replicated as other Chinese cities undergo rapid change. This study examined the relationship between television viewing and obesity in a Hong Kong sample. Information about the relationship between a key sedentary behavior, TV viewing, and obesity, and its moderation by demographic characteristics may identify sectors of the population at highest risk for excess weight. Data were from Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey (2009-2010), a population-based survey on the public's use of media for health information and family communication by telephone interviews with 3,016 Hong Kong adults (age ≥ 18 years). TV viewing time, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and other lifestyle variables were analyzed. Viewing time was longer in women, increased with age but decreased with education level and vigorous physical activity (all Ptelevision viewing time was observed. TV viewing time positively associated with BMI and obesity. The TV viewing--BMI associations were strongest in women and young adults, suggesting vulnerable groups to target for obesity prevention by decreasing TV viewing.

  19. A Study of Geometric Understanding via Logical Reasoning in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Leung, Chi-Keung

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the study reported herein were to identify the common mistakes in geometry made by junior secondary school students in Hong Kong, and to compare the students' performance in geometry with their results in a logic test. A geometry test and a logic test were developed and administered to a sample of 554 students aged between 13 and…

  20. The Gap between Online Journalism Education and Practice: A Hong Kong Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ying Roselyn; Lo, S. C. Eric

    2014-01-01

    This twin survey of online journalism professionals and students examines their perceptions of journalism skills, duties, and concepts. Using samples of online journalists and journalism students in Hong Kong, Asia's media hub, it attempts to offer updated insights into the changes taking place in journalism classrooms and newsrooms and uncovers…

  1. Voices of donors: case reports of body donation in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hei Yeung; Ng, Kwok Sing; Ma, Sin Kwan; Chan, Chi Hung; Ng, Sheung Wah; Tipoe, George L; Chan, Lap Ki

    2012-01-01

    Body donation is important for medical education and academic research. However, it is relatively rare in Hong Kong when compared with many Western countries. Comprehensive research has been performed on the motivation for body donation in Western countries; however, there is still insufficient research on body donation in Hong Kong to provide information on how to increase the body-donation rate. To understand the factors involved in the decision to donate one's body, the authors interviewed a registered donor and the daughter of another donor in Hong Kong. The authors interpreted the information collected in light of the available published reports, which mostly focus on body donation in Western countries. Despite the consistency of some demographic factors and motivations between the participants in our study and those investigated in the published reports from Western countries, there are differences in education level and socioeconomic status between the donors in our study and those from Western studies. The authors also suggest that Confucianism and Buddhism in Chinese culture may motivate potential body donors in Hong Kong. Other important factors that influence the body-donation decision may include family members' body donation, registration as organ donors, and good doctor-patient relationships. Although case report studies have their limitations, this study allows us to explore the complexity of events and establish the interconnectivity of factors involved in body donation, which could not be achieved in previous survey-based studies. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Perspectives on the Cultural Appropriacy of Hong Kong's Target-Oriented Curriculum (TOC) Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, David Robert

    1999-01-01

    Explores the impact of Chinese culture on the school curriculum in Hong Kong. Argues that the Target-Oriented Curriculum (TOC) transplanted from western-based concepts is not commensurate with the local Chinese cultural context, and therefore leads to many problems when being implemented in schools. (Author/VWL)

  3. Total Teacher Effectiveness: Implication for Curriculum Change (TOC) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Kwok Tung; Cheng, Yin Cheong

    This paper introduces the concept of total teacher effectiveness for facilitating educational reform and improvement, using target oriented curriculum (TOC) change in Hong Kong as an example. TOC change is a complex process that involves preparing, changing, and reinforcing teachers in multiple domains at multiple levels. Teacher effectiveness…

  4. From Elites to Strangers: Employment Coping Styles of New Hong Kong Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Anita S.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how highly skilled Hong Kong Chinese immigrants to United States, Canada, and Australia cope with perceived loss of their elitist status in adopted country. Identifies special characteristics of these immigrants and discusses their employment-related concerns and patterns of coping. Offers suggestions of how employment counseling may…

  5. Media Education Initiatives by Media Organizations: The Uses of Media Literacy in Hong Kong Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Donna; Lee, Alice Y. L.

    2014-01-01

    As more media organizations have engaged in media education, this paper investigates the goals and practices of these activities. This article coins media education initiatives by media organizations with the term "media-organization media literac"y (MOML). Four MOML projects in Hong Kong were selected for examination. Built on critical…

  6. The Strategic Thinking Skills of Hong Kong School Leaders: Usage and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung; Pisapia, John

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify strategic thinking skills that distinguish effective school leaders in Hong Kong. Three constructs framed the study: strategic thinking skills, organizational-personal characteristics, and school leader effectiveness. This study used a quantitative non-experimental design, and univariate and correlation…

  7. Practical and Conceptual Aspects of Children's Play in Hong Kong and German Kindergartens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu Chen

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the practical and conceptual dimensions of children's play in German and Hong Kong Chinese kindergartens. German ("n"?=?24) and Chinese ("n"?=?24) children (3-6 years) were randomly selected and videotaped during their free play for 5?min continuously on five consecutive days. Play behavior was analyzed by…

  8. The Productive Vocabulary Development in the Written Chinese of the Hong Kong Cantonese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Emily Yee Man

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a longitudinal investigation into the productive vocabulary development in the written Chinese of the Cantonese-speaking elementary children in Hong Kong. Data gathering took place using two vocabulary tests which selected prescriptive vocabulary from the textbooks and the 2007 Vocabulary List. The two assessment tests also…

  9. A Population Study of Children's Acquisition of Hong Kong Cantonese Consonants, Vowels, and Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated children's acquisition of Hong Kong Cantonese. Method: Participants were 1,726 children ages 2;4 to 12;4 (years;months). Single-word speech samples were collected to examine 4 measures: initial consonants, final consonants, vowels/diphthongs, and lexical tones. A 2-way analysis of variance was performed to examine…

  10. An Exploration of the Participation of Kindergarten-Aged Hong Kong Children in Extra Curricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Eva Yi Hung; Cheng, Doris Pui Wah

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a mixed-methods research design to investigate the extra curricular participation of kindergarten-aged Hong Kong children, based on reports provided by 1260 parents, and parents' perceptions of their children's extra curricular participation, through nine individual interviews. The results of the survey indicated that…

  11. Arts Education and Creativity Enhancement in Young Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Anna N. N.; He, Mavis W. J.; Ye, Shengquan Sam

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at assessing Hong Kong young children's gains in creativity and their teachers' application of arts education after a one-year artists-teachers collaborative arts education project that involves various art forms (i.e. drama, visual arts and integrated). Participants included 790 young children, 217 parents and 65 teachers…

  12. Anthropometric profile of Hong Kong children and adolescents: the Wellness Population of Youth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Regina L T; Lee, Paul H; Sze, Daniel M Y; Chien, Wai Tong

    2017-04-01

    Childhood obesity has been a public health concern increasingly. We investigated the age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI), blood pressure level, and other obesity measures in Hong Kong children and adolescents. We used the data from Wellness Population of Youth Study, a health examination for anthropometric measurements among children and adolescents (aged 9-15 years) in Hong Kong, conducted in Oct 2012-Jun 2013 (n = 4410). Anthropometric measures including weight, height, pulse, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, triceps and scapula skinfold thickness, and waist circumference were measured following universal standard protocol. Overweight and obesity were classified using the 2000 International Obesity Task Force, 2007 World Health Organization, and 2000 Centers of Disease Control and Prevention age- and sex-specific growth charts. Hypertension was categorized using Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and Chinese standards. The prevalence of obesity, overweight, and hypertension of Hong Kong adolescents according to the above definitions were 5.4%-15.1%, 20.8%-25.9%, and 12.0%-13.8%, respectively. Boys had higher systolic blood pressure, waist, BMI, and waist-to-height ratio (all P Hong Kong children and adolescents were more severe. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Shyness and Chinese and English Vocabulary Skills in Hong Kong Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Ting, Ka-Tsun; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined relations between parent-rated shyness and children's vocabulary skills in 54 Hong Kong Chinese kindergartners who learned English as a foreign language at school. Receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary were assessed both in Chinese and in English. Parent-rated shyness was uniquely associated with…

  14. From Zero to Infinity: Montessori Parent Education in Hong Kong and Greater China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Daisy; Yau, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    It was a hot and humid afternoon in 2006, 3 months after the opening of the Children's House at the Infinity Children's School in Hong Kong. A 3-year-old boy selected a table-scrubbing activity. He moved erratically and without purpose, accidentally bumping into another child and spilling water on the floor. Meanwhile, a toddler girl strolled…

  15. Children's Agentive Orientations in Play-Based and Academically Focused Preschools in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Pui-Wah, Doris; Reunamo, Jyrki; Cooper, Paul; Liu, Karen; Vong, Keang-ieng Peggy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a comparative case study on children's agentive orientations in two Hong Kong preschools, one is play-based and the other is academically focused. Agentive orientations were measured using Reunamo's interview tool, which focuses on children's uses of accommodative and agentive orientations in everyday situations. The findings…

  16. Narratives of Second Language Identity amongst Young English Learners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Sharon; Chik, Alice

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study responding to the problem of understanding how young learners position themselves as speakers of a foreign language. A group of 24 Hong Kong primary-school children (ages 10-12) who are in the process of simultaneously learning English and developing narratives of identities as English speakers,…

  17. A Prevalence Study on Internalizing Problems among Primary School Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Angela F. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Studies in Hong Kong indicated that there is a tendency for young children to use internalizing as a means to cope with their daily difficulties. Mother-child relationship has been seen as a factor affecting a child's adaptive coping skills. In this study, we explored the prevalence of internalizing problems among primary school children in Hong…

  18. Empowerment or Impediment? School Governance in the School-Based Management Era in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Paula; Li, Benjamin Yuet-man

    2015-01-01

    Following the international trend in education towards democracy and decentralization, the Hong Kong government introduced a school-based management (SBM) system about two decades ago. It is widely recognized in the literature that decentralization, empowering school level management and marginalizing the influence of the intermediate level of…

  19. Adolescents' Views on Families as Metaphors in Hong Kong: Implications for Pre-Counselling Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This interpretative study aims to offer metaphors that describe family meanings from the adolescent's perspective by encouraging them to give a metaphor with their own explanation on a self-administering essay form. This study has three objectives: to explore the family meanings as a metaphor from the Hong Kong adolescent's perspective; to reveal…

  20. Comparing State Hegemonies: Chinese Universities in Postwar Singapore and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2005-01-01

    After World War II, Chinese residents of Singapore demanded the establishment of local Chinese universities. The ruling regime, however, which was under the shadow of the neighboring Malay-dominated Malay Peninsula, was forced to suppress the development of such schools. In Hong Kong, the British needed to install a Chinese university to counter…

  1. Marital Quality, Maternal Depressed Affect, Harsh Parenting, and Child Externalising in Hong Kong Chinese Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Schwartz, David; Farver, Joann M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study used a family systems approach to examine harsh parenting, maternal depressed affect, and marital quality in relation to children's externalising behaviour problems in a sample of 158 Hong Kong primary school children. At two time points, peers and teachers provided ratings of children's externalising behaviours, and mothers…

  2. Parental Involvement in Foreign Language Learning: The Case of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forey, Gail; Besser, Sharon; Sampson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    It has long been established that parents play a key role in educational achievement. In this paper, we examine parental involvement in children's foreign language learning and the goal of finding ways to support families as they help their children to acquire a foreign language. The study investigated the ways in which Hong Kong families do and…

  3. Environmental Influences on Risk Taking among Hong Kong Young Dance Partygoers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum; Ngai, Ngan-pun; Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates risk-taking behavior and its associated factors among young Hong Kong partygoers at rave parties or discos. Based on a survey of 300 14 to 28-year-old dance partygoers recruited by outreaching social workers, the study provides data on risks in terms of the likelihood of drug abuse, coitus, unprotected coitus, fighting, and…

  4. Development and application of neuropsychology in Hong Kong: implications of its value and future advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes S; Sze, Sophia L; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Han, Yvonne M Y

    2016-11-01

    To review the development, application, and value of neuropsychology, and the standard education and training pathway for neuropsychologists or clinical neuropsychologists in Hong Kong. The information provided here was gathered via a literature review of the status of neuropsychology and the validity of commonly adopted neuropsychological tests in Hong Kong. Additional details were acquired via the internet about local tertiary education curricula and the related requirements, the availability of professional associations for licensure or board certification, and relevant statistics/surveys conducted by the government. Some information about the clinical practice of neuropsychology was collected through personal communication with local clinical psychologists. The development of neuropsychology in Hong Kong over the past 20 years is rapid and productive, given the increasing application of advanced neuroimaging techniques, neuropsychological tests, and opportunities for exchanging up-to-date neuropsychological knowledge and professional training through international conferences, workshops, and seminars. Given that neuropsychology services are often provided by clinical psychologists who are master's degree graduates in clinical psychology, the relatively limited training in neuropsychological knowledge and skills and the lack of division for membership or mandatory registration as a neuropsychologist/clinical neuropsychologist may have an impact on the quality of clinical neuropsychological services and the development of this specialty. These findings signify a need for further improvement or refinement of educational and training pathways for neuropsychologist or clinical neuropsychologist along with the recognition of its value in clinical practice through registration of different disciplines of psychology in Hong Kong.

  5. Towards a Model of Suicidal Ideation for Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Watkins, David

    2006-01-01

    This study tested a model of suicidal ideation with family cohesion, expressiveness, conflicts, teacher support, teacher-student relationships and peer support as antecedents, and self-esteem and depression as mediators. Data was collected from survey questionnaires with 433 Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. The results showed that only family…

  6. Teachers' Stories of Children Coping with Family Situations and Family Changes: A Hong Kong Hybrid Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk-Fong, Pattie Yuk Yee

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines teachers' stories of children's coping with changing family situations such as divorce or family separation which can induce discontinuities in their lives. Using the case of Hong Kong, a place where "East meets West" in cultures and family relationships, this paper argues for the use of the concept of hybridities in…

  7. Educational Attainment and the Role of the State in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    1993-01-01

    During the 1970s, the Hong Kong government declared elementary and lower secondary schooling to be free and compulsory and increased funding at all levels. Analysis of census data on birth cohorts in their upper teens in 1971-86 found increasing educational attainment over time and decreasing effects on educational attainment of parent income and…

  8. Innovation as Identity Construction in Language Teaching and Learning: Case Studies from Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative multiple case study that examined the implementation of innovations in English language education by three teachers in Hong Kong. Grounded in an analytical framework of teacher identity, in-depth interviews over an entire year provide a longitudinal understanding of the participants' experiences of…

  9. Explaining Student and Home Variance of Chinese Reading Achievement of the PIRLS 2011 Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Wai Ming; Lam, Joseph W. I.; Au, Doreen W. H.; So, Wendy W. Y.; Huang, Yanli; Tsang, Hector W. H.

    2017-01-01

    Hong Kong attained the top place in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2011, an international study of reading achievement, which arouses keen interest in understanding the reasons behind this remarkable achievement. Although factors associated with reading achievement in English have been widely studied, similar studies…

  10. Absence of Girl Images: The Gender Construct in Personal and Social Education in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Chui Ping Iris

    2012-01-01

    Education Ordinance 1971 in Hong Kong not only provided girls with a much greater chance of receiving education than had hitherto been the case, it also had the effect of incorporating them into the regulatory framework of the school system. This paper examines how the discourses of civic education and sex education before and after reunification…

  11. Stressors and Stressor Response Levels of Hong Kong Primary School Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk; Chan, Edmund Sze Shing

    2018-01-01

    Responses from 309 randomly sampled Hong Kong primary school music teachers to the shortened version of the Chinese Teacher Stress Questionnaire were subjected to a descriptive percentage analysis, one-way ANOVA and independent t test. Obtained results identify five key stressors: "changing education policy of the government";…

  12. Teacher Leaders' Perceptions and Practice of Student Assessment Reform in Hong Kong: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wai-Ming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a case study of four project schools in the primary school context of Hong Kong. It has investigated how teachers who were assigned subject panel head's and curriculum leader's roles perceived the student assessment reform and how they experimented with new assessment strategies in the school policy and classroom practice. The…

  13. Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men among Hong Kong Chinese Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Diana K.; Wu, Joseph; Shardlow, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on social work students' attitudes toward lesbians and gays in East Asian countries where intolerance toward nonheterosexuality has been documented. This article presents findings from the first study in Hong Kong using a Chinese version of Herek's Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG) to measure…

  14. The Pattern of Electronic Game Use and Related Bodily Discomfort in Hong Kong Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Donald P. Y.; Szeto, Grace P. Y.; Jones, Alice Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the usage pattern of electronic game devices among primary school children in Hong Kong. Commonly used types of games devices were grouped into three main categories: large-screen/TV-based games, small handheld game devices and active game devices. A survey was conducted among 476 students in a local primary school, with…

  15. Scalar politics, language ideologies, and the sociolinguistics of globalization among transnational Korean professionals in Hong Kong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, A.J.; Canagarajah, S.; Lan, S.; Powers, D.G.

    This paper argues that the sociolinguistics of globalization is accompanied by a constitutive scalar politics. Based on ten interviews with Korean professionals in Hong Kong, we report that Korean migrants’ use and experience of English is characterized by competing language ideologies we identify

  16. Emotional Autonomy versus Susceptibility to Peer Pressure: A Case Study of Hong Kong Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok-Wai; Chan, Siu-Mui

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire consisting of two scales was administered to 550 Hong Kong secondary students to examine their emotional autonomy and susceptibility to peer pressure. Emotional autonomy was studied by the scale (EAS) developed by Steinberg and Silverberg (1986) and susceptibility to peer pressure was studied by the scale developed by Sim and Koh…

  17. The Spoken English of Hong Kong: A Study of Co-Occurring Segmental Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibbard, Richard

    2004-01-01

    There is broad agreement as to many of the segmental features of the Hong Kong accent of English: neutralisation of vowels which contrast in Standard Southern British English or General American, non-release of final stops, simplification of consonant clusters and devoicing of coda consonants. However, while it is apparent that there is no reason…

  18. School Leaders' Dilemmas and Measures to Instigate Changes for Inclusive Education in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong

    2017-01-01

    The roles of principal leadership in change management have long been documented. The key concern to examine in this study was the dilemmas and measures confronting principals' when they led changes to instigate inclusive education in Hong Kong. Thus, this paper aims to report sources of dilemmas and how principals tackled them in the change…

  19. Training, Understanding, and the Attitudes of Primary School Teachers Regarding Inclusive Education in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi-hung; Mak, Kit-ying

    2010-01-01

    Inclusive education is one of the most important issues in education in Hong Kong, China. Because the role of teachers is critical to the success of inclusive education, this study investigated some of the elements that determine the success of implementing inclusive education. Teachers' perceived definition of inclusive education, the…

  20. How Should We Teach Computer Ethics? A Short Study Done in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eva Y. W.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study conducted at the University of Hong Kong during which computer ethics were discussed at student interviews. Attitudes of students who had attended a subcourse on ethical and social matters related to computer use were compared with the interviewees. Results provide implications for further development in the area of computer…