WorldWideScience

Sample records for reservoir hollow cathodes

  1. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a hollow reservoir cathode to improve performance in ion and Hall thrusters. We will adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this purpose....

  2. Observation of the hollow cathode effect from a dielectric cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Oh, Jin Young; Baik, Hong Koo [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn Sang [Department of Nano Convergence, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon, 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Jong [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kyungsung University, Busan 608-736 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kie Moon, E-mail: thinfilm@yonsei.ac.k [Department of Applied Physics, Konkuk University, Chungju-Si, 380-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The hollow cathode effect (HCE) is investigated in the dielectric hollow cathode structure in a Ne-Xe mixture at 4%. The influence of the dielectric is shown experimentally by the relationship between voltage and current peaks. The linearity of reduced current density confirms the existence of the HCE and shows that cathode fall has the same value at every pD condition. Varying the pD, the variation in the discharge mode can be measured with IR intensity emitted from the plasma and photographs of discharge in the visible part of the spectra. Voltages and current in the range of 3 kV at 10 {mu}A were used. We suggest an electrode configuration reinforced in cathode sputtering for the display panel and light source using the dielectric hollow cathode discharge (DHCD), and introducing a mechanism of the DHCD mode.

  3. Observation of the hollow cathode effect from a dielectric cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Oh, Jin Young; Baik, Hong Koo; Kim, Youn Sang; Lee, Se Jong; Song, Kie Moon

    2010-01-01

    The hollow cathode effect (HCE) is investigated in the dielectric hollow cathode structure in a Ne-Xe mixture at 4%. The influence of the dielectric is shown experimentally by the relationship between voltage and current peaks. The linearity of reduced current density confirms the existence of the HCE and shows that cathode fall has the same value at every pD condition. Varying the pD, the variation in the discharge mode can be measured with IR intensity emitted from the plasma and photographs of discharge in the visible part of the spectra. Voltages and current in the range of 3 kV at 10 μA were used. We suggest an electrode configuration reinforced in cathode sputtering for the display panel and light source using the dielectric hollow cathode discharge (DHCD), and introducing a mechanism of the DHCD mode.

  4. Note: Coaxial-heater hollow cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Huseyin; Kokal, Ugur; Turan, Nazli; Celik, Murat

    2017-06-01

    The design and tests of a LaB6 hollow cathode with a novel heater are presented. In the new design, the heater wire is completely encapsulated around the cathode tube and a coaxial return electrode, thereby eliminating hot spots on the heater wire due to the free hanging regions. Since the new heater confines the Joule heating to the region of interest, where the LaB6 emitter is placed, the heater terminals are further secured from overheating. The cathode with the presented heater design has been successfully tested and is able to deliver currents in the 0.5-15 A range.

  5. Note: Coaxial-heater hollow cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Huseyin; Kokal, Ugur; Turan, Nazli; Celik, Murat

    2017-06-01

    The design and tests of a LaB 6 hollow cathode with a novel heater are presented. In the new design, the heater wire is completely encapsulated around the cathode tube and a coaxial return electrode, thereby eliminating hot spots on the heater wire due to the free hanging regions. Since the new heater confines the Joule heating to the region of interest, where the LaB 6 emitter is placed, the heater terminals are further secured from overheating. The cathode with the presented heater design has been successfully tested and is able to deliver currents in the 0.5-15 A range.

  6. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a reservoir cathode to improve performance in both ion and Hall-effect thrusters. We propose to adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this...

  7. Improved Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.

    2011-01-01

    An improvement has been made to the design of the hollow cathode geometry that was created for the rare-earth electron emitter described in Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode (NPO-44923), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 3 (March 2010), p. 52. The original interior assembly was made entirely of graphite in order to be compatible with the LaB6 material, which cannot be touched by metals during operation due to boron diffusion causing embrittlement issues in high-temperature refractory materials. Also, the graphite tube was difficult to machine and was subject to vibration-induced fracturing. This innovation replaces the graphite tube with one made out of refractory metal that is relatively easy to manufacture. The cathode support tube is made of molybdenum or molybdenum-rhenium. This material is easily gun-bored to near the tolerances required, and finish machined with steps at each end that capture the orifice plate and the mounting flange. This provides the manufacturability and robustness needed for flight applications, and eliminates the need for expensive e-beam welding used in prior cathodes. The LaB6 insert is protected from direct contact with the refractory metal tube by thin, graphite sleeves in a cup-arrangement around the ends of the insert. The sleeves, insert, and orifice plate are held in place by a ceramic spacer and tungsten spring inserted inside the tube. To heat the cathode, an insulating tube is slipped around the refractory metal hollow tube, which can be made of high-temperature materials like boron nitride or aluminum nitride. A screw-shaped slot, or series of slots, is machined in the outside of the ceramic tube to constrain a refractory metal wire wound inside the slot that is used as the heater. The screw slot can hold a single heater wire that is then connected to the front of the cathode tube by tack-welding to complete the electrical circuit, or it can be a double slot that takes a bifilar wound heater with both leads coming out

  8. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  9. Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Ronald; Goebel, Dan; Hofer, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-current, hollow cathode utilizing a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) thermionic electron emitter has been developed for use with high-power Hall thrusters and ion thrusters. LaB6 cathodes are being investigated due to their long life, high current capabilities, and less stringent xenon purity and handling requirements compared to conventional barium oxide (BaO) dispenser cathodes. The new cathode features a much smaller diameter than previously developed versions that permit it to be mounted on axis of a Hall thruster ( internally mounted ), as opposed to the conventional side-mount position external to the outer magnetic circuit ("externally mounted"). The cathode has also been reconfigured to be capable of surviving vibrational loads during launch and is designed to solve the significant heater and materials compatibility problems associated with the use of this emitter material. This has been accomplished in a compact design with the capability of high-emission current (10 to 60 A). The compact, high-current design has a keeper diameter that allows the cathode to be mounted on the centerline of a 6- kW Hall thruster, inside the iron core of the inner electromagnetic coil. Although designed for electric propulsion thrusters in spacecraft station- keeping, orbit transfer, and interplanetary applications, the LaB6 cathodes are applicable to the plasma processing industry in applications such as optical coatings and semiconductor processing where reactive gases are used. Where current electrical propulsion thrusters with BaO emitters have limited life and need extremely clean propellant feed systems at a significant cost, these LaB6 cathodes can run on the crudest-grade xenon propellant available without impact. Moreover, in a laboratory environment, LaB6 cathodes reduce testing costs because they do not require extended conditioning periods under hard vacuum. Alternative rare earth emitters, such as cerium hexaboride (CeB6) can be used in this

  10. Emission mechanism in high current hollow cathode arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, M.

    1976-01-01

    Large (2 cm-diameter) hollow cathodes have been operated in a magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc over wide ranges of current (0.25 to 17 kA) and mass flow (10 -3 to 8 g/sec), with orifice current densities and mass fluxes encompassing those encountered in low current steady-state hollow cathode arcs. Detailed cathode interior measurements of current and potential distributions show that maximum current penetration into the cathode is about one diameter axially upstream from the tip, with peak inner surface current attachment up to one cathode diameter upstream of the tip. The spontaneous attachment of peak current upstream of the cathode tip is suggested as a criterion for characteristic hollow cathode operation. This empirical criterion is verified by experiment

  11. Uranium vapor generator: pulsed hollow cathode lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carleer, M.; Gagne, J.; Leblanc, B.; Demers, Y.; Mongeau, B.

    1979-01-01

    The production of uranium vapors has been studied in the 5 L 0 6 ground state using a pulsed hollow cathode lamp. The evolution of the 238 U ( 5 L 0 6 ) concentration with time has been studied with Xe and Ar as buffer gases. A density of 2.7 x 10 13 atoms cm -3 was obtained with Xe as a buffer gas. In addition, those measurements, obtained from the absorption of a laser beam tuned to the 5758.143 A ( 5 L 0 6 -17,361 7 L 6 ) transition, allowed the determination of the transition probability A=2.1 x 10 5 sec -1 and of the branching ratio BR=0.08 for this transition

  12. Scanning optical pyrometer for measuring temperatures in hollow cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, J E; Marrese-Reading, C M; Thornber, B; Dang, L; Johnson, L K; Katz, I

    2007-09-01

    Life-limiting processes in hollow cathodes are determined largely by the temperature of the electron emitter. To support cathode life assessment, a noncontact temperature measurement technique which employs a stepper motor-driven fiber optic probe was developed. The probe is driven inside the hollow cathode and collects light radiated by the hot interior surface of the emitter. Ratio pyrometry is used to determine the axial temperature profile. Thermocouples on the orifice plate provide measurements of the external temperature during cathode operation and are used to calibrate the pyrometer system in situ with a small oven enclosing the externally heated cathode. The diagnostic method and initial measurements of the temperature distribution in a hollow cathode are discussed.

  13. Development of Hollow Cathode of High Power Middle Pressure Arcjet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaulin, Eujeni

    1995-01-01

    ...: Determine integral performances of arcjet devices in nitrogen, ammonia, and their mixtures using hollow cathode devices at low and high current levels, perform short term tests (up to 50 hours...

  14. Reservoir Scandate Cathode for Electric Propulsion, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to combine the two most powerful cathode technologies into one hollow cathode assembly for use in ion and Hall-effect thrusters. Together, these...

  15. Development of Hollow Cathode of High Power Middle Pressure Arcjet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Moscow Aviation Institute as follows: Determine integral performances of arcjet devices in nitrogen...ammonia, and their mixtures using hollow cathode devices at low and high current levels, perform short term tests (up to 50 hours) for operational reliability and determination of capabilities.

  16. Hollow nanoparticle cathode materials for sodium electrochemical cells and batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Elena; Rajh, Tijana; Johnson, Christopher S.; Koo, Bonil

    2016-07-12

    A cathode comprises, in its discharged state, a layer of hollow .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nanoparticles disposed between two layers of carbon nanotubes, and preferably including a metallic current collector in contact with one of the layers of carbon nanotubes. Individual particles of the hollow .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nanoparticles comprise a crystalline shell of .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 including cation vacancies within the crystal structure of the shell (i.e., iron vacancies of anywhere between 3% to 90%, and preferably 44 to 77% of available octahedral iron sites). Sodium ions are intercalated within at least some of the cation vacancies within the crystalline shell of the hollow .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nanoparticles.

  17. Molecular beam sampling of a hollow cathode arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theuws, P.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with the description of the process of molecular beam sampling of a Hollow Cathode Arc. The aim of the study is twofold, i.e. investigation of the applicability of molecular beam sampling as a plasma diagnostic and the use of a Hollow Cathode Arc as a high intensity beam source for ground state atoms and metastable state atoms in the superthermal energy range. Suitable models are introduced, describing the process of molecular beam sampling of both ground state atoms and metastable state atoms. Fast ground state atoms produced by ion-atom collisions. The experimental facilities, i.e. the Hollow Cathode Arc, the time-of-flight machine and the dye laser system are described. And an alternative detection scheme for ground state atoms is presented and experimental results on the molecular beam sampling of a low density plasma (densities 10 19 -10 20 m -3 ) in the long arc configuration are reported. The results on the short arc configuration (densities 10 21 -10 22 m -3 ) are discussed. (Auth.)

  18. Note: Improved heater design for high-temperature hollow cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M S; Gallimore, A D; Goebel, D M

    2017-02-01

    We present an improved heater design for thermionic cathodes using a rhenium filament encased in a boron nitride ceramic sleeve. This heater is relatively simple to fabricate, yet has been successfully used to reliably and repeatably light a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) hollow cathode based on a previously published design without noticeable filament degradation over hundreds of hours of operation. The high decomposition temperature of boron nitride (2800 C for inert environments) and melting point for rhenium (3180 C) make this heater especially attractive for use with LaB6, which may require operating temperatures upwards of 1700 C. While boron nitride decomposes in air above 1000 C, the heater was used only at vacuum with an inert gas discharge, and no degradation was observed. Limitations of current state of the art cathode heaters are also discussed and compared with the rhenium-boron nitride combination.

  19. Observations of hollow cathode region plasma formation in the pre-breakdown phase of a transient hollow cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambra, M.; Moreno, J.; Favre, H.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma formation processes taking place inside the Hollow Cathode Region (HCR) are known to play an essential role in assisting ionization growth in the interelectronic space of Transient Hollow Cathode Discharges (THCD). In the prebreakdown phase, electron beams originated in the HCR plasma are known to be responsible for the initial formation of a virtual anode close to the anode electrode, which then propagates towards the cathode. Over a certain pressure range, full electric breakdown takes place when the virtual anode reaches the cathode. Here, we present preliminary observations of HCR plasma light emission, which are time correlated with the evolution of the virtual anode and the high energy electron beam activity. Over the pressure range investigated, light emission from the HCR is seen to be enhanced during the prebreakdown phase. After breakdown in the interelectrode space, light emission is seen to decrease, thus indicating a decaying plasma. These results highlight the intimate coupling existing between HCR plasma processes and ionization growth in the main gap

  20. Electron and ion kinetics in a micro hollow cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G J; Iza, F; Lee, J K

    2006-01-01

    Electron and ion kinetics in a micro hollow cathode discharge are investigated by means of two-dimensional axisymmetric particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision simulations. Argon discharges at 10 and 300 Torr are studied for various driving currents. Electron and ion energy probability functions (IEPF) are shown at various times and locations to study the spatio-temporal behaviour of the discharge. The electron energy probability function (EEPF) evolves from the Druyvesteyn type in the early stages of the discharge into a two (or three) temperature distribution when steady state is reached. In steady state, secondary electrons accelerated across the cathode fall populate the high energy tail of the EEPF while the low energy region is populated by trapped electrons. The IEPF evolves from a Maxwellian in the negative glow (bulk) to a two temperature distribution on the cathode surface. The overpopulation of low energy ions near the cathode surface is attributed to a larger collision cross section for low energy ions and ionization within the cathode fall

  1. Electron and ion kinetics in a micro hollow cathode discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G J; Iza, F; Lee, J K [Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-21

    Electron and ion kinetics in a micro hollow cathode discharge are investigated by means of two-dimensional axisymmetric particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision simulations. Argon discharges at 10 and 300 Torr are studied for various driving currents. Electron and ion energy probability functions (IEPF) are shown at various times and locations to study the spatio-temporal behaviour of the discharge. The electron energy probability function (EEPF) evolves from the Druyvesteyn type in the early stages of the discharge into a two (or three) temperature distribution when steady state is reached. In steady state, secondary electrons accelerated across the cathode fall populate the high energy tail of the EEPF while the low energy region is populated by trapped electrons. The IEPF evolves from a Maxwellian in the negative glow (bulk) to a two temperature distribution on the cathode surface. The overpopulation of low energy ions near the cathode surface is attributed to a larger collision cross section for low energy ions and ionization within the cathode fall.

  2. Geometrical Aspects of a Hollow-cathode Magnetron (HCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Wang, Zhehui

    1998-01-01

    A hollow-cathode magnetron (HCM), built by surrounding a planar sputtering-magnetron cathode with a hollow-cathode structure (HCS), is operable at substantially lower pressures than its planar-magnetron counterpart. We have studied the dependence of magnetron operational parameters on the inner diameter D and length L of a cylindrical HCS. Only when L is greater than L sub zero, a critical length, is the HCM operable in the new low-pressure regime. The critical length varies with HCS inner diameter D. Explanations of the lower operational pressure regime, critical length, and plasma shape are proposed and compared with a one-dimension diffusion model for energetic or primary electron transport. At pressures above 1 mTorr, an electron-impact ionization model with Bohm diffusion at a temperature equivalent to one-half the primary electron energy and with an ambipolar constraint can explain the ion-electron pair creation required to sustain the discharge. The critical length L sub zero is determined by the magnetization length of the primary electrons

  3. Atomization of thorium in a hollow-cathode type discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianarosa, P.; Demers, Y.; Gagne, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The atomization of thorium metal in a hollow-cathode electrical discharge has been investigated. Laser absorption spectroscopy with the laser tuned on the 5760.55 A (0-17355 1 cm -1 ) transition of Th I was used to evaluate the density of atoms in the 3 F 2 ground state. The results obtained (densities up to 10 13 atoms cm -3 ) show that our discharge tube is a suitable source of thorium metal atoms for laser assisted spectroscopic analysis of this element. (author)

  4. The use of hollow cathodes in deposition processes: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhl, Stephen, E-mail: muhl@unam.mx; Pérez, Argelia

    2015-03-31

    The first report of a discharge in a hollow cathode was by F. Paschen in 1916. That study showed that such a system was capable of producing a high electron flux and relatively low ion and neutral temperatures. About 40 years later, the work of Lidsky and others showed that hollow cathode arc discharges were one of the best plasma sources available at that time. The term “hollow cathode discharges” has commonly been used in reference to almost any discharge in a cathode with a cavity-like geometry, such that the plasma was enclosed or partially bound by the electrode walls that were at the cathode potential. Just as the magnetic field trapping of the electrons in a magnetron cathode results in an increase in the plasma density, in the hollow cathode, the reduced electron loss due to the geometry of the cathode also results in a higher plasma density. At least three types of discharge can be established in a hollow cathode. At low power and/or at relatively low gas pressures, the plasma is a “conventional” discharge characterized by low currents and medium to high voltages (we will call this a discharge in a hollow cathode or D-HC). Even this type of plasma has a higher density than a normal planar parallel-plate or magnetron system because the hollow geometry strongly reduces the loss of electrons. Using an adequate combination of gas pressure and applied power with a given hollow cathode diameter, or separation of the cathode surface, the negative glow of the plasma can expand to occupy the majority of the interior volume of the cathode. Under this condition the plasma current can, for the same voltage, be 100 to 1000 times the value of the “simple” D-HC discharge, and the plasma density is correspondingly larger (we call this a hollow cathode discharge or HCD). If the cathode is not cooled, the discharge can transform into a dispersed arc as the electrode temperature increases and thermal-field electron emission becomes an important additional source

  5. Ionization processes in a transient hollow cathode discharge before electric breakdown: statistical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambra, M.; Favre, M.; Moreno, J.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H.; Choi, P.

    1998-01-01

    The charge formation processes in a hollow cathode region (HCR) of transient hollow cathode discharge have been studied at the final phase. The statistical distribution that describe different processes of ionization have been represented by Gaussian distributions. Nevertheless, was observed a better representation of these distributions when the pressure is near a minimum value, just before breakdown

  6. Compact High Current Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode for Hall Effect Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Richard R. (Inventor); Goebel, Dan M. (Inventor); Watkins, Ronnie M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus and method for achieving an efficient central cathode in a Hall effect thruster is disclosed. A hollow insert disposed inside the end of a hollow conductive cathode comprises a rare-earth element and energized to emit electrons from an inner surface. The cathode employs an end opening having an area at least as large as the internal cross sectional area of the rare earth insert to enhance throughput from the cathode end. In addition, the cathode employs a high aspect ratio geometry based on the cathode length to width which mitigates heat transfer from the end. A gas flow through the cathode and insert may be impinged by the emitted electrons to yield a plasma. One or more optional auxiliary gas feeds may also be employed between the cathode and keeper wall and external to the keeper near the outlet.

  7. Ultra-Compact Center-Mounted Hollow Cathodes for Hall Effect Thrusters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a long lifetime, compact hollow cathode that can be mounted along the axis of a 600 W-class Hall effect thruster. Testing at kilowatt...

  8. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R. [GREMI, CNRS/Université d' Orléans (UMR7344), Orléans (France); Sadeghi, N. [LIPhy, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier (UMR5588), Grenoble (France); Overzet, L. J. [GREMI, CNRS/Université d' Orléans (UMR7344), Orléans (France); PSAL, UTDallas, Richardson, Texas 75080-3021 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250 μm thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8 μm thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2 μs long current peak as high as 24 mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400 Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few μs relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

  9. Investigation of a high voltage hollow cathode electron beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Johnny.

    1977-04-01

    An investigation is presented of the possibility of developing an electron accelerator comprising several radiation units with a relatively low power per unit, and without the many elements such as accelerator tube, focusing and scanning systems. A study was desired of an electron gun operated at 200 kV vased on the cold, hollow-cathode principle, where problems concentrated on the design of an electrode configuration that could withstand the high voltage at a pressure where a plasma could be generated too. Studies concentrated on the high voltage breakdown criterion in the pressure range 10 -3 to 10 -2 torr and on the plasma formation in a low pressure gas discharge. Controlled beams with energies up to 130 keV were generated in nitrogen at a pressure of 2 x 10 -3 torr with a beam current of about 1 mA in a continuous operation. The high voltage was limited by the existing power supply in the laboratory; however, a decision was taken not to purchase a power supply that could have delivered the required voltage. (author)

  10. Pulsed hollow cathode discharge: intense electron beam and filamentary plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modreanu, Gabriel

    1998-01-01

    This work deals with a transient hollow cathode discharge optimised by a preionization one and providing intense electron beams. It exists a preionization current value for which the pulsed discharge becomes a very straight and bright filament, well collimated on the discharge tube axis for some tenths of centimeters. A remarkable feature of this discharge is that, without internal metallic electrodes very pure plasma could be produced. Using self-biasing by the beam of a Faraday cup placed only few millimeters behind the anode, we deduced the beam electron's distribution function and its temporal behavior for two radial positions, on the axis and 1 millimeter off-axis, respectively. The real advantage of this measurement technique is the transient polarization character, which allows analysis very closely from the electron beam extraction hole. On the other side, using the emission spectroscopy, we have studied the plasma produced in electron beam - gas interaction and deduced the temporal evolution of the electron temperature. The temporal behavior of the filamentary plasma diameter shows a constriction at the last moments of the beam existence, followed by diffusion controlled expansion. The ambipolar diffusion coefficient corresponding to the estimated electron temperature describes quite well this expansion and allows a quantitative interpretation of the measured temperature diminution, with taking into account the preferential fast electrons escape. The analysis of both beam and post-beam plasma phases suggests potential applications of this robust, very reproducible and not expensive discharge also susceptible to be external monitored. The beam - target interaction could be used for PVD, elementary analysis and filamentary or point-like X-ray emission. (author) [fr

  11. Ion source using a hollow cathode discharge system and especially, particle accelerator comprising said source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourier, Georges.

    1975-01-01

    An ion source provided with a hollow cathode discharge system is presented. The ion extraction system is designed in view of generating a beam directed towards a point of use located far from the point of ion production. Said source essentially comprises two cathodes facing each other, an anode at a continuous voltage with respect to the cathodes, a heated filament beyond the cathode on the path of the extracted beam, and a grid between said filament and cathode. The ion extraction is limited to a certain portion of the ions present inside the plasma, so as the discharge to continue to be sustained by itself. For that purpose pierced cathodes are used, with a transparency (the ratio of the hole area to the whole cathode area) not much higher than 50% [fr

  12. Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Utilizing Iodine as Propellant, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a hollow reservoir cathode suitable for use in ion or Hall thrusters which utilizes iodine as a propellant. Reservoir cathodes have several unique...

  13. Laser deposition of CN.sub.x./sub. films combined with RF and hollow cathode discharges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Lančok, Ján; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Soukup, Ladislav; Šimečková, Marta; Zelinger, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (1999), s. 303-305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A02/98:Z1-010-914 Keywords : laser deposition * carbon nitride films * radiofrequency discharge * hollow cathode discharge * optical emission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  14. Spatial distribution of plasma parameters in DC-energized hollow cathode plasma jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leshkov, S.; Kudrna, P.; Chichina, M.; Klusoň, J.; Picková, I.; Virostko, P.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Tichý, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 9 (2010), s. 878-885 ISSN 0863-1042 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : hollow cathode * plasma jet * Langmuir probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.006, year: 2010

  15. Optimization of hollow cathode discharge electrode for damage free remote plasma removal process for semiconductor manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Tae S.; Han, Qing; Yang, Dongqing; Park, Soonam; Lubomirsky, Dima; Venkataraman, Shankar

    2016-05-01

    Cone-shaped hollow cathode electrode configuration for a damage free remote plasma removal process has been optimized for given pressures based on Paschen characteristic curves, voltage-current characteristics and time-resolved discharge observations as well as oxide film removal performances. Remote plasmas have been generated in two types of cone-shaped electrodes with mixtures of He, NF3, and NH3 for pressure range of 1-30 Torr. Paschen characteristic curves and voltage-current (V-I) characteristics define an operating pressure for low breakdown voltage and the hollow cathode effect to minimize the particles. Sinusoidal voltage waveform and asymmetry electrode configuration alternate the glow discharge and hollow cathode discharge modes in a cycle. The current and infrared emission intensity from the glow discharge increases together for both cone-shaped electrodes with increasing pressure, whereas the hollow cathode discharge plasma emits strong infrared only when pD condition is satisfied. For the wide cone electrode configuration, high voltage operation at higher pressure results in particle contamination on the processed wafer by high energy ion bombardment. Operating at optimum pressure for a given electrode configuration shows faster oxide etch rate with better uniformity over a whole 300 mm wafer.

  16. Fluorescence of Diatomic ZnO in a Hollow Cathode Discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannavo, D.; Gerber, T.

    2004-03-01

    A hollow-cathode-discharge (HCD) was tested as a source of diatomic zinc oxide molecules in the gas phase. Discharge fluorescence was monitored in the spectral region between 300 nm and 600 nm. A band emission could be observed around 560 nm in agreement with earlier published observations. (author)

  17. Hollow cathode modeling: I. A coupled plasma thermal two-dimensional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sary, Gaétan; Garrigues, Laurent; Boeuf, Jean-Pierre

    2017-05-01

    A two-dimensional axisymmetric quasi-neutral fluid model of an emissive hollow cathode that includes neutral xenon, single charge ions and electrons has been developed. The gas discharge is coupled with a thermal model of the cathode into a self-consistent generic model applicable to any hollow cathode design. An exhaustive description of the model assumptions and governing equations is given. Boundary conditions for both the gas discharge and thermal model are clearly specified as well. A new emissive sheath model that is valid for any emissive material and in both space charge and thermionic emission limited regimes is introduced. Then, setting the emitter temperature to an experimentally measured profile, we compare simulation results of the plasma model to measurements available in the literature for NASA NSTAR barium oxide cathode. Qualitative discrepancies between simulation results and measurements are noted in the cathode plume regarding the simulated plasma potential. Motivated by experimental evidence supporting the occurrence of ion acoustic instabilities in the cathode plume, an enhanced model of electron transport in the plume is presented and its consequences analyzed. Using the obtained plasma model, simulated quantities in the plume are qualitatively comparable with measurements. Inside the cathode, the simulated plasma density agrees well with measurements and is within the +/- 50 % experimental uncertainty associated with these measurements. A comparison of simulation results of the full coupled cathode model for the NASA NSTAR cathode with experimental measurements is presented in a companion paper, as well as a physical analysis of the cathode behavior and a parametric study of the influence of the operating point and key design choices.

  18. Density of uranium ions in the 4I0/sub 9/2/ ground state in a hollow-cathode type discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianarosa, P.; Bouchard, P.; Saint-Dizier, J.P.; Gagne, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    A hollow-cathode type discharge cell as generator of uranium ions is investigated. The 4 I 0 /sub 9/2/ ground-state ion density has been obtained by absorption spectroscopy at 5493 and 4244 A. The absorption measurements have been performed using two identical hollow-cathode lamps: one acting as a light source, the other as a reservoir of free ions. Neon and xenon have been used as discharge sustaining gases. In our experimental conditions the measured ion ground-state density is of the order of 10 12 ions cm -3 . Absorption measurements performed at 5915 and 4246 A of U i give a density of the order of 10 12 atoms cm -3 . This latter value is in excellent agreement with a previously measured value obtained by laser-absorption spectroscopy

  19. Hollow Carbon Nanofiber-Encapsulated Sulfur Cathodes for High Specific Capacity Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Guangyuan

    2011-10-12

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li2S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO3 additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Operating modes of a hydrogen ion source based on a hollow-cathode pulsed Penning discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oks, E M; Shandrikov, M V; Vizir, A V

    2016-02-01

    An ion source based on a hollow-cathode Penning discharge was switched to a high-current pulsed mode (tens of amperes and tens of microseconds) to produce an intense hydrogen ion beam. With molecular hydrogen (H2), the ion beam contained three species: H(+), H2(+), and H3(+). For all experimental conditions, the fraction of H2 (+) ions in the beam was about 10 ÷ 15% of the total ion beam current and varied little with ion source parameters. At the same time, the ratio of H(+) and H3(+) depended strongly on the discharge current, particularly on its distribution in the gap between the hollow and planar cathodes. Increasing the discharge current increased the H(+) fraction in ion beam. The maximum fraction of H(+) reached 80% of the total ion beam current. Forced redistribution of the discharge current in the cathode gap for increasing the hollow cathode current could greatly increase the H3(+) fraction in the beam. At optimum parameters, the fraction of H3(+) ions reached 60% of the total ion beam current.

  1. Gas-discharge sources with charged particle emission from the plasma of glow discharge with a hollow cathode

    CERN Document Server

    Semenov, A P

    2001-01-01

    One studied properties of a magnetron discharge with a cold hollow and uncooled rod cathodes. One demonstrated the dominant effect of thermoelectron emission of a rod cathode heated in a discharge on characteristics of discharge and on emission properties of a gas-discharge plasma and the possibility pf a smooth transition of glow discharge to diffusion mode of arc discharge combustion. Paper describes sources of ions and electrons with improved physical and generalized design and engineering parameters. One shows the promise of the electrode structure of a hollow cathode magnetron discharge to be used as a source, in particular, of the atomic hydrogen and of atom flow of a working rod cathode

  2. Auxiliary glow discharge in the trigger unit of a hollow-cathode thyratron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, Yu. D.; Landl, N. V., E-mail: landl@lnp.hcei.tsc.ru; Geyman, V. G.; Frants, O. B.; Shemyakin, I. A.; Nekhoroshev, V. O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High-Current Electronics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Results from studies of a low-current glow discharge with a hollow cathode are presented. A specific feature of the discharge conditions was that a highly emissive tablet containing cesium carbonate was placed in the cathode cavity. In the absence of a tablet, the discharge ignition voltage was typically ≥3.5 kV, while the burning voltage was in the range of 500–600 V. The use of the tablet made it possible to decrease the ignition voltage to 280 V and maintain the discharge burning voltage at a level of about 130 V. A model of the current sustainment in a hollow-cathode discharge is proposed. Instead of the conventional secondary emission yield, the model uses a generalized emission yield that takes into account not only ion bombardment of the cathode, but also the emission current from an external source. The model is used to interpret the observed current−voltage characteristics. The results of calculations agree well with the experimental data. It is shown that, in some discharge modes, the external emission current from the cathode can reach 25% of the total discharge current.

  3. PIC simulation of the anode plasma in a high-power hollow cathode diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Laqun; Zou, Wenkang; Wang, Huihui; Guo, Fan; Liu, Dagang

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the evolution and dynamics of anode plasmas in high-power hollow cathode diodes were studied by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The simulation results show that the ion flow emitted by the anode plasma layer and the increase of the electron current caused by the ion flow will cause a significant decline in the diode impedance in a short time. In addition, the expansion of the anode plasma layer will cause the diode impedance to decrease. The PIC simulation technique is also applied to a high-power hollow cathode diode of a 1.0 MV-LTD generator for anode plasmas, and the PIC simulation results were compared with the experimental data.

  4. Synthesis of diamond-like carbon via PECD using a streaming neutral gas injection hollow cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacho, A.; Pares, E.; Ramos, H.; Mendenilla, A.; Malapit, G.

    2009-01-01

    A streaming neutral gas injection hollow cathode system was used to deposit diamond-like carbon films via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on silicon and nickel-coated silicon substrates with acetylene and hydrogen as reactant gases. Samples were characterized using SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The work presented here aims to demonstrate the capability of the system to synthesize carbonaceous films and is starting point towards work on formation of carbon nanostructures. (author)

  5. Ionization and excitation of uranium in a hollow-cathode lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, J.M.; Pianarosa, P.; Larin, G.; Saint-Dizier, J.P.; Bouchard, P.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of different carrier gases (Ne,Ar,Kr,Xe) their pressure, and discharge current on the excitation and ionization of uranium atoms in a vapor generator of hollow-cathode design has been investigated by monitoring emission line intensities. From our measurements of line intensities as a function of the carrier gas we obtain an indication of the role of Penning collisions on the excitation of radiative levels in U II

  6. Spectra of Th/Ar and U/Ne hollow cathode lamps for spectrograph calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Gillian; Shlosberg, Ariel; Kerber, Florian; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Neureiter, Bianca

    2018-01-01

    Low-current Th/Ar hollow cathode lamps have long been used for calibration of astronomical spectrographs on ground-based telescopes. Thorium is an attractive element for calibration as it has a single isotope, has narrow spectral lines, and has a dense spectrum covering the whole of the visible region. However, the high density of the spectrum that makes it attractive for calibrating high-resolution spectrographs is a detriment for lower resolution spectrographs and this is not obvious by examination of existing linelists. In addition, recent changes in regulations regarding the handling of thorium have led to a degradation in the quality of Th/Ar calibration lamps, with contamination by molecular ThO lines that are strong enough to obscure the calibration lines of interest.We are pursuing two approaches to these problems. First, we have expanded and improved the NIST Standard Reference Database 161, "Spectrum of Th-Ar Hollow Cathode Lamps" to cover the region 272 nm to 5500 nm. Spectra of hollow cathode lamps at up to 3 different currents can now be displayed simultaneously. Interactive zooming and the ability to convolve any of the spectra with a Gaussian or uploaded instrument profile enable the user to see immediately what the spectrum would look like at the particular resolution of their spectrograph. Second, we have measured the spectrum of a recent, contaminated Th/Ar hollow cathode lamp using a high-resolution Echelle spectrograph (Madison Wisconsin) at a resolving power (R~ 250,000). This significantly exceeds the resolving power of most astronomical spectrographs and resolves many of the molecular lines of ThO. With these spectra we are measuring and calibrating the positions of these molecular lines in order to make them suitable for spectrograph calibration.In the near infrared region, U/Ne hollow cathode lamps give a higher density of calibration lines than Th/Ar lamps and will be implemented on the upgraded CRIRES+ spectrograph on ESO’s Very Large

  7. Heater Validation for the NEXT-C Hollow Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Timothy R.; Soulas, George C.; Mackey, Jonathan A.

    2018-01-01

    Swaged cathode heaters whose design was successfully demonstrated under a prior flight project are to be provided by the NASA Glenn Research Center for the NEXT-C ion thruster being fabricated by Aerojet Rocketdyne. Extensive requalification activities were performed to validate process controls that had to be re-established or revised because systemic changes prevented reuse of the past approaches. A development batch of heaters was successfully fabricated based on the new process controls. Acceptance and cyclic life testing of multiple discharge and neutralizer sized heaters extracted from the development batch was initiated in August, 2016, with the last heater completing testing in April, 2017. Cyclic life testing results substantially exceeded the NEXT-C thruster requirement as well as all past experience for GRC-fabricated units. The heaters demonstrated ultimate cyclic life capability of 19050 to 33500 cycles. A qualification batch of heaters is now being fabricated using the finalized process controls. A set of six heaters will be acceptance and cyclic tested to verify conformance to the behavior observed with the development heaters. The heaters for flight use will be then be provided to the contractor from the remainder of the qualification batch. This paper summarizes the fabrication process control activities and the acceptance and life testing of the development heater units.

  8. Local Electric Field Strength in a Hollow Cathode Determined by Stark Splitting of the 2S Level of Hydrogen Isotopes by Optogalvanic Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C.; Rosa, M. I. de la; Gruetzmacher, K.; Fuentes, L. M.; Gonzalo, A. B.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present Doppler-free two-photon optogalvanic spectroscopy as a tool to measure the electric field strength in the cathode fall region of a hollow cathode discharge via the Stark splitting of the 2S level of atomic deuterium. The strong electric field strength present in the hollow cathode is determined for various discharge conditions which allows studying the corresponding variations of the cathode fall, and its changes with discharge operation time.

  9. Steady and oscillatory plasma properties in the near-field plume of a hollow cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zun, ZHANG; Kan, XIE; Jiting, OUYANG; Ning, GUO; Yu, QIN; Qimeng, XIA; Song, BAI; Xianming, WU; Zengjie, GU

    2018-02-01

    Hollow cathodes serve as electron sources in Hall thrusters, ion thrusters and other electric propulsion systems. One of the vital problems in their application is the cathode erosion. However, the basic erosion mechanism and the source of high-energy ions cause of erosion are not fully understood. In this paper, both potential measurements and simulation analyses were performed to explain the formation of high-energy ions. A high-speed camera, a single Langmuir probe and a floating emissive probe were used to determine the steady and oscillatory plasma properties in the near-field plume of a hollow cathode. The temporal structure, electron temperature, electron density, and both static and oscillation of plasma potentials of the plume have been obtained by the diagnostics mentioned above. The experimental results show that there exists a potential hill (about 30 V) and also severe potential oscillations in the near-plume region. Moreover, a simple 2D particle-in-cell model was used to analyze the energy transition between the potential hill and/or its oscillations and the ions. The simulation results show that the energy of ions gained from the static potential background is about 20 eV, but it could reach to 60 eV when the plasma oscillates.

  10. Slow electron distribution function in a cylindrical hollow-cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanbekov, R.R.; Kudryavtsev, A.A.; Movchan, I.A.

    1992-01-01

    The formation of the electron distribution function in a cylindrical hollow cathode at energies up to the threshold for inelastic processes is examined. It is shown that the distribution function is a Maxwellian distribution in the thermal region plus a step determined by the sources of fast electrons. The distribution develops nonlocally, and the distinctive feature of this regime is the absence of a radial dependence when scaled to the total energy. The derived formulas can be used to calculate the electron distribution function simply from a given current and geometrical dimensions of the discharge. 14 refs., 3 figs

  11. Characterization of an atom beam produced with the help of a hollow-cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babin, F.; Gagne, J.

    1986-01-01

    A hollow-cathode type discharge is used as a refractory element vapor generator for the formation of an atomic beam. The development of the technique brings us to discuss its possibilities in spectroscopic studies of refractory elements. We focus primarily on the production of a uranium atomic beam and its characterization by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. We determine, among other things, the beam divergence and the most probable velocity along its axis for specific current and pressure conditions in the discharge. We also discuss beam behavior with respect to buffer gas pressure and electric current in the discharge

  12. Optogalvanic detection of the Zeeman effect in a hollow-cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlois, E.; Gagne, J.

    1987-01-01

    Optogalvanic detection of complex Zeeman patterns in a hollow-cathode lamp is investigated. Uranium lines with J 1 = 6 and J 2 = 7 are resolved, with our best results obtained using intermodulate optogalvanic spectroscopy (but this scheme is applicable only to lines giving strong signals). This detection method has a 40-MHz resolution, so a magnetic field of 0.1 T is sufficient to resolve most patterns. Weak lines can be studied with modulated optogalvanic spectroscopy. However, the stronger field required in this case perturbs the discharge. Although they are impractical for the measurement of component relative intensities, these detection methods may find applications in the determination of Lande g factors

  13. Simple method for identifying doubly ionized uranium (U III) produced in a hollow-cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piyakis, K.N.; Gagne, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied by emission spectroscopy the spectral properties of doubly ionized uranium, produced in a vapor generator of hollow-cathode design, as a function of the nature of a pure fill gas (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon) and its pressure. The spectral intensity is found to increase with increasing ionization potential of the discharge buffer gas, except in the case of helium. Based on our preliminary results, a simple and practical method for the positive identification of the complex U III spectrum is suggested

  14. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry

  15. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L.

    2013-12-01

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a "soft" photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  16. Prediction of the cathodic arc root behaviour in a hollow cathode thermal plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freton, Pierre; Gonzalez, Jean-Jacques; Escalier, Gaelle

    2009-01-01

    The upper part of a well type cathode (WTC) plasma torch is modelled for several conditions in an air medium in the presence of an electric arc. The plasma flow created by the electric arc is described and the results compared with the data from the literature. Special attention is paid to the description of arc root attachment and to its movement due to the balance of forces. A fine description of the magnetic field produced by the external solenoid is reported. The model is based on the Fluent software implemented with specific developments to be adapted to the thermal plasma domain. The paper shows the necessity to provide an accurate description of the external magnetic field due to the strong influence of the radial magnetic field component. Overall, we propose an original approach for arc root movement description which contributes to the understanding of the flow behaviour in the WTC torch.

  17. Comparison of the radio frequency hollow cathode to the microwave antenna discharge for plasma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárdoš, L.; Baránková, H.; Welzel, Th.; Dani, I.; Peter, S.; Richter, F.

    2001-08-01

    Two nonconventional systems, the radio frequency hollow cathode discharge (RHCD) and the microwave antenna discharge (MWAD), with almost identical geometry of electrodes generating a nitrogen plasma at power level up to 60 W were compared. Both systems were used for deposition of nitride films at similar experimental parameters. The Al-N films were deposited in the RHCD system by reactive physical vapor deposition (PVD) using an Al radio frequency hollow cathode and the CNx films were deposited in the MWAD system by plasma activated chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) from N2+1% (alternatively 0.5% or 0.4%) C2H2 gas mixtures. The vibrational temperatures of nitrogen molecules in both systems were compared as functions of experimental parameters and discussed with respect to the film growth rates in the particular systems. It was found that irrespective of frequency difference of two orders of magnitude the vibrational temperatures of nitrogen molecules were similar, between 3000 and 4600 K, in both systems at similar experimental conditions. However, shapes of dependences of the vibrational temperature on particular parameters were different, due to different plasma generation principles. The nitride film growth rates were found to correlate to the vibrational temperatures of nitrogen molecules, but their dependences on experimental parameters were affected by specific features of the plasma generation in individual systems as well as by different mechanisms of the PVD and the PACVD of films.

  18. Ionization Waves in a Fast, Hollow-Cathode-Assisted Capillary Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkevich, I.; Mond, M.; Kaufman, Y.; Choi, P.; Favre, M.

    1999-01-01

    The initial, low-current stage of the evolution of a soft x-ray emitting, hollow-cathode-assisted capillary discharge initiated by a steep high-voltage pulse is investigated. The capillary is surrounded by a shield having the cathode potential. The mean electric field E of the order of 10 kV/cm and the low gas pressure (P<1Torr) provide conditions for extensive electron runaway. This is taken into account in the formulation of the theoretical approach by retaining the inertial terms in the momentum equation for the electrons. In addition, the ionization rate is calculated by considering the cross section for ionization by high-energy electrons. The two-dimensional system of the basic equations is reduced to a system of one-dimensional equations for the axial distributions of the physical quantities by introducing appropriate radial profiles of the electric potential, and the electron gas parameters and satisfying the electrodynamic boundary conditions at the capillary wall and at the shield. The resulting system of equations admits solutions in the form of stationary ionization waves transferring the anode potential to the cathode end. Numerical calculations of such solutions for argon show that the wave velocity V increases with the gas pressure P and with the density of initial electron beam ejected from the cathode hole ahead of the ionization front, while the dependence of V on the applied voltage is weak. At the instant when the virtual anode reaches the cathode hole, the plasma in the capillary is not yet fully ionized. The traverse time of the ionization wave along the capillary calculated for various gas pressures is in reasonable agreement with experimentally registered time delay for a high-current stage resulting in voltage collapse and soft x-ray emission

  19. Characteristics of an elongated plasma column produced by magnetically coupled hollow cathode plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuva, M. P.; Karkari, S. K.; Kumar, Sunil

    2018-03-01

    An elongated plasma column in the presence of an axial magnetic field has been formed using a cylindrical hollow cathode (HC) and a constricted anode (CA). The plasma characteristics of the central line have been found to vary with the magnetic field strength and the axial distance from the source. It is believed that the primary electrons constituting the discharge current are steered by the axial magnetic field to undertake ionizing collisions along the plasma column. The current carrying electrons from the HC reach the anode by cross-field diffusion towards the central line. The above observation has been substantiated using a phenomenological model which links the observed characteristics of the source with the plasma column. The experimental results are found to be in qualitative agreement with the model.

  20. Modelling of low-current self-generated oscillations in a hollow cathode discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Donko, Z

    1999-01-01

    Low-current self-generated oscillations in a rectangular hollow cathode discharge in helium gas were investigated experimentally and by means of a two-dimensional self-consistent hybrid model. The model combines Monte Carlo simulation of the motion of fast electrons and a fluid description of slow electrons and positive ions. The low-frequency (<=20 kHz) oscillations were found to arise as an effect of the interaction of the gas discharge and the external electric circuit - consisting of a stable voltage source, a series resistor and a capacitor formed by the discharge electrodes. Good agreement was found between the experimentally observed and calculated oscillation frequency and current wave forms. Beside these characteristics the modelling also made it possible to calculate the time dependence of numerous other discharge characteristics (e.g. electron multiplication, ion density, potential distribution) and provided detailed insight into the mechanism of oscillations. The advantage of the present model ...

  1. Population distribution of atomic uranium in the afterglow of a pulsed hollow-cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, Yves; Gagne, J.-M.; Pianarosa, Piero

    1987-01-01

    From laser absorption measurements we have deduced the time evolution of the population distribution of atomic uranium in the afterglow of a pulsed hollow-cathode type discharge. The vapour generator operates with xenon as the discharge sustaining gas at a pressure of 280 Pa (2.1 Torr). The current pulse characteristics are width 250 μs and height 1.5 A. The pulse repetition frequency is 100 Hz. It is shown that the populations in the three metastable levels at 6249, 3868 and 3800 cm -1 decrease almost exponentially in a time interval between 150 and 300 μs. From 400 μs onwards in the afterglow, the atom population is essentially shared between the ground and the first metastable (620 cm -1 ) levels. Furthermore, starting from 9 ms in the afterglow more than 80% of the U atoms are found in the ground level. (author)

  2. Diamond-Like Carbon Film Deposition Using DC Ion Source with Cold Hollow Cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Shevchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon diamond-like thin films on a silicon substrate were deposited by direct reactive ion beam method with an ion source based on Penning direct-current discharge system with cold hollow cathode. Deposition was performed under various conditions. The pressure (12–200 mPa and the plasma-forming gas composition consisting of different organic compounds and hydrogen (C3H8, CH4, Si(CH32Cl2, H2, the voltage of accelerating gap in the range 0.5–5 kV, and the substrate temperature in the range 20–850°C were varied. Synthesized films were researched using nanoindentation, Raman, and FTIR spectroscopy methods. Analysis of the experimental results was made in accordance with a developed model describing processes of growth of the amorphous and crystalline carbon materials.

  3. Towards a reduced chemistry module of a He-Ar-Cu hollow cathode discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailova, D.; van Dijk, J.; Grozeva, M.; Degrez, G.; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M.

    2011-05-01

    This study is aimed at finding a reduced chemistry module for a hollow cathode discharge (HCD) excited in a He-Ar-Cu mixture. This enables us to construct lean and reliable models that can be used as a part of the design tool of HCDs. To this end estimative calculations and numerical simulations are performed under optimal conditions for lasing. An analysis of the species behaviour and reactions is made and as a result the model is simplified by means of reducing the number of species and reactions. The consequences of these reductions are justified by comparing the results of the simplified models with those of a more complete one. This study delivers a model that is chemically lean and thus, much less time consuming. It can be used in optimization studies to find the optimum in the plasma control parameter set of HCDs. The technique developed in this study for HCDs can be applied to glow discharges in general.

  4. Reservoir Scandate Cathode for Electric Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to combine two revolutionary cathode technologies into a single device for use in electric space propulsion. This will overcome problems that both...

  5. Development of a see-through hollow cathode discharge lamp for (Li/Ne) optogalvanic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, V. K.; Kumar, P.; Sarangpani, K. K.; Dixit, S. K.; Nakhe, S. V.

    2017-09-01

    Development of a demountable and see-through hollow cathode (HC) discharge lamp suitable for optogalvanic (OG) spectroscopy is described. The design of the HC lamp is simple, compact, and inexpensive. Lithium, investigated rarely by the OG method, is selected for cathode material as its isotopes are important for nuclear industry. The HC lamp is characterized electrically and optically for discharge oscillations free OG effect. Strong OG signals of lithium as well as neon (as buffer gas) are produced precisely upon copper vapor laser pumped tunable dye laser irradiation. The HC lamp is capable of generating a clean OG resonance spectrum in the available dye laser wavelength scanning range (627.5-676 nm) obtained with 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran dye. About 28 resonant OG lines are explicitly observed. Majority of them have been identified using j-l coupling scheme and assigned to the well-known neon transitions. One line that corresponds to wavelength near about 670.80 nm is assigned to lithium and resolved for its fine (2S1/2 → 2P1/2, 3/2) transitions. These OG transitions allow 0.33 cm-1 accuracy and can be used to supplement the OG transition data available from other sources to calibrate the wavelength of a scanning dye laser with precision at atomic levels.

  6. Construction and characterization of a hollow cathode tube for high sensibility laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morage, A.; Motta, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    A new hollow cathode tube argon-iron design was developed to be used in laser atomic spectroscopy experiments, were high sensibility is required. This tube was employed in order to allow laser absorption and optogalvanic signal measurements. The tube also included fused-quartz Brewster angle windows aligned with the optical axis in each ending of the tube. Therefore, in this configuration a minimum laser intensity losses through the windows can be attained for the appropriate light polarization. The optogalvanic signal detection was accomplished using a tunable dye laser resonant with the Ar, 3p 5 4p ( 3 S 1 )--> 3p 5 4d ( 3 D 1 0 ) transition, that corresponds to 591.2 nm in air. It was also possible to determine the gas temperature by measuring the Doppler line broadening and the results were compared to those obtained from a theoretical model for gas heat conduction. To measure the temperature of the cathode external surface a thermocouple was used inside the tube. The analysis of results showed that a high signal to noise ratio can be obtained with this tube configuration, that permits experimental investigation of electronic transitions presenting low light absorption cross sections. (author)

  7. X-ray spots emitted in a hollow cathode ns-discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronek, M.; Ikhlef, A.; Louvet, G.; Roméas, P.; Mittal, K. C.

    1996-02-01

    A hollow cathode discharge using a tungsten pointed anode is fed by a low power Marx generator (1 J, 70 kV, 50 ns). The x-ray emission duration varies from 20 to 10 ns in the pressure range 0963-0252/5/1/009/img8 mbar, in air. The spatial distribution of the emitting sites has been determined, using a sensitive imaging device with a 5 ns exposure time, in the same range of pressures. This emission is strongly influenced by the occurrence of the `pseudo-spark' regime. X-rays are emitted by different mechanisms: (a) electron bremsstrahlung and by Auger cascade associated with particle emission from the Teflon insulator and also tungsten (0963-0252/5/1/009/img9 and 0963-0252/5/1/009/img10) characteristic lines; (b) pinching and collapse of the hot plasma surrounding the anode and the insulator. X-ray spots are observed. Their number is about 200 per shot, their radius is less than 40 0963-0252/5/1/009/img11m and their emission intensity is compatible with that of a dense plasma: 0963-0252/5/1/009/img12 with a temperature in the range 100 eV to 1 keV. Some of them are seen to follow linear trajectories, suggesting a 1 ns period wave propagation at 300 km 0963-0252/5/1/009/img13 which triggers the collapse.

  8. Flux and energy analysis of species in hollow cathode magnetron ionized physical vapor deposition of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L.; Ko, E.; Dulkin, A.; Park, K. J.; Fields, S.; Leeser, K.; Meng, L.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2010-01-01

    To meet the stringent requirements of interconnect metallization for sub-32 nm technologies, an unprecedented level of flux and energy control of film forming species has become necessary to further advance ionized physical vapor deposition technology. Such technology development mandates improvements in methods to quantify the metal ion fraction, the gas/metal ion ratio, and the associated ion energies in the total ion flux to the substrate. In this work, a novel method combining planar Langmuir probes, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and gridded energy analyzer (GEA) custom instrumentation is developed to estimate the plasma density and temperature as well as to measure the metal ion fraction and ion energy. The measurements were conducted in a Novellus Systems, Inc. Hollow Cathode Magnetron (HCM TM ) physical vapor deposition source used for deposition of Cu seed layer for 65-130 nm technology nodes. The gridded energy analyzer was employed to measure ion flux and ion energy, which was compared to the collocated planar Langmuir probe data. The total ion-to-metal neutral ratio was determined by the QCM combined with GEA. The data collection technique and the corresponding analysis are discussed. The effect of concurrent resputtering during the deposition process on film thickness profile is also discussed.

  9. Global numerical model for the assessment of the effect of geometry and operation conditions on insert and orifice region plasmas of a thermionic hollow cathode electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, O.; Celik, M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermionic hollow cathodes have been widely used in wide variety of areas such as spacecraft electric propulsion systems, material processing and lasers for more than half a century as efficient electron sources. Especially in electric propulsion systems, hollow cathodes are being used as electron sources for propellant ionization and ion beam neutralization. Moreover, it is also a promising candidate for utilization as a stand-alone propulsion system in microsatellites or nanosatellites due to its small physical size, low power consumption and ease of operation. On the other hand, the small geometry of the typical orificed hollow cathodes makes the plasma diagnostics difficult which is why numerical studies become important for understanding the driving physical processes behind their operation, and the effects of the geometry and the operation parameters on cathode performance. In this paper, a global numerical model for the insert and orifice plasma of a hollow cathode is presented where volume averaged plasma parameters are considered for both regions. The results of this study show that the developed model can be used for designing and sizing orificed hollow cathodes as comparisons with the results of experimental and other numerical studies are in good agreement with the ones obtained from the developed model. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Global numerical model for the assessment of the effect of geometry and operation conditions on insert and orifice region plasmas of a thermionic hollow cathode electron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkmaz, O.; Celik, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bogazici University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-11-15

    Thermionic hollow cathodes have been widely used in wide variety of areas such as spacecraft electric propulsion systems, material processing and lasers for more than half a century as efficient electron sources. Especially in electric propulsion systems, hollow cathodes are being used as electron sources for propellant ionization and ion beam neutralization. Moreover, it is also a promising candidate for utilization as a stand-alone propulsion system in microsatellites or nanosatellites due to its small physical size, low power consumption and ease of operation. On the other hand, the small geometry of the typical orificed hollow cathodes makes the plasma diagnostics difficult which is why numerical studies become important for understanding the driving physical processes behind their operation, and the effects of the geometry and the operation parameters on cathode performance. In this paper, a global numerical model for the insert and orifice plasma of a hollow cathode is presented where volume averaged plasma parameters are considered for both regions. The results of this study show that the developed model can be used for designing and sizing orificed hollow cathodes as comparisons with the results of experimental and other numerical studies are in good agreement with the ones obtained from the developed model. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Note: Possibilities of detecting the trace-level erosion products from an electric propulsion hollow cathode plasma source by the method of time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhong-Xi; Zhang, Hai-Guang; Zhu, Xi-Ming; Jiang, Bin-Hao; Zhou, Zhong-Yue; Yu, Da-Ren; An, Bing-Jian; Wang, Yan-Fei

    2018-02-01

    A hollow cathode produces electrons which neutralize ions from electric propulsion thrusters. After hundreds to thousands of hours of operation in space, the cathode materials can be significantly eroded due to ion bombardment. As a result, the electric propulsion system performance will be obviously changed or even fail. In this work, the erosion products from a LaB6 hollow cathode (widely used presently in electric propulsion systems) are studied by using a specific detection system, which consists of a molecular beam sampler and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This system measures trace-level-concentration (10-6-10-3) products. Boron (B), tantalum (Ta), and tungsten (W)—originating from the emitter, keeper, and orifice of the hollow cathode—are measured. It is found that the erosion rate is significantly influenced by the gas flow rate to the cathode.

  12. Hierarchical nanostructured hollow spherical carbon with mesoporous shell as a unique cathode catalyst support in proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Baizeng; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Minsik; Kim, Minwoo; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2009-03-07

    Hierarchical nanostructured spherical carbon with hollow macroporous core in combination with mesoporous shell has been explored to support Pt cathode catalyst with high metal loading in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The hollow core-mesoporous shell carbon (HCMSC) has unique structural characteristics such as large specific surface area and mesoporous volume, ensuring uniform dispersion of the supported high loading (60 wt%) Pt nanoparticles with small particle size, and well-developed three-dimensionally interconnected hierarchical porosity network, facilitating fast mass transport. The HCMSC-supported Pt(60 wt%) cathode catalyst has demonstrated markedly enhanced catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and greatly improved PEMFC polarization performance compared with carbon black Vulcan XC-72 (VC)-supported ones. Furthermore, the HCMSC-supported Pt(40 wt%) or Pt(60 wt%) outperforms the HCMSC-supported Pt(20 wt%) even at a low catalyst loading of 0.2 mg Pt cm(-2) in the cathode, which is completely different from the VC-supported Pt catalysts. The capability of supporting high loading Pt is supposed to accelerate the commercialization of PEMFC due to the anticipated significant reduction in the amount of catalyst support required, diffusion layer thickness and fabricating cost of the supported Pt catalyst electrode.

  13. Laser beam absorption study of a 238U(5L60) vapor obtained with a hollow cathode lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, J.M.; Leblanc, B.; Mongeau, B.; Carleer, M.; Bertrand, L.

    1979-01-01

    The density of U atoms in the 5 L 0 6 ground state present in a vapor of this element from a hollow cathode lamp has been measured using laser absorption spectroscopy. The influence of the carrier gases (Ar, Kr, Xe) on the density, the absorption coefficient profiles, and on the ratio of U atoms to the dissipated electrical power has been investigated. It has been found that, in our range of operating conditions, the xenon gas is the most efficient. With xenon, a density of 2.2 x 10 12 cm -3 ground-state U atoms is obtained when the lamp dissipates 40 W of electrical power

  14. A study of the ion flux during deposition of titanium thin films by hollow cathode plasma jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Virostko, Petr; Hubička, Zdeněk; Čada, Martin; Kment, Štěpán; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Tichý, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2009), 719-723 ISSN 1883-9630. [Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP2008). Fukuoka, 08.09.2008-12.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100100707; GA AV ČR KJB100100805; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : ion flux * plasma jet * hollow cathode * plasma diagnostics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.jspf.or.jp/JPFRS/PDF/Vol8/jpfrs2009_08-0719.pdf

  15. Physics and applications of micro-plasmas in dielectric barrier and hollow cathode configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeuf, J. P.; Pitchford, L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Non-equilibrium or non-thermal plasmas operate at low gas temperatures and this property make these plasmas very attractive in a number of applications, from etching and deposition in the microelectronics industry to plasma displays and pollution control. However, although it is quite easy to generate a large volume non-equilibrium plasma at pressure on the order or below 100 Pa, this is more of a challenge around atmospheric pressure. Large area plasma sources operating at atmospheric pressure represent a very cost-effective solution for material processing, light sources and other applications, and a large research effort has been devoted to the development of such sources in the last ten years. Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBDs), where one or both electrodes are covered with a dielectric layer are good candidates for atmospheric non-equilibrium plasma generation because of their ability to limit the current and power deposition. It is also much easier to control an atmospheric discharge in a small volume. Therefore an atmospheric plasma source often consists of a number of micro-discharges arranged in a way that depends on the application. Even in DBDs with large electrode areas, the plasma is generally not uniform and consists in a large number of micro-discharges or filaments. In this lecture we present a discussion of the physical properties of non-equilibrium plasmas generated in different configurations and operating at atmospheric pressure. This discussion is based on results from numerical models and simulations of Dielectric Barrier Discharges to Micro-Hollow Cathode Discharges. We then focus on specific applications such as surface DBDs for flow control. These discharges (which have some similarities with the surface micro-discharges used in Plasma Display Panels) are being studied for their ability to modify the properties of the boundary layer along airfoils and hence to control the transition between laminar and turbulent regimes. We will show how

  16. Study of the use of an electric discharge for hollow cathodes used as optical excitation sources in the spectrographic measurement of fluorine in thorium, uranium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufpereau, M.; Crehange, G.; Poublan, J.

    1964-01-01

    Previous works and phenomena concerned with a hollow cathode excitation are reviewed. Experiments aimed specially on the determination of the best conditions for an analysis of fluorine in oxides-metals and solutions. In that purpose, several factors have been pointed out. One started some researches about others elements that fluorine. Carrying fluorine into discharge and excitation have been more specially studied. A quantitative analysis method is given. The analysis limit is 45 ppm about but the detection limit is 5 ppm about. As a conclusion, various ways for optical excitation of fluorine are reviewed as other analytical possibilities a hollow cathode discharge offers. (authors) [fr

  17. Doppler spectroscopy of hydrogen Balmer lines in a hollow cathode glow discharge in ammonia and argon-ammonia mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisovic, N. M.; Konjevic, N.

    2008-01-01

    The results of Doppler spectroscopy of hydrogen Balmer lines from a stainless steel (SS) and copper (Cu) hollow cathode (HC) glow discharge in ammonia and argon-ammonia mixture are reported. The experimental profiles in ammonia discharge are fitted well by superposing three Gaussian profiles. The half widths, in energy units, of narrow and medium Gaussians are in the ranges 0.3-0.4 eV and 3-4 eV, respectively, for both hollow cathodes what is expected on the basis of earlier electron beam→NH 3 experiments. The half widths of the largest Gaussian in ammonia are 46 and 55 eV for SS and Cu HC, respectively. In argon-ammonia discharge, three Gaussians are also required to fit experimental profiles. While half widths of narrow and medium Gaussians are similar to those in ammonia, the half widths of the largest Gaussians are 35 and 42 eV for SS and Cu HC, respectively. The half widths of the largest Gaussians in ammonia and in argon-ammonia mixture indicate the presence of excessive Doppler broadening.

  18. Dual-Function Electrocatalytic and Macroporous Hollow-Fiber Cathode for Converting Waste Streams to Valuable Resources Using Microbial Electrochemical Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Katuri, Krishna

    2018-04-30

    Dual-function electrocatalytic and macroporous hollow-fiber cathodes are recently proposed as promising advanced material for maximizing the conversion of waste streams such as wastewater and waste CO2 to valuable resources (e.g., clean freshwater, energy, value-added chemicals) in microbial electrochemical systems. The first part of this progress report reviews recent developments in this type of cathode architecture for the simultaneous recovery of clean freshwater and energy from wastewater. Critical insights are provided on suitable materials for fabricating these cathodes, as well as addressing some challenges in the fabrication process with proposed strategies to overcome them. The second and complementary part of the progress report highlights how the unique features of this cathode architecture can solve one of the intrinsic bottlenecks (gas-liquid mass transfer limitation) in the application of microbial electrochemical systems for CO2 reduction to value-added products. Strategies to further improve the availability of CO2 to microbial catalysts on the cathode are proposed. The importance of understanding microbe-cathode interactions, as well as electron transfer mechanisms at the cathode-cell and cell-cell interface to better design dual-function macroporous hollow-fiber cathodes, is critically discussed with insights on how the choice of material is important in facilitating direct electron transfer versus mediated electron transfer.

  19. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, James; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-01

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  20. Study of the sputtered Cu atoms and Cu+ ions in a hollow cathode glow discharge using a hybrid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baguer, N.; Bogaerts, A.

    2005-01-01

    The role of the Cu atoms sputtered from the cathode material in a cylindrical hollow cathode discharge (HCD) and the corresponding Cu + ions are studied with a self-consistent model based on the principle of Monte Carlo (MC) and fluid simulations. In order to obtain a more realistic view of the discharge processes, this model is coupled with other submodels, which describe the behavior of electrons, fast Ar atoms, Ar + ions, and Ar metastable atoms, also based on the principles of MC and fluid simulations. Typical results are, among others, the thermalization profile of the Cu atoms, the fast Cu atom, the thermal Cu atom and Cu + ion fluxes and densities, and the energy distribution of the Cu + ions. It was found that the contribution of the Ar + ions to the sputtering was the most significant, followed by the fast Ar atoms. At the cathode bottom, there was no net sputtered flux but a net amount of redeposition. Throughout the discharge volume, at all the conditions investigated, the largest concentration of Cu atoms was found in the lower half of the HCD, close to the bottom. Penning ionization was found the main ionization mechanism for the Cu atoms. The ionization degree of copper atoms was found to be in the same order as for the argon atoms (10 -4 )

  1. Influence of the applied power on the barrier performance of silicon-containing plasma polymer coatings using a hollow cathode-activated PECVD process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Top, Michiel; Fahlteich, John; De Hosson, Jeff T. M.

    A hollow cathode arc discharge is used for the roll-to-roll deposition of silicon-containing plasma polymer thin films on a polymer substrate. It is found that the fragmentation of the used monomer hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) increases with increasing plasma power. The higher fragmentation was

  2. Electronic and optical device applications of hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolat, Sami; Tekcan, Burak; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, namely, thin film transistors (TFTs) and metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) photodetectors, based on GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) are demonstrated. Resistivity of GaN thin films and metal-GaN contact resistance are investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Effect of the plasma gas and postmetallization annealing on the performances of the TFTs as well as the effect of the annealing on the performance of MSM photodetectors are studied. Dark current to voltage and responsivity behavior of MSM devices are investigated as well. TFTs with the N 2 /H 2 PA-ALD based GaN channels are observed to have improved stability and transfer characteristics with respect to NH 3 PA-ALD based transistors. Dark current of the MSM photodetectors is suppressed strongly after high-temperature annealing in N 2 :H 2 ambient

  3. Kinetic model of a Ne-H2 Penning Recombination Laser operating in the hollow cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramatarov, P.M.; Stefanova, M.S.; Petrov, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Penning Recombination Laser (PRL) requires the presence of both a recombination plasma populating the upper laser level (ULL) and a gas component efficiently depopulating the lower laser level (LLL) by Penning reactions. Such requirements are met in the negative glow plasma of a pulsed high voltage Ne-H 2 discharge with a helical hollow cathode. High rates of ionizations followed by recombinations are reached due to the beam component of non-Maxwellian electrons of 1-2 keV energy present in the tail of the electron energy distribution function. The H 2 , on the one hand plays the role of Penning component and on the other hand effectively cools the electrons by rotational and vibrational levels excitation. The latter contributes to the effectiveness of the recombination processes. A kinetic model of the physical processes determining the inversion population on the NeI(2p 1 -1s 2 ) transition (the 585.3 nm line) in a Ne-H 2 PRL operating in a high voltage hollow cathode discharge at intermediate pressures is proposed. About 60 plasma-chemical reactions are considered in the model. These include: two-electron recombination of Ne + ; dissociative recombination of Ne 2 + , NeH + and H 2 + ; ion-ion recombination of Ne + and H - ; Ne and H 2 direct ionization by fast electrons; Ne stepwise ionization; Penning ionization; Ne excitation by fast electrons; Ne stepwise excitation and de-excitation; radiative transitions; electron mixing between Ne excited states; H 2 rotational and vibrational levels excitation; H 2 dissociative attachment; elastic electron collisions with H 2 and Ne. The rate constants for the reactions are either taken from the literature or calculated in this work

  4. [Reparative regeneration of rat skin under influence of hollow cathode lamp (HCL) with manganese and copper line spectrum emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, V I; Izvol'skaia, M S; Voronova, S N; Sharipova, M M; Rukin, E M; Zakharova, L A

    2010-01-01

    Influence of local light exposure by hollow cathode lamp with typical manganese and copper (HCL-Mn, Cu) line emission spectrum on posttraumatic regeneration rate of rat skin has been investigated. We performed the comparative analysis of the morphology and the differentiation ability of rat skin on the 15th and 24th days after full-thickness skin wound had been inflicted on rat dorsums. On the 15th day after injury, the experimental group (daily 30 s exposure for two weeks) showed scab loss, re-epithelialization, and hair regrowth, in contrast to the control rats, where scabs were still observed on the 24th day. Histological analysis revealed that in contrast to the control group the treatment with HCL-Mn, Cu resulted in the increased number of hair follicles and sebaceous glands, the decreased number of blood vessels and horizontal orientation of collagen fibers. The immunohistochemistry for OX-62 revealed that the number of dermal dendritic cells in the experimental groups was maximal on the 15th day, and then decreased to the 24th day after injury. The number of dermal dendritic cells was significantly lower in the control group. The immunohistochemistry for pan-keratins in the control animals revealed a high number of cells expressing different types of keratins, distributed in the main part of the epidermis on the 15th day after surgery, whereas in the experimental group the number of such cells was significantly lower and the cells were concentrated more close to the external part of the epidermis. The number of cells stained for keratin 19 was higher in the experimental group on the 15th day after surgery, whereas this number decreased in this group on the 24th day after surgery as compared to the control group. Thus, typical manganese and copper line spectrum emission emitted by hollow cathode lamp stimulates innate immunity, accelerates restoration of derma, skin epithelium and other skin derivates, and stimulates wound healing in general.

  5. Numerical simulation of groundwater movement and managed aquifer recharge from Sand Hollow Reservoir, Hurricane Bench area, Washington County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.; Heilweil, Victor M.

    2012-01-01

    The Hurricane Bench area of Washington County, Utah, is a 70 square-mile area extending south from the Virgin River and encompassing Sand Hollow basin. Sand Hollow Reservoir, located on Hurricane Bench, was completed in March 2002 and is operated primarily as a managed aquifer recharge project by the Washington County Water Conservancy District. The reservoir is situated on a thick sequence of the Navajo Sandstone and Kayenta Formation. Total recharge to the underlying Navajo aquifer from the reservoir was about 86,000 acre-feet from 2002 to 2009. Natural recharge as infiltration of precipitation was approximately 2,100 acre-feet per year for the same period. Discharge occurs as seepage to the Virgin River, municipal and irrigation well withdrawals, and seepage to drains at the base of reservoir dams. Within the Hurricane Bench area, unconfined groundwater-flow conditions generally exist throughout the Navajo Sandstone. Navajo Sandstone hydraulic-conductivity values from regional aquifer testing range from 0.8 to 32 feet per day. The large variability in hydraulic conductivity is attributed to bedrock fractures that trend north-northeast across the study area.A numerical groundwater-flow model was developed to simulate groundwater movement in the Hurricane Bench area and to simulate the movement of managed aquifer recharge from Sand Hollow Reservoir through the groundwater system. The model was calibrated to combined steady- and transient-state conditions. The steady-state portion of the simulation was developed and calibrated by using hydrologic data that represented average conditions for 1975. The transient-state portion of the simulation was developed and calibrated by using hydrologic data collected from 1976 to 2009. Areally, the model grid was 98 rows by 76 columns with a variable cell size ranging from about 1.5 to 25 acres. Smaller cells were used to represent the reservoir to accurately simulate the reservoir bathymetry and nearby monitoring wells; larger

  6. Three-colour photoionization optogalvanic spectroscopy in U-Ne hollow cathode discharges: observation of even-parity autoionization states of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, P.K.; Seema, A.U.; Das, R.C.; Shah, M.L.; Dev, Vas; Suri, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Three-colour three-step photoionization spectroscopy of uranium has been performed in a U-Ne hollow cathode discharge tube by temporally resolving three-colour photoionization optogalvanic (PIOG) signal from the normal optogalvanic (OG) signal using three tunable pulsed dye lasers. U-Ne hollow cathode discharge tube has been used as a source of uranium atomic vapour and photoionization detector. Using this technique, photoionization spectra of uranium have been investigated systematically in the energy region 52150-52590 cm -1 , through three different excitation pathways, originating from its ground state, 0 cm -1 ( 5 L 0 6 ). By analyzing the three-colour photoionization spectra sixty new even-parity autoionization resonances of uranium have been identified and their probable total angular momentum (J) values have been assigned according to the J-momentum selection rule. (author)

  7. Deposition of hematite Fe.sub.2./sub.O.sub.3./sub. thin film by DC pulsed magnetron and DC pulsed hollow cathode sputtering system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubička, Zdeněk; Kment, Štěpán; Olejníček, Jiří; Čada, Martin; Kubart, T.; Brunclíková, Michaela; Kšírová, Petra; Adámek, Petr; Remeš, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 549, Dec (2013), s. 184-191 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/2104; GA MŠk LH12043 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101215 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : HIPIMS * thin film s * hollow cathode Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2013

  8. Improving the Ar I and II branching ratio calibration method: Monte Carlo simulations of effects from photon scattering/reflecting in hollow cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The Ar I and II branching ratio calibration method is discussed with the goal of improving the technique. This method of establishing a relative radiometric calibration is important in ongoing research to improve atomic transition probabilities for quantitative spectroscopy in astrophysics and other fields. Specific suggestions are presented along with Monte Carlo simulations of wavelength dependent effects from scattering/reflecting of photons in a hollow cathode.

  9. Synthesis and Electrochemical Property of LiMn2O4Porous Hollow Nanofiber as Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lianfeng; Zhang, Xueyu; Yue, Kaiqiang; Wu, Yue; Zhuang, Jian; Lü, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The LiMn 2 O 4 hollow nanofibers with a porous structure have been synthesized by modified electrospinning techniques and subsequent thermal treatment. The precursors were electrospun directly onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. The heating rate and FTO as substrate play key roles on preparing porous hollow nanofiber. As cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), LiMn 2 O 4 hollow nanofibers showed the high specific capacity of 125.9 mAh/g at 0.1 C and a stable cycling performance, 105.2 mAh/g after 400 cycles. This unique structure could relieve the structure expansion effectively and provide more reaction sites as well as shorten the diffusion path for Li + for improving electrochemical performance for LIBs.

  10. Hollow porous bowl-shaped lithium-rich cathode material for lithium-ion batteries with exceptional rate capability and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Wansen; Shen, Shuiyun; Yan, Xiaohui; Wu, Aiming; Yin, Jiewei; Zhang, Junliang

    2018-03-01

    Although lithium-rich layered composite cathode materials can meet the requirements of high discharge capacities and energy densities of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the drawbacks of encountering structural reconstruction, sharp voltage decay during cycling as well as low packing density still exist, which retard their further commercial development. This paper presents a novel approach to construct hollow porous bowl-shaped Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 (denoted as HPB-LMNCO) particles, which involves bowl-shaped carbonaceous particles as the predominant template and polyvinylpyrrolidone as an assistant soft template. One crucial step during the synthetic process is the controlled growth of metal ions with specific molar ratios in the bowl-shaped carbonaceous particles, and the key control parameter is the heating rate to ensure the prepared particles own the desired hollow porous bowl-shaped morphology. Of particular note is the desirable architecture which not only inherits the merits of hollow structures but also facilitates the tight particles packing. Owing to these advantages, utilizing this HPB-LMNCO as a cathode material manifests impressive rate capability and exceptional cycling stability at high rates with capacity retention of above 82% over 100 cycles. These results reveal that structural design of cathode materials play a pivotal role in developing high-performance LIBs.

  11. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of nitrogen-rich surface layers on AISI 304 stainless steel by rapid nitriding in a hollow cathode discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; He, Yongyong; Zhang, Shangzhou; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yijie

    2018-01-01

    Nitriding treatments have been successfully applied to austenitic stainless steels to improve their hardness and tribological properties. However, at temperatures above 450 °C, conventional plasma nitriding processes decrease the corrosion resistance due to the formation of CrN phases within the modified layer. In this work, AISI 304 austenitic stainless steels were efficiently treated by rapid plasma nitriding at a high temperature of 530 °C in a hollow cathode discharge. The enhanced ionization obtained in the hollow cathode configuration provided a high current density and, consequently, a high temperature could be attained in a short time. The nitrided layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the dual-layer structure of the nitrided layer consists of a high-N face-centered cubic structure with a free CrN precipitate outer (top) layer and a nitrogen-expanded austenite S-phase bottom layer. The rapid nitriding-assisted hollow cathode discharge technique permits the use of high temperatures, as high as 530 °C, without promoting degradation in the corrosion resistance of stainless steel.

  12. Characterization of the Be-Ag interfacial region of silver films deposited onto beryllium using a hot hollow cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.T.; Draper, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    Silver films are physically vapor deposited onto beryllium substrates using a hot hollow cathode discharge. To obtain high Be-Ag adhesion strengths, an atomically 'clean' surface is obtained by ion bombardment cleaning. In this investigation, the relationship of the ion cleaning parameters to contaminants in the Be-Ag interfacial region and their effect on adhesion strength were evaluated. Specimens were ion cleaned at various bombardment parameters and then flash coated with silver. In-depth film profiles were taken by sputter etching in argon and monitoring the Auger electron peak-to-peak heights. The interface was also analyzed by taking a complete spectrum at the edge of the sputter crater. Impurities found at the interface were tantalum, copper and oxygen. The results for adhesion strengths showed that a small amount of oxygen (about 2 at.%) left in the Be-Ag interface will reduce the adhesion strength of the coating. Silver films deposited in an air leak that was greater than a leak which is easily detectable by residual gas analysis contained only about 0.5 at.% O with no reduction in film adherence strengths. (Auth.)

  13. Building Honeycomb-Like Hollow Microsphere Architecture in a Bubble Template Reaction for High-Performance Lithium-Rich Layered Oxide Cathode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoyong; Yan, Xiaoyan; Xu, Ming; Cao, Kaifeng; Zhu, Huali; Li, Lingjun; Duan, Junfei

    2017-09-13

    In the family of high-performance cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, lithium-rich layered oxides come out in front because of a high reversible capacity exceeding 250 mAh g -1 . However, the long-term energy retention and high energy densities for lithium-rich layered oxide cathode materials require a stable structure with large surface areas. Here we propose a "bubble template" reaction to build "honeycomb-like" hollow microsphere architecture for a Li 1.2 Mn 0.52 Ni 0.2 Co 0.08 O 2 cathode material. Our material is designed with ca. 8-μm-sized secondary particles with hollow and highly exposed porous structures that promise a large flexible volume to achieve superior structure stability and high rate capability. Our preliminary electrochemical experiments show a high capacity of 287 mAh g -1 at 0.1 C and a capacity retention of 96% after 100 cycles at 1.0 C. Furthermore, the rate capability is superior without any other modifications, reaching 197 mAh g -1 at 3.0 C with a capacity retention of 94% after 100 cycles. This approach may shed light on a new material engineering for high-performance cathode materials.

  14. Solvothermal Synthesis of a Hollow Micro-Sphere LiFePO₄/C Composite with a Porous Interior Structure as a Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jieyu; Li, Ying; Hu, Yemin; Li, Wenxian; Zhu, Mingyuan; Hu, Pengfei; Chou, Shulei; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-11-03

    To overcome the low lithium ion diffusion and slow electron transfer, a hollow micro sphere LiFePO₄/C cathode material with a porous interior structure was synthesized via a solvothermal method by using ethylene glycol (EG) as the solvent medium and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the surfactant. In this strategy, the EG solvent inhibits the growth of the crystals and the CTAB surfactant boots the self-assembly of the primary nanoparticles to form hollow spheres. The resultant carbon-coat LiFePO₄/C hollow micro-spheres have a ~300 nm thick shell/wall consisting of aggregated nanoparticles and a porous interior. When used as materials for lithium-ion batteries, the hollow micro spherical LiFePO₄/C composite exhibits superior discharge capacity (163 mAh g -1 at 0.1 C), good high-rate discharge capacity (118 mAh g -1 at 10 C), and fine cycling stability (99.2% after 200 cycles at 0.1 C). The good electrochemical performances are attributed to a high rate of ionic/electronic conduction and the high structural stability arising from the nanosized primary particles and the micro-sized hollow spherical structure.

  15. Assessment of managed aquifer recharge at Sand Hollow Reservoir, Washington County, Utah, updated to conditions through 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Ortiz, Gema; Susong, David D.

    2009-01-01

    Sand Hollow Reservoir in Washington County, Utah, was completed in March 2002 and is operated primarily as an aquifer storage and recovery project by the Washington County Water Conservancy District (WCWCD). Since its inception in 2002 through 2007, surface-water diversions of about 126,000 acre-feet to Sand Hollow Reservoir have resulted in a generally rising reservoir stage and surface area. Large volumes of runoff during spring 2005-06 allowed the WCWCD to fill the reservoir to a total storage capacity of more than 50,000 acre-feet, with a corresponding surface area of about 1,300 acres and reservoir stage of about 3,060 feet during 2006. During 2007, reservoir stage generally decreased to about 3,040 feet with a surface-water storage volume of about 30,000 acre-feet. Water temperature in the reservoir shows large seasonal variation and has ranged from about 3 to 30 deg C from 2003 through 2007. Except for anomalously high recharge rates during the first year when the vadose zone beneath the reservoir was becoming saturated, estimated ground-water recharge rates have ranged from 0.01 to 0.09 feet per day. Estimated recharge volumes have ranged from about 200 to 3,500 acre-feet per month from March 2002 through December 2007. Total ground-water recharge during the same period is estimated to have been about 69,000 acre-feet. Estimated evaporation rates have varied from 0.04 to 0.97 feet per month, resulting in evaporation losses of 20 to 1,200 acre-feet per month. Total evaporation from March 2002 through December 2007 is estimated to have been about 25,000 acre-feet. Results of water-quality sampling at monitoring wells indicate that by 2007, managed aquifer recharge had arrived at sites 37 and 36, located 60 and 160 feet from the reservoir, respectively. However, different peak arrival dates for specific conductance, chloride, chloride/bromide ratios, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved-gas pressures at each monitoring well indicate the complicated nature of

  16. The effects of a realistic hollow cathode plasma contactor model on the simulation of bare electrodynamic tether systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blash, Derek M.

    The region known as Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) has become populated with artificial satellites and space debris since humanities initial venture into the region. This has turned LEO into a hazardous region. Since LEO is very valuable to many different countries, there has been a push to prevent further buildup and talk of even deorbiting spent satellites and debris already in LEO. One of the more attractive concepts available for deorbiting debris and spent satellites is a Bare Electrodynamic Tether (BET). A BET is a propellantless propulsion technique in which two objects are joined together by a thin conducting material. When these tethered objects are placed in LEO, the tether sweeps across the magnetic field lines of the Earth and induces an electromotive force (emf) along the tether. Current from the space plasma is collected on the bare tether under the action of the induced emf, and this current interacts with the Earth's magnetic field to create a drag force that can be used to deorbit spent satellites and space debris. A Plasma Contactor (PC) is used to close the electrical circuit between the BET and the ionospheric plasma. The PC requires a voltage and, depending on the device, a gas flow to emit electrons through a plasma bridge to the ionospheric plasma. The PC also can require a plasma discharge electrode and a heater to condition the PC for operation. These parameters as well as the PC performance are required to build an accurate simulation of a PC and, therefore, a BET deorbiting system. This thesis focuses on the development, validation, and implementation of a simulation tool to model the effects of a realistic hollow cathode PC system model on a BET deorbit system.

  17. [The comparative assessment of the wound-healing effects of the treatment with the use of Bioptron, Minitag, Orion+ apparatuses and hollow cathode lamps (experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipova, M M; Voronova, S N; Rukin, E M; Vasilenko, A M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present experimental study was the comparative assessment of the wound-healing effects of radiation emitted from Bioptron, Minitag, Orion+ apparatuses and hollow cathode lamps (HCL). The emitters of any type were shown to be equally efficacious in that they accelerated wound epithelization by 30% on the average compared with control. Based on the difference between spectral and power characteristics of different sources of radiation and dynamics of their wound-healing efficacy (including that of two types of HCL), the authors arrived at the conclusion that the further development of the proposed approach to wound healing is a promising line of research in the field of spectral phototherapy.

  18. Destructive physical analysis of hollow cathodes from the Deep Space 1 Flight spare ion engine 30,000 hr life test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Destructive physical analysis of the discharge and neutralizer hollow cathode assemblies from the Deep Space 1 Flight Spare 30,000 Hr life test was performed to characterize physical and chemical evidence of operationally induced effects after 30,372 hours of operation with beam extraction. Post-test inspection of the discharge-cathode assembly was subdivided into detailed analyses at the subcomponent level. Detailed materials analysis and optical inspection of the insert, orifice plate, cathode tube, heater, keeper assembly, insulator, and low-voltage propellant isolator were performed. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEW analyses were used to determine the extent and composition of regions of net deposition and erosion of both the discharge and neutralizer inserts. A comparative approach with an un-operated 4:1:1 insert was used to determine the extent of impregnate material depletion as a function of depth from the ID surface and axial position from the orifice plate. Analysis results are compared and contrasted with those obtained from similar analyses on components from shorter term tests, and provide insight regarding the prospect for successful longer-term operation consistent with SOA ion engine program life objectives at NASA.

  19. Measurements of plasma parameters during Ba.sub.x./sub.Sr.sub.1-x./sub.TiO.sub.3./sub. thin films deposition by double hollow cathode plasma jet system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olejníček, Jiří; Hubička, Zdeněk; Virostko, Petr; Deyneka, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Adámek, P.; Šícha, M.; Tichý, M.; Šíchová, H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. B (2006), B1283-B1289 ISSN 0011-4626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : BSTO thin films * hollow cathode sputtering * Langmuir probe * emission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  20. Generation of uniform low-temperature plasma in a pulsed non-self-sustained glow discharge with a large-area hollow cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadeev, Yu. H.; Denisov, V. V.; Koval, N. N.; Kovalsky, S. S.; Lopatin, I. V.; Schanin, P. M.; Yakovlev, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Generation of plasma in a pulsed non-self-sustained glow discharge with a hollow cathode with an area of ≥2 m2 at gas pressures of 0.4-1 Pa was studied experimentally. At an auxiliary arc-discharge current of 100 A and a main discharge voltage of 240 V, a pulse-periodic glow discharge with a current amplitude of 370 A, pulse duration of 340 μs, and repetition rate of 1 kHz was obtained. The possibility of creating a uniform gas-discharge plasma with a density of up to 1012 cm-3 and an electron temperature of 1 eV in a volume of >0.2 m3 was demonstrated. Such plasma can be efficiently used to treat material surfaces and generate pulsed ion beams with a current density of up to 15 mA/cm2.

  1. Generation of uniform low-temperature plasma in a pulsed non-self-sustained glow discharge with a large-area hollow cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmadeev, Yu. H.; Denisov, V. V., E-mail: volodyadenisov@yandex.ru; Koval, N. N.; Kovalsky, S. S.; Lopatin, I. V.; Schanin, P. M.; Yakovlev, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High-Current Electronics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Generation of plasma in a pulsed non-self-sustained glow discharge with a hollow cathode with an area of ≥2 m{sup 2} at gas pressures of 0.4–1 Pa was studied experimentally. At an auxiliary arc-discharge current of 100 A and a main discharge voltage of 240 V, a pulse-periodic glow discharge with a current amplitude of 370 A, pulse duration of 340 μs, and repetition rate of 1 kHz was obtained. The possibility of creating a uniform gas-discharge plasma with a density of up to 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} and an electron temperature of 1 eV in a volume of >0.2 m{sup 3} was demonstrated. Such plasma can be efficiently used to treat material surfaces and generate pulsed ion beams with a current density of up to 15 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  2. Difference-frequency laser spectroscopy of molecular ions with a hollow-cathode cell: extended analysis of the ν1 band of H2D+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, T.

    1985-01-01

    A cooled hollow-cathode cell was used for observation of the infrared spectra of positive ions in the 3-μm region with a difference-frequency laser as a radiation source. About an order-of-magnitude enhancement of the signal intensity was attained, compared with the similar signals obtained with our previous glow-discharge cell. Ten more weaker lines of the ν 1 fundamental band of H 2 D + , which could not be observed in our previous experiment [J. Chem. Phys. 81, 2869 (1984)] were measured. Improved molecular constants were obtained from a least-squares fit including the infrared lines and the two millimeter-and submillimeter-wave lines in the ground state

  3. Graphene-coated hollow fiber membrane as the cathode in anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactors – Effect of configuration and applied voltage on performance and membrane fouling

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Craig M.

    2015-12-22

    Electrically conductive, graphene-coated hollow-fiber porous membranes were used as cathodes in anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactors (AnEMBRs) operated at different applied voltages (0.7 V and 0.9 V) using a new rectangular reactor configuration, compared to a previous tubular design (0.7 V). The onset of biofouling was delayed and minimized in rectangular reactors operated at 0.9 V, compared to those at 0.7 V due to higher rates of hydrogen production. Maximum transmembrane pressures for the rectangular reactor were only 0.10 bar (0.7 V) or 0.05 bar (0.9 V) after 56 days of operation, compared to 0.46 bar (0.7 V) for the tubular reactor after 52 days. The thickness of the membrane biofouling layer was approximately 0.4 µm for rectangular reactors and 4 µm for the tubular reactor. Higher permeate quality (TSS = 0.05 mg/L) was achieved in the rectangular AnEMBR than the tubular AnEMBR (TSS = 17 mg/L), likely due to higher current densities that minimized the accumulation of cells in suspension. These results show that the new rectangular reactor design, which had increased rates of hydrogen production, successfully delayed the onset of cathode biofouling and improved reactor performance.

  4. [Metabolic mechanisms underlying reparative action of metal-dependent spectral light flux from a hollow cathode lamp (experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusyreva, G A; Frolkov, V K; Bobrovnitskiĭ, I P

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of serial irradiation of experimental animals with a visible light flow showing spectral lines of copper and manganese on the rate of reparative processes and the associated metabolic events. The cathode of the lamp that contained both microelements generated the light flux possessed of significant biological activity. Specifically, it accelerated reduction of the wound surface area and optimized regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in the lipid peroxidation system by insulin and cotisol. The light flux emitted by the cathode containing only one of the two elements (either copper or manganese) produced a similar but less pronounced effect.

  5. An innovative and simple approach to fabricate a hollow ocular prosthesis with functional lubricant reservoir: A solution to artificial eye comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Anil Kavlekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of an eye is an emotional and psychological setback to the patient. An ocular prosthesis is created to restore the lost anatomical structure and to correct the cosmetic defect. The tear reflexes do not function at optimal levels in anophthalmic sockets which make prosthesis wear uncomfortable. This case report presents an innovative hollow ocular prosthesis with functional lubricant reservoir which upon normal blinking would draw the lubricant from the reservoir through an exit hole which spreads over the prosthesis allowing a comfortable and long duration of prosthesis wear.

  6. Flexible three-dimensional electrodes of hollow carbon bead strings as graded sulfur reservoirs and the synergistic mechanism for lithium–sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Ni, Wei, E-mail: niwei@iccas.ac.cn [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Cheng, Jianli; Wang, Zhuanpei; Wang, Ting; Guan, Qun [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Zhang, Yun, E-mail: y_zhang@scu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Wu, Hao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Li, Xiaodong [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Wang, Bin, E-mail: edward.bwang@gmail.com [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Flexible three-dimensional electrode comprised of stringed N-doped hollow carbon spheres shows a synergistic sulfur confinement mechanism and a higher energy/power density for the promising lithium-sulfur batteries compared with traditional electrodes. - Highlights: • Hollow carbon beads on string structure was first prepared. • Flexible 3D electrodes as graded reservoirs for polysulfides were conducted. • Synergistic effect for enhanced polysulfides storage was claimed. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) flexible electrodes of stringed hollow nitrogen-doped (N-doped) carbon nanospheres as graded sulfur reservoirs and conductive frameworks were elaborately designed via a combination of the advantages of hollow structures, 3D electrodes and flexible devices. The as-prepared electrodes by a synergistic method of electrospinning, template sacrificing and activation for Li–S batteries without any binder or conductive additives but a 3D interconnected conductive network offered multiple transport paths for electrons and improved sulfur utilization and facilitated an easy access to Li{sup +} ingress/egress. With the increase of density of hollow carbon spheres in the strings, the self-supporting composite electrode reveals an enhanced synergistic mechanism for sulfur confinement and displays a better cycling stability and rate performance. It delivers a high initial specific capacity of 1422.6 mAh g{sup −1} at the current rate of 0.2C with the high sulfur content of 76 wt.%, and a much higher energy density of 754 Wh kg{sup −1} and power density of 1901 Wh kg{sup −1}, which greatly improve the energy/power density of traditional lithium–sulfur batteries and will be promising for further commercial applications.

  7. Electrostatic/magnetic ion acceleration through a slowly diverging magnetic nozzle between a ring anode and an on-axis hollow cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasoh, A.; Mizutani, K.; Iwakawa, A.

    2017-06-01

    Ion acceleration through a slowly diverging magnetic nozzle between a ring anode and a hollow cathode set on the axis of symmetry has been realized. Xenon was supplied as the propellant gas from an annular slit along the inner surface of the ring anode so that it was ionized near the anode, and the applied electric potential was efficiently transformed to an ion kinetic energy. As an electrostatic thruster, within the examined operation conditions, the thrust, F, almost scaled with the propellant mass flow rate; the discharge current, Jd, increased with the discharge voltage, Vd. An important characteristic was that the thrust also exhibited electromagnetic acceleration performance, i.e., the so-called "swirl acceleration," in which F ≅JdB Ra /√{2 }, where B and Ra were a magnetic field and an anode inner radius, respectively. Such a unique thruster performance combining both electrostatic and electromagnetic accelerations is expected to be useful as another option for in-space electric propulsion in its broad functional diversity.

  8. Electron beam produced in a transient hollow cathode discharge: beam electron distribution function, X-ray emission and solid target ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, Magdalena

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis aims at a better knowledge of phenomena occurring during transient hollow cathode discharges. The author first recalls the characteristics of such a discharge which make it different from conventional pseudo-spark discharges. The objective is to characterise the electron beam produced within the discharge, and the phenomena associated with its interaction with a solid or gaseous target, leading to the production of an X ray or visible radiation. Thus, the author reports the measurement (by magnetic deflection) of the whole time-averaged electronic distribution function. Such a knowledge is essential for a better use of the electron beam in applications such as X-ray source or material ablation. As high repetition frequency pulse X ray sources are very interesting tools, he reports the development and characterisation of Bremsstrahlung X rays during a beam-target interaction. He finally addresses the implementation of a spectroscopic diagnosis for the filamentary plasma and the ablation of a solid target by the beam [fr

  9. [High current microsecond pulsed hollow cathode lamp excited ionic fluorescence spectrometry of alkaline earth elements in inductively coupled plasma with a Fassel-torch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Yu; Gong, Zhen-Bin; Huang, Ben-Li

    2006-02-01

    High current microsecond pulsed hollow cathode lamp (HCMP-HCL) excited ionic fluorescence spectrometry (IFS) of alkaline earth elements in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with a Fassel-torch has been investigated. In wide condition ranges only IFS was observed, whilst atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) was not detectable. More intense ionic fluorescence signal was observed at lower observation heights and at lower incident RF powers. Without introduction of any reduction organic gases into the ICP, the limit of detection (LOD, 3sigma) of Ba was improved by 50-fold over that of a conventional pulsed (CP) HCL with the Baird sleeve-extended torch. For Ca and Sr, the LODs by HCMP-HCL-ICP-IFS and CP-HCL-ICP-AFS show no significant difference. Relative standard deviations were 0.6%-1.4% (0.1-0.2 microg x mL(-1), n = 10) for 5 ionic fluorescence lines. Preliminary studies showed that the intensity of ionic fluorescence could be depressed in the presence of K, Al and P.

  10. Space resolved optical emission spectroscopy during deposition of Ba.sub.x./sub.Sr.sub.1-x./sub.TiO.sub.3./sub. thin films by double hollow cathode plasma Jet system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olejníček, Jiří; Hubička, Zdeněk; Čada, Martin; Virostko, Petr; Kment, Štěpán; Adámek, Petr; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 609, - (2009), s. 105-109 ISSN 0255-5476. [International Conference on Thin Films and Porous Materials /1./. Algiers , 19.05.2008-22.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1009; GA AV ČR KJB100100707; GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : Ba x Sr 1-x TiO 3 * BSTO * ferroelectric films * hollow cathode * optical emission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  11. Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Reduced Graphene Oxide-Supported ZnO/ZnCo2O4/C Hollow Nanocages as Cathode Catalysts for Aluminum-O2 Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yisi; Jiang, Hao; Hao, Jiayu; Liu, Yulong; Shen, Haibo; Li, Wenzhang; Li, Jie

    2017-09-20

    Aluminum-air battery is a promising candidate for large-scale energy applications because of its low cost and high energy density. Remarkably, tremendous efforts have been concentrated on developing efficient and stable cathode electrocatalysts toward the oxygen reduction reaction. In this work, a hydrothermal-calcination approach was utilized to prepare novel reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-supported hollow ZnO/ZnCo 2 O 4 nanoparticle-embedded carbon nanocages (ZnO/ZnCo 2 O 4 /C@rGO) using a zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67)/graphene oxide/zinc nitrate composite as the precursor. The ZnO/ZnCo 2 O 4 /C@rGO hybrid exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction under alkaline conditions and superior stability and methanol tolerance to those of the commercial Pt/C catalyst. Furthermore, novel and simple Al-air coin cells were first fabricated using the hybrid materials as cathode catalysts under ambient air conditions to further investigate their catalytic performance. The coin cell with the ZnO/ZnCo 2 O 4 /C@rGO cathode catalyst displays a higher open circuit voltage and discharge voltage and more sluggish potential drop than those of the cell with the ZnO/ZnCo 2 O 4 /C cathode catalyst, which confirms that rGO can enhance the electrocatalytic activity and stability of the catalyst system. The excellent electrocatalytic performance of the ZnO/ZnCo 2 O 4 /C@rGO hybrid is attributed to the prominent conductivity and high specific surface area resulting from rGO, the more accessible catalytic active sites induced by the unique porous hollow nanocage structure, and synergic covalent coupling between rGO sheets and ZnO/ZnCo 2 O 4 /C nanocages.

  12. Embedding of Hollow Polymer Microspheres with Hydrophilic Shell in Nafion Matrix as Proton and Water Micro-Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Assimilating hydrophilic hollow polymer spheres (HPS into Nafion matrix by a loading of 0.5 wt % led to a restructured hydrophilic channel, composed of the pendant sulfonic acid groups (–SO3H and the imbedded hydrophilic hollow spheres. The tiny hydrophilic hollow chamber was critical to retaining moisture and facilitating proton transfer in the composite membranes. To obtain such a tiny cavity structure, the synthesis included selective generation of a hydrophilic polymer shell on silica microsphere template and the subsequent removal of the template by etching. The hydrophilic HPS (100–200 nm possessed two different spherical shells, the styrenic network with pendant sulfonic acid groups and with methacrylic acid groups, respectively. By behaving as microreservoirs of water, the hydrophilic HPS promoted the Grotthus mechanism and, hence, enhanced proton transport efficiency through the inter-sphere path. In addition, the HPS with the –SO3H borne shell played a more effective role than those with the –CO2H borne shell in augmenting proton transport, in particular under low humidity or at medium temperatures. Single H2-PEMFC test at 70 °C using dry H2/O2 further verified the impactful role of hydrophilic HPS in sustaining higher proton flux as compared to pristine Nafion membrane.

  13. Simultaneous multiple element detection by particle beam/hollow cathode-optical emission spectroscopy as a tool for metallomic studies: determinations of metal binding with apo-transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarles, C Derrick; Brumaghim, Julia L; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    Particle beam/hollow cathode-optical emission spectroscopy (PB/HC-OES) is presented as a tool for the determination of metal ion loading in transferrin (Tf). The elemental specificity of optical emission spectroscopy provides a means of assessing metal ion concentrations as well as the relative amounts of metal per unit protein concentration (up to 2 moles of Fe per mole of protein). The PB/HC-OES method allows for the simultaneous detection of metal content (Fe (I) 371.99, Ni (I) 341.41 nm, Zn (I) 213.86 nm, and Ag (I) 338.28 nm in this case), as well as elemental carbon and sulfur (C (I) 156.14 nm and S (I) 180.73 nm) that are reflective of the protein composition and concentration. Quantification for the metal species is based on calibration functions derived from aqueous solutions, with limits of detection for the entire suite being less than 1.0 μM. Determinations in this manner eliminate much of the ambiguity inherent in UV-VIS absorbance determinations of Tf metal binding. Validation of this method is obtained by analyzing loading response of Fe(3+) into Tf using the PB/HC-OES method and comparing the results with those of the standard UV-VIS absorbance method. Maximum Fe(3+) loading of Tf (based on the number of available binding sites) was determined to be 71.2 ± 4.7% by the PB/HC-OES method and 67.5 ± 2.5% for the UV-VIS absorbance method. Element emission ratios between the dopant metals and the carbon and sulfur protein constituents allow for concentration independent determinations of metal binding into Tf. Loading percentages were determined for Ni(2+), Zn(2+), and Ag(+) into Tf with maximum loading values of 19.5 ± 0.4%, 41.0 ± 4.4%, and 141.2 ± 4.3%, respectively. While of no apparent biological significance, Ag(+) presents an interesting case as a surrogate for Pt(2+), whose binding with Tf has shown to be quite different from the other metals. A different mode from the others is indeed observed, and is consistent with conjecture on the Pt(2

  14. Direct fabrication of metal-free hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure as efficient cathode catalysts of fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yanqi; Liu, Mingda; Nie, Huagui, E-mail: huaguinie@126.com; Gu, Cancan; Liu, Ming; Yang, Zhi, E-mail: yang201079@126.com; Yang, Keqin; Chen, Xi’an; Huang, Shaoming, E-mail: smhuang@wzu.edu.cn [Wenzhou University, Nanomaterials and Chemistry Key Laboratory (China)

    2016-06-15

    Despite the good progress in developing carbon catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), the current metal-free carbon catalysts are still far from satisfactory for large-scale applications of fuel cell. Developing hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure is considered to be an ideal method to inhibit graphene stacking and improve their catalytic performance. Herein, we fabricated metal-free hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure, through using a new strategy that involves direct metal-free catalytic growth from assembly of SiO{sub 2} spheres. To our knowledge, although much researches involving the synthesis of graphene balls have been reported, investigations into the direct metal-free catalytic growth of hollow graphene balls are rare. Furthermore, the electrocatalytic performance shows that the resulting hollow graphene balls have significantly high catalytic activity. More importantly, such catalysts also possess much improved stability and better methanol tolerance in alkaline media during the ORR compared with commercial Pt/C catalysts. The outstanding performances coupled with an easy and inexpensive preparing method indicated the great potential of the hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure in large-scale applications of fuel cell.Graphical AbstractHollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure have been successfully fabricated, through using a new strategy that involves direct metal-free catalytic growth from 3D assembly of SiO{sub 2} spheres. The hollow graphene balls can exhibit a high catalytic activity, long-term stability, and an excellent methanol tolerance for the oxygen reduction reaction.

  15. Synthesis of carbon-coated Na2MnPO4F hollow spheres as a potential cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling; Hu, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Liu, Jiequn; Zhu, Xing; Zhong, Shengkui

    2018-01-01

    Hollow sphere structure Na2MnPO4F/C composite is synthesized through spray drying, following in-situ pyrolytic carbon coating process. XRD results indicate that the well crystallized composite can be successfully synthesized, and no other impurity phases are detected. SEM and TEM results reveal that the Na2MnPO4F/C samples show intact hollow spherical architecture, and the hollow spherical shells with an average thickness of 150 nm-250 nm are composed of nanosized primary particles. Furthermore, the amorphous carbon layer is uniformly coated on the surface of the hollow sphere, and the nanosized Na2MnPO4F particles are well embedded in the carbon networks. Consequently, the hollow sphere structure Na2MnPO4F/C shows enhanced electrochemical performance. Especially, it is the first time that the obvious potential platforms (∼3.6 V) are observed during the charge and discharge process at room temperature.

  16. A Microfiltration Polymer-Based Hollow-Fiber Cathode as a Promising Advanced Material for Simultaneous Recovery of Energy and Water

    KAUST Repository

    Katuri, Krishna

    2016-09-12

    A novel electrocatalytic and microfiltration polymeric hollow fiber is fabricated for simultaneous recovery of energy (H2) and clean fresh water from wastewater, hence addressing two grand challenges facing society in the current century (i.e., providing adequate supplies of clean fresh water and energy as the world\\'s population increases).

  17. Role of hydrogen diffusion in temperature-induced transformation of carbon nanostructures deposited on metallic substrates by using a specially designed fused hollow cathode cold atmospheric pressure plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bikash; Kar, R.; Pal, Arup R.; Shilpa, R. K.; Dusane, R. O.; Patil, D. S.; Suryawanshi, S. R.; More, M. A.; Sinha, S.

    2017-04-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are grown on inconel substrates under two different experimental conditions using atmospheric pressure glow discharge radio-frequency (RF) PECVD process. A specially designed hollow cathode is used for this plasma generation. The growth is carried out at 610 and 660 °C substrate temperatures on inconel substrates. Our results show that CNFs and CNTs could be synthesized at 610 and 660 °C respectively irrespective of pre-treatment methods in either set. HRTEM results indicate that a temperature-induced transformation of CNFs into CNTs occur when the growth temperature is raised from 610 to 660 °C. With the help of characterization results and a schematic model, it is shown how an increase in hydrogen diffusion (~44% increase) plays a pivotal role in this transformation by providing a sink for hydrogen atoms. Field emission results show that most defective CNFs contribute to the maximum emission current density. This better field emission behavior is explained on the basis that the outer surfaces of CNFs are more defective due to the presence of the open edges of the graphene planes, which results in better field emission from the outer surfaces of the CNFs.

  18. Characterization of an Electron Gun for Hollow Electron Beam Collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Siqi [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Stancari, Giulio [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Hollow electron beam collimation (HEBC) is a new technique developed to complement conventional beam collimation system to remove beam halo in a controlled fashion. We study the characteristics of the electron gun that produces the hollow electron beam. Cathode yield and beam profile measurements are used to extract information on gun performance. Results of characteristic measurements are presented.

  19. A High Performance Cathode Heater for Hall Thrusters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High current hollow cathodes are the baseline electron source for next generation high power Hall thrusters. Currently for electron sources providing current levels...

  20. Long Life Cathode Heaters for Hollow Cathodes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Present and future NASA missions, including the Asteroid Redirect Mission and efficient cargo delivery to mars, require a substantial increase in lifetime for ion...

  1. Physical Processes in High Current Hollow Cathodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The next generation of space exploration missions, such as the asteroid return mission and the human exploration of Mars, are not feasible with the technology that...

  2. Electron beam generation form a superemissive cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.-Y.; Liou, R.-L.; Kirkman-Amemiya, G.; Gundersen, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study of electron beams produced by a superemissive cathode in the Back-Lighted Thyratron (BLT) and the pseudospark is presented. This work is motivated by experiments demonstrating very high current densities (≥10 kA/cm 2 over an area of 1 cm 2 ) from the pseudospark and BLT cathode. This high-density current is produced by field-enhanced thermionic emission from the ion beam-heated surface of a molybdenum cathode. This work reports the use of this cathode as a beam source, and is to be distinguished from previous work reporting hollow cathode-produced electron beams. An electron beam of more than 260 A Peak current has been produced with 15 kV applied voltage. An efficiency of ∼10% is estimated. These experimental results encourage further investigation of the super-emissive cathode as an intense electron beam source for applications including accelerator technology

  3. Analysis of cathode geometry to minimize cathode erosion in direct current microplasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causa, Federica [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente, della Sicurezza, del Territorio, degli Alimenti e della Salute, Universita degli studi di Messina, 98122 Messina (Italy); Ghezzi, Francesco; Caniello, Roberto; Grosso, Giovanni [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Dellasega, David [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Microplasma jets are now widely used for deposition, etching, and materials processing. The present study focuses on the investigation of the influence of cathode geometry on deposition quality, for microplasma jet deposition systems in low vacuum. The interest here is understanding the influence of hydrogen on sputtering and/or evaporation of the electrodes. Samples obtained with two cathode geometries with tapered and rectangular cross-sections have been investigated experimentally by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy. Samples obtained with a tapered-geometry cathode present heavy contamination, demonstrating cathode erosion, while samples obtained with a rectangular-cross-section cathode are free from contamination. These experimental characteristics were explained by modelling results showing a larger radial component of the electric field at the cathode inner wall of the tapered cathode. As a result, ion acceleration is larger, explaining the observed cathode erosion in this case. Results from the present investigation also show that the ratio of radial to axial field components is larger for the rectangular geometry case, thus, qualitatively explaining the presence of micro-hollow cathode discharge over a wide range of currents observed in this case. In the light of the above findings, the rectangular cathode geometry is considered to be more effective to achieve cleaner deposition.

  4. Cathode degradation and erosion in high pressure arc discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, T. L.; Nakanishi, S.

    1984-01-01

    The various processes which control cathode erosion and degradation were identified and evaluated. A direct current arc discharge was established between electrodes in a pressure-controlled gas flow environment. The cathode holder was designed for easy testing of various cathode materials. The anode was a water cooled copper collector electrode. The arc was powered by a dc power supply with current and voltage regulated cross-over control. Nitrogen and argon were used as propellants and the materials used were two percent thoriated tungsten, barium oxide impregnated porous tungsten, pure tungsten and lanthanum hexaboride. The configurations used were cylindrical solid rods, wire bundles supported by hollow molybdenum tubes, cylindrical hollow tubes, and hollow cathodes of the type used in ion thrusters. The results of the mass loss tests in nitrogen indicated that pure tungsten eroded at a rate more than 10 times faster than the rates of the impregnated tungsten materials. It was found that oxygen impurities of less than 0.5 percent in the nitrogen increased the mass loss rate by a factor of 4 over high purity nitrogen. At power levels less than 1 kW, cathode size and current level did not significantly affect the mass loss rate. The hollow cathode was found to be operable in argon and in nitrogen only at pressures below 400 and 200 torr, respectively.

  5. Integrated Energetic Ion Mitigation for High Power Plasma Cathodes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed is a hollow cathode that integrates mitigation methods to suppress wear to the keeper. Recent advances in the magnetic topology in Hall...

  6. 3D Hollow Sphere Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs: Its High-performance Bi-functional Cathode Catalysis and Application in Rechargeable Zinc–air Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xuemei; Xu, Nengneng; Li, Haoran; Wang, Min; Zhang, Lei; Qiao, Jinli

    2017-01-01

    There has been a continuous need for high active, excellently durable and low-cost electrocatalysts for rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Among many low-cost metal based candidates, transition metal oxides with the CNTs composite have gained increasing attention. In this paper, the 3-D hollow sphere MnO2 nanotube-supported Co3O4 nanoparticles and its carbon nanotubes hybrid material (Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs) have been synthesized via a simple co-precipitation method combined with post-heat treatment. ...

  7. Fabrication of polymeric hollow nanospheres, hollow nanocubes and hollow plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Daming; Xia, Haibing; Chan, Hardy Sze On

    2006-03-01

    A facile strategy for fabricating polypyrrole-chitosan (PPy-CS) hollow nanostructures with different shapes (sphere, cube and plate) and a wide range of sizes (from 35 to 600 nm) is described. These hollow structures have been fabricated using silver bromide as a single template material for polymer nucleation and growth. PPy-CS hollow nanostructures are formed by reaction with an etching agent to remove the core. These hollow nanostructures have been extensively characterized using various techniques such as TEM, FT-IR, UV-vis, and XRD.

  8. Barium-Dispenser Thermionic Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Green, M.; Feinleib, M.

    1989-01-01

    Improved reservoir cathode serves as intense source of electrons required for high-frequency and often high-output-power, linear-beam tubes, for which long operating lifetime important consideration. High emission-current densities obtained through use of emitting surface of relatively-low effective work function and narrow work-function distribution, consisting of coat of W/Os deposited by sputtering. Lower operating temperatures and enhanced electron emission consequently possible.

  9. Cathode degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shores, D.A.; Selman, J.R.; Ong, E.T.

    1989-12-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year study of cathode degradation in molten carbonate fuel cells involving both experimental and theoretical work. A keystone of the study is the development of a mathematical model, which describes cathode degradation in terms of the fundamental processes of a fluxing mechanism, i.e., dissolution, transport and precipitation. New fundamental data have been obtained on the solubility of NiO, especially on the effect of water vapor, and on the kinetics of NiO dissolution in (Li{sub 0.62}K{sub 0.38}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and these data have been incorporated in the model. Laboratory cell testing in 3 cm{sup 2} cells has been carried out to obtain experimental data on degradation rates for direct comparison with the calculated results from the model. These comparisons have helped to verify several aspects of the model. For example, the model predicts with fair accuracy the location of the Ni deposit in the tile and the deposition rate. It is also fair to point out that the model is a relatively simple representation of complex processes, and it does not answer all questions about cathode degradation. Further work is needed. Because of its fundamental basis, the model can readily be upgraded and extended when further experimental data become available. The solubility studies, modeling efforts and cell testing have interacted iteratively to optimize progress. 94 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. Microfabricated hollow microneedle array using ICP etcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jing; Tay, Francis E. H.; Miao, Jianmin

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a developed process for fabrication of hollow silicon microneedle arrays. The inner hollow hole and the fluidic reservoir are fabricated in deep reactive ion etching. The profile of outside needles is achieved by the developed fabrication process, which combined isotropic etching and anisotropic etching with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher. Using the combination of SF6/O2 isotropic etching chemistry and Bosch process, the high aspect ratio 3D and high density microneedle arrays are fabricated. The generated needle external geometry can be controlled by etching variables in the isotropic and anisotropic cases.

  11. Microfabricated hollow microneedle array using ICP etcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jing; Tay, Francis E H; Miao Jianmin

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a developed process for fabrication of hollow silicon microneedle arrays. The inner hollow hole and the fluidic reservoir are fabricated in deep reactive ion etching. The profile of outside needles is achieved by the developed fabrication process, which combined isotropic etching and anisotropic etching with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher. Using the combination of SF 6 /O 2 isotropic etching chemistry and Bosch process, the high aspect ratio 3D and high density microneedle arrays are fabricated. The generated needle external geometry can be controlled by etching variables in the isotropic and anisotropic cases

  12. Microfabricated hollow microneedle array using ICP etcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji Jing [Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Tay, Francis E H [Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Miao Jianmin [MicroMachines Center, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a developed process for fabrication of hollow silicon microneedle arrays. The inner hollow hole and the fluidic reservoir are fabricated in deep reactive ion etching. The profile of outside needles is achieved by the developed fabrication process, which combined isotropic etching and anisotropic etching with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher. Using the combination of SF{sub 6}/O{sub 2} isotropic etching chemistry and Bosch process, the high aspect ratio 3D and high density microneedle arrays are fabricated. The generated needle external geometry can be controlled by etching variables in the isotropic and anisotropic cases.

  13. Design and experiment of high-current low-pressure plasma-cathode e-gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wenkai; Li Xiaoyun; Wang Bin; Meng Lin; Yan Yang; Gao Xinyan

    2006-01-01

    The preliminary design of a new high-power low pressure plasma-cathode e-gun is presented. Based on the hollow cathode effect and low-pressure glow discharge empirical formulas, the hollow cathode, the accelerating gap, and the working gas pressure region are given. The general experimental device of the low-pressure plasma cathode electron-gun generating high current density e-beam source is shown. Experiments has been done in continuous filled-in gases and gases-puff condition, and the discharging current of 150-200 A, the width of 60 μs and the collector current of 30-80 A, the width of 60 μs are obtained. The results show that the new plasma cathode e-gun can take the place of material cathode e-gun, especially in plasma filled microwave tubes. (authors)

  14. Development of plasma cathode electron guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oks, Efim M.; Schanin, Peter M.

    1999-05-01

    The status of experimental research and ongoing development of plasma cathode electron guns in recent years is reviewed, including some novel upgrades and applications to various technological fields. The attractiveness of this kind of e-gun is due to its capability of creating high current, broad or focused beams, both in pulsed and steady-state modes of operation. An important characteristic of the plasma cathode electron gun is the absence of a thermionic cathode, a feature which leads to long lifetime and reliable operation even in the presence of aggressive background gas media and at fore-vacuum gas pressure ranges such as achieved by mechanical pumps. Depending on the required beam parameters, different kinds of plasma discharge systems can be used in plasma cathode electron guns, such as vacuum arcs, constricted gaseous arcs, hollow cathode glows, and two kinds of discharges in crossed E×B fields: Penning and magnetron. At the present time, plasma cathode electron guns provide beams with transverse dimension from fractional millimeter up to about one meter, beam current from microamperes to kiloamperes, beam current density up to about 100 A/cm2, pulse duration from nanoseconds to dc, and electron energy from several keV to hundreds of keV. Applications include electron beam melting and welding, surface treatment, plasma chemistry, radiation technologies, laser pumping, microwave generation, and more.

  15. Electrorefining cell with parallel electrode/concentric cylinder cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Eddie C.; Miller, William E.; Laidler, James J.

    1997-01-01

    A cathode-anode arrangement for use in an electrolytic cell is adapted for electrochemically refining spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear reactor and recovering purified uranium for further treatment and possible recycling as a fresh blanket or core fuel in a nuclear reactor. The arrangement includes a plurality of inner anodic dissolution baskets that are each attached to a respective support rod, are submerged in a molten lithium halide salt, and are rotationally displaced. An inner hollow cylindrical-shaped cathode is concentrically disposed about the inner anodic dissolution baskets. Concentrically disposed about the inner cathode in a spaced manner are a plurality of outer anodic dissolution baskets, while an outer hollow cylindrical-shaped is disposed about the outer anodic dissolution baskets. Uranium is transported from the anode baskets and deposited in a uniform cylindrical shape on the inner and outer cathode cylinders by rotating the anode baskets within the molten lithium halide salt. Scrapers located on each anode basket abrade and remove the spent fuel deposits on the surfaces of the inner and outer cathode cylinders, with the spent fuel falling to the bottom of the cell for removal. Cell resistance is reduced and uranium deposition rate enhanced by increasing the electrode area and reducing the anode-cathode spacing. Collection efficiency is enhanced by trapping and recovery of uranium dendrites scrapped off of the cylindrical cathodes which may be greater in number than two.

  16. 3D hollow sphere Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs: Its high-performance bi-functional cathode catalysis and application in rechargeable zinc-air battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a continuous need for high active, excellently durable and low-cost electrocatalysts for rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Among many low-cost metal based candidates, transition metal oxides with the CNTs composite have gained increasing attention. In this paper, the 3-D hollow sphere MnO2 nanotube-supported Co3O4 nanoparticles and its carbon nanotubes hybrid material (Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs have been synthesized via a simple co-precipitation method combined with post-heat treatment. The morphology and composition of the catalysts are thoroughly analyzed through SEM, TEM, TEM-mapping, XRD, EDX and XPS. In comparison with the commercial 20% Pt/C, Co3O4/MnO2, bare MnO2 nanotubes and CNTs, the hybrid Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs-350 exhibits perfect bi-functional catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction under alkaline condition (0.1 M KOH. Therefore, high cell performances are achieved which result in an appropriate open circuit voltage (∼1.47 V, a high discharge peak power density (340 mW cm−2 and a large specific capacity (775 mAh g−1 at 10 mA cm−2 for the primary Zn-air battery, a small charge–discharge voltage gap and a high cycle-life (504 cycles at 10 mA cm−2 with 10 min per cycle for the rechargeable Zn-air battery. In particular, the simple synthesis method is suitable for a large-scale production of this bifunctional material due to a green, cost effective and readily available process. Keywords: Bi-functional catalyst, Oxygen reduction reaction, Oxygen evolution reaction, Activity and stability, Rechargeable zinc-air battery

  17. Nanotube cathodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Siegal, Michael P.; Miller, Paul Albert

    2006-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes have shown promise for applications in many diverse areas of technology. In this report we describe our efforts to develop high-current cathodes from a variety of nanotubes deposited under a variety of conditions. Our goal was to develop a one-inch-diameter cathode capable of emitting 10 amperes of electron current for one second with an applied potential of 50 kV. This combination of current and pulse duration significantly exceeds previously reported nanotube-cathode performance. This project was planned for two years duration. In the first year, we tested the electron-emission characteristics of nanotube arrays fabricated under a variety of conditions. In the second year, we planned to select the best processing conditions, to fabricate larger cathode samples, and to test them on a high-power relativistic electron beam generator. In the first year, much effort was made to control nanotube arrays in terms of nanotube diameter and average spacing apart. When the project began, we believed that nanotubes approximately 10 nm in diameter would yield sufficient electron emission properties, based on the work of others in the field. Therefore, much of our focus was placed on measured field emission from such nanotubes grown on a variety of metallized surfaces and with varying average spacing between individual nanotubes. We easily reproduced the field emission properties typically measured by others from multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays. Interestingly, we did this without having the helpful vertical alignment to enhance emission; our nanotubes were randomly oriented. The good emission was most likely possible due to the improved crystallinity, and therefore, electrical conductivity, of our nanotubes compared to those in the literature. However, toward the end of the project, we learned that while these 10-nm-diameter CNTs had superior crystalline structure to the work of others studying field emission from multi-wall CNT arrays, these nanotubes still

  18. Nanotube cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Siegal, Michael P.; Miller, Paul Albert

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have shown promise for applications in many diverse areas of technology. In this report we describe our efforts to develop high-current cathodes from a variety of nanotubes deposited under a variety of conditions. Our goal was to develop a one-inch-diameter cathode capable of emitting 10 amperes of electron current for one second with an applied potential of 50 kV. This combination of current and pulse duration significantly exceeds previously reported nanotube-cathode performance. This project was planned for two years duration. In the first year, we tested the electron-emission characteristics of nanotube arrays fabricated under a variety of conditions. In the second year, we planned to select the best processing conditions, to fabricate larger cathode samples, and to test them on a high-power relativistic electron beam generator. In the first year, much effort was made to control nanotube arrays in terms of nanotube diameter and average spacing apart. When the project began, we believed that nanotubes approximately 10 nm in diameter would yield sufficient electron emission properties, based on the work of others in the field. Therefore, much of our focus was placed on measured field emission from such nanotubes grown on a variety of metallized surfaces and with varying average spacing between individual nanotubes. We easily reproduced the field emission properties typically measured by others from multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays. Interestingly, we did this without having the helpful vertical alignment to enhance emission; our nanotubes were randomly oriented. The good emission was most likely possible due to the improved crystallinity, and therefore, electrical conductivity, of our nanotubes compared to those in the literature. However, toward the end of the project, we learned that while these 10-nm-diameter CNTs had superior crystalline structure to the work of others studying field emission from multi-wall CNT arrays, these nanotubes still

  19. Investigation of cold cathodes of plasma sources generating of hydrogen ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Veresov, L P; Dzkuya, M I; Zhukov, Y N; Kuznetsov, G V; Tsekvava, I A

    2001-01-01

    Designs of a hollow cellular cathode (HCC) and of an inverse cylindrical multichamber magnetronic cathode (ICMMC), used as cold cathodes in duoplasmatron for hydrogen ion beam generation, are described. Their service characteristics are compared. It is ascertained that emission ability of both HCC and ICMMC is approximately the same. However, duoplasmatron with ICMMC features a three times higher gas effectiveness compared with HCC. Service life of duoplasmatron with both types of cathodes amounts to several thousand hours. On the basis of test results the choice is made in favour of ICMMC

  20. Cathodic protection -- Rectifier 46

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, W.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-14

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system functions as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms on the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive waste.

  1. Cathodic protection -- Rectifier 47

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, W.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-14

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system functions as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms at the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive waste.

  2. Cathodic protection -- Rectifier 47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system functions as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms at the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive waste

  3. Ultraviolet Generation by Atmospheric Micro-Hollow Cathode Discharges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, J

    2004-01-01

    ...) vacuum ultraviolet light sources. Significant progress was made in developing processes for fabrication of commercially viable light sources and in demonstrating that sources produced using these processes can operate for periods...

  4. Cathode Stalk Cooling System for the MK 1 Quarterwave Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    that is a copper hollow tube (very similar to the cathode stalk), which can also be moved longitudinally to manipulate the coupling into the cavity...subtraction was used to determine these results in Photoshop by layering the two images and taking the difference. This is with a resolution of about 2.8... photo injectors,” Proceedings of the 2009 Superconducting RF Conference, Berlin, Germany, Rep. MOOBAU03, 2009. [11] S. P. Niles et al., “NPS prototype

  5. Cathodic Protection Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs Navy design and engineering of ship and submarine impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for underwater hull corrosion control and...

  6. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  7. How do Colluvial Hollows Fill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T. C.; Parker, R.; Mudd, S. M.; Grieve, S. W. D.

    2016-12-01

    In humid, soil-mantled mountains shallow landslides commonly initiate in colluvial hollows, areas where convergent topography can lead to high pore pressures during storms. Immediately post-landslide initiation, a thin veneer of colluvial material accumulates by small-scale slumping from landslide headscarps. Thereafter colluvium accumulates in hollows primarily through creep-dominated processes like tree throw and animal burrowing, recording the hillslope sediment flux since the last landslide event. We measured the post-landslide hillslope sediment flux in 30 colluvial hollows in the southern Appalachians using radiocarbon measurements collected from soil pits excavated at the centre of steep, landslide-prone hollows. We collected material from the soil-saprolite/bedrock boundary at each location for radiocarbon dating and dated different chemical fractions of the soil (humic acid, humin, charcoal) in an attempt to bracket the "true" age of the soil. We calculated infilling rates of each hollow by measuring soil depths in cross-hollow transects and dividing this by the age of the hollow. The interquartile range of hollow basal ages is 2278-8184 cal. yrs B.P., demonstrating the long return period of landslides in most colluvial hollows. Hillslope erosion rates calculated assuming a linear diffusion transport law show that the transport coefficient (diffusivity) of the hollows varied by 4 orders of magnitude 10-5 to 10-1 m2 yr-1, despite the hollows being formed in regionally consistent geology and vegetation. Uncertainty in the dating and hollow geometry measurements can, at most, account for an order of magnitude of that variability. Our results show that hollows have a phase of rapid infilling that slows through time, consistent with previous observations. Despite this, the oldest hollows show several orders of magnitude variation in the transport coefficient, suggesting local, hollow scale variations in process significantly affect hillslope erosion rates.

  8. Development of hollow anode penning ion source for laboratory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B. K.; Shyam, A.; Das, R.; Rao, A. D. P.

    2012-03-01

    The research work presented here focuses for the development of miniature penning type ion source. One hollow anode penning type ion source was developed in our laboratory. The size of the ion source is 38 mm diameter and 55 mm length. The ion source consists of two cathodes, a hollow anode and one piece of rare earth permanent magnet. The plasma was created in the plasma region between cathodes and the hollow anode. The J × B force in the region helps for efficient ionization of the gas even in the high vacuum region˜1×10 -5 Torr. The ions were extracted in the axial direction with help of the potential difference between the electrodes and the geometry of the extraction angle. The effect of the extraction electrode geometry for efficient extraction of the ions from the plasma region was examined. This ion source is a self extracted ion source. The self extracted phenomena reduce the cost and the size of the ion source. The extracted ion current was measured by a graphite probe. An ion current of more than 200 μA was observed at the probe placed 70 mm apart from the extraction electrode. In this paper, the structure of the ion source, effect of operating pressure, potential difference and the magnetic field on the extracted ion current is reported.

  9. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  10. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Formation of stable direct current microhollow cathode discharge by venturi gas flow system for remote plasma source in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ki Wan; Lee, Tae Il; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Noh, Joo Hyon; Baik, Hong Koo; Song, Kie Moon

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a microhollow cathode configuration with venturi gas flow to ambient air in order to obtain glow discharge at atmospheric pressure. Stable microhollow cathode discharge was formed in a 200 μm diameter at 9 mA and the optimum value of gas velocityxdiameter for hollow cathode effect was obtained in our system. In order to confirm hollow cathode effect, we measured the enhancement of E/N strength for 200 μm (0.31 m 2 /s) and 500 μm (0.78 m 2 /s) air discharge at 8 mA under the velocity of 156 m/s. As a result, an increase of 46.7% in E/N strength of the discharge of 200 μm hole was obtained compare to that of 500 μm

  12. Hollow Force, Hollow Metaphor: Assessing the Current Defense Drawdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    testimony to Congress, the Army’s Chief of Staff, General Edward Meyer, used the phrase “hollow Army” to articulate his perception of an undermanned...drawdown. Background: General Meyer and the Birth of a Powerful Metaphor In 1980, the Army Chief of Staff, General Edward Meyer, used the “hollow Army...5 Meyer stated during a House Arms Senate sub-committee meeting, “Right now, as I have said before, we have a hollow

  13. Hollow Microporous Organic Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Buyi; Yang, Xinjia; Xia, Lingling; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Tan, Bien

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of hollow microporous organic capsules (HMOCs) could be very useful because of their hollow and porous morphology, which combines the advantages of both microporous organic polymers and non-porous nanocapsules. They can be used as storage materials or reaction chambers while supplying the necessary path for the design of controlled uptake/release systems. Herein, the synthesis of HMOCs with high surface area through facile emulsion polymerization and hypercrosslinking reactions, is described. Due to their tailored porous structure, these capsules possessed high drug loading efficiency, zero-order drug release kinetics and are also demonstrated to be used as nanoscale reactors for the prepareation of nanoparticles (NPs) without any external stabilizer. Moreover, owing to their intrinsic biocompatibility and fluorescence, these capsules exhibit promising prospect for biomedical applications. PMID:23820511

  14. Electrodepositing of Au on hollow PS micro-spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingyuan; Zhang Yunwang; Du Kai; Wan Xiaobo; Xiao Jiang; Zhang Wei; Zhang Lin; Chen Jing

    2010-01-01

    Using the self-regulating new micro-sphere electrodepositing device, the techniques of electrodepositing gold on hollow PS micro-spheres were established. The experiment was carried out under the following conditions: voltage was about 0.7 ∼ 0.8 V, current density was 2.0 mA · cm -2 , the temperature was 45 degree C, cathode rotating rate was 250 r · min -1 , flow rate of the solution was 7 mL · min -1 · cm -2 . Hollow gold-plated micro-spheres were prepared with well spherical symmetry, uniform thickness and surface smoothness under 500 nm. The speed of the gold depositing was 6 μm · h -1 . (authors)

  15. Hollow bunches production

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, S

    2017-01-01

    Hollow bunches address the issue of high-brightnessbeams suffering from transverse emittance growth in a strongspace charge regime. During the Proton Synchrotron (PS)injection plateau, the negative space charge tune shift canpush the beam onto theQy=6integer resonance. Modify-ing the longitudinal bunch profile in order to reduce the peakline charge density alleviates the detrimental impact of spacecharge. To this end we first produce longitudinally hollowphase space distributions in the PS Booster by exciting aparametric resonance with the phase loop feedback system.These inherently flat bunches are then transferred to the PS,where the beam becomes less prone to the emittance growthcaused by the integer resonance.During the late 2016 machine development sessions inthe PS Booster we profited from solved issues from 2015and managed to reliably extract hollow bunches of1.3eVsmatched longitudinal area. Furthermore, first results to cre-ate hollow bunches with larger longitudinal emittances to-wards the LHC Inject...

  16. Birefringent hollow core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John

    2007-01-01

    Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many...... applications, and places emphasis on the development of polarization maintaining (PM) HC-PCF. The polarization cross-coupling characteristics of PM HC-PCF are very different from those of conventional PM fibers. The former fibers have the advantage of suffering far less from stress-field fluctuations...... and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core...

  17. Hydrothermal carbon-based nanostructured hollow spheres as electrode materials for high-power lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Nicolas; Sakaushi, Ken; Yu, Linghui; Giebeler, Lars; Eckert, Jürgen; Titirici, Magdalena M

    2013-04-28

    Carbon hollow spheres were produced using a sustainable approach, i.e. hydrothermal carbonization, using monosaccharides as carbon precursors and silica nanoparticles as hard-templates. Hydrothermal carbonization is an eco-efficient and cost-effective route to synthesize nanostructured carbonaceous materials from abundant biomass-derived molecules. After further thermal treatment under an inert atmosphere and removal of the silica-based core by chemical etching, porous hollow spheres depicting 5-8 nm thin shells were obtained. Subsequently, carbon-sulfur composites were synthesized via a melt diffusion method and used as nanostructured composites for cathodes in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) cells. The morphology of the hollow spheres was controlled and optimized to achieve improved electrochemical properties. Both high specific energies and high specific powers were obtained, due to the unique nanostructure of the hollow spheres. These results revealed that using optimized carbonaceous materials, it is possible to design sustainable Li-S cells showing promising electrochemical properties.

  18. Method for sizing hollow microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

    1975-10-29

    Hollow Microspheres may be effectively sized by placing them beneath a screen stack completely immersed in an ultrasonic bath containing a liquid having a density at which the microspheres float and ultrasonically agitating the bath.

  19. Air cathode structure manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momyer, William R.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  20. Depression cathode structure for cathode ray tubes having surface smoothness and method for producing same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rychlewski, T.V.

    1984-01-01

    Depression cathode structures for cathode ray tubes are produced by dispensing liquid cathode material into the depression of a metallic supporting substrate, removing excess cathode material by passing a doctor blade across the substrate surface and over the depression, and drying the cathode layer to a substantially immobile state. The cathode layer may optionally be further shaped prior to substantially complete drying thereof

  1. Hollow glass waveguides: New variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel Joseph

    This study is an effort to develop new variations on the infrared silver-silver iodide hollow glass waveguide (HGW) with application specific properties. Four variations are presented: a HGW with a long, gradual taper, a HGW with a rectangular cross-section, curved HGW tips and a new all-dielectric hollow waveguide based on photonic bandgap guidance principles. A hollow glass waveguide tapered over its entire length offers ease of coupling at the proximal end and excellent flexibility at the distal end. Waveguides tapered from 1000 to 500 mum and 700 to 500 mum over 1.5 m were fabricated in this study. Compared to similarly sized non-tapered waveguides, laser losses for the tapered guides were high but decreased when bent. This behavior is contrary to that of non-tapered guides and an iterative ray tracing model was also developed to explain the observed loss characteristics of tapered hollow waveguides. Hollow glass waveguides with round profiles do not maintain the polarization state of the delivered radiation to any appreciable degree. HGWs with large- and small-aspect ratio rectangular cross sections were developed and shown to preserve polarization up to 96%, even when bent. The large aspect ratio guide was able to effectively rotate the transmitted polarization when twisted along its axis. Curved distal tips for medical and dental laser applications were developed by removing the low-OH silica fiber from commercially available stainless steel dental tips, and inserting HGWs of various sizes. The optical performances and heating profiles of the various configurations indicate the tips are suitable for certain medical applications, but the minimum bending radius is limited by the mechanical properties of the glass substrate. A small radii bending loss study confirms that propagating modes periodically couple as the radius of curvature is reduced. Through the application of the photonic bandgap (PBG) guidance, hollow waveguides can be made entirely from

  2. Switching a Nanocluster Core from Hollow to Non-hollow

    KAUST Repository

    Bootharaju, Megalamane Siddaramappa

    2016-03-24

    Modulating the structure-property relationship in atomically precise nanoclusters (NCs) is vital for developing novel NC materials and advancing their applications. While promising biphasic ligand-exchange (LE) strategies have been developed primarily to attain novel NCs, understanding the mechanistic aspects involved in tuning the core and the ligand-shell of NCs in such biphasic processes is challenging. Here, we design a single phase LE process that enabled us to elucidate the mechanism of how a hollow NC (e.g., [Ag44(SR)30]4-, -SR: thiolate) converts into a non-hollow NC (e.g., [Ag25(SR)18]-), and vice versa. Our study reveals that the complete LE of the hollow [Ag44(SPhF)30]4- NCs (–SPhF: 4-fluorobenzenethiolate) with incoming 2,4-dimethylbenzenethiol (HSPhMe2) induced distortions in the Ag44 structure forming the non-hollow [Ag25(SPhMe2)18]- by a disproportionation mechanism. While the reverse reaction of [Ag25(SPhMe2)18]- with HSPhF prompted an unusual dimerization of Ag25, followed by a rearrangement step that reproduces the original [Ag44(SPhF)30]4-. Remarkably, both the forward and the backward reactions proceed through similar size intermediates that seem to be governed by the boundary conditions set by the thermodynamic and electronic stability of the hollow and non-hollow metal cores. Furthermore, the resizing of NCs highlights the surprisingly long-range effect of the ligands which are felt by atoms far deep in the metal core, thus opening a new path for controlling the structural evolution of nanoparticles.

  3. Effect of anode--cathode geometry on performance of the HIP-1 hot ion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauver, M.R.

    1978-04-01

    Hot-ion hydrogen plasma experiments were conducted in the NASA Lewis HIP-1 magnetic mirror facility to determine how the ion temperature was influenced by the axial position of the cathode tips relative to the anodes. A steady-state EXB plasma was formed by applying a strong radially inward dc electric field near the throats of the magnetic mirrors. The dc electric field was created between hollow cathode rods inside hollow anode cylinders, both concentric with the magnetic axis. The highest ion temperatures, 900 eV, were attained when the tip of each cathode was in the same plane as the end of its anode. These temperatures were reached with 22 kV applied to the electrodes in a field of 1.1 tesla. Scaling relations were empirically determined for ion temperature and the product of ion density and neutral particle density as a function of cathode voltage, discharge current, and electrode positions. Plasma discharge current vs voltage (I-V) characteristics were determined

  4. Nanostructured lanthanum manganate composite cathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei Guo; Liu, Yi-Lin; Barfod, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    that the (La1-xSrx)(y)MnO3 +/-delta (LSM) composite cathodes consist of a network of homogenously distributed LSM, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and pores. The individual grain size of LSM or YSZ is approximately 100 nm. The degree of contact between cathode and electrolyte is 39% on average. (c) 2005...

  5. Barium Depletion in the NSTAR Discharge Cathode After 30,000 Hours of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of barium released by impregnant materials in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. Examinations of cathode inserts from long duration ion engine tests show deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of barium from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of barium transport in the insert plasma indicates that the barium partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant barium-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress barium loss in the upstream part of the insert. New measurements of the depth of barium depletion from a cathode insert operated for 30,352 hours reveal that barium loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis.

  6. Hollow fiber liquid supported membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violante, V.

    1987-01-01

    The hollow fiber system are well known and developed in the scientific literature because of their applicability in the process separation units. The authors approach to a mathematical model for a particular hollow fiber system, usin liquid membranes. The model has been developed in order to obtain a suitable tool for a sensitivy analysis and for a scaling-up. This kind of investigation is very usefull from an engineering point of view, to get a spread range of information to build up a pilot plant from the laboratory scale

  7. Quartz antenna with hollow conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Benabou, Elie

    2002-01-01

    A radio frequency (RF) antenna for plasma ion sources is formed of a hollow metal conductor tube disposed within a glass tube. The hollow metal tubular conductor has an internal flow channel so that there will be no coolant leakage if the outer glass tube of the antenna breaks. A portion of the RF antenna is formed into a coil; the antenna is used for inductively coupling RF power to a plasma in an ion source chamber. The antenna is made by first inserting the metal tube inside the glass tube, and then forming the glass/metal composite tube into the desired coil shape.

  8. Comparison of Mercury in Water, Bottom Sediment, and Zooplankton in Two Front Range Reservoirs in Colorado, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M. Alisa; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, conducted a study to investigate environmental factors that may contribute to the bioaccumulation of mercury in two Front Range reservoirs. One of the reservoirs, Brush Hollow Reservoir, currently (2009) has a fish-consumption advisory for mercury in walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and the other, Pueblo Reservoir, which is nearby, does not. Water, bottom sediment, and zooplankton samples were collected during 2008 and 2009, and a sediment-incubation experiment was conducted in 2009. Total mercury concentrations were low in midlake water samples and were not substantially different between the two reservoirs. The only water samples with detectable methylmercury were collected in shallow areas of Brush Hollow Reservoir during spring. Mercury concentrations in reservoir bottom sediments were similar to those reported for stream sediments from unmined basins across the United States. Despite higher concentrations of fish-tissue mercury in Brush Hollow Reservoir, concentrations of methylmercury in sediment were as much as 3 times higher in Pueblo Reservoir. Mercury concentrations in zooplankton were at the low end of concentrations reported for temperate lakes in the Northeastern United States and were similar between sites, which may reflect the seasonal timing of sampling. Factors affecting bioaccumulation of mercury were assessed, including mercury sources, water quality, and reservoir characteristics. Atmospheric deposition was determined to be the dominant source of mercury; however, due to the proximity of the reservoirs, atmospheric inputs likely are similar in both study areas. Water-quality constituents commonly associated with elevated concentrations of mercury in fish (pH, alkalinity, sulfate, nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon) did not appear to explain differences in fish-tissue mercury concentrations between the reservoirs. Low methylmercury

  9. Controlled synthesis of double-wall a-FePO4 nanotubes and their LIB cathode properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ren; Liu, Hai; Zhang, Wenyu; Tan, Huiteng; Yang, Dan; Huang, Yizhong; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Yan, Qingyu

    2013-04-08

    Double-wall amorphous FePO4 nanotubes are prepared by an oil-phase chemical route. The inward diffusion of vacancies and outward diffusion of ions through passivation layers result in double-wall nanotubes with thin walls. Such a process can be extended to prepare hollow polydedral nanocrystals and hollow ellipsoids. The double-wall FePO4 nanotubes show interesting cathode performance in Li ion batteries. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Microstructured hollow fibers for ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culfaz, Pmar Zeynep; Culfaz, P.Z.; Rolevink, Hendrikus H.M.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes with a corrugated outer microstructure were prepared from a PES/PVP blend. The effect of spinning parameters such as air gap, take-up speed, polymer dope viscosity and coagulation value on the microstructure and membrane characteristics was investigated. Fibers

  11. Hollow waveguide cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Chris (Inventor); Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Laser light is confined in a hollow waveguide between two highly reflective mirrors. This waveguide cavity is used to conduct Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectroscopy of loss mechanisms in the cavity including absorption or scattering by gases, liquid, solids, and/or optical elements.

  12. Magnetron priming by multiple cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. C.; Neculaes, V. B.; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; White, W. M.; Hoff, B. W.; Jordan, N. M.

    2005-08-01

    A relativistic magnetron priming technique using multiple cathodes is simulated with a three-dimensional, fully electromagnetic, particle-in-cell code. This technique is based on electron emission from N /2 individual cathodes in an N-cavity magnetron to prime the π mode. In the case of the six-cavity relativistic magnetron, π-mode start-oscillation times are reduced up to a factor of 4, and mode competition is suppressed. Most significantly, the highest microwave field power is observed by utilizing three cathodes compared to other recently explored priming techniques.

  13. Erythrocyte-like hollow carbon capsules and their application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Ho; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2010-12-14

    Hierarchical nanostructured erythrocyte-like hollow carbon (EHC) with a hollow hemispherical macroporous core of ca. 230 nm in diameter and 30-40 nm thick mesoporous shell was synthesized and explored as a cathode catalyst support in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The morphology control of EHC was successfully achieved using solid core/mesoporous shell (SCMS) silica template and different styrene/furfuryl alcohol mixture compositions by a nanocasting method. The EHC-supported Pt (20 wt%) cathodes prepared have demonstrated markedly enhanced catalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) and greatly improved PEMFC polarization performance compared to carbon black Vulcan XC-72 (VC)-supported ones, probably due to the superb structural characteristics of the EHC such as uniform size, well-developed porosity, large specific surface area and pore volume. In particular, Pt/EHC cathodes exhibited ca. 30-60% higher ORR activity than a commercial Johnson Matthey Pt catalyst at a low catalyst loading of 0.2 mg Pt cm(-2).

  14. Cathodic Cage Plasma Nitriding of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej OSSOWSKI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Glow discharge nitriding is being used increasingly more often for modifying the properties of titanium and its alloys with the aim to increase their frictional wear resistance, fatigue strength, and, in the case of medical applications, to eliminate the metallosis effect. Unlike PVD methods, ion nitriding ensures the formation of diffusive layers with very good adhesion to the substrate, but which still have some disadvanteges such as the “edge effect” or “hollow cathode effect” which hinders treatment of complex workpieces. The paper compares nitrided layers produced on Ti6Al4V alloy using two different types of nitriding processes. The first process is conventional dc plasma nitriding (DCPN where the samples were placed at the cathode potential, while the second one is a new method of cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN process, where the substrate is insulated from the cathode and anode. The experiments have shown that the treatment conducted in a cathodic cage can be alternative for conventional ion nitriding, especially when used for small parts with complicated shapes used in the space or medical industry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.7343

  15. Fabrication of Metallic Hollow Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Choi, Sr., Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Metal and semiconductor nanoshells, particularly transition metal nanoshells, are fabricated using dendrimer molecules. Metallic colloids, metallic ions or semiconductors are attached to amine groups on the dendrimer surface in stabilized solution for the surface seeding method and the surface seedless method, respectively. Subsequently, the process is repeated with additional metallic ions or semiconductor, a stabilizer, and NaBH.sub.4 to increase the wall thickness of the metallic or semiconductor lining on the dendrimer surface. Metallic or semiconductor ions are automatically reduced on the metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles causing the formation of hollow metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles. The void size of the formed hollow nanoparticles depends on the dendrimer generation. The thickness of the metallic or semiconductor thin film around the dendrimer depends on the repetition times and the size of initial metallic or semiconductor seeds.

  16. Efficient Overall Water-Splitting Electrocatalysis Using Lepidocrocite VOOH Hollow Nanospheres

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Huanhuan

    2016-11-29

    Herein we report the control synthesis of lepidocrocite VOOH hollow nanospheres and further their applications in electrocatalytic water splitting for the first time. By tuning the surface area of the nanospheres, the optimal performance can be achieved with low overpotentials of 270 mV for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and 164 mV for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) at 10 mA cm-2 in 1 m KOH, respectively. Furthermore, when used as both the anode and cathode for overall water splitting, a low cell voltage of 1.62 V is required to reach the current density of 10 mA cm-2 , making the VOOH hollow nanospheres an efficient alternative to water splitting.

  17. Electrochemically Active Polymeric Hollow Fibers based on Poly(ether- b -amide)/Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Cuevas, Carolina

    2017-09-18

    A simple and effective method to incorporate catalytic activity to a hollow fiber membrane is reported. Polyetherimide hollow fiber membranes were coated with a solution containing carboxyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes and poly(ether-b-amide). Electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of a layer of percolating carbon nanotubes on the surface of the membranes. Cyclic voltammetry and linear swept voltammetry experiments showed that these membranes are able to drive the reactions of hydrogen evolution, and oxygen reduction, making them a cheaper, and greener substitute for platinum based cathodes in microbial bioelectrochemical systems. Water flux and molecular weight cut off experiments indicated that the electrochemically active coating layer does not affect the ultrafiltration performance of the membrane.

  18. Space Charge Mitigation With Longitudinally Hollow Bunches

    CERN Multimedia

    Oeftiger, Adrian; Rumolo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Hollow longitudinal phase space distributions have a flat profile and hence reduce the impact of transverse space charge. Dipolar parametric excitation with the phase loop feedback systems provides such hollow distributions under reproducible conditions. We present a procedure to create hollow bunches during the acceleration ramp of CERN’s PS Booster machine with minimal changes to the operational cycle. The improvements during the injection plateau of the downstream Proton Synchrotron are assessed in comparison to standard parabolic bunches.

  19. Method to fabricate hollow microneedle arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravitz, Stanley H [Placitas, NM; Ingersoll, David [Albuquerque, NM; Schmidt, Carrie [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-11-07

    An inexpensive and rapid method for fabricating arrays of hollow microneedles uses a photoetchable glass. Furthermore, the glass hollow microneedle array can be used to form a negative mold for replicating microneedles in biocompatible polymers or metals. These microneedle arrays can be used to extract fluids from plants or animals. Glucose transport through these hollow microneedles arrays has been found to be orders of magnitude more rapid than natural diffusion.

  20. Space charge mitigation with longitudinally hollow bunches

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2088716; Hancock, Steven; Rumolo, Giovanni; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Suitably, hollow longitudinal phase space distributions have a flat profile and hence reduce the impact of transverse space charge. Dipolar parametric excitation with the phase loop feedback systems provides such hollow distributions under reproducible conditions. We present a procedure to create hollow bunches during the acceleration ramp of CERN’s PS Booster machine with minimal changes to the operational cycle. The improvements during the injection plateau of the downstream Proton Synchrotron are assessed in comparison to standard parabolic bunches.

  1. Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a static, cathode-fed, 2000 psi, balanced-pressure Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) based on PEM electrolysis technology. It...

  2. Highly Efficient Micro Cathode, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Company, Inc. proposes to develop a micro thermionic cathode that requires extremely low power and provides long lifetime. The basis for the cathode is a...

  3. Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a static, cathode-fed, 2000 psi, balanced-pressure Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) based on PEM electrolysis technology. It...

  4. Hollow nanocrystals and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A Paul [Oakland, CA; Yin, Yadong [Moreno Valley, CA; Erdonmez, Can Kerem [Berkeley, CA

    2011-07-05

    Described herein are hollow nanocrystals having various shapes that can be produced by a simple chemical process. The hollow nanocrystals described herein may have a shell as thin as 0.5 nm and outside diameters that can be controlled by the process of making.

  5. Mechanistic Enhancement of SOFC Cathode Durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachsman, Eric [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Durability of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under “real world” conditions is an issue for commercial deployment. In particular cathode exposure to moisture, CO2, Cr vapor (from interconnects and BOP), and particulates results in long-term performance degradation issues. Here, we have conducted a multi-faceted fundamental investigation of the effect of these contaminants on cathode performance degradation mechanisms in order to establish cathode composition/structures and operational conditions to enhance cathode durability.

  6. Cathodic protection beneath thick external coating on flexible pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festy, Dominique; Choqueuse, Dominique; Leflour, Denise; Lepage, Vincent [Ifremer - Centre de Brest, BP 70 29280 Plouzane (France); Condat, Carol Taravel; Desamais, Nicolas [Technip- FLEXIFRANCE - PED/PEC - Rue Jean Hure, 76580 Le Trait (France); Tribollet, Bernard [UPR 15 du CNRS, Laboratoire LISE, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    Flexible offshore pipelines possess an external polymer sheath to protect the structure against seawater. In case of an accidental damage of the outer sheath, the annulus of the flexible pipe is flooded with seawater. Far from the damage, corrosion and/or corrosion fatigue of armour steel wires in the annulus occur in a strictly deaerated environment; this has been studied for a few years. At the damage location, the steel wires are in direct contact with renewed seawater. In order to protect them against corrosion, a cathodic protection is applied using sacrificial anodes located at the end fittings. The goal of this work is to evaluate the extent of the cathodic protection as well as the electrolyte oxygen concentration beneath the coating around the damage, to know whether or not there is a non protected area with enough oxygen where corrosion and corrosion fatigue can occur. The experimental work was performed with a model cell (2000 x 200 mm{sup 2}), composed of a mild steel plate and a PMMA coat (transparent poly-methyl-methacrylate). The thickness of the gap between the steel plate and the PMMA coat was 0.5 mm. The potential and current density were monitored all along the cell (70 sensors). The oxygen concentration was also recorded. The experiments were performed with natural sea water, and cathodic protection was applied in a reservoir at one extremity of the cell. Another reservoir at the other cell extremity enabled carbon dioxide bubbling to simulate pipeline annular conditions. PROCOR software was used to simulate potential and current density within the gap and a mathematical model was developed to model oxygen concentration evolution. Both model and experimental results show that the extent of the cathodic protection is much greater than that of oxygen. Oxygen depletion is very quick within the gap when seawater fills it and the oxygen concentration is close to zero a few milli-metres from the gap opening. On the other hand, the cathodic protection

  7. Theoretical studies of hollow electron temperature profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werkoff, F.; Mercier, C.; Cissoko, G.

    1978-06-01

    The basic mechanisms of experimentally obtained hollow profiles of electron temperature have been investigated. These hollow profiles are obviously related to radiative losses at the center of the plasma, losses that are greater than Joule heating. Hollow profiles were numerically and analytically shown to be instable of the MHD point of view, when the heat diffusion coefficient of electrons is too small. Taking Ksub(e) high enough to satisfy the stability criterion, steady states were obtained in agreement with experimental results. The impurities at the center of the plasma were also shown to be far from the coronal equilibrium. Accoding to neo-classical laws, this discrepancy entails the impurity accumulation at the plasma center, in correlation with an adequately hollow Tsub(e) profile. It was also proved that, at least in a certain range of parameters, the initial conditions can be chosen so as to obtain either a steady peaked state or a steady hollow state [fr

  8. Novel Cathodes Prepared by Impregnation Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduardo Paz

    2006-09-30

    (1) We showed that similar results were obtained when using various LSM precursors to produce LSM-YSZ cathodes. (2) We showed that enhanced performance could be achieved by adding LSCo to LSMYSZ cathodes. (3) We have preliminary results showing that there is a slow deactivation with LSFYSZ cathodes.

  9. Nanofiber-based composite cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Minwoo; Lee, Jongseo; Lee, Wonyoung

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate the Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-δ (SSC) nanofiber-based composite cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs), showing a cathode area-specific resistance (ASR) value of 0.024 Ωcm2 at 650 °C. The hollow and porous SSC nanofiber layer, fabricated by electrospinning, is sintered at low temperatures to preserve the high specific surface area for facile oxygen surface exchange reactions. The low sintering temperature is enabled by additional SSC powder layer, providing sufficient adhesion between the electrolyte and the nanofiber layer. Our results can provide a design guideline to fully utilize the nanostructured electrodes by engineering the structural properties of the surface and the interface, and hence high-performance IT-SOFCs can be achieved by structural modification with conventional materials.

  10. Reservoir fisheries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.S. De.

    1990-01-01

    At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop

  11. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  12. Hollow Micro-/Nanostructures: Synthesis and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2008-11-03

    Hollow micro-nanostructures are of great interest in many current and emerging areas of technology. Perhaps the best-known example of the former is the use of fly-ash hollow particles generated from coal power plants as partial replacement for Portland cement, to produce concrete with enhanced strength and durability. This review is devoted to the progress made in the last decade in synthesis and applications of hollow micro-nanostructures. We present a comprehensive overview of synthetic strategies for hollow structures. These strategies are broadly categorized into four themes, which include well-established approaches, such as conventional hard-templating and soft-templating methods, as well as newly emerging methods based on sacrificial templating and template-free synthesis. Success in each has inspired multiple variations that continue to drive the rapid evolution of the field. The Review therefore focuses on the fundamentals of each process, pointing out advantages and disadvantages where appropriate. Strategies for generating more complex hollow structures, such as rattle-type and nonspherical hollow structures, are also discussed. Applications of hollow structures in lithium batteries, catalysis and sensing, and biomedical applications are reviewed. © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA,.

  13. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Fatih Dogan; Vladimir Petrovsky

    2002-03-31

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. This period has continued to address the problem of making dense 1/2 to 5 {micro}m thick dense layers on porous substrates (the cathode LSM). Our current status is that we are making structures of 2-5 cm{sup 2} in area, which consist of either dense YSZ or CGO infiltrated into a 2-5 {micro}m thick 50% porous layer made of either nanoncrystalline CGO or YSZ powder. This composite structure coats a macroporous cathode or anode; which serves as the structural element of the bi-layer structure. These structures are being tested as SOFC elements. A number of structures have been evaluated both as symmetrical and as button cell configuration. Results of this testing indicates that the cathodes contribute the most to cell losses for temperatures below 750 C. In this investigation different cathode materials were studied using impedance spectroscopy of symmetric cells and IV characteristics of anode supported fuel cells. Cathode materials studied included La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (LSCF), La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), Pr{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (PSCF), Sm{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (SSCF), and Yb{sub .8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (SSCF). A new technique for filtering the Fourier transform of impedance data was used to increase the sensitivity of impedance analysis. By creating a filter specifically for impedance spectroscopy the resolution was increased. The filter was tailored to look for specific circuit elements like R//C, Warburg, or constant phase elements. As many as four peaks can be resolved using the filtering technique on symmetric cells. It may be possible to relate the different peaks to material parameters, like the oxygen exchange coefficient. The cathode grouped in order from lowest to highest ASR is

  14. Stream, Lake, and Reservoir Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jingjing; Mei, Ying; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2017-10-01

    This review on stream, lake, and reservoir management covers selected 2016 publications on the focus of the following sections: Stream, lake, and reservoir management • Water quality of stream, lake, and reservoirReservoir operations • Models of stream, lake, and reservoir • Remediation and restoration of stream, lake, and reservoir • Biota of stream, lake, and reservoir • Climate effect of stream, lake, and reservoir.

  15. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T >approx. 600 0 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10 3 μm) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants

  16. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  17. optimizing compressive strength characteristics of hollow building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    mm2. ... is suggested therefore, that the optimum replacement of sand with granite quarry dust as fine aggregates should be. 15% of the ... Keywords: Keywords: hollow building Blocks, granite dust, sand, partial replacement, compressive strength.

  18. Physics of hollow Bose-Einstein condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Padavić, Karmela; Sun, Kuei; Lannert, Courtney; Vishveshwara, Smitha

    2016-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensate shells, while occurring in ultracold systems of coexisting phases and potentially within neutron stars, have yet to be realized in isolation on Earth due to the experimental challenge of overcoming gravitational sag. Motivated by the expected realization of hollow condensates by the space-based Cold Atomic Laboratory in microgravity conditions, we study a spherical condensate undergoing a topological change from a filled sphere to a hollow shell. We argue that the col...

  19. Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers

    OpenAIRE

    Eric A Hendricks; Wayne H Schubert

    2010-01-01

    Diabatic heating from deep moist convection in the hurricane eyewall produces a towering annular structure of elevated potential vorticity (PV). This structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. The sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satisfies the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. For thin enough annular structures, small perturbations grow exponentially, extract energy from the mean flow, and lead to hollow tower breakdown, with...

  20. Saturated absorption spectroscopy of calcium in a hollow-cathode lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammalapati, U; Norris, I; Riis, E

    2009-01-01

    We report on a technique for obtaining dispersive saturated absorption features by two pump beams derived from an acousto-optic modulator. One of the beams is frequency shifted by the modulator allowing for a variable frequency offset of the resulting signal. They are used to saturate the atomic transition in the low-density vapour of the lamp. The sensitivity of the technique is sufficient to observe clear signals from isotopes of calcium unresolved by the inhomogeneous broadening and with natural abundances of less than 0.2%. The technique is used for offset locking the frequency of a Ti:Sapphire laser used for laser cooling and trapping of calcium.

  1. Preliminary Design Study of the Hollow Electron Lens for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Perini, Diego; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    A Hollow Electron Lens (HEL) has been proposed in order to improve performance of halo control and collimation in the Large Hadron Collider in view of its High Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The concept is based on a beam of electrons that travels around the protons for a few meters. The electron beam is produced by a cathode and then guided by a strong magnetic field generated by a set of superconducting solenoids. The first step of the design is the definition of the magnetic fields that drive the electron trajectories. The estimation of such trajectories by means of a dedicated MATLAB® tool is presented. The influence of the main geometrical and electrical parameters are analysed and discussed. Then, the main mechanical design choices for the solenoids, cryostats gun and collector are described. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the preliminary design of the Electron Lens for LHC. The methods used in this study also serve as examples for future mechanical and integration designs of similar ...

  2. Hollow Nano- and Microstructures as Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Gonzalo; Tüysüz, Harun; Duyckaerts, Nicolas; Knossalla, Johannes; Wang, Guang-Hui; Schüth, Ferdi

    2016-11-23

    Catalysis is at the core of almost every established and emerging chemical process and also plays a central role in the quest for novel technologies for the sustainable production and conversion of energy. Particularly since the early 2000s, a great surge of interest exists in the design and application of micro- and nanometer-sized materials with hollow interiors as solid catalysts. This review provides an updated and critical survey of the ever-expanding material architectures and applications of hollow structures in all branches of catalysis, including bio-, electro-, and photocatalysis. First, the main synthesis strategies toward hollow materials are succinctly summarized, with emphasis on the (regioselective) incorporation of various types of catalytic functionalities within their different subunits. The principles underlying the scientific and technological interest in hollow materials as solid catalysts, or catalyst carriers, are then comprehensively reviewed. Aspects covered include the stabilization of catalysts by encapsulation, the introduction of molecular sieving or stimuli-responsive "auxiliary" functionalities, as well as the single-particle, spatial compartmentalization of various catalytic functions to create multifunctional (bio)catalysts. Examples are also given on the applications which hollow structures find in the emerging fields of electro- and photocatalysis, particularly in the context of the sustainable production of chemical energy carriers. Finally, a critical perspective is provided on the plausible evolution lines for this thriving scientific field, as well as the main practical challenges relevant to the reproducible and scalable synthesis and utilization of hollow micro- and nanostructures as solid catalysts.

  3. A Review on Recent Developments and Prospects for Oxygen Reduction Reaction on Hollow Pt-alloy Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asset, Tristan; Chattot, Raphaël; Fontana, Marie; Mercier-Guyon, Benjamin; Job, Nathalie; Dubau, Laetitia; Maillard, Frederic

    2018-03-26

    Due to their interesting electrocatalytic properties for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), hollow Pt-alloy nanoparticles (NPs) supported on high surface area carbon attract growing interest. However, the suitable synthesis methods and associated mechanisms of formation, the reasons for their enhanced specific activity for the ORR, and the nature of adequate alloy-ing elements and carbon supports for this type of nanocatalysts remain open questions. This review aims at shedding light on these topics with a special emphasis on hollow PtNi NPs supported onto Vulcan XC72 (PtNi/C). We first show how hollow Pt-alloy/C can be synthe-sized by a mechanism involving galvanic replacement and the nanoscale Kirkendall effect. Nickel, cobalt, copper, zinc and iron (Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, and Fe, respectively) were tested for the formation of Pt-alloy/C hollow nanostructures. Our results indicate that metals with standard potential - 0.4 PEMFC cathode operating conditions, the beneficial effect of structural disorder is maintained on the long term, thereby bringing promises for the synthesis of highly active and robust ORR electrocatalysts. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Efficient sulfur host based on NiCo2O4 hollow microtubes for advanced Li-S batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Azhar; Ali Ghazi, Zahid; Muqsit Khattak, Abdul; Ahmad, Aziz

    2017-12-01

    High energy density and cost effectiveness make lithium-sulfur battery a promising candidate for next-generation electrochemical energy storage technology. Here, we have synthesized a highly efficient sulfur host namely NiCo2O4 hollow microtubes/sulfur composite (NiCo2O4/S). The hollow interior cavity providing structural integrity while sufficient self-functionalized surfaces of NiCo2O4 chemically bind polysulfides to prevent their dissolution in the organic electrolyte. When used in lithium-sulfur batteries, the synthesized NiCo2O4/S cathode delivers high specific capacity (1274 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C), long cycling performance at 0.5 C, and good rate capability at high current rates.

  5. Reflective article having a sacrificial cathodic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Buchanan, Michael J.; Scott, Matthew S.; Rearick, Brian K.; Medwick, Paul A.; McCamy, James W.

    2017-09-12

    The present invention relates to reflective articles, such as solar mirrors, that include a sacrificial cathodic layer. The reflective article, more particularly includes a substrate, such as glass, having a multi-layered coating thereon that includes a lead-free sacrificial cathodic layer. The sacrificial cathodic layer includes at least one transition metal, such as a particulate transition metal, which can be in the form of flakes (e.g., zinc flakes). The sacrificial cathodic layer can include an inorganic matrix formed from one or more organo-titanates. Alternatively, the sacrificial cathodic layer can include an organic polymer matrix (e.g., a crosslinked organic polymer matrix formed from an organic polymer and an aminoplast crosslinking agent). The reflective article also includes an outer organic polymer coating, that can be electrodeposited over the sacrificial cathodic layer.

  6. Two-stage plasma gun based on a gas discharge with a self-heating hollow emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizir, A V; Tyunkov, A V; Shandrikov, M V; Oks, E M

    2010-02-01

    The paper presents the results of tests of a new compact two-stage bulk gas plasma gun. The plasma gun is based on a nonself-sustained gas discharge with an electron emitter based on a discharge with a self-heating hollow cathode. The operating characteristics of the plasma gun are investigated. The discharge system makes it possible to produce uniform and stable gas plasma in the dc mode with a plasma density up to 3x10(9) cm(-3) at an operating gas pressure in the vacuum chamber of less than 2x10(-2) Pa. The device features high power efficiency, design simplicity, and compactness.

  7. Kerr Hollow Quarry Remediation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry is a 3-acre flooded limestone quarry located near the Y-12 Facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The quarry was used in the 1940s as a source of construction material for the Department of Energy in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Its use was discontinued in the early 1950s, and it was allowed to flood with water. The quarry presently has a maximum water depth of approximately 55 ft. During the period between the early 1950s until about 1988, the quarry was used for the treatment and disposal of a variety of materials including water-reactive, alkali metals, shock-sensitive chemicals, and compressed gas cylinders. For some of these materials, the treatment consisted of dropping the vessels containing the materials into the quarry from a high bluff located on one side of the quarry. The vessels were then punctured by gun shot, and the materials were allowed to react with the water and sink to the bottom of the quarry. Very few disposal records exist for the period from 1952 to 1962. The records after that time, from 1962 until 1988, indicate some 50 t of hazardous and nonhazardous materials were disposed of in the quarry. This report documents remediation efforts that have taken place at the quarry beginning in September 1990

  8. A sulfur host based on titanium monoxide@carbon hollow spheres for advanced lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jintao; Guan, Buyuan; Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2016-10-20

    Lithium-sulfur batteries show advantages for next-generation electrical energy storage due to their high energy density and cost effectiveness. Enhancing the conductivity of the sulfur cathode and moderating the dissolution of lithium polysulfides are two key factors for the success of lithium-sulfur batteries. Here we report a sulfur host that overcomes both obstacles at once. With inherent metallic conductivity and strong adsorption capability for lithium-polysulfides, titanium monoxide@carbon hollow nanospheres can not only generate sufficient electrical contact to the insulating sulfur for high capacity, but also effectively confine lithium-polysulfides for prolonged cycle life. Additionally, the designed composite cathode further maximizes the lithium-polysulfide restriction capability by using the polar shells to prevent their outward diffusion, which avoids the need for chemically bonding all lithium-polysulfides on the surfaces of polar particles.

  9. Cathode-follower power amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, S.; Puglisi, M.

    1983-01-01

    In circular accelerators and particularly in storage rings it is essential that the total impedance, as seen by the beam, be kept below some critical value. A model of the accelerating system was built using a single-ended cathode-follower amplifier driving a ferrite-loaded cavity. The system operated at 234.5 kHz with a peak output voltage of +-10 kV on the gap. The dynamic output impedance, as measured on the gap, was < 15 ohms

  10. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...

  11. SILTATION IN RESERVOIRS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calls have been made to the government through various media to assist its populace in combating this nagging problem. It was concluded that sediment maximum accumulation is experienced in reservoir during the periods of maximum flow. Keywords: reservoir model, siltation, sediment, catchment, sediment transport. 1.

  12. Dynamic reservoir well interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, W.L.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wolfswinkel, O. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop smart well control systems for unstable oil wells, realistic modeling of the dynamics of the well is essential. Most dynamic well models use a semi-steady state inflow model to describe the inflow of oil and gas from the reservoir. On the other hand, reservoir models use steady

  13. Reservoir Engineering Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1977-12-14

    The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. Physics of hollow Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padavić, Karmela; Sun, Kuei; Lannert, Courtney; Vishveshwara, Smitha

    2017-10-01

    Bose-Einstein condensate shells, while occurring in ultracold systems of coexisting phases and potentially within neutron stars, have yet to be realized in isolation on Earth due to the experimental challenge of overcoming gravitational sag. Motivated by the expected realization of hollow condensates by the space-based Cold Atomic Laboratory in microgravity conditions, we study a spherical condensate undergoing a topological change from a filled sphere to a hollow shell. We argue that the collective modes of the system show marked and robust signatures of this hollowing transition accompanied by the appearance of a new boundary. In particular, we demonstrate that the frequency spectrum of the breathing modes shows a pronounced depression as it evolves from the filled-sphere limit to the hollowing transition. Furthermore, when the center of the system becomes hollow surface modes show a global restructuring of their spectrum due to the availability of a new, inner, surface for supporting density distortions. We pinpoint universal features of this topological transition as well as analyse the spectral evolution of collective modes in the experimentally relevant case of a bubble-trap.

  15. Lithiation-Assisted Strengthening Effect and Reactive Flow in Bulk and Nano-Confined Sulfur Cathodes of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingchao; Yu, Jingui; Lin, Shangchao

    Sulfur (S) serves as a promising cathode material in Li-ion batteries owing to its abundance on earth, low cost and high theoretical specific capacity 1670 mAhg-1, which is 3-5 times higher than that of current commercial Li-ion batteries. Nowadays, the most popular strategies of using S cathode are based on producing nanostructured carbon matrices (i.e. hollow carbon nanospheres and nanofibers) to sustain S cathode loading. However, the possible stress evolution and mechanical degradation of the confined S cathode in those carbon matrices have never been explored before. In addition, the associated structural and conductivity changes of the confined S cathode during the lithiation/delithiation process plays a significant role in the battery performance. With the above in mind, here we conduct reactive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the microstructural and stress evolution of the confined S cathode during lithiation/delithiation process. Simulation results indicate an unusual stress relaxation state in LixS compounds at lower Li concentrations (x >0.7). The strength of corresponding Li-S compounds also increases with respect to the Li concentration.

  16. Production of a large area diffuse arc plasma with multiple cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cheng; Cui Hai-Chao; Li Wan-Wan; Liao Meng-Ran; Xia Wei-Dong; Xia Wei-Luo

    2017-01-01

    An arc channel at atmospheric pressure tends to shrink generally. In this paper, a non-transferred DC arc plasma device with multiple cathode is introduced to produce a large area arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. This device is comprised of a 42-mm diameter tubular chamber, multiple cathode which is radially inserted into the chamber, and a tungsten anode with a nozzle in its center. In argon/helium atmosphere, a large area and circumferential homogenous diffuse arc plasma, which fills the entire cross section surrounded by the cathode tips, is observed. Results show that the uniformity and stability of diffuse arc plasma are strongly related to the plasma forming gas. Based on these experimental results, an explanation to the arc diffusion is suggested. Moreover, the electron excitation temperature and electron density measured in diffuse helium plasma are much lower than those of constricted arc column, which indicates the diffuse helium plasma probably deviates from the local thermodynamic equilibrium state. Unlike the common non-transferred arc plasma devices, this device can provide a condition for axial-fed feedstock particles. The plasma device is attempted to spheroidize alumina powders by using the central axis to send the powder. Results show that the powder produced is usually a typical hollow sphere. (paper)

  17. Triggering of cold-cathode thyratron in electric circuit with grounded grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Y. D.; Landl, N. V.; Geyman, V. G.; Frants, O. B.; Bolotov, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with the investigations of the sealed-off hold-cathode thyratron (pseudospark switch) TPI1-10k/50, which is commercially produced by the Pulsed Technology Ltd., Ryazan, Russia. The trigger unit of the switch is based on a low-current auxiliary glow discharge. The new method for the switch triggering is proposed. The essence of the method is that the thyratron grid and the hollow cathode of the auxiliary discharge has to be grounded and the trigger pulse is applied to the ring anode of the trigger unit. In the proposed method, an undesirable high-voltage spike at the thyratron grid, which can appear with a usage of the other methods of triggering, is absent. It is shown that to trigger the thyratron a critical pulsed current to the main cathode cavity at a level of 0.8 A and higher should be provided. When the current exceeds the critical value, the jitter in the delay time to triggering falls in a range of 10 ns. This means that the method of triggering can be used in a variety of applications that require a low jitter in the delay time.

  18. Pipelines cathodic protection design methodologies for impressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several inadequate designs of cathodically polarized offshore and onshore pipelines have been reported in Nigeria owing to design complexity and application of the cathodic protection system. The present study focused on critical and detailed approach in impressed current and sacrificial anode design calculation ...

  19. Future cathode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, A.G.; Giwa, C.O.; Lee, J.C.; Bowles, P. [DERA, Gosport (United Kingdom); Gilmour, A.; Allan, J. [Lexcel Technology, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom); Rice, D.A.; Brady, F.; Tsang, S.C.E. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    Lithium rechargeable batteries are now well established as power sources for portable equipment, such as portable telephones or computers. Future applications include electric vehicles. However, before they can be used for this, or other price-sensitive applications, new cathode materials of much lower cost are needed. Possible cathode materials are reviewed. (orig.)

  20. pipelines cathodic protection design methodologies for impressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Several inadequate designs of cathodically polarized offshore and onshore pipelines have been reported in Nigeria owing to design complexity and application of the cathodic protection system. The present study focused on critical and detailed approach in impressed current and sacrificial anode design calculation ...

  1. Transmission properties of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Charlotte Ijeoma; Hald, Jan; Petersen, Jan C.

    2010-01-01

    Variations in optical transmission of four types of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers are measured as a function of laser frequency. These variations influence the potential accuracy of gas sensors based on molecular spectroscopy in hollow-core fibers.......Variations in optical transmission of four types of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers are measured as a function of laser frequency. These variations influence the potential accuracy of gas sensors based on molecular spectroscopy in hollow-core fibers....

  2. Vacuum arc on the polycrystalline silica cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Duhopel'nikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of silica and its compounds are used in modern technology to produce Li-ion batteries, wear-resistant and protective coatings, thin-films insulators, etc. This coating is produced with CVD methods, with magnetron sputtering systems or with electron-beam evaporation. The vacuum arc evaporation method, presently, is not used.The paper demonstrates a possibility for a long-term operation of vacuum arc evaporator with polycrystalline silica-aluminum alloy (90% of silica cathode and with magnetic system to create a variable form of arch-like magnetic field on the cathode surface. It was shown that archlike configuration of magnetic field provides a stable discharge and uniform cathode spots moving with the velocities up to 5 m/s with magnetic fields induction about 10 mT. Thus, there is no local melting of the cathode, and this provides its long-term work without chips, cracks and destruction. Cathodes spots move over the cathode surface leaving t big craters with melted edges on its surface. The craters size was 150-450μm. The cathode spot movement character and the craters on the cathode surface were like the spots movement, when working on the copper or aluminum cathodes. With the magnetic field induction less than 1 mT, the cathode spots movement was the same as that of on the silica mono-crystal without magnetic field. Thus, the discharge volt-ampere characteristics for different values of magnetic fields were obtained. Voltampere characteristics were increasing and were shifted to the higher voltage with increasing magnetic field. The voltage was 18.7-26.5 V for the arc current 30-140 A.So, it was confirmed that vacuum arc evaporation method could be used for effective evaporation of silica and silica-based alloys and for thin films deposition of this materials.

  3. Selective generation and extraction of low emittance electrons from plasmas: A new concept for E-beam cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that hollow cathode discharges can operate in a mode characterized by a two-component electron energy distribution: bulk electrons with a thermal distribution with a temperature of a few electron volts, and a component of fast electrons with an energy of about 30 eV and a thermal spread of about 0.1 eV. Measurements of both parallel and perpendicular energy spreads confirm the existence of fast, low energy spread electrons. Selective extraction of these electrons can form the basis of a high current, high brightness electron gun which could be well suited for EBIS applications. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Hendricks

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabatic heating from deep moist convection in the hurricane eyewall produces a towering annular structure of elevated potential vorticity (PV. This structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. The sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satisfies the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. For thin enough annular structures, small perturbations grow exponentially, extract energy from the mean flow, and lead to hollow tower breakdown, with significant vortex structural and intensity change. The three-dimensional adiabatic rearrangements of two prototypical hurricane-like hollow PV towers (one thick and one thin are examined in an idealized framework. For both hollow towers, dynamic instability causes air parcels with high PV to be mixed into the eye preferentially at lower levels, where unstable PV wave growth rates are the largest. Little or no mixing is found to occur at upper levels. The mixing at lower and middle levels is most rapid for the breakdown of the thin hollow tower, consistent with previous barotropic results. For both hollow towers, this advective rearrangement of PV affects the tropical cyclone structure and intensity in a number of ways. First, the minimum central pressure and maximum azimuthal mean velocity simultaneously decrease, consistent with previous barotropic results. Secondly, isosurfaces of absolute angular momentum preferentially shift inward at low levels, implying an adiabatic mechanism by which hurricane eyewall tilt can form. Thirdly, a PV bridge, similar to that previously found in full-physics hurricane simulations, develops as a result of mixing at the isentropic levels where unstable PV waves grow most rapidly. Finally, the balanced mass field resulting from the PV rearrangement is warmer in the eye between 900 and 700 hPa. The location of this warming is consistent with observed warm anomalies in the eye, indicating that in certain instances the hurricane

  5. Fabrication of polypyrrole/vanadium oxide nanotube composite with enhanced electrochemical performance as cathode in rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaowei; Chen, Xu; He, Taoling; Bi, Qinsong; Sun, Li; Liu, Zhu

    2017-05-01

    Vanadium oxide nanotubes (VOxNTs) with hollow as well as multi-walled features were fabricated under hydrothermal condition by soft-template method. This novel VOxNTs can be used as cathode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), but displaying low specific capacity and poor cycling performance owing to the residual of a mass of soft-template (C12H27N) and intrinsic low conductivity of VOx. Cation exchange technique and oxidative polymerization process of pyrrole monomers were conducted to wipe off partial soft-template without electrochemical activity within VOxNTs and simultaneously form polypyrrole coating on VOxNTs, respectively. The resulting polypyrrole/VOxNTs nanocomposite delivers much improved capacity and cyclic stability. Further optimizations, such as complete elimination of organic template and enhancing the crystallinity, can make this unique nanostructure a promising cathode for LIBs.

  6. Hollow needle used to cut metal honeycomb structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, E. A.

    1966-01-01

    Hollow needle tool cuts metal honeycomb structures without damaging adjacent material. The hollow needle combines an electrostatic discharge and a stream of oxygen at a common point to effect rapid, accurate metal cutting. The tool design can be varied to use the hollow needle principle for cutting a variety of shapes.

  7. Scaffold Characteristics for Functional Hollow Organ Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eberli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many medical conditions require surgical reconstruction of hollow organs. Tissue engineering of organs and tissues is a promising new technique without harvest site morbidity. An ideal biomaterial should be biocompatible, support tissue formation and provide adequate structural support. It should degrade gradually and provide an environment allowing for cell-cell interaction, adhesion, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Although tissue formation is feasible, functionality has never been demonstrated. Mainly the lack of proper innervation and vascularisation are hindering contractility and normal function. In this chapter we critically review the current state of engineering hollow organs with a special focus on innervation and vascularisation.

  8. Computational predictions of zinc oxide hollow structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuoc, Vu Ngoc; Huan, Tran Doan; Thao, Nguyen Thi

    2018-03-01

    Nanoporous materials are emerging as potential candidates for a wide range of technological applications in environment, electronic, and optoelectronics, to name just a few. Within this active research area, experimental works are predominant while theoretical/computational prediction and study of these materials face some intrinsic challenges, one of them is how to predict porous structures. We propose a computationally and technically feasible approach for predicting zinc oxide structures with hollows at the nano scale. The designed zinc oxide hollow structures are studied with computations using the density functional tight binding and conventional density functional theory methods, revealing a variety of promising mechanical and electronic properties, which can potentially find future realistic applications.

  9. Mass balancing of hollow fan blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielb, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A typical section model is used to analytically investigate the effect of mass balancing as applied to hollow, supersonic fan blades. A procedure to determine the best configuration of an internal balancing mass to provide flutter alleviation is developed. This procedure is applied to a typical supersonic shroudless fan blade which is unstable in both the solid configuration and when it is hollow with no balancing mass. The addition of an optimized balancing mass is shown to stabilize the blade at the design condition.

  10. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    2005-01-01

    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  11. Field emission from entangled carbon nanotubes coated on/in a hollow metallic tube

    CERN Document Server

    Tokura, Y; Ohigashi, N; Akita, S; Nakayama, Y; Imasaki, K; Mima, K; Nakai, S

    2001-01-01

    Field emission properties of entangled carbon nanotubes were studied for an electron beam source of Cherenkov or Smith-Purcell free electron laser. The cathode was made of carbon nanotubes which were mixed with a very small amount of resin and coated on/in a hollow metallic tube with outer diameter of 0.5 mm. The emission current was as high as 2.2 mA with a fluctuation of <4%. It seems that some entangled nanotubes were frayed under the high electric field and then electrons were emitted mainly from their tips. Reduction of the work function of the carbon nanotubes was observed with the degradation of vacuum pressure in the experimental apparatus.

  12. 78 FR 60271 - Hollow Dam Power Company; Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 6972-032] Hollow Dam Power Company; Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On September 10, 2013, Hollow Dam Power Company (transferor) and...

  13. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  14. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  15. The Hollow Men: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruman, Norman

    1991-01-01

    A review of Charles Sykes' book "The Hollow Men: Politics and Corruption in Higher Education" focuses on the portion that chronicles the political history of Dartmouth College (New Hampshire) from 1769. It is found to be a comprehensive analysis of the college's decline resulting from a "radically politicized and…

  16. hollow fibre supported liquid membrane extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT. A simple sample pre-treatment method utilizing hollow fibre supported liquid membrane. (HFSLM) was carried out on pharmaceuticals samples comprising of cough syrups (CS1 and CS2) and an anti- inflammatory product (AI). The active ingredients targeted in the extraction process were ...

  17. Electromagnetic and microwave absorbing properties of hollow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A mass of hollow carbon nanospheres (HCNSs) was fabricated by chemical vapour deposition of methane over Ni/Al2O3 catalyst at 600 ◦C. The products were characterized with high-resolution transmission elec- tron microscope images, and the results showed that the external diameter of the HCNSs was ...

  18. Hollow fibre supported liquid membrane extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple sample pre-treatment method utilizing hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) was carried out on pharmaceuticals samples comprising of cough syrups (CS1 and CS2) and an anti-inflammatory product (AI). The active ingredients targeted in the extraction process were diphenylhydramine (DPH), ...

  19. The Riddle of the Apparently Hollow Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. The Riddle of the Apparently Hollow Himalaya. Ramesh Chander. General Article Volume 3 Issue 1 January 1998 pp 21- ... Author Affiliations. Ramesh Chander1. Department of Earth Sciences, University of Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667, India.

  20. Novel hollow all-carbon structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundholm, Dage; Wirz, Lukas N; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2015-10-14

    A new family of cavernous all-carbon structures is proposed. These molecular cage structures are constructed by edge subdivisions and leapfrog transformations from cubic polyhedra or their duals. The obtained structures were then optimized at the density functional level. These hollow carbon structures represent a new class of carbon allotropes which could lead to many interesting applications.

  1. 49 CFR 192.463 - External corrosion control: Cathodic protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Cathodic protection... for Corrosion Control § 192.463 External corrosion control: Cathodic protection. (a) Each cathodic protection system required by this subpart must provide a level of cathodic protection that complies with one...

  2. Preliminary Mechanical Design Study of the Hollow Electron Lens for HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanoni, Carlo [CERN; Gobbi, Giorgia [CERN; Perini, Diego [CERN; Stancari, Giulio [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    A Hollow Electron Lens (HEL) has been proposed in order to improve performance of halo control and collimation in the Large Hadron Collider in view of its High Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The concept is based on a hollow beam of electrons that travels around the protons for a few meters. The electron beam is produced by a cathode and then guided by a strong magnetic field. The first step of the design is the definition of the magnetic field that drives the electron trajectories. The estimation of such trajectories by means of a dedicated MATLAB tool is presented. The influence of the main geometrical and electrical parameters is analyzed and discussed. Then, the main mechanical design choices for the solenoids, cryostats gun and collector are described. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the feasibility study of the Electron Lens for LHC. The methods used in this study also serve as examples for future mechanical and integration designs of similar devices.

  3. Preliminary Mechanical Design Study of the Hollow Electron Lens for HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Carlo; Gobbi, Giorgia; Perini, Diego; Stancari, Giulio

    2017-07-01

    A Hollow Electron Lens (HEL) has been proposed in order to improve performance of halo control and collimation in the Large Hadron Collider in view of its High Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The concept is based on a hollow beam of electrons that travels around the protons for a few meters. The electron beam is produced by a cathode and then guided by a strong magnetic field. The first step of the design is the definition of the magnetic field that drives the electron trajectories. The estimation of such trajectories by means of a dedicated MATLAB tool is presented. The influence of the main geometrical and electrical parameters is analyzed and discussed. Then, the main mechanical design choices for the solenoids, cryostats gun and collector are described. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the feasibility study of the Electron Lens for LHC. The methods used in this study also serve as examples for future mechanical and integration designs of similar devices.

  4. Evolution of nickel sulfide hollow spheres through topotactic transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chengzhen; Lu, Qingyi; Sun, Jing; Gao, Feng

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a topotactic transformation route was proposed to synthesize single-crystalline β-NiS hollow spheres with uniform phase and morphology evolving from polycrystalline α-NiS hollow spheres. Uniform polycrystalline α-NiS hollow spheres were firstly prepared with thiourea and glutathione as sulfur sources under hydrothermal conditions through the Kirkendall effect. By increasing the reaction temperature the polycrystalline α-NiS hollow spheres were transformed to uniform β-NiS hollow spheres. The β-NiS crystals obtained through the topotactic transformation route not only have unchanged morphology of hollow spheres but are also single-crystalline in nature. The as-prepared NiS hollow spheres display a good ability to remove the organic pollutant Congo red from water, which makes them have application potential in water treatment.In this study, a topotactic transformation route was proposed to synthesize single-crystalline β-NiS hollow spheres with uniform phase and morphology evolving from polycrystalline α-NiS hollow spheres. Uniform polycrystalline α-NiS hollow spheres were firstly prepared with thiourea and glutathione as sulfur sources under hydrothermal conditions through the Kirkendall effect. By increasing the reaction temperature the polycrystalline α-NiS hollow spheres were transformed to uniform β-NiS hollow spheres. The β-NiS crystals obtained through the topotactic transformation route not only have unchanged morphology of hollow spheres but are also single-crystalline in nature. The as-prepared NiS hollow spheres display a good ability to remove the organic pollutant Congo red from water, which makes them have application potential in water treatment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns; SEM images and TEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03371f

  5. Fabrication of AlN/BN bishell hollow nanofibers by electrospinning and atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, Ali; Kayaci, Fatma; Uyar, Tamer; Biyikli, Necmi; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN)/boron nitride (BN) bishell hollow nanofibers (HNFs) have been fabricated by successive atomic layer deposition (ALD) of AlN and sequential chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of BN on electrospun polymeric nanofibrous template. A four-step fabrication process was utilized: (i) fabrication of polymeric (nylon 6,6) nanofibers via electrospinning, (ii) hollow cathode plasma-assisted ALD of AlN at 100 °C onto electrospun polymeric nanofibers, (iii) calcination at 500 °C for 2 h in order to remove the polymeric template, and (iv) sequential CVD growth of BN at 450 °C. AlN/BN HNFs have been characterized for their chemical composition, surface morphology, crystal structure, and internal nanostructure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Measurements confirmed the presence of crystalline hexagonal BN and AlN within the three dimensional (3D) network of bishell HNFs with relatively low impurity content. In contrast to the smooth surface of the inner AlN layer, outer BN coating showed a highly rough 3D morphology in the form of BN nano-needle crystallites. It is shown that the combination of electrospinning and plasma-assisted low-temperature ALD/CVD can produce highly controlled multi-layered bishell nitride ceramic hollow nanostructures. While electrospinning enables easy fabrication of nanofibrous template, self-limiting reactions of plasma-assisted ALD and sequential CVD provide control over the wall thicknesses of AlN and BN layers with sub-nanometer accuracy

  6. Synthesis of V2O5 microspheres by spray pyrolysis as cathode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhendong; Xu, Jie; Ge, Yali; Jiang, Qiaoya; Zhang, Yaling; Yang, Yawei; Sun, Yuping; Hou, Siyu; Shang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yingjiu

    2018-03-01

    Vanadium oxide (V2O5) microspheres have attracted considerable attention in the energy field due to their unique properties such as high stability and electrochemical activity. Here, massive V2O5 microspheres with smooth surface, hollow cavity and uniform particle sizes (0.4–1.5 μm), were synthesized by a facile spray pyrolysis process. Post-treatment at predefined temperatures effectively turned the microsphere shell into stacked nanorods with widths of 100 nm and lengths of 500 nm when processed at 500 °C for 3 h under nitrogen atmosphere, with enhanced crystallinity. When applied as cathode materials for supercapacitors, the post-treated V2O5 microspheres at 500 °C exhibited improved specific capacitance and longer discharge time. This is an effective method to manufacture massive V2O5 microspheres with tailored structure and potential applications in high-performance energy storage materials.

  7. Outgassing rate analysis of a velvet cathode and a carbon fiber cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An-Kun; Fan, Yu-Wei; Qian, Bao-Liang; Zhang, Zi-cheng; Xun, Tao

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the outgassing-rates of a carbon fiber array cathode and a polymer velvet cathode are tested and discussed. Two different methods of measurements are used in the experiments. In one scheme, a method based on dynamic equilibrium of pressure is used. Namely, the cathode works in the repetitive mode in a vacuum diode, a dynamic equilibrium pressure would be reached when the outgassing capacity in the chamber equals the pumping capacity of the pump, and the outgassing rate could be figured out according to this equilibrium pressure. In another scheme, a method based on static equilibrium of pressure is used. Namely, the cathode works in a closed vacuum chamber (a hard tube), and the outgassing rate could be calculated from the pressure difference between the pressure in the chamber before and after the work of the cathode. The outgassing rate is analyzed from the real time pressure evolution data which are measured using a magnetron gauge in both schemes. The outgassing rates of the carbon fiber array cathode and the velvet cathode are 7.3 ± 0.4 neutrals/electron and 85 ± 5 neutrals/electron in the first scheme and 9 ± 0.5 neutrals/electron and 98 ± 7 neutrals/electron in the second scheme. Both the results of two schemes show that the outgassing rate of the carbon fiber array cathode is an order smaller than that of the velvet cathode under similar conditions, which shows that this carbon fiber array cathode is a promising replacement of the velvet cathode in the application of magnetically insulated transmission line oscillators and relativistic magnetrons.

  8. Optimising reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le

    Anvendelse af optimeringsteknik til drift af reservoirer er blevet et væsentligt element i vandressource-planlægning og -forvaltning. Traditionelt har reservoirer været styret af heuristiske procedurer for udtag af vand, suppleret i en vis udstrækning af subjektive beslutninger. Udnyttelse af...... reservoirer involverer en lang række interessenter med meget forskellige formål (f.eks. kunstig vanding, vandkraft, vandforsyning mv.), og optimeringsteknik kan langt bedre lede frem til afbalancerede løsninger af de ofte modstridende interesser. Afhandlingen foreslår en række tiltag, hvormed traditionelle...... driftsstrategier kan erstattes af optimale strategier baseret på den nyeste udvikling indenfor computer-baserede beregninger. Hovedbidraget i afhandlingen er udviklingen af et beregningssystem, hvori en simuleringsmodel er koblet til en model for optimering af nogle udvalgte beslutningsvariable, der i særlig grad...

  9. Surface functionalized hollow silica particles and composites

    KAUST Repository

    Rodionov, Valentin

    2017-05-26

    Composition comprising hollow spherical silica particles having outside particle walls and inside particle walls, wherein the particles have an average particle size of about 10 nm to about 500 nm and an average wall thickness of about 10 nm to about 50 nm; and wherein the particles are functionalized with at least one organic functional group on the outside particle wall, on the inside particle wall, or on both the outside and inside particle walls, wherein the organic functional group is in a reacted or unreacted form. The organic functional group can be epoxy. The particles can be mixed with polymer precursor or a polymer material such as epoxy to form a prepreg or a nanocomposite. Lightweight but strong materials can be formed. Low loadings of hollow particles can be used.

  10. Nanofilms on a hollow core fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Ignacio R.; Bravo, Javier; Arregui, Francisco J.; Corres, Jesús M.

    2006-05-01

    We experimentally study the behavior of one multimode fiber-hollow core fiber-multimode fiber structure when nanofilms are deposited on it with the aim of developing practical evanescent field-based devices, such as sensors, filters, etc. The electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) method is used as the deposition technique and the chosen polymers are PDDA and Poly R-478 because of their well-known optical properties and their potential application as humidity sensors. Three different types of hollow core, fibers are used for the fabrication of the devices and at two different wavelengths. An oscillatory-decreasing transmitted optical power is obtained as the thickness of the nanofilms is increased.

  11. Space Charge Mitigation by Hollow Bunches

    CERN Multimedia

    Oeftiger, AO

    2014-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of the HL-LHC (High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider), the LHC injector chain will need to supply a higher brightness, i.e. deliver the same transverse beam emittances \\epsilon_{x,y} while providing a higher intensity N. However, a larger number of particles per bunch enhances space charge effects. One approach to mitigate the impact of space charge is to change the longitudinal phase space distribution: hollow bunches feature a depleted bunch centre and a densely populated periphery. Thus, the spatial line density maximum is depressed which ultimately decreases the tune spread imposed by space charge. Therefore, a higher intensity can be accepted while keeping the same overall space charge tune shift. 3 different methods to create hollow bunches in the PSBooster are simulated.

  12. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  13. Session: Reservoir Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook

  14. MnO2Nanofilms on Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Graphene Spheres as a High-Performance Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiangmin; Xu, Jiaoxing; Wu, Chuxin; Zhang, Jianshuo; Guan, Lunhui

    2016-12-28

    Platinum is commonly chosen as an electrocatalyst used for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this study, we report an active catalyst composed of MnO 2 nanofilms grown directly on nitrogen-doped hollow graphene spheres, which exhibits high activity toward ORR with positive onset potential (0.94 V vs RHE), large current density (5.2 mA cm -2 ), and perfect stability. Significantly, when it was used as catalyst for air electrode, a zinc-air battery exhibited a high power density (82 mW cm -2 ) and specific capacities (744 mA h g -1 ) comparable to that with Pt/C (20 wt %) as air cathode. The enhanced activity is ascribed to the synergistic interaction between MnO 2 and the doped hollow carbon nanomaterials. This easy and cheap method paves a way of synthesizing high-performance electrocatalysts for ORR.

  15. Removable air-cathode to overcome cathode biofouling in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliot, Manon; Etcheverry, Luc; Bergel, Alain

    2016-12-01

    An innovative microbial fuel cell (MFC) design is described, which allows the air-cathode to be replaced easily without draining the electrolyte. MFCs equipped with 9-cm 2 or 50-cm 2 bioanodes provided 0.6 and 0.7W/m 2 (referred to the cathode surface area) and were boosted to 1.25 and 1.96W/m 2 , respectively, when the initial air-cathode was replaced by a new one. These results validate the practical interest of removable air-cathodes and evidence the importance of the cathode biofouling that takes place during the MFC starting phase. As this biofouling is compensated by the concomitant improvement of the bioanodes it cannot be detected on the power curves and may be a widespread cause of performance underestimation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A High Capacity Li-Ion Cathode: The Fe(III/VI Super-Iron Cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Licht

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A super-iron Li-ion cathode with a 3-fold higher reversible capacity (a storage capacity of 485 mAh/g is presented. One of the principle constraints to vehicle electrification is that the Li-ion cathode battery chemistry is massive, and expensive. Demonstrated is a 3 electron storage lithium cathodic chemistry, and a reversible Li super-iron battery, which has a significantly higher capacity than contemporary Li-ion batteries. The super-iron Li-ion cathode consists of the hexavalent iron (Fe(VI salt, Na2FeO4, and is formed from inexpensive and clean materials. The charge storage mechanism is fundamentally different from those of traditional lithium ion intercalation cathodes. Instead, charge storage is based on multi-electron faradaic reduction, which considerably enhances the intrinsic charge storage capacity.

  17. A novel synthesis of micrometer silica hollow sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Wen; Ye Junwei; Ning Guiling; Lin Yuan; Wang Jing

    2009-01-01

    Silica microcapsules (hollow spheres) were synthesized successfully by a novel CTAB-stabilized water/oil emulsion system mediated hydrothermal method. The addition of urea to a solution of aqueous phase was an essential step of the simple synthetic procedure of silica hollow spheres, which leads to the formation of silica hollow spheres with smooth shell during hydrothermal process. The intact hollow spheres were obtained by washing the as-synthesized solid products with distilled water to remove the organic components. A large amount of silanol groups were retained in the hollow spheres by this facile route without calcination. The morphologies and optical properties of the product were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, on the basis of a series of SEM observations, phenomenological elucidation of a mechanism for the growth of the silica hollow spheres has been presented

  18. Evidence of fire resistance of hollow-core slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Giuliani, Luisa

    Hollow-core slabs have during the past 50 years comprised a variety of different structures with different cross-sections and reinforcement. At present the extruded hollow-core slabs without cross-reinforcement in the bottom flange and usually round or oval longitudinal channels (holes) are predo......Hollow-core slabs have during the past 50 years comprised a variety of different structures with different cross-sections and reinforcement. At present the extruded hollow-core slabs without cross-reinforcement in the bottom flange and usually round or oval longitudinal channels (holes....... The present paper analyses the evidence now available for assessment of the fire resistance of extruded hollow-core slabs. The 162 fire tests from the Holcofire report are compared against the requirements for testing from the product standard for hollow-core slabs EN1168 and knowledge about the possible...

  19. Silica hollow spheres with nano-macroholes like diatomaceous earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masahiro; Shiokawa, Kumi; Sakakura, Ikuko; Nakahara, Yoshiko

    2006-12-01

    Artificial synthesis of hollow cell walls of diatoms is an ultimate target of nanomaterial science. The addition of some water-soluble polymers such as sodium polymethacrylate to a solution of water/oil/water emulsion system, which is an essential step of the simple synthetic procedure of silica hollow spheres (microcapsules), led to the formation of silica hollow spheres with nano-macroholes (>100 nm) in their shell walls, the morphologies of which are analogous to those of diatom earth.

  20. Review of Synthetic Methods to Form Hollow Polymer Nanocapsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Madeline T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-13

    Syntactic foams have grown in interest due to the widened range of applications because of their mechanical strength and high damage tolerance. In the past, hollow glass or ceramic particles were used to create the pores. This paper reviews literature focused on the controlled synthesis of hollow polymer spheres with diameters ranging from 100 –200 nm. By using hollow polymer spheres, syntactic foams could reach ultra-low densities.

  1. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  2. Parallel reservoir simulator computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemanth-Kumar, K.; Young, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    The adaptation of a reservoir simulator for parallel computations is described. The simulator was originally designed for vector processors. It performs approximately 99% of its calculations in vector/parallel mode and relative to scalar calculations it achieves speedups of 65 and 81 for black oil and EOS simulations, respectively on the CRAY C-90

  3. Manganese Dioxide As Rechargeable Magnesium Battery Cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Chen, E-mail: chen.ling@toyota.com; Zhang, Ruigang [Toyota Research Institute of North America, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-11-03

    Rechargeable magnesium battery (rMB) has received increased attention as a promising alternative to current Li-ion technology. However, the lack of appropriate cathode that provides high-energy density and good sustainability greatly hinders the development of practical rMBs. To date, the successful Mg{sup 2+}-intercalation was only achieved in only a few cathode hosts, one of which is manganese dioxide. This review summarizes the research activity of studying MnO{sub 2} in magnesium cells. In recent years, the cathodic performance of MnO{sub 2} was impressively improved to the capacity of >150–200 mAh g{sup −1} at voltage of 2.6–2.8 V with cyclability to hundreds or more cycles. In addition to reviewing electrochemical performance, we sketch a mechanistic picture to show how the fundamental understanding about MnO{sub 2} cathode has been changed and how it paved the road to the improvement of cathode performance.

  4. Manganese Dioxide As Rechargeable Magnesium Battery Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Chen; Zhang, Ruigang

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium battery (rMB) has received increased attention as a promising alternative to current Li-ion technology. However, the lack of appropriate cathode that provides high-energy density and good sustainability greatly hinders the development of practical rMBs. To date, the successful Mg 2+ -intercalation was only achieved in only a few cathode hosts, one of which is manganese dioxide. This review summarizes the research activity of studying MnO 2 in magnesium cells. In recent years, the cathodic performance of MnO 2 was impressively improved to the capacity of >150–200 mAh g −1 at voltage of 2.6–2.8 V with cyclability to hundreds or more cycles. In addition to reviewing electrochemical performance, we sketch a mechanistic picture to show how the fundamental understanding about MnO 2 cathode has been changed and how it paved the road to the improvement of cathode performance.

  5. Piezoelectric hollow sphere transducers: The 'BBs'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkoy, Sedat

    This thesis describes the design, fabrication, modeling and device characteristics of ultrasound transducers developed from millimeter size piezoelectric ceramic hollow spheres. Green ceramic hollow spheres were produced using a coaxial nozzle slurry process and a sacrificial core coating process in the size range of 1-6 mm in diameter and 12-200 μm in wall thickness. Ceramic powders with the morphotropic phase boundary compositions of lead zirconate titanate solid solution known as PZT-4 and PZT-5A, and a modified lead titanate composition were used in these two processes. After sintering, the desired shapes were obtained by drilling, grinding, or polishing. Sphere surfaces were then coated with an electrode material in desired shapes and area of coverage. Two main poling configurations were studied: a radial poling configuration with inside and outside electrodes, and a tangential poling with top and bottom outside electrodes with several different electrode patterns. Dielectric, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of these transducers were measured. Vibration modes were determined using the ATILA™ finite element analysis (FEA) code, and associated resonance frequencies were measured and compared to the calculated values. The effect of sphere dimensions, materials and electrode configurations were analyzed using FEA. It was determined from the finite elements analysis of the structure that wall thickness variations do not have a pronounced affect on the vibrations of the structure at lower frequencies (from kHz to low MHz). Focused transducers were prepared for biomedical ultrasound imaging from dish-shape shell sections of the hollow spheres. Pulse-echo characteristics such as, insertion loss, waveform and bandwidth were measured. These transducers were also modeled using the FEA. Transducer operation frequencies of up to 50 MHz were achieved with f-numbers down to 1. Omnidirectional miniature hydrophones were prepared from radially poled hollow

  6. Complex Hollow Nanostructures: Synthesis and Energy-Related Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Hu, Han; Wu, Hao Bin; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2017-04-01

    Hollow nanostructures offer promising potential for advanced energy storage and conversion applications. In the past decade, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the design and synthesis of hollow nanostructures with high complexity by manipulating their geometric morphology, chemical composition, and building block and interior architecture to boost their electrochemical performance, fulfilling the increasing global demand for renewable and sustainable energy sources. In this Review, we present a comprehensive overview of the synthesis and energy-related applications of complex hollow nanostructures. After a brief classification, the design and synthesis of complex hollow nanostructures are described in detail, which include hierarchical hollow spheres, hierarchical tubular structures, hollow polyhedra, and multi-shelled hollow structures, as well as their hybrids with nanocarbon materials. Thereafter, we discuss their niche applications as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and hybrid supercapacitors, sulfur hosts for lithium-sulfur batteries, and electrocatalysts for oxygen- and hydrogen-involving energy conversion reactions. The potential superiorities of complex hollow nanostructures for these applications are particularly highlighted. Finally, we conclude this Review with urgent challenges and further research directions of complex hollow nanostructures for energy-related applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Magnetic and Optical Properties of Submicron-Size Hollow Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Yoshikawa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic hollow spheres with a controlled diameter and shell thickness have emerged as an important class of magnetic nanomaterials. The confined hollow geometry and pronouncedly curved surfaces induce unique physical properties different from those of flat thin films and solid counterparts. In this paper, we focus on recent progress on submicron-size spherical hollow magnets (e.g., cobalt- and iron-based materials, and discuss the effects of the hollow shape and the submicron size on magnetic and optical properties.

  8. Manufacturing hollow obturator with resilient denture liner on post hemimaxillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Josef Kridanto Kamadjaja

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A resilient denture liner is placed in the part of the hollow obturator base that contacts to post hemimaxillectomy mucosa. Replacing the resilient denture liner can makes the hollow obturator has an intimate contact with the mucosa, so it can prevents the mouth liquid enter to the cavum nasi and sinus, also eliminates painful because of using the hollow obturator. Resilient denture liner is a soft and resilient material that applied to the fitting surface of a denture in order to allow a more distribution of load. A case was reported about using the hollow obturator with resilient denture liner on post hemimaxillectomy to overcome these problems.

  9. Facile Fabrication of Ultrafine Hollow Silica and Magnetic Hollow Silica Nanoparticles by a Dual-Templating Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xiangheng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of synthetic process for hollow silica materials is an issue of considerable topical interest. While a number of chemical routes are available and are extensively used, the diameter of hollow silica often large than 50 nm. Here, we report on a facial route to synthesis ultrafine hollow silica nanoparticles (the diameter of ca. 24 nm with high surface area by using cetyltrimethylammmonium bromide (CTAB and sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate (AOT as co-templates and subsequent annealing treatment. When the hollow magnetite nanoparticles were introduced into the reaction, the ultrafine magnetic hollow silica nanoparticles with the diameter of ca. 32 nm were obtained correspondingly. Transmission electron microscopy studies confirm that the nanoparticles are composed of amorphous silica and that the majority of them are hollow.

  10. Facile Fabrication of Ultrafine Hollow Silica and Magnetic Hollow Silica Nanoparticles by a Dual-Templating Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xiao, Xiangheng; Zhang, Shaofeng; Fan, Lixia; Peng, Tangchao; Ren, Feng; Jiang, Changzhong

    2009-10-10

    The development of synthetic process for hollow silica materials is an issue of considerable topical interest. While a number of chemical routes are available and are extensively used, the diameter of hollow silica often large than 50 nm. Here, we report on a facial route to synthesis ultrafine hollow silica nanoparticles (the diameter of ca. 24 nm) with high surface area by using cetyltrimethylammmonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) as co-templates and subsequent annealing treatment. When the hollow magnetite nanoparticles were introduced into the reaction, the ultrafine magnetic hollow silica nanoparticles with the diameter of ca. 32 nm were obtained correspondingly. Transmission electron microscopy studies confirm that the nanoparticles are composed of amorphous silica and that the majority of them are hollow.

  11. Improvement of extracted ion beam from cold cathode Penning ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Samah I.; El-Khabeary, H.; Helal, A. G.

    2018-03-01

    A direct current cold cathode Penning ion source is operated at the optimum parameters and pressure equal to 7×10-4 mmHg using argon gas. It consists of a copper cylindrical hollow anode and two movable molybdenum discs cathodes are placed symmetrically at two ends of the anode. Argon ion beam is extracted from the ion source by using extractor of different aperture diameter equal to 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4 and 4.5 mm respectively. The extractor is placed at different distances from the ion exit aperture equal to 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm respectively. It is found that at extractor aperture diameter equal to 3.5 mm, ion exit aperture - extractor distance equal to 10 mm and extraction potential applied on the extractor is equal to -500 V, the optimum extracted ion beam current equal to 543 μA can be obtained. A comparison for Penning ion source without and with the extractor is made at the same optimum operating parameters, it is found that the extracted ion beam current from Penning ion source with the extractor increases about twice its initial value of Penning ion source without the extractor.

  12. Facile Fabrication of Ultrafine Hollow Silica and Magnetic Hollow Silica Nanoparticles by a Dual-Templating Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wei; Xiao, Xiangheng; Zhang, Shaofeng; Fan, Lixia; Peng, Tangchao; Ren, Feng; Jiang, Changzhong

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The development of synthetic process for hollow silica materials is an issue of considerable topical interest. While a number of chemical routes are available and are extensively used, the diameter of hollow silica often large than 50 nm. Here, we report on a facial route to synthesis ultrafine hollow silica nanoparticles (the diameter of ca. 24 nm) with high surface area by using cetyltrimethylammmonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) as co-templates...

  13. APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Bergeron; Tom Blasingame; Louis Doublet; Mohan Kelkar; George Freeman; Jeff Callard; David Moore; David Davies; Richard Vessell; Brian Pregger; Bill Dixon; Bryce Bezant

    2000-03-01

    Reservoir performance and characterization are vital parameters during the development phase of a project. Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to characterization does not optimize development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, especially carbonate reservoirs. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: (1) large, discontinuous pay intervals; (2) vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties; (3) low reservoir energy; (4) high residual oil saturation; and (5) low recovery efficiency. The operational problems they encounter in these types of reservoirs include: (1) poor or inadequate completions and stimulations; (2) early water breakthrough; (3) poor reservoir sweep efficiency in contacting oil throughout the reservoir as well as in the nearby well regions; (4) channeling of injected fluids due to preferential fracturing caused by excessive injection rates; and (5) limited data availability and poor data quality. Infill drilling operations only need target areas of the reservoir which will be economically successful. If the most productive areas of a reservoir can be accurately identified by combining the results of geological, petrophysical, reservoir performance, and pressure transient analyses, then this ''integrated'' approach can be used to optimize reservoir performance during secondary and tertiary recovery operations without resorting to ''blanket'' infill drilling methods. New and emerging technologies such as geostatistical modeling, rock typing, and rigorous decline type curve analysis can be used to quantify reservoir quality and the degree of interwell communication. These results can then be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The application of reservoir surveillance techniques to identify additional reservoir ''pay'' zones

  14. Synchrotron Investigations of SOFC Cathode Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idzerda, Yves

    2013-09-30

    The atomic variations occurring in cathode/electrolyte interface regions of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3-δ} (LSCF) cathodes and other SOFC related materials have been investigated and characterized using soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and diffuse soft X-ray Resonant Scattering (XRS). X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy in the soft X-ray region (soft XAS) is shown to be a sensitive technique to quantify the disruption that occurs and can be used to suggest a concrete mechanism for the degradation. For LSC, LSF, and LSCF films, a significant degradation mechanism is shown to be Sr out-diffusion. By using the XAS spectra of hexavalent Cr in SrCrO4 and trivalent Cr in Cr2O3, the driving factor for Sr segregation was identified to be the oxygen vacancy concentration at the anode and cathode side of of symmetric LSCF/GDC/LSCF heterostructures. This is direct evidence of vacancy induced cation diffusion and is shown to be a significant indicator of cathode/electrolyte interfacial degradation. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is used to identify the occupation of the A-sites and B-sites for LSC, LSF, and LSCF cathodes doped with other transition metals, including doping induced migration of Sr to the anti-site for Sr, a significant cathode degradation indicator. By using spatially resolved valence mapping of Co, a complete picture of the surface electrochemistry can be determined. This is especially important in identifying degradation phenomena where the degradation is spatially localized to the extremities of the electrochemistry and not the average. For samples that have electrochemical parameters that are measured to be spatially uniform, the Co valence modifications were correlated to the effects of current density, overpotential, and humidity.

  15. DARHT 2 kA Cathode Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henestroza, E.; Houck, T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Miram, G.; Prichard, B.; Roy, P.K.; Waldron, W.; Westenskow, G.; Yu, S.; Bieniosek, F.M.

    2009-03-09

    In the campaign to achieve 2 kA of electron beam current, we have made several changes to the DARHT-II injector during 2006-2007. These changes resulted in a significant increase in the beam current, achieving the 2 kA milestone. Until recently (before 2007), the maximum beam current that was produced from the 6.5-inch diameter (612M) cathode was about 1300 A when the cathode was operating at a maximum temperature of 1140 C. At this temperature level, the heat loss was dominated by radiation which is proportional to temperature to the fourth power. The maximum operating temperature was limited by the damage threshold of the potted filament and the capacity of the filament heater power supply, as well as the shortening of the cathode life time. There were also signs of overheating at other components in the cathode assembly. Thus it was clear that our approach to increase beam current could not be simply trying to run at a higher temperature and the preferred way was to operate with a cathode that has a lower work function. The dispenser cathode initially used was the type 612M made by SpectraMat. According to the manufacturer's bulletin, this cathode should be able to produce more than 10 A/cm{sup 2} of current density (corresponding to 2 kA of total beam current) at our operating conditions. Instead the measured emission (space charge limited) was 6 A/cm{sup 2}. The result was similar even after we had revised the activation and handling procedures to adhere more closely to the recommend steps (taking longer time and nonstop to do the out-gassing). Vacuum was a major concern in considering the cathode's performance. Although the vacuum gauges at the injector vessel indicated 10{sup -8} Torr, the actual vacuum condition near the cathode in the central region of the vessel, where there might be significant out-gassing from the heater region, was never determined. Poor vacuum at the surface of the cathode degraded the emission (by raising the work function

  16. DARHT 2 kA Cathode Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Houck, T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Miram, G.; Prichard, B.; Roy, P.K.; Waldron, W.; Westenskow, G.; Yu, S.; Bieniosek, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the campaign to achieve 2 kA of electron beam current, we have made several changes to the DARHT-II injector during 2006-2007. These changes resulted in a significant increase in the beam current, achieving the 2 kA milestone. Until recently (before 2007), the maximum beam current that was produced from the 6.5-inch diameter (612M) cathode was about 1300 A when the cathode was operating at a maximum temperature of 1140 C. At this temperature level, the heat loss was dominated by radiation which is proportional to temperature to the fourth power. The maximum operating temperature was limited by the damage threshold of the potted filament and the capacity of the filament heater power supply, as well as the shortening of the cathode life time. There were also signs of overheating at other components in the cathode assembly. Thus it was clear that our approach to increase beam current could not be simply trying to run at a higher temperature and the preferred way was to operate with a cathode that has a lower work function. The dispenser cathode initially used was the type 612M made by SpectraMat. According to the manufacturer's bulletin, this cathode should be able to produce more than 10 A/cm 2 of current density (corresponding to 2 kA of total beam current) at our operating conditions. Instead the measured emission (space charge limited) was 6 A/cm 2 . The result was similar even after we had revised the activation and handling procedures to adhere more closely to the recommend steps (taking longer time and nonstop to do the out-gassing). Vacuum was a major concern in considering the cathode's performance. Although the vacuum gauges at the injector vessel indicated 10 -8 Torr, the actual vacuum condition near the cathode in the central region of the vessel, where there might be significant out-gassing from the heater region, was never determined. Poor vacuum at the surface of the cathode degraded the emission (by raising the work function value). We reexamined

  17. Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2002-01-01

    Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode

  18. Cathode architectures for alkali metal / oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J; Nimon, Vitaliy; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Volfkovich, Yury; Bograchev, Daniil

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. A porous cathode architecture having a pore volume that is derived from pores of varying radii wherein the pore size distribution is tailored as a function of the architecture thickness is one way to achieve one or more of the aforementioned cell performance improvements.

  19. Sea urchin-like mesoporous carbon material grown with carbon nanotubes as a cathode catalyst support for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Ping-Lin; Hsu, Chun-Han; Li, Wan-Ting; Jhan, Jing-Yi; Chen, Wei-Fu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 (China)

    2010-12-15

    A sea urchin-like carbon (UC) material with high surface area (416 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}), adequate electrical conductivity (59.6 S cm{sup -1}) and good chemical stability was prepared by growing carbon nanotubes onto mesoporous carbon hollow spheres. A uniform dispersion of Pt nanoparticles was then anchored on the UC, where the Pt nanoparticles were prepared using benzylamine as the stabilizer. For this Pt loaded carbon, cyclic voltammogram measurements showed an exceptionally high electrochemically active surface area (EAS) (114.8 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) compared to the commonly used commercial E-TEK catalyst (65.2 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). The durability test demonstrates that the carbon used as a support exhibited minor loss in EAS of Pt. Compared to the E-TEK (20 wt%) cathode catalyst, this Pt loaded UC catalyst has greatly enhanced catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction, less cathode flooding and considerably improved performance, resulting in an enhancement of ca. 37% in power density compared with that of E-TEK. Based on the results obtained, the UC is an excellent support for Pt nanoparticles used as cathode catalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. (author)

  20. A novel anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor (AnEMBR) with conductive hollow-fiber membrane for treatment of low-organic strength solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Katuri, Krishna

    2014-11-04

    A new anaerobic treatment system that combined a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with membrane filtration using electrically conductive, porous, nickel-based hollow-fiber membranes (Ni-HFMs) was developed to treat low organic strength solution and recover energy in the form of biogas. This new system is called an anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor (AnEMBR). The Ni-HFM served the dual function as the cathode for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the membrane for filtration of the effluent. The AnEMBR system was operated for 70 days with synthetic acetate solution having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 320 mg/L. Removal of COD was >95% at all applied voltages tested. Up to 71% of the substrate energy was recovered at an applied voltage of 0.7 V as methane rich biogas (83% CH4; < 1% H2) due to biological conversion of the hydrogen evolved at the cathode to methane. A combination of factors (hydrogen bubble formation, low cathode potential and localized high pH at the cathode surface) contributed to reduced membrane fouling in the AnEMBR compared to the control reactor (open circuit voltage). The net energy required to operate the AnEMBR system at an applied voltage of 0.7 V was significantly less (0.27 kWh/m3) than that typically needed for wastewater treatment using aerobic membrane bioreactors (1-2 kWh/m3).

  1. Cathode characterization system: preliminary results with (Ba,Sr,Ca) O coated cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nono, M.C.A.; Goncalves, J.A.N.; Barroso, J.J.; Dallaqua, R.S.; Spassovsky, I.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a cathode characterization system for studying the emission parameters of thermal electron emitters is reported. The system consists of vacuum chamber, power supplies and equipment for measuring and control. Measurements have been taken of the emission current as function of cathode temperature and anode voltage. Several (Ba, Sr) O coated cathodes were tested and the results have shown good agreement with Child's and Richardson's laws. The experimental work function is between 1.0 and 2.0 e V. All emission parameters measured are consistent with international literature data. (author)

  2. Long Life Cold Cathodes for Hall effect Thrusters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electron source incorporating long life, high current density cold cathodes inside a microchannel plate for use with ion thrusters is proposed. Cathode lifetime...

  3. Nano-Particle Scandate Cathode for Space Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an improved cathode based on our novel theory of the role of scandium oxide in enhancing emission in tungsten impregnate cathodes. Recent results have...

  4. Review on MIEC Cathode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnwal, Suman Kumar; Bharadwaj, S.; Kistaiah, P.

    2016-11-01

    The cathode is one of the most important components of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The reduction of oxygen at the cathode (traditional cathodes like LSM, LSGM, etc.) is the slow step in the cell reaction at intermediate temperature (600-800∘C) which is one of the key obstacles to the development of SOFCs. The mixed ionic and electronic conducting cathode (MIEC) like LSCF, BSCF, etc., has recently been proposed as a promising cathode material for SOFC due to the improvement of the kinetic of the cathode reaction. The MIEC materials provide not only the electrons for the reduction of oxygen, but also the ionic conduction required to ensure the transport of the formed oxygen ions and thereby improves the overall electrochemical performance of SOFC system. The characteristics of MIEC cathode materials and its comparison with other traditional cathode materials is studied and presented in the paper.

  5. Klystron Amplifier Utilizing Scandate Cathode and Electrostatic Focusing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build an electrostatically focused klystron that exploits recent breakthroughs in scandate cathode technology. We have built cathodes with greater than...

  6. Spectral Clustering of Hermean craters hollows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Alice; Pajola, Maurizio; Cremonese, Gabriele; Carli, Cristian; Marzo, Giuseppe; Roush, Ted

    2017-04-01

    The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS, Hawkins et al., 2007) onboard NASA MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft, provided high-resolution images of "hollows", i.e. shallow, irregular, rimless, flat-floored depressions with bright interiors and halos, often found on crater walls, rims, floors and central peaks (Blewett et al., 2011, 2013). The formation mechanism of these features was suggested to be related to the depletion of subsurface volatiles (Blewett et al., 2011, Vaughan et al., 2012). To understand the hollows' mineralogical composition, which can provide new insights on Mercury's surface characterization, we applied a spectral clustering method to different craters where hollows are present. We chose, as first test case, the 20 km wide Dominici crater due to previous multiple spectral detection (Vilas et al., 2016). We used the MDIS WAC dataset covering Dominici crater with a scale of 935 m/pixel through eight filters, ranging from 0.433 to 0.996 μm. First, the images have been photometrically corrected using the Hapke parameters (Hapke et al., 2002) derived in Domingue et al. (2015). We then applied a statistical clustering over the entire dataset based on a K-means partitioning algorithm (Marzo et al., 2006). This approach was developed and evaluated by Marzo et al. (2006, 2008, 2009) and makes use of the Calinski and Harabasz criterion (Calinski, T., Harabasz, J., 1974) to identify the intrinsically natural number of clusters, making the process unsupervised. The natural number of ten clusters was identified and spectrally separates the Dominici surrounding terrains from its interior, as well as the two hollows from their edges. The units located on the brightest part of the south wall/rim of Dominici crater clearly present a wide absorption band between 0.558 and 0.828 μm. Hollows surrounding terrains typically present a red slope in the VNIR with a possible weak absorption band centered at 0.748

  7. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan U. Anderson

    2000-03-31

    . However, they have the potential of being useful as an interface on the anode side of the electrolyte. NexTech has focused much of its effort during the past few months on establishing tape casting methods for porous LSM substrates. This work, performed under a separate DOE-funded program, involved tape casting formulations comprising LSM powders with bi-modal particle size distributions and fugitive pore forming additives. Sintered LSM substrates with porosities in the 30 to 40 vol% range, and pore sizes of 10 {approx} 20 microns have been prepared. In addition, tape casting formulations involving composite mixtures of LSM and Sm-doped ceria (SDC) have been evaluated. The LSM/SDC cathode substrates are expected to provide better performance at low temperatures. Characterization of these materials is currently underway.

  8. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Igor Kosacki

    2001-09-30

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. In this portion of study we have focused on producing YSZ films on porous LSM substrates. When using the polymer precursor there are a number of obstacles to overcome in order to form dense electrolyte layers on porous substrates (cathode or anode). Probably the most difficult problems are: (1) Extreme penetration of the polymer into the substrate must be prevented. (2) Shrinkage cracking must be avoided. (3) Film thickness in the 1 to 5{micro}m range must be achieved. We have demonstrated that cracking due to shrinkage involved during the elimination of solvents and organic matter and densification of the remaining oxide is not a problem as long as the resulting oxide film is < {approx} 0.15 {micro}m in thickness. We have also shown that we can make thicker films by making multiple depositions if the substrate is smooth (roughness {le} 0.1 {micro}m) and contains no surface pores > 0.2 {micro}m. The penetration of the polymer into the porous substrate can be minimized by increasing the viscosity of the polymer and reducing the largest pore at the surface of the substrate to {le} 0.2 {micro}m. We have shown that this can be done, but we have also shown that it is difficult to make dense films that are defect free with areas > 1 cm{sup 2}. This is because of the roughness of the substrate and the difficulty in making a substrate which does not have surface voids > 0.2 {micro}m. Thus the process works well for dense, smooth substrates for films < 1 {micro}m thick, but is difficult to apply to rough, porous surfaces and to make film thickness > 1 {micro}m. As a result of these problems, we have been addressing the issue of how to make dense films in the thickness range of 1 to 5 {micro}m on sintered porous substrates without introducing cracks and holes due to shrinkage and surface voids? These

  9. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Joaquim

    2010-05-01

    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  10. Hollow-Fiber Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Tsioulos, Gus; Mitchell, Keith; Settles, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The hollow-fiber spacesuit water membrane evaporator (HoFi SWME) is being developed to perform the thermal control function for advanced spacesuits and spacecraft to take advantage of recent advances in micropore membrane technology in providing a robust, heat-rejection device that is less sensitive to contamination than is the sublimator. After recent contamination tests, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) micro porous hollow-fiber membrane was selected for prototype development as the most suitable candidate among commercial hollow-fiber evaporator alternatives. An innovative design that grouped the fiber layers into stacks, which were separated by small spaces and packaged into a cylindrical shape, was developed into a full-scale prototype for the spacesuit application. Vacuum chamber testing has been performed to characterize heat rejection as a function of inlet water temperature and water vapor back-pressure, and to show contamination resistance to the constituents expected to be found in potable water produced by the wastewater reclamation distillation processes. Other tests showed tolerance to freezing and suitability to reject heat in a Mars pressure environment. In summary, HoFi SWME is a lightweight, compact evaporator for heat rejection in the spacesuit that is robust, contamination- insensitive, freeze-tolerant, and able to reject the required heat of spacewalks in microgravity, lunar, and Martian environments. The HoFi is packaged to reject 810 W of heat through 800 hours of use in a vacuum environment, and 370 W in a Mars environment. The device also eliminates free gas and dissolved gas from the coolant loop.

  11. Casting of particle-based hollow shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A method for the production of hollow articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is coated onto a prewarmed continuous surface in a relatively thin layer so that the slurry is substantially uniformly coated on the surface. The heat of the prewarmed surface conducts to the slurry to initiate a reaction which causes the slurry to set or harden in a shape conforming to the surface. The hardened configurations may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product.

  12. Coating for lithium anode, thionyl chloride active cathode electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catanzarite, V.O.

    1983-01-04

    Electrochemical power cells having a cathode current collector, a combination liquid active cathode depolarizer electrolyte solvent and an anode that forms surface compounds when in intimate contact with the liquid cathode are enhanced by the addition of a passivation limiting film contiguous to said anode. The passivating film is a member of the cyanoacrilate family of organic compounds.

  13. Coating for lithium anode, thionyl chloride active cathode electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catanzarite, V.O.

    1981-10-20

    Electrochemical power cells having a cathode current collector, a combination liquid active cathode depolarizer electrolyte solvent and an anode that forms surface compounds when in intimate contact with the liquid cathode are enhanced by the addition of a passivation limiting film contiguous to said anode. The passivating film is a member of the cyanoacrilate family of organic compounds.

  14. Effect of process parameters on coating composition of cathodic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cathodic treatments [3]. For the anodic plasma process, sur- face passivation of the working electrode can lead to the growth of oxide film and it can be named micro-arc oxida- tion (MAO) or plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) [4]. On the other hand, when the substrate is cathodically polarized. (cathodic plasma electrolysis, ...

  15. Cold cathodes on ultra-dispersed diamond base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimova, A.N.; Zhirnov, V.V.; Chubun, N.N.; Belobrov, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    Prospects of application of nano diamond powders for fabrication of cold cathodes are discussed.Cold cathodes based on silicon pointed structures with nano diamond coatings were prepared.The deposition technique of diamond coating was dielectrophoresis from suspension of nano diamond powder in organic liquids.The cathodes were tested in sealed prototypes of vacuum electronic devices

  16. Hollow Mill for Extraction of Stripped Titanium Screws: An Easy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    screws. We present a technique of extraction of stripped screws with the use of a standard 4.5 mm stainless steel hollow mill in a patient of peri-implant fracture of the radius fixed with a titanium locking plate 2 years back. The technique is quick, safe, and cost effective. Key words: Hollow mill, stripped screws, titanium locked.

  17. Fabrication of Closed Hollow Bulb Obturator Using Thermoplastic Resin Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidhan Shrestha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Closed hollow bulb obturators are used for the rehabilitation of postmaxillectomy patients. However, the time consuming process, complexity of fabrication, water leakage, and discoloration are notable disadvantages of this technique. This paper describes a clinical report of fabricating closed hollow bulb obturator using a single flask and one time processing method for an acquired maxillary defect. Hard thermoplastic resin sheet has been used for the fabrication of hollow bulb part of the obturator. Method. After fabrication of master cast conventionally, bulb and lid part of the defect were formed separately and joined by autopolymerizing acrylic resin to form one sized smaller hollow body. During packing procedure, the defect area was loaded with heat polymerizing acrylic resin and then previously fabricated smaller hollow body was adapted over it. The whole area was then loaded with heat cure acrylic. Further processes were carried out conventionally. Conclusion. This technique uses single flask which reduces laboratory time and makes the procedure simple. The thickness of hollow bulb can be controlled and light weight closed hollow bulb prosthesis can be fabricated. It also minimizes the disadvantages of closed hollow bulb obturator such as water leakage, bacterial infection, and discoloration.

  18. Safety of carbon fibre reinforced plastic hollow sections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hollow CFRP columns having different sizes and material thicknesses were modeled using ABAQUS/CAE three-dimensional non-linear finite element analysis and the results obtained are used to measure the deformation under compression. All loads used were Euler's critical buckling load. Steel hollow sections were also ...

  19. Advantageous Reservoir Characterization Technology in Extra Low Permeability Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper took extra low permeability reservoirs in Dagang Liujianfang Oilfield as an example and analyzed different types of microscopic pore structures by SEM, casting thin sections fluorescence microscope, and so on. With adoption of rate-controlled mercury penetration, NMR, and some other advanced techniques, based on evaluation parameters, namely, throat radius, volume percentage of mobile fluid, start-up pressure gradient, and clay content, the classification and assessment method of extra low permeability reservoirs was improved and the parameter boundaries of the advantageous reservoirs were established. The physical properties of reservoirs with different depth are different. Clay mineral variation range is 7.0%, and throat radius variation range is 1.81 μm, and start pressure gradient range is 0.23 MPa/m, and movable fluid percentage change range is 17.4%. The class IV reservoirs account for 9.56%, class II reservoirs account for 12.16%, and class III reservoirs account for 78.29%. According to the comparison of different development methods, class II reservoir is most suitable for waterflooding development, and class IV reservoir is most suitable for gas injection development. Taking into account the gas injection in the upper section of the reservoir, the next section of water injection development will achieve the best results.

  20. Cathode follower RF system with frequency modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Y.; Yano, Y.; Kaneko, N.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A model RF system with a cathode follower was tested under frequency modulation in the 1-3.5 MHz range. The repetition rate was 40 Hz. The oscillation was stable, and the output impedance was measured to be around 20 ohm. (author)

  1. Renovation of the cathodic protection system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuten, G.; Leggedoor, J.; Polder, R.B.; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2003-01-01

    The first system for Cathodic Protection of concrete in the Netherlands was applied to a one bicycle lane of a bridge suffering corrosion due to de-icing salt penetration in 1986. This CP system was based on the Ferex 100S conducting polymer cable anode in a cementitious overlay. Its functioning was

  2. Fe2O3 hollow sphere nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Wen, Yang; Xu, Bing; Lu, Lu; Ren, Reiming

    2018-02-01

    Nanomaterials have attracted increasing interest in electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites were successfully prepared through facile low temperature water-bath method with carbon sphere as hard template. The morphology and microstructure of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Through hydrolysis mechanism, using ferric chloride direct hydrolysis, iron hydroxide coated on the surface of carbon sphere, after high temperature calcination can form the hollow spherical iron oxide materials. Electrochemical performances of the hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammery (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge. The Pure hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites achieves a specific capacitance of 125 F g-1 at the current density of 85 mA g-1. The results indicate that the uniform dispersion of hollow ball structure can effectively reduce the particle reunion in the process of charging and discharging.

  3. Preparation and characterization of SOFC cathode films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baque, L; Serquis, A; Grunbaum, N; Prado, F; Caneiro, A

    2005-01-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) are being widely studied due to their possible utilization to produce electrical energy in a wide power range (from 1 kW up to few hundreds of kW).The principle of operation of this kind of fuel cells involves reduction of O 2 in the cathode oxygen ions (O 2- ) diffusion of oxygen through the electrolyte and fuel oxidation in the anode.Commercial SOFC must work at temperature higher than to 1000 degree C to enable the O 2- diffusion.Therefore, it is necessary to investigate new materials that enable to decrease the operation temperature, improving SOFC performance and cost. La 1 -xSr x Co 1 -yFe y O 3 -δ (LSCF) perovskites are good candidates for SOFC cathodes because these materials present high ionic and electronic conductivity. LSCF cathodes are adequate to fabricate Ce 1 -xGd x O 2 -δ electrolyte SOFC due to its low chemical reactivity with this material and its similar thermal expansion coefficient. In this work we present a study of microstructural and electrochemical characteristics of films for SOFC cathodes. La 0 .4Sr 0 .6Co 0 .8Fe 0 .2O 3 -δ compounds were prepared by the acetate reaction method.Then, cathodes were deposited onto a Ce 0 .9Gd 0 .1O 2 -δ electrolyte disk by dip coating and spray techniques.Structural characterization is made by X-ray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Electrochemical properties are characterized by complex impedance measurements.Finally, the relation between structural characteristics and electrical properties is discussed

  4. Long-term evaluation of hollow screw and hollow cylinder dental implants : Clinical and radiographic results after 10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    Background: In 1988, an implant manufacturer offered a new dental implant system, with a wide choice of hollow cylinder (HC) and hollow screw (HS) implants. The purpose of this retrospective study of HS and HC implants was to evaluate clinical and radiographic parameters of peri-implant tissue and

  5. Spirit Does a 'Jig' at Laguna Hollow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This front hazard-avoidance image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 45 shows Spirit in its new location after a drive totaling about 20 meters (65.6 feet). The circular depression that Spirit is in, dubbed 'Laguna Hollow,' was most likely formed by a small impact.Scientists were interested in reaching Laguna Hollow because of the location's abundance of very fine, dust-like soil. The fine material could be atmospheric dust that has settled into the depression, or a salt-based material that causes crusts in the soils and coating on rocks. Either way, scientists hope to be able to characterize the material and broaden their understanding of this foreign world.To help scientists get a better look at the variations in the fine-grained dust at different depths, controllers commanded Spirit to 'jiggle' its wheels in the soil before backing away to a distance that allows the area to be reached with the robotic arm. Spirit will likely spend part of sol 46 analyzing this area with the instruments on its robotic arm.

  6. Cathode Composition in a Saltwater Metal-Air Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-air batteries consist of a solid metal anode and an oxygen cathode of ambient air, typically separated by an aqueous electrolyte. Here, simple saltwater-based models of aluminum-air and zinc-air cells are used to determine the differences between theoretical cell electric potentials and experimental electric potentials. A substantial difference is observed. It is also found that the metal cathode material is crucial to cell electric potential, despite the cathode not participating in the net reaction. Finally, the material composition of the cathode appears to have a more significant impact on cell potential than the submerged surface area of the cathode.

  7. Progress of air-breathing cathode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zejie; Mahadevan, Gurumurthy Dummi; Wu, Yicheng; Zhao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging technology to produce green energy and vanquish the effects of environmental contaminants. Cathodic reactions are vital for high electrical power density generated from MFCs. Recently tremendous attentions were paid towards developing high performance air-breathing cathodes. A typical air-breathing cathode comprises of electrode substrate, catalyst layer, and air-diffusion layer. Prior researches demonstrated that each component influenced the performance of air-breathing cathode MFCs. This review summarized the progress in development of the individual component and elaborated main factors to the performance of air-breathing cathode.

  8. Geothermal reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, C.R.; Golabi, K.

    1978-02-01

    The optimal management of a hot water geothermal reservoir was considered. The physical system investigated includes a three-dimensional aquifer from which hot water is pumped and circulated through a heat exchanger. Heat removed from the geothermal fluid is transferred to a building complex or other facility for space heating. After passing through the heat exchanger, the (now cooled) geothermal fluid is reinjected into the aquifer. This cools the reservoir at a rate predicted by an expression relating pumping rate, time, and production hole temperature. The economic model proposed in the study maximizes discounted value of energy transferred across the heat exchanger minus the discounted cost of wells, equipment, and pumping energy. The real value of energy is assumed to increase at r percent per year. A major decision variable is the production or pumping rate (which is constant over the project life). Other decision variables in this optimization are production timing, reinjection temperature, and the economic life of the reservoir at the selected pumping rate. Results show that waiting time to production and production life increases as r increases and decreases as the discount rate increases. Production rate decreases as r increases and increases as the discount rate increases. The optimal injection temperature is very close to the temperature of the steam produced on the other side of the heat exchanger, and is virtually independent of r and the discount rate. Sensitivity of the decision variables to geohydrological parameters was also investigated. Initial aquifer temperature and permeability have a major influence on these variables, although aquifer porosity is of less importance. A penalty was considered for production delay after the lease is granted.

  9. Polymer coatings as separator layers for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.

    2011-03-01

    Membrane separators reduce oxygen flux from the cathode into the anolyte in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but water accumulation and pH gradients between the separator and cathode reduces performance. Air cathodes were spray-coated (water-facing side) with anion exchange, cation exchange, and neutral polymer coatings of different thicknesses to incorporate the separator into the cathode. The anion exchange polymer coating resulted in greater power density (1167 ± 135 mW m-2) than a cation exchange coating (439 ± 2 mW m-2). This power output was similar to that produced by a Nafion-coated cathode (1114 ± 174 mW m-2), and slightly lower than the uncoated cathode (1384 ± 82 mW m-2). Thicker coatings reduced oxygen diffusion into the electrolyte and increased coulombic efficiency (CE = 56-64%) relative to an uncoated cathode (29 ± 8%), but decreased power production (255-574 mW m-2). Electrochemical characterization of the cathodes ex situ to the MFC showed that the cathodes with the lowest charge transfer resistance and the highest oxygen reduction activity produced the most power in MFC tests. The results on hydrophilic cathode separator layers revealed a trade off between power and CE. Cathodes coated with a thin coating of anion exchange polymer show promise for controlling oxygen transfer while minimally affecting power production. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cathode R&D for Future Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, D.H.; /SLAC; Bazarov, I.; Dunham, B.; /Cornell U., CLASSE; Harkay, K.; /Argonne; Hernandez-Garcia; /Jefferson Lab; Legg, R.; /Wisconsin U., SRC; Padmore, H.; /LBL, Berkeley; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; /Brookhaven; Wan, W.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2010-05-26

    This paper reviews the requirements and current status of cathodes for accelerator applications, and proposes a research and development plan for advancing cathode technology. Accelerator cathodes need to have long operational lifetimes and produce electron beams with a very low emittance. The two principal emission processes to be considered are thermionic and photoemission with the photocathodes being further subdivided into metal and semi-conductors. Field emission cathodes are not included in this analysis. The thermal emittance is derived and the formulas used to compare the various cathode materials. To date, there is no cathode which provides all the requirements needed for the proposed future light sources. Therefore a three part research plan is described to develop cathodes for these future light source applications.

  11. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Brunner, Daniel; Soriano, Miguel C.

    2017-05-01

    We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir's complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  12. The selection of small forest hollows for pollen analysis in boreal and temperate forest regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Bradshaw, Richard H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Small forest hollows represent a specialised site type for pollen analysis, since they mainly record the vegetation within an approximate radius of 20-100 m from the hollow. We discuss how to choose the most appropriate small forest hollow for pollen analysis. Hollow size, site topography, location...

  13. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  14. Erosion behavior of composite Al-Cr cathodes in cathodic arc plasmas in inert and reactive atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, Robert; Mendez Martin, Francisca; Hawranek, Gerhard; Polcik, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Al x Cr 1−x composite cathodes with Al contents of x = 0.75, 0.5, and 0.25 were exposed to cathodic arc plasmas in Ar, N 2 , and O 2 atmospheres and their erosion behavior was studied. Cross-sectional analysis of the elemental distribution of the near-surface zone in the cathodes by scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of a modified layer for all cathodes and atmospheres. Due to intermixing of Al and Cr in the heat-affected zone, intermetallic Al-Cr phases formed as evidenced by x-ray diffraction analysis. Cathode poisoning effects in the reactive N 2 and O 2 atmospheres were nonuniform as a result of the applied magnetic field configuration. With the exception of oxide islands on Al-rich cathodes, reactive layers were absent in the circular erosion zone, while nitrides and oxides formed in the less eroded center region of the cathodes

  15. Recovery of uranium from seawater using amidoxime hollow fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, K.; Uezu, K.; Hori, T.; Furusaki, S.; Sugo, T.; Okamoto, J.

    1988-01-01

    A novel amidoxime-group-containing adsorbent of hollow-fiber form (AO-H fiber) was prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto a polyethylene hollow fiber, followed by chemical conversion of the produced cyano group to an amidoxime group. Distribution of the amidoxime group was uniform throughout hollow-fiber membrane. The fixed-bed adsorption column, 30 cm in length and charged with the bundle of AO-H fibers, was found to adsorb uranium from natural seawater at a sufficiently high rate: 0.66 mg uranium per g of adsorbent in 25 days

  16. Formation of hollow nanocrystals through the nanoscale kirkendall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yadong; Rioux, Robert M.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Hughes, Steven; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2004-03-11

    We demonstrate that hollow nanocrystals can be synthesized through a mechanism analogous to the Kirkendall Effect, in which pores form due to the difference in diffusion rates between two components in a diffusion couple. Cobalt nanocrystals are chosen as a primary example to show that their reaction in solution with oxygen, sulfur or selenium leads to the formation of hollow nanocrystals of the resulting oxide and chalcogenides. This process provides a general route to the synthesis of hollow nanostructures of large numbers of compounds. A simple extension of this process yields platinum-cobalt oxide yolk-shell nanostructures which may serve as nanoscale reactors in catalytic applications.

  17. Hollow fiber membranes and methods for forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Dhaval Ajit; McCloskey, Patrick Joseph; Howson, Paul Edward; Narang, Kristi Jean; Koros, William

    2016-03-22

    The invention provides improved hollow fiber membranes having at least two layers, and methods for forming the same. The methods include co-extruding a first composition, a second composition, and a third composition to form a dual layer hollow fiber membrane. The first composition includes a glassy polymer; the second composition includes a polysiloxane; and the third composition includes a bore fluid. The dual layer hollow fiber membranes include a first layer and a second layer, the first layer being a porous layer which includes the glassy polymer of the first composition, and the second layer being a polysiloxane layer which includes the polysiloxane of the second composition.

  18. Hollow vortices, capillary water waves and double quadrature domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowdy, Darren G.; Roenby, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Two new classes of analytical solutions for hollow vortex equilibria are presented. One class involves a central hollow vortex, comprising a constant pressure region having non-zero circulation, surrounded by an n-polygonal array of point vortices with n\\geqslant 2. The solutions generalize the non-rotating polygonal point vortex configurations of Morikawa and Swenson (1971 Phys. Fluids 14 1058-73) to the case where the point vortex at the centre of the polygon is replaced by a hollow vortex. The results of Morikawa and Swenson would suggest that all equilibria for n\

  19. Generation and propagation characteristics of a localized hollow beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Meng; Wang, Zhizhang; Yin, Yaling; Zhou, Qi; Xia, Yong; Yin, Jianping

    2018-05-01

    A succinct experimental scheme is demonstrated to generate a localized hollow beam by using a π-phase binary bitmap and a convergent thin lens. The experimental results show that the aspect ratio of the dark-spot size of the hollow beam can be effectively controlled by the focal length of the lens. The measured beam profiles in free space also agree with the theoretical modeling. The studies hold great promise that such a hollow beam can be used to cool trapped atoms (or molecules) by Sisyphus cooling and to achieve an optically-trapped Bose–Einstein condensate by optical-potential evaporative cooling.

  20. Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, G.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.G.; Assmann, R.; Kabantsev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams

  1. Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, G; Kuznetsov, G; Shiltsev, V; Still, D A; Valishev, A; Vorobiev, L G; Assmann, R; Kabantsev, A

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams.

  2. New discharge tube with virtual cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidelmann, L.; Aubrecht, L.

    2003-01-01

    Till this time known methods of the excitation of the discharge between electrodes are using either secondary or thermo emission of electrons by the cathode. Usually we speak about the self-maintained discharge. Lifetime of the cathode, that is shortened by the emission, limits in principle, the lifetime of the whole discharge tube. The discharge can, according to the present state of the art, be induced also by the inductive way. Arrangement for excitation of such discharge is rather expensive. The construction of the inductive excited discharge tube is considerably influenced by the necessity of the limitation of the losses in excitation magnetic circuits. Especially length of the discharge and pressure of the working gas are limited by the economic standpoints. Function of the discharge is always connected with unwanted electromagnetic radiation, whose restraint is expensive and represents limiting factor for arrangement of the discharge tube (Authors)

  3. Impedance studies on Li-ion cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NAGASUBRAMANIAN, GANESAN

    2000-04-17

    This paper describes the author's 2- and 3-electrode impedance results of metal oxide cathodes. These results were extracted from impedance data on 18650 Li-ion cells. The impedance results indicate that the ohmic resistance of the cell is very nearly constant with state-of-charge (SOC) and temperature. For example, the ohmic resistance of 18650 Li-ion cells is around 60 m{Omega} for different SOCS (4.1V to 3.0V) and temperatures from 35 C to {minus}20 C. However, the interfacial impedance shows a modest increase with SOC and a huge increase of between 10 and 100 times with decreasing temperature. For example, in the temperature regime (35 C down to {minus}20 C) the overall cell impedance has increased from nearly 200 m{Omega} to 8,000 m{Omega}. Most of the increase in cell impedance comes from the metal oxide cathode/electrolyte interface.

  4. Molecular motor transport through hollow nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lard, Mercy; Ten Siethoff, Lasse; Generosi, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Biomolecular motors offer self-propelled, directed transport in designed microscale networks and can potentially replace pump-driven nanofluidics. However, in existing systems, transportation is limited to the two-dimensional plane. Here we demonstrate fully one-dimensional (1D) myosin......-driven motion of fluorescent probes (actin filaments) through 80 nm wide, Al2O 3 hollow nanowires of micrometer length. The motor-driven transport is orders of magnitude faster than would be possible by passive diffusion. The system represents a necessary element for advanced devices based on gliding assays......, for example, in lab-on-a-chip systems with channel crossings and in pumpless nanosyringes. It may also serve as a scaffold for bottom-up assembly of muscle proteins into ordered contractile units, mimicking the muscle sarcomere....

  5. Two-piece hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Elangovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various types of obturator fabrication achievable by prosthodontist. Maxillectomy, which is a term used by head and neck surgeons and prosthodontists to describe the partial or total removal of the maxilla in patients suffering from benign or malignant neoplasms is a defect for which to provide an effective obturator is a difficult task for the maxillofacial prosthodontist. Multidisciplinary treatment planning is essential to achieve adequate retention and function for the prosthesis. Speech is often unintelligible as a result of the marked defects in articulation and nasal resonance. This paper describes how to achieve the goal for esthetics and phonetics and also describes the fabrication of a hollow obturator by two piece method, which is simple and maybe used as definitive obturator for maximum comfort of the patient.

  6. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Shafranov, M.D.; Zhiltsov, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented. (orig.)

  7. Photovoltaic powered regulated cathodic protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anis, W.R.; Alfons, H.A. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt))

    1994-08-01

    The cathodic protection (CP) system objective is to protect metallic structures against corrosion caused by chemical reaction between metallic structures and surrounding mediums, such as soil or water. To overcome such a problem, a sacrificing anode is connected to the protected structure (which acts as a cathode) through a DC power supply. As a result, a current passes from the sacrificing anode to the protected cathode. This leads to anode corrosion rather than causing the cathode (protected structure) corrosion. To stop the corrosion, the protected structure requires a constant current determined by structure metal, area, and the surrounding medium. The major difficulty in achieving this condition is the variation of surrounding medium resistivity due to climatic condition changes. For example, rains as well as humidity decrease soil resistivity, and as a result the DC current increases and a harmful overprotection may take place. Both corrosion and overprotection are harmful for the metallic structure. Conventional CP systems resolve this problem by manual adjustment of DC voltage periodically to obtain a constant current. Such adjustment depends on the personal experience of the technician and the accuracy of the measuring equipment used. Accordingly, the adjustment is subject to personal and measuring equipment errors. Moreover, if the internal between two successive adjustment is relatively long, structure corrosion becomes significant, which may have drastic consequences. To overcome the aforementioned difficulties associated with the conventional CP system, an automatically regulated CP system is discussed in this article. The proposed system senses the variations of the surrounding medium resistivity and adjusts the DC voltage of the system automatically so that the DC current is kept constant at the required level. The design of a solar photovoltaic system to supply the CP system by the required DC power is also discussed.

  8. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Great abundance, trivalent oxidation state, high volumetric energy density and inherent safety make aluminum a desirable source of power. Attempts to use aluminum as an electrochemical energy source have been made since the 1800s. To date no great success has been achieved due to difficulties with finding a suitable electrolyte and cathode material. This dissertation explains some of the author’s efforts to overcome these difficulties.Chapter two reports the results of an investigation of an ...

  9. Bi-metallic nanoparticles as cathode electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Wang, Xiaoping; Luo, Xiangyi; Myers, Deborah J.

    2018-03-27

    A lithium-air battery cathode catalyst includes core-shell nanoparticles on a carbon support, wherein: a core of the core-shell nanoparticles is platinum metal; and a shell of the core-shell nanoparticles is copper metal; wherein: the core-shell nanoparticles have a weight ratio of the copper metal to the platinum metal from about 4% to about 6% copper to from about 2% to about 12% platinum, with a remaining percentage being the carbon support.

  10. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLED CATHODIC PROTECTION CIRCUIT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    AKÇAYOL, M. Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this study, output voltage of automatic transformer-rectifier (TR) unit of impressed current cathodic protection has been controlled by using fuzzy logic controller. To prevent corrosion, voltage between the protection metal and the auxiliary anode has to be controlled on a desired level. Because soil resistance in the environment changes with humidity and soil characteristics, TRs must control the output voltage between protection metal and auxiliary anode automatically. In this study, a ...

  11. A definitive criterion for cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Roger [Cathodic Protection Network International Ltd., Reading (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The corrosion reaction is defined using the Pourbaix Diagram and includes consideration of the pH, temperature, pressure, nobility of the metal and conductivity of the electrolyte. The passive zone can be established in a laboratory by creating a closed circuit condition in which the voltages can be measured. Natural corrosion cells occurring in simple conditions can be evaluated for the purpose of monitoring the performance of cathodic protection. Metal pipelines are complex networks of conductors submerged in electrolyte of infinitely variable qualities. The present method used to ascertain the effectiveness of cathodic protection has many inherent errors and results in costly and unpredictable corrosion failures. An electrode has been devised to define the exact electrical status of the corrosion reaction at its location. The design allows a closed circuit measurement of the corrosion current that can determine whether or not corrosion has been stopped by cathodic protection. This has allowed the development of software that can calculate the condition and corrosion status throughout a network of pipelines, using electrical circuit analysis common in the electronics industry. (author)

  12. Reservoir Simulations of Low-Temperature Geothermal Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedre, Madhur Ganesh

    The eastern United States generally has lower temperature gradients than the western United States. However, West Virginia, in particular, has higher temperature gradients compared to other eastern states. A recent study at Southern Methodist University by Blackwell et al. has shown the presence of a hot spot in the eastern part of West Virginia with temperatures reaching 150°C at a depth of between 4.5 and 5 km. This thesis work examines similar reservoirs at a depth of around 5 km resembling the geology of West Virginia, USA. The temperature gradients used are in accordance with the SMU study. In order to assess the effects of geothermal reservoir conditions on the lifetime of a low-temperature geothermal system, a sensitivity analysis study was performed on following seven natural and human-controlled parameters within a geothermal reservoir: reservoir temperature, injection fluid temperature, injection flow rate, porosity, rock thermal conductivity, water loss (%) and well spacing. This sensitivity analysis is completed by using ‘One factor at a time method (OFAT)’ and ‘Plackett-Burman design’ methods. The data used for this study was obtained by carrying out the reservoir simulations using TOUGH2 simulator. The second part of this work is to create a database of thermal potential and time-dependant reservoir conditions for low-temperature geothermal reservoirs by studying a number of possible scenarios. Variations in the parameters identified in sensitivity analysis study are used to expand the scope of database. Main results include the thermal potential of reservoir, pressure and temperature profile of the reservoir over its operational life (30 years for this study), the plant capacity and required pumping power. The results of this database will help the supply curves calculations for low-temperature geothermal reservoirs in the United States, which is the long term goal of the work being done by the geothermal research group under Dr. Anderson at

  13. Hollow nanoneedle array and its utilization for repeated administration of biomolecules to the same cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Elad; Artzy-Schnirman, Arbel; Gepstein, Lior; Sivan, Uri

    2012-06-26

    We present a novel hollow nanoneedle array (NNA) device capable of simultaneously delivering diverse cargo into a group of cells in a culture over prolonged periods. The silica needles are fed by a common reservoir whose content can be replenished and modified in real time while maintaining contact with the same cells. The NNA, albeit its submicrometer features, is fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator wafer using conventional, large scale, silicon technology. 3T3-NIH fibroblast cells and HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells are shown to grow and proliferate successfully on the NNAs. Cargo delivery from the reservoir through the needles to a group of HEK293 cells in the culture is demonstrated by repeated administration of fluorescently labeled dextran to the same cells and transfection with DNA coding for red fluorescent protein. The capabilities demonstrated by the NNA device open the door to large scale studies of the effect of selected cells on their environment as encountered, for instance, in the study of cell-fate decisions, the role of cell-autonomous versus nonautonomous mechanisms in developmental biology, and in the study of excitable cell-networks.

  14. A review of reservoir desiltation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Anders

    2000-01-01

    physical geography, hydrology, desilation efficiency, reservoir flushing, density-current venting, sediment slucing, erosion pattern, downstream effects, flow characteristics, sedimentation......physical geography, hydrology, desilation efficiency, reservoir flushing, density-current venting, sediment slucing, erosion pattern, downstream effects, flow characteristics, sedimentation...

  15. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on

  16. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  17. Reservoir engineering and hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Summaries are included which show advances in the following areas: fractured porous media, flow in single fractures or networks of fractures, hydrothermal flow, hydromechanical effects, hydrochemical processes, unsaturated-saturated systems, and multiphase multicomponent flows. The main thrust of these efforts is to understand the movement of mass and energy through rocks. This has involved treating fracture rock masses in which the flow phenomena within both the fractures and the matrix must be investigated. Studies also address the complex coupling between aspects of thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository in a fractured rock medium. In all these projects, both numerical modeling and simulation, as well as field studies, were employed. In the theoretical area, a basic understanding of multiphase flow, nonisothermal unsaturated behavior, and new numerical methods have been developed. The field work has involved reservoir testing, data analysis, and case histories at a number of geothermal projects

  18. Chalk as a reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    basin, so stylolite formation in the chalk is controlled by effective burial stress. The stylolites are zones of calcite dissolution and probably are the source of calcite for porefilling cementation which is typical in water zone chalk and also affect the reservoirs to different extent. The relatively...... 50% calcite, leaving the remaining internal surface to the fine grained silica and clay. The high specific surface of these components causes clay- and silica rich intervals to have high irreducible water saturation. Although chalks typically are found to be water wet, chalk with mixed wettability...... stabilizes chemically by recrystallization. This process requires energy and is promoted by temperature. This recrystallization in principle does not influence porosity, but only specific surface, which decreases during recrystallization, causing permeability to increase. The central North Sea is a warm...

  19. Pacifiers: a microbial reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comina, Elodie; Marion, Karine; Renaud, François N R; Dore, Jeanne; Bergeron, Emmanuelle; Freney, Jean

    2006-12-01

    The permanent contact between the nipple part of pacifiers and the oral microflora offers ideal conditions for the development of biofilms. This study assessed the microbial contamination on the surface of 25 used pacifier nipples provided by day-care centers. Nine were made of silicone and 16 were made of latex. The biofilm was quantified using direct staining and microscopic observations followed by scraping and microorganism counting. The presence of a biofilm was confirmed on 80% of the pacifier nipples studied. This biofilm was mature for 36% of them. Latex pacifier nipples were more contaminated than silicone ones. The two main genera isolated were Staphylococcus and Candida. Our results confirm that nipples can be seen as potential reservoirs of infections. However, pacifiers do have some advantages; in particular, the potential protection they afford against sudden infant death syndrome. Strict rules of hygiene and an efficient antibiofilm cleaning protocol should be established to answer the worries of parents concerning the safety of pacifiers.

  20. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Sande Guy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir’s complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  1. Highly efficient fluorescence sensing with hollow core photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Barth, Michael; Benson, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    We investigate hollow core photonic crystal fibers for ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection by selectively infiltrating the central hole with fluorophores. Dye concentrations down to 10(-9) M can be detected using only nanoliter sample volumes....

  2. Coprecipitation-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of PLZT hollow nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Renqiang; Zhu, Kongjun; Qiu, Jinhao; Bai, Lin; Ji, Hongli

    2010-01-01

    Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate Pb 1-x La x (Zr 1-y Ti y )O 3 (PLZT) hollow nanospheres have been successfully prepared via a template-free hydrothermal method using the well-mixed coprecipitated precursors and the KOH mineralizer. The structure, composition, and morphology of the PLZT hollow nanospheres were characterized by XRD (X-ray diffraction), ICP (inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectra), TG/DTA (thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and SEAD (selected area diffraction). The results show that the composition and the morphology control of the PLZT products are determined by the KOH concentration. The PLZT hollow nanospheres with uniform size of about 4 nm were synthesized in the presence of 5 M KOH. The crystalline nanoparticles can be prepared at dilute KOH, in contrast to the amorphous powders prepared at concentrated KOH. Formation mechanisms of the PLZT hollow nanospheres are also discussed.

  3. High strength and low weight hollow carbon fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, T.; Brüll, R.; Pursche, F.; Langgartner, J.; Seide, G.; Gries, T.

    2017-10-01

    Carbon fibres have strengths of 2.5 to 5 GPa in the fibre direction and an elastic modulus of 200 to 500 GPa. Carbon fibres have equal mechanical properties as steel but 20% of the weight. But the material is more expensive than steel. Therefore, they are only used in industry sectors where the benefits legitimate the high costs. The use of hollow rather than solid fibres allows an even lower weight of the components. At the same time, similar mechanical properties are achieved by the circular cross section. Carbon fibres are obtained from polyacrylonitrile fibers (PAN). These can be produced as hollow fibres. As a first step stabilization and carbonization of hollow PAN precursors is investigated to produce hollow carbon fibres.

  4. Polyazole hollow fiber membranes for direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul

    2013-08-07

    Porous hollow fiber membranes were fabricated from fluorinated polyoxadiazole and polytriazole by a dry-wet spinning method for application in desalination of Red Sea water by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The data were compared with commercially available hollow fiber MD membranes prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride). The membranes were characterized by electron microscopy, liquid entry pressure (LEP), and pore diameter measurements. Finally, the hollow fiber membranes were tested for DCMD. Salt selectivity as high as 99.95% and water fluxes as high as 35 and 41 L m -2 h-1 were demonstrated, respectively, for polyoxadiazole and polytriazole hollow fiber membranes, operating at 80 C feed temperature and 20 C permeate. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Wall-thickness changes predicted in hollow-drawn tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, J. E.; Mura, T.

    1969-01-01

    Hollow-tube drawing or tube sinking theory is based on the concept of continuous distribution of dislocations. Material composition, parameter influence, and die-angle are determining factors in derivation of the theoretical model.

  6. Investigation into the phase effects in nonlinear hollow waveguides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerical calculations of the phase velocities of collective modes of a hollow waveguide at the Stokes frequency is carried out. The self- imaging of transverse structure of modes superposition (Talbot effect) is investigated. It is shown...

  7. Hollow Nanostructured Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hollow nanostructured anode materials lie at the heart of research relating to Li-ion batteries, which require high capacity, high rate capability, and high safety. The higher capacity and higher rate capability for hollow nanostructured anode materials than that for the bulk counterparts can be attributed to their higher surface area, shorter path length for Li+ transport, and more freedom for volume change, which can reduce the overpotential and allow better reaction kinetics at the electrode surface. In this article, we review recent research activities on hollow nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries, including carbon materials, metals, metal oxides, and their hybrid materials. The major goal of this review is to highlight some recent progresses in using these hollow nanomaterials as anode materials to develop Li-ion batteries with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.

  8. Measurement of Cl2 Concentration in a XeCl Hollow Cathode Discharge Including the Effect of H2 Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Janossy, M., Csillag, L., Rozsa , K., and Salamon, T. Phys. A, 68: 317 (1978). 63. Janossy, M., Rozsa , K., Csillag, L., and Bergow, J. Phys. A, 46: 379...1974). 64. Rozsa , K., Janossy, M., Bergow, J., and Csillag, L. Opt. C 23: 15 (1977). 65. Nuchkov, N. K., Grozeva, M. G., and Sabotinov, N. V. Opt. 27

  9. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The

  10. Stress-Induced Fracturing of Reservoir Rocks: Acoustic Monitoring and μCT Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Srutarshi; Stroisz, Anna M.; Fjær, Erling; Stenebråten, Jørn F.; Lund, Hans K.; Sønstebø, Eyvind F.

    2015-11-01

    Stress-induced fracturing in reservoir rocks is an important issue for the petroleum industry. While productivity can be enhanced by a controlled fracturing operation, it can trigger borehole instability problems by reactivating existing fractures/faults in a reservoir. However, safe fracturing can improve the quality of operations during CO2 storage, geothermal installation and gas production at and from the reservoir rocks. Therefore, understanding the fracturing behavior of different types of reservoir rocks is a basic need for planning field operations toward these activities. In our study, stress-induced fracturing of rock samples has been monitored by acoustic emission (AE) and post-experiment computer tomography (CT) scans. We have used hollow cylinder cores of sandstones and chalks, which are representatives of reservoir rocks. The fracture-triggering stress has been measured for different rocks and compared with theoretical estimates. The population of AE events shows the location of main fracture arms which is in a good agreement with post-test CT image analysis, and the fracture patterns inside the samples are visualized through 3D image reconstructions. The amplitudes and energies of acoustic events clearly indicate initiation and propagation of the main fractures. Time evolution of the radial strain measured in the fracturing tests will later be compared to model predictions of fracture size.

  11. 3D hollow nanostructures as building blocks for multifunctional plasmonics

    KAUST Repository

    De Angelis, Francesco De

    2013-08-14

    We present an advanced and robust technology to realize 3D hollow plasmonic nanostructures which are tunable in size, shape, and layout. The presented architectures offer new and unconventional properties such as the realization of 3D plasmonic hollow nanocavities with high electric field confinement and enhancement, finely structured extinction profiles, and broad band optical absorption. The 3D nature of the devices can overcome intrinsic difficulties related to conventional architectures in a wide range of multidisciplinary applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Monodisperse Hollow Tricolor Pigment Particles for Electronic Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xianwei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A general approach has been designed to blue, green, and red pigments by metal ions doping hollow TiO 2. The reaction involves initial formation of PS at TiO2 core–shell nanoparticles via a mixed-solvent method, and then mixing with metal ions solution containing PEG, followed calcining in the atmosphere. The as-prepared hollow pigments exhibit uniform size, bright color, and tunable density, which are fit for electronic paper display.

  13. Hollow Nanostructured Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Jun; Xue Dongfeng

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Hollow nanostructured anode materials lie at the heart of research relating to Li-ion batteries, which require high capacity, high rate capability, and high safety. The higher capacity and higher rate capability for hollow nanostructured anode materials than that for the bulk counterparts can be attributed to their higher surface area, shorter path length for Li+ transport, and more freedom for volume change, which can reduce the overpotential and allow better reaction kinetics at th...

  14. Thin-walled reinforcement lattice structure for hollow CMC buckets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Diego, Peter

    2017-06-27

    A hollow ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine bucket with an internal reinforcement lattice structure has improved vibration properties and stiffness. The lattice structure is formed of thin-walled plies made of CMC. The wall structures are arranged and located according to high stress areas within the hollow bucket. After the melt infiltration process, the mandrels melt away, leaving the wall structure to become the internal lattice reinforcement structure of the bucket.

  15. Cathode power distribution system and method of using the same for power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Koehl, Eugene R; Bailey, James L; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2014-11-11

    Embodiments include a cathode power distribution system and/or method of using the same for power distribution. The cathode power distribution system includes a plurality of cathode assemblies. Each cathode assembly of the plurality of cathode assemblies includes a plurality of cathode rods. The system also includes a plurality of bus bars configured to distribute current to each of the plurality of cathode assemblies. The plurality of bus bars include a first bus bar configured to distribute the current to first ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies and a second bus bar configured to distribute the current to second ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies.

  16. Cathodic corrosion: Part 2. Properties of nanoparticles synthesized by cathodic corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanson, A.I.; Yanson, Yu.I.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate how cathodic corrosion in concentrated aqueous solutions enables one to prepare nanoparticles of various metals and metal alloys. Using various characterization methods we show that the composition of nanoparticles remains that of the starting material, and the resulting size distribution remains rather narrow. For the case of platinum we show how the size and possibly even the shape of the nanoparticles can be easily controlled by the parameters of corrosion. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using the nanoparticles prepared by cathodic corrosion for applications in (electro-)catalysis.

  17. Preliminary experimental study of a carbon fiber array cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An-kun; Fan, Yu-wei

    2016-08-01

    The preliminary experimental results of a carbon fiber array cathode for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) operations are reported. When the diode voltage and diode current were 480 kV and 44 kA, respectively, high-power microwaves with a peak power of about 3 GW and a pulse duration of about 60 ns were obtained in a MILO device with the carbon fiber array cathode. The preliminary experimental results show that the shot-to-shot reproducibility of the diode current and the microwave power is stable until 700 shots. No obvious damage or deterioration can be observed in the carbon fiber surface morphology after 700 shots. Moreover, the cathode performance has no observable deterioration after 700 shots. In conclusion, the maintain-free lifetime of the carbon fiber array cathode is more than 700 shots. In this way, this carbon fiber array cathode offers a potential replacement for the existing velvet cathode.

  18. Field application of cathodic prevention on reinforced concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzoni, A.; Bazzoni, B.; Lazzari, L. [Cescor srl, Milano (Italy); Bertolini, L.; Pedeferri, P. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dept. di Chimica Fisica Applicata

    1996-11-01

    This paper illustrates the results gained during the first three years of cathodic protection application to Frejus highway viaducts in northern Italy. CP applications deal with corrosion control of chloride contaminated structures (cathodic protection application properly said) and the corrosion prevention of new non-contaminated structures, constructed with incorporated cathodic protection systems (so-called cathodic prevention). Both normal and post-tensioned structures are present: in the latter case the problems connected with the risk of hydrogen embrittlement of the tendons are discussed. The paper illustrates also the computerized system for gathering and monitoring data and the criteria adopted to evaluate and control the cathodic protection and cathodic prevention conditions as well as to avoid overprotection.

  19. Cathodic electrocatalyst layer for electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher P. (Inventor); Tennakoon, Charles L. K. (Inventor); Singh, Waheguru Pal (Inventor); Anderson, Kelvin C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cathodic gas diffusion electrode for the electrochemical production of aqueous hydrogen peroxide solutions. The cathodic gas diffusion electrode comprises an electrically conductive gas diffusion substrate and a cathodic electrocatalyst layer supported on the gas diffusion substrate. A novel cathodic electrocatalyst layer comprises a cathodic electrocatalyst, a substantially water-insoluble quaternary ammonium compound, a fluorocarbon polymer hydrophobic agent and binder, and a perfluoronated sulphonic acid polymer. An electrochemical cell using the novel cathodic electrocatalyst layer has been shown to produce an aqueous solution having between 8 and 14 weight percent hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, such electrochemical cells have shown stable production of hydrogen peroxide solutions over 1000 hours of operation including numerous system shutdowns.

  20. Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-01-01

    High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes

  1. One step polymerizing technique for fabricating a hollow obturator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Tetsuo; Ono, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Shiroshita, Naoko; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Inoue, Makoto

    2013-10-01

    Although a closed hollow obturator is often applied to post maxillectomy patients, it has a few problems such as complexity of fabrication and water leakage to inside. A one step curing technique to fabricate a closed hollow obturator by constructing a small hollow bulb made by two thermoplastic resin sheets is described in the present report. In the one step curing technique, after dewaxing the wax denture fabricated conventionally, one size smaller hollow body was fabricated with two thermoplastic resin sheets and set into the investment mold as a core. Then the circumferential part of obturator was cured by the pour type resin. This technique was used to fabricate an obturator prosthesis in a 60-year-old post-maxillectomy patient. The weight of this obturator was well controlled and the definitive prosthesis weighed 22 g. At a one year follow-up, the obturator fared well without any water leakage or breakage. This technique allows the fabricator to control the thickness and weight of the obturator by the amount of relief provided by the hollow bulb. It also rectifies the disadvantages of the closed hollow obturator such as water leakage and complexity of fabrication. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  3. Well testing in gas hydrate reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Kome, Melvin Njumbe

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir testing and analysis are fundamental tools in understanding reservoir hydraulics and hence forecasting reservoir responses. The quality of the analysis is very dependent on the conceptual model used in investigating the responses under different flowing conditions. The use of reservoir testing in the characterization and derivation of reservoir parameters is widely established, especially in conventional oil and gas reservoirs. However, with depleting conventional reserves, the ...

  4. Structured electron beams from nano-engineered cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueangaramwong, A. [NICADD, DeKalb; Mihalcea, D. [NICADD, DeKalb; Andonian, G. [RadiaBeam Tech.; Piot, P. [Fermilab

    2017-03-07

    The ability to engineer cathodes at the nano-scale have open new possibilities such as enhancing quantum eciency via surface-plasmon excitation, forming ultra-low-emittance beams, or producing structured electron beams. In this paper we present numerical investigations of the beam dynamics associated to this class of cathode in the weak- and strong-field regimes.We finally discuss the possible applications of some of the achievable cathode patterns when coupled with other phase space manipulations.

  5. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  6. Sediment Characteristics of Tennessee Streams and Reservoirs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trimble, Stanley W; Carey, William P

    1984-01-01

    Suspended-sediment and reservoir sedimentation data have been analyzed to determine sediment yields and transport characteristics of Tennessee streams Data from 31 reservoirs plus suspended-sediment...

  7. Development of spray coated cathodes for RITS-6.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Sean; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Miller, Stephen Samuel

    2013-09-01

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 to conduct a feasibility study on thermal spray coated cathodes to be used in the RITS-6 accelerator in an attempt to improve surface uniformity and repeatability. Currently, the cathodes are coated with colloidal silver by means of painting by hand. It is believed that improving the cathode coating process could simplify experimental setup and improve flash x-ray radiographic performance. This report documents the experimental setup and summarizes the results of our feasibility study. Lastly, it describes the path forward and potential challenges that must be overcome in order to improve the process for creating uniform and repeatable silver coatings for cathodes.

  8. Geiger counters of gamma rays with a bismuth cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, R.; Legrand, J.P.

    1953-01-01

    Geiger Muller counters present a lake of efficiency of some per cent, for the γ radiations. In the region 0,3 - 1 MeV, a substantial growth of their output can be obtained by a special construction of their cathode. In accordance with previous works, we constructed some counter of formed cathode by a pleated copper wire fencing covered of Bi by electrolysis. The successive modifications brought to a cylindrical conventional cathode in sheet metal of copper, that succeeds to this type of cathode, drive to an improvement of the output. (M.B.) [fr

  9. Measuring current emission and work functions of large thermionic cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortgang, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    As one component of the nations Stockpile Stewardship program, Los Alamos National Laboratory is constructing a 20 MeV, 2 kA (with a 4 kA upgrade capability), 3ps induction linac for doing x-ray radiography of explosive devices. The linac is one leg of a facility called the Dual-Axis Radiography Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT). The electron gun is designed to operate at 3.2 MV. The gun is a Pierce type design and uses a 6.5' cathode for 2 kA operation and an 8' cathode for 4 kA operation. We have constructed a small facility called the Cathode Test Stand (CTS) to investigate engineering and physics issues regarding large thermionic dispenser-cathodes. In particular, we have looked at the issues of temperature uniformity on the cathode surface and cathode quality as measured by its work function. We have done thermal imaging of both 8' and 6.5' cathodes. Here we report on measurements of the cathode work function, both the average value and how it vanes across the face of the cathode.

  10. Surface Characterization of the LCLS RF Gun Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachmann, Axel; Decker, Franz-Josef; Ding, Yuantao; Dowell, David; Emma, Paul; Frisch, Josef; Gilevich, Sasha; Hays, Gregory; Hering, Philippe; Huang, Zhirong; Iverson, Richard; Loos, Henrik; Miahnahri, Alan; Nordlund, Dennis; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Pianetta, Piero; Turner, James; Welch, James; White, William; Wu, Juhao; Xiang, Dao

    2012-01-01

    The first copper cathode installed in the LCLS RF gun was used during LCLS commissioning for more than a year. However, after high charge operation (> 500 pC), the cathode showed a decline of quantum efficiency within the area of drive laser illumination. They report results of SEM, XPS and XAS studies that were carried out on this cathode after it was removed from the gun. X-ray absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal surface contamination by various hydrocarbon compounds. In addition they report on the performance of the second installed cathode with emphasis on the spatial distribution of electron emission.

  11. Large area dispenser cathode applied to high current linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Anmin; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Wu Dengxue; Liu Chenjun; Xia Liansheng; Wang Wendou; Zhang Kaizhi

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduced a dispenser cathode (411 M) which was 55 mm in diameter. A 200 kV long pulsed power generator with 2 μs flattop based on Marx-PEN and system with heat and voltage insulation were built. A 52 A space charge limited current was gained, when the temperature was 1165 degree C and the filament current was 18 A on the cathode and the voltage of the pulse was 75 kV at the cathode test stand. Experimental results show that the current values are consistent with the numerical simulation. The experiment reveals that the deflated gas will influence the cathode emission ability. (authors)

  12. Changes to the Bakomi Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubinský Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the analysis and evaluation of the changes of the bottom of the Bakomi reservoir, the total volume of the reservoir, ecosystems, as well as changes in the riparian zone of the Bakomi reservoir (situated in the central Slovakia. Changes of the water component of the reservoir were subject to the deposition by erosion-sedimentation processes, and were identifed on the basis of a comparison of the present relief of the bottom of reservoir obtained from feld measurements (in 2011 with the relief measurements of the bottom obtained from the 1971 historical maps, (i.e. over a period of 40 years. Changes of landscape structures of the riparian zone have been mapped for the time period of 1949–2013; these changes have been identifed with the analysis of ortophotomaps and the feld survey. There has been a signifcant rise of disturbed shores with low herb grassland. Over a period of 40 years, there has been a deposition of 667 m3 of sediments. The results showed that there were no signifcant changes in the local ecosystems of the Bakomi reservoir in comparison to the other reservoirs in the vicinity of Banská Štiavnica.

  13. TRITIUM RESERVOIR STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE PREDICTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, P.S.; Morgan, M.J

    2005-11-10

    The burst test is used to assess the material performance of tritium reservoirs in the surveillance program in which reservoirs have been in service for extended periods of time. A materials system model and finite element procedure were developed under a Savannah River Site Plant-Directed Research and Development (PDRD) program to predict the structural response under a full range of loading and aged material conditions of the reservoir. The results show that the predicted burst pressure and volume ductility are in good agreement with the actual burst test results for the unexposed units. The material tensile properties used in the calculations were obtained from a curved tensile specimen harvested from a companion reservoir by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). In the absence of exposed and aged material tensile data, literature data were used for demonstrating the methodology in terms of the helium-3 concentration in the metal and the depth of penetration in the reservoir sidewall. It can be shown that the volume ductility decreases significantly with the presence of tritium and its decay product, helium-3, in the metal, as was observed in the laboratory-controlled burst tests. The model and analytical procedure provides a predictive tool for reservoir structural integrity under aging conditions. It is recommended that benchmark tests and analysis for aged materials be performed. The methodology can be augmented to predict performance for reservoir with flaws.

  14. A reservoir simulation approach for modeling of naturally fractured reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the Warren and Root model proposed for the simulation of naturally fractured reservoir was improved. A reservoir simulation approach was used to develop a 2D model of a synthetic oil reservoir. Main rock properties of each gridblock were defined for two different types of gridblocks called matrix and fracture gridblocks. These two gridblocks were different in porosity and permeability values which were higher for fracture gridblocks compared to the matrix gridblocks. This model was solved using the implicit finite difference method. Results showed an improvement in the Warren and Root model especially in region 2 of the semilog plot of pressure drop versus time, which indicated a linear transition zone with no inflection point as predicted by other investigators. Effects of fracture spacing, fracture permeability, fracture porosity, matrix permeability and matrix porosity on the behavior of a typical naturally fractured reservoir were also presented.

  15. THE SURDUC RESERVOIR (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Iulian TEODORESCU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Surduc reservoir was projected to ensure more water when water is scarce and to thus provide especially the city Timisoara, downstream of it with water.The accumulation is placed on the main affluent of the Bega river, Gladna in the upper part of its watercourse.The dam behind which this accumulation was created is of a frontal type made of enrochements with a masque made of armed concrete on the upstream part and protected/sustained by grass on the downstream. The dam is 130m long on its coping and a constructed height of 34 m. It is also endowed with spillway for high water and two bottom outlets formed of two conduits, at the end of which is the microplant. The second part of my paper deals with the hydrometric analysis of the Accumulation Surduc and its impact upon the flow, especially the maximum run-off. This influence is exemplified through the high flood from the 29th of July 1980, the most significant flood recorded in the basin with an apparition probability of 0.002%.

  16. Coated particles for lithium battery cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Pratt, Russell Clayton; Mullin, Scott Allen; Wang, Xiao-Liang

    2017-07-18

    Particles of cathodic materials are coated with polymer to prevent direct contact between the particles and the surrounding electrolyte. The polymers are held in place either by a) growing the polymers from initiators covalently bound to the particle, b) attachment of the already-formed polymers by covalently linking to functional groups attached to the particle, or c) electrostatic interactions resulting from incorporation of cationic or anionic groups in the polymer chain. Carbon or ceramic coatings may first be formed on the surfaces of the particles before the particles are coated with polymer. The polymer coating is both electronically and ionically conductive.

  17. Cathode Readout with Stripped Resistive Drift Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Shafranov, M.D.; Zhil'tsov, V.E.

    1994-01-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with carbon layer of resistivity 0.5, 30 and 70 k Ohm/sq. The gas mixture used was Ar/CH 4 . Both the anode wire and cathode signals were detected in order to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  18. Low noise PWC cathode readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros, E.; Hutchinson, D.; McShurley, D.; Richter, R.; Shapiro, S.

    1980-10-01

    A system has been developed, primarily to detect the induced charge deposited on PWC cathodes, which is versatile, fast and has a good signal to noise ratio for signals of greater than or equal to 10 -14 Coulomb input. The amplifier system, which is completely separated from the detector by 95 Ω coaxial cables, is followed by a new charge integrating, version of the SHAM/BADC system developed at SLAC. This SHAM IV system is CAMAC based, allowing for computer calibration of the entire system from amplifier through ADC

  19. Identification of carbonate reservoirs based on well logging data for boreholes drilled using oil base muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukhalikov, Ya.N; Serebrennikov, V.S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiment on carbonate reservoir identification according to well logging data for boreholes drilled using oil base muds is described. Pulse neutron-neutron logging (PNNL) was widely used at the territory of Pripyat' hole to solve the task. To evaluate volumetric clayiness of carbonate rocks the dependence of gamma-logging, that is data of gamma-logging against clayey rocks built for every hollow, is used. Quantitative estimation of clayiness of dense and clayey carbonate rocks-non-reservoirs is carried out on the basis of the data of neutron-gamma and acoustic logging. Porosity coefficient and lithological characteristic of rocks are also determined according to the data of acoustic and neutron gamma-logging

  20. Evaluation of microbial fuel cell operation using algae as an oxygen supplier: carbon paper cathode vs. carbon brush cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarla, Ramesh; Min, Booki

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) and its cathode performances were compared with use of carbon fiber brush and plain carbon paper cathode electrodes in algae aeration. The MFC having carbon fiber brush cathode exhibited a voltage of 0.21 ± 0.01 V (1,000 Ω) with a cathode potential of around -0.14 ± 0.01 V in algal aeration, whereas MFC with plain carbon paper cathode resulted in a voltage of 0.06 ± 0.005 V with a cathode potential of -0.39 ± 0.01 V. During polarizations, MFC equipped with carbon fiber brush cathode showed a maximum power density of 30 mW/m(2), whereas the MFC equipped with plain carbon paper showed a power density of 4.6 mW/m(2). In algae aeration, the internal resistance with carbon fiber brush cathode was 804 Ω and with plain carbon paper it was 1,210 Ω. The peak currents of MFC operation with carbon fiber brush and plain carbon paper cathodes were -31 mA and -850 µA, respectively.

  1. Hollow plasmonic antennas for broadband SERS spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele C. Messina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical environment of cells is an extremely complex and multifaceted system that includes many types of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and various other components. With the final aim of studying these components in detail, we have developed multiband plasmonic antennas, which are suitable for highly sensitive surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS and are activated by a wide range of excitation wavelengths. The three-dimensional hollow nanoantennas were produced on an optical resist by a secondary electron lithography approach, generated by fast ion-beam milling on the polymer and then covered with silver in order to obtain plasmonic functionalities. The optical properties of these structures have been studied through finite element analysis simulations that demonstrated the presence of broadband absorption and multiband enhancement due to the unusual geometry of the antennas. The enhancement was confirmed by SERS measurements, which showed a large enhancement of the vibrational features both in the case of resonant excitation and out-of-resonance excitation. Such characteristics indicate that these structures are potential candidates for plasmonic enhancers in multifunctional opto-electronic biosensors.

  2. Reluctance Machine for a Hollow Cylinder Flywheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hedlund

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A hollow cylinder flywheel rotor with a novel outer rotor switched reluctance machine (SRM mounted on the interior rim is presented, with measurements, numerical analysis and analytical models. Practical experiences from the construction process are also discussed. The flywheel rotor does not have a shaft and spokes and is predicted to store 181 Wh / kg at ultimate tensile strength (UTS according to simulations. The novel SRM is an axial flux machine, chosen due to its robustness and tolerance for high strain. The computed maximum tip speed of the motor at UTS is 1050 m / s . A small-scale proof-of-concept electric machine prototype has been constructed, and the machine inductance has been estimated from measurements of voltage and current and compared against results from analytical models and finite element analysis (FEA. The prototype measurements were used to simulate operation during maximal speed for a comparison towards other high-speed electric machines, in terms of tip speed and power. The mechanical design of the flywheel was performed with an analytical formulation assuming planar stress in concentric shells of orthotropic (unidirectionally circumferentially wound carbon composites. The analytical approach was verified with 3D FEA in terms of stress and strain.

  3. Tailored Core Shell Cathode Powders for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, Scott [NexTech Materials, Ltd.,Lewis Center, OH (United States)

    2015-03-23

    In this Phase I SBIR project, a “core-shell” composite cathode approach was evaluated for improving SOFC performance and reducing degradation of lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode materials, following previous successful demonstrations of infiltration approaches for achieving the same goals. The intent was to establish core-shell cathode powders that enabled high performance to be obtained with “drop-in” process capability for SOFC manufacturing (i.e., rather than adding an infiltration step to the SOFC manufacturing process). Milling, precipitation and hetero-coagulation methods were evaluated for making core-shell composite cathode powders comprised of coarse LSCF “core” particles and nanoscale “shell” particles of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) or praseodymium strontium manganite (PSM). Precipitation and hetero-coagulation methods were successful for obtaining the targeted core-shell morphology, although perfect coverage of the LSCF core particles by the LSM and PSM particles was not obtained. Electrochemical characterization of core-shell cathode powders and conventional (baseline) cathode powders was performed via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) half-cell measurements and single-cell SOFC testing. Reliable EIS testing methods were established, which enabled comparative area-specific resistance measurements to be obtained. A single-cell SOFC testing approach also was established that enabled cathode resistance to be separated from overall cell resistance, and for cathode degradation to be separated from overall cell degradation. The results of these EIS and SOFC tests conclusively determined that the core-shell cathode powders resulted in significant lowering of performance, compared to the baseline cathodes. Based on the results of this project, it was concluded that the core-shell cathode approach did not warrant further investigation.

  4. Understanding the True Stimulated Reservoir Volume in Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Maaruf

    2017-06-06

    Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically-induced fractures that connect the wellbore to a larger fracture surface area within the reservoir rock volume. Thus, accurate estimation of the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) becomes critical for the reservoir performance simulation and production analysis. Micro-seismic events (MS) have been commonly used as a proxy to map out the SRV geometry, which could be erroneous because not all MS events are related to hydraulic fracture propagation. The case studies discussed here utilized a fully 3-D simulation approach to estimate the SRV. The simulation approach presented in this paper takes into account the real-time changes in the reservoir\\'s geomechanics as a function of fluid pressures. It is consisted of four separate coupled modules: geomechanics, hydrodynamics, a geomechanical joint model for interfacial resolution, and an adaptive re-meshing. Reservoir stress condition, rock mechanical properties, and injected fluid pressure dictate how fracture elements could open or slide. Critical stress intensity factor was used as a fracture criterion governing the generation of new fractures or propagation of existing fractures and their directions. Our simulations were run on a Cray XC-40 HPC system. The studies outcomes proved the approach of using MS data as a proxy for SRV to be significantly flawed. Many of the observed stimulated natural fractures are stress related and very few that are closer to the injection field are connected. The situation is worsened in a highly laminated shale reservoir as the hydraulic fracture propagation is significantly hampered. High contrast in the in-situ stresses related strike-slip developed thereby shortens the extent of SRV. However, far field nature fractures that were not connected to

  5. Emission from ferroelectric cathodes. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampayan, S.E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Holmes, C.L.; Lauer, E.J.; Prosnitz, D.; Trimble, D.O.; Westenskow, G.A.

    1993-05-01

    The authors have recently initiated an investigation of electron emission from ferroelectric cathodes. The experimental apparatus consisted of an electron diode and a 250 kV, 12 ohm, 70 ns pulsed high voltage power source. A planar triode modulator driven by a synthesized waveform generator initiates the polarization inversion and allows inversion pulse tailoring. The pulsed high voltage power source is capable of delivering two high voltage pulses within 50 {mu}s of each other and is capable of operating at a sustained repetition rate of 5 Hz. The initial measurements indicate that emission current densities above the Child-Langmuir Space Charge Limit, J{sub CL}, are possible. They explain this effect to be based on a non-zero initial energy of the emitted electrons. They also determined that this effect is strongly coupled to relative timing between the inversion pulse and application of the main anode-cathode pulse. They also have initiated brightness measurements of the emitted beam and estimate a preliminary lower bound to be on the order of 10{sup 9} A/m{sup 2}-rad{sup 2} for currents close to J{sub CL} and factor of two less at currents over 4J{sub CL}. As in previous measurements at this Laboratory, they performed the measurement using a pepper pot technique. Beamlet profiles are recorded with a fast phosphor and gated cameras. They describe their apparatus and preliminary measurements.

  6. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  7. Fabrication of polypyrrole/vanadium oxide nanotube composite with enhanced electrochemical performance as cathode in rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaowei, E-mail: zhouxiaowei@ynu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Yunnan University, Kunming 650504, Yunnan (China); Chen, Xu; He, Taoling; Bi, Qinsong [Department of Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Yunnan University, Kunming 650504, Yunnan (China); Sun, Li [Department of Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Yunnan University, Kunming 650504, Yunnan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston 77204, TX (United States); Liu, Zhu, E-mail: zhuliu@ynu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Yunnan University, Kunming 650504, Yunnan (China); Yunnan Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano-Materials and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, Yunnan (China)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • VO{sub x}NTs were hydrothermally prepared using C{sub 12}H{sub 27}N as soft template with scalability. • Polypyrrole/VO{sub x}NTs with less C{sub 12}H{sub 27}N template and higher conductivity were obtained. • Polypyrrole/VO{sub x}NTs exhibit better performance as cathode for LIBs compared to VO{sub x}NTs. • Further modification to VO{sub x}NTs with desired electrochemical property can be expected. - Abstract: Vanadium oxide nanotubes (VO{sub x}NTs) with hollow as well as multi-walled features were fabricated under hydrothermal condition by soft-template method. This novel VO{sub x}NTs can be used as cathode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), but displaying low specific capacity and poor cycling performance owing to the residual of a mass of soft-template (C{sub 12}H{sub 27}N) and intrinsic low conductivity of VO{sub x}. Cation exchange technique and oxidative polymerization process of pyrrole monomers were conducted to wipe off partial soft-template without electrochemical activity within VO{sub x}NTs and simultaneously form polypyrrole coating on VO{sub x}NTs, respectively. The resulting polypyrrole/VO{sub x}NTs nanocomposite delivers much improved capacity and cyclic stability. Further optimizations, such as complete elimination of organic template and enhancing the crystallinity, can make this unique nanostructure a promising cathode for LIBs.

  8. Development of cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam Mukhtaruly Turganaly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical characteristics of the cathode material coated with carbon layer has been developed. Various carbon coating methods. There  has been carried out a comparative electrochemical analysis of the coated and uncoated with carbon cathode material. 

  9. The Effect of Substrate Topography on Coating Cathodic Delamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik Weinell, Claus; Sørensen, Per A.; Kiil, Søren

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the effect of steel substrate topography on coating cathodic delamination. The study showed that the surface preparation can be used to control and minimize the rate of cathodic delamination. The coating should have maximum wetting properties so that substrates with high...

  10. Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating at Low Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio

    that these nanoparticulate infiltrates have good oxygen reduction capabilities. The significance of the choice of ionic conducting backbone was also addressed by replacing the CGO with Bi2V0.9Cu0.1O5.35 (BICUVOX). Cathodes with a BICUVOX backbone exhibit performance degradation not observed in LSC infiltrated - CGO cathodes...

  11. Microbial Fuel Cell Performance with a Pressurized Cathode Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) power densities are often constrained by the oxygen reduction reaction rate on the cathode electrode. One important factor for this is the normally low solubility of oxygen in the aqueous cathode solution creating mass transport limitations, which hinder oxygen reduction a...

  12. Impedance Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Søgaard, Martin; Jacobsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    A 1-dimensional impedance model for a solid oxide fuel cell cathode is formulated and applied to a cathode consisting of 50/50 wt% strontium doped lanthanum cobaltite and gadolinia doped ceria. A total of 42 impedance spectra were recorded in the temperature range: 555-852°C and in the oxygen...

  13. Cathodic protection -- Addition of 6 anodes to existing rectifier 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the cathodic protection system additions are installed, connected, and function as required by project criteria. The cathodic protection system is for the tank farms on the Hanford Reservation. The tank farms store radioactive wastes

  14. Plasma-induced field emission study of carbon nanotube cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on the plasma-induced field emission (PFE properties of a large area carbon nanotube (CNT cathode on a 2 MeV linear induction accelerator injector is presented. Experimental results show that the cathode is able to emit intense electron beams. Intense electron beams of 14.9–127.8  A/cm^{2} are obtained from the cathode. The CNT cathode desorbs gases from the CNTs during the PFE process. The fast cathode plasma expansion affects the diode perveance. The amount of outgassing is estimated to be 0.06–0.49  Pa·L, and the ratio of outgassing and electron are roughly calculated to be within the range of 170–350 atoms per electron. The effect of the outgassing is analyzed, and the outgassing mass spectrum of the CNT cathode has been studied during the PFE. There is a significant desorption of CO_{2}, N_{2}(CO, and H_{2} gases, which plays an important role during the PFE process. All the experiments demonstrate that the outgassing plays an important role in the formation of the cathode plasma. Moreover, the characteristic turn-on time of the CNT cathode was measured to be 39 ns.

  15. Cathodic disbonding of organic coatings on submerged steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Ole oeystein

    1998-12-31

    In offshore oil production, submerged steel structures are commonly protected by an organic coating in combination with cathodic protection. The main advantage is that the coating decreases the current demand for cathodic protection. But the coating degrades with time. This thesis studies one of the most important mechanisms for coating degradation in seawater, cathodic disbonding. Seven commercial coatings and two model coatings with various pigmentations have been studied. Parameter studies, microscopy and studies of free films were used in the mechanism investigations. Exposure to simulated North Sea conditions was used in the performance studies. The effect of aluminium and glass barrier pigments on cathodic disbonding was investigated. The mechanism for the effect of the aluminium pigments on cathodic disbonding was also investigated. The transport of charge and oxygen to the steel/coating interface during cathodic disbonding was studied for two epoxy coatings. Cathodic disbonding, blistering and current demand for cathodic protection was measured for nine commercial coatings for submerged steel structures, using the ASTM-G8 standard test and a long term test under simulated North Sea conditions. The relevance of the ASTM-G8 test as a prequalification test was evaluated. 171 refs., 40 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Impressed current cathodic protection of deep water structures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkatesan, R.

    Of all the various anti-corrosion systems usEd. by offshore structures and ship-building industry to reduce the ravages of sea-water corrosion, cathodic protection is one of the most important. Impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP...

  17. Dynamic Aspects of Solid Solution Cathodes for Electrochemical Power Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlung, Sven; West, Keld; Jacobsen, Torben

    1979-01-01

    Battery systems based on alkali metal anodes and solid solution cathodes,i.e., cathodes based on the insertion of the alkali cation in a "host lattice,"show considerable promise for high energy density storage batteries. Thispaper discusses the interaction between battery requirements...

  18. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  19. Petroleum reservoir data for testing simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, J.M.; Harrison, W.

    1980-09-01

    This report consists of reservoir pressure and production data for 25 petroleum reservoirs. Included are 5 data sets for single-phase (liquid) reservoirs, 1 data set for a single-phase (liquid) reservoir with pressure maintenance, 13 data sets for two-phase (liquid/gas) reservoirs and 6 for two-phase reservoirs with pressure maintenance. Also given are ancillary data for each reservoir that could be of value in the development and validation of simulation models. A bibliography is included that lists the publications from which the data were obtained.

  20. Hollow proppants and a process for their manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.H.; Cutler, R.A.

    1985-10-15

    Hollow, fine-grained ceramic proppants are less expensive and improve fracture control when compared to conventional proppants (dense alumina, mullite, bauxite, zirconia, etc.). Hollow proppants of the present invention have been fabricated by spray drying, followed by sintering in order to obtain a dense case and a hollow core. These proppants generally have high sphericity and roundness (Krumbein sphericity and roundness greater than 0.8), have diameters on average between 2,250 and 125 [mu]m, depending on proppant size required, and have strength equal to or greater than that of sand. The hollow core, the size of which can be controlled, permits better fracture control in hydraulic fracturing treatments since the proppant can be transported in lower viscosity fluids. Hollow proppants produced at the same cost/weight as conventional proppants also provide for lower costs, since less weight is required to fill the same volume. The fine-grained (preferably less than 5 [mu]m in diameter) ceramic case provides the strength necessary to withstand closure stresses and prevent crushing. 6 figs.

  1. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FORGING PROCESS FOR PRODUCING HOLLOW BALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Winiarski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hollow balls are used in the production of various machines and devices. The technology for producing hollow balls by metal forming technologies poses numerous difficulties connected with the forming of a hollow billet. The billet, which is usually in a form of a rod, is a subject to such processes as forging, helical rolling or cross-wedge rolling. The paper discusses a new method and conditions for producing a hollow ball. It was assumed that the ball would be produced in two forging operations: an initial forging operation and finishing forging operation. The presented results are based on the FEM numerical analysis conducted using DEFORM-3D. It was assumed that the billet material was made of AISI 304 stainless steel used to produce balls for ball valves. Both the shape progression during the forging process and variations in the forming force were analyzed. Based on the conducted analyses, it can be claimed that hollow balls can be produced using the proposed forging method.

  2. New doped tungsten cathodes. Applications to power grid tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachard, J. de; Cadoret, K; Martinez, L.; Veillet, D.; Millot, F.

    2001-01-01

    Thermionic emission behavior of tungsten/tungsten carbide modified with rare earth (La, Ce, Y) oxides is examined on account of suitability to deliver important current densities in a thermo-emissive set up and for long lifetime. Work functions of potential cathodes have been determined from Richardson plots for La 2 O 3 doped tungsten and for tungsten covered with variable compositions rare earth tungstates. The role of platinum layers covering the cathode was also examined. Given all cathodes containing mainly lanthanum oxides were good emitters, emphasis was put on service lifetime. Comparisons of lifetime in tungsten doped with rare earth oxides and with rare earth tungstates show that microstructure of the operating cathodes may play the major role in the research of very long lifetime cathodes. Based on these results, tests still running show lifetime compatible with power grid tubes applications. (author)

  3. High Performance Infiltrated Backbones for Cathode-Supported SOFC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    The concept of using highly ionic conducting backbones with subsequent infiltration of electronically conducting particles has widely been used to develop alternative anode-supported SOFC's. In this work, the idea was to develop infiltrated backbones as an alternative design based on cathode......-supported SOFC. The cathodes are obtained by infiltrating LSM into a sintered either thick (300 μm) yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) backbone or a thin YSZ backbone (10-15 μm) integrated onto a thick (300 μm) porous strontium substituted lanthanum manganite (LSM) and YSZ composite. Fabrication challenges...... printed symmetrical cells. Samples with LSM/YSZ composite and YSZ backbones made with graphite+PMMA as pore formers exhibited comparable Rp values to the screen printed LSM/YSZ cathode. This route was chosen as the best to fabricate the cathode supported cells. SEM micrograph of a cathode supported cell...

  4. A hybrid waveguide cell for the dielectric properties of reservoir rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siggins, A F; Gunning, J; Josh, M

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid waveguide cell is described for broad-band measurements of the dielectric properties of hydrocarbon reservoir rocks. The cell is designed to operate in the radio frequency range of 1 MHz to 1 GHz. The waveguide consists of 50 Ω coaxial lines feeding into a central cylindrical section which contains the sample under test. The central portion of the waveguide acts as a circular waveguide and can accept solid core plugs of 38 mm diameter and lengths from 2 to 150 mm. The central section can also be used as a conventional coaxial waveguide when a central electrode with spring-loaded end collets is installed. In the latter mode the test samples are required to be in the form of hollow cylinders. An additional feature of the cell is that the central section is designed to telescope over a limited range of 1–2 mm with the application of an axial load. Effective pressures up to 35 MPa can be applied to the sample under the condition of uniaxial strain. The theoretical basis of the hybrid waveguide cell is discussed together with calibration results. Two reservoir rocks, a Donnybrook sandstone and a kaolin rich clay, are then tested in the cell, both as hollow cylinders in coaxial mode and in the form of solid core plugs. The complex dielectric properties of the two materials over the bandwidth of 1 MHz to 1 GHz are compared with the results of the two testing methods

  5. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Glegola, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The added value of gravity data for reservoir monitoring and characterization is analyzed within closed-loop reservoir management concept. Synthetic 2D and 3D numerical experiments are performed where var...

  6. Hollow Polylactide Microcapsules with Controlled Morphology and Thermal and Mechanical Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawalha, H.I.M.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hollow polylactide microcapsules were prepared by multistage premix membrane emulsification of polylactide/dichloromethane/oil solutions in water (nonsolvent). The effects of the different oils on the morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties of the hollow microcapsules were investigated. All

  7. Governing networks in the hollow state: contracting out, process management or a combination of the two?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The hollow state is characterised by governing through networks. In this article, we explore the nature of the hollow state and trace and illustrate three basic uncertainties in the decision making process which create complexity: knowledge uncertainty,

  8. Air humidity and water pressure effects on the performance of air-cathode microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2014-02-01

    To better understand how air cathode performance is affected by air humidification, microbial fuel cells were operated under different humidity conditions or water pressure conditions. Maximum power density decreased from 1130 ± 30 mW m-2 with dry air to 980 ± 80 mW m -2 with water-saturated air. When the cathode was exposed to higher water pressures by placing the cathode in a horizontal position, with the cathode oriented so it was on the reactor bottom, power was reduced for both with dry (1030 ± 130 mW m-2) and water-saturated (390 ± 190 mW m-2) air. Decreased performance was partly due to water flooding of the catalyst, which would hinder oxygen diffusion to the catalyst. However, drying used cathodes did not improve performance in electrochemical tests. Soaking the cathode in a weak acid solution, but not deionized water, mostly restored performance (960 ± 60 mW m-2), suggesting that there was salt precipitation in the cathode that was enhanced by higher relative humidity or water pressure. These results showed that cathode performance could be adversely affected by both flooding and the subsequent salt precipitation, and therefore control of air humidity and water pressure may need to be considered for long-term MFC operation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hollow silicon microneedle array based trans-epidermal antiemetic patch for efficient management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbikar, Bhushan N.; Kumar S., Harish; Kr., Sindhu; Srivastava, Rohit

    2015-12-01

    Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) is a serious health concern in the treatment of cancer patients. Conventional routes for administering anti-emetics (i.e. oral and parenteral) have several drawbacks such as painful injections, poor patient compliance, dependence on skilled personnel, non-affordability to majority of population (parenteral), lack of programmability and suboptimal bioavailability (oral). Hence, we have developed a trans-epidermal antiemetic drug delivery patch using out-of-plane hollow silicon microneedle array. Microneedles are pointed micron-scale structures that pierce the epidermal layer of skin to reach dermal blood vessels and can directly release the drug in their vicinity. They are painless by virtue of avoiding significant contact with dermal sensory nerve endings. This alternate approach gives same pharmacodynamic effects as par- enteral route at a sparse drug-dose requirement, hence negligible side-effects and improved patient compliance. Microneedle design attributes were derived by systematic study of human skin anatomy, natural micron-size structures like wasp-sting and cactus-spine and multi-physics simulations. We used deep reactive ion etching with Bosch process and optimized recipe of gases to fabricate high-aspect-ratio hollow silicon microneedle array. Finally, microneedle array and polydimethylsiloxane drug reservoir were assembled to make finished anti-emetic patch. We assessed microneedles mechanical stability, physico-chemical properties and performed in-vitro, ex- vivo and in-vivo studies. These studies established functional efficacy of the device in trans-epidermal delivery of anti-emetics, its programmability, ease of use and biosafety. Thus, out-of-plane hollow silicon microneedle array trans-epidermal antiemetic patch is a promising strategy for painless and effective management of CINV at low cost in mainstream healthcare.

  10. Carbonized eggshell membrane as a natural polysulfide reservoir for highly reversible Li-S batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sheng-Heng; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-03-05

    Carbonized sucrose-coated eggshell membranes (CSEMs) consisting of natural micropores function well as a polysulfide reservoir in Li/dissolved polysulfide cells. The bottom CSEM current collector encapsulates the active material, while the upper CSEM inhibitor intercepts the migrating polysulfides. This design with CSEM allows the dissolved polysulfides to be localized and the electrochemical reactions within the cathode region to be stabilized, resulting in high discharge capacity, long-term cycle stability, and high sulfur loading. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Precisely controlled resorcinol-formaldehyde resin coating for fabricating core-shell, hollow, and yolk-shell carbon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Shengjie; Zang, Jun; Xu, Chaofa; Zheng, Ming-Sen; Dong, Quan-Feng; Sun, Daohua; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2013-07-01

    This work provides a facile one-step sol-gel route to synthesize high-quality resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin coated nanocomposites that can be further used to fabricate desired carbon nanostructures. Colloidal particles with different morphologies and sizes can be coated with high-quality RF resin shells by the proposed cationic surfactant assisted RF resin coating strategy. The as-synthesized RF resin coated nanocomposites are ideal candidates for selective synthesis of core-shell, hollow, and yolk-shell carbon nanostructures. Based on the carboxylic functional RF resin coating, graphitic carbon nanostructures can also be synthesized by employing the graphitization catalyst. The as-synthesized carbon nanostructures show the advantageous performances in several applications. Hollow carbon spheres are potential electrode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries. Hollow graphitic spheres are promising catalyst supports for oxygen reduction reaction. And yolk-shell structured Au@HCS nanoreactors with ultrathin shells exhibit high catalytic activity and recyclability in confined catalysis.This work provides a facile one-step sol-gel route to synthesize high-quality resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin coated nanocomposites that can be further used to fabricate desired carbon nanostructures. Colloidal particles with different morphologies and sizes can be coated with high-quality RF resin shells by the proposed cationic surfactant assisted RF resin coating strategy. The as-synthesized RF resin coated nanocomposites are ideal candidates for selective synthesis of core-shell, hollow, and yolk-shell carbon nanostructures. Based on the carboxylic functional RF resin coating, graphitic carbon nanostructures can also be synthesized by employing the graphitization catalyst. The as-synthesized carbon nanostructures show the advantageous performances in several applications. Hollow carbon spheres are potential electrode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries. Hollow graphitic

  12. Hollow volcanic tumulus caves of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii County, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Halliday

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to lava tube caves with commonly noted features, sizable subcrustal spaces of several types exist on the floor of Kilauea Caldera. Most of these are formed by drainage of partially stabilized volcanic structures enlarged or formed by injection of very fluid lava beneath a plastic crust. Most conspicuous are hollow tumuli, possibly first described by Walker in 1991. Walker mapped and described the outer chamber of Tumulus E-I Cave. Further exploration has revealed that it has a hyperthermic inner room beneath an adjoining tumulus with no connection evident on the surface. Two lengthy, sinuous hollow tumuli also are present in this part of the caldera. These findings support Walkers conclusions that hollow tumuli provide valuable insights into tumulus-forming mechanisms, and provide information about the processes of emplacement of pahoehoe sheet flows.

  13. Sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedle array by microinjection moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, K. L.; Xu, Yan; Kang, Chunlei; Liu, H.; Tam, K. F.; Ko, S. M.; Kwan, F. Y.; Lee, Thomas M. H.

    2012-01-01

    A method of producing sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedle arrays using microinjection moulding is presented in this paper. Unlike traditional approaches, three mould inserts were used to create the sharp tips of the microneedles. Mould inserts with low surface roughness were fabricated using a picosecond laser machine. Sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedles 500 µm in height were fabricated using a microinjection moulding machine developed by the authors’ group. In addition, the strength of the microneedle was studied by simulation and penetration experiments. Results show that the microneedles can penetrate into skin, delivering liquid successfully without any breakage or severe deformation. Techniques presented in this paper can be used to fabricate sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedle arrays massively with low cost.

  14. Sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedle array by microinjection moulding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, K L; Xu, Yan; Kang, Chunlei; Liu, H; Tam, K F; Ko, S M; Kwan, F Y; Lee, Thomas M H

    2012-01-01

    A method of producing sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedle arrays using microinjection moulding is presented in this paper. Unlike traditional approaches, three mould inserts were used to create the sharp tips of the microneedles. Mould inserts with low surface roughness were fabricated using a picosecond laser machine. Sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedles 500 µm in height were fabricated using a microinjection moulding machine developed by the authors’ group. In addition, the strength of the microneedle was studied by simulation and penetration experiments. Results show that the microneedles can penetrate into skin, delivering liquid successfully without any breakage or severe deformation. Techniques presented in this paper can be used to fabricate sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedle arrays massively with low cost. (paper)

  15. Magnetized jet creation using a hollow ring of laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingchao; Liang, Edison; Han, Lily; Gao, Lan; Ji, Hantao; Li, Chi Kiang; Petrasso, Richard; Froula, Dustin; Follett, Russ; Tzeferacos, Petros; Lamb, Don

    2016-10-01

    We report results of magnetized jet creation experiment using the Omega laser. Using 20 Omega beams to irradiate a flat plastic target in a hollow ring pattern, we demonstrated that the on-axis electron and ion density, temperature and velocity are higher than when all beams are focused onto a single spot. The jet created by the hollow ring laser is also more collimated. Proton radiography was used to probe the magnetic field in the jet. Proton images show ordered quasi-linear filaments whose divergence decreases with increasing ring radius. Proton density contrasts are consistent with filamentary field bundles with peak values in the tens of Teslas. These results demonstrate that magnetized jets created by a hollow ring of laser beams can become a versatile new platform for laboratory astrophysics.

  16. Hollow-core fibers for high power pulse delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Jakobsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    picosecond pulses. A novel fiber with 7 tubes and a core of 30 mu m was fabricated and it is here described and characterized, showing remarkable low loss, low bend loss, and good mode quality. Its optical properties are compared to both a 10 mu m and a 18 mu m core diameter photonic band gap hollow......We investigate hollow-core fibers for fiber delivery of high power ultrashort laser pulses. We use numerical techniques to design an anti-resonant hollow-core fiber having one layer of non-touching tubes to determine which structures offer the best optical properties for the delivery of high power......-core fiber. The three fibers are characterized experimentally for the delivery of 22 picosecond pulses at 1032nm. We demonstrate flexible, diffraction limited beam delivery with output average powers in excess of 70W. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  17. Magnetic domains and surface effects in hollow maghemite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabot, Andreu; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Puntes, Victor; Balcells, Lluis; Iglesias, Oscar; Labarta, Amilcar

    2008-09-30

    In the present work, we investigate the magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic and non-interacting maghemite hollow nanoparticles obtained by the Kirkendall effect. From the experimental characterization of their magnetic behavior, we find that polycrystalline hollow maghemite nanoparticles exhibit low blocked-to-superparamagnetic transition temperatures, small magnetic moments, significant coercivities and irreversibility fields, and no magnetic saturation on external magnetic fields up to 5 T. These results are interpreted in terms of the microstructural parameters characterizing the maghemite shells by means of atomistic Monte Carlo simulations of an individual spherical shell. The model comprises strongly interacting crystallographic domains arranged in a spherical shell with random orientations and anisotropy axis. The Monte Carlo simulation allows discernment between the influence of the polycrystalline structure and its hollow geometry, while revealing the magnetic domain arranggement in the different temperataure regimes.

  18. Fabrication of Polyacrylonitrile Hollow Fiber Membranes from Ionic Liquid Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2015-10-08

    The interest in green processes and products has increased to reduce the negative impact of many industrial processes to the environment. Solvents, which play a crucial role in the fabrication of membranes, need to be replaced by sustainable and less toxic solvent alternatives for commonly used polymers. The purpose of this study is the fabrication of greener hollow fiber membranes based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN), substituting dimethylformamide (DMF) by less toxic mixtures of ionic liquids (IL) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). A thermodynamic analysis was conducted, estimating the Gibbs free energy of mixing to find the most convenient solution compositions. Hollow fiber membranes were manufactured and optimized. As a result, a uniform pattern and high porosity were observed in the inner surface of the membranes prepared from the ionic liquid solutions. The membranes were coated with a polyamide layer by interfacial polymerization the hollow fiber membranes were applied in forward osmosis experiments by using sucrose solutions as draw solution.

  19. Enhancement of acoustical performance of hollow tube sound absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putra, Azma; Khair, Fazlin Abd; Nor, Mohd Jailani Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents acoustical performance of hollow structures utilizing the recycled lollipop sticks as acoustic absorbers. The hollow cross section of the structures is arranged facing the sound incidence. The effects of different length of the sticks and air gap on the acoustical performance are studied. The absorption coefficient was measured using impedance tube method. Here it is found that improvement on the sound absorption performance is achieved by introducing natural kapok fiber inserted into the void between the hollow structures. Results reveal that by inserting the kapok fibers, both the absorption bandwidth and the absorption coefficient increase. For test sample backed by a rigid surface, best performance of sound absorption is obtained for fibers inserted at the front and back sides of the absorber. And for the case of test sample with air gap, this is achieved for fibers introduced only at the back side of the absorber.

  20. Method and apparatus for producing small hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T greater than or equal to 600 0 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10 3 μm) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants

  1. Pulsar average waveforms and hollow cone beam models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of pulsar average waveforms at radio frequencies from 40 MHz to 15 GHz is presented. The analysis is based on the hypothesis that the observer sees one cut of a hollow-cone beam pattern and that stationary properties of the emission vary over the cone. The distributions of apparent cone widths for different observed forms of the average pulse profiles (single, double/unresolved, double/resolved, triple and multiple) are in modest agreement with a model of a circular hollow-cone beam with random observer-spin axis orientation, a random cone axis-spin axis alignment, and a small range of physical hollow-cone parameters for all objects.

  2. Glove Type of Wearable Tactile Sensor Produced by Artificial Hollow Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Y.; Shikida, M.; Ogura, D.; Sato, K.

    2007-01-01

    We previously proposed an artificial hollow fiber, as a new MEMS material, for thedevelopment of a fabric tactile sensor. The artificial hollow fiber is fabricated by uniformly laminatingmetal and insulation layers onto the surface of an elastic hollow fiber. The fabric tactile sensor is madeby weaving the modified hollow fibers into a cloth. The sensor can detect the contact force bymeasuring changes in capacitance at the points where the warp and weft fibers intersect, and can detect2D cont...

  3. Nanosensors as Reservoir Engineering Tools to Map Insitu Temperature Distributions in Geothermal Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan Ames

    2011-06-15

    The feasibility of using nanosensors to measure temperature distribution and predict thermal breakthrough in geothermal reservoirs is addressed in this report. Four candidate sensors were identified: melting tin-bismuth alloy nanoparticles, silica nanoparticles with covalently-attached dye, hollow silica nanoparticles with encapsulated dye and impermeable melting shells, and dye-polymer composite time-temperature indicators. Four main challenges associated with the successful implementation of temperature nanosensors were identified: nanoparticle mobility in porous and fractured media, the collection and detection of nanoparticles at the production well, engineering temperature sensing mechanisms that are both detectable and irreversible, and inferring the spatial geolocation of temperature measurements in order to map temperature distribution. Initial experiments were carried out to investigate each of these challenges. It was demonstrated in a slim-tube injection experiment that it is possible to transport silica nanoparticles over large distances through porous media. The feasibility of magnetic collection of nanoparticles from produced fluid was evaluated experimentally, and it was estimated that 3% of the injected nanoparticles were recovered in a prototype magnetic collection device. An analysis technique was tailored to nanosensors with a dye-release mechanism to estimate temperature measurement geolocation by analyzing the return curve of the released dye. This technique was used in a hypothetical example problem, and good estimates of geolocation were achieved. Tin-bismuth alloy nanoparticles were synthesized using a sonochemical method, and a bench heating experiment was performed using these nanoparticles. Particle growth due to melting was observed, indicating that tin-bismuth nanoparticles have potential as temperature nanosensors

  4. Cationic fluorinated polymer binders for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Fluorinated quaternary ammonium-containing polymers were used as catalyst binders in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes. The performance of the cathodes was examined and compared to NAFION ® and other sulfonated aromatic cathode catalyst binders using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), impedance spectroscopy, and performance tests in single chamber air-cathode MFCs. The cathodes with quaternary ammonium functionalized fluorinated poly(arylene ether) (Q-FPAE) binders showed similar current density and charge transfer resistance (R ct) to cathodes with NAFION ® binders. Cathodes containing either of these fluorinated binders exhibited better electrochemical responses than cathodes with sulfonated or quaternary ammonium-functionalized RADEL ® poly(sulfone) (S-Radel or Q-Radel) binders. After 19 cycles (19 d), the power densities of all the MFCs declined compared to the initial cycles due to biofouling at the cathode. MFC cathodes with fluorinated polymer binders (1445 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-H; 1397 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-Cl; 1277 mW m -2, NAFION ®; and 1256 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) had better performance than those with non-fluorinated polymer binders (880 mW m -2, S-Radel; 670 mW m -2, Q-Radel). There was a 15% increase in the power density using the Q-FPAE binder with a 40% higher ion exchange capacity (Q-FPAE-1.4-H compared to Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) after 19 cycles of operation, but there was no effect on the power production due to counter ions in the binder (Cl -vs. HCO 3 -). The highest-performance cathodes (NAFION ® and Q-FPAE binders) had the lowest charge transfer resistances (R ct) in fresh and in fouled cathodes despite the presence of thick biofilms on the surface of the electrodes. These results show that fluorinated binders may decrease the penetration of the biofilm and associated biopolymers into the cathode structure, which helps to combat MFC performance loss over time. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Reservoir-induced seismicity at Castanhao reservoir, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, B.; do Nascimento, A.; Ferreira, J.; Bezerra, F.

    2012-04-01

    Our case study - the Castanhão reservoir - is located in NE Brazil on crystalline rock at the Borborema Province. The Borborema Province is a major Proterozoic-Archean terrain formed as a consequence of convergence and collision of the São Luis-West Africa craton and the São Francisco-Congo-Kasai cratons. This reservoir is a 60 m high earth-filled dam, which can store up to 4.5 billion m3 of water. The construction begun in 1990 and finished in October 2003.The first identified reservoir-induced events occurred in 2003, when the water level was still low. The water reached the spillway for the first time in January 2004 and, after that, an increase in seismicity occured. The present study shows the results of a campaign done in the period from November 19th, 2009 to December 31th, 2010 at the Castanhão reservoir. We deployed six three-component digital seismographic station network around one of the areas of the reservoir. We analyzed a total of 77 events which were recorded in at least four stations. To determine hypocenters and time origin, we used HYPO71 program (Lee & Lahr, 1975) assuming a half-space model with following parameters: VP= 5.95 km/s and VP/VS=1.73. We also performed a relocation of these events using HYPODD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000) programme. The input data used we used were catalogue data, with all absolute times. The results from the spatio-temporal suggest that different clusters at different areas and depths are triggered at different times due to a mixture of: i - pore pressure increase due to diffusion and ii - increase of pore pressure due to the reservoir load.

  6. Cathodic Cage Plasma Nitriding: An Innovative Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. M. de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical samples of AISI 1020, AISI 316, and AISI 420 steels, with different heights, were simultaneously treated by a new technique of ionic nitriding, entitled cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN, in order to evaluate the efficiency of this technique to produce nitrided layers with better properties compared with those obtained using conventional ionic nitriding technique. This method is able to eliminate the edge effect in the samples, promoting a better uniformity of temperature, and consequently, a smaller variation of the thickness/height relation can be obtained. The compound layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and microhardness test profile. The results were compared with the properties of samples obtained with the conventional nitriding, for the three steel types. It was verified that samples treated by CCPN process presented, at the same temperature, a better uniformity in the thickness and absence of the edge effect.

  7. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkind, A.J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve-type silver-zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO/sub 2/ - and several nickel electrodes for nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities detected by XPS and SAM. After the first discharge AgNiO/sub 2/ can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic-bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)/sub 2/ largely eliminate this

  8. Laser photo-cathode RF-gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, Masakazu

    2006-01-01

    High quality beam generation project based on High-Tech Research Center Project, which has been approved by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 1999, has been conducted by advanced research institute for science and engineering, Waseda University. In the project, laser photo-cathode RF-gun has been selected for the high quality electron beam source. RF cavities with low dark current, which were made by diamond turning technique have been successfully manufactured. The low emittance electron beam was realized by choosing the modified laser injection technique. The obtained normalized emittance was about 3 mm mrad at 100 pC of electron charge. The soft X-ray beam generation with the energy of 370 eV, which is in the energy region of so-called 'water window', by inverse Compton scattering has been performed by the collision between IR laser and the low emittance electron beams. (author)

  9. Ion cumulation by conical cathode electrolysis.

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2002-01-01

    Results of solid-state sodium stearate electrolysis with conical and cylindrical cathodes is presented here. Both electric measurement and conical samples destruction can be explained if a stress developing inside the conical sample is much bigger than in the cylindrical case and there is its unlimited amplification along cone slopes. OTHER KEYWORDS: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ...

  10. Olivine-type cathodes. Achievements and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Atsuo; Hosoya, Mamoru; Chung, Sai-Cheong; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Hinokuma, Koichiro; Liu, Kuang-Yu; Nishi, Yoshio

    The recent progress at Sony in the design of practical olivine-type cathodes is reviewed briefly. First principle calculations revealed LiFePO 4 is a semiconductor with ca. 0.3 eV band gap and LiMnPO 4 is an insulator with ca. 2 eV band gap, which seems the major intrinsic obstacle to a smooth redox reaction at 4 V in the Mn-rich phase. Attention is also focused on the lattice frustration induced by the strong electron (Mn 3+: 3d 4-e gσ ∗)-lattice interaction (Jahn-Teller effect) in the charged state of Li(Mn yFe 1- y)PO 4 (0≤ y≤1). Dense nanocomposite formation with disordered conductive carbon as well as the choice of the appropriate synthetic precursors is highlighted as important engineering aspects, followed by some specific issues concerning tolerance to unusual conditions.

  11. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkind, A. J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W. A.

    1984-04-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve type silver zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO2 and several nickel electrodes for nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities. After the first discharge AgNiO2 can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)2 largely eliminate this.

  12. The Riddle of the Apparently Hollow Himalaya -RE-SONANCE--IJa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It was as if the Himalayas were hollow inside. Explanation of the Hollowness. Pratt and Airy emphasised that the suggested hollowness of the. Himalaya was only notional Both envisioned that the mountainous segments of the earth's outer layers are regions of relatively lower densities. Pratt suggested that the outer part of.

  13. Using cathode spacers to minimize reactor size in air cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Qiao

    2012-04-01

    Scaling up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) will require more compact reactor designs. Spacers can be used to minimize the reactor size without adversely affecting performance. A single 1.5mm expanded plastic spacer (S1.5) produced a maximum power density (973±26mWm -2) that was similar to that of an MFC with the cathode exposed directly to air (no spacer). However, a very thin spacer (1.3mm) reduced power by 33%. Completely covering the air cathode with a solid plate did not eliminate power generation, indicating oxygen leakage into the reactor. The S1.5 spacer slightly increased columbic efficiencies (from 20% to 24%) as a result of reduced oxygen transfer into the system. Based on operating conditions (1000ς, CE=20%), it was estimated that 0.9Lh -1 of air would be needed for 1m 2 of cathode area suggesting active air flow may be needed for larger scale MFCs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Synchrotron X-Ray Studies of Model SOFC Cathodes, Part I: Thin Film Cathodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee-Chul; Ingram, Brian; Ilavsky, Jan; Lee, Shiwoo; Fuoss, Paul; You, Hoydoo

    2017-11-15

    We present synchrotron x-ray investigations of thin film La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) model cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells, grown on electrolyte substrates by pulse laser deposition, in situ during half-cell operations. We observed dynamic segregations of cations, such as Sr and Co, on the surfaces of the film cathodes. The effects of temperature, applied potentials, and capping layers on the segregations were investigated using a surfacesensitive technique of total external reflection x-ray fluorescence. We also studied patterned thin film LSCF cathodes using high-resolution micro-beam diffraction measurements. We find chemical expansion decreases for narrow stripes. This suggests the expansion is dominated by the bulk pathway reactions. The chemical expansion vs. the distance from the electrode contact was measured at three temperatures and an oxygen vacancy activation energy was estimated to be ~1.4 eV.

  15. A method for manufacturing a hollow mems structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing an at least partly hollow MEMS structure. In a first step one or more through-going openings is/are provided in core material. The one or more through-going openings is/are then covered by an etch-stop layer. After this step, a bottom...... further comprises the step of creating bottom and top conductors in the respective bottom and top layers. Finally, excess core material is removed in order to create the at least partly hollow MEMS structure which may include a MEMS inductor....

  16. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Silver Doped Hollow Carbon Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Fu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Silver doped PAN-based hollow carbon nanofibers were prepared combining co-electrospinning with in situ reduction technique subsequently heat treatment to improve the electrochemical performances of carbon based supercapacitor electrodes. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performances of the resulted nanofiber were studied. The results show that the silver nanoparticles can be doped on the surface of hollow carbon nanofibers and the addition of silver favors the improvement of the electrochemical performances, exhibiting the enhanced reversibility of electrode reaction and the capacitance and the reduced charge transfer impedance.

  17. Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity of AZO Hollow Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIA Yong-hui

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to prepare highly efficient and environmentally friendly photocatalysts, polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers coated with Al-doped ZnO precursor (AZO were prepared via electrospinning and hydrothermal synthesis. Furthermore, AZO hollow nanofibers were successfully fabricated after calcination at high temperature. The morphology, structure and properties of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, thermogravimetric analyzer and UV spectrophotometer. The results show that AZO hollow nanofibers have good photocatalytic degradation of dye.

  18. Soliton formation in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    The formation of solitons upon compression of linearly chirped pulses in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers is investigated numerically. The dependence of soliton duration on the chirp and power of the input pulse and on the dispersion slope of the fiber is investigated, and the validity...... of an approximate scaling relation is tested. It is concluded that compression of input pulses of several ps duration and sub-MW peak power can lead to a formation of solitons with ∼100 fs duration and multi-megawatt peak powers. The dispersion slope of realistic hollow-core fibers appears to be the main obstacle...... for forming still shorter solitons...

  19. Pulsar average wave forms and hollow-cone beam models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    Pulsar wave forms have been analyzed from observations conducted over a wide radio-frequency range to assess the wave-form morphologies and to measure wave-form widths. The results of the analysis compare favorably with the predictions of a model with a hollow-cone beam of fixed dimensions and with random orientation of both the observer and the cone axis with respect to the pulsar spin axis. A class of three-component wave forms is included in the model by adding a central pencil beam to the hollow-cone hypothesis. The consequences of a number of discrepancies between observations and quantitative predictions of the model are discussed.

  20. Nonequilibrium hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction with in situ derivatization for the measurement of triclosan in aqueous samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ru-Song; Yuan, Jin-Peng; Li, Hai-Fang; Wang, Xu; Jiang, Ting; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2007-04-01

    Hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME), a relatively new sample preparation technique, has attracted much interest in the field of environmental analysis. In the current study, a novel method based on hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction with in situ derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the measurement of triclosan in aqueous samples is described. Hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction conditions such as the type of extraction solvent, the stirring rate, the volume of derivatizing reagent, and the extraction time were investigated. When the conditions had been optimized, the linear range was found to be 0.05-100 microg l(-1) for triclosan, and the limit of detection to be 0.02 microg l(-1). Tap water and surface water samples collected from our laboratory and Wohushan reservoir, respectively, were successfully analyzed using the proposed method. The recoveries from the spiked water samples were 83.6 and 114.1%, respectively; and the relative standard deviation (RSD) at the 1.0 microg l(-1) level was 6.9%.

  1. A Comparative Study of Hollow Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles and Hollow Gold Nanospheres on Degradability and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liangran; Panderi, Irene; Yan, Daisy D.; Szulak, Kevin; Li, Yajuan; Chen, Yi-Tzai; Ma, Hang; Niesen, Daniel B.; Seeram, Navindra; Ahmed, Aftab; Yan, Bingfang; Pantazatos, Dionysios; Lu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Gold and copper nanoparticles have been widely investigated for photothermal therapy of cancer. However, degradability and toxicity of these nanoparticles remain concerns. Here, we compare hollow CuS nanoparticles (HCuSNPs) with hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS) in similar particle sizes and morphology following intravenous administration to mice. The injected pegylated HCuSNPs (PEG-HCuSNPs) are eliminated through both hepatobiliary (67 percentage of injected dose, %ID) and renal (23 %ID) excretion within one month post injection. By contrast, 3.98 %ID of Au is excreted from liver and kidney within one month after i.v. injection of pegylated HAuNS (PEG-HAuNS). Comparatively, PEG-HAuNS are almost non-metabolizable, while PEG-HCuSNPs are considered biodegradable nanoparticles. PEG-HCuSNPs do not show significant toxicity by histological or blood chemistry analysis. Principal component analysis and 2-D peak distribution plots of data from matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF IMS) of liver tissues demonstrated a reversible change in the proteomic profile in mice receiving PEG-HCuSNPs. This is attributed to slow dissociation of Cu ion from CuS nanoparticles along with effective Cu elimination for maintaining homeostasis. Nonetheless, an irreversible change in the proteomic profile is observed in the liver from mice receiving PEG-HAuNS by analysis of MALDI-TOF IMS data, probably due to the non-metabolizability of Au. This finding correlates with the elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase at 3 months after PEG-HAuNS injection, indicating potential long-term toxicity. The comparative results between the two types of nanoparticles will advance the development of HCuSNPs as a new class of biodegradable inorganic nanomaterials for photothermal therapy. PMID:24053214

  2. Self-organization in cathode boundary layer discharges in xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Nobuhiko; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2006-01-01

    Self-organization of direct current xenon microdischarges in cathode boundary layer configuration has been studied for pressures in the range 30-140 Torr and for currents in the range 50 μA-1 mA. Side-on and end-on observations of the discharge have provided information on the structure and spatial arrangement of the plasma filaments. The regularly spaced filaments, which appear in the normal glow mode when the current is lowered, have a length which is determined by the cathode fall. It varies, dependent on pressure and current, between 50 and 70 μm. The minimum diameter is approximately 80 μm, as determined from the radiative emission in the visible. The filaments are sources of extensive excimer emission. Measurements of the cathode fall length have allowed us to determine the secondary emission coefficient for the discharge in the normal glow mode and to estimate the cathode fall voltage at the transition from normal glow mode to filamentary mode. It was found that the cathode fall voltage at this transition decreases, indicating the onset of additional electron gain processes at the cathode. The regular arrangement of the filaments, self-organization, is assumed to be due to Coulomb interactions between the positively charged cathode fall channels and positive space charges on the surface of the surrounding dielectric spacer. Calculations based on these assumptions showed good agreement with experimentally observed filament patterns

  3. High Performance Cathodes for Li-Air Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yangchuan

    2013-08-22

    The overall objective of this project was to develop and fabricate a multifunctional cathode with high activities in acidic electrolytes for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions for Li-air batteries. It should enable the development of Li-air batteries that operate on hybrid electrolytes, with acidic catholytes in particular. The use of hybrid electrolytes eliminates the problems of lithium reaction with water and of lithium oxide deposition in the cathode with sole organic electrolytes. The use of acid electrolytes can eliminate carbonate formation inside the cathode, making air breathing Li-air batteries viable. The tasks of the project were focused on developing hierarchical cathode structures and bifunctional catalysts. Development and testing of a prototype hybrid Li-air battery were also conducted. We succeeded in developing a hierarchical cathode structure and an effective bifunctional catalyst. We accomplished integrating the cathode with existing anode technologies and made a pouch prototype Li-air battery using sulfuric acid as catholyte. The battery cathodes contain a nanoscale multilayer structure made with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. The structure was demonstrated to improve battery performance substantially. The bifunctional catalyst developed contains a conductive oxide support with ultra-low loading of platinum and iridium oxides. The work performed in this project has been documented in seven peer reviewed journal publications, five conference presentations, and filing of two U.S. patents. Technical details have been documented in the quarterly reports to DOE during the course of the project.

  4. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-01-01

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  5. Cloud computing and Reservoir project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beco, S.; Maraschini, A.; Pacini, F.; Biran, O.

    2009-01-01

    The support for complex services delivery is becoming a key point in current internet technology. Current trends in internet applications are characterized by on demand delivery of ever growing amounts of content. The future internet of services will have to deliver content intensive applications to users with quality of service and security guarantees. This paper describes the Reservoir project and the challenge of a reliable and effective delivery of services as utilities in a commercial scenario. It starts by analyzing the needs of a future infrastructure provider and introducing the key concept of a service oriented architecture that combines virtualisation-aware grid with grid-aware virtualisation, while being driven by business service management. This article will then focus on the benefits and the innovations derived from the Reservoir approach. Eventually, a high level view of Reservoir general architecture is illustrated.

  6. Neutral hydrophilic cathode catalyst binders for microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Saito, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Improving oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes requires a better understanding of the effects of the catalyst binder chemistry and properties on performance. A series of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) polymers with systematically varying hydrophilicity were designed to determine the effect of the hydrophilic character of the binder on cathode performance. Increasing the hydrophilicity of the PS-b-PEO binders enhanced the electrochemical response of the cathode and MFC power density by ∼15%, compared to the hydrophobic PS-OH binder. Increased cathode performance was likely a result of greater water uptake by the hydrophilic binder, which would increase the accessible surface area for oxygen reduction. Based on these results and due to the high cost of PS-b-PEO, the performance of an inexpensive hydrophilic neutral polymer, poly(bisphenol A-co-epichlorohydrin) (BAEH), was examined in MFCs and compared to a hydrophilic sulfonated binder (Nafion). MFCs with BAEH-based cathodes with two different Pt loadings initially (after 2 cycles) had lower MFC performance (1360 and 630 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) than Nafion cathodes (1980 and 1080 mW m -2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2). However, after long-term operation (22 cycles, 40 days), power production of each cell was similar (∼1200 and 700-800 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) likely due to cathode biofouling that could not be completely reversed through physical cleaning. While binder chemistry could improve initial electrochemical cathode performance, binder materials had less impact on overall long-term MFC performance. This observation suggests that long-term operation of MFCs will require better methods to avoid cathode biofouling. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Reservoir effects in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The radiocarbon dating technique depends essentially on the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide containing the cosmogenic radioisotope 14 C enters into a state of equilibrium with all living material (plants and animals) as part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Terrestrial reservoir effects occur when the atmospheric 14 C signal is diluted by local effects where systems depleted in 14 C mix with systems that are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Naturally, this can occur with plant material growing close to an active volcano adding very old CO 2 to the atmosphere (the original 14 C has completely decayed). It can also occur in highly industrialised areas where fossil fuel derived CO 2 dilutes the atmospheric signal. A terrestrial reservoir effect can occur in the case of fresh water shells living in rivers or lakes where there is an input of ground water from springs or a raising of the water table. Soluble bicarbonate derived from the dissolution of very old limestone produces a 14 C dilution effect. Land snail shells and stream carbonate depositions (tufas and travertines) can be affected by a similar mechanism. Alternatively, in specific cases, these reservoir effects may not occur. This means that general interpretations assuming quantitative values for these terrestrial effects are not possible. Each microenvironment associated with samples being analysed needs to be evaluated independently. Similarly, the marine environment produces reservoir effects. With respect to marine shells and corals, the water depth at which carbonate growth occurs can significantly affect quantitative 14 C dilution, especially in areas where very old water is uplifted, mixing with top layers of water that undergo significant exchange with atmospheric CO 2 . Hence, generalisations with respect to the marine reservoir effect also pose problems. These can be exacerbated by the mixing of sea water with either terrestrial water in estuaries, or ground water where

  8. Sedimentological and Geomorphological Effects of Reservoir Flushing: The Cachi Reservoir, Costa Rica, 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Anders; Swenning, Joar

    1999-01-01

    Physical geography, hydrology, geomorphology, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, dams, reservoirs......Physical geography, hydrology, geomorphology, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, dams, reservoirs...

  9. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. K. Pande

    1998-10-29

    Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency

  10. SIRIU RESERVOIR, BUZAU RIVER (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Constantin DIACONU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Siriu reservoir, owes it`s creation to the dam built on the river Buzau, in the town which bears the same name. The reservoir has a hydro energetic role, to diminish the maximum flow and to provide water to the localities below. The partial exploitation of the lake, began in 1984; Since that time, the initial bed of the river began to accumulate large quantities of alluvia, reducing the retention capacity of the lake, which had a volume of 125 million m3. The changes produced are determined by many topographic surveys at the bottom of the lake.

  11. Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    YongMan Choi; Meilin Liu

    2006-09-30

    This DOE SECA project focused on both experimental and theoretical understanding of oxygen reduction processes in a porous mixed-conducting cathode in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Elucidation of the detailed oxygen reduction mechanism, especially the rate-limiting step(s), is critical to the development of low-temperature SOFCs (400 C to 700 C) and to cost reduction since much less expensive materials may be used for cell components. However, cell performance at low temperatures is limited primarily by the interfacial polarization resistances, specifically by those associated with oxygen reduction at the cathode, including transport of oxygen gas through the porous cathode, the adsorption of oxygen onto the cathode surface, the reduction and dissociation of the oxygen molecule (O{sub 2}) into the oxygen ion (O{sup 2-}), and the incorporation of the oxygen ion into the electrolyte. In order to most effectively enhance the performance of the cathode at low temperatures, we must understand the mechanism and kinetics of the elementary processes at the interfaces. Under the support of this DOE SECA project, our accomplishments included: (1) Experimental determination of the rate-limiting step in the oxygen reduction mechanism at the cathode using in situ FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, including surface- and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS and TERS). (2) Fabrication and testing of micro-patterned cathodes to compare the relative activity of the TPB to the rest of the cathode surface. (3) Construction of a mathematical model to predict cathode performance based on different geometries and microstructures and analyze the kinetics of oxygen-reduction reactions occurring at charged mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIECs) using two-dimensional finite volume models with ab initio calculations. (4) Fabrication of cathodes that are graded in composition and microstructure to generate large amounts of active surface area near the cathode/electrolyte interface using a

  12. Iron phosphate materials as cathodes for lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Prosini, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" describes the synthesis and the chemical-physical characteristics of iron phosphates, and presents methods of making LiFePO4 a suitable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The author studies carbon's ability to increase conductivity and to decrease material grain size, as well as investigating the electrochemical behaviour of the materials obtained. ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" also proposes a model to explain lithium insertion/extraction in LiFePO4 and to predict voltage profiles at variou

  13. Preliminary experiments with a carbon fiber tuft cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    This work reports initial tests of a carbon brush or tuft cathode intended for use by the Beam Research Program. It was found that electric fields of approximately 100 kV/cm were required to produce current densities above 20 A/sq cm. The beam extracted from the cathode consisted of many beamlets - one for each tuft. The beamlets were found to be quite uniform in peak current density and the cathode operation was microscopically repeatable. The turn-on time was estimated to be 200 ns

  14. Operation and Applications of the Boron Cathodic Arc Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J. M.; Freeman, J. H.; Klepper, C. C.; Chivers, D. J.; Hazelton, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    The boron cathodic arc ion source has been developed with a view to several applications, particularly the problem of shallow junction doping in semiconductors. Research has included not only development and operation of the boron cathode, but other cathode materials as well. Applications have included a large deposition directed toward development of a neutron detector and another deposition for an orthopedic coating, as well as the shallow ion implantation function. Operational experience is described and information pertinent to commercial operation, extracted from these experiments, is presented.

  15. Housing shortages in urban regions: aggressive interactions at tree hollows in forest remnants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Davis

    Full Text Available Urbanisation typically results in a reduction of hollow-bearing trees and an increase in the density of particularly species, potentially resulting in an increased level of competition as cavity-nesting species compete for a limited resource. To improve understanding of hollow usage between urban cavity-nesting species in Australia, particularly parrots, we investigated how the hollow-using assemblage, visitation rate, diversity and number of interactions varied between hollows within urban remnant forest and continuous forest. Motion-activated video cameras were installed, via roped access to the canopy, and hollow usage was monitored at 61 hollows over a two-year period. Tree hollows within urban remnants had a significantly different assemblage of visitors to those in continuous forest as well as a higher rate of visitation than hollows within continuous forest, with the rainbow lorikeet making significantly more visitations than any other taxa. Hollows within urban remnants were characterised by significantly higher usage rates and significantly more aggressive interactions than hollows within continuous forest, with parrots responsible for almost all interactions. Within urban remnants, high rates of hollow visitation and both interspecific and intraspecific interactions observed at tree hollows suggest the number of available optimal hollows may be limiting. Understanding the usage of urban remnant hollows by wildlife, as well as the role of parrots as a potential flagship for the conservation of tree-hollows, is vital to prevent a decrease in the diversity of urban fauna, particularly as other less competitive species risk being outcompeted by abundant native species.

  16. Housing Shortages in Urban Regions: Aggressive Interactions at Tree Hollows in Forest Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adrian; Major, Richard E.; Taylor, Charlotte E.

    2013-01-01

    Urbanisation typically results in a reduction of hollow-bearing trees and an increase in the density of particularly species, potentially resulting in an increased level of competition as cavity-nesting species compete for a limited resource. To improve understanding of hollow usage between urban cavity-nesting species in Australia, particularly parrots, we investigated how the hollow-using assemblage, visitation rate, diversity and number of interactions varied between hollows within urban remnant forest and continuous forest. Motion-activated video cameras were installed, via roped access to the canopy, and hollow usage was monitored at 61 hollows over a two-year period. Tree hollows within urban remnants had a significantly different assemblage of visitors to those in continuous forest as well as a higher rate of visitation than hollows within continuous forest, with the rainbow lorikeet making significantly more visitations than any other taxa. Hollows within urban remnants were characterised by significantly higher usage rates and significantly more aggressive interactions than hollows within continuous forest, with parrots responsible for almost all interactions. Within urban remnants, high rates of hollow visitation and both interspecific and intraspecific interactions observed at tree hollows suggest the number of available optimal hollows may be limiting. Understanding the usage of urban remnant hollows by wildlife, as well as the role of parrots as a potential flagship for the conservation of tree-hollows, is vital to prevent a decrease in the diversity of urban fauna, particularly as other less competitive species risk being outcompeted by abundant native species. PMID:23555657

  17. Mesoporous Silicon Hollow Nanocubes Derived from Metal-Organic Framework Template for Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Taeseung; Bok, Taesoo; Kim, Chulhyun; Na, Younghoon; Park, Soojin; Kim, Kwang S

    2017-05-23

    Controlling the morphology of nanostructured silicon is critical to improving the structural stability and electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries. The use of removable or sacrificial templates is an effective and easy route to synthesize hollow materials. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of mesoporous silicon hollow nanocubes (m-Si HCs) derived from a metal-organic framework (MOF) as an anode material with outstanding electrochemical properties. The m-Si HC architecture with the mesoporous external shell (∼15 nm) and internal void (∼60 nm) can effectively accommodate volume variations and relieve diffusion-induced stress/strain during repeated cycling. In addition, this cube architecture provides a high electrolyte contact area because of the exposed active site, which can promote the transportation of Li ions. The well-designed m-Si HC with carbon coating delivers a high reversible capacity of 1728 mAhg -1 with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 80.1% after the first cycle and an excellent rate capability of >1050 mAhg -1 even at a 15 C-rate. In particular, the m-Si HC anode effectively suppresses electrode swelling to ∼47% after 100 cycles and exhibits outstanding cycle stability of 850 mAhg -1 after 800 cycles at a 1 C-rate. Moreover, a full cell (2.9 mAhcm -2 ) comprising a m-Si HC-graphite anode and LiCoO 2 cathode exhibits remarkable cycle retention of 72% after 100 cycles at a 0.2 C-rate.

  18. A novel approach for fabricating NiO hollow spheres for gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Chengwei; Zeng, Wen; Ye, Hong; Li, Yanqiong

    2018-03-01

    Hollow spheres are usually fabricated by hard template methods or soft template methods with soft surfactants, which is quiet tedious and time-consuming. In this paper, NiO hollow spheres with fluffy surface were successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method and subsequent calcination, where bubbles acted as the template. NiO hollow spheres exhibited excellent gas sensing performances, which results from its hollow structure and high specific surface area. In addition, a possible evolution mechanism of NiO hollow spheres was proposed based on experimental results.

  19. Antiresonant hollow core fiber with seven nested capillaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonio-Lopez, Jose E.; Habib, Selim; Van Newkirk, Amy

    2016-01-01

    We report an antiresonant hollow core fiber formed of 7 non-touching capillaries with inner tubes. The fiber has a core diameter of ∼33μm and a core wall of ∼780nm of thickness. We demonstrate robust single mode operation at 1064nm and broad transmission bandwidth....

  20. Estimation of dynamic properties of attractors observed in hollow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has direct impact on myriads of thermal plasma applications being implemented at present. Recently, chaotic nature of arc root behavior has been reported through the analysis of voltages, acoustic and optical signals which are generated from a hollow copper electrode arc plasma torch. In this paper we present details of ...

  1. Characterization of silane coated hollow sphere alumina-reinforced

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silane coated hollow sphere alumina ceramic particles were moulded with ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) to form a series of composites with alumina weight percent in the range from 15 to 50. The composites were prepared in a cylindrical mould using powder-processing technique. The composites ...

  2. EM-wave absorption properties of hollow spiral iron particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenqiang; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-01-01

    Hollow iron spiral particles were fabricated successfully by thermal decomposition method, and they were heat-treated at different temperatures in N 2 atmosphere. The electromagnetic wave absorption properties of hollow iron spiral particles were investigated ranging between 1 GHz and 18 GHz. The results indicated that the phase structures of the particles changed from amorphous to nanocrystal with the treating temperature rising, also causing the significant change in electromagnetic parameters and the reflection loss. The reflection loss could reach −33 dB at 16.2 GHz, indicating that the hollow iron spiral particles had the potential to be used in prepare the a high property EM-wave absorber. - Highlights: • Hollow iron spiral particles were fabricated by thermal decomposition method. • The particles changed from amorphous to nanocrystals with heat-treatment. • Particles’ EM-parameters have a great change after high temperature heat-treatment. • RL results show the particles have potential to be high property EM-wave absorber

  3. Hollow Mill for Extraction of Stripped Titanium Screws: An Easy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of jammed titanium screws can be difficult due to the problem of stripping of the hexagonal heads of the screws. We present a technique of extraction of stripped screws with the use of a standard 4.5 mm stainless steel hollow mill in a patient of peri‑implant fracture of the radius fixed with a titanium locking plate 2 ...

  4. Hollow Anode Cascading Plasma Focus | Alabraba | Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the 3-phase model for each focus event, the 9-phase, two solid disc auxiliary anode cascading plasma focus has been extended to include holes at the center of each cascade anode (hereafter referred to as hollow anode cascading focus) with a view of increasing the neutron yield with each focus event. Results ...

  5. Spinning of hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes from a polymer blend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wienk, I.M.; Wienk, I.M.; Olde scholtenhuis, F.H.A.; van den Boomgaard, Anthonie; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this study the dry-wet spinning technique is used for the preparation of hollow fiber membranes. In the polymer solution a blend of two polymers, poly(ether sulfone) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), is used. The morphology of the membranes obtained is related to rheological characteristics and phase

  6. Hollow tree fire is a useless forest fire category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chromek Ivan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, the term “hollow tree fire“ was first used in a publication in 1956 without being well defined and was then uncritically used in other publications. The term refers to fires occurring in the rotted, inner trunks of trees. The main aim of the current study was to determine whether the term should be considered a useful category for the statistical analysis of forest fires. The nature and causes of fires from 2006–2015 were assessed by performing a detailed analysis of the Fire Rescue Service of the Czech Republic (FRS CR database. The database included a total of 7,256 fires in the natural environment, but only 18 of these were hollow tree fires. Most hollow tree fires were initiated by human carelessness, and only three were initiated by lightning. Based on our critical consideration of fire attributes, hollow tree fires should not be considered a category of forest fire. The presence of rotten trees is, however, a serious problem because such trees represent long-lasting sources of fire in forest stands and because they complicate firefighting. The numbers of rotten trees in forests is increasing, and firefighters should be made aware of the complications of extinguishing fires involving rotten trees in forests.

  7. Highly permeable and mechanically robust silicon carbide hollow fiber membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Patrick; Kappert, Emiel; Lohaus, T.; Wessling, Matthias; Nijmeijer, Arian; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) membranes have shown large potential for applications in water treatment. Being able to make these membranes in a hollow fiber geometry allows for higher surface-to-volume ratios. In this study, we present a thermal treatment procedure that is tuned to produce porous silicon

  8. Hollow Nanospheres Array Fabrication via Nano-Conglutination Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man; Deng, Qiling; Xia, Liangping; Shi, Lifang; Cao, Axiu; Pang, Hui; Hu, Song

    2015-09-01

    Hollow nanospheres array is a special nanostructure with great applications in photonics, electronics and biochemistry. The nanofabrication technique with high resolution is crucial to nanosciences and nano-technology. This paper presents a novel nonconventional nano-conglutination technology combining polystyrenes spheres (PSs) self-assembly, conglutination and a lift-off process to fabricate the hollow nanospheres array with nanoholes. A self-assembly monolayer of PSs was stuck off from the quartz wafer by the thiol-ene adhesive material, and then the PSs was removed via a lift-off process and the hollow nanospheres embedded into the thiol-ene substrate was obtained. Thiolene polymer is a UV-curable material via "click chemistry" reaction at ambient conditions without the oxygen inhibition, which has excellent chemical and physical properties to be attractive as the adhesive material in nano-conglutination technology. Using the technique, a hollow nanospheres array with the nanoholes at the diameter of 200 nm embedded into the rigid thiol-ene substrate was fabricated, which has great potential to serve as a reaction container, catalyst and surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate.

  9. Morphology conserving aminopropyl functionalization of hollow silica nanospheres in toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobó, Dorina G.; Berkesi, Dániel; Kukovecz, Ákos

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic nanostructures containing cavities of monodisperse diameter distribution find applications in e.g. catalysis, adsorption and drug delivery. One of their possible synthesis routes is the template assisted core-shell synthesis. We synthesized hollow silica spheres around polystyrene cores by the sol-gel method. The polystyrene template was removed by heat treatment leaving behind a hollow spherical shell structure. The surface of the spheres was then modified by adding aminopropyl groups. Here we present the first experimental evidence that toluene is a suitable alternative functionalization medium for the resulting thin shells, and report the comprehensive characterization of the amino-functionalized hollow silica spheres based on scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption, FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electrokinetic potential measurement. Both the presence of the amino groups and the preservation of the hollow spherical morphology were unambiguously proven. The introduction of the amine functionality adds amphoteric character to the shell as shown by the zeta potential vs. pH function. Unlike pristine silica particles, amino-functionalized nanosphere aqueous sols can be stable at both acidic and basic conditions.

  10. Few photon switching with slow light in hollow fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajcsy, Michal; Hofferberth, S.; Balic, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    Cold atoms confined inside a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber with core diameters of a few photon wavelengths are a promising medium for studying nonlinear optical interactions at extremely low light levels. The high electric field intensity per photon and interaction lengths not limited...

  11. Prediction of Stress Concentration Factors in Unlapped Square Hollow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper sets out to discover numerically the effect of brace spacing on stress concentrations in welded square hollow section 'K' joints. Thin shell theory and isoparametric formulation are employed to obtain equilibrium equations, which were solved by the frontal solution code developed for this purpose. Thereafter, the ...

  12. Characterization of silane coated hollow sphere alumina-reinforced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silane coated hollow sphere alumina ceramic particles were moulded with ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) to form a series of composites with alumina weight percent in the range from 15 to 50. The composites were prepared in a cylindrical mould using powder-processing technique. The composites ...

  13. Hollow-core photonic band gap fibers for particle acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Noble

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Photonic band gap (PBG dielectric fibers with hollow cores are being studied both theoretically and experimentally for use as laser driven accelerator structures. The hollow core functions as both a longitudinal waveguide for the transverse-magnetic (TM accelerating fields and a channel for the charged particles. The dielectric surrounding the core is permeated by a periodic array of smaller holes to confine the mode, forming a photonic crystal fiber in which modes exist in frequency passbands, separated by band gaps. The hollow core acts as a defect which breaks the crystal symmetry, and so-called defect, or trapped modes having frequencies in the band gap will only propagate near the defect. We describe the design of 2D hollow-core PBG fibers to support TM defect modes with high longitudinal fields and high characteristic impedance. Using as-built dimensions of industrially made fibers, we perform a simulation analysis of prototype PBG fibers with dimensions appropriate for speed-of-light TM modes.

  14. Fire resistance of extruded hollow-core slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Giuliani, Luisa; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2016-01-01

    Prefabricated extruded hollow-core slabs are preferred building components for floor structures in several countries. It is therefore important to be able to document the fire resistance of these slabs proving fulfilment of standard fire resistance requirements of 60- and 120 minutes found in most...

  15. Fire resistance of extruded hollow-core slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Giuliani, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – Prefabricated extruded hollow-core slabs are preferred building components for floor structures in several countries. It is therefore important to be able to document the fire resistance of these slabs proving fulfilment of standard fire resistance requirements of 60 and 120 min found...

  16. Development of Optimized Strength Model of Lateritic Hollow Block ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work is an investigation to develop and optimize a model of the compressive strength of lateritic hollow sandcrete block with mound soil inclusion. The study applies the Scheffe's optimization approach to obtain a mathematical model of the form f(xi1,xi2,xi3,,xi4), where xi are proportions of the concrete components, viz: ...

  17. Visible mie scattering in nonabsorbing hollow sphere powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsch, Markus; Schmelzeisen, Marcus; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Thomas, Edwin L

    2011-03-09

    Hollow silica nanoparticles (HSNP) with diameters comparable to visible wavelengths and with thin shells (Mie theory were used to investigate this phenomenon. The use of HSNPs increases the transport mean free path of light significantly, which reduces multiple scattering, and thus the Mie resonances become visible to the bare eye.

  18. Fabrication of polystyrene hollow microspheres as laser fusion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inertial confinement fusion, frequently referred to as ICF, inertial fusion, or laser fusion, is a means of producing energy by imploding small hollow microspheres containing thermonuclear fusion fuel. Polymer microspheres, which are used as fuel containers, can be produced by solution-based micro-encapsulation technique ...

  19. Hollow beam formation in the extraction region of ECRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batygin, Y.; Goto, A.; Yano, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Beam optics in the extraction system of an ECR ion source (ECRIS) are examined both analytically and numerically, by taking nonlinear effect due to aberrations of einzel lens into account. It is shown that this effect can cause hollow beam formation. Simple analytical criteria to keep the good beam quality in the focusing system are given. (author)

  20. High selectivity ZIF-93 hollow fiber membranes for gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho-Bailo, Fernando; Caro, Guillermo; Etxeberría-Benavides, Miren; Karvan, Oğuz; Téllez, Carlos; Coronas, Joaquín

    2015-06-30

    Zeolitic imidazolate framework-93 (ZIF-93) continuous membranes were synthesized on the inner side of P84 co-polyimide hollow fiber supports by microfluidics. MOFs and polymers showed high compatibility and the membrane exhibited H2-CH4 and CO2-CH4 separation selectivities of 97 (100 °C) and 17 (35 °C), respectively.

  1. Hollow vortices, capillary water waves and double quadrature domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowdy, Darren G; Roenby, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Two new classes of analytical solutions for hollow vortex equilibria are presented. One class involves a central hollow vortex, comprising a constant pressure region having non-zero circulation, surrounded by an n-polygonal array of point vortices with n⩾2. The solutions generalize the non-rotating polygonal point vortex configurations of Morikawa and Swenson (1971 Phys. Fluids 14 1058–73) to the case where the point vortex at the centre of the polygon is replaced by a hollow vortex. The results of Morikawa and Swenson would suggest that all equilibria for n≠3 will be linearly unstable to point vortex mode instabilities. However even the n = 3 case turns out to be unstable to a recently discovered displacement instability deriving from a resonance between the natural modes of an isolated circular hollow vortex. A second class of analytical solutions for periodic water waves co-travelling with a submerged point vortex row is also described. The analysis gives rise to new theoretical connections with free surface Euler flows with surface tension and, in particular, with Crapper's classical solutions for capillary water waves. It is pointed out that the equilibrium fluid regions found here have a mathematical interpretation as an abstract class of planar domains known as double quadrature domains. (ss 1)

  2. Shear and Anchorage Behaviour of Fire Exposed Hollow Core Slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fellinger, J.H.H.

    2004-01-01

    Hollow core (HC) slabs are made of precast concrete with pretensioned strands. These slabs are popular as floor structures in offices and housing. At ambient conditions, the load bearing capacity can be dominated by four different failure modes, i.e. flexure, anchorage, shear compression and shear

  3. Shear and anchorage behaviour of fire exposed hollow core slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fellinger, J.H.H.; Stark, J.; Walraven, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The fire resistance of hollow core slabs is currently assessed considering flexural failure only. However, fire tests showed that shear or anchorage failure can also govern the load bearing behaviour. As the shear and anchorage capacity of these slabs rely on the tensile strength of the concrete,

  4. Shear and anchorage behaviour of fire exposed hollow core slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fellinger, J.

    2005-01-01

    The fire resistance of hollow core slabs is currently assessed considering flexural failure only. However, fire tests show that shear or anchorage failure can also govern the load bearing behaviour. This paper is based on the dissertation by the author1 and discusses existing and new fire tests. It

  5. Hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes with microstructured inner skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culfaz, P.Z.; Wessling, Matthias; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2011-01-01

    Hollow fiber membranes with microstructured inner surfaces were fabricated from a PES/PVP blend using a spinneret with a microstructured needle. The effect of spinning parameters such as polymer dope flow rate, bore liquid flowrate, air gap and take-up speed on the microstructure and shape of the

  6. Investigation of torsional vibrations in thick walled hollow poroelastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper deals with the study of torsional vibrations of thick walled hollow poroelastic cylinder using Biot's extension theory. Considering the boundaries to be stress free, the frequency equation is obtained in the presence of dissipation which is transcendental and complex valued in nature. In the special case of ...

  7. safety of carbon fibre reinforced plastic hollow sections in compression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMINUSER

    2014-01-06

    Jan 6, 2014 ... new material in civil engineering applications [1]. This paper investigates the compressive performances of CFRP hollow sections and modes of failure of reinforced concrete structural elements after strengthening with externally bonded carbon fibre- reinforced plastic (CFRP) tubes, and the effectiveness.

  8. Tensile Strength of GFRP Reinforcing Bars with Hollow Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jun You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP has been proposed to replace steel as a reinforcing bar (rebar due to its high tensile strength and noncorrosive material properties. One obstacle in using FRP rebars is high price. Generally FRP is more expensive than conventional steel rebar. There are mainly two ways to reduce the cost. For example, one is making the price of each composition cost of FRP rebar (e.g., fibers, resin, etc. lower than steel rebar. Another is making an optimized design for cross section and reducing the material cost. The former approach is not easy because the steel price is very low in comparison with component materials of FRP. For the latter approach, the cost could be cut down by reducing the material cost. Therefore, an idea of making hollow section over the cross section of FRP rebar was proposed in this study by optimizing the cross section design with acceptable tensile performance in comparison with steel rebar. In this study, glass reinforced polymer (GFRP rebars with hollow section and 19 mm of outer diameter were manufactured and tested to evaluate the tensile performance in accordance with the hollowness ratio. From the test results, it was observed that the tensile strength decreased almost linearly with increase of hollowness ratio and the elastic modulus decreased nonlinearly.

  9. Biodegradable hollow fibres for the controlled release of drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakenraad, J.M.; Oosterbaan, J.A.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Molenaar, I.; Olijslager, J.; Potman, W.; Eenink, M.J.D.; Feijen, Jan

    1988-01-01

    Biodegradable hollow fibres of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) filled with a suspension of the contraceptive hormone levonorgestrel in castor oil were implanted subcutaneously in rats to study the rate of drug release, rate of biodegradation and tissue reaction caused by the implant. The in vivo drug

  10. Estimation of dynamic properties of attractors observed in hollow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently, dynamic characteristics of movement of arc root inside a hollow copper electrode plasma torch have been investigated using voltage, optical and acoustic .... Lyapunov exponents are defined by the long-term evolution of the axes of an infinitesi- mal sphere of states. The use of finite amount of experimental data ...

  11. The Hollow Men: Ain't It Awful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Martha E.

    1991-01-01

    Charles Sykes' book "The Hollow Men: Politics and Corruption in Higher Education" is criticized as overreacting to trends in higher education and the college curriculum but also seen as potentially prompting educators to ask questions about the dominant politics on their campuses. (MSE)

  12. Facile synthesis of ZnO hollow fibres

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education of China,. Key Laboratory of Gansu ... In this paper, cotton fibres were used as bio-template to successfully synthesize new ceramic mate- rials, ZnO hollow fibres ... chically built anatomy, optimized from nature in respect to their mechanical ...

  13. Faraday effect in hollow quantum cylinder of finite thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismailov, T.G.; Jabrailova, G.G.

    2009-01-01

    The interband Faraday rotation in hollow quantum cylinder of finite thickness is theoretically investigated. Faraday rotation in the dependence on incident light energy for different values of cylinder thickness. It is seen that the resonance peaks appear on Faraday rotation curve. The roles of selection are obtained

  14. Synthesis of Porous Inorganic Hollow Fibers without Harmful Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, Sushumna; de Wit, Patrick; Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Kappert, Emiel; Nijmeijer, Arian; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2015-01-01

    A route for the fabrication of porous inorganic hollow fibers with high surface-area-to-volume ratio that avoids harmful solvents is presented. The approach is based on bio-ionic gelation of an aqueous mixture of inorganic particles and sodium alginate during wet spinning. In a subsequent thermal

  15. comparative analysis of the compressive strength of hollow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... 1,2,3 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA. E-mail addresses: ... Series arrangement of the cavities is common but parallel ... Keywords: hollow sandcrete blocks, cavity size, cavity number, series arrangements, parallel arrangements,.

  16. Reservoir Sedimentation Based on Uncertainty Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Imanshoar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir sedimentation can result in loss of much needed reservoir storage capacity, reducing the useful life of dams. Thus, sufficient sediment storage capacity should be provided for the reservoir design stage to ensure that sediment accumulation will not impair the functioning of the reservoir during the useful operational-economic life of the project. However, an important issue to consider when estimating reservoir sedimentation and accumulation is the uncertainty involved in reservoir sedimentation. In this paper, the basic factors influencing the density of sediments deposited in reservoirs are discussed, and uncertainties in reservoir sedimentation have been determined using the Delta method. Further, Kenny Reservoir in the White River Basin in northwestern Colorado was selected to determine the density of deposits in the reservoir and the coefficient of variation. The results of this investigation have indicated that by using the Delta method in the case of Kenny Reservoir, the uncertainty regarding accumulated sediment density, expressed by the coefficient of variation for a period of 50 years of reservoir operation, could be reduced to about 10%. Results of the Delta method suggest an applicable approach for dead storage planning via interfacing with uncertainties associated with reservoir sedimentation.

  17. Phase and composition controlled synthesis of cobalt sulfide hollow nanospheres for electrocatalytic water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoya; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Yida; Zhong, Cheng; Hu, Wenbin; Han, Xiaopeng

    2018-02-23

    Developing cheap, highly efficient and stable electrocatalysts for both oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions (OER and HER) is extremely meaningful to realize large-scale implementation of water splitting technology. Herein, we report the phase and composition controlled synthesis of cobalt sulfide (CoS x ) hollow nanospheres (HNSs) and their catalytic efficiencies for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions in alkaline media. Three CoS x compounds, i.e., Co 9 S 8 , Co 3 S 4 , and CoS 2 HNSs, were precisely synthesized by simply adjusting the molar ratio of carbon disulfide to cobalt acetate using a facile solution-based strategy. Electrochemical results reveal that the as-prepared CoS 2 HNSs exhibit superior OER and HER catalytic performance to Co 9 S 8 and Co 3 S 4 HNSs in 1.0 M KOH, with overpotentials of 290 mV for the OER and 193 mV for the HER at 10 mA cm -2 , and the corresponding Tafel slopes of 57 and 100 mV dec -1 , respectively. In addition, the CoS 2 HNSs exhibit remarkable long-term catalytic durability, which is even superior to precious metal catalysts of RuO 2 and Pt/C. Moreover, an alkaline electrolyzer assembled using CoS 2 HNSs as both anode and cathode materials can achieve 10 mA cm -2 at a low cell voltage of 1.54 V at 60 °C with a faradaic efficiency of 100% for overall water splitting. Further analysis demonstrates that the surface morphology, crystallographic structure and coordination environment of Co n+ active sites in combination determine the HER/OER activities in the synthesized binary CoS x series, which would provide insight into the rational design of transition metal chalcogenides for highly efficient hydrogen and oxygen-involved electrocatalysis.

  18. Data assimilation in reservoir management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommelse, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis aims at improving computer models that allow simulations of water, oil and gas flows in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This is done by integrating, or assimilating, measurements into physics-bases models. In recent years petroleum technology has developed

  19. Reservoirs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, G. Earl

    1948-01-01

    Man has engaged in the control of flowing water since history began. Among his early recorded efforts were reservoirs for muncipal water-supplies constructed near ancient Jerusalem to store water which was brought there in masonry conduits. 1/  Irrigation was practiced in Egypt as early as 2000 B. C. There the "basin system" was used from ancient times until the 19th century. The land was divided , into basins of approximately 40,000 acres, separated by earthen dikes. 2/  Flood waters of the Nile generally inundated the basins through canals, many of which were built by the Pharaohs. Even then the economic consequences of a deficient annual flood were recognized. Lake Maeris, which according to Herodotus was an ancient storage reservoir, is said to have had an area of 30,000 acres. In India, the British found at the time of their occupancy of the Presidency of Madras about 50,000 reservoirs for irrigation, many believed to be of ancient construction. 3/ During the period 115-130 A. D. reservoirs were built to improve the water-supply of Athens. Much has been written concerning the elaborate collection and distribution system built to supply Rome, and parts of it remain to this day as monuments to the engineering skill employed by the Romans in solving the problem of large-scale municipal water-supplies.

  20. Reasons for reservoir effect variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    , aquatic plants and fish from the rivers Alster and Trave range between zero and about 3,000 radiocarbon years. The reservoir age of water DIC depends to a large extent on the origin of the water and is for example correlated with precipitation amounts. These short-term variations are smoothed out in water...