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Sample records for reservoir facies salt

  1. Acoustic Impedance Inversion To Identify Oligo-Miocene Carbonate Facies As Reservoir At Kangean Offshore Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuli Purnama, Arif; Ariyani Machmud, Pritta; Eka Nurcahya, Budi; Yusro, Miftahul; Gunawan, Agung; Rahmadi, Dicky

    2018-03-01

    Model based inversion was applied to inversion process of 2D seismic data in Kangean Offshore Area. Integration acoustic impedance from wells and seismic data was expected showing physical property, facies separation and reservoir quality of carbonate rock, particularly in Kangean Offshore Area. Quantitative and qualitative analysis has been conducted on the inversion results to characterize the carbonate reservoir part of Kujung and correlate it to depositional facies type. Main target exploration in Kangean Offshore Area is Kujung Formation (Oligo-Miocene Carbonate). The type of reservoir in this area generate from reef growing on the platform. Carbonate rock is a reservoir which has various type and scale of porosity. Facies determination is required to to predict reservoir quality, because each facies has its own porosity value. Acoustic impedance is used to identify and characterize Kujung carbonate facies, also could be used to predict the distribution of porosity. Low acoustic impedance correlated with packstone facies that has acoustic impedance value below 7400 gr/cc*m/s. In other situation, high acoustic impedance characterized by wackestone facies above 7400 gr/cc*m/s. The interpretation result indicated that Kujung carbonate rock dominated by packstone facies in the upper part of build-up and it has ideal porosity for hydrocarbon reservoir.

  2. Fluvial facies reservoir productivity prediction method based on principal component analysis and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to forecast the well productivity because of the complexity of vertical and horizontal developments in fluvial facies reservoir. This paper proposes a method based on Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Network to predict well productivity of fluvial facies reservoir. The method summarizes the statistical reservoir factors and engineering factors that affect the well productivity, extracts information by applying the principal component analysis method and approximates arbitrary functions of the neural network to realize an accurate and efficient prediction on the fluvial facies reservoir well productivity. This method provides an effective way for forecasting the productivity of fluvial facies reservoir which is affected by multi-factors and complex mechanism. The study result shows that this method is a practical, effective, accurate and indirect productivity forecast method and is suitable for field application.

  3. MAPPING OF RESERVOIR PROPERTIES AND FACIES THROUGH INTEGRATION OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert C. Reynolds; Dean S. Oliver; Fengjun Zhang; Yannong Dong; Jan Arild Skjervheim; Ning Liu

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of permeability and porosity in a reservoir is necessary for the prediction of future oil production, estimation of the location of bypassed oil, and optimization of reservoir management. But while the volume of data that can potentially provide information on reservoir architecture and fluid distributions has increased enormously in the past decade, it is not yet possible to make use of all the available data in an integrated fashion. While it is relatively easy to generate plausible reservoir models that honor static data such as core, log, and seismic data, it is far more difficult to generate plausible reservoir models that honor dynamic data such as transient pressures, saturations, and flow rates. As a result, the uncertainty in reservoir properties is higher than it could be and reservoir management can not be optimized. The goal of this project is to develop computationally efficient automatic history matching techniques for generating geologically plausible reservoir models which honor both static and dynamic data. Solution of this problem is necessary for the quantification of uncertainty in future reservoir performance predictions and for the optimization of reservoir management. Facies (defined here as regions of relatively uniform petrophysical properties) are common features of all reservoirs. Because the flow properties of the various facies can vary greatly, knowledge of the location of facies boundaries is of utmost importance for the prediction of reservoir performance and for the optimization of reservoir management. When the boundaries between facies are fairly well known, but flow properties are poorly known, the average properties for all facies can be determined using traditional techniques. Traditional history matching honors dynamic data by adjusting petrophysical properties in large areas, but in the process of adjusting the reservoir model ignores the static data and often results in implausible reservoir

  4. Facies-constrained FWI: Toward application to reservoir characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Kamath, Nishant

    2017-11-01

    The most common approach to obtaining reservoir properties from seismic data exploits the amplitude variation with offset response of reflected waves. However, structural complexity and errors in the velocity model can severely reduce the quality of the inverted results. Full-waveform inversion (FWI) has shown a lot of promise in obtaining high-resolution velocity models for depth imaging. We propose supplementing FWI with rock-physics constraints obtained from borehole data to invert for reservoir properties. The constraints are imposed by adding appropriately weighted regularization terms to the objective function. The advantages of this technique over conventional FWI algorithms are shown by conducting synthetic tests for both isotropic and VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) models. The medium parameterization for FWI is selected using radiation (scattering) patterns of perturbations in the model parameters.

  5. Hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies in the Sinian Dengying Fm, central Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiang Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Sinian Dengying Fm is the focus of natural gas exploration in the central part of the Sichuan Basin (central Sichuan Basin in recent years. Especially, epigenic karstification and its resulted reservoir-seepage spaces have always been the focal points in researches. Based on the petrographic characteristics of drilling cuttings and core samples, and through experimental analysis by using trace elements, isotopes, and cathodoluminescence, the Dengying Fm dolomite was demonstrated to have matrix recrystallized dolomite (MRD, filled saddle dolomite (FSD (the mean homogenization temperature of inclusion: 178.5 °C, high concentrations of Fe & Mn, slightly positive 87Sr/86Sr value and hydrothermal minerals combination (including sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and quartz, etc.. Thus, it was proposed that hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies (HDRF exist in the Dengying Fm dolomite, in other words, the dolomite reservoir is composed of hydrothermal dissolved pores, intercrystalline pores of hydrothermal origin, hydrothermal caverns and expanded fractures, and was formed due to the reworking of hydrothermal fluid on tight matrix dolomite. Identification marks are presented in terms of petrography and geochemistry so that hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies can be effectively recognized and identified. It is concluded that the development of hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies in this area are preliminary controlled by deep and large basement faults and the strength of hydrothermal fluids.

  6. Characterization of facies and permeability patterns in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerans, C.; Lucia, F.J.; Senger, R.K.; Fogg, G.E.; Nance, H.S.; Hovorka, S.D.

    1993-07-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop methods for better describing the three-dimensional geometry of carbonate reservoir flow units as related to conventional or enhanced recovery of oil. San Andres and Grayburg reservoirs were selected for study because of the 13 Bbbl of remaining mobile oil and 17 Bbbl of residual oil in these reservoirs. The key data base is provided by detailed characterization of geologic facies and rock permeability in reservior-scale outcrops of the Permian San Andres Formation in the Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico. Emphasis is placed on developing an outcrop analog for San Andres strata that can be used as (1) a guide to interpreting the regional and local geologic framework of the subsurface reservoirs (2) a data source illustrating the scales and patterns of variability of rock-fabric facies and petrophysical properties, particularly in lateral dimension, and on scales that cannot be studied during subsurface reservoir characterization. The research approach taken to achieve these objectives utilizes the integration of geologic description, geostatistical techniques, and reservoir flow simulation experiments. Results from this research show that the spatial distribution of facies relative to the waterflood direction can significantly affect how the reservoir produces. Bypassing of unswept oil occurs due to cross flow of injected water from high permeability zones into lower permeability zones were high permeability zones terminate. An area of unswept oil develops because of the slower advance of the water-injection front in the lower permeability zones. When the injection pattern is reversed, the cross-flow effect changes due to the different arrangements of rock-fabric flow units relative to the flow of injected water, and the sweep efficiency is significantly different. Flow across low-permeability mudstones occurs showing that these layers do not necessarily represent flow barriers.

  7. Multinomial Logistic Regression & Bootstrapping for Bayesian Estimation of Vertical Facies Prediction in Heterogeneous Sandstone Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mudhafar, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Precisely prediction of rock facies leads to adequate reservoir characterization by improving the porosity-permeability relationships to estimate the properties in non-cored intervals. It also helps to accurately identify the spatial facies distribution to perform an accurate reservoir model for optimal future reservoir performance. In this paper, the facies estimation has been done through Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) with respect to the well logs and core data in a well in upper sandstone formation of South Rumaila oil field. The entire independent variables are gamma rays, formation density, water saturation, shale volume, log porosity, core porosity, and core permeability. Firstly, Robust Sequential Imputation Algorithm has been considered to impute the missing data. This algorithm starts from a complete subset of the dataset and estimates sequentially the missing values in an incomplete observation by minimizing the determinant of the covariance of the augmented data matrix. Then, the observation is added to the complete data matrix and the algorithm continues with the next observation with missing values. The MLR has been chosen to estimate the maximum likelihood and minimize the standard error for the nonlinear relationships between facies & core and log data. The MLR is used to predict the probabilities of the different possible facies given each independent variable by constructing a linear predictor function having a set of weights that are linearly combined with the independent variables by using a dot product. Beta distribution of facies has been considered as prior knowledge and the resulted predicted probability (posterior) has been estimated from MLR based on Baye's theorem that represents the relationship between predicted probability (posterior) with the conditional probability and the prior knowledge. To assess the statistical accuracy of the model, the bootstrap should be carried out to estimate extra-sample prediction error by randomly

  8. MAPPING OF RESERVOIR PROPERTIES AND FACIES THROUGH INTEGRATION OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert C. Reynolds; Dean S. Oliver; Yannong Dong; Ning Liu; Guohua Gao; Fengjun Zhang; Ruijian Li

    2004-12-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of permeability and porosity in a reservoir is necessary for the prediction of future oil production, estimation of the location of bypassed oil, and optimization of reservoir management. The volume of data that can potentially provide information on reservoir architecture and fluid distributions has increased enormously in the past decade. The techniques developed in this research will make it easier to use all the available data in an integrated fashion. While it is relatively easy to generate plausible reservoir models that honor static data such as core, log, and seismic data, it is far more difficult to generate plausible reservoir models that honor dynamic data such as transient pressures, saturations, and flow rates. As a result, the uncertainty in reservoir properties is higher than it could be and reservoir management can not be optimized. In this project, we have developed computationally efficient automatic history matching techniques for generating geologically plausible reservoir models which honor both static and dynamic data. Specifically, we have developed methods for adjusting porosity and permeability fields to match both production and time-lapse seismic data and have also developed a procedure to adjust the locations of boundaries between facies to match production data. In all cases, the history matched rock property fields are consistent with a prior model based on static data and geologic information. Our work also indicates that it is possible to adjust relative permeability curves when history matching production data.

  9. Experimental Investigation on Dilation Mechanisms of Land-Facies Karamay Oil Sand Reservoirs under Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Botao; Jin, Yan; Pang, Huiwen; Cerato, Amy B.

    2016-04-01

    The success of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is strongly dependent on the formation of a homogeneous and highly permeable zone in the land-facies Karamay oil sand reservoirs. To accomplish this, hydraulic fracturing is applied through controlled water injection to a pair of horizontal wells to create a dilation zone between the dual wells. The mechanical response of the reservoirs during this injection process, however, has remained unclear for the land-facies oil sand that has a loosely packed structure. This research conducted triaxial, permeability and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests on the field-collected oil sand samples. The tests evaluated the influences of the field temperature, confining stress and injection pressure on the dilation mechanisms as shear dilation and tensile parting during injection. To account for petrophysical heterogeneity, five reservoir rocks including regular oil sand, mud-rich oil sand, bitumen-rich oil sand, mudstone and sandstone were investigated. It was found that the permeability evolution in the oil sand samples subjected to shear dilation closely followed the porosity and microcrack evolutions in the shear bands. In contrast, the mudstone and sandstone samples developed distinct shear planes, which formed preferred permeation paths. Tensile parting expanded the pore space and increased the permeability of all the samples in various degrees. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the range of injection propagation in the pay zone determines the overall quality of hydraulic fracturing, while the injection pressure must be carefully controlled. A region in a reservoir has little dilation upon injection if it remains unsaturated. Moreover, a cooling of the injected water can strengthen the dilation potential of a reservoir. Finally, it is suggested that the numerical modeling of water injection in the Karamay oil sand reservoirs must take into account the volumetric plastic strain in hydrostatic loading.

  10. Facies analysis of an Upper Jurassic carbonate platform for geothermal reservoir characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hartmann, Hartwig; Buness, Hermann; Dussel, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The Upper Jurassic Carbonate platform in Southern Germany is an important aquifer for the production of geothermal energy. Several successful projects were realized during the last years. 3D-seismic surveying has been established as a standard method for reservoir analysis and the definition of well paths. A project funded by the federal ministry of economic affairs and energy (BMWi) started in 2015 is a milestone for an exclusively regenerative heat energy supply of Munich. A 3D-seismic survey of 170 square kilometer was acquired and a scientific program was established to analyze the facies distribution within the area (http://www.liag-hannover.de/en/fsp/ge/geoparamol.html). Targets are primarily fault zones where one expect higher flow rates than within the undisturbed carbonate sediments. However, since a dense net of geothermal plants and wells will not always find appropriate fault areas, the reservoir properties should be analyzed in more detail, e.g. changing the viewpoint to karst features and facies distribution. Actual facies interpretation concepts are based on the alternation of massif and layered carbonates. Because of successive erosion of the ancient land surfaces, the interpretation of reefs, being an important target, is often difficult. We found that seismic sequence stratigraphy can explain the distribution of seismic pattern and improves the analysis of different facies. We supported this method by applying wavelet transformation of seismic data. The splitting of the seismic signal into successive parts of different bandwidths, especially the frequency content of the seismic signal, changed by tuning or dispersion, is extracted. The combination of different frequencies reveals a partition of the platform laterally as well as vertically. A cluster analysis of the wavelet coefficients further improves this picture. The interpretation shows a division into ramp, inner platform and trough, which were shifted locally and overprinted in time by other

  11. Seismic facies; Facies sismicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johann, Paulo Roberto Schroeder [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao Corporativo. Gerencia de Reservas e Reservatorios]. E-mail: johann@petrobras.com.br

    2004-11-01

    The method presented herein describes the seismic facies as representations of curves and vertical matrixes of the lithotypes proportions. The seismic facies are greatly interested in capturing the spatial distributions (3D) of regionalized variables, as for example, lithotypes, sedimentary facies groups and/ or porosity and/or other properties of the reservoirs and integrate them into the 3D geological modeling (Johann, 1997). Thus when interpreted as curves or vertical matrixes of proportions, seismic facies allow us to build a very important tool for structural analysis of regionalized variables. The matrixes have an important application in geostatistical modeling. In addition, this approach provides results about the depth and scale of the wells profiles, that is, seismic data is integrated to the characterization of reservoirs in depth maps and in high resolution maps. The link between the different necessary technical phases involved in the classification of the segments of seismic traces is described herein in groups of predefined traces of two approaches: a) not supervised and b) supervised by the geological knowledge available on the studied reservoir. The multivariate statistical methods used to obtain the maps of the seismic facies units are interesting tools to be used to provide a lithostratigraphic and petrophysical understanding of a petroleum reservoir. In the case studied these seismic facies units are interpreted as representative of the depositional system as a part of the Namorado Turbiditic System, Namorado Field, Campos Basin.Within the scope of PRAVAP 19 (Programa Estrategico de Recuperacao Avancada de Petroleo - Strategic Program of Advanced Petroleum Recovery) some research work on algorithms is underway to select new optimized attributes to apply seismic facies. One example is the extraction of attributes based on the wavelet transformation and on the time-frequency analysis methodology. PRAVAP is also carrying out research work on an

  12. The role of basement tectonics in the control of sedimentary facies, structural patterns and salt plug emplacements in the Zagros fold belt of southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Harry

    Extensive field observations over a large tract of continuous rock outcrops in the Zagros Mountain Range of southwest Iran have yielded a wealth of stratigraphic and structural detail. In the region structural anomalies are frequently associated with similar facies distribution patterns. In the eastern portion of the region emergent salt plugs of infra-Cambrian age exhibit the same alignment patterns. Such trends bear no apparent genetic relationship to the Tertiary folding responsible for the present fold belt grain of the Zagros Range but rather indicate affinity with linear basement features which are readily observable on Landsat imagery and air photographs. Superimposed on the eastern region's mode of facies trends and structure are localized variations which are directly attributed to pulses of salt diapiric activity. Thus stratigraphic data acquired from deep sections associated with salt domes can lead to erroneous overviews of regional facies distributions while anomalous dome-shaped structural features associated with elongate fold, so common to the fold belt, can only be attributed to near surface diapiric structures. The recognition of features related to basement tectonics and the realization of their implication in the control and modification of geological processes is an important adjunct to the search for hydrocarbon accumulations in the region. Indeed it can be shown that renewed movements on basement trends directly affect ooil production patterns as a consequence of the enhancement of fracture porosity and permeability in Tertiary carbonate reservoir structures. These constitute some of the world's largest oil-producing fields.

  13. Application of probabilistic facies prediction and estimation of rock physics parameters in a carbonate reservoir from Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimpouli, Sadegh; Hassani, Hossein; Nabi-Bidhendi, Majid; Khoshdel, Hossein; Malehmir, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a carbonate field from Iran was studied. Estimation of rock properties such as porosity and permeability is much more challenging in carbonate rocks than sandstone rocks because of their strong heterogeneity. The frame flexibility factor (γ) is a rock physics parameter which is related not only to pore structure variation but also to solid/pore connectivity and rock texture in carbonate reservoirs. We used porosity, frame flexibility factor and bulk modulus of fluid as the proper parameters to study this gas carbonate reservoir. According to rock physics parameters, three facies were defined: favourable and unfavourable facies and then a transition facies located between these two end members. To capture both the inversion solution and associated uncertainty, a complete implementation of the Bayesian inversion of the facies from pre-stack seismic data was applied to well data and validated with data from another well. Finally, this method was applied on a 2D seismic section and, in addition to inversion of petrophysical parameters, the high probability distribution of favorable facies was also obtained. (paper)

  14. On an iterative ensemble smoother and its application to a reservoir facies estimation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan; Valestrand, Randi; Stordal, Andreas; Lorentzen, Rolf; Nævdal, Geir

    2014-05-01

    iteration formula is obtained based on the standard Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm. By discarding certain model terms in the standard LM algorithm, an approximate iteration formula, similar to those in Emerick and Reynolds (2012); Stordal and Lorentzen (2013), is derived. In this contribution we show that the iteration formulae used in Chen and Oliver (2013); Emerick and Reynolds (2012) can also be derived from the regularized Levenberg-Marquardt (RLM) algorithm in inverse problems theory (Engl et al., 2000), with certain linearization approximations introduced to the RLM. This not only leads to an alternative theoretical tool in understanding and analyzing the behaviour of the aforementioned iterative ES, but also provides insights and guidelines for further developments of the iterative ES algorithm. As an example, we show that an alternative implementation of the iterative ES can be derived based on the RLM algorithm. For illustration, we apply this alternative algorithm to a facies estimation problem previously investigated in Lorentzen et al. (2012), and compare its performance to that of the (approximate) iterative ES used in Chen and Oliver (2013). REFERENCES Aanonsen, S., G. Nævdal, D. Oliver, A. Reynolds, and B. Valles, 2009: The ensemble Kalman filter in reservoir engineering: a review. SPE Journal, 14 (3), 393-412. Chen, Y. and D. Oliver, 2013: Levenberg-Marquardt forms of the iterative ensemble smoother for efficient history matching and uncertainty quantification. Computational Geosciences, 17, 689-703. Chen, Y. and D. S. Oliver, 2012: Ensemble randomized maximum likelihood method as an iterative ensemble smoother. Mathematical Geosciences, 44, 1-26. Emerick, A. A. and A. C. Reynolds, 2012: Ensemble smoother with multiple data assimilation. Computers & Geosciences, 55, 3-15. Engl, H. W., M. Hanke, and A. Neubauer, 2000: Regularization of Inverse Problems. Springer. Evensen, G., 2006: Data Assimilation: The Ensemble Kalman Filter. Springer. Evensen, G. and

  15. Mapping of Reservoir Properties and Facies Through Integration of Static and Dynamic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Albert C.; Oliver, Dean S.; Zhang, Fengjun; Dong, Yannong; Skjervheim, Jan Arild; Liu, Ning

    2003-03-10

    The goal of this project was to develop computationally efficient automatic history matching techniques for generating geologically plausible reservoir models which honor both static and dynamic data. Solution of this problem was necessary for the quantification of uncertainty in future reservoir performance predictions and for the optimization of reservoir management.

  16. Mapping of Reservoir Properties and Facies Through Integration of Static and Dynamic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Dean S.; Reynolds, Albert C.; Zhang, Fengjun; Li, Ruijian; Abacioglu, Yafes; Dong, Yannong

    2002-03-05

    The goal of this project was to develop computationally efficient automatic history matching techniques for generating geologically plausible reservoir models which honor both static and dynamic data. Solution of this problem is necessary for the quantification of uncertainty in future reservoir performance predictions and for the optimization of reservoir management.

  17. Marine and fluvial facies modelling at petroleum reservoir scale; Modelisation des heterogeneites lithologiques a l'echelle du reservoir petrolier en milieu marin et fluviatile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leflon, B.

    2005-10-15

    When modelling a petroleum reservoir, well data are very useful to model properties at a sub-seismic scale. Petrophysical properties like porosity or permeability are linked to the rock-type. Two methods based on well data have been developed to model facies. The first one is used to model marine carbonates deposits. The geometry of sedimentary layers is modelled through a special parameterization of the reservoir similar to Wheeler space. The time parameter is defined along the well paths thanks to correlations. The layer thickness is then extrapolated between wells. A given relationship between facies and bathymetry of sedimentation makes it possible to compute bathymetry along the well paths. Bathymetry is then extrapolated from wells and a reference map using the concept of accommodation. The model created this way is stratigraphically consistent. Facies simulation can then be constrained by the computed bathymetry. The second method describes a novel approach to fluvial reservoirs modelling. The core of the method lies in the association of a fairway with the channels to be simulated. Fairways are positioned so that all data are taken in account; they can be stochastic if unknown or explicitly entered if identified on seismic data. A potential field is defined within the fairway. Specifying a transfer function to map this potential field to thickness results in generating a channel inside the fairway. A residual component is stochastically simulated and added to the potential field creating realistic channel geometries. Conditioning to well data is obtained by applying the inverse transfer function at the data location to derive thickness values that will constrain the simulation of residuals. (author)

  18. Pore facies analysis: incorporation of rock properties into pore geometry based classes in a Permo-Triassic carbonate reservoir in the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimpour-Bonab, H; Aliakbardoust, E

    2014-01-01

    Pore facies analysis is a useful method for the classification of reservoir rocks according to pore geometry characteristics. The importance of this method is related to the dependence of the dynamic behaviour of the reservoir rock on the pore geometry. In this study, pore facies analysis was performed by the quantification and classification of the mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) curves applying the multi-resolution graph-based clustering (MRGC) method. Each pore facies includes a limited variety of rock samples with different depositional fabrics and diagenetic histories, which are representative of one type of pore geometry. The present pore geometry is the result of the interaction between the primary rock fabric and its diagenetic overprint. Thus the variations in petrographic properties can be correlated with the pore geometry characteristics. Accordingly, the controlling parameters in the pore geometry characteristics were revealed by detailed petrographic analysis in each pore facies. The reservoir rock samples were then classified using the determined petrographic properties which control the pore system quality. This method is proposed for the classification of reservoir rocks in complicated carbonate reservoirs, in order to reduce the incompatibility of traditional facies analysis with pore system characteristics. The method is applicable where enough capillary pressure data is not available. (papers)

  19. The influence of facies heterogeneity on the doublet performance in low-enthalpy geothermal sedimentary reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crooijmans, R. A.; Willems, C. J L; Nick, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional model is used to study the influence of facies heterogeneity on energy production under different operational conditions of low-enthalpy geothermal doublet systems. Process-based facies modelling is utilised for the Nieuwerkerk sedimentary formation in the West Netherlands Basin...... and the energy recovery rate for different discharge rates and the production temperature (Tmin) above which the doublet is working. With respect to the results, we propose a design model to estimate the life time and energy recovery rate of the geothermal doublet. The life time is estimated as a function of N...... errors in predicting the life time of low-enthalpy geothermal systems for N/G values below 70%....

  20. Evaluating the fisheries potential of solar salt works reservoirs at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artisanal fisheries are important livelihoods for coastal communities in many developing countries, where uncontrolled fishing can easily lead to depleted stocks in nearshore waters. Man-made reservoirs associated with solar salt works along the coast of Ungwana Bay provide alternative fishing grounds for local fishers ...

  1. Evaluation on the effectiveness of natural fractures in Changxing Fm reef-flat facies reservoirs, Yuanba area, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyuan Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Study on the effectiveness of fractures is of great significance for understanding reservoir types and properties, identifying reservoir seepage mechanisms and delineating the reasonable development technologies and policies. In this paper, the Changxing reef-flat facies reservoirs in the Yuanba area, Sichuan Basin, was taken as an example. After the characteristics of natural fractures were evaluated, the effectiveness of different types of fractures was investigated by using core, thin section, imaging logging and production performance data. Then, the main geological factors that influence fracture effectiveness were analyzed, and the development significance of effective fractures was illustrated. The following results are obtained. (1 Structural fractures and diagenetic fractures are mainly developed in Changxing Fm carbonate reservoirs in Yuanba area. Structural fractures include shear fractures and extensional fractures, and diagenetic fractures include dissolution fractures, structural-dissolution fractures and pressure-solution fractures. (2 High-angle structural fractures are the most effective, followed by horizontal fractures and then oblique fractures, and pressure-solution fractures are the least effective. (3 Among structural fractures, those of NW–SE and nearly E–W oriented are more effective than those of the NE–SW oriented. (4 The earlier the fractures are formed, the more likely they are to be filled with calcite or dolomite and become invalid. (5 The fractures which are formed before or during the oil and gas charging tend to be filled with organic matters and become invalid. The late fractures which are formed after oil and gas charging are mostly effective and their contribution to the reservoir is the greatest. (6 The fractures nearly parallel to the maximum principal stress direction of current ground stress present good effectiveness with large opening. It is concluded that the opening and filling features of

  2. 3D Sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Facies architecture, reservoir properties, and flow behavior within delta front facies elements of the Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Frontier Formation, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher D. White

    2009-12-21

    rock types (\\Eg sandstones and mudstones) and the variation of transport properties (\\Eg permeability and porosity) within bodies of a particular rock type. Both basin-wide processes such as sea-level change and the autocyclicity of deltaic processes commonly cause deltaic reservoirs to have large variability in rock properties; in particular, alternations between mudstones and sandstones may form baffles and trends in rock body permeability can influence productivity and recovery efficiency. In addition, diagenetic processes such as compaction, dissolution, and cementation can alter the spatial pattern of flow properties. A better understanding of these properties, and improved methods to model the properties and their effects, will allow improved reservoir development planning and increased recovery of oil and gas from deltaic reservoirs. Surface exposures of ancient deltaic rocks provide a high resolution, low uncertainty view of subsurface variability. Patterns and insights gleaned from these exposures can be used to model analogous reservoirs, for which data is much sparser. This approach is particularly attractive when reservoir formations are exposed at the surface. The Frontier Formation in central Wyoming provides an opportunity for high resolution characterization. The same rocks exposed in the vicinity of the Tisdale anticline are productive in nearby oil fields, including Salt Creek. Many kilometers of good-quality exposure are accessible, and the common bedding-plane exposures allow use of shallow-penetration, high-resolution electromagnetic methods known as ground-penetrating radar. This study combined geologic interpretations, maps, vertical sections, core data, and ground-penetrating radar to construct high-resolution geostatistical and flow models for the Wall Creek Member of the Frontier Formation. Stratal-conforming grids were use to reproduce the progradational and aggradational geometries observed in outcrop and radar data. A new, Bayesian method

  3. Facies architecture of the Bluejacket Sandstone in the Eufaula Lake area, Oklahoma: Implications for the reservoir characterization of the Bartlesville Sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Liangmiao; Yang, Kexian [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Outcrop studies of the Bluejacket Sandstone (Middle Pennsylvanian) provide significant insights to reservoir architecture of the subsurface equivalent Bartlesville Sandstone. Quarry walls and road cuts in the Lake Eufaula area offer excellent exposures for detailed facies architectural investigations using high-precision surveying, photo mosaics. Directional minipermeameter measurements are being conducted. Subsurface studies include conventional logs, borehole image log, and core data. Reservoir architectures are reconstructed in four hierarchical levels: multi-storey sandstone, i.e. discrete genetic intervals; individual discrete genetic interval; facies within a discrete genetic interval; and lateral accretion bar deposits. In both outcrop and subsurface, the Bluejacket (Bartlesville) Sandstone comprises two distinctive architectures: a lower braided fluvial and an upper meandering fluvial. Braided fluvial deposits are typically 30 to 80 ft thick, and are laterally persistent filling an incised valley wider than the largest producing fields. The lower contact is irregular with local relief of 50 ft. The braided-fluvial deposits consist of 100-400-ft wide, 5-15-ft thick channel-fill elements. Each channel-fill interval is limited laterally by an erosional contact or overbank deposits, and is separated vertically by discontinuous mudstones or highly concentrated mudstone interclast lag conglomerates. Low-angle parallel-stratified or trough cross-stratified medium- to coarse-grained sandstones volumetrically dominate. This section has a blocky well log profile. Meandering fluvial deposits are typically 100 to 150 ft thick and comprise multiple discrete genetic intervals.

  4. Predicting interwell heterogeneity in fluvial-deltaic reservoirs: Outcrop observations and applications of progressive facies variation through a depositional cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, P.R.; Barton, M.D. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Nearly 11 billion barrels of mobile oil remain in known domestic fluvial-deltaic reservoirs despite their mature status. A large percentage of this strategic resource is in danger of permanent loss through premature abandonment. Detailed reservoir characterization studies that integrate advanced technologies in geology, geophysics, and engineering are needed to identify remaining resources that can be targeted by near-term recovery methods, resulting in increased production and the postponement of abandonment. The first and most critical step of advanced characterization studies is the identification of reservoir architecture. However, existing subsurface information, primarily well logs, provides insufficient lateral resolution to identify low-permeability boundaries that exist between wells and compartmentalize the reservoir. Methods to predict lateral variability in fluvial-deltaic reservoirs have been developed on the basis of outcrop studies and incorporate identification of depositional setting and position within a depositional cycle. The position of a reservoir within the framework of a depositional cycle is critical. Outcrop studies of the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone of Utah have demonstrated that the architecture and internal heterogeneity of sandstones deposited within a given depositional setting (for example, delta front) vary greatly depending upon whether they were deposited in the early, progradational part of a cycle or the late, retrogradational part of a cycle. The application of techniques similar to those used by this study in other fluvial-deltaic reservoirs will help to estimate the amount and style of remaining potential in mature reservoirs through a quicklook evaluation, allowing operators to focus characterization efforts on reservoirs that have the greatest potential to yield additional resources.

  5. Impact of rock salt creep law choice on subsidence calculations for hydrocarbon reservoirs overlain by evaporite caprocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marketos, G.; Spiers, C.J.; Govers, R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate forward modeling of surface subsidence above producing hydrocarbons reservoirs requires an understanding of the mechanisms determining how ground deformation and subsidence evolve. Here we focus entirely on rock salt, which overlies a large number of reservoirs worldwide, and specifically

  6. Depositional facies, diagenesis and their impact on the reservoir quality of Silurian sandstones from Tazhong area in central Tarim Basin, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinliang; Qin, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhongjie

    2008-06-01

    The Silurian sandstones of the Tazhong area are an important oil exploration target in the Tarim Basin, western China. This study deals with the Lower Silurian of the Kalpingtag Formation, which was deposited in a braided delta system. Four major depositional microfacies are identified consisting of distributary channel, interdistributary bay, front bar and sand sheet. In spite of their large lateral extent, exploration of these sandstones is complicated by variation of sediment facies and intense diagenesis, which strongly affected reservoir quality. Depositional environment exerted an essential control on the reservoir quality. Higher energy, well-sorted and relatively coarser grained sandstones have better quality than low-energy fine-grained, clay-rich sandstones. Diagenesis was mainly composed of mechanical and chemical compaction and cementation by quartz overgrowths, carbonates and various clay minerals. Mechanical compaction was a significant porosity reducing agent in the Silurian sandstones. The presence of carbonate cement exerts a dominant influence on porosity and permeability in Tazhong area. Other cements are less important, but quartz cement is significant. The third significant element is clay minerals. The porosity reduction by compaction and cementation and the relative timing of them indicates that compaction was much more important than cementation in reducing porosity.

  7. Facies sedimentology, mineralogy and genetic stratigraphy of the lower-Lias silici-clastic reservoirs of Cere-La-Ronde; Sedimentologie de facies, mineralogie et stratigraphie genetique des reservoirs silicoclastiques du Lias inferieur de Cere-La-Ronde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiller, M.

    1997-11-21

    Some sandstone reservoirs in the South West of the Parisian Basin (Sologne) are used for gas storage in the underground aquifer by GDF. The study aims to reconstruct the geometry of these reservoirs and to establish the factors controlling their deposition in the Sologne basin during Rhaetian and Hettangian times. This study combines palynological, sedimentological, mineralogical and sequential analyses. It is applied to channel deposits as well as to flood-plain and over-bank deposits which are rarely considered. The formations are deposited in a continental transgressive context associated to a decreasing subsidence. The different depositional environments varied from the alluvial fan to the coastal plain with different intermediate alluvial plains. They get organized in three depositional profiles which are emphasized by hydrodynamic discontinuities due to irreversible modifications in depositional conditions. The clayey associations change with each depositional profile according to detrital source modifications. They characterize discontinuities due to geodynamic events affecting the Sologne basin (depositional profile changes, pedogenesis). In this continental context, the genetic sequences record a cycle of variation of the river longitudinal profile slope. They determine the sediments geometry which results from the relative sea-level variations. Local tectonics creates an heterogenous subsidence and consequently controls the distribution of the sediments. During tectonic instability periods, the subsiding areas migrate while they do not during tectonic stability periods. The latter end with irreversible change in depositional profile. (author) 135 refs.

  8. Reefs of the Jurassic-Cretaceous west Atlantic margin : an overview of settings, types, facies trends, depositional styles and terminations (with reservoir implications)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliuk, L.S. [GeoTours Consulting Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    In the past 40 years, approximately 20 exploratory wells have been drilled in the Jurassic-Cretaceous Abenaki Formation near-margin carbonate sequences off the Atlantic coast. These include the pioneer wells drilled in the 1970s offshore Nova Scotia, a mid-1980s group including 3 Baltimore Canyon wells in the United States, and those following EnCana's Deep Panuke 1998 gas discovery offshore Nova Scotia. A comparison of these wells has revealed 2 margin settings over deep basement highs versus prograded carbonates, 3 reef-reef mound/slope types, and an overall vertical facies trend that reveals an upward progression from microbial-rich slope beds to shallower forereef to reef and reef-flat beds initially rich in coralline sponges, followed by more microsolenid corals and bioeroded stormreworked coral-rich and oncolitic debris beds up to oolitic shoals. The top of carbonate bank sequences may be replaced gradually by shallow-water siliciclastics near deltaic depocentres or abruptly by deeper-water sponge-reef-derived beds. Smaller-scale similar flooding and shoaling patterns exist within this overall style that allow sequence or parasequence subdivision in Nova Scotia following an initial oolitic flooding event immediately above the Misaine shale. The association of deltas and reef termination suggests drowning by nutrient poisoning. The mid-Mesozoic biotas appear more robust by living in close proximity to siliciclastics. Being at the carbonate shelf margin and in a non-argillaceous shallow water reef-associated facies would appear to be necessary requirements for gas-bearing reservoir development in the Abenaki, but they are not sufficient. Originally porous oolitic grainstones are tight in areas where they are deeply buried in the Panuke area. Siliciclastic burial influenced the limestone cementation, resulting in potential stratigraphic trapping where offset by subsurface dolomitization and leaching fed by fractures or faults in coarser reef

  9. Two-point versus multiple-point geostatistics: the ability of geostatistical methods to capture complex geobodies and their facies associations—an application to a channelized carbonate reservoir, southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyyedhossein; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Ataee-pour, Majid; Khoshdel, Hossein

    2014-12-01

    Facies models try to explain facies architectures which have a primary control on the subsurface heterogeneities and the fluid flow characteristics of a given reservoir. In the process of facies modeling, geostatistical methods are implemented to integrate different sources of data into a consistent model. The facies models should describe facies interactions; the shape and geometry of the geobodies as they occur in reality. Two distinct categories of geostatistical techniques are two-point and multiple-point (geo) statistics (MPS). In this study, both of the aforementioned categories were applied to generate facies models. A sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and a truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS) represented two-point geostatistical methods, and a single normal equation simulation (SNESIM) selected as an MPS simulation representative. The dataset from an extremely channelized carbonate reservoir located in southwest Iran was applied to these algorithms to analyze their performance in reproducing complex curvilinear geobodies. The SNESIM algorithm needs consistent training images (TI) in which all possible facies architectures that are present in the area are included. The TI model was founded on the data acquired from modern occurrences. These analogies delivered vital information about the possible channel geometries and facies classes that are typically present in those similar environments. The MPS results were conditioned to both soft and hard data. Soft facies probabilities were acquired from a neural network workflow. In this workflow, seismic-derived attributes were implemented as the input data. Furthermore, MPS realizations were conditioned to hard data to guarantee the exact positioning and continuity of the channel bodies. A geobody extraction workflow was implemented to extract the most certain parts of the channel bodies from the seismic data. These extracted parts of the channel bodies were applied to the simulation workflow as hard data. This

  10. Crosswell Seismic Amplitude-Versus-Offset for Detailed Imaging of Facies and Fluid Distribution within Carbonate Oil Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Pennington; Mohamed Ibrahim; Roger Turpening; Sean Trisch; Josh Richardson; Carol Asiala; Walid Mabrouk

    2008-09-30

    Crosswell seismic surveys were conducted at two fields in northern Michigan. One of these, Springdale, included two monitor wells that are located external to the reef, and the other, Coldspring, employed two production wells within the reef. The Springdale wells extended to much greater depths than the reef, and imaging was conducted from above and from beneath the reef. The resulting seismic images provide the best views of pinnacle Niagaran reefs obtained to date. The tops of the reservoirs can be clearly distinguished, and their lateral extent or dipping edges can be observed along the profile. Reflecting events internal to the reef are evident; some of them are fairly continuous across the reef and others are discontinuous. Inversion of the seismic data indicates which events represent zones of higher porosity and which are lower porosity or even anhydrite plugged. The full stacked image includes angles that are beyond critical for many of the interfaces, and some reflections are visible only for a small range of angles, presumably near their critical angle. Stacking these angles in provides an opportunity for these events to be seen on the stacked image, where otherwise they would have been unrecognized. For inversion, however, the complexity associated with phase changes beyond critical can lead to poor results, and elastic inversion of partial angle stacks may be best conducted with restrictions to angles less than critical. Strong apparent attenuation of signals occurs when seismic ray paths pass through the upper part of the Springdale reservoir; this may be due to intrinsic attenuation and/or scattering of events due to the locally strongly varying gas saturation and extremely low fluid pressures. Signal-to-noise limitations become evident far from the source well in the Coldspring study, probably because the raw data were strongly affected by tube-wave noise generated by flow through the perforation of the receiver well. The seismic images obtained, and

  11. Impact of rock salt creep law choice on subsidence calculations for hydrocarbon reservoirs overlain by evaporite caprocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marketos, G.; Spiers, C. J.; Govers, R.

    2016-06-01

    Accurate forward modeling of surface subsidence above producing hydrocarbons reservoirs requires an understanding of the mechanisms determining how ground deformation and subsidence evolve. Here we focus entirely on rock salt, which overlies a large number of reservoirs worldwide, and specifically on the role of creep of rock salt caprocks in response to production-induced differential stresses. We start by discussing available rock salt creep flow laws. We then present the subsidence evolution above an axisymmetric finite element representation of a generic reservoir that extends over a few kilometers and explore the effects of rock salt flow law choice on the subsidence response. We find that if rock salt creep is linear, as appropriate for steady state flow by pressure solution, the subsidence response to any pressure reduction history contains two distinct components, one that leads to the subsidence bowl becoming narrower and deeper and one that leads to subsidence rebound and becomes dominant at later stages. This subsidence rebound becomes inhibited if rock salt deforms purely through steady state power law creep at low stresses. We also show that an approximate representation of transient creep leads to relatively small differences in subsidence predictions. Most importantly, the results confirm that rock salt flow must be modeled accurately if good subsidence predictions are required. However, in practice, large uncertainties exist in the creep behavior of rock salt, especially at low stresses. These are a consequence of the spatial variability of rock salt physical properties, which is practically impossible to constrain. A conclusion therefore is that modelers can only resort to calculating bounds for the subsidence evolution above producing rock salt-capped reservoirs.

  12. A geostatistical model of facies-architecture and internal heterogeneity of Rotliegend-reservoirs developed from outcrop-analogues. Outcrop-analogue study Cutler Group (Utah/USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmen, A.

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this DGMK study was the collection of data that document the distribution of facies units within mixed fluvial/aeolian deposits. The Cutler Group of southeastern Utah was chosen as an outcrop analog since it contains all major lithofacies common within such deposits (aeolian dunes and interdunes, fluvial channel-films as well as lacustrine and Sabkha deposits). Because of the outstanding outcrop quality in this region, numerous detailed datasets could be collected, which allowed the visualization of size, distribution, and sedimentological inventory of the different facies in various ''paleogeographical'' maps and diagrams. A genetic model, which explains the presence of correlative horizons and cyclic patterns of deposition, could be developed. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung dieses DGMK-Forschungsvorhabens war es, quantitative Daten zur Verteilung fazieller Einheiten innerhalb eines gemischt fluviatil/aeolischen Ablagerungsraums zu gewinnen. Die Cutler Group im Suedosten des amerikanischen Bundesstaates Utah wurde als Aufschlussanalog gewaehlt, in welchem die typischen Ablagerungen eines solchen Deposystems vorhanden sind (aeolische Duenen und -Interduenen, fluviatile Rinnenfuellungen, sowie lakustrine und Sabkha-Ablagerungen). Aufgrund der hervorragenden Aufschlusssituation konnten detaillierte Datensaetze gewonnen werden, welche die Darstellung von Groesse, bevorzugter Ausrichtung und Sedimentologie potentieller Heterogenitaetselemente entweder direkt als ''paleogeographische'' Karten, oder in statistischer Form ermoeglichten. Ein genetisches Modell erklaert die Zyklizitaet der Ablagerungen und die Anwesenheit von weitraeumig korrelierbaren Horizonten. (orig.)

  13. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico-stratigraphic hierarchy and cycle stacking facies distribution, and interwell-scale heterogeneity: Grayburg Formation, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, R.J.; Ward, W.B.; Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-06-01

    The Grayburg Formation (middle Guadalupian) is a major producing interval in the Permian Basin and has yielded more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil in West Texas. Grayburg reservoirs have produced, on average, less than 30 percent of their original oil in place and are undergoing secondary and tertiary recovery. Efficient design of such enhanced recovery programs dictates improved geological models to better understand and predict reservoir heterogeneity imposed by depositional and diagenetic controls. The Grayburg records mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on shallow-water platforms that rimmed the Delaware and Midland Basins. Grayburg outcrops in the Guadalupe and Brokeoff Mountains region on the northwest margin of the Delaware Basin present an opportunity to construct a detailed, three-dimensional image of the stratigraphic and facies architecture. This model can be applied towards improved description and characterization of heterogeneity in analogous Grayburg reservoirs. Four orders of stratigraphic hierarchy are recognized in the Grayburg Formation. The Grayburg represents a long-term composite sequence composed of four high-frequency sequences (HFS 1-4). Each HFS contains several composite cycles comprising two or more cycles that define intermediate-scale transgressive-regressive successions. Cycles are the smallest scale upward-shoaling vertical facies successions that can be recognized and correlated across various facies tracts. Cycles thus form the basis for establishing the detailed chronostratigraphic correlations needed to delineate facies heterogeneity.

  14. Facies-architecture of fossil arid siliciclastic depositional systems as outcrop analogue for Rotliegend reservoirs. Literature study; Faziesarchitektur fossiler arid-klastischer Ablagerungsraeume als Rotliegend-Reservoiranalog. Literaturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmen, A.

    1999-08-01

    In this project a literature-based study was carried out in order to document the facies-architecture of siliciclastic sediments from arid environments and to investigate their suitability as outcrop-analogues for the strata of the Southern Permian Basin. The report resulting from this investigation presents possible analogues and case-studies. Three Formations (Flechtingen Sandstone, Corrie Sandstone and Cedar Mesa Sandstone of the Cutler Group) are especially well suited to serve as outcrop analogue for the 'Rotliegend' Sediments of the Southern Permian Basin. Possible analogues are documented at various scales, ranging from bed-scale to formation scale. Also, special attention was paid to general trends and what factors control them. To make a comparison of Formations from different settings possible, criteria were elaborated to qualify the relevant controlling factors. The catalog itself is preceded by a comprehensive preface, that introduces to the subject and points out the connection between the primary sediment fabric and its petrophysical properties. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses DGMK Forschungsvorhabens wurde eine Literaturstudie durchgefuehrt, welche die Faziesarchitektur fossiler arid-klastischer Sedimente darstellt und auf ihre Eignung als Rotliegend-Reservoiranalog untersucht. Die vorliegende Dokumentation stellt verschiedene moegliche Analoge und Fallbeispiele dar, wobei drei Abfolgen als besonders geeignet erscheinen. Es wurden Kriterien erarbeitet, die relevante Kontrollfaktoren qualifizieren, um einen Vergleich verschiedener arid-klastischer Sedimentationsraeume zu ermoeglichen. Die Bandbreite der Darstellung moeglicher Analoge umfasst das gesamte Spektrum vom Gefuegemassstab bis hin zu genetischen Einheiten und beleuchtet die jeweiligen Steuerungsfaktoren der Ablagerung. Der eigentlichen Dokumentation wurde eine umfassende Einleitung vorangestellt, welche in die Thematik einfuehrt und Zusammenhaenge zwischen primaerem

  15. Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.

    2017-05-26

    Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.

  16. Salinity management in river basins : modelling and management of the salt-affected Jarreh Reservoir (Iran)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shiati, K.

    1991-01-01

    The sources and origin of salts in the basin of the two salt- affected Shapur and Dalaki rivers (Southern Iran) and the processes involved in salinization have been studied. The extent of water deterioration have been identified by examining spatial changes in the rivers water

  17. Tests of US rock salt for long-term stability of CAES reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehle, R.M.; Thoms, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is a report on laboratory tests to assess the effects of compressed air energy storage (CAES) on rock salt within the US. The project included a conventional laboratory test phase, with triaxial test machines, and a bench-scale test phase performed in salt mines in southern Louisiana. Limited numerical modeling also was performed to serve as a guide in selecting test layouts and for interpreting test data.

  18. The role of deformation bands controlling reservoir quality in a salt-walled mini-basin, Central North Sea, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Philip; Jones, Stuart; Imber, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    At shallow burial depths, sediments are typically poorly consolidated and subject to low confining pressure and differential stress. Fractures that form in poorly consolidated and therefore non-lithified sediments would be unable to remain open. However, the large amount of pore space present would allow for processes such as grain sliding and grain rolling, resulting in the formation of deformation bands. The structure and style of the resulting deformation bands would depend on the size, shape and sorting of the grains, as well as early cementation, porosity and the orientation and magnitude of the local stresses. Previous studies on deformation bands in general have shown that they produce an anisotropy that can affect fluid flow. Early deformation band formation near the surface may also influence later diagenesis at greater burial depths, and thus have a further impact on fluid flow in sandstone. Dilatant (deformation) bands are commonly reported for poorly consolidated sandstones at surface or near-surface conditions (fractures, faults and deformation bands create a complex system of permeable fluid pathways and cemented baffles at deeper burial. The results presented highlight the importance of constraining the occurrence of dilation and dilatant shear bands along the margins of salt-walled mini-basins to better understand the kinematics of the salt movement and additional loading on adjacent sediments. Furthermore, this research identifies the importance of early formed deformation bands in controlling meteoric water influx and governing later reservoir quality for spatially and temporally complex sedimentary fills of salt-walled mini-basins.

  19. Evaluation of polyacrylamide gels with accelerator ammonium salts for water shutoff in ultralow temperature reservoirs: Gelation performance and application recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shutoff in ultralow temperature reservoirs has received great attention in recent years. In previous study, we reported a phenol-formaldehyde-based gel formula with ammonium salt which can provide a gelation time between 2 hrs and 2 days at 25 °C. However, systematic evaluation and field recommendations of this gel formula when encountering complex reservoirs environment are not addressed. In this paper, how and why such practical considerations as water composition, temperature, pH, weight ratio of formaldehyde to resorcinol and contaminant Fe3+ to affect the gelation performance are examined. Brookfield DV-III and scanning electron microscopy (SEM are employed respectively for viscosity measurement and microstructure analysis. SEM results further illustrate the mechanism of the effect of salinity on gelation performance. It reveals that crosslinking done by covalent bond has great advantage for gel stability under high salinity environment. The target gel formula can provide desirable gelation time below 60 °C, perfect for 15–45 °C, while it is unfeasible to use high salinity to delay gelation at 60 °C. We summarized the effect of salinity on gelation performance of different gel formulas from the present study and published literature. The summarized data can provide important guideline for gel formula design before conducting any kinds of experiments. The variation of gelation performance at different salinity may be dominated by the interaction between crosslinker-salt-polymer, not only limited to “charge-screening effect” and “ion association” proposed by several authors. We hope the analysis encouraging further investigations. Some recommendations for field application of this gel are given in the end of this paper.

  20. Origins of carbonate spherulites: Implications for Brazilian Aptian pre-salt reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, Henry; Barth, Jennifer; Cook, Megan; Guo, Xuan; Zhou, Jie

    2018-03-01

    Spherulites, spherical to elliptical allochems composed of crystals radiating from a common core, investigated from a variety of depositional settings, e.g., hot springs, ambient water temperature geyser, tufa, and caliche, are all composed of a fine-grained nucleus made-up of carbonate encrusted bacterial bodies, biofilms, and/or EPS and surrounded by a cortex of radiating crystals of either aragonite or calcite. The microbes and their by-products in the nucleus induced the precipitation of carbonate, overcoming the inhibition to initiate crystal formation. The enveloping radiating crystals comprising aragonitic cortices tended to grow abiotically producing well-formed euhedral crystals with a paucity of included bacterial fossils. Whereas those cortical crystals made-up of calcite commonly contained bacterial fossils, indicating that the bacterial colonies contributed to the calcitic cortical crystal precipitation. Similar spherulites form a thick, widespread accumulation in the Aptian Pre-Salt lacustrine deposits in the Campos Basin, offshore Brazil. As with the travertine, tufa, and caliche spherulites, the Pre-Salt spherulites most likely initiated carbonate precipitation around bacterial colonies and/or their bioproducts, probably while afloat in a lacustrine water column before settling to the water-sediment interface. Absence of inter-spherulite sediment and the spherulite-to-spherulite compaction indicate that cortical crystal growth continued while the spherulites were at the sediment-water interface rather than displacively within a sediment.

  1. Facies and facies architecture and depositional environments of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depositional environments of the Yolde Formation were studied based on the analysis of facies and facies architecture. Five sections within the Gongola Basin were studied and ten lithofocies were recognized based on lithology and sedimentary structures. The sandstone ranges from quartzarenite to subarkose and well to ...

  2. Latent space classification of seismic facies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Atish

    Supervised and unsupervised seismic facies classification methods are slowly gaining popularity in hydrocarbon exploration and production workflows. Unsupervised clustering is data driven, unbiased by the interpreter beyond the choice of input data and brings out the natural clusters present in the data. There are several competing unsupervised clustering techniques, each with advantages and disadvantages. In this dissertation, I demonstrate the use of various classification techniques on real 3D seismic data from various depositional environments. Initially, I use the popular unsupervised Kohonen self-organizing maps (SOMs) algorithms and apply it to a deep-water Gulf of Mexico 3D dataset to identify various deep-water depositional facies including basin floor fans, mass transport complexes and feeder channels. I then extend this algorithm to characterize a heterogeneous Mississippian Chert reservoir from Oklahoma and map the locations of the tight/non-porous chert and limestone vs. more prospective porous tripolitic chert and fractured chert zones. The tight chert and dense limestone can be highly fractured, giving rise to an additional seismic facies. In both the case studies, a large number of potential classes are fed into the SOM algorithm. These "prototype vectors" are clustered and colors are assigned to them using a 2D gradational RGB color-scale for visual aid in interpretation. Kohonen SOM suffers from the absence of any proper convergence criterion and rules for parameter selection. These shortcomings are addressed by the more recent development of generative topographic mapping (GTM) algorithm. GTM is based on a probabilistic unsupervised classification technique and "generates" a PDF to map the data about a lower dimensional "topographic" surface residing in high dimensional attribute space. GTM predicts not only which cluster best represents the data, but how well it is predicted by all other clusters. For this reason, GTM interfaces neatly with

  3. Identify re-development concepts to enhance Abu Roash “C” oil reservoir productivity Sitra Area, Abu Gharadig Basin, Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Salama

    2017-06-01

    The resultant stratigraphic units consist of: genetically related depositional cycles (3 cycles and their components of facies sequences (5 facies types, each cycle has its own distribution, facies classification and reservoir characteristics.

  4. T-R Cycle Characterization and Imaging: Advanced Diagnostic Methodology for Petroleum Reservoir and Trap Detection and Delineation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-08-30

    Characterization of stratigraphic sequences (T-R cycles or sequences) included outcrop studies, well log analysis and seismic reflection interpretation. These studies were performed by researchers at the University of Alabama, Wichita State University and McGill University. The outcrop, well log and seismic characterization studies were used to develop a depositional sequence model, a T-R cycle (sequence) model, and a sequence stratigraphy predictive model. The sequence stratigraphy predictive model developed in this study is based primarily on the modified T-R cycle (sequence) model. The T-R cycle (sequence) model using transgressive and regressive systems tracts and aggrading, backstepping, and infilling intervals or sections was found to be the most appropriate sequence stratigraphy model for the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico to improve petroleum stratigraphic trap and specific reservoir facies imaging, detection and delineation. The known petroleum reservoirs of the Mississippi Interior and North Louisiana Salt Basins were classified using T-R cycle (sequence) terminology. The transgressive backstepping reservoirs have been the most productive of oil, and the transgressive backstepping and regressive infilling reservoirs have been the most productive of gas. Exploration strategies were formulated using the sequence stratigraphy predictive model and the classification of the known petroleum reservoirs utilizing T-R cycle (sequence) terminology. The well log signatures and seismic reflector patterns were determined to be distinctive for the aggrading, backstepping and infilling sections of the T-R cycle (sequence) and as such, well log and seismic data are useful for recognizing and defining potential reservoir facies. The use of the sequence stratigraphy predictive model, in combination with the knowledge of how the distinctive characteristics of the T-R system tracts and their subdivisions are expressed in well log patterns

  5. Sedimentary facies, correlation, and architecture of Rotliegend reservoirs at the Southern Permian basin margin: The P01-FA case study and the challenged myth of layer-cake stratigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscariello, A.

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentology, log analysis, and high-resolution seismic data of the P01-FA structure, located in the western part of the Netherlands sector of the North Sea, were used to assess the correlatability and connectivity of the sand bodies, to unravel the complex internal reservoir architecture, and to

  6. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion with Facies-based Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-dong; Alkhalifah, Tariq; Naeini, Ehsan Zabihi; Sun, Bingbing

    2018-03-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) incorporates all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters described by the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion beyond improved acoustic imaging, like in reservoir delineation, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Some anisotropic parameters are insufficiently updated because of their minor contributions to the surface collected data. Adding rock physics constraints to the inversion helps mitigate such limited sensitivity, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a global constraint for the whole area. Since similar rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elasticity and anisotropy parameters (this enables us to define them as a seismic facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel approach to use facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such facies using Bayesian theory and update them at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. We take the uncertainties of the estimated parameters (approximated by radiation patterns) into consideration and improve the quality of estimated facies maps. Four numerical examples corresponding to different acquisition, physical assumptions and model circumstances are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion with Facies-based Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2018-03-20

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) incorporates all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters described by the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion beyond improved acoustic imaging, like in reservoir delineation, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Some anisotropic parameters are insufficiently updated because of their minor contributions to the surface collected data. Adding rock physics constraints to the inversion helps mitigate such limited sensitivity, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a global constraint for the whole area. Since similar rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elasticity and anisotropy parameters (this enables us to define them as a seismic facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel approach to use facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such facies using Bayesian theory and update them at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. We take the uncertainties of the estimated parameters (approximated by radiation patterns) into consideration and improve the quality of estimated facies maps. Four numerical examples corresponding to different acquisition, physical assumptions and model circumstances are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Electro-facies analysis of the Sarvak Formation (Middle Cretaceous) and compliance with sedimentary micro facies in an oil field, SW Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eghbalkiani, Z.; Goli, T.; Jalilian, A. H.; Kadkhodaie, R.

    2016-01-01

    Electro-facies analysis is a sure method in clustering petrophysical logs analysis that can well indicates the changes of geologic characteristic's of the different lithostratigraphic units as well. Petrographic studies of 120 prepared thin sections of the upper parts of the Sarvak Formation in studied oil field, Southwestern Iran, has resulted in definition of 6 micro facies sedimentary types. These data suggested that the middle Creataceous sediments in the studied area were predominantly deposited in two subenviornments of patch organic barrier and lagoon corresponding to inner and shallow a homoclinal ramp. In addition, using petrophysical logs in the studied well, 10 electrical facies were determined. By analyzing the data petrophysical in Geology software, 10 electrical facies were optimized and then their number was reduced to six. According to good adaptation of optimized electrical facies with sedimentary micro facies, we would generalized obtained dresults to all parts of the Sarvak Formation. Study of porosity changes in the electrical diagrams such as CGR corrected Gamma, and sonic curves in mentioned well, indicated a significant reduction in facies porosity of 1 to 6. In addition, the results showed that the reservoir quality reduction in studied micro facies is corresponded to Bioclastic Rudist debris floatstone/ Rudstone, Benthic foraminifera Rudist debris wackestone / packstone, Benthic Foraminifera peloid Grainstone/Packstone, with High diversity benthic foraminifera wackestone / packstone, Peloid bioclastic wackestone /packstone with Low diversity benthic Foraminifera and Mudestone/Wackestone, respectively. In this study, we concluded that comparison and correlation sedimentary facies with electric microfacies provide an efficient method to study the quality of the hydrocarbon reservoir system that especially can be used in other wells with no core.

  9. facies and facies architecture and depositional environments of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    Gabukka stream section (Fig. 7) it occurs in medium to fine grained facies in the upper part of the section at several levels (Fig. 7). They may be produced from ... ii). A well sorted saltation with a slope of 53o – 84o that forms. 42% - 89% of the distribution. A single segment curve is characteristic of G12 and it displays: i).

  10. Sequence stratigraphy, depositional facies and reservoir continuity of a storm-wave - and tide-dominated Delta: An example from the Lower Cretaceous Ben Nevis and Avalon Formations, Jeanne D'Arc Basin, Grand Banks, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabry, H. (Mobil Oil Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1990-05-01

    The Avalon Formation is recognized as a regressive/transgressive sequence of Barremian to late Aptian age, overlain unconformably (sequence boundary) by the Aptian to Albian Ben Nevis transgressive sequence. Sedimentation took place in a Mesozoic failed-rift basin setting dominated by an inferred delta complex that occupied the southern end of the Jeanne D'Arc basin. Geostrophic events, namely storm waves and tidal currents, dispersed and fractionated sediments northward into mainly thin-bedded clean sands with interbedded argillaceous, silty beds. The Avalon and Ben Nevis formations contain collectively four reservoir zones separated by two shale markers representing marine-flooding surfaces. Based on detailed sedimentologic investigation of over 6,000 ft of Avalon and Ben Nevis cores, the following geologic history of events and depositional model are proposed. Prior to the Avalon sequence, a lowstand prograding wedge of the eastern Shoals Formation terminated with lagoonal red mudstones and was locally emergent and rooted. During deposition of the basal Avalon (late Barremian), a slow transgression, marked by brackish water sediments, started, resulting in the formation of transgressive barrier bars and migrating tidal inlets in the Hibernia area. These transgressive shoreline sands display good reservoir continuity across the basin with large oil recoveries, e.g., Hibernia 0-35 field. A subsequent slow drop in relative sea level in the central part of the basin resulted in deposition and development of a prograding delta-front platform. Close to the end of Avalon deposition (middle Aptian), an ensuing rapid drop in relative sea level initiated very rapid seaward progradation of the coastal zone and incision of fluvial/estuarine channels into the older now-exposed delta-front platform.

  11. Fluid circulation and diagenesis of carbonated and sandstone reservoirs in the fronts and fore-lands of folded chains: the Salt Range case - Poswar (Pakistan); Circulation des fluides et diagenese des reservoirs carbonates et greseux dans les fronts de chaines plissees et leur avant pays: le cas du Salt Range - Poswar (Pakistan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benchilla, L.

    2003-05-01

    The Salt Range-Poswar Province is located in the western foothills of the Himalayas, in northern Pakistan. It extends over 170 km from the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) in the north to the Salt Range in the south. The Salt Range itself is dominantly an ENE-trending structure, but it comprises also a NNW-trending lateral ramp which connects to the west with the Surghar Range. The Salt Range constitutes the frontal part of a detached allochthonous thrust sheet. The sedimentary cover is indeed entirely detached from its substratum along Infracambrian salt horizons. Palaeozoic to Eocene platform series are well exposed in the hanging wall, whereas Neogene molasse has been extensively under-thrust in the footwall of this large over-thrust. The North Potwar Basin is bordered by the Khari-Murat Ridge and coeval back-thrusts in the south, by the northern flank of the Soan syncline in the southeast, and by the MBT in the north. In addition to Neogene outcrops, it also comprises a number of surface anticlines and thrust fronts along which the Eocene platform carbonates are exposed. The Datta Formation is the main Jurassic oil reservoir in the Potwar Basin. It is a fluvio-deltaic deposit which comprises large porous and permeable channels associated to many-calcareous interbeds. The formations crop out well in both the Nammal and Chichali Gorges. The oil field of Toot, located in the western part of the basin, is producing from this reservoir. The petrographic observations show that diagenesis occurred mainly early and was controlled by the fluvio-deltaic environment. (author)

  12. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-05-26

    The principal research effort for Phase 1 (Concept Development) of the project has been data compilation; determination of the tectonic, depositional, burial, and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin; basin modeling (geohistory, thermal maturation, hydrocarbon expulsion); petroleum system identification; comparative basin evaluation; and resource assessment. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, and regional cross sections have been prepared. Structure, isopach and formation lithology maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs include Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies; shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies; and carbonate shoal, shelf and reef facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary. Hydrocarbon

  13. Prediction of Diagenetic Facies using Well Logs: Evidences from Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation Chang 8 Sandstones in Jiyuan Region, Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Jin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The eighth member of Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation (Chang 8 is the major oil reservoir unit in Jiyuan oil field, though with the high potential for oil exploration. The Chang 8 sandstones are characterized with low porosity, low permeability and strong microscopic heterogeneities due to the complex deep-burial diagenetic history. Detailed petrological studies by thin section, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, core analysis have been used to investigate the lithogology characteristics, diagenesis, diagenetic minerals and their coupling impacts on reservoir property. The results show that Chang 8 sandstones comprise fine to mediumgrained subarkoses, feldspathic litharenites. The pore systems are dominated by remaining primary intergranular pores, secondary dissolution porosity and micropores. Then, five diagenetic facies were divided in Chang 8 sandstones based on the type and degree of diagenesis, diagenetic minerals assemblages and their coupling effects on the reservoir quality. They consist of grain-coating chlorite weak dissolution facies, unstable component dissolution facies, tight compaction facies, clay minerals filling facies and carbonate cementation facies. The well logging response characteristics of various diagenetic facies are summarized on Gamma Ray (GR, Density Logging (DEN, Acoustic (AC, Compensated Neutron Logging (CNL, and True Formation Resistivity (RT by translating diagenetic facies to well log responses, the diagenetic facies were defined by a set of log responses, and porosity, permeability ranges for each diagenetic facies were determined from core analyses. Well log data of Luo 13 and Chi 212 are processed to evaluate the accuracy of the predictive model. The diagenetic facies are predicted on the vertical profile based on the generated model. Predicted distribution of diagenetic facies precisely coincide with the microscopic observations, and diagenetic facies in Chang 8 sandstones are generally

  14. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion With Facies Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2017-08-17

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims fully benefit from all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters describing the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example in reservoir analysis, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a boundary condition for the whole area. Since certain rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elastic and anisotropic parameters (facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel confidence map based approach to utilize the facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such a confidence map using Bayesian theory, in which the confidence map is updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. The numerical examples show that the proposed method can reduce the trade-offs and also can improve the resolution of the inverted elastic and anisotropic properties.

  15. Facies Distribution and Petrophysical Properties of Shoreface-Offshore Transition Environment in Sandakan Formation, NE Sabah Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, M. Firdaus A.; Suhaili Ismail, M.; Rahman, A. Hadi A.; Azfar Mohamed, M.

    2017-10-01

    Newly exposed outcrop of Miocene shallow marine sandstone in Sandakan Formation, allows characterization of the facies distribution and petrophysical properties of shoreface to offshore transition environment. Six facies are defined: (1) Poorly bioturbated Hummocky Cross Stratified (HCS) sandstone (F1), (2) Moderately bioturbated HCS sandstone (F2), (3) Well bioturbated HCS sandstone (F3), (4) Poorly bioturbated Swaley Cross Stratified (SCS) sandstone (F4), (5) Interbedded HCS sandstone with sand-silt mudstone, (6) Heterolithic mudstone. The sedimentary successions were deposited in upper to lower shoreface, and offshore transition environment. Facies F3, F4 and F5 shows good reservoir quality with good porosity and fair permeability values from 20% to 21% and 14 mD to 33 mD respectively. While Facies F1 exhibits poor reservoir quality with low permeability values 3.13 mD.

  16. Sedimentary facies and lithologic characters as main factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulations and their critical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qing Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking more than 1000 clastic hydrocarbon reservoirs of Bohai Bay Basin, Tarim Basin and Junggar Basin, China as examples, the paper has studied the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon reservoirs and their critical conditions to reveal the hydrocarbon distribution and to optimize the search for favorable targets. The results indicated that the various sedimentary facies and lithologic characters control the critical conditions of hydrocarbon accumulations, which shows that hydrocarbon is distributed mainly in sedimentary facies formed under conditions of a long-lived and relatively strong hydrodynamic environment; 95% of the hydrocarbon reservoirs and reserves in the three basins is distributed in siltstones, fine sandstones, lithified gravels and pebble-bearing sandstones; moreover, the probability of discovering conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs decreases with the grain size of the clastic rock. The main reason is that the low relative porosity and permeability of fine-grained reservoirs lead to small differences in capillary force compared with surrounding rocks small and insufficiency of dynamic force for hydrocarbon accumulation; the critical condition for hydrocarbon entering reservoir is that the interfacial potential in the surrounding rock (Φn must be more than twice of that in the reservoir (Φs; the probability of hydrocarbon reservoirs distribution decreases in cases where the hydrodynamic force is too high or too low and when the rocks have too coarse or too fine grains.

  17. Turbidite Facies of the Halang Formation in Ajibarang Area, Central Java

    OpenAIRE

    Praptisih Praptisih; Kamtono Kamtono

    2014-01-01

    DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i1.112An understanding of deepwater turbidite sediments is very important mainly dealing with the determination of a reservoir geometry. The problem arising in the turbidite sediment geometry is very complex and varied, and its existence depends on how, when, and type of its environment. In Central Java, the broad turbidite sediment distribution of the Halang Formation is needed to be observed its facies association. This paper will discuss the turbidite facies of Halang ...

  18. Seismic-geometric facies model of lacustrine carbonates of Morro do Chaves Formation, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin; Modelagem sismica-geometrica de facies dos carbonatos lacustres da Formacao Morro do Chaves, Bacia de Sergipe-Alagoas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Eliseu Massaaki [Internacional America Latina PETROBRAS Colombia (Colombia). E e P. UN-COL. Gerencia de Ativos Offshore], e-mail: eliseuk@petrobras.com.br

    2010-05-15

    Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, to the seismic facies of a high-resolution seismic section (out thrust-1) from the same outcrop This model was based on the interaction of three models: the Integration Facies Model; Stratigraphic- Structural Facies Model and Velocity Facies Model. The first relates the gamma-rays, sonic velocity, porosity and geometry information with the kinds of facies associations. The second is the result of the integration of the first model with the outcrop 3-D Laser-scanner topographic image and the structural geometric observations. The last is the representation of the substitution of the facies associations of the second model for their respective sonic velocities. This last model was the input parameter to the 2-D acoustic model, which produced a synthetic seismic section of the outcrop of a similar standard to the high-resolution section of out thrust-1. The out thrust-1 high-resolution seismic section interpretation, based on the Seismic-Geometric Facies Model, demonstrated that the facies associations found in the shallow drill hole S-217 and well FU-107, both 50m from the seismic line, correlate in the same seismic-stratigraphic level. More importantly, the geometries of the seismic facies found in the stratigraphic and structural positions were consistent with those observed in the outcrop geological structural analysis. This evidence indicates that the seismic model of the coquinas outcrop, Morro do Chaves Formation, may be used as an analogue model in hydrocarbon exploration and production activities, particularly in the coquinas facies reservoirs of the Lagoa Feia Formation, Campos Basin. (author)

  19. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman

    2005-05-10

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  20. The research on method of interlayer modeling based on seismic inversion and petrophysical facies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the three-dimensional distribution of interlayer is realized by stochastic modeling. Traditionally, the three-dimensional geological modeling controlled by sedimentary facies models is built on the basis of logging interpretation parameters and geophysical information. Because of shallow gas-cap, the quality of three-dimensional seismic data vertical resolution in research area cannot meet the interlayer research that is below ten meters. Moreover, sedimentary facies cannot commendably reveal interlayer distribution and the well density is very sparse in research area. So, it is difficult for conventional technology to finely describe interlayers. In this document, it uses L1-L2 combined norm constrained inversion to enhance the recognition capability of interlayer in seismic profile and improve the signal to noise ratio, the wave group characteristics and the vertical resolution of three-dimensional data and classifies petrophysical facies of interlayer based on core, sedimentary facies and logging interpretation. The interlayer model which is based on seismic inversion model and petrophysical facies can precisely simulate the distribution of reservoir and interlayer. The results show that the simulation results of this new methodology are consistent with the dynamic production perfectly which provide a better basis for producing and mining remaining oil and a new interlayer modeling method for sparse well density.

  1. Sedimentary Facies in the Arab formation offshore Abu Dhabi, U. A. E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masayoshi; Osawa, Masahiro

    1987-01-01

    Results of study of core and thin piece observation using a core of the Arab formation is as follows: The Arab formation is composed of pure carbonate-rock and evaporite which do not contain the substances of the land source and heaped in the Post Jurassic Era, and this formation is present at the depth of 2000 m and deeper in the ground and is a major oil source in the Arabian Gulf area. This facies duplicates in conformity with Diyab facies which consists of offshore limestone formation of muddy and bituminous nature. The Arabic formation is divided in four oil-reservoir zones, out of which the bottom zone consists of porous layer of coarse limestone, and other three zones are the mixture of thin layers of limestone, magnesia stone, and hard gypsum. Porosity of the Arab formation is approximately 18 % at maximum, and permeability 120 md. The impermeable layer of the Arab formation consists of an evaporite facies; the thickness of the layer ranges from 30 cm to 6 m, according to the core slab observation, and the carbonate facies consists of six facies each containing the shells and the pseudo-shells. (8 figs)

  2. Coupling fracture facies with in situ permeability measurements to generate stochastic simulations of tight carbonate aquifer properties: example from the Lower Cretaceous aquifer, Northern Provence, SE France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Pierre-Olivier; Guglielmi, Yves; Viseur, Sophie; Lamarche, Juliette

    2015-04-01

    The relationships between fracture facies and permeability distribution have been explored using a well-constrained 3D implicit structural model of hemipelagic low porosity/low permeability carbonate from the Northern Provence region, SE France. Fracture and permeability facies were determined using an extensive dataset of 99 hydrogeological boreholes wells. Data processing was undertaken using a step-by-step approach, involving: i) identification of the fracture facies based on well logs detailing structure and stratigraphy ; ii) determination of permeability facies from the a priori correlation between the dimension of the hydraulic radius of influence (deduced from slug test analyses) and the type of reservoir heterogeneity (fissure, fracture, fault zone, etc.); iii) three dimensional plot of fracture and permeability facies in the geological model using a variographic analysis of data. Thirty-three sequential indicator simulations (SIS) were realised on both fracture and permeability facies. Finally, a connectivity algorithm was developed to compute the probability of connection between selected infiltration areas and the major aquifer springs via moderate-to high-permeability geological bodies. Key results are: i) fault zones have a greater role in controlling permeability facies distribution than on fracture facies repartition; ii) there is little correlation between permeability and fracture facies distributions ; iii) connectivity results highlight the compartmentalization of aquifers in the Cadarache area, the extensions of permeable geological bodies being limited by the N130 faults.

  3. Coupling fracture facies with in-situ permeability measurements to generate stochastic simulations of tight carbonate aquifer properties: Example from the Lower Cretaceous aquifer, Northern Provence, SE France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Pierre-Olivier; Guglielmi, Yves; Viseur, Sophie; Lamarche, Juliette; Bildstein, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    The relationships between fracture facies and permeability distribution have been explored using a well-constrained 3D implicit structural model of hemipelagic low porosity/low permeability carbonate from the Northern Provence region, SE France. Fracture and permeability facies were determined using an extensive dataset of 99 hydrogeological wells. Data processing was undertaken using a step-by-step approach, involving: (i) identification of the fracture facies based on well logs detailing structure and stratigraphy; (ii) determination of permeability facies from the a priori correlation between the dimension of the hydraulic radius of influence (deduced from slug test analyses) and the type of reservoir heterogeneity (fissure, fracture, fault zone, etc.); (iii) three dimensional plot of fracture and permeability facies in the geological model using a variographic analysis of data. Thirty-three sequential indicator simulations (SIS) based on geostatistic analyses were realised on both fracture and permeability facies. Finally, a connectivity algorithm was developed to compute the probability of connection between selected infiltration areas and the major aquifer springs via moderate- to high-permeability geological bodies. Key results are: (i) fault zones have a greater role in controlling permeability facies distribution than on fracture facies repartition; (ii) there is little correlation between permeability and fracture facies distributions; (iii) connectivity results highlight the compartmentalisation of aquifers in the Cadarache area, the extensions of permeable geological bodies being limited by the N130 faults.

  4. Lateral Facies and Permeability Changes in Upper Shoreface Sandstones, Berakas Syncline, Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovinda Ovinda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.1.11-20Several outcrops were studied to identify sedimentary facies and to analyze permeability distribution, through which an outcrop analogue for upper shoreface reservoirs can be established. Four facies were identified: upper shoreface, lower shoreface, offshore transition, and tidal ones. Stratigraphic correlation of eleven outcrops indicates that the upper shoreface sandstone is generally clean, well sorted, parallel, and planar cross laminated. The sand becomes thinner and pinches out to the northwest where the mud proportion increases within the sand. Muddier sand was deposited in a relatively low energy upper shoreface setting. The thickness of the upper shoreface reservoir sand generally is 5 m. It decreases to zero over approximately 1.3 km as the sand pinches out to the northwest. To the northeast, the thickness also decreases to 4 m over approximately 4 km. Permeability values are more variable laterally than vertically. The permeability distribution has an obvious relationship to the sedimentary facies and is mainly controlled by the proportion of mud and bioturbation. As the sand pinches out in the northwest, permeability decreases from 590 md to 97 md over 1 km. To the northeast, permeability also decreases to 152 md over approximately 4 km where the sand becomes highly bioturbated. These values indicate that the sands are of good to very good reservoir quality. It appears that there are no major barriers to the lateral flow of fluid within the upper shoreface sandstone.

  5. Barrier island facies models and recognition criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to

  6. Mesozoic (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) deep gas reservoir play, central and eastern Gulf coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, E.A.; Li, P.; Goddard, D.A.; Ramirez, V.O.; Talukdar, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The Mesozoic (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) deeply buried gas reservoir play in the central and eastern Gulf coastal plain of the United States has high potential for significant gas resources. Sequence-stratigraphic study, petroleum system analysis, and resource assessment were used to characterize this developing play and to identify areas in the North Louisiana and Mississippi Interior salt basins with potential for deeply buried gas reservoirs. These reservoir facies accumulated in Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Norphlet, Haynesville, Cotton Valley, and Hosston continental, coastal, and marine siliciclastic environments and Smackover and Sligo nearshore marine shelf, ramp, and reef carbonate environments. These Mesozoic strata are associated with transgressive and regressive systems tracts. In the North Louisiana salt basin, the estimate of secondary, nonassociated thermogenic gas generated from thermal cracking of oil to gas in the Upper Jurassic Smackover source rocks from depths below 3658 m (12,000 ft) is 4800 tcf of gas as determined using software applications. Assuming a gas expulsion, migration, and trapping efficiency of 2-3%, 96-144 tcf of gas is potentially available in this basin. With some 29 tcf of gas being produced from the North Louisiana salt basin, 67-115 tcf of in-place gas remains. Assuming a gas recovery factor of 65%, 44-75 tcf of gas is potentially recoverable. The expelled thermogenic gas migrated laterally and vertically from the southern part of this basin to the updip northern part into shallower reservoirs to depths of up to 610 m (2000 ft). Copyright ?? 2008. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  7. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stable isotope analysis of the limestone shows that 13C and 18O values are compatible with the early Mesoproterozoic open seawater composition. The ribbon limestone facies in the Rohtas Limestone is characterized by micritic beds, each decoupled in a lower band enriched and an upper band depleted in dissolution ...

  8. Parts-based geophysical inversion with application to water flooding interface detection and geological facies detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwei

    I built parts-based and manifold based mathematical learning model for the geophysical inverse problem and I applied this approach to two problems. One is related to the detection of the oil-water encroachment front during the water flooding of an oil reservoir. In this application, I propose a new 4D inversion approach based on the Gauss-Newton approach to invert time-lapse cross-well resistance data. The goal of this study is to image the position of the oil-water encroachment front in a heterogeneous clayey sand reservoir. This approach is based on explicitly connecting the change of resistivity to the petrophysical properties controlling the position of the front (porosity and permeability) and to the saturation of the water phase through a petrophysical resistivity model accounting for bulk and surface conductivity contributions and saturation. The distributions of the permeability and porosity are also inverted using the time-lapse resistivity data in order to better reconstruct the position of the oil water encroachment front. In our synthetic test case, we get a better position of the front with the by-products of porosity and permeability inferences near the flow trajectory and close to the wells. The numerical simulations show that the position of the front is recovered well but the distribution of the recovered porosity and permeability is only fair. A comparison with a commercial code based on a classical Gauss-Newton approach with no information provided by the two-phase flow model fails to recover the position of the front. The new approach could be also used for the time-lapse monitoring of various processes in both geothermal fields and oil and gas reservoirs using a combination of geophysical methods. A paper has been published in Geophysical Journal International on this topic and I am the first author of this paper. The second application is related to the detection of geological facies boundaries and their deforation to satisfy to geophysica

  9. Unsupervised seismic facies analysis with spatial constraints using regularized fuzzy c-means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chengyun; Liu, Zhining; Cai, Hanpeng; Wang, Yaojun; Li, Xingming; Hu, Guangmin

    2017-12-01

    Seismic facies analysis techniques combine classification algorithms and seismic attributes to generate a map that describes main reservoir heterogeneities. However, most of the current classification algorithms only view the seismic attributes as isolated data regardless of their spatial locations, and the resulting map is generally sensitive to noise. In this paper, a regularized fuzzy c-means (RegFCM) algorithm is used for unsupervised seismic facies analysis. Due to the regularized term of the RegFCM algorithm, the data whose adjacent locations belong to same classification will play a more important role in the iterative process than other data. Therefore, this method can reduce the effect of seismic data noise presented in discontinuous regions. The synthetic data with different signal/noise values are used to demonstrate the noise tolerance ability of the RegFCM algorithm. Meanwhile, the fuzzy factor, the neighbour window size and the regularized weight are tested using various values, to provide a reference of how to set these parameters. The new approach is also applied to a real seismic data set from the F3 block of the Netherlands. The results show improved spatial continuity, with clear facies boundaries and channel morphology, which reveals that the method is an effective seismic facies analysis tool.

  10. Ecological-geochemical characteristics of bottom sediments of Sophiivske reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Миколаївна Альохіна

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of the investigation of the chemical composition of the bottom sediments Sophiivske reservoir located on the Ingul River was presented in this article. The most significant factor of differential sedimentation chemical compounds can be facies factor that reflects the impact of geomorphic parameters and hydrological characteristics of the reservoir. There are a change of environment sedimentogenesis from oxidative to reductive on sites near reservoir dam.

  11. Micro-facies of Dead Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Ina; Schwab, Markus J.; Brauer, Achim; Frank, Ute; Dulski, Peter; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Enzel, Yehouda; Waldmann, Nicolas; Ariztegui, Daniel; Drilling Party, Dsddp

    2013-04-01

    Lacustrine sediments infilling the Dead Sea basin (DSB) provide a rare opportunity to trace changing climates in the eastern Mediterranean-Levant region throughout the Pleistocene and Holocene. In this context, high-resolution investigation of changes in sediment micro- facies allow deciphering short-term climatic fluctuations and changing environmental conditions in the Levant. The Dead Sea is a terminal lake with one of the largest drainage areas in the Levant, located in the Mediterranean climate zone and influenced also by the Saharo-Arabian deserts. Due to drastic climatic changes in this region, an exceptionally large variety of lacustrine sediments has been deposited in the DSB. These sediments, partially the results of changing lake levels, primarily represent changes in precipitation (e.g. Enzel et al., 2008). Evaporites (halite and gypsum) reflect dry climatic conditions during interglacials, while alternated aragonite-detritus (AAD) is deposited during glacial lake level high-stands. Here we present the first micro-facies inventory of a ~450 m long sediment profile from the deepest part of the northern DSB (ICDP site 5017-1, ~300 m water depth). The sediment record comprises the last two glacial-interglacial cycles, with mainly AAD facies in the upper part of the Amora Formation (penultimate glacial) and the last glacial Lisan Formation. The last interglacial Samra and the Holocene Zeelim Formations are predominantly characterized by thick bedded halite deposits, intercalated by partly laminated detrital marl sequences. Representative sections of the different facies types have been analyzed for micro-facies on petrographic thin sections, supported by high-resolution µXRF element scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements and microscopic fluorescence analysis. Furthermore, Holocene sediments retrieved at the deep basin core site have been compared to their shallow-water counterpart at the western margin of the lake (core DSEn; Migowski et al., 2004

  12. Reservoir characterization of hydraulic flow units in heavy-oil reservoirs at Petromonagas, eastern Orinoco belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merletti, G.D.; Hewitt, N.; Barrios, F.; Vega, V.; Carias, J. [BP Exploration, Houston, TX (United States); Bueno, J.C.; Lopez, L. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    An accurate integrated reservoir description is necessary in extra-heavy oil prospects where pore throat geometries are the ultimate control on hydrocarbon primary recovery. The key element in producing accurate oil reservoir descriptions and improving productivity is to determine relationships between core-derived pore-throat parameters and log-derived macroscopic attributes. This paper described the use of the flow zone indicator technique (FZI) to identify hydraulic units within depositional facies. It focused on a petrophysical analysis aimed at improving the description of reservoir sandstones containing heavy or extra heavy oil in the eastern Orinoco belt in Venezuela. The Petromonagas license area contains large volumes of crude oil in-place with an API gravity of 8. Production comes primarily from the lowermost stratigraphic unit of the Oficina Formation, the Miocene Morichal Member. Facies analysis has revealed various depositional settings and core measurements depict a wide range in reservoir quality within specific depositional facies. The reservoir is divided into 4 different rock qualities and 5 associated non-reservoir rocks. The use of the FZI technique provides a better understanding of the relationship between petrophysical rock types and depositional facies. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  13. Reconstructing historical changes in the environmental health of watersheds by using sediment cores from lakes and reservoirs in Salt Lake Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Stephens, Doyle W.; Callender, Edward; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2000-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake Basins study area of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, which began in 1997, is increasing the scientific understanding of factors that affect surface-water quality within the study-area boundaries (fig. 1). One way to improve the understanding of these factors is to look at historical trends in existing water-quality data. Unfortunately, short record lengths, in- consistent analytical methods, numerous measurements at less than detection levels, and questionable accuracy limit the usefulness of historical monitoring data for most trace inorganic and organic contaminants found in streams, rivers, and lakes in the study area.

  14. Facies and depositional environments for the coquinas of the Morro do Chaves Formation, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, defined by taphonomic and compositional criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Tavares

    Full Text Available Lacustrine carbonate rocks form important hydrocarbon accumulations along the Brazilian continental margin, some of which are contained in oil fields in which coquinas are one of the main reservoirs (viz. Campos Basin. The complexity and heterogeneity of these deposits make them a challenge in terms of reservoir description. For the necessary classification and paleoenvironmental interpretation of the coquinas, it is essential to evaluate many aspects including biological (such as carbonate productivity, sedimentological (energy regime in the depositional environment, transport of bioclasts, terrigenous supply, taphonomic (fragmentation of shells, abrasion and diagenetic processes. The facies analysis applied in this study is considered a more appropriate classification approach to understand these coquinas, since it is more flexible and comprehensive than the existing classifications for carbonate rocks. The material investigated here consists of rock samples of the coquinas from the Atol Quarry of the Morro do Chaves Formation (Barremian/Aptian, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin. These rocks that crop out in the Atol quarry complex can be considered as a case study for similar coquinas reservoirs found in the Brazilian continental margin basins. Six sedimentary facies were described, using the main taphonomic (fragmentation of shells and compositional (presence of micrite and siliciclastic matrix features as a diagnostic criteria. Two carbonate facies, two mixed carbonate-siliciclastic facies and two siliciclastic facies (mudstones were identified. From the facies succession, combined with a review of the literature on the subject, the following depositional paleoenvironments were defined: high-energy lake platform, lacustrine delta in a high-energy lake platform and lake-centre. In this paper, a new facies model for the studied coquinas succession is proposed.

  15. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  16. Reservoir Modeling Combining Geostatistics with Markov Chain Monte Carlo Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zunino, Andrea; Lange, Katrine; Melnikova, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    We present a study on the inversion of seismic reflection data generated from a synthetic reservoir model. Our aim is to invert directly for rock facies and porosity of the target reservoir zone. We solve this inverse problem using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) method to handle the nonlinear,...... constitute samples of the posterior distribution.......We present a study on the inversion of seismic reflection data generated from a synthetic reservoir model. Our aim is to invert directly for rock facies and porosity of the target reservoir zone. We solve this inverse problem using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) method to handle the nonlinear......, multi-step forward model (rock physics and seismology) and to provide realistic estimates of uncertainties. To generate realistic models which represent samples of the prior distribution, and to overcome the high computational demand, we reduce the search space utilizing an algorithm drawn from...

  17. Sedimentary mode and reservoir distribution of the Cambrian carbonate & evaporate paragenesis system in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cambrian carbonate & evaporite paragenesis system in the Sichuan Basin is made up of the Longwangmiao, Gaotai and Xixiangchi Fms. So far, great breakthrough has been made only in the Longwangmiao Fm instead of the latter two, and the Anyue Gasfield was discovered in the center of this basin. In this paper, therefore, the Cambrian carbonate & evaporite paragenesis system in the Sichuan Basin was analyzed in terms of its structural–sedimentary setting, sequence stratigraphic framework, sedimentary facies and the distribution of evaporites by using various geologic, logging and seismic data. Then, the geological model of sedimentary facies was established and the distribution range of favorable reservoirs was predicted. Based on these studies, the following results are obtained. Firstly, the palaeotectonic framework is characterized by the style of “one depression between two uplifts” in the setting of a large SE dipping slope, and the stratigraphic filling is in the structure of “onlapping at the bottom and truncation at the top” which is thin in the west and thick in the east. Secondly, three third-order sequence cycles which, on the whole, become shallow upward are developed from bottom to top, and gypsum-salt rocks are mainly located at the high system tract (HST of third-order sequences and concentrated in the Wanzhou–Yibin sag. Thirdly, the geological model of sedimentary facies is composed of three major sedimentary structural layers from bottom to top, namely the evaporative carbonate ramp, the evaporative diamictic restricted platform and the evaporative restricted platform. The sedimentary environment changes from the open to the closed and the penesaline for a long time, and then back to the open. The distribution of shoals changes from the pattern of “dual banks” in a large area to more scattered shoals and banded shoals, while the evaporative lagoon and tidal flat shrink. Fourthly, the reservoir distribution is

  18. The Bakken - An Unconventional Petroleum and Reservoir System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarg, J.

    2011-12-31

    An integrated geologic and geophysical study of the Bakken Petroleum System, in the Williston basin of North Dakota and Montana indicates that: (1) dolomite is needed for good reservoir performance in the Middle Bakken; (2) regional and local fractures play a significant role in enhancing permeability and well production, and it is important to recognize both because local fractures will dominate in on-structure locations; and (3) the organic-rich Bakken shale serves as both a source and reservoir rock. The Middle Bakken Member of the Bakken Formation is the target for horizontal drilling. The mineralogy across all the Middle Bakken lithofacies is very similar and is dominated by dolomite, calcite, and quartz. This Member is comprised of six lithofacies: (A) muddy lime wackestone, (B) bioturbated, argillaceous, calcareous, very fine-grained siltstone/sandstone, (C) planar to symmetrically ripple to undulose laminated, shaly, very fine-grained siltstone/sandstone, (D) contorted to massive fine-grained sandstone, to low angle, planar cross-laminated sandstone with thin discontinuous shale laminations, (E) finely inter-laminated, bioturbated, dolomitic mudstone and dolomitic siltstone/sandstone to calcitic, whole fossil, dolomitic lime wackestone, and (F) bioturbated, shaly, dolomitic siltstone. Lithofacies B, C, D, and E can all be reservoirs, if quartz and dolomite-rich (facies D) or dolomitized (facies B, C, E). Porosity averages 4-8%, permeability averages 0.001-0.01 mD or less. Dolomitic facies porosity is intercrystalline and tends to be greater than 6%. Permeability may reach values of 0.15 mD or greater. This appears to be a determinant of high productive wells in Elm Coulee, Parshall, and Sanish fields. Lithofacies G is organic-rich, pyritic brown/black mudstone and comprises the Bakken shales. These shales are siliceous, which increases brittleness and enhances fracture potential. Mechanical properties of the Bakken reveal that the shales have similar

  19. The sedimentary facies characteristics and lithofacies palaeogeography during Middle-Late Cambrian, Sichuan Basin and adjacent area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifan Lu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the regional strata filling characteristics of Middle-Upper Cambrian, the present paper conducts a systematic research on sedimentary facies in the basin and its peripheral area by utilizing 164 field outcrops and drilling and coring data. Further, the method of “multi-factor comprehensive synthesis based on single-factor analysis” was employed to investigate the sedimentary facies and palaeogeography of the study area and establish the sedimentary facies model. Stratigraphic reveals that the study area represents the pattern of thin-northwest and thick-southeast by stretching northeast-southwest. Within the present basin, the pattern of “one thin and two thick” predominates, while outside the basin “four thin and three thick” filling feature was found. Sedimentary facies shows that the study area was featured by rimmed carbonate platform. Specifically, carbonate platform, slope and northeastern corner Qinling paleooceanic Basin and southeastern corner Jiangnan Bain was identified from the west to the east. The carbonate platform contains restricted platform, evaporation-restricted platform, semi-restricted platform and the platform margin. Single factor analysis and lithofacies palaeogeographic characteristics manifests that during Middle-Late Cambrian, the western Old land evolved into peneplain stage, and that the eastern and southwestern sub-sags remained connected to the open-sea to some extent. At the time, the shllow seawater circulation was relatively restricted, while the ancient seabed tended to be flat and evaporation characteristics significantly diminished. Secondary sea-level fluctuation intensively influenced the development of scaled grain beach. It is suggested that tide marginal beach, intraplatform shoal subfacies zone, along with Shiqian-SangZhi in southeast and Zhenba-Xinshan in northeast platform-margin beach subfacies zone to be preferable targets for the favorable reservoir facies zone and

  20. Static reservoir modeling of the Bahariya reservoirs for the oilfields development in South Umbarka area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed I.; Metwalli, Farouk I.; Mesilhi, El Sayed I.

    2018-02-01

    3D static reservoir modeling of the Bahariya reservoirs using seismic and wells data can be a relevant part of an overall strategy for the oilfields development in South Umbarka area (Western Desert, Egypt). The seismic data is used to build the 3D grid, including fault sticks for the fault modeling, and horizon interpretations and surfaces for horizon modeling. The 3D grid is the digital representation of the structural geology of Bahariya Formation. When we got a reasonably accurate representation, we fill the 3D grid with facies and petrophysical properties to simulate it, to gain a more precise understanding of the reservoir properties behavior. Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS) and Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) techniques are the stochastic algorithms used to spatially distribute discrete reservoir properties (facies) and continuous reservoir properties (shale volume, porosity, and water saturation) respectively within the created 3D grid throughout property modeling. The structural model of Bahariya Formation exhibits the trapping mechanism which is a fault assisted anticlinal closure trending NW-SE. This major fault breaks the reservoirs into two major fault blocks (North Block and South Block). Petrophysical models classified Lower Bahariya reservoir as a moderate to good reservoir rather than Upper Bahariya reservoir in terms of facies, with good porosity and permeability, low water saturation, and moderate net to gross. The Original Oil In Place (OOIP) values of modeled Bahariya reservoirs show hydrocarbon accumulation in economic quantity, considering the high structural dips at the central part of South Umbarka area. The powerful of 3D static modeling technique has provided a considerable insight into the future prediction of Bahariya reservoirs performance and production behavior.

  1. 3D modeling of stratigraphic units and simulation of seismic facies in the Lion gulf margin; Modelisation 3D des unites stratigraphiques et simulation des facies sismiques dans la marge du golfe du Lion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chihi, H.

    1997-05-12

    This work aims at providing a contribution to the studies carried out on reservoir characterization by use of seismic data. The study mainly consisted in the use of geostatistical methods in order to model the geometry of stratigraphic units of the Golfe du Lion margin and to simulate the seismic facies from high resolution seismic data. We propose, for the geometric modelling, a methodology based on the estimation of the surfaces and calculation afterwards of the thicknesses, if the modelling of the depth is possible. On the other hand the method consists in estimating the thickness variable directly and in deducing the boundary surfaces afterwards. In order to simulate the distribution of seismic facies within the units of the western domain, we used the truncated Gaussian method. The used approach gave a satisfactory results, when the seismic facies present slightly dipping reflectors with respect to the reference level. Otherwise the method reaches its limits because of the problems of definition of a reference level which allows to follow the clino-forms. In spite of these difficulties, this simulation allows us to estimate the distribution of seismic facies within the units and then to deduce their probable extension. (author) 150 refs.

  2. Stratigraphy, facies analysis and depositional environments of the Upper Unit of Abu Roash "E" member in the Abu Gharadig field, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewaidy, Abdel Galil; Elshahat, O. R.; Kamal, Samy

    2018-03-01

    Abu Roach "E" member is of an important hydrocarbon reservoir-producing horizon in the Abu Gharadig Field (north Western Desert, Egypt). This study is used to build facies analysis and depositional environments model for the Upper Unit of the Abu Roash "E" member in Abu Gharadig Field. This target has been achieved throughout the sedimentological, wire line logs, lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses of more than 528 feet cores. The high-resolution biostratigraphic analysis provides a calibration for the paleo-bathymetry and depositional environmental interpretations. Biozonation and lithostratigraphic markers are used to constrain stratigraphic correlation. Integration between the core description and petorographic microfacies analysis by microscope examination provide an excellent indication for the rock types and depositional environments. Five depositional facies types are detected including carbonate inner ramp, tidal flats, tidal channels, supra-tidal and tide dominated delta facies. This model helps in the understanding of the Upper Unit of Abu Roash "E" member reservoir distribution as well as lateral and vertical facies changes that contribute to the development strategy for the remaining hydrocarbon reserves for this important oil reservoir.

  3. Las facies Keuper al SW de la provincia de Soria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando, S.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the sedimentological analysis of the materials that correspond to the Keuper facies in the area situated between the Iberian Ranges and the Central System. Acording to the obtained data, two main aspects are emphasized: - During the Upper Triassic, a c1ear retreat of the roast line towards the East took place, since this area constituted the litoral zone during the sedimentation of the Rot and Muschelkalk. - Facies change lateraly from West to East as proximal alluvial Can sediments pass into facies interpreted as distal alluvial fans and continental sabkha environment.Se analizan, desde el punto de vista sedimentológico, unos materiales correspondientes a las facies Keuper entre la Cordillera Ibérica y el Sistema Central. Dos aspectos resaltan tras este análisis: - Desplazamiento de la línea de costa (que durante la sedimentación del Rot y del Muschelkalk estaba situada en esta zona hacia el Este. - Marcado cambio lateral de facies desde el Oeste hacia el Este, pasando de unas facies proximales-medias de abanico aluvial a unas facies distales y ambiente de sabkha continental.

  4. Reservoir Modeling Combining Geostatistics with Markov Chain Monte Carlo Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zunino, Andrea; Lange, Katrine; Melnikova, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    We present a study on the inversion of seismic reflection data generated from a synthetic reservoir model. Our aim is to invert directly for rock facies and porosity of the target reservoir zone. We solve this inverse problem using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) method to handle the nonlinear......, multi-step forward model (rock physics and seismology) and to provide realistic estimates of uncertainties. To generate realistic models which represent samples of the prior distribution, and to overcome the high computational demand, we reduce the search space utilizing an algorithm drawn from...... geostatistics. The geostatistical algorithm learns the multiple-point statistics from prototype models, then generates proposal models which are tested by a Metropolis sampler. The solution of the inverse problem is finally represented by a collection of reservoir models in terms of facies and porosity, which...

  5. Reservoir architecture modeling: Nonstationary models for quantitative geological characterization. Final report, April 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.; Epili, D.; Kelkar, M.; Redner, R.; Reynolds, A.

    1998-12-01

    The study was comprised of four investigations: facies architecture; seismic modeling and interpretation; Markov random field and Boolean models for geologic modeling of facies distribution; and estimation of geological architecture using the Bayesian/maximum entropy approach. This report discusses results from all four investigations. Investigations were performed using data from the E and F units of the Middle Frio Formation, Stratton Field, one of the major reservoir intervals in the Gulf Coast Basin.

  6. Hydrogen underground storage in siliciclastic reservoirs - intention and topics of the H2STORE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudlo, Dieter; Ganzer, Leonhard; Henkel, Steven; Liebscher, Axel; Kühn, Michael; De Lucia, Marco; Panfilov, Michel; Pilz, Peter; Reitenbach, Viktor; Albrecht, Daniel; Würdemann, Hilke; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    The transfer of energy supply from nuclear and CO2-emitting power generation to renewable energy production sources is strongly reliant to the potential of storing high capacities of energy in a safe and reliable way in time spans of several months. One conceivable option can be the storage of hydrogen and (related) synthetic natural gas (SNG) production in appropriate underground structures, like salt caverns and pore space reservoirs. Successful storage of hydrogen in the form of town gas in salt caverns has been proven in several demonstration projects and can be considered as state of the art technology. However, salt structures have only limited importance for hydrogen storage due to only small cavern volumes and the limited occurrence of salt deposits suitable for flushing of cavern constructions. Thus, regarding potential high-volume storage sites, siliciclastic deposits like saline aquifers and depleted gas reservoirs are of increasing interest. Motivated by a project call and sponsored by the German government the H2STORE ("Hydrogen to Store") collaborative project will investigate the feasibility and the requirements for pore space storage of hydrogen. Thereby depleted gas reservoirs are a major concern of this study. This type of geological structure is chosen because of their well investigated geological settings and proved sealing capacities, which already enable a present (and future) use as natural (and synthetic) reservoir gas storages. Nonetheless hydrogen and hydrocarbon in porous media exhibit major differences in physico-chemical behaviour, essentially due to the high diffusivity and reactivity of hydrogen. The biotic and abiotic reactions of hydrogen with rocks and fluids will be necessary observed in siliciclastic sediments which consist of numerous inorganic and organic compounds and comprise original formation fluids. These features strongly control petrophysical behaviour (e.g. porosity, permeability) and therefore fluid (hydrogen

  7. Facies pattern of the middle Permian Barren Measures Formation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    offshore facies changes are suggestive of lacustrine environment. (Picard and High 1972). • In general, very low fossil content (as compared to the Barakar and the Raniganj Formations) characterises the Barren Measures Formation.

  8. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-02-28

    The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule. The principal objectives of the project are to develop through basin analysis and modeling the concept that petroleum systems acting in a basin can be identified through basin modeling and to demonstrate that the information and analysis resulting from characterizing and modeling of these petroleum systems in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin can be used in providing a more reliable and advanced approach for targeting stratigraphic traps and specific reservoir facies within a geologic system and in providing a refined assessment of undiscovered and underdeveloped reservoirs and associated oil and gas resources.

  9. Facies heterogeneity and brine-disposal potential of miocene barrier-island, fluvial, and deltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Large volumes of brine must be produced from watered out, geopressured gas reservoirs in the Gulf Coast to recover remaining gas in solution. Secondary-gas recovery in an upper Frio (Oligocene) reservoir in Northeast Hitchcock and Alta Loma fields in Galveston County, Texas, requires the disposal of approximately 20,000 barrels of brine per day into several disposal wells. Lower and middle Miocene barrier-island sands in these fields contain reservoir volumes sufficient for brine disposal at rates of more than 5,000 barrels per well per day for 10 years or more. These sands are continuous and homogeneous and have permeabilities in excess of 2,000 millidarcys. Optimal areas for brine disposal are where new wells contact several of these sands. In contrast, there are fewer well sites for brine disposal in upper Miocene fluvial and deltaic sands in Northeast Hitchcock and Alta Loma fields because these sands are heterogeneous and discontinuous. This book provides core data and net-sand and log-facies maps of several Miocene sands and evaluates sites in these fields for cost-efficient disposal of large volumes of brine.

  10. Monte Carlo reservoir analysis combining seismic reflection data and informed priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zunino, Andrea; Mosegaard, Klaus; Lange, Katrine

    2015-01-01

    Determination of a petroleum reservoir structure and rock bulk properties relies extensively on inference from reflection seismology. However, classic deterministic methods to invert seismic data for reservoir properties suffer from some limitations, among which are the difficulty of handling...... with the goal to directly infer the rock facies and porosity of a target reservoir zone. We thus combined a rock-physics model with seismic data in a single inversion algorithm. For large data sets, theMcMC method may become computationally impractical, so we relied on multiple-point-based a priori information...... to quantify geologically plausible models. We tested this methodology on a synthetic reservoir model. The solution of the inverse problem was then represented by a collection of facies and porosity reservoir models, which were samples of the posterior distribution. The final product included probability maps...

  11. Seismic attributes characterization for Albian reservoirs in shallow Santos Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincentelli, Maria Gabriela C.; Barbosa, Mauro [HRT Petroleum, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Santos basin southwest area is characterized by gas production, but it shows an exploratory problem due to the lack of good reservoirs facies. The main reservoirs are the Albian calcarenites, which show low porosities values (about 2%) in the northwest portion of the study area. From wire log analysis, it was interpreted that the porosity values can reach 15% at the south-west portion, both in the Caravela, Cavalo Marinho and Tubarao oil/gas fields and in the neighborhood of these fields. In order to find the best places to drill exploration wells at Shallow Santos, it is recommended to apply analyses of seismic attributes including: main average amplitude, energy, RMS, main amplitude, etc. Once the application of this methodology is restricted to 3D seismic data, in this study, a pseudo-3D seismic volume was built from 9,635 km of seismic lines, and 13 wells were used for reservoir facies control. As a result, the presence of good facies reservoirs in this area of the basin is restricted to trends with a NE-SW direction, and their presence is not only associated with the structural highs, this fact explains the dry wells over rollover structures. (author)

  12. Facies and depositional model of Almada Canyon, Almada Basin, Bahia, Brazil; Facies e modelo deposicional do Canyon de Almada, Bacia de Almada, Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Avila, Roberto Salvador Francisco; Souza Cruz, Carlos Emanoel de; Oliveira Filho, Jose Souto; Jesus, Candida Menezes de; Cesero, Pedro de; Dias Filho, Dorval Carvalho; Lima, Claudio Coelho de; Queiroz, Claudia Lima de; Santos, Saulo Ferreira; Ferreira, Eduardo Araripe [PETROBRAS, Santos, SP (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao]. E-mail: rdavila@petrobras.com.br

    2004-11-01

    In the continental portion of the Almada Basin outcrops of canyon filling deposits are represented by turbidite channels and associated facies from Urucutuca Formation. The canyon - semi-exhumated - eroded basement and pre-Cenomanian sedimentary rocks. The field study of the outcrops and cores obtained in adjacent perforations lead to the understanding of the facies and processes that controlled the deposition of these channeled turbidite that can be compared to the reservoirs of many oil fields in Brazil. The Almada canyon is a submarine conduct of tectonic origin that was enlarged by the repeated passing of turbidity currents. During the rift phase and the Albian period, compressive events reactivated old N E and N W faults in the basement as trans current fault systems. The continuation of these stresses, from the Cenomanian to the Maastrichtian, developed normal faults that controlled a submarine canyon that connected the continent, where an estuary was formed between the mountains, to the deep marine region of the basin. The canyon has received sediments brought by catastrophic fluvial floods coming from the surrounding mountains, which formed hyperpicnal flows that have evolved as turbidity currents, thus causing erosion of the substrate and carrying a huge volume of sediments to the basin. A part of that load was deposited in the canyon and formed turbidite channels filled by conglomerates, sandstones and shales. These moderately to highly efficient turbidite are intercalated to pro delta pelites and low density turbid plumes deposits, which have mostly been re mobilized as slump and debris flows (chaotic deposits). Pelites were accumulated mainly in the normal fluvial sedimentation phases, when the sandy sediment was retained next to the canyon head and were reworked by the tides on the upper part of the estuary. (author)

  13. Application of Artificial Intelligence to Reservoir Characterization - An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, B.G.; Gamble, R.F.; Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    2000-01-12

    The primary goal of this project is to develop a user-friendly computer program to integrate geological and engineering information using Artificial Intelligence (AI) methodology. The project is restricted to fluvially dominated deltaic environments. The static information used in constructing the reservoir description includes well core and log data. Using the well core and the log data, the program identifies the marker beds, and the type of sand facies, and in turn, develops correlation's between wells. Using the correlation's and sand facies, the program is able to generate multiple realizations of sand facies and petrophysical properties at interwell locations using geostatistical techniques. The generated petrophysical properties are used as input in the next step where the production data are honored. By adjusting the petrophysical properties, the match between the simulated and the observed production rates is obtained.

  14. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  15. Asymmetric crying facies associated with hemihypertrophy: report of one case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caksen, Hüseyin; Patiroğlu, Türkan; Ciftçi, Ahmet; Cikrikçi, Vedat; Ceylaner, Serdar

    2003-01-01

    An infant whose face appears symmetrical at rest yet whose mouth is pulled downward to one side when crying is said to have an "asymmetric crying facies". The cause of the facial asymmetry in this disorder is congenital absence or hypoplasia of the depressor anguli oris muscle at the corner of the mouth. Associations of this minor facial defect with major congenital anomalies have been reported, most commonly in the cardiovascular system and less frequently involving the genitourinary, musculoskeletal, cervicofacial, respiratory, and, rarely, the central nervous system. In this article, a 40-day-old boy with asymmetric crying facies associated with malformed right ear, patent foramen ovale, hemivertebrae, thoracic scoliosis, and hemihypertrophy is presented. The last anomaly has not previously been published in association with asymmetric crying facies in the literature according to our knowledge.

  16. Delineation of geological facies from poorly differentiated data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tartakovsky, Daniel [UCSC

    2008-01-01

    The ability to delineate geologic facies and to estima.te their properties from sparse data is essential for modeling physical and biochemical processes occurring in the 'ubsurface. If such data are poorly differentiated, this challcnrring task is complicated further by the absence of a clear distinction between different hydrofacies even at locations where data. are available. vVe consider three alt mative approaches for analysis of poorly differentiated data: a k-means clU!:iterinrr algorithm, an expectation-maximization algorithm, and a minimum-variance algorithm. Two distinct synthetically generated geological settings are used to r:tnalyze the ability of these algorithmti to as ign accurately the membership of such data in a given geologic facies. On average, the minimum-variance algorithm provides a more robust p rformance than its two counterparts and when combined with a nearest-neighbor algorithm, it also yields the most accurate reconstruction of the boundaries between the facies.

  17. Virtual outcrop models of petroleum reservoir outcrop analogues – a review of the current state-of-the-art

    OpenAIRE

    Pringle, JK; Howell, JA; Hodgetts, D; Westerman, AR; Hodgson, DM

    2006-01-01

    A subsurface reservoir model is a computer based representation of petrophysical parameters such a porosity, permeability, fluid saturation, etc. Given that direct measurement of these parameters is limited to a few wells it is necessary to extrapolate their distribution. As geology is a first order control on petrophysics, it follows that an understanding of facies and their distribution is central to predicting reservoir quality and architecture. The majority of reservoir modelling systems ...

  18. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Len, Shawn; Minavea, Anastasia; Wood, James; Xie, Deyi

    2002-01-01

    This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines

  19. Organic facies applied to petroleum exploration; Facies organica: conceitos, metodos e estudos de casos na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Taissa Rego; Araujo, Carla Viviane; Souza, Igor Viegas Alves F. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Geoquimica,]. E-mail: taissamenezes@petrobras.com.br; Mendonca Filho, Joao Graciano; Mendonca, Joalice de Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    2008-06-15

    The concept of organic facies, as well as the definitions and means of the different facies became a very important tool to petroleum exploration. The application of this concept is the best way to integrate microscopy and geochemical techniques to study kerogen contained in sedimentary rocks. Thus, palynofacies analysis and bulk geochemical methods are used to characterize the total particulate organic matter. Palynofacies analysis involves the integrated study of all aspects of the kerogen assemblage: identification of the individual particulate components, assessment of their absolute and relative proportions and preservation states. The correlation between palynofacies and geochemical data provides the organic facies models that point out the depositional environmental conditions and hydrocarbon source rock potential. (author)

  20. Sedimentology, petrology, and gas potential of the Brallier Formation: upper Devonian turbidite facies of the Central and Southern Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundegard, P.D.; Samuels, N.D.; Pryor, W.A.

    1980-03-01

    The Upper Devonian Brallier Formation of the central and southern Appalachian basin is a regressive sequence of siltstone turbidites interbedded with mudstones, claystones, and shales. It reaches 1000 meters in thickness and overlies basinal mudrocks and underlies deltaic sandstones and mudrocks. Facies and paleocurrent analyses indicate differences between the depositional system of the Brallier Formation and those of modern submarine fans and ancient Alpine flysch-type sequences. The Brallier system is of finer grain size and lower flow intensity. In addition, the stratigraphic transition from turbidites to deltaic sediments is gradual and differs in its facies succession from the deposits of the proximal parts of modern submarine fans. Such features as massive and pebbly sandstones, conglomerates, debris flows, and massive slump structures are absent from this transition. Paleocurrents are uniformly to the west at right angles to basin isopach, which is atypical of ancient turbidite systems. This suggests that turbidity currents had multiple point sources. The petrography and paleocurrents of the Brallier Formation indicate an eastern source of sedimentary and low-grade metasedimentary rocks with modern relief and rainfall. The depositional system of the Brallier Formation is interpreted as a series of small ephemeral turbidite lobes of low flow intensity which coalesced in time to produce a laterally extensive wedge. The lobes were fed by deltas rather than submarine canyons or upper fan channel systems. This study shows that the present-day turbidite facies model, based mainly on modern submarine fans and ancient Alpine flysch-type sequences, does not adequately describe prodeltaic turbidite systems such as the Brallier Formation. Thickly bedded siltstone bundles are common features of the Brallier Formation and are probably its best gas reservoir facies, especially when fracture porosity is well developed.

  1. Multiscale heterogeneity characterization of tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies, Almond Formation outcrops, Rock Springs uplift, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzinger, R.A.; Tomutsa, L. [BDM Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In order to accurately predict fluid flow within a reservoir, variability in the rock properties at all scales relevant to the specific depositional environment needs to be taken into account. The present work describes rock variability at scales from hundreds of meters (facies level) to millimeters (laminae) based on outcrop studies of the Almond Formation. Tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies were sampled on the eastern flank of the Rock Springs uplift, southeast of Rock Springs, Wyoming. The Almond Fm. was deposited as part of a mesotidal Upper Cretaceous transgressive systems tract within the greater Green River Basin. Bedding style, lithology, lateral extent of beds of bedsets, bed thickness, amount and distribution of depositional clay matrix, bioturbation and grain sorting provide controls on sandstone properties that may vary more than an order of magnitude within and between depositional facies in outcrops of the Almond Formation. These features can be mapped on the scale of an outcrop. The products of diagenesis such as the relative timing of carbonate cement, scale of cemented zones, continuity of cemented zones, selectively leached framework grains, lateral variability of compaction of sedimentary rock fragments, and the resultant pore structure play an equally important, although less predictable role in determining rock property heterogeneity. A knowledge of the spatial distribution of the products of diagenesis such as calcite cement or compaction is critical to modeling variation even within a single facies in the Almond Fin. because diagenesis can enhance or reduce primary (depositional) rock property heterogeneity. Application of outcrop heterogeneity models to the subsurface is greatly hindered by differences in diagenesis between the two settings. The measurements upon which this study is based were performed both on drilled outcrop plugs and on blocks.

  2. Characteristics of volcanic reservoirs and distribution rules of effective reservoirs in the Changling fault depression, Songliao Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujun Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Songliao Basin, volcanic oil and gas reservoirs are important exploration domains. Based on drilling, logging, and 3D seismic (1495 km2 data, 546 sets of measured physical properties and gas testing productivity of 66 wells in the Changling fault depression, Songliao Basin, eruptive cycles and sub-lithofacies were distinguished after lithologic correction of the 19,384 m volcanic well intervals, so that a quantitative analysis was conducted on the relation between the eruptive cycles, lithologies and lithofacies and the distribution of effective reservoirs. After the relationship was established between lithologies, lithofacies & cycles and reservoir physical properties & oil and gas bearing situations, an analysis was conducted on the characteristics of volcanic reservoirs and the distribution rules of effective reservoirs. It is indicated that 10 eruptive cycles of 3 sections are totally developed in this area, and the effective reservoirs are mainly distributed at the top cycles of eruptive sequences, with those of the 1st and 3rd Members of Yingcheng Formation presenting the best reservoir properties. In this area, there are mainly 11 types of volcanic rocks, among which rhyolite, rhyolitic tuff, rhyolitic tuffo lava and rhyolitic volcanic breccia are the dominant lithologies of effective reservoirs. In the target area are mainly developed 4 volcanic lithofacies (11 sub-lithofacies, among which upper sub-lithofacies of effusive facies and thermal clastic sub-lithofacies of explosion lithofacies are predominant in effective reservoirs. There is an obvious corresponding relationship between the physical properties of volcanic reservoirs and the development degree of effective reservoirs. The distribution of effective reservoirs is controlled by reservoir physical properties, and the formation of effective reservoirs is influenced more by porosity than by permeability. It is concluded that deep volcanic gas exploration presents a good

  3. Litho-facies changes in Ewekoro limestone using Schlumberger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geoelectric investigations of litho-facies changes in Ewekoro limestone were carried out using Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding technique to delineate the vertical and lateral limestone deposit based on maximum current electrode separation of 1.0 km. The data was interpreted using conventional partial ...

  4. Cone penetration test for facies study: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satriyo, N. A.; Soebowo, E.

    2018-02-01

    Engineering geology investigation through Cone Penetration Test (with pore-pressure measurements) approach is one of the most effective methods to find out sub surface layer. This method is generally used in Late Quaternary and typical deposit and can also be used for sedimentological purposes. CPTu and drilling core for high-resolution stratigraphy sub surface have been done in many research. These combined data can also be used to detail correlations of sub surface stratigraphy, to identify facies change and to determine the interpretation of sequence stratigraphy. The determination facies distribution research based on CPTu profile, which was included in quantitative data, is rarely done especially in Indonesia which has a different climate. Whereas drilling core description using grain size analysis will provide information on validation about physical lithology characteristics which are developed in research area. The interpretation is given using CPTu curve pattern and cone resistance parameter of CPTu’s data correlated with physical characteristics of drilling core. The cone resistance will provide the strength of the sediment layer which also gives the range of data between clay and sand. Finally, the review will show that each of developing facies characteristic provides a specific curve pattern and every sediment deposit facies can be determined by the transformation of CPTu curve profile. Despite the fact that the research using those methods are quite comprehensive, a review is presented on each of these methods related with the chronologic factor seen by the geological time and different characteristics sediment of different location.

  5. Facies characteristics of the basal part of the Talchir Formation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Facies characteristics of the basal part of the Talchir. Formation, Talchir Basin, India – depositional history revisited. Prabir Dasgupta∗ and Rishiraj Sahoo. Department of Geology ... end of a long period of non-deposition that pre- vailed in peninsular India ... the 'glacial tillite' and cited the work of Blanford et al (1856) in sup-.

  6. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Geological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India. The early Mesoproterozoic Rohtas Limestone in the Son valley area of central India represents an overall shallowing-upward carbonate succession. Detailed facies analysis of the limestone reveals outer- to inner-shelf deposition in an open ...

  7. Uranium, rare metals, and granulite-facies metamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cuney

    2014-09-01

    The Tranomaro metasomatized marbles recrystallizing under granulite-facies conditions represent a demonstrative example of fluid transfer from granulite-facies supracrustals to traps represented by regional scale skarns. Such fluids may be at the origin of the incompatible element enrichment detected in leucosomes of migmatites from St Malo in Brittany (France and Black Hills in South Dakota. The northern French Massif Central provides us with an example of a potential association between incompatible element enrichment of granitic melts and granulite-facies metamorphism. U- and F-enriched fine-grained granites are emplaced along a crustal scale shear zone active during the emplacement within the St Sylvestre peraluminous leucogranitic complex. We propose that during granulite-facies metamorphism dominated by carbonic waves in a deep segment of the continental crust, these shear zones control: (i the percolation of F-, LILE-, rare metal-rich fluids liberated primarily by the breakdown of biotite; (ii the enhancement of partial melting by F-rich fluids at intermediate crustal levels with the generation of F-, LILE-, rare metal-rich granitic melts; (iii their transfer through the crust with protracted fractionation facilitated by their low viscosity due to high F-Li contents; and finally (iv their emplacement as rare metal intrusions at shallow crust levels.

  8. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stable isotope analysis of the limestone shows that 13C and 18O values are compatible with the early Mesoproterozoic open seawater composition. The ribbon limestone facies in the Rohtas Limestone is characterized by micritic beds, each decoupled in a lower band enriched and an upper band depleted in dissolution ...

  9. Destratification of an impounding reservoir using compressed air??case of Mudi reservoir, Blantyre, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipofya, V. H.; Matapa, E. J.

    This paper reviews the operational and cost effectiveness of a compressed air destratification system that was installed in the Mudi reservoir for destratifying the reservoir. Mudi reservoir is a raw water source for the Blantyre Water Board. It has a capacity of 1,400,000 cubic metres. The reservoir is 15.3 m deep at top water level. In the absence of any artificial circulation of air, the reservoir stratifies into two layers. There is a warm epilimnion in the top 3 m of the reservoir, with temperatures ranging from 23 to 26 °C. There is prolific algal growth in this layer. The bottom layer has much lower temperatures, and is oxygen deficient. Under such anaerobic conditions, ammonia, sulphides, iron and manganese are released from the sediments of the reservoir. As a result of nutrient inflow from the catchments, coupled with tropical ambient temperatures, the reservoir is most times infested with blue-green algae. This results into water treatment problems in respect of taste and odour and iron and manganese soluble salts. To abate such problems, air is artificially circulated in the reservoir, near the intake tower, through a perforated pipe that is connected to an electrically driven compressor. This causes artificial circulation of water in the hypolimnion region of the reservoir. As a result of this circulation, a hostile environment that inhibits the propagation of algae is created. Dissolved oxygen and temperature profiles are practically uniform from top to bottom of reservoir. Concentrations of iron and manganese soluble salts are much reduced at any of the draw-off points available for the water treatment process. The paper concludes by highlighting the significant cost savings in water treatment that are accrued from the use of compressed air destratification in impounding water storage reservoirs for the control of algae and other chemical pollutants.

  10. A Step Forward to Closing the Loop between Static and Dynamic Reservoir Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cancelliere M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current trend for history matching is to find multiple calibrated models instead of a single set of model parameters that match the historical data. The advantage of several current workflows involving assisted history matching techniques, particularly those based on heuristic optimizers or direct search, is that they lead to a number of calibrated models that partially address the problem of the non-uniqueness of the solutions. The importance of achieving multiple solutions is that calibrated models can be used for a true quantification of the uncertainty affecting the production forecasts, which represent the basis for technical and economic risk analysis. In this paper, the importance of incorporating the geological uncertainties in a reservoir study is demonstrated. A workflow, which includes the analysis of the uncertainty associated with the facies distribution for a fluvial depositional environment in the calibration of the numerical dynamic models and, consequently, in the production forecast, is presented. The first step in the workflow was to generate a set of facies realizations starting from different conceptual models. After facies modeling, the petrophysical properties were assigned to the simulation domains. Then, each facies realization was calibrated separately by varying permeability and porosity fields. Data assimilation techniques were used to calibrate the models in a reasonable span of time. Results showed that even the adoption of a conceptual model for facies distribution clearly representative of the reservoir internal geometry might not guarantee reliable results in terms of production forecast. Furthermore, results also showed that realizations which seem fully acceptable after calibration were not representative of the true reservoir internal configuration and provided wrong production forecasts; conversely, realizations which did not show a good fit of the production data could reliably predict the reservoir

  11. Stochastic Joint Simulation of Facies and Diagenesis: A Case Study on Early Diagenesis of the Madison Formation (Wyoming, USA Simulation stochastique couplée faciès et diagenèse. L’exemple de la diagenèse précoce dans la Formation Madison (Wyoming, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbier M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose an integrated approach to reproduce both facies and diagenetic trends in a static reservoir model based on an outcrop case study. In Wyoming (USA, the Madison Formation (Mississippian is a thick (up to 350 m carbonate series, outcropping in several locations of the Bighorn foreland basin. Within these series, nine sedimentary facies have been identified. Based on their vertical stacking pattern, they are organized in small-scale facies sequences: 1 intertidal to supratidal facies sequence; 2 shallow subtidal to intertidal facies sequence; 3 deep subtidal facies sequence. These facies associations have been integrated in a synthetic depositional model, which corresponds to a carbonate ramp progressively evolving towards the most inner part of a platform. This enables to propose a sequence stratigraphy framework for the studied series, that represents at least six third-order sequences (some of them being locally eroded. The diagenetic study has been focused on the identification of the early diagenetic phases. Results from these analyses show the occurrence of several successive early diagenetic phases (micritization, marine calcite cementation, dolomitization, etc.. For modeling purposes, seven “diagenetic imprints” have been defined, each of them corresponding to a succession of diagenetic phases that can coexist in the same sedimentary facies. Moreover, as each sedimentary facies may be affected by several diagenetic imprints, a quantification of these imprints has been realized. A 3D gridded model designed for geostatistical modeling has been constructed in order to reproduce the facies organization of the three first third-order sequences (that are the best documented. The gridding is then based on the four sequence boundaries which have been recognized on every section. The relationships between sedimentary facies and diagenesis have been used to define lithofacies simulation rules. The simulations

  12. Paleogeographic evolution of carbonate reservoirs: geological and geophysical analysis at the Albian Campos Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Vincentelli, Maria Gabriela; Favoreto, Julia; Roemers-Oliveira, Eduardo

    2018-02-01

    An integrated geophysical and geological analysis of a carbonate reservoir can offer an effective method to better understand the paleogeographical evolution and distribution of a geological reservoir and non-reservoir facies. Therefore, we propose a better method for obtaining geological facies from geophysical facies, helping to characterize the permo-porous system of this kind of play. The goal is to determine the main geological phases from a specific hydrocarbon producer (Albian Campos Basin, Brazil). The applied method includes the use of a petrographic and qualitative description from the integrated reservoir with seismic interpretation of an attribute map (energy, root mean square, mean amplitude, maximum negative amplitude, etc), all calculated at the Albian level for each of the five identified phases. The studied carbonate reservoir is approximately 6 km long with a main direction of NE-SW, and it was sub-divided as follows (from bottom to top): (1) the first depositional sequence of the bank was composed mainly of packstone, indicating that the local structure adjacent to the main bank is protected from environmental conditions; (2) characterized by the presence of grainstone developed at the higher structure; (3) the main sequence of the peloidal packstone with mudstones oncoids; (4) corresponds to the oil production of carbonate reservoirs formed by oolitic grainstone deposited at the top of the carbonate bank; at this phase, rising sea levels formed channels that connected the open sea shelf with the restricted circulation shelf; and (5) mudstone and wackestone represent the system’s flooding phase.

  13. Depositional facies mosaics and their time lines in Lower Ordovician carbonates of central Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, C.T.; Goldhammer, R.K.; Hardie, L.A.

    1985-02-01

    A comparative sedimentology and facies stratigraphy study of the Lower Ordovician carbonate of the central Appalachians (Beekmantown Group and equivalents) has been carried out. Our approach used subfacies (rock record of subenvironments) as the basin units of section measurement. The authors differentiated related sets of subfacies into larger facies units (rock record of environments). Facies were then correlated from section to section using fossils and lithostratigraphy to make a 3-dimensional facies mosaic. Within this mosaic, time lines were constructed using onlap-offlap tongues and cyclic sequences. These time lines cut across facies boundaries. Using this approach, the authors have established that the lower 600 m of the Lower Ordovician carbonate sequence is made up of 4 main facies: (1) cyclic laminite facies composed of a package of shoaling-upward shelf lagoon-peritidal cycles, (2) thin-bedded grainstone facies deposited in a shelf lagoon, (3) Renalcis bioherm facies recording a shelf lagoon patch-reef environment, and (4) Epiphyton bioherm facies recording a shelf-edge reef system. The distribution of these facies along time lines across the strike of the central Appalachians is markedly zoned. Epiphyton bioherm facies dominate the eastern margin while cyclic laminite facies dominate the western margin, with thin-bedded grainstone and Renalcis bioherm facies making up the central belt. This zonation of facies is a typical shallow carbonate shelf system with fringing reefs along the eastern, seaward margin and tidal flats along the western, landward margin. Vertical distribution of these facies across strike records 3 major sea level changes during deposition of the lower 600 m of this extensive Lower Ordovician carbonate shelf.

  14. Oil/source rock correlations in the Polish Flysch Carpathians and Mesozoic basement and organic facies of the Oligocene Menilite Shales: Insights from hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, John B.; Kotarba, M.J.; Lewan, M.D.; Wieclaw, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Oligocene Menilite Shales in the study area in the Polish Flysch Carpathians are organic-rich and contain varying mixtures of Type-II, Type-IIS and Type-III kerogen. The kerogens are thermally immature to marginally mature based on atomic H/C ratios and Rock-Eval data. This study defined three organic facies, i.e., sedimentary strata with differing hydrocarbon-generation potentials due to varying types and concentrations of organic matter. These facies correspond to the Silesian Unit and the eastern and western portions of the Skole Unit. Analysis of oils generated by hydrous pyrolysis of outcrop samples of Menilite Shales demonstrates that natural crude oils reservoired in the flysch sediments appear to have been generated from the Menilite Shales. Natural oils reservoired in the Mesozoic basement of the Carpathian Foredeep appear to be predominantly derived and migrated from Menilite Shales, with a minor contribution from at least one other source rock most probably within Middle Jurassic strata. Definition of organic facies may have been influenced by the heterogeneous distribution of suitable Menilite Shales outcrops and producing wells, and subsequent sample selection during the analytical phases of the study. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of anion geochemistry in mapping groundwater facies in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This absence of some ions and the low levels in others do affect the number and type of mappable facies in groundwater systems. With the results obtained, the paper notes that: (1) The shallow groundwater environment embedded less number of mappable facies than the deep groundwater environment; (2) Facies ...

  16. Petrology of blueschist facies metamorphic rocks of the Meliata Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faryad Shah Wali

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Meliata blueschists originated from basalts, limestones, pelites, psammitic and amphibolite facies basement rocks. Compositionally, the metabasalts have a geochemical signature mostly indicative of a transitional arc-MORB origin, but some mafic rocks having affinity with within plate basalts also present. The mafic blueschists consist of blue amphibole, epidote and albite, rarely also garnet, Na-pyroxene and chloritoid. Apart from phengite and quartz the metapelites and metapsammites contain one or more of the minerals: chloritoid, paragonite, glaucophane, albite, chlorite, occasionally also Na-pyroxene and garnet. Amphibolite facies rocks contain relic garnet, plagioclase and hornblende, the latter two replaced by albite and blue amphibole, respectively. The zoning patterns of blue amphibole, garnet and chloritoid suggest their formation during prograde stage of metamorphism. P-T conditions of meta-morphism are estimated to be about 350-460 oC and 10-12 kbar.

  17. Additional aspects of facies determination of the Souza Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, E.C.; Mabesoone, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    By means of geochemical analysis of total sample and trace elements, x-ray and DTA investigation of the clay fractions, and microfanes study, obtained by the facies determination of the Souza Formation, some additional aspects giving evidence of the sequence of events responsable by origin, deposition and formation of sediments of this middle unit of the Rio do Peixe group were established. (Author) [pt

  18. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  19. Comparison of four approaches to a rock facies classification problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, M.K.; Bohling, Geoffrey C.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, seven classifiers based on four different approaches were tested in a rock facies classification problem: classical parametric methods using Bayes' rule, and non-parametric methods using fuzzy logic, k-nearest neighbor, and feed forward-back propagating artificial neural network. Determining the most effective classifier for geologic facies prediction in wells without cores in the Panoma gas field, in Southwest Kansas, was the objective. Study data include 3600 samples with known rock facies class (from core) with each sample having either four or five measured properties (wire-line log curves), and two derived geologic properties (geologic constraining variables). The sample set was divided into two subsets, one for training and one for testing the ability of the trained classifier to correctly assign classes. Artificial neural networks clearly outperformed all other classifiers and are effective tools for this particular classification problem. Classical parametric models were inadequate due to the nature of the predictor variables (high dimensional and not linearly correlated), and feature space of the classes (overlapping). The other non-parametric methods tested, k-nearest neighbor and fuzzy logic, would need considerable improvement to match the neural network effectiveness, but further work, possibly combining certain aspects of the three non-parametric methods, may be justified. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome: A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García V, Daniel; Aragón V, Carlos R; Treviño A, M Guadalupe; Rivera S, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome is a rare disease with variable expressivity, although cases have been reported with an autosomal dominant pattern. It particularly affects the structures of the face associated with hypoplasia of the femur. Its aetiology is relatively unknown. However, this syndrome has been associated with maternal diabetes, drug exposure, viral infections, radiation, and oligohydramnios. The case of a newborn with this syndrome is presented. Newborn of 41 weeks gestation with small nose, thin upper lip, micrognathia, long philtrum, low set ears, epicanthal folds, dysplastic hips showing flexion, and adduction of the right leg, and shortening at the expense of the thigh. X-ray images revealed femoral hypoplasia and dysplastic acetabular roof. Different physicians from other specialties who excluded other associated malformations performed a complete evaluation. Surgical bone lengthening of lower limb is scheduled at 5 months of age, with the purpose that she walks with her own feet; at the same time she began management with kinesiotherapy. Femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome is a rare condition. A multidisciplinary health care team must treat individuals with femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. STOCHASTIC FRACTURED ROCK FACIES FOR GROUNDWATER FLOW MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA BLESSENT

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una simulación de flujo de agua subterránea en rocas fracturadas. Se emplea un enfoque estocástico (modelo estocástico equivalente en medio poroso fracturado para construir el modelo conceptual y para usar este último en la roca de baja permeabilidad encontrada en el sitio elegido como caso de estudio (Olkiluoto, Finlandia. La roca que se investiga se encuentra localizada alrededor de un grupo de pozos de sondeo y cubre un área de algunas hectáreas. Las mediciones de campo de pruebas de interferencia hidráulica se utilizan para calibrar el modelo de flujo de agua subterránea. Múltiples combinaciones de facies estocásticos se consideran para evaluar el impacto de la distribución y del número de facies en las cargas hidráulicas y en los caudales. Este estudio cuantifica la variabilidad de los resultados numéricos, lo cual es importante para el análisis de la incertidumbre en los sistemas hidrogeológicos. Por otra parte, este estudio muestra que el modelo conceptual de facies estocásticos es una alternativa adecuada a los modelos conceptuales de redes de fracturas discretas.

  2. 3D Seismic Reflection Amplitude and Instantaneous Frequency Attributes in Mapping Thin Hydrocarbon Reservoir Lithofacies: Morrison NE Field and Morrison Field, Clark County, KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raef, Abdelmoneam; Totten, Matthew; Vohs, Andrew; Linares, Aria

    2017-12-01

    Thin hydrocarbon reservoir facies pose resolution challenges and waveform-signature opportunities in seismic reservoir characterization and prospect identification. In this study, we present a case study, where instantaneous frequency variation in response to a thin hydrocarbon pay zone is analyzed and integrated with other independent information to explain drilling results and optimize future drilling decisions. In Morrison NE Field, some wells with poor economics have resulted from well-placement incognizant of reservoir heterogeneities. The study area in Clark County, Kanas, USA, has been covered by a surface 3D seismic reflection survey in 2010. The target horizon is the Viola limestone, which continues to produce from 7 of the 12 wells drilled within the survey area. Seismic attributes extraction and analyses were conducted with emphasis on instantaneous attributes and amplitude anomalies to better understand and predict reservoir heterogeneities and their control on hydrocarbon entrapment settings. We have identified a higher instantaneous frequency, lower amplitude seismic facies that is in good agreement with distinct lithofacies that exhibit better (higher porosity) reservoir properties, as inferred from well-log analysis and petrographic inspection of well cuttings. This study presents a pre-drilling, data-driven approach of identifying sub-resolution reservoir seismic facies in a carbonate formation. This workflow will assist in placing new development wells in other locations within the area. Our low amplitude high instantaneous frequency seismic reservoir facies have been corroborated by findings based on well logs, petrographic analysis data, and drilling results.

  3. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2002-09-29

    The project, "Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization," is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, inlcuding several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on "Reservoir Geophysics" for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we

  4. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie

    2002-10-01

    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, including several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along ''phantom'' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into

  5. 3a static model of Oligocene and lower Miocene oil reservoirs, Junin 5 block, Orinoco heavy oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, G.; Simon, C.; Capoferri, E.; Redaelli, M.; Marcano, E. [Eni Venezuela B.V., Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Solorzano, E. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). CVP

    2009-07-01

    The presence of oil in Venezuela's Orinoco heavy oil belt has been known since the 1930's, but the first rigorous evaluation of the resource was only made in the 1980's and revised in 2005. The Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco (FPO) has been divided into 4 areas, namely the Boyaca (6 blocks), Junin (11 blocks), Ayacucho (7 blocks) and Carabobo (4 blocks). The Junin 5 block covers a surface area of 672 km{sup 2} and consists of extra-heavy oil accumulations with an average API gravity of 8. Field static and dynamic models were generated as part of a joint study agreement between PDVSA and Eni Venezuela that included the quantification and the certification of stock tank oil initially in place (STOIIP). A reservoir analysis was performed based on original geophysical, petrophysical, stratigraphic and sedimentological studies. The Cretaceous to Oligo-Miocene reservoir sequence consists of a complex mix of fluvial and tidal delta facies interbedded with alluvial and coastal plain non-reservoir intervals. Structurally, the sequence consists of a faulted monocline dipping north-northeast and onlapping southwards onto Paleozoic meta-sediments. The 6 petrophysical facies include coarse-medium sand, fine-medium sand, heterolithic deposits, coal, tight facies and shale. A relationship between petrophysical facies derived from electric logs and sedimentological facies described from bottom-hole cores was found. At least 15 hydraulic units were defined in the whole sequence. All the results of the reservoir analysis were integrated into a geo-cellular model of the whole Junin 5 block. The STOIIP of the Junin 5 block, which was computed taking into account all the pay facies, was found to be 39,416 MMSTB. The most important reservoirs are the Arenas Basales and the Oligocene which contain more than 85 per cent of the oil volume. 12 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  6. Phosphate Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many different combinations of the chemical phosphate with salts and minerals. Foods high in phosphate include dairy products, whole grain cereals, nuts, and certain meats. Phosphates found in dairy products ... People use phosphate salts for medicine. Be careful not to confuse phosphate ...

  7. Evolution characteristic of gypsum-salt rocks of the upper member of Oligocene Lower Ganchaigou Fm in the Shizigou area, western Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinghong Yi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over years of oil and gas exploration in the Qaidam Basin, reservoirs have been discovered in many layers. In the Shizigou area, western Qaidam Basin, the upper member of Oligocene Lower Ganchaigou Fm is an important target for oil and gas exploration, and gypsum-salt rocks are the high-quality caprocks for the preservation of oil and gas reservoirs in this area. For predicting oil and gas exploration direction and target in the western Qaidam Basin and providing guidance for its oil and gas exploration deployment, its depositional characteristics and environment of gypsum-salt rocks in this area were investigated based on the core observation, thin section identification, and analysis of grain size, sensitivity parameter ratios (Sr/Cu, Fe/Mn, (Fe + Al/(Ca + Mg, V/(V + Ni and Pr/Ph, pyrite content and inclusions. The following characteristics are identified. First, gypsum-salt rocks are mainly distributed in the depocenter of the lake basin and their thickness decreases towards the margin of the basin. They are laterally transformed into carbonate rocks or terrigenous clastic rocks. They are areally distributed in the shape of irregular ellipse. Second, gypsum-salt rocks are vertically developed mainly in the middle and upper parts of the upper member of Lower Ganchaigou Fm and they are interbedded with carbonate rocks or terrigenous clastic rocks. Their single layer thickness changes greatly, and there are many layers with good continuity. Third, Sand Group III to Group I in the upper member of Lower Ganchaigou Fm (inter-salt are of reductive water environment of semi-deep to deep lake facies due to their sedimentation in an arid and hot climate. It is concluded that gypsum-salt rocks of the upper member of Lower Ganchaigou Fm are distributed widely with great accumulative thickness in this area; and that they are originated from deep lake water by virtue of evaporation, concentration and crystallization in an arid and hot climate instead

  8. Relative influence of deposition and diagenesis on carbonate reservoir layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poli, Emmanuelle [Total E and P, Courbevoie (France); Javaux, Catherine [Total E and P, Pointe Noire (Congo)

    2008-07-01

    The architecture heterogeneities and petrophysical properties of carbonate reservoirs result from a combination of platform morphology, related depositional environments, relative sea level changes and diagenetic events. The reservoir layering built for static and dynamic modelling purposes should reflect the key heterogeneities (depositional or diagenetic) which govern the fluid flow patterns. The layering needs to be adapted to the goal of the modelling, ranging from full field computations of hydrocarbon volumes, to sector-based fine-scale simulations to test the recovery improvement. This paper illustrates various reservoir layering types, including schemes dominated by depositional architecture, and those more driven by the diagenetic overprint. The examples include carbonate platform reservoirs from different stratigraphic settings (Tertiary, Cretaceous, Jurassic and Permian) and different regions (Europe, Africa and Middle East areas). This review shows how significant stratigraphic surfaces (such as sequence boundaries or maximum flooding) with their associated facies shifts, can be often considered as key markers to constrain the reservoir layering. Conversely, how diagenesis (dolomitization and karst development), resulting in units with particular poroperm characteristics, may significantly overprint the primary reservoir architecture by generating flow units which cross-cut depositional sequences. To demonstrate how diagenetic processes can create reservoir bodies with geometries that cross-cut the depositional fabric, different types of dolomitization and karst development are illustrated. (author)

  9. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  10. QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

    2002-10-30

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation, particularly in heavy oil sands. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field. Observations of lateral variability and vertical sequences observed in Temblor Formation outcrops has led to a better understanding of reservoir geology in West Coalinga Field. Based on the characteristics of stratigraphic bounding surfaces in the outcrops, these surfaces were identified in the subsurface using cores and logs. The bounding surfaces were mapped and then used as reference horizons in the reservoir modeling. Facies groups and facies tracts were recognized from outcrops and cores of the Temblor Formation and were applied to defining the stratigraphic framework and facies architecture for building 3D geological models. The following facies tracts were recognized: incised valley, estuarine, tide- to wave-dominated shoreline, diatomite, and subtidal. A new minipermeameter probe, which has important advantages over previous methods of measuring outcrop permeability, was developed during this project. The device, which measures permeability at the distal end of a small drillhole, avoids surface weathering effects and provides a superior seal compared with previous methods for measuring outcrop permeability. The new probe was used successfully for obtaining a high-quality permeability data set from an outcrop in southern Utah

  11. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, Final Report and Topical Reports 5-8 on Smackover Petroleum system and Underdevelopment Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Ernest A.; Puckett, T. Markham; Parcell, William C.; Llinas, Juan Carlos; Kopaska-Merkel, David C.; Townsend, Roger N.

    2002-03-05

    The Smackover Formation, a major hydrocarbon-producing horizon in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin (MISB), conformably overlies the Norphlet Formation and is conformably overlain by the Buckner Anhydrite Member of the Haynesville Formation. The Norphlet-Smackover contact can be either gradational or abrupt. The thickness and lithofacies distribution of the Smackover Formation were controlled by the configuration of incipient paleotopography. The Smackover Formation has been subdivided into three informal members, referred to as the lower, middle and upper members.

  12. Dinoflagellate species and organic facies evidence of marine transgression and regression in the atlantic coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, D.; Miller, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Palynological evidence is used to date and interpret depositional environments of sediments of Campanian, Maestrichtian and early Danian ages cored in three wells from South Carolina and Georgia. The evidence is usefil for distinguishing environments which lithofacies evidence indicates a range from nonmarine to coastal to inner neritic shallow shelf. Numerous dinoflagellate species and an organic facies defined abundant amoprphous debris (amorphous debris facies) distinguish shallow shelf sediments deposited during marine transgression. The nearshore amorphous debris facies of late Campanian age consists of heterogenous assemblages dominated by Palaeohystrichophora infusorioides Deflandre or Hystrichosphaerina varians (May). The farther offshore amorphous debris facies of late early Maestrichtian to late Maestrichtian age consists of heterogenous assemblages dominated by Glaphyrocysta retiintexta (Cookson) and/or Areoligera medusettiformis (Wetzel). The larger number of dinoflagellate species in the offshore facies represents the maximum transgression detected in the investigated interval. A multiple occurrence datum defined by the combination of first appearance, klast appearances and sole occurrence of dinoflagellate species at the base of each interval distinguished by the amorphous debris facies provides the first evidence of marine transgression. Relatively small organic residues consisting of intertinite and few or no palynomorphs define the inertinite facies in nonmarine deltaic and in coastal (lagoonal, tidal flat, interdistributary bary) sediments. Dinocyt{star, open}s are absent in the nonmarine sediments and are represented by few species and few specimens in the coastal inertinite faceis. A third organic facies (vascular tissue facies) is defined by the abundance of land plant tissue. Sporomorph species, including those of the Normapolles pollen group and of pteridophyte spores, comprise a large proportion of the total palynomorph flora in the

  13. Full Waveform Inversion for Reservoir Characterization - A Synthetic Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zabihi Naeini, E.

    2017-05-26

    Most current reservoir-characterization workflows are based on classic amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) inversion techniques. Although these methods have generally served us well over the years, here we examine full-waveform inversion (FWI) as an alternative tool for higher-resolution reservoir characterization. An important step in developing reservoir-oriented FWI is the implementation of facies-based rock physics constraints adapted from the classic methods. We show that such constraints can be incorporated into FWI by adding appropriately designed regularization terms to the objective function. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated on both isotropic and VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) models with pronounced lateral and vertical heterogeneity. The inversion results are explained using the theoretical radiation patterns produced by perturbations in the medium parameters.

  14. Facies architecture and diagenesis of Belgian Late Frasnian carbonate mounds

    OpenAIRE

    Boulvain, Frédéric

    2001-01-01

    Late Frasnian Petit-Mont Member carbonate mounds occur in the southern pail of the Dinant Synclinorium and in the Philippeville Anticline (SW Belgium). These mounds are 30 to 80 m thick and 100 to 250 m in diameter. They are embedded in shale, nodular shale and argillaceous limestone. Based on facies mapping of 14 buildups and related off-mound sediments, these mounds typically started from below the photic and storm wave base zones and builtup into shallow water environments. Above an argill...

  15. Trace fossil analysis of lacustrine facies and basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    Two ichnofacies are typical of lacustrine depositional systems. The Scoyenia ichnofacies characterizes transitional terrestrial/nonmarine aquatic substrates, periodically inundated or desiccated, and therefore is commonly present in lake margin facies. The Mermia ichnofacies is associated with well oxygenated, permanent subaqueous, fine-grained substrates of hydrologically open, perennial lakes. Bathymetric zonations within the Mermia ichnofacies are complicated by the wide variability of lacustrine systems. Detected proximal-distal trends are useful within particular lake basins, but commonly difficult to extrapolate to other lakes. Other potential ichnofacies include the typically marine Skolithos ichnofacies for high-energy zones of lakes and substrate-controlled, still unnamed ichnofacies, associated to lake margin deposits. Trace fossils are useful for sedimentologic analysis of event beds. Lacustrine turbidites are characterized by low-diversity suites, reflecting colonization by opportunistic organisms after the turbidite event. Underflow current beds record animal activity contemporaneous with nearly continuous sedimentation. Ichnologic studies may also help to distinguish between marine and lacustrine turbidites. Deep-marine turbidites host the Nereites ichnofacies that consists of high diversity of ornate grazing traces and graphoglyptids, recording highly specialized feeding strategies developed to solve the problem of the scarcity of food in the deep sea. Deep lacustrine environments contain the Mermia ichnofacies, which is dominated by unspecialized grazing and feeding traces probably related to the abundance and accessibility of food in lacustrine systems. The lower diversity of lacustrine ichnofaunas in comparison with deep-sea assemblages more likely reflects lower species diversity as a consequence of less stable conditions. Increase of depth and extent of bioturbation through geologic time produced a clear signature in the ichnofabric record of

  16. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  17. Reservoir Space Evolution of Volcanic Rocks in Deep Songliao Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M.; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; HU, J.; Wang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years, large amount of natural gas has been discovered in volcanic rock of Lower Crataceous of Songliao basin. Volcanic reservoirs have become one of the important target reservoir types of eastern basin of China. In order to study the volcanic reservoirs, we need to know the main factors controlling the reservoir space. By careful obsercation on volcanic drilling core, casting thin sections and statistical analysis of petrophysical properties of volcanic reservoir in Songliao basin, it can be suggested that the igneous rock reservoir in Yingcheng formation of Lower Crataceous is composed of different rock types, such ad rohylite, rohylitic crystal tuff, autoclastic brecciation lava and so on. There are different reservoirs storage space in in various lithological igneous rocks, but they are mainly composed of primary stoma, secondary solution pores and fractures.The evolution of storage space can be divided into 3 stage: the pramary reservoir space,exogenic leaching process and burial diagenesis.During the evolution process, the reservoir space is effected by secondary minerals, tectonic movement and volcanic hydrothermal solution. The pore of volcanic reservoirs can be partially filled by secondary minerals, but also may be dissoluted by other chemical volcanic hydrothermal solution. Therefore, the favorable places for better-quality volcanic reservoirs are the near-crater facies of vocanic apparatus and dissolution zones on the high position of paleo-structures.

  18. Lack of inhibiting effect of oil emplacement on quartz cementation: Evidence from Cambrian reservoir sandstones, Paleozoic Baltic Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molenaar, Nicolaas; Cyziene, Jolanta; Sliaupa, Saulius

    2008-01-01

    , including sandstone architecture, i.e., distribution of shales within the sandstone bodies, and sandstone thickness. Heterogeneity is inherent to sandstone architecture and to the fact that silica for quartz cementation is derived from heterogeneously distributed local pressure solution. Models predicting...... reservoir properties should encompass facies and architecture as important independent factors....

  19. Numerical simulation of salt cementation in the porous rocks adjacent to salt diapirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allstadt, Raphael; Li, Shiyuan; Marquart, Gabriele; Reuning, Lars; Niederau, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Porosity and permeability are among the most important petrophysical properties of reservoirs rocks in oil systems. Observations during exploration indicate that in the vicinity of salt domes the porosity of reservoir rocks is often reduced by halite cementation. In this study we present results of simulating the process of salt precipitation near salt diapirs by using a schematic model of a Zechstein diapir in the North Sea basin. The numerical simulation is based on solving the transport equations for heat, porous flow and dispersive and reactive chemical species. Chemical reaction and equilibrium is based on the PHREEQC computer code. In our model over-pressured brine is entering from below and is deflected towards the diapir due to an intermediate layer of low permeability. The high thermal conductivity of salt yields a lateral temperature gradient starting from the diapir. Due to this effect the simulated temperature profile shows lower temperatures close to the salt dome than in comparable depths further away. Caused by the temperature-controlled solubility of NaCl in the brine and supplied ions by the diapir, halite first precipitates near the salt diapir by cementing the pore spaces and thus reducing the porosity. Salt-precipitation in the simulation starts after 840 000 years and reduces the porosity from 10 % to 5.5 % after 19 Mill. years. The permanent influx of brine causes growth of the cementation area and the related reduction of porosity in the reservoir.

  20. Facies and paleoenvironments of Campanian Basal Belly River sands, southern Alberta, Canada: a case study based on multidisciplined approach using both conventional sedimentology and palynofacies synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabry, H.

    1987-05-01

    Basal Belly River sands are not a single, continuous body but are composed of many separate bodies of sand occupying slightly different stratigraphic positions. The shape of the Belly River Formation, its internal geometry, and its lithology fit well with the clastic wedge association of deltaic sediments. The textural and mineralogical immaturity of most of the Belly River sediments indicates rapid deposition, also characteristic of deltaic deposits. A detailed sedimentologic and palynofacies investigation of over 2930 ft of core from several wells in southern Alberta has led to the recognition of several distinct lithofacies. The lithofacies of the subaqueous part of the delta are (1) nearshore marine bar and interbar marine facies, (2) prodelta marine shales and siltstones, and (3) distal and proximal delta front sand facies. The subaerial part of the delta and interdeltaic shoreline sediments consists of 15 lithofacies that can be grouped as follows: estuarine distributary channel; barrier bar; barrier face and back barrier tidal channel; subtidal sand and shale-sand channels and flats; peat swamp; transgressive tidal sand ridges; and upper delta plain/alluvial meandering rivers and overbank complexes. Best reservoir developments are found in barrier bar, transgressive tidal sand ridges, subtidal channels, and point bar facies. The Basal Belly River sands of prograding deltaic origin experienced episodes of modification from an early river-dominated delta to a tidally dominated one later. This is evident from the paleogeography, geometry, continuity, and internal characteristics of the Basal Belly River sand bodies.

  1. Depositional facies and Hohokam settlement patterns of Holocene alluvial fans, N. Tucson Basin, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of depositional facies on eight Holocene alluvial fans of varying dimensions is used to evaluate prehistoric Hohokam agricultural settlement patterns. Two facies are recognized: channel gravelly sand facies and overbank silty sand facies. No debris flow deposits occur. The channel facies is characterized by relatively well sorted stratified sands and gravels with common heavy mineral laminations. Overbank facies deposits are massive and very poorly sorted due to heavy bioturbation. Lithostratigraphic profiles from backhoe trenches and sediment size analysis document headward migration of depositional facies which results in fining upward sequences. Each sequence is a channel fan lobe with an underlying coarse grained channel sand which fines to overbank silty sands. Lateral and vertical variations in facies distributions show that depositional processes are affected by drainage basin area (fan size) and distance from fan head. Gravelly channel sands dominate at the headward portions of the fan and are more pervasive on large fans; overbank silty sands are ubiquitous at fan toes and approach closer to the fan head of smaller alluvial fans. When depositional facies are considered as records of water flow over an alluvial surface, the farming potential of each fan can be analyzed. Depositional models of alluvial fan sedimentation provide the basis for understanding Hohokam settlement patterns on active alluvial surfaces.

  2. Multiscale Fractal Characterization of Hierarchical Heterogeneity in Sandstone Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Liu, Yuetian; Sun, Lu; Liu, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Heterogeneities affecting reservoirs often develop at different scales. Previous studies have described these heterogeneities using different parameters depending on their size, and there is no one comprehensive method of reservoir evaluation that considers every scale. This paper introduces a multiscale fractal approach to quantify consistently the hierarchical heterogeneities of sandstone reservoirs. Materials taken from typical depositional pattern and aerial photography are used to represent three main types of sandstone reservoir: turbidite, braided, and meandering river system. Subsequent multiscale fractal dimension analysis using the Bouligand-Minkowski method characterizes well the hierarchical heterogeneity of the sandstone reservoirs. The multiscale fractal dimension provides a curve function that describes the heterogeneity at different scales. The heterogeneity of a reservoir’s internal structure decreases as the observational scale increases. The shape of a deposit’s facies is vital for quantitative determination of the sedimentation type, and thus enhanced oil recovery. Characterization of hierarchical heterogeneity by multiscale fractal dimension can assist reservoir evaluation, geological modeling, and even the design of well patterns.

  3. Reservoir fisheries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.S. De.

    1990-01-01

    At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop

  4. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  5. Hydrological indications of aeolian salts in mid-latitude deserts of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrological indications of aeolian salts in mid-latitude deserts of northwestern China. B Q Zhu. Supplementary data. Figure S1. Photograph views of Quaternary and modern sediments of aeolian and lacustrine/fluvial facies that consisted of clay and sand/silt sand alternations in the Taklamakan and Badanjilin Deserts.

  6. Alisitos Formation, calcareous facies: Early Cretaceous episode of tectonic calm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Vidal, F.

    1986-07-01

    The Alisitos Formation (Aptian-Albian), shaped as a marine volcanic arc, crops out along the western side of the peninsula of Baja California bounding the Peninsular Range batholith. Lithologically, this formation is formed by volcanic-breccias, porphyritic flows, biohermal limestones, and tuffaceous and pyroclastic sediments. The distribution of the different facies depends on the nature of volcanism and the distance from a volcanic center, although the presence of massive biohermal limestone indicates that in the Early Cretaceous (during the tectonic episodes), the volcanic activity decreased to the level that the environmental conditions were favorable for the development of an organic reef barrier, behind an island arc. Such conditions existed south of the Agua Blanca fault and extended to El Arco, Baja California. Based upon field observations and petrological analysis of the Alisitos limestone, an attempt is made to recreate the environmental condition in the Punta China and San Fernando, Baja California, sites.

  7. Stream, Lake, and Reservoir Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jingjing; Mei, Ying; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2017-10-01

    This review on stream, lake, and reservoir management covers selected 2016 publications on the focus of the following sections: Stream, lake, and reservoir management • Water quality of stream, lake, and reservoirReservoir operations • Models of stream, lake, and reservoir • Remediation and restoration of stream, lake, and reservoir • Biota of stream, lake, and reservoir • Climate effect of stream, lake, and reservoir.

  8. Integration of Sedimentology,Petrophysics and Statistics for Characterizing the Reservoir Heterogeneity of the Late Ordovician Sarah Formation, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deek, Islam; Abdullatif, Osman; Korvin, Gabor; Al-Ramadan, Khalid

    2014-05-01

    The first glaciogenic event in the Arabian Peninsula is represented by the Late Ordovician Sarah Formation. Sarah Formation is outcropping in areas of central and northern Arabia bordering the Arabian Shield, while it occupies several sub-basinal areas in the subsurface. The glacio-fluvial Sarah Formation is considered as an important tight gas reservoir target. This study uses the outcrop analog of the Sarah Formation to characterize the reservoir heterogeneity of the paleovalleys based on sedimentological, petrophysical, and statistical approaches. Facies types and architectural elements were identified within several paleovalleys of the Sarah Formation. The study indicated variability in texture, composition, sandstone type, facies, geometry and architecture at outcrop scale. Outcrop relationships also showed vertical and lateral facies change with other Paleozoic formations. The integration of field and laboratory data helped identifying the heterogeneity within Sarah paleovalleys. The reservoir quality trends in the Sarah Formation show variations that might be due to the controls of facies, depositional environments, and paleogeography. Three measures of heterogeneity were applied on the petrophysical data for various paleovalleys of the Sarah Formation. Those measures are: the coefficient of variation, Dykstra-Parsons, and Lorenz coefficients.The coefficient of variation values indicate extremely heterogeneous distribution. Dykstra-Parsons coefficient values suggest very to extremely heterogeneous reservoirs. Lorenz coefficients show good correlation with Dykstra-Parsons coefficient for Sarah paleovalleys. The studied heterogeneity measures indicate that Sarah paleovalleys represent very to extremely heterogeneous reservoirs.

  9. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Approaches to identifying reservoir heterogeneity and reserve growth opportunities from subsurface data: The Oficina Formation, Budare field, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Raeuchle, S.K.; Holtz, M.H. [Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We applied an integrated geologic, geophysical, and engineering approach devised to identify heterogeneities in the subsurface that might lead to reserve growth opportunities in our analysis of the Oficina Formation at Budare field, Venezuela. The approach involves 4 key steps: (1) Determine geologic reservoir architecture; (2) Investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow; (3) Integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture; and (4) Estimate original oil-in-place, residual oil saturation, and remaining mobile oil, to identify opportunities for reserve growth. There are three main oil-producing reservoirs in the Oficina Formation that were deposited in a bed-load fluvial system, an incised valley-fill, and a barrier-strandplain system. Reservoir continuity is complex because, in addition to lateral facies variability, the major Oficina depositional systems were internally subdivided by high-frequency stratigraphic surfaces. These surfaces define times of intermittent lacustrine and marine flooding events that punctuated the fluvial and marginal marine sedimentation, respectively. Syn and post depositional faulting further disrupted reservoir continuity. Trends in fluid flow established from initial fluid levels, response to recompletion workovers, and pressure depletion data demonstrated barriers to lateral and vertical fluid flow caused by a combination of reservoir facies pinchout, flooding shale markers, and the faults. Considerable reserve growth potential exists at Budare field because the reservoir units are highly compartment by the depositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. Numerous reserve growth opportunities were identified in attics updip of existing production, in untapped or incompletely drained compartments, and in field extensions.

  11. Distinguishing fluvio-deltaic facies by bulk geochemistry and heavy minerals: an example from the Miocene of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Mette; Rasmussen, Erik S.; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2011-01-01

    of significant differences between facies, where each fluvio-deltaic facies can be distinguished by integrating geochemistry and mineralogy through a sedimentary succession. Variations in the heavy mineral assemblage between facies are caused primarily by sorting of hydraulically equivalent grains. Decreasing...... grain size of quartz and heavy minerals from the channel facies towards the delta shoreface facies and further along the coast to the spit shoreface facies is associated with an increase in sorting and textural maturity. This trend is related to longshore drift. Increasing heavy mineral grain size...

  12. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get the same high, and feel withdrawal symptoms when they stop. People who abuse bath salts may feel driven to do whatever they can to keep getting high, including taking risks. Users can also develop what is called "excited delirium." When this happens, people get dehydrated , their muscle ...

  13. Delineating Facies Spatial Distribution by Integrating Ensemble Data Assimilation and Indicator Geostatistics with Level Set Transformation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Glenn Edward; Song, Xuehang; Ye, Ming; Dai, Zhenxue; Zachara, John; Chen, Xingyuan

    2017-03-01

    A new approach is developed to delineate the spatial distribution of discrete facies (geological units that have unique distributions of hydraulic, physical, and/or chemical properties) conditioned not only on direct data (measurements directly related to facies properties, e.g., grain size distribution obtained from borehole samples) but also on indirect data (observations indirectly related to facies distribution, e.g., hydraulic head and tracer concentration). Our method integrates for the first time ensemble data assimilation with traditional transition probability-based geostatistics. The concept of level set is introduced to build shape parameterization that allows transformation between discrete facies indicators and continuous random variables. The spatial structure of different facies is simulated by indicator models using conditioning points selected adaptively during the iterative process of data assimilation. To evaluate the new method, a two-dimensional semi-synthetic example is designed to estimate the spatial distribution and permeability of two distinct facies from transient head data induced by pumping tests. The example demonstrates that our new method adequately captures the spatial pattern of facies distribution by imposing spatial continuity through conditioning points. The new method also reproduces the overall response in hydraulic head field with better accuracy compared to data assimilation with no constraints on spatial continuity on facies.

  14. Sedimentary facies control on mechanical and fracture stratigraphy in turbidites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogata, Kei; Storti, Fabrizio; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Tinterri, Roberto; Bedogni, Enrico; Fetter, Marcos; Gomes, Leonardo; Hatushika, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    Natural fracture networks exert a first-order control on the exploitation of resources such as aquifers, hydrocarbons, and geothermal reservoirs, and on environmental issues like underground gas storage and waste disposal. Fractures and the mechanical stratigraphy of layered sequences have been

  15. Reservoir formation mechanism analysis and deep high-quality reservoir prediction in Yingcheng Formation in Longfengshan area of Songliao Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although commercial gas flow was produced in several wells with recent years' exploration of Longfengshan area in Changling fault sag, the formation mechanism and controlling factors for high-quality reservoirs still remained undefined. Here, the Yingcheng tight gas reservoirs of Longfengshan area are used as an example to characterize high-quality reservoir formation mechanism and distribution rules. Based on the thin section, SEM, X-ray diffraction, computed tomography (CT scanning, burial history, constant-rate mercury penetration and physical properties testing, formation mechanism and controlling factors for high-quality reservoirs were analyzed. Results show the following characteristics. First, the reservoir is dominated by chlorite and laumontite cements, and compaction is the most important factor to control reservoir physical properties. According to this, the reservoir can be divided into compacted tight sandstones, chlorite-cemented sandstones and laumontite-cemented sandstones. Second, the high-quality reservoirs are formed due to early extensive laumontite precipitation and the later dissolution of laumontite by organic acid. Meanwhile, it is found that the distribution of cementation and dissolution exhibits some regulations in sedimentary facies, and the distribution is mainly effected and controlled by the lake water and charging of fresh water. Besides, the distribution model of various types of sandstones was established. Studies over diagenesis and sedimentary facies reveal that the high-quality laumontite-cemented sandstones exist in the outside subaqueous fan-delta of the deep sag in Longfengshan area. These findings have been validated by recent exploration wells which obtained high industrial gas flow.

  16. Flow of a stream through a reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwein, K.

    1967-01-01

    that of the bottom of the reservoir. However, the strong fluctuations between the day and night temperatures of the reservoir water produced marked rolling movements. Comparisons were made with simultaneously performed dye and salt experiments, but the four isotope experiments carried out at different seasons were found to be more suitable than the other procedures for investigating limnological processes and evaluating them quantitatively. (author)

  17. Research Note:An approach to integrated assessement of reservoir siltation: the Joaquín Costa reservoir as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Navas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1932, the Esera river was dammed at the foothills of the Pyrenean External Ranges; since then, sedimentation has reduced its water storage capacity by a third. This study of the sediments in the Joaquín Costa reservoir has been based on detailed sedimentological examination and other analysis of mineralogy, grain size distribution and the chemical components of the materials accumulated at the bottom of the reservoir. Interpretations are based on results from four sediment cores collected at sites representative of the main environments in the reservoir. Records of known flood events and of reservoir management data have been combined with a 137Cs-derived chronology. Thus, it has been possible to ascribe the sedimentary record at the different reservoir environments to specific years, as well as some main changes in the facies types and sediment components. This methodology is a first approach to assessing siltation processes and dynamics in Mediterranean mountain reservoirs. Keywords: reservoir siltation, mineralogy, sedimentology,sedimentation rates, 137Cs, sediment tracing, mountain reservoir, central Spanish Pyrenees

  18. Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis and Facies Architecture of the Cretaceous Mancos Shale on and Near the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico-their relation to Sites of Oil Accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgley, Jennie

    2001-08-21

    The purpose of phase 1 and phase 2 of the Department of Energy funded project Analysis of oil- bearing Cretaceous Sandstone Hydrocarbon Reservoirs, exclusive of the Dakota Sandstone, on the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico was to define the facies of the oil producing units within the Mancos Shale and interpret the depositional environments of these facies within a sequence stratigraphic context. The focus of this report will center on (1) redefinition of the area and vertical extent of the ''Gallup sandstone'' or El Vado Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale, (2) determination of the facies distribution within the ''Gallup sandstone'' and other oil-producing sandstones within the lower Mancos, placing these facies within the overall depositional history of the San Juan Basin, (3) application of the principals of sequence stratigraphy to the depositional units that comprise the Mancos Shale, and (4) evaluation of the structural features on the Reservation as they may control sites of oil accumulation.

  19. Holocene coastal regression and facies patterns in a subtropical arid carbonate environment - The sabkha of Al-Zareq, Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Max; Peis, Kim T.; Strohmenger, Christian J.; Pint, Anna; Rivers, John M.; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    The Arabian Gulf is a semi-enclosed, shallow sea, which became flooded some 12,500 years ago. Current relative sea level was first reached c. 7000 to 6500 years ago, while a relative sea-level highstand of c. 2-4 m dates to around 6000-4500 years ago. Supratidal coastal sabkhas (former lagoons), stranded beach ridges and foredune sequences as well as abandoned tidal channels along the coasts of Qatar and the UAE witness this mid-Holocene peak in sea level. Regression since then triggered shoreline migration of up to several kilometers along the low-lying coasts of Qatar, for which, however, detailed reconstructions in space and time are scarce. This study presents facies changes and a scenario for the spatio-temporal evolution of the coastal area of Al Zareq in the inner Gulf of Salwa (SW Qatar), thereby also contributing to a better understanding of reservoirs that formed under arid climatic conditions. Ten vibracores (up to 8 m), two deep drillings (up to 20.5 m) and two trenches covering the entire transgression-regression cycle were investigated. In order to characterize and interpret facies types at Al-Zareq as well as to reconstruct sabkha formation in space and time, grain size and shape distribution (laser diffraction, camsizer), XRD, micro- and macrofossil contents and thin sections were analysed by applying qualitative interpretation, descriptive and multivariate statistics (PCA, MDA, end-member modelling), and RIR (XRD). Thirty-seven samples were radiocarbon dated and four samples were dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Depositional environments include the following types: eolian dune and interdune (in-situ or reworked), coastal sabkha (diagenetic), saline lake (salina), protected lagoon (sand- or carbonate-dominated), beach and beach spit, tidal channel and tidal bar, as well as open lagoon (low-energy, shallow-subtidal lagoon and low-energy deeper-subtidal).

  20. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. The successful development of HPAI technology has tremendous potential for increasing the flow of oil from deep carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin, a target resource that can be conservatively estimated at more than 1.5 billion barrels. Successful implementation in the field chosen for demonstration, for example, could result in the recovery of more than 34 million barrels of oil that will not otherwise be produced. Geological and petrophysical analysis of available data at Barnhart field reveals the following important observations: (1) the Barnhart Ellenburger reservoir is similar to most other Ellenburger reservoirs in terms of depositional facies, diagenesis, and petrophysical attributes; (2) the reservoir is characterized by low to moderate matrix porosity much like most other Ellenburger reservoirs in the Permian Basin; (3) karst processes (cave formation, infill, and collapse) have substantially altered stratigraphic architecture and reservoir properties; (4) porosity and permeability increase with depth and may be associated with the degree of karst-related diagenesis; (5) tectonic fractures overprint the reservoir, improving overall connectivity; (6) oil-saturation profiles show that the oil-water contact (OWC) is as much as 125 ft lower than previous estimations; (7) production history and trends suggest that this reservoir is very similar to other solution-gas-drive reservoirs in the Permian Basin; and (8) reservoir simulation study showed that the Barnhart reservoir is a good candidate for HPAI and that application of horizontal-well technology can improve ultimate resource recovery from the reservoir.

  1. Estudio sedimentológico del Keuper inferior, a partir del análisis de facies, en el sector central de la Cordillera Bética. Algunas consideraciones paleogeográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Chicano, M.

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The lower Keuper of the central sector of Betic Cordillera shows a predominance of clays with variegated colours. They have intercalations of thin layers of sandstones (fine grain, gypsum and carbonates. Through sedimentological and stratigraphic analysis we can conclude that these materials are from a systems tract fluviocoastal further more it allows us to distinguish sorne different facies types which characterize the following subenvironments. They are set in a framework of mud flat, found on a vast tidal coastal lutitic plain. Terrigenous sediments (fine sands from the mainland are deposited on the lutitic plain by ephemeral streams. In this coastal environment there are subenvironments of salt marsh, salt pans, sabkha, coastal lagoons, etc. The distribution in time and space of these facies was mainly controlled by the climate and the frequent incursions of the sea over the coastal plain, facilited by the flat geographical nature of coastline.En el Keuper inferior del sector central de la Cordillera Bética hay un predominio de materiales arcillosos, de colores abigarrados, con niveles intercalados de areniscas de grano fino, yesos y carbonatos. A partir del análisis estratigráfico y sedimentológico se han interpretado estos materiales como pertenecientes a un cortejo fluviocostero. Este análisis ha permitido, previamente, diferenciar diversas asociaciones de facies que caracterizan varios ambientes sedimentarios. Esencialmente, se enmarcan en un mud flat, dentro de una extensa llanura costera parcialmente afectada por mareas. A ésta llegan sedimentos detríticos continentales (arenas finas mediante corrientes fluviales efímeras. Dentro de este mismo medio costero aparecen ambientes de marisma, salt pans, sabkha, laguna, etc. La evolución en el tiempo y en el espacio de estas facies está controlada principalmente por el clima y por las frecuentes ingresiones del mar sobre la llanura costera, las cuales están facilitadas por la

  2. Application of the new Gassmann theory in seismic modeling of selected gas reservoirs, offshore Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auduson, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    In the Southern North Sea, Buntsandstein reservoirs which, can be gas- or water-bearing, frequently contain solid (salt) in the pores spaces. Recent literatures on extension of the Gassmann equation investigate the substitution of fluids and solids in the pore space of reservoir rock. Conventional

  3. Salt movements and faulting of the overburden - can numerical modeling predict the fault patterns above salt structures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Egholm, D.L.; Wesenberg, Rasmus

    among other things the productivity due to the segmentation of the reservoir (Stewart 2006). 3D seismic data above salt structures can map such fault patterns in great detail and studies have shown that a variety of fault patterns exists. Yet, most patterns fall between two end members: concentric....... radiating) can thus be linked to two different styles of salt movement: i) the vertical rising of a salt indenter and ii) the inflation of a ‘salt-balloon’ beneath the deformed strata. The results are in accordance with published analogue and theoretical models, as well as natural systems, and the model may...... the hydrocarbon production from reservoirs located above salt structures is optimized....

  4. Combined tide and storm influence on facies sedimentation of miocene Miri Formation, Sarawak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuniarta Ulfa; Nasiman Sapari; Zuhar Zahir Tuan Harith

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted on the sedimentary rocks belonging to the Miri Formation (Middle - Late Miocene). The primary objective of the present study is to provide additional interpretation on the stratigraphy of the Miri Formation in the Miri Field based on the new information gathered from new outcrops in the area. Five outcrops were examined in detail on sedimentology and stratigraphy. Based on lithology, sedimentary structures, bedding geometry and traces fossil, the sediments of the Miri Formation were grouped into fourteen lithofacies. Influence of tide and storm during the depositional processes of the formation were indicated by the group of two main facies associations which are: (i) tide-dominated estuary; and (ii) wave-and-storm dominated facies associations. The tide-dominated estuary system of the Miri Formation are includes variety of sub environments: estuary mouth or tidal channel and sand bars (characterized by trough cross-stratified sandstone with mud drapes facies), estuary channel or upper flow regime of sand flat (characterized by parallel stratified sandstone with mud-laminas facies), mixed-tidal flat (characterized by wavy and flaser bedded sandstone facies), and mud-tidal flat (characterized by rhythmic stratified sandstone-mudstone and lenticular bedding facies). The wave-and-storm dominated varied from lower to middle shore face (characterized by hummocky cross-stratified sandstone and rhythmic parallel stratified sandstone and laminated siltstone facies), upper shore face (characterized by swaley cross-stratified sandstone), lower shore face inter bedded to bioturbated sandstone and siltstone facies), and offshore transitional (characterized by bioturbated sandstone and mudstone inter bedding with parallel to hummocky cross-stratified sandstone facies). (author)

  5. Sulfomethylated lignite salt as a sacrifical agent in oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudchadker, M.V.; Weiss, W.J.

    1978-02-07

    A process is described for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs by secondary recovery methods. The process involves injecting via an injection well into the reservoir an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignite salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process is conducted by first injecting the lignite salt into the formation through the injection well and following it with either a polymer or a surfactant solution, which also may contain the lignite salt. The polymer or surfactant would then be followed by a drive fluid, such as water, to push the chemicals and oil to the production well. (18 claims)

  6. Data Integration for the Generation of High Resolution Reservoir Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Reynolds; Dean Oliver; Gaoming Li; Yong Zhao; Chaohui Che; Kai Zhang; Yannong Dong; Chinedu Abgalaka; Mei Han

    2009-01-07

    The goal of this three-year project was to develop a theoretical basis and practical technology for the integration of geologic, production and time-lapse seismic data in a way that makes best use of the information for reservoir description and reservoir performance predictions. The methodology and practical tools for data integration that were developed in this research project have been incorporated into computational algorithms that are feasible for large scale reservoir simulation models. As the integration of production and seismic data require calibrating geological/geostatistical models to these data sets, the main computational tool is an automatic history matching algorithm. The following specific goals were accomplished during this research. (1) We developed algorithms for calibrating the location of the boundaries of geologic facies and the distribution of rock properties so that production and time-lapse seismic data are honored. (2) We developed and implemented specific procedures for conditioning reservoir models to time-lapse seismic data. (3) We developed and implemented algorithms for the characterization of measurement errors which are needed to determine the relative weights of data when conditioning reservoir models to production and time-lapse seismic data by automatic history matching. (4) We developed and implemented algorithms for the adjustment of relative permeability curves during the history matching process. (5) We developed algorithms for production optimization which accounts for geological uncertainty within the context of closed-loop reservoir management. (6) To ensure the research results will lead to practical public tools for independent oil companies, as part of the project we built a graphical user interface for the reservoir simulator and history matching software using Visual Basic.

  7. Problems of evaluating isotope analysis of concentrated salt solutions in potash mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedl, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    Three problems of quantitative evaluation of analytic D and 18 O isotope data of concentrated salt solutions are discussed: (1) Consideration of the influence of admixtures of hydrated salts in determining meteoric or marine water fractions in a concentrated salt solution, (2) analytic accuracy and detection limits in determining meteoric water in salt solutions, and (3) processes of isotopic exchange with reservoir rock and sample matrix

  8. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...

  9. SILTATION IN RESERVOIRS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calls have been made to the government through various media to assist its populace in combating this nagging problem. It was concluded that sediment maximum accumulation is experienced in reservoir during the periods of maximum flow. Keywords: reservoir model, siltation, sediment, catchment, sediment transport. 1.

  10. Dynamic reservoir well interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, W.L.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wolfswinkel, O. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop smart well control systems for unstable oil wells, realistic modeling of the dynamics of the well is essential. Most dynamic well models use a semi-steady state inflow model to describe the inflow of oil and gas from the reservoir. On the other hand, reservoir models use steady

  11. Reservoir Engineering Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1977-12-14

    The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin

    2000-06-13

    The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

  13. Facies architecture within a regional glaciolacustrine basin: Copper River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew R.; Huddart, David; Thomas, Geoffrey S. P.

    2002-11-01

    This paper defines the principal architectural elements present within the Pleistocene, glaciolacustrine basin-fill of the Copper River Basin in Alaska. The Copper River drains an intermontane basin via a single deeply incised trench through the Chugach Mountains to the Gulf of Alaska. This trench was blocked by ice during the last glacial cycle and a large ice-dammed lake, referred to as Lake Atna, filled much of the Copper Basin. Facies analysis within the basin floor allows a series of associations to be defined consistent with the basinward transport of sediment deposited along calving ice margins and at the basin edge. Basinward transport involves a continuum of gravity driven processes, including slumping, cohesive debris flow, hyperconcentrated/concentrated density flows, and turbidity currents. This basinward transport results in the deposition of a series of subaqueous fans, of which two main types are recognised. (1) Large, stratified, basin floor fans, which extend over at least 5 km and are exposed in the basin centre. These fans are composed of multiple lobes, incised by large mega-channels, giving fan architectures that are dominated by horizontal strata and large, cross-cutting channel-fills. Individual lobes and channel-fills consist of combinations of: diamict derived from iceberg rainout and the ice-marginal release of subglacial sediment; multiple units of fining upward gravels which grade vertically into parallel laminated and rippled fine sands and silts, deposited by a range of density flows and currents derived from the subaqueous discharge of meltwater; and rhythmites grading vertically into diamicts deposited from a range of sediment-density flows re-mobilising sediment deposited by either iceberg rainout or the ice-marginal release of sediment. (2) Small, complex, proximal fans, which extend over less than 2 km, and are exposed in the southern part of the basin. These fans are composed of coalescing and prograding lobes of diamict and

  14. Measuring and predicting reservoir heterogeneity in complex deposystems: The fluvial-deltaic Big Injun sandstone in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchen, D.G.; Hohn, M.E.; Aminian, K.; Donaldson, A.; Shumaker, R.; Wilson, T.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop techniques to measure and predict heterogeneities in oil reservoirs that are the products of complex deposystems. The unit chosen for study is the Lower Mississippian Big Injun sandstone, a prolific oil producer (nearly 60 fields) in West Virginia. This research effort has been designed and is being implemented as an integrated effort involving stratigraphy, structural geology, petrology, seismic study, petroleum engineering, modeling and geostatistics. Sandstone bodies are being mapped within their regional depositional systems, and then sandstone bodies are being classified in a scheme of relative heterogeneity to determine heterogeneity across depositional systems. Facies changes are being mapped within given reservoirs, and the environments of deposition responsible for each facies are being interpreted to predict the inherent relative heterogeneity of each facies. Structural variations will be correlated both with production, where the availability of production data will permit, and with variations in geologic and engineering parameters that affect production. A reliable seismic model of the Big Injun reservoirs in Granny Creek field is being developed to help interpret physical heterogeneity in that field. Pore types are being described and related to permeability, fluid flow and diagenesis, and petrographic data are being integrated with facies and depositional environments to develop a technique to use diagenesis as a predictive tool in future reservoir development. Another objective in the Big Injun study is to determine the effect of heterogeneity on fluid flow and efficient hydrocarbon recovery in order to improve reservoir management. Graphical methods will be applied to Big Injun production data and new geostatistical methods will be developed to detect regional trends in heterogeneity.

  15. Sedimentary Facies of the West Crocker Formation North Kota Kinabalu-Tuaran Area, Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Azfar; Hadi Abd Rahman, Abdul; Suhaili Ismail, Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Newly outcrops exposed in the West Crocker Formation have led to the detail sedimentolgical analysis of the formation. Eight sedimentary facies have been recognised in which it was divided into three main groups: (1) sand-dominated facies (F1-F2), (2) poorly- sorted unit mixed sand and mud-dominated facies (F3), and (3) mud-dominated facies (F4-F5). These are: F1- graded sandstone (massive to planar laminated), F2-ripple-cross laminated, wavy and convolute lamination sandstone, F3-chaotic beds of mixed sandstone and mudstone blocks and clasts, F4-lenticular bedded of sandstone, and F5-shale. The studies of the formation has come out that it was deposited in a sand-rich submarine fan with specific location located at (1) inner fan channel-levee complex; (2) mid-fan channelised lobes, and (3) outer fan.

  16. Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

  17. Salt Effect on Osmotic Pressure of Polyelectrolyte Solutions: Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Michael Y. Carrillo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We present results of the hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics simulations of the osmotic pressure of salt solutions of polyelectrolytes. In our simulations, we used a coarse-grained representation of polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions. During simulation runs, we alternate Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation steps. Monte Carlo steps were used to perform small ion exchange between simulation box containing salt ions (salt reservoir and simulation box with polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions (polyelectrolyte solution. This allowed us to model Donnan equilibrium and partitioning of salt and counterions across membrane impermeable to polyelectrolyte chains. Our simulations have shown that the main contribution to the system osmotic pressure is due to salt ions and osmotically active counterions. The fraction of the condensed (osmotically inactive counterions first increases with decreases in the solution ionic strength then it saturates. The reduced value of the system osmotic coefficient is a universal function of the ratio of the concentration of osmotically active counterions and salt concentration in salt reservoir. Simulation results are in a very good agreement with osmotic pressure measurements in sodium polystyrene sulfonate, DNA, polyacrylic acid, sodium polyanetholesulfonic acid, polyvinylbenzoic acid, and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride solutions.

  18. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    2005-01-01

    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  19. Stratigraphy and Facies Analysis of a 122 M Long Lacustrine Sequence from Chalco Lake, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, D. A.; Ortega, B.; Caballero, M.; Lozano, S.; Pi, T.; Brown, E. T.

    2010-12-01

    Chalco lake is located SE of the outskirts of Mexico City, at the central part of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. Previous studies show the importance of this lacustrine sequence as an archive of paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic changes. A set of five cores up to 122 m depth were drilled in the basin, in order to analyze the sedimentary record and to extent the previous knowledge of past environmental changes in central Mexico. As an initial step, in this work we present the identification and classification of sedimentary facies. Preliminary paleomagnetism analyses recognize the possible record of the Blake Event (ca. 120 kyr BP), and suggest that the sequence might span the last 240 kyr. In this case, variations in sedimentary facies could reflect the conditions of the MIS 1-7. The facies are mostly diatom ooze, carbonate mud, organic rich silt and volcaniclastic, both massive and laminated, and massive dark gray to reddish brown silt. From 1 to 8 m depth dominates the organic rich silt facies, which correlates with the MIS 1. Intercalations of reddish brown and grayish brown silt facies, between 8 to 60 m depth, indicate changes occurred during MIS 2 to 5d. Between 60-75 m depth the sequence is characterized by dark grayish silty clay facies, which possibly coincide with the MIS 5e. At 79 m depth (ca. 130 kyr BP) we found struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O), which may be related to dry conditions. The laminated diatom ooze facies dominates between 90 to 122 m depth and indicates rhythmic changes in the sediment deposition of the basin. The volcaniclastic facies is represented by lapilli and ash deposits in more than 100 individual tephra layers of both mafic and felsic composition. Some of them correspond to main volcanic eruptions, as the Upper Toluca Pumice (13,500 cal yr BP), from the Nevado de Toluca volcano and the Pómez con Andesita (17,700 cal yr BP) from the Popocatépetl volcano. The carbonate mud facies is composed of calcite and siderite, with frequent

  20. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  1. Sedimentary facies and the context of dolocrete in the Lower Triassic Sherwood Sandstone group: Corrib Field west of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Susanne; Worden, Richard H.; Fisher, Quentin J.

    2006-06-01

    The Lower Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Group (SSG) reservoir in the Corrib Field is predominantly fine- to medium-grained fluvial sandstone with minor aeolian and playa sediments that formed under semi-arid to arid conditions. There is no evidence of roots, burrows or organic-rich soils in the SSG suggesting an environment with sparse vegetation in the catchment and sedimentation from a predominantly braided sand-dominated river. Dolomite is the main porosity-occluding cement (calcrete is the dominant early diagenetic cement in well 27/5-1 in the SSG, ˜50 km south of Corrib. Dolocrete and/or calcrete are represented throughout the entire SSG interval and typically form under conditions of very low sediment accumulation rates. Dolocrete occurs equally in all facies showing that it is not a result of depositional processes. Core goniometry data in the Corrib Field revealed that the general palaeoflow direction was from south to north. During progressive evaporation of river- and ground-water calcite formed first, followed by dolomite further downstream with gypsum formed last if evaporation continues. This well-established pattern indicates that well 27/5-1 has calcrete and Corrib has dolocrete since they both result from evaporative concentration of ground- and river-water during flow down the very shallow Triassic palaeogradient.

  2. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    -five percent of the gas is estimated to be from late cracking of oil in the source rock. Lewan (2002) concluded that much of the thermogenic gas produced in this basin is the result of cracking of oil to gas in deeply buried reservoirs. The efficiency of expulsion, migration and trapping has been estimated to range from 0.5 to 10 percent for certain basins (Schmoker, 1994: Zimmerman, 1999). The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin is 910 billion barrels using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated is 1,540 billion barrels using the Platte River software application. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 3,130 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 4,050 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Seventy-five percent of the gas is estimated to be from late cracking of oil in the source rock. Claypool and Mancini (1989) report that the conversion of oil to gas in reservoirs is a significant source of thermogenic gas in this basin. The Manila and Conecuh Subbasins are oil-prone. Although these subbasins are thermally mature for oil generation and expulsion, they are not thermally mature for secondary, non-associated gas generation and expulsion. The gas produced from the highly productive gas condensate fields (Big Escambia Creek and Flomaton fields) in these subbasins has been interpreted to be, in part, a product of the cracking of oil to gas and thermochemical reduction of evaporite sulfate in the reservoirs (Claypool and Mancini, 1989). The areas in the North Louisiana and Mississippi Interior Salt Basins with high potential for deeply buried gas reservoirs (>15,000 ft) have been identified. In the North Louisiana Salt Basin, these potential reservoirs include Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous facies, especially the Smackover, Cotton Valley, Hosston, and Sligo units. The estimate of the secondary, non-associated gas generated from cracking of oil in the source

  3. An Integrated Rock Typing Approach for Unraveling the Reservoir Heterogeneity of Tight Sands in the Whicher Range Field of Perth Basin, Western Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilkhchi, Rahim Kadkhodaie; Rezaee, Reza; Harami, Reza Moussavi

    2014-01-01

    Tight gas sands in Whicher Range Field of Perth Basin show large heterogeneity in reservoir characteristics and production behavior related to depositional and diagenetic features. Diagenetic events (compaction and cementation) have severely affected the pore system. In order to investigate...... the petrophysical characteristics, reservoir sandstone facies were correlated with core porosity and permeability and their equivalent well log responses to describe hydraulic flow units and electrofacies, respectively. Thus, very tight, tight, and sub-tight sands were differentiated. To reveal the relationship......, diagenetic features and petrophysical characteristics) is a suitable technique for depiction of reservoir heterogeneity, recognition of reservoir units and identifying factors controlling reservoir quality of tight sandstones. This methodology can be used for the other tight reservoirs....

  4. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France): Structural and reservoir quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusillon, Elme; Clerc, Nicolas; Makhloufi, Yasin; Brentini, Maud; Moscariello, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    A reservoir assessment was performed in the Greater Geneva Basin to evaluate the geothermal resources potential of low to medium enthalpy (Moscariello, 2016). For this purpose, a detail structural analysis of the basin was performed (Clerc et al., 2016) simultaneously with a reservoir appraisal study including petrophysical properties assessment in a consistent sedimentological and stratigraphical frame (Brentini et al., 2017). This multi-disciplinary study was organised in 4 steps: (1) investigation of the surrounding outcrops to understand the stratigraphy and lateral facies distribution of the sedimentary sequence from Permo-Carboniferous to Lower Cretaceous units; (2) development of 3D geological models derived from 2D seismic and well data focusing on the structural scheme of the basin to constrain better the tectonic influence on facies distribution and to assess potential hydraulic connectivity through faults between reservoir units ; (3) evaluation of the distribution, geometry, sedimentology and petrophysical properties of potential reservoir units from well data; (4) identification and selection of the most promising reservoir units for in-depth rock type characterization and 3D modeling. Petrophysical investigations revealed that the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian Reef Complex and the underlying Calcaires de Tabalcon units are the most promising geothermal reservoir targets (porosity range 10-20%; permeability to 1mD). Best reservoir properties are measured in patch reefs and high-energy peri-reefal depositional environments, which are surrounded by synchronous tight lagoonal deposits. Associated highly porous dolomitized intervals reported in the western part of the basin also provide enhanced reservoir quality. The distribution and geometry of best reservoir bodies is complex and constrained by (1) palaeotopography, which can be affected by synsedimentary fault activity during Mesozoic times, (2) sedimentary factors such as hydrodynamics, sea level variations

  5. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the Eocene successions, east Beni Suef area, eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Shaban G.; Salama, Yasser F.

    2017-11-01

    Three Eocene stratigraphic successions east of the Beni Suef area are described and measured. These successions are made up of four rock units that are from base to top: Qarara (upper Lutetian), El Fashn (Bartonian), Beni Suef, and Maadi (Priabonian) formations. A detailed facies and sequence analysis unravels the stratigraphic framework and constructs a depositional model for the Middle-Upper Eocene succession. Ten microfacies types were grouped into four facies associations on a homoclinal ramp that compose the Upper Lutetian-Priabonian succession exposed in the east Beni Suef area. The depositional environment varied from a shallow to deep ramp setting. Four third-order depositional sequences were identified in the studied sections. The sequence boundaries are paleosoil horizons that can be traced throughout the entire outcrop area. Missing biozones are also evidence of the sequence boundaries. The history of these sequences mirrors the eustatic sea-level changes and the local tectonics in the region. Each sequence comprises facies associations that make up lowstand and/or transgressive and highstand systems tracts. The lowstand systems tract (LST) deposits are mainly sandstone facies and in Sequences 3 and 4 at Gabal Abyiad and Gabal Homret Shaibun respectively. The transgressive systems tract (TST) of Sequence 1 is dominated by nummulitic facies at Gabal Diya. The shale, mudstone and wackestone facies with planktic foraminifera and echinoids dominate the TST of Sequences 2 and 3 at Gabal Abyiad and Gabal Homret Shaibun respectively. The highstand systems tract (HST) of the studied sections is characterized by benthic foraminifera and bryozoan wackestone and packstone facies.

  6. Mineralogical and Micro-fabric investigation of the Sandy Facies of Opalinus Clay (Mont Terri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufhold, Annette; Siegesmund, Siegfried; Dohrmann, Reiner; Graesle, Werner; Plischke, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    In the field of geological disposal of radioactive waste in many countries argillaceous formations are considered as potential host rock. For the understanding of the long-term behaviour of clay host rock, it is important to understand the interaction between mechanical behaviour, micro-fabric, and mineral composition. Previous publications showed that particularly the carbonate content and the arrangement of the carbonate grains (as cement in the matrix or as shells) determines the mechanical strength of Opalinus Clay and Callovo-Oxfordian Clay specimens, respectively. Klinkenberg et al. (2009) studied the shaly facies of Opalinus Clay, however, the actual deposit is planned to be built in the sandy facies of Opalinus Clay. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relation between micro-fabric, mineral composition, and mechanical properties of different samples derived from the sandy facies (BLT-A2). Image analysis showed that the carbonates in the sandy facies mainly occur as 1) matrix which in turn acts as cement. Carbonates also occur 2) in the fine sand fraction and 3) biogenic carbonates as traces. The carbonates of the sandy facies, therefore, appear to be similar to the carbonates of the Callovo-Oxfordian Clay with respect to their possible influence on failure strength. The mechanical testing showed that the shear strength increases with increasing carbonate content. This phenomenon was also observed for the samples of the Callovo-Oxfordian Clay, while the opposite relation was found for the shaly facies of the Opalinus Clay. Preliminary results presented here, indicate that the sandy facies (drilling BLT-A2) and Callovo-Oxfordian Clay show similar mechanical properties - in detail: 1) Micro-fabric: carbonates predominate in the matrix, 2) Mineralogy: high carbonate content and 3) Mechanical testing: shear strength increases with increasing carbonate content, where the type of carbonates which controls the increase of strength has to be

  7. Mineralogical Characterization of The Alteration Facies at Gabal El-Missikat Area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherif, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the alteration facies zones recognized around the shear zone at Gabal El-Missikat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Petrographically, the fresh granitic samples are composed mainly of quartz, K-feldspars (microcline and microcline perthite), plagioclase, biotite. The secondary minerals are sericite, kaolinite, muscovite, chlorite and epidote as well as zircon, apatite, fluorite, titanite and iron oxides as accessory minerals. Two alteration facies zones are recognized and namely as propylitic and advanced argillic. The propylitic facies zone is composed mainly of sericite with minor kaolinite, muscovite, quartz, relics of plagioclases, chlorite and rare epidote as well as zircon, hematite, goethite, magnetite, ilmenite, ilmenorutile, rutile, titanite, apatite, columbite and fluorite and secondary uranium minerals, the advanced argillic facies zone is composed mainly of kaolinite with minor sericite, quartz, muscovite, chlorite and rare epidote as well as zircon, hematite, goethite, magnetite, ilmenite, ilmenorutile, rutile, titanite, apatite and garnet of spessartine type as accessory minerals. The identified minerals in the studied two alteration facies zones can be grouped into three mineral groups which are: the primary minerals (pyrite, magnetite, galena, columbite and gold), the secondary minerals (uranophane, kasolite and wulfenite) and the gangue minerals (anhydrite, barite, celestine, hematite, goethite and fluorite). The identified mineral assemblage of the studied propylitic alteration facies zone may be attributed to strongly alkaline hydrothermal solutions at ph value of more than 7 with temperature varying between 350 and 450°C, while the advanced argillic alteration facies zone is essentially associated with strongly acidic hydrothermal solutions at ph value less than 7 with temperature varying between 150 and 400°C

  8. Exploration and reservoir characterization; Technology Target Areas; TTA2 - Exploration and reservoir characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    In future, research within exploration and reservoir characterization will play an even more important role for Norway since resources are decreasing and new challenges like deep sea, harsh environment and last but not least environmental issues have to be considered. There are two major fields which have to be addressed within exploration and reservoir characterization: First, replacement of reserves by new discoveries and ultimate field recoveries in mature basins at the Norwegian Continental shelf, e.g. at the Halten Terrace has to be addressed. A wealth of data exists in the more mature areas. Interdisciplinary integration is a key feature of reservoir characterization, where available data and specialist knowledge need to be combined into a consistent reservoir description. A systematic approach for handling both uncertainties in data sources and uncertainties in basic models is needed. Fast simulation techniques are necessary to generate models spanning the event space, covering both underground based and model-based uncertainties. Second, exploration in frontier areas like the Barents Sea region and the deeper Voering Basin has to be addressed. The scarcity of wells in these frontier areas leads to uncertainties in the geological understanding. Basin- and depositional modelling are essential for predicting where source rocks and reservoir rocks are deposited, and if, when and which hydrocarbons are generated and trapped. Predictive models and improved process understanding is therefore crucial to meet these issues. Especially the challenges related to the salt deposits e.g. sub-salt/sub-basalt reservoir definitions in the Nordkapp Basin demands up-front research and technology developments. TTA2 stresses the need to focus on the development of new talents. We also see a strong need to push cooperation as far as possible in the present competitive environment. Projects that may require a substantial financial commitment have been identified. The following

  9. Volume 3: Characterization of representative reservoirs -- South Marsh Island 73, B35K and B65G Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.A.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K. [BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Kimbrell, W.C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Sawyer, W.K. [Mathematical and Computer Services, Inc., Danville, VA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the results of a detailed study of two Gulf of Mexico salt dome related reservoirs and the application of a publicly available PC-based black oil simulator to model the performances of gas injection processes to recover attic oil. The overall objective of the research project is to assess the oil reserve potential that could result from the application of proven technologies to recover bypassed oil from reservoirs surrounding piercement salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico. The specific study objective was to simulate the primary recovery and attic gas injection performance of the two subject reservoirs to: (1) validate the BOAST model; (2) quantify the attic volume; and (3) predict the attic oil recovery potential that could result from additional updip gas injection. The simulation studies were performed on the B-35K Reservoir and the B-65G Reservoir in the South Marsh Island Block 73 Field using data provided by one of the field operators. A modified PC-version of the BOAST II model was used to match the production and injection performances of these reservoirs in which numerous gas injection cycles had been conducted to recover attic oil. The historical performances of the gas injection cycles performed on both the B-35K Reservoir and B-65G Reservoir were accurately matched, and numerous predictive runs were made to define additional potential for attic oil recovery using gas injection. Predictive sensitivities were conducted to examine the impact of gas injection rate, injection volume, post-injection shut-in time, and the staging of gas injection cycles on oil recovery.

  10. Controls on the quality of Miocene reservoirs, southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Paredes, Hilda Clarisa; Catuneanu, Octavian; Hernández Romano, Ulises

    2018-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the main controls on the reservoir quality of the middle and upper Miocene sandstones in the southern Gulf of Mexico based on core descriptions, thin section petrography and petrophysical data; as well as to explore the possible link between the sequence stratigraphic framework, depositional facies and diagenetic alterations. The Miocene deep marine sandstones are attributed to the falling-stage, lowstand, and transgressive systems tracts. The middle Miocene falling-stage systems tract includes medium-to very fine-grained, and structureless sandstones deposited in channels and frontal splays, and muddy sandstones, deposited in lobes of debrites. The lowstand and transgressive systems tracts consist of medium-to very fine-grained massive and normally graded sandstones deposited in channel systems within frontal splay complexes. The upper Miocene falling-stage systems tract includes medium-to coarse-grained, structureless sandstones deposited in channel systems and frontal splay, as well as lobes of debrites formed by grain flows and hybrid-flow deposits. The lowstand and transgressive systems tracts include fine-grained sandstones deposited in overbank deposits. The results reveal that the depositional elements with the best reservoir quality are the frontal splays deposited during the falling-stage system tracts. The reservoir quality of the Miocene sandstones was controlled by a combination of depositional facies, sand composition and diagenetic factors (mainly compaction and calcite cementation). Sandstone texture, controlled primarily by depositional facies appears more important than sandstone composition in determining reservoir quality; and compaction was more important than cementation in porosity destruction. Compaction was stopped, when complete calcite cementation occurred.

  11. Sedimentary features and exploration targets of Middle Permian reservoirs in the SW Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploration direction and targets for the large-scale Middle Permian gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are hot spots and challenges in current exploration researches. The exploration successes of large gas field of Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation in Gaoshiti-Moxi region, Central Sichuan Basin, indicated that prospective sedimentary facies belt was the basis for the formation of large gas fields. In this paper, based on seismic data, outcrop data and drilling data, the tectonic framework and sedimentary features of the Middle Permian in the SW Sichuan Basin were comprehensively studied. The following conclusions were reached from the perspective of sedimentary facies control: (1 during the Middle Permian, this region was in shallow water gentle slope belts with high energy, where thick reef flat facies were deposited; (2 the basement was uplifted during Middle Permian, resulting in the unconformity weathering crust at the top of Maokou Formation due to erosion; the SW Sichuan Basin was located in the karst slope belt, where epigenic karstification was intense; and (3 reef flat deposits superimposed by karst weathering crust was favorable for the formation of large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs. Based on the combination of the resources conditions and hydrocarbon accumulation conditions in this region, it was pointed out that the Middle Permian has great potential of large-scale reef flat karst gas reservoir due to its advantageous geological conditions; the Middle Permian traps with good hydrocarbon accumulation conditions were developed in the Longmen Mountain front closed structural belt in the SW Sichuan Basin and Western Sichuan Basin depression slope belt, which are favorable targets for large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs.

  12. Facies development in the Lower Freeport coal bed, west-central Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, B.S.; Stanton, R.W.; Eble, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    The Lower Freeport coal bed in west-central Pennsylvania is interpreted to have formed within a lacustrine-mire environment. Conditions of peat formation, caused by the changing chemical and physical environments, produced five coal facies and two mineral-rich parting facies within the coal bed. The coal bed facies are compositionally unique, having developed under varying conditions, and are manifested by megascopic, petrographic, palynologic and quality characteristics. The initial environment of the Lower Freeport peat resulted in a coal facies that is relatively high in ash yield and contains large amounts of lycopod miospores and moderate abundances of cryptotelinite, crypto-gelocollinite, inertinite and tree fern miospores. This initial Lower Freeport peat is interpreted to have been a topogenous body that was low lying, relatively nutrient rich (mesotrophic to eutrophic), and susceptible to ground water and to sediment influx from surface water. The next facies to form was a ubiquitous, clay-rich durain parting which is attributed to a general rise in the water table accompanied by widespread flooding. Following formation of the parting, peat accumulation resumed within an environment that inhibited clastic input. Development of doming in this facies restricted deposition of the upper shale parting to the margins of the mire and allowed low-ash peat to form in the interior of the mire. Because this environment was conducive to preservation of cellular tissue, this coal facies also contains large amounts of crypto-telinite. This facies development is interpreted to have been a transitional phase from topogenous, planar peat formation to slightly domed, oligotrophic (nutrient-poor) peat formation. As domed peat formation continued, fluctuations in the water table enabled oxidation of the peat surface and produced high inertinite concentrations toward the top of the coal bed. Tree ferns became an increasingly important peat contributor in the e upper facies

  13. Valleys, facies, and sequence stratigraphy of the Ferron Notom Delta, Capital Reef, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiguo

    The Turonian-Coniacian Ferron Sandstone is the first significant elastic tongue prograding from the thin-skinned Sevier Orogenic belts into the western interior foreland basin after the Greenhorn sea-level maxima. The Ferron Notom Delta, one of the Ferron wedges, is exposed three dimensionally in the Henry Mountains region, Utah. This dissertation attempts to: (1) subdivide the complex in a sequence stratigraphic perspective, and (2) evaluate the existing nonmarine sequence stratigraphic and delta asymmetry models. A large amount of integrated sedimentological and ichnological data shows that the 100-160 m thick complex consists of 6 sequences, 18 parasequence sets, and 43 parasequences. Without this extensive data control, this stratal complexity could not be resolved, resulting in huge correlations uncertainties. Incised valleys are developed in the younger two sequences. The youngest valley system within SQ1 is a compound incised valley, containing two nested valleys, each of which consists of amalgamated fluvial sandstones in the lower part, grading upward into heterolithic tidal/tidal-fluvial facies, and finally capped by more fluvial facies. There is a change in fluvial style from meandering into braided across the boundary of these two valleys. These observations support the existing nonmarine sequence stratigraphy models. Facies within the fluvial-deltaic complex are diverse, ranging from river-dominated to storm/wave-dominated. Sedimentological analysis within parasequence 6 recognized a clear along-strike facies transition from sandy shoreface in the north, into heterolithic river-dominated delta-front facies southeastward, and into wave/storm-reworked facies further southeastward. Ichnogenera correspondingly show distinct along-strike changes from a robust and healthy archetypal Cruziana to Skolithos ichnofacies in the north into a suite characterized by horizontal, morphologically simple, facies-crossing structures of the suppressed Skolithos and

  14. Pilon field : characterization of heavy crude oil reservoir with gas cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Urdaneta, R.; Sanchez, J. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bague, O. [Beicip-Franlab, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2009-07-01

    The Pilon mature oilfield covers a surface area of 100 square kilometres in the region of the Orinoco oil belt in eastern Venezuela. A study was undertaken regarding 3 reservoirs, of which 2 show a gas cap, contrary to previous studies which established that only 1 reservoir had a gas cap. This paper presented a 3D structural model that was created by defining fault planes and stratigraphic horizons. Stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrophysics, and geostatistics were also discussed. The geostatistic model was developed using the following techniques: facies simulation bias; rock type modeling; and petrophysical inputs. Production analysis and reservoir pressure analysis were also presented. Fluids distribution was discussed in terms of oil water contact and gas oil contact. Material balance was also addressed in the paper. It was concluded that the stratigraphic model underlines the existence of 6 distinct geological units spanning the whole field. 5 refs., 5 tabs., 27 figs.

  15. Relative role of transfer zones in controlling sequence stacking patterns and facies distribution: insights from the Fushan Depression, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Entao; Wang, Hua; Li, Yuan; Huang, Chuanyan

    2015-04-01

    In sedimentary basins, a transfer zone can be defined as a coordinated system of deformational features which has good prospects for hydrocarbon exploration. Although the term 'transfer zone' has been widely applied to the study of extensional basins, little attention has been paid to its controlling effect on sequence tracking pattern and depositional facies distribution. Fushan Depression is a half-graben rift sub-basin, located in the southeast of the Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. In this study, comparative analysis of seismic reflection, palaeogeomorphology, fault activity and depositional facies distribution in the southern slope indicates that three different types of sequence stacking patterns (i.e. multi-level step-fault belt in the western area, flexure slope belt in the central area, gentle slope belt in the eastern area) were developed along the southern slope, together with a large-scale transfer zone in the central area, at the intersection of the western and eastern fault systems. Further analysis shows that the transfer zone played an important role in the diversity of sequence stacking patterns in the southern slope by dividing the Fushan Depression into two non-interfering tectonic systems forming different sequence patterns, and leading to the formation of the flexure slope belt in the central area. The transfer zone had an important controlling effect on not only the diversity of sequence tracking patterns, but also the facies distribution on the relay ramp. During the high-stand stage, under the controlling effect of the transfer zone, the sediments contain a significant proportion of coarser material accumulated and distributed along the ramp axis. By contrast, during the low-stand stage, the transfer zone did not seem to contribute significantly to the low-stand fan distribution which was mainly controlled by the slope gradient (palaeogeomorphology). Therefore, analysis of the transfer zone can provide a new perspective for basin analysis

  16. Reservoir attributes of a hydrocarbon-prone sandstone complex: case of the Pab Formation (Late Cretaceous) of Southwest Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umar, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Salam; Kelling, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    porosity values than more shale-rich successions. Diagenetic studies of Pab sandstones reveal that intense mechanical compaction and cementation have reduced primary porosity and reservoir quality. Conversely, dissolution of detrital feldspar grains and volcanic fragments during burial and later uplift......Links between the architectural elements of major sand bodies and reservoir attributes have been explored in a field study of the hydrocarbon-yielding Late Cretaceous Pab Formation of southwest Pakistan. The lithofacies and facies associations represented in the Pab Formation are the main...

  17. Bathymetric and sediment facies maps for China Bend and Marcus Flats, Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Washington, 2008 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Williams, Marshall L.; Barton, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) created bathymetric and sediment facies maps for portions of two reaches of Lake Roosevelt in support of an interdisciplinary study of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and their habitat areas within Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Washington. In October 2008, scientists from the USGS used a boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder (MBES) to describe bathymetric data to characterize surface relief at China Bend and Marcus Flats, between Northport and Kettle Falls, Washington. In March 2009, an underwater video camera was used to view and record sediment facies that were then characterized by sediment type, grain size, and areas of sand deposition. Smelter slag has been identified as having the characteristics of sand-sized black particles; the two non-invasive surveys attempted to identify areas containing black-colored particulate matter that may be elements and minerals, organic material, or slag. The white sturgeon population in Lake Roosevelt is threatened by the failure of natural recruitment, resulting in a native population that consists primarily of aging fish and that is gradually declining as fish die and are not replaced by nonhatchery reared juvenile fish. These fish spawn and rear in the riverine and upper reservoir reaches where smelter slag is present in the sediment of the river lake bed. Effects of slag on the white sturgeon population in Lake Roosevelt are largely unknown. Two recent studies demonstrated that copper and other metals are mobilized from slag in aqueous environments with concentrations of copper and zinc in bed sediments reaching levels of 10,000 and 30,000 mg/kg due to the presence of smelter slag. Copper was found to be highly toxic to 30-day-old white sturgeon with 96-h LC50 concentrations ranging from 3 to 5 (u or mu)g copper per liter. Older juvenile and adult sturgeons commonly ingest substantial amounts of sediment while foraging. Future study efforts in Lake Roosevelt should include sampling of

  18. Facies discrimination in a mixed fluvio-eolian setting using elemental whole rock geochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Johan; Friis, Henrik; Stollhofen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    -eolian successions. The method is developed on the modern fluvio-eolian sediments from the Skeleton Coast dune field, Namibia. The examined sediments comprise eight different facies types; eolian dune sands, inter dune fluvial channel sands, intra erg mass flow deposits, intra erg hyperconcentrated flow deposits......, fluvial channel sands, fluvial mud, lacustrine heterolithic sand and lacustrine heterolithic mud. The contrasting provenance of the fluvial and eolian sediments results in a distinct source fingerprint which can be discriminated using elemental whole rock geochemistry. Multivariate statistical technique...... performed on the geochemical data has enabled discrimination of seven of the eight facies types. Furthermore, the facies discrimination method allowed a quantitative estimate of the degree of fluvial reworking of eolian sand. We believe that the method presented here, when calibrated to a reference well...

  19. Secondary carbonate porosity as related to early teritiary depositional facies, Zelten field, Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebout, D.G.; Pendexter, C.

    1975-04-01

    Production from the Zelten field, Libya, is from the highly porous shelf limestones of the Zelten Member (Main Pay) of the Paleocene and lower Eocene Ruaga Limestone. Fifteen facies are recognized, mapped, and predicted. Seven of the facies comprise the larger part of the Zelten Member. These include miliolid-foraminiferal micrite, argillaceous bryozoan/echinoid micrite, argillaceous-molluscan micrite, coralgal micrite. Discocyclina-foraminiferal calcarenite, foraminiferal calcarenite and micrite, and Discocyclina-foraminiferal micrite. In the Zelten field secondary porosity is recorded as much as 40%; this porosity is related to the original depositional fabric of the sediment and, therefore, is facies controlled. Porosity is highest in the coralgal micrite and Discocyclina-foraminiferal calcarenite, which together form a NW.-SE. trend across the N. part of the field, and in the formaniniferal calcarenite and micrite. (10 refs.)

  20. Optimising reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le

    Anvendelse af optimeringsteknik til drift af reservoirer er blevet et væsentligt element i vandressource-planlægning og -forvaltning. Traditionelt har reservoirer været styret af heuristiske procedurer for udtag af vand, suppleret i en vis udstrækning af subjektive beslutninger. Udnyttelse af...... reservoirer involverer en lang række interessenter med meget forskellige formål (f.eks. kunstig vanding, vandkraft, vandforsyning mv.), og optimeringsteknik kan langt bedre lede frem til afbalancerede løsninger af de ofte modstridende interesser. Afhandlingen foreslår en række tiltag, hvormed traditionelle...... driftsstrategier kan erstattes af optimale strategier baseret på den nyeste udvikling indenfor computer-baserede beregninger. Hovedbidraget i afhandlingen er udviklingen af et beregningssystem, hvori en simuleringsmodel er koblet til en model for optimering af nogle udvalgte beslutningsvariable, der i særlig grad...

  1. Geostatistical modeling of a fluviodeltaic reservoir in the Huyapari Field, Hamaca area, in the Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ascencao, Erika M.; Munckton, Toni; Digregorio, Ricardo [Petropiar (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The Huyapari field, situated within the Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco (FPO) of Venezuela presents unique problems in terms of modeling. This field is spread over a wide area and is therefore subject to variable oil quality and complex fluvial facies architecture. Ameriven and PDVSA have been working on characterizing the ld's reservoirs in this field since 2000 and the aim of this paper is to present these efforts. Among others, a 3-D seismic survey completed in 1998 and a stratigraphic framework built from 149 vertical wells were used for reservoir characterization. Geostatistical techniques such as sequential Gaussian simulation with locally varying mean and cloud transform were also used. Results showed that these geostatistical methods accurately represented the architecture and properties of the reservoir and its fluid distribution. This paper showed that the application of numerous different techniques in the Hamasca area permitted reservoir complexity to be captured.

  2. Texture and coarse fraction composition of Nile Delta deposits: facies analysis and stratigraphic correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frihy, Omran E.; Stanley, Daniel Jean

    This study distinguishes some of the major late Pleistocene and Holocene lithofacies in the northeastern Nile Delta of Egypt by evaluating quantitatively the texture and the coarse fraction composition of 375 samples in 14 cores. Seventeen petrologic variables (three textural and 14 mineralogical, faunal and floral) were considered for each of the samples. For facies discrimination the raw data were evaluated with descriptive statistics and with numerous (>300) computer-generated bivariate and ternary diagrams. This treatment, and Q-mode factor analysis, were applied separately to two facies groups: one comprised coastal-organic rich, lagoonal/marsh, delta-front, prodelta and alluvial delta plain muds; the other comprised upper Holocene progradational coastal sands, lower Holocene transgressive coastal sands and late Pleistocene alluvial sands. Discrimination of the five mud facies is generally good (except that of the upper Holocene lagoonal/marsh muds), while that of the three sand types is only moderately successful. As a test of the method used here for facies analysis, we were able to satisfactorily identify and interpret the origin of 38 small "unknown" samples in two additional poorly-preserved cores in the study area. Having identified most of the facies, normalized factor components were used to correlate some of the sedimentary sections between cores. The investigation indicates that discrimination of Nile Delta facies and their correlation from core-to-core are most precise when the textural and compositional data are merged with the visually more obvious features (sedimentary structures, hardness, color, etc.), and when the petrologic data are placed within a chronostratigraphic framework of radiocarbon-dated subsurface sequence.

  3. Late Devonian glacigenic and associated facies from the central Appalachian Basin, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinski, D.K.; Cecil, C.B.; Skema, V.W.

    2010-01-01

    Late Devonian strata in the eastern United States are generally considered as having been deposited under warm tropical conditions. However, a stratigraphically restricted Late Devonian succession of diamictite- mudstonesandstone within the Spechty Kopf and Rockwell Formations that extends for more than 400 km along depositional strike within the central Appalachian Basin may indicate other wise. This lithologic association unconformably overlies the Catskill Formation, where a 3- to 5-m-thick interval of deformed strata occurs immediately below the diamictite strata. The diamictite facies consists of several subfacies that are interpreted to be subglacial, englacial, supraglacial meltout, and resedimented deposits. The mudstone facies that overlies the diamictite consists of subfacies of chaotically bedded, clast-poor mudstone, and laminated mudstone sub facies that represent subaqueous proximal debris flows and distal glaciolacustrine rhythmites or varvites, respectively. The pebbly sandstone facies is interpreted as proglacial braided outwash deposits that both preceded glacial advance and followed glacial retreat. Both the tectonic and depositional frameworks suggest that the facies were deposited in a terrestrial setting within the Appalachian foreland basin during a single glacial advance and retreat. Regionally, areas that were not covered by ice were subject to increased rainfall as indicated by wet-climate paleosols. River systems eroded deeper channels in response to sea-level drop during glacial advance. Marine facies to the west contain iceborne dropstone boulders preserved within contemporaneous units of the Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale.The stratigraphic interval correlative with sea-level drop, climate change, and glacigenic succession represents one of the Appalachian Basin's most prolific oil-and gas-producing intervals and is contemporaneous with a global episode of sea-level drop responsible for the deposition of the Hangenberg Shale

  4. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  5. Session: Reservoir Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook

  6. SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS AND FACIES ARCHITECTURE OF THE CRETACEOUS MANCOS SHALE ON AND NEAR THE JICARILLA APACHE INDIAN RESERVATION, NEW MEXICO-THEIR RELATION TO SITES OF OIL ACCUMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennie Ridgley

    2000-03-31

    the oil (except for the Tocito Sandstone) from the lower Mancos. In the central and southern part of the Reservation, large areas, currently not productive or not tested, have the potential to contain oil in the El Vado simply based on the trend of the facies and structure. There has been little oil or gas production from the overlying regressive-transgressive wedge of rock and much of this interval is untested. Thus, large areas of the Reservation could contain hydrocarbon resources in these strata. Most of the Reservation lies within the oil generation window based on new Rock-Eval data from the Mancos Shale just south of the southern part of the Reservation. If these observations are valid then oil could have been generated locally and would only have needed to migrate short distances in to sandy reservoirs and fractures. This does not rule out long distance migration of oil from the deeper, more thermally mature part of the basin to the north. However, low porosity and permeability characterize sandier rocks in the Mancos, with the exception of Tocito-like sandstones. These factors could retard long distance oil migration through the sediment package, except through fracture or fault conduits. Thus, it is suggested that future oil and gas explorations in the Mancos treat the accumulations and reservoirs as unconventional and consider whether the source and reservoir are in closer proximity than has previously been assumed.

  7. SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS AND FACIES ARCHITECTURE OF THE CRETACEOUS MANCOS SHALE ON AND NEAR THE JICARILLA APACHE INDIAN RESERVATION, NEW MEXICO-THEIR RELATION TO SITES OF OIL ACCUMULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennie Ridgley

    2000-01-01

    the oil (except for the Tocito Sandstone) from the lower Mancos. In the central and southern part of the Reservation, large areas, currently not productive or not tested, have the potential to contain oil in the El Vado simply based on the trend of the facies and structure. There has been little oil or gas production from the overlying regressive-transgressive wedge of rock and much of this interval is untested. Thus, large areas of the Reservation could contain hydrocarbon resources in these strata. Most of the Reservation lies within the oil generation window based on new Rock-Eval data from the Mancos Shale just south of the southern part of the Reservation. If these observations are valid then oil could have been generated locally and would only have needed to migrate short distances in to sandy reservoirs and fractures. This does not rule out long distance migration of oil from the deeper, more thermally mature part of the basin to the north. However, low porosity and permeability characterize sandier rocks in the Mancos, with the exception of Tocito-like sandstones. These factors could retard long distance oil migration through the sediment package, except through fracture or fault conduits. Thus, it is suggested that future oil and gas explorations in the Mancos treat the accumulations and reservoirs as unconventional and consider whether the source and reservoir are in closer proximity than has previously been assumed

  8. Optimal Complexity in Reservoir Modeling of an Eolian Sandstone for Carbon Sequestration Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic Carbon Sequestration (GCS) is a proposed means to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2). Given the type, abundance, and accessibility of geologic characterization data, different reservoir modeling techniques can be utilized to build a site model. However, petrophysical properties of a formation can be modeled with simplifying assumptions or with greater detail, the later requiring sophisticated modeling techniques supported by additional data. In GCS where cost of data collection needs to be minimized, will detailed (expensive) reservoir modeling efforts lead to much improved model predictive capability? Is there an optimal level of detail in the reservoir model sufficient for prediction purposes? In Wyoming, GCS into the Nugget Sandstone is proposed. This formation is a deep (>13,000 ft) saline aquifer deposited in eolian environments, exhibiting permeability heterogeneity at multiple scales. Based on a set of characterization data, this study utilizes multiple, increasingly complex reservoir modeling techniques to create a suite of reservoir models including a multiscale, non-stationary heterogeneous model conditioned to a soft depositional model (i.e., training image), a geostatistical (stationary) facies model without conditioning, a geostatistical (stationary) petrophysical model ignoring facies, and finally, a homogeneous model ignoring all aspects of sub-aquifer heterogeneity. All models are built at regional scale with a high-resolution grid (245,133,140 cells) from which a set of local simulation models (448,000 grid cells) are extracted. These are considered alternative conceptual models with which pilot-scale CO2 injection is simulated (50 year duration at 1/10 Mt per year). A computationally efficient sensitivity analysis (SA) is conducted for all models based on a Plackett-Burman Design of Experiment metric. The SA systematically varies key parameters of the models (e.g., variogram structure and principal axes of intrinsic

  9. Applications of resistivity modeling in reservoir development: examples from Balder Field, Norwegian North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Haynes, F.M.; Buretz, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    The massive Paleocene oil sands of the Balder Field are overlain by several thinly bedded Eocene sand-prone packages of variable facies and reservoir quality. Although these sands have been penetrated by numerous exploration and development wells, uncertainty remains as to their extent, distribution, and ultimate effect on reservoir performance. The section is geologically complex (thin beds, injected sands, shale clasts and laminae, and faulting), and also contains a field-wide primary gas cap. With a depletion plan involving both gas and water injection, geologic/reservoir characterization of the Eocene is critical for prudent resource management during depletion. With this goal, resistivity modeling and core-based thin bed reservoir description from the first phase of development drilling have been integrated with seismic attribute mapping. Detailed core description, core permeability and grain size distribution data delineate six facies and help in distinguishing laterally continuous massive and laminated sands from potentially non-connected injection sands and non-reservoir quality siltstones and tuffs. Volumetric assessment of the thin sand resource has been enhanced by I-D forward modeling of induction log response using a commercial resistivity modeling program, R,BAN. After defining beds and facies with core and high resolution log data, the AHF60 array induction curve response was approximated using the 6FF40 response. Because many of the beds were thinner than 6FF40 resolution, the modeling is considered to provide a lower bound on R,. However, for most beds this model-based R, is significantly higher than that provided by one-foot vertical resolution shallow resistivity data, and is thought to be the best available estimate of true formation resistivity. Sensitivities in STOOIP were assessed with multiple R, earth models which can later be tested against production results. In addition, water saturation height functions, developed in vertical wells and

  10. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  11. Parallel reservoir simulator computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemanth-Kumar, K.; Young, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    The adaptation of a reservoir simulator for parallel computations is described. The simulator was originally designed for vector processors. It performs approximately 99% of its calculations in vector/parallel mode and relative to scalar calculations it achieves speedups of 65 and 81 for black oil and EOS simulations, respectively on the CRAY C-90

  12. MULTIDISCIPLINARY IMAGING OF ROCK PROPERTIES IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS FOR FLOW-UNIT TARGETING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Ruppel

    2004-07-20

    Our analysis and imaging of reservoir properties at the Fullerton Clear Fork field (Figure 1) is in its final stages. Major accomplishments during the past 6 months include: (1) characterization of facies and cyclicity in cores, (2) correlation of cycles and sequences using core-calibrated wireline logs, (3) calculation and modeling of wireline porosity, (4) analysis of new cores for conventional and special core analysis data, (5) construction of full-field reservoir model, and (6) revision of 3D seismic inversion of reservoir porosity and permeability. One activity has been eliminated from the originally proposed tasks. Task 3 (Characterization and Modeling of Rock Mechanics and Fractures) has been deleted because we have determined that fractures are not significant contributing in the reservoir under study. A second project extension has been asked for to extend the project until 7/31/04. Remaining project activities are: (1) interpretation and synthesis of fieldwide data, (2) preparation of 3D virtual reality demonstrations of reservoir model and attributes, (3) transfer of working data sets to the operator for reservoir implementation and decision-making, and (4) preparation and distribution of final reports.

  13. Integrating geologic and engineering data into 3-D reservoir models: an example from norman wells field, NWT, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yose, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    A case study of the Norman Wells field will be presented to highlight the work-flow and data integration steps associated with characterization and modeling of a complex hydrocarbon reservoir. Norman Wells is a Devonian-age carbonate bank ('reef') located in the Northwest Territories of Canada, 60 kilometers south of the Arctic Circle. The reservoir reaches a maximum thickness of 130 meters in the reef interior and thins toward the basin due to depositional pinch outs. Norman Wells is an oil reservoir and is currently under a 5-spot water injection scheme for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). EOR strategies require a detailed understanding of how reservoir flow units, flow barriers and flow baffles are distributed to optimize hydrocarbon sweep and recovery and to minimize water handling. Reservoir models are routinely used by industry to characterize the 3-D distribution of reservoir architecture (stratigraphic layers, depositional facies, faults) and rock properties (porosity. permeability). Reservoir models are validated by matching historical performance data (e.g., reservoir pressures, well production or injection rates). Geologic models are adjusted until they produce a history match, and model adjustments are focused on inputs that have the greatest geologic uncertainty. Flow simulation models are then used to optimize field development strategies and to forecast field performance under different development scenarios. (author)

  14. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. [Quarterly progress report], January 1--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, B.G.; Gamble, R.F.; Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1994-06-01

    The basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The overall project plan to design the system to create integrated reservoir descriptions begins by initially developing an Al-based methodology for producing large-scale reservoir descriptions generated interactively from geology and well test data. Parallel to this task is a second task that develops an Al-based methodology that uses facies-biased information to generate small-scale descriptions of reservoir properties such as permeability and porosity. The third task involves consolidation and integration of the large-scale and small-scale methodologies to produce reservoir descriptions honoring all the available data. The final task will be technology transfer. With this plan, we have carefully allocated and sequenced the activities involved in each of the tasks to promote concurrent progress towards the research objectives. Moreover, the project duties are divided among the faculty member participants. Graduate students will work in teams with faculty members. The results of the integration are not merely limited to obtaining better characterizations of individual reservoirs. They have the potential to significantly impact and advance the discipline of reservoir characterization itself.

  15. A novel methodology improves reservoir characterization models using geologic fuzzy variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, Rodolfo [DIGITOIL, Maracaibo (Venezuela); Soto O, David A. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    One of the research projects carried out in Cusiana field to explain its rapid decline during the last years was to get better permeability models. The reservoir of this field has a complex layered system that it is not easy to model using conventional methods. The new technique included the development of porosity and permeability maps from cored wells following the same trend of the sand depositions for each facie or layer according to the sedimentary facie and the depositional system models. Then, we used fuzzy logic to reproduce those maps in three dimensions as geologic fuzzy variables. After multivariate statistical and factor analyses, we found independence and a good correlation coefficient between the geologic fuzzy variables and core permeability and porosity. This means, the geologic fuzzy variable could explain the fabric, the grain size and the pore geometry of the reservoir rock trough the field. Finally, we developed a neural network permeability model using porosity, gamma ray and the geologic fuzzy variable as input variables. This model has a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.873 and average absolute error of 33% compared with the actual model with a correlation coefficient of 0.511 and absolute error greater than 250%. We tested different methodologies, but this new one showed dramatically be a promiser way to get better permeability models. The use of the models have had a high impact in the explanation of well performance and workovers, and reservoir simulation models. (author)

  16. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  17. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  18. Facies analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Upper Cretaceous sequences in the eastern Para-Tethys Basin, NW Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, M.; Safari, A.; Vaziri-Moghaddam, H.; Ghalavand, H.

    2016-07-01

    Upper Cretaceous mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sequences are among the most important targets for hydrocarbon exploration in the Moghan area, located in the eastern Para-Tethys Basin. Despite of their significance, little is known about their facies characteristics and depositional environments. Detailed facies analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of these sequences have been carried out in eight surface sections. Accordingly, four siliciclastic facies, eight carbonate facies and one volcanic facies have been recognized. Detailed facies descriptions and interpretations, together with the results of facies frequency analysis, standard facies models and Upper Cretaceous depositional models of Para-Tethys Basin, have been integrated and a non-rimmed carbonate platform is presented. This platform was affected by siliciclastic influx, in the form of coastal fan delta and submarine fans in the shallow- to deep-marine parts, respectively. This model is interpreted to be shallower in the central and northeastern parts of the Moghan area. Toward the southeast and southwest, this shallow platform turns into deep marine settings along steep slopes without remarkable marginal barriers. (Author)

  19. APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Bergeron; Tom Blasingame; Louis Doublet; Mohan Kelkar; George Freeman; Jeff Callard; David Moore; David Davies; Richard Vessell; Brian Pregger; Bill Dixon; Bryce Bezant

    2000-03-01

    Reservoir performance and characterization are vital parameters during the development phase of a project. Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to characterization does not optimize development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, especially carbonate reservoirs. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: (1) large, discontinuous pay intervals; (2) vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties; (3) low reservoir energy; (4) high residual oil saturation; and (5) low recovery efficiency. The operational problems they encounter in these types of reservoirs include: (1) poor or inadequate completions and stimulations; (2) early water breakthrough; (3) poor reservoir sweep efficiency in contacting oil throughout the reservoir as well as in the nearby well regions; (4) channeling of injected fluids due to preferential fracturing caused by excessive injection rates; and (5) limited data availability and poor data quality. Infill drilling operations only need target areas of the reservoir which will be economically successful. If the most productive areas of a reservoir can be accurately identified by combining the results of geological, petrophysical, reservoir performance, and pressure transient analyses, then this ''integrated'' approach can be used to optimize reservoir performance during secondary and tertiary recovery operations without resorting to ''blanket'' infill drilling methods. New and emerging technologies such as geostatistical modeling, rock typing, and rigorous decline type curve analysis can be used to quantify reservoir quality and the degree of interwell communication. These results can then be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The application of reservoir surveillance techniques to identify additional reservoir ''pay'' zones

  20. Facies architecture of heterolithic tidal deposits : The Holocene Holland Tidal Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, M.E.; Geel, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    The size, shape and spatial position of lithofacies types (or facies architecture) in a tidal estuarine basin are complex and therefore difficult to model. The tidal currents in the basin concentrate sand-sized sediment in a branching pattern of tidal channels and fringing tidal flats. Away from the

  1. Comparative facies formation in selected coal beds of the Powder River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, R.W.; Moore, Timothy A.; Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, S.S.; Flores, Romeo M.; Flores, Romeo M.; Warwick, Peter D.; Moore, Timothy A.; Glass, Gary; Smith, Archie; Nichols, Douglas J.; Wolfe, Jack A.; Stanton, Ronald W.; Weaver, Jean

    1989-01-01

    Petrologic studies of thick coal beds [Warwick, 1985; Moore, 1986; Moore and others, 1986; Moore and others, 1987; Warwick and Stanton, in press], which build on sedimentological interpretations [Flores, this volume] of associated units, provide data to interpret and contrast the varieties of peat formation in the Powder River Basin. Detailed analyses of the composition of coal beds lead to more complete interpretations regarding the depositional environment on a regional and local scale. Our efforts in the Powder River Basin [areas A-D in fig. 1 of Flores, this volume] have resulted in a series of site-specific studies that interpret the types of peat formation from the arrangement of different facies which comprise the coal beds and from the spatial form of the coal beds.Our approach was to use a combination of megascopic criteria for facies sampling, and where only core was available, to analyze many interval samples to discriminate facies by their maceral composition. Coal beds in the Powder River Basin are composed of laterally continuous, compositional subunits of the bed (facies) that can be discerned most easily in weathered highwall exposures, less readily in fresh highwalls, and very poorly in fresh-cut core surfaces. In general, very low ash ( 

  2. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  3. Mapping Depositional Facies on Great Bahama Bank: An Integration of Groundtruthing and Remote Sensing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariss, M.; Purkis, S.; Ellis, J. M.; Swart, P. K.; Reijmer, J.

    2013-12-01

    Great Bahama Bank (GBB) has been used in many models to illustrate depositional facies variation across flat-topped, isolated carbonate platforms. Such models have served as subsurface analogs at a variety of scales. In this presentation we have integrated Landsat TM imagery, a refined bathymetric digital elevation model, and seafloor sample data compiled into ArcGIS and analyzed with eCognition to develop a depositional facies map that is more robust than previous versions. For the portion of the GBB lying to the west of Andros Island, the facies map was generated by pairing an extensive set of GPS-constrained field observations and samples (n=275) (Reijmer et al., 2009, IAS Spec Pub 41) with computer and manual interpretation of the Landsat imagery. For the remainder of the platform, which lacked such rigorous ground-control, the Landsat imagery was segmented into lithotopes - interpreted to be distinct bodies of uniform sediment - using a combination of edge detection, spectral and textural analysis, and manual editing. A map was then developed by assigning lithotopes to facies classes on the basis of lessons derived from the portion of the platform for which we had rigorous conditioning. The new analysis reveals that GBB is essentially a very grainy platform with muddier accumulations only in the lee of substantial island barriers; in this regard Andros Island, which is the largest island on GBB, exerts a direct control over the muddiest portion of GBB. Mudstones, wackestones, and mud-rich packstones cover 7%, 6%, and 15%, respectively, of the GBB platform top. By contrast, mud-poor packstones, grainstones, and rudstones account for 19%, 44%, and 3%, respectively. Of the 44% of the platform-top classified as grainstone, only 4% is composed of 'high-energy' deposits characterized by the development of sandbar complexes. The diversity and size of facies bodies is broadly the same on the eastern and western limb of the GBB platform, though the narrower eastern

  4. Intra-slab COH fluid fluxes evidenced by fluid-mediated decarbonation of lawsonite eclogite-facies altered oceanic metabasalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale Brovarone, Alberto; Chu, Xu; Martin, Laure; Ague, Jay J.; Monié, Patrick; Groppo, Chiara; Martinez, Isabelle; Chaduteau, Carine

    2018-04-01

    The interplay between the processes controlling the mobility of H2O and C-bearing species during subduction zone metamorphism exerts a critical control on plate tectonics and global volatile recycling. Here we present the first study on fresh, carbonate-bearing, lawsonite eclogite-facies metabasalts from Alpine Corsica, France, which reached the critical depths at which important devolatilization reactions occur in subducting slabs. The studied samples indicate that the evolution of oceanic crustal sequences subducted under present-day thermal regimes is dominated by localized fluid-rock interactions that are strongly controlled by the nature and extent of inherited (sub)seafloor hydrothermal processes, and by the possibility of deep fluids to be channelized along inherited or newly-formed discontinuities. Fluid channelization along inherited discontinuities controlled local rehydration and dehydration/decarbonation reactions and the stability of carbonate and silicate minerals at the blueschist-eclogite transition. Fluid-mediated decarbonation was driven by upward, up-temperature fluid flow in the inverted geothermal gradient of a subducting oceanic slab, a process that has not been documented in natural samples to date. We estimate that the observed fluid-rock reactions released 20-60 kg CO2 per m3 of rock (i.e. 0.7-2.1 wt% CO2), which is in line with the values predicted from decarbonation of metabasalts in open systems at these depths. Conversely, the estimated time-integrated fluid fluxes (20-50 t/m2) indicate that the amount of carbon transported by channelized fluid flow within the volcanic part of subducting oceanic plates is potentially much higher than previous numerical estimates, testifying to the percolation of C-bearing fluids resulting from devolatilization/dissolution processes operative in large reservoirs.

  5. The use of contained nuclear explosions to create underground reservoirs, and experience of operating these for gas condensate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovskij, O.L.; Myasnikov, K.V.; Leonov, E.A.; Romadin, N.M.; Dorodnov, V.F.; Nikiforov, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations on the creation of underground reservoirs by means of nuclear explosions have been going on in the Soviet Union for many years. In this paper the authors consider three main kinds of sites or formations that can be used for constructing reservoirs by this method, namely, low-permeable rocks, worked-out mines and rock salt formations. Formulae are given for predicting the mechanical effect of an explosion in rocks, taking their strength characteristics into account. Engineering procedures are described for sealing and restoring the emplacement holes, so that they can be used for operating the underground reservoir. Experience with the contruction and operation of a 50 000 m 3 gas-condensate reservoir in a rock salt formation is described. In the appendix to the paper a method is presented for calculating the stability of spherical cavities created by nuclear explosions in rock salt, allowing for the development of elasto-plastic deformations and creep

  6. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is designated... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155...

  7. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Joaquim

    2010-05-01

    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  8. Potosi Reservoir Modeling; History and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    : - Data acquisition to identify the vugs permeability, distribution, and interconnectivity could be considered to perform a more rigorous evaluation of the Potosi Formation injectivity and capacity. This could be achieved by performing an injection test on a vugular interval to determine the vugs permeability, and an interference test between wells to evaluate the local vugs extent and interconnectivity. - A thorough study of the available FMI data may reveal specifics on estimating the vug to matrix ratio. This estimate could be used to further condition the porosity distribution. Porosity logs alone might underestimate the formation’s porosity associated with vugs. Porosity mapping derived from the seismic inversion could also be used in the succeeding task to characterize the lateral porosity distribution within the reservoir. This could involve the geobody methodology previously attempted in 2010. With or without seismic inversion porosity mapping, it is worth exploring whether increased lateral heterogeneity plays a significant role in Potosi injectivity. Investigations on vugular, dolomitic outcrops suggest that there may be significantly greater lateral heterogeneity than what has been modeled here. - The FMI data also reveals the presence of and helps describe open fractures. The presence of fractures will further enhance the formation’s permeability. The task of leveraging this data in the geomodeling effort still remains. Under the best of circumstances, this data describing open fractures may be combined with seismic attributes to delineate fracture corridors. Fracture modeling would certainly add another layer of sophistication to the model. Its contribution and applicability remain to be explored. - Facies modeling within the Potosi has yet to be thoroughly addressed. The carbonates during the time of deposition are believed to be regionally extensive. However, it may be worth delineating the reservoir with other regional wells or modern day analogues to

  9. Simulación de Facies mediante un Modelo Geoestadístico integrado para el desarrollo de un campo petrolero ecuatoriano.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Portilla

    2017-05-01

    realizations such as models of facies using the Sequential Indicator Simulation  and Plurigaussian Simulation algorithms, also the petrophysical properties let to select the most similar model of facies  with the real geological models  of the field and let to determine  the reserves estimation of field. The numerical reservoir simulation  methods applied in the DSG software can generate data in areas that do not have information,  from techniques or interpolation algorithms for each model that will be generated, those methods will be studied in this project.

  10. Advantageous Reservoir Characterization Technology in Extra Low Permeability Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper took extra low permeability reservoirs in Dagang Liujianfang Oilfield as an example and analyzed different types of microscopic pore structures by SEM, casting thin sections fluorescence microscope, and so on. With adoption of rate-controlled mercury penetration, NMR, and some other advanced techniques, based on evaluation parameters, namely, throat radius, volume percentage of mobile fluid, start-up pressure gradient, and clay content, the classification and assessment method of extra low permeability reservoirs was improved and the parameter boundaries of the advantageous reservoirs were established. The physical properties of reservoirs with different depth are different. Clay mineral variation range is 7.0%, and throat radius variation range is 1.81 μm, and start pressure gradient range is 0.23 MPa/m, and movable fluid percentage change range is 17.4%. The class IV reservoirs account for 9.56%, class II reservoirs account for 12.16%, and class III reservoirs account for 78.29%. According to the comparison of different development methods, class II reservoir is most suitable for waterflooding development, and class IV reservoir is most suitable for gas injection development. Taking into account the gas injection in the upper section of the reservoir, the next section of water injection development will achieve the best results.

  11. Hydrocarbon Potential in Sandstone Reservoir Isolated inside Low Permeability Shale Rock (Case Study: Beruk Field, Central Sumatra Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diria, Shidqi A.; Musu, Junita T.; Hasan, Meutia F.; Permono, Widyo; Anwari, Jakson; Purba, Humbang; Rahmi, Shafa; Sadjati, Ory; Sopandi, Iyep; Ruzi, Fadli

    2018-03-01

    Upper Red Bed, Menggala Formation, Bangko Formation, Bekasap Formation and Duri Formationare considered as the major reservoirs in Central Sumatra Basin (CSB). However, Telisa Formation which is well-known as seal within CSB also has potential as reservoir rock. Field study discovered that lenses and layers which has low to high permeability sandstone enclosed inside low permeability shale of Telisa Formation. This matter is very distinctive and giving a new perspective and information related to the invention of hydrocarbon potential in reservoir sandstone that isolated inside low permeability shale. This study has been conducted by integrating seismic data, well logs, and petrophysical data throughly. Facies and static model are constructed to estimate hydrocarbon potential resource. Facies model shows that Telisa Formation was deposited in deltaic system while the potential reservoir was deposited in distributary mouth bar sandstone but would be discontinued bedding among shale mud-flat. Besides, well log data shows crossover between RHOB and NPHI, indicated that distributary mouth bar sandstone is potentially saturated by hydrocarbon. Target area has permeability ranging from 0.01-1000 mD, whereas porosity varies from 1-30% and water saturation varies from 30-70%. The hydrocarbon resource calculation approximates 36.723 MSTB.

  12. Facies analysis of the Codó Formation (Late Aptian in the Grajaú Area, Southern São Luís-Grajaú Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossetti Dilce F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Facies descriptions of the Codó Formation in the Grajaú area are provided for the first time, and its sedimentary characteristics compared to those from the Codó area to allow paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Deposits in the Grajaú area include evaporites, limestones and argillites bearing features indicative of a shallow, low energy, subaqueous, saline environment exposed to meteoric and/or capillary conditions. Flooding-evaporative concentration-desiccation cycles suggest a saline pan complex surrounded by extensive evaporitic mudflats. The location of the system, whether coastal or inland, is a matter open for debate. However, the later hypothesis is favored considering: 1. Sr isotopic data, with values higher than those expected for Late Aptian marine waters; 2. calcitic composition of limestones (instead of dolomitic and/or magnesitic as expected in coastal settings; and 3. presence of continental ostracods and lack of marine fauna. This interpretation is consistent with that proposed for UpperAptian deposits of the Codó area, but the depositional system there was one dominated by more stable, well-stratified, anoxic waters and evaporite precipitation in central lacustrine areas, while in the Grajaú area the salt pan was more oxygenated and ephemeral, with salt precipitation mainly in marginal areas or along surrounding mudflats.

  13. Not Salt Taste Perception but Self-Reported Salt Eating Habit Predicts Actual Salt Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-01-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a s...

  14. Sedimentary facies and evolution of large sandbody of the upper part of Huagang Formation in Xihu Sag, East China Sea Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuai; Chen, Lin

    2017-04-01

    Xihu sag is one of the largest subprime unit of the east China sea basin. In recent years, with the discovery of some large-scale gas fields in the Huanggang Formation of Xihu Sag, the sedimentary facies and gas exploration of Huanggang Formation have become a hotspot of many domestic and overseas petroleum geologists study. This research mainly focused on the upper part of Huagang Formation which was composed by a set of large scale sandbodies in Xihu sag. Based on the application of sequence stratigraphy, sedimentology, and seismic sedimentology, this paper has studied the sedimentary facies and evolution of the upper part of Huagang Formation in Xihu Sag. The geophysical technologies, including seismic attributes, constrained sparse pulse inversion and post-stack geostatistical inversion, are also used to characterize the sandbodies' development features and spatial distribution of the upper part of Huagang Formation. Our results show that braided river is the main facies of the upper part in the Huagang Formation and The Huanggang Formation primary can be divided into lowstand systems tract (LST) and transgressive systems tract (TST). The upstream of the braided river is characterized by thick sandstone and narrow channel. The sandbody displays a better lateral continuity and the channel become wider from upstream to downstream. As the erosion of the incised channel weakened, the sandstone thickness tends to be thinner. Conglomerates can also be occasionally observed at the bottom of thick superimposed sandbodies. On both sides of the braided river, thin sandstone layers are developed. There are also visible of lateral migration of the sandbodies of the downstream. Lithology profiles also illustrate that the sandbodies display poor lateral continuity on the both sides of the braided river .Sedimentary evolution analysis showing that the braided channels are mainly developed in the LST of Lower Huagang Formation from the NNE axial to basin. During TST, the

  15. Salt dissolution and collapse : one key to Western Canadian oil and gas plays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halabura, S.P. [North Rim Exploration Ltd., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Potter, D. [Sito Energy Ltd., (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Issues regarding the poorly understood processes of salt dissolution and collapse within the Williston and Western Canada basins were explained. Salt collapse was described as being the dissolution and removal of various Paleozoic salts present within the basins. This process results in the altered structural attitude of overlying beds. Present understanding of salt collapse comes from subsurface mapping, seismic analysis and core examination. Good examples have been documented at Hummingbird, Kisbey and Rosetown, Saskatchewan. Examples of hydrocarbon pools associated with salt dissolution and collapse have been found in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. In Saskatchewan, salt dissolution and collapse has been known to control the occurrence of heavy oil and natural gas pools by creating a favourable structure and localizing the accumulation of reservoir-quality sand. The two immediate effects which are observed with the removal of salt from a dissolution site are: (1) lithified sediments forming the overburden fracture, sag and eventually collapse into the dissolution cavern, and (2) as salt is removed, but before breakage, the land at the surface begins to sag, creating a microbasin which fills with sediment, thus forming a stratigraphic anomaly. Core samples were exhibited which showed examples of both reservoir enhancement and reservoir destruction. 2 figs.

  16. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. Annual report, October 1994--October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.; Thompson, L.; Shenoi, S.

    1996-01-01

    The basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The main challenge of the proposed research is to automate the generation of detailed reservoir descriptions honoring all the available soft and hard data that ranges from qualitative and semi-quantitative geological interpretations to numeric data obtained from cores, well tests, well logs and production statistics. Additional challenges are the verification and validation of the expert system, since much of the interpretation of the experts is based on extended experience in reservoir characterization. The overall project plan to design the system to create integrated reservoir descriptions begins by initially developing an AI-based methodology for producing large-scale reservoir descriptions generated interactively from geology and well test data. Parallel to this task is a second task that develops an AI-based methodology that uses facies-biased information to generate small-scale descriptions of reservoir properties such as permeability and porosity. The third task involves consolidation and integration of the large-scale and small-scale methodologies to produce reservoir descriptions honoring all the available data. The final task will be technology transfer. With this plan, the authors have carefully allocated and sequenced the activities involved in each of the tasks to promote concurrent progress towards the research objectives. Moreover, the project duties are divided among the faculty member participants. Graduate students will work in terms with faculty members.

  17. Petrofacies analysis - the petrophysical tool for geologic/engineering reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watney, W.L.; Guy, W.J.; Gerlach, P.M. [Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Petrofacies analysis is defined as the characterization and classification of pore types and fluid saturations as revealed by petrophysical measures of a reservoir. The word {open_quotes}petrofacies{close_quotes} makes an explicit link between petroleum engineers concerns with pore characteristics as arbiters of production performance, and the facies paradigm of geologists as a methodology for genetic understanding and prediction. In petrofacies analysis, the porosity and resistivity axes of the classical Pickett plot are used to map water saturation, bulk volume water, and estimated permeability, as well as capillary pressure information, where it is available. When data points are connected in order of depth within a reservoir, the characteristic patterns reflect reservoir rock character and its interplay with the hydrocarbon column. A third variable can be presented at each point on the crossplot by assigning a color scale that is based on other well logs, often gamma ray or photoelectric effect, or other derived variables. Contrasts between reservoir pore types and fluid saturations will be reflected in changing patterns on the crossplot and can help discriminate and characterize reservoir heterogeneity. Many hundreds of analyses of well logs facilitated by spreadsheet and object-oriented programming have provided the means to distinguish patterns typical of certain complex pore types for sandstones and carbonate reservoirs, occurrences of irreducible water saturation, and presence of transition zones. The result has been an improved means to evaluate potential production such as bypassed pay behind pipe and in old exploration holes, or to assess zonation and continuity of the reservoir. Petrofacies analysis is applied in this example to distinguishing flow units including discrimination of pore type as assessment of reservoir conformance and continuity. The analysis is facilitated through the use of color cross sections and cluster analysis.

  18. Biostratigraphy, facies and sequence stratigraphy of the Sarvak Formation in the Ahwaz Oil Field, North Dezful Embayment Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Kazemzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Paleontological studies lead to recognition of 21 genera and 16 species of benthic foraminifera, 5 genera and 6 species of planktonic foraminifera and 3 genera and 3 species of oligosteginids. The vertical distribution of fauna lead to identification of 5 biozones including: Favusella washitensis Range Zone, Oligostegina Assemblage Zone, Rudist debris Zone, Nezzazata-Alveolinids Assemblage Zone, Nezzazatinella-Dicyclina Assemblage Zone. Based on the indicated biozones, the age of the Sarvak Formation is Late Albian to Early Turonian in the study area. Eleven carbonate facies belonging to four environments including tidal flat, restricted and semi-restricted lagoon, shoal and open marine are recognized. The identified facies are deposited on the homoclinal ramp setting. Based on the vertical changes of facies and recognized depositional environments, four third-order depositional sequences are represented. The transgressive systems tracts mainly comprises of open marine facies including sponge spicule, oligosteginid, echinoid and benthic foraminifera, while the highstand systems tracts mainly consists of shoal facies rich in bioclast, and restricted and semi-restricted lagoon facies rich in porcellaneous and hyaline benthic foraminifera and peloid. The maximum flooding surface represented by open marine facies including echinoid and planktonic foraminifera

  19. From obc seismic to porosity volume: A pre-stack analysis of a turbidite reservoir, deepwater Campos Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luiz M. R.

    The Campos Basin is the best known and most productive of the Brazilian coastal basins. Turbidites are, by far, the main oil-bearing reservoirs. Using a four component (4-C) ocean-bottom-cable (OBC) seismic survey I set out to improve the reservoir characterization in a deep-water turbidite field in the Campos Basin. In order to achieve my goal, pre-stack angle gathers were derived and PP and PS inversion were performed. The inversion was used as an input to predict the petrophysical properties of the reservoir. Converting seismic reflection amplitudes into impedance profiles not only maximizes vertical resolution but also minimizes tuning effects. Mapping the porosity is extremely important in the development of a hydrocarbon reservoirs. Combining seismic attributes derived from the P-P data and porosity logs I use linear multi-regression and neural network geostatistical tools to predict porosity between the seismic attributes and porosity logs at the well locations. After predicting porosity in well locations, those relationships were applied to the seismic attributes to generate a 3-D porosity volume. The predicted porosity volume highlighted the best reservoir facies in the reservoir. The integration of elastic impedance, shear impedance and porosity improved the reservoir characterization.

  20. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. Final report, August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1998-03-01

    The primary goal of the project is to develop a user-friendly computer program to integrate geological and engineering information using Artificial Intelligence (AI) methodology. The project is restricted to fluvially dominated deltaic environments. The static information used in constructing the reservoir description includes well core and log data. Using the well core and the log data, the program identifies the marker beds, and the type of sand facies, and in turn, develops correlations between wells. Using the correlations and sand facies, the program is able to generate multiple realizations of sand facies and petrophysical properties at interwell locations using geostatistical techniques. The generated petrophysical properties are used as input in the next step where the production data are honored. By adjusting the petrophysical properties, the match between the simulated and the observed production rates is obtained. Although all the components within the overall system are functioning, the integration of dynamic data may not be practical due to the single-phase flow limitations and the computationally intensive algorithms. The future work needs to concentrate on making the dynamic data integration computationally efficient.

  1. Geothermal reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, C.R.; Golabi, K.

    1978-02-01

    The optimal management of a hot water geothermal reservoir was considered. The physical system investigated includes a three-dimensional aquifer from which hot water is pumped and circulated through a heat exchanger. Heat removed from the geothermal fluid is transferred to a building complex or other facility for space heating. After passing through the heat exchanger, the (now cooled) geothermal fluid is reinjected into the aquifer. This cools the reservoir at a rate predicted by an expression relating pumping rate, time, and production hole temperature. The economic model proposed in the study maximizes discounted value of energy transferred across the heat exchanger minus the discounted cost of wells, equipment, and pumping energy. The real value of energy is assumed to increase at r percent per year. A major decision variable is the production or pumping rate (which is constant over the project life). Other decision variables in this optimization are production timing, reinjection temperature, and the economic life of the reservoir at the selected pumping rate. Results show that waiting time to production and production life increases as r increases and decreases as the discount rate increases. Production rate decreases as r increases and increases as the discount rate increases. The optimal injection temperature is very close to the temperature of the steam produced on the other side of the heat exchanger, and is virtually independent of r and the discount rate. Sensitivity of the decision variables to geohydrological parameters was also investigated. Initial aquifer temperature and permeability have a major influence on these variables, although aquifer porosity is of less importance. A penalty was considered for production delay after the lease is granted.

  2. Improved recovery from Gulf of Mexico reservoirs. Quarterly status report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimbrell, W.C.; Bassiouni, Z.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.

    1996-04-30

    On February 18, 1992, Louisiana State University with two technical subcontractors, BDM, Inc. and ICF, Inc., began a research program to estimate the potential oil and gas reserve additions that could result from the application of advanced secondary and enhanced oil recovery technologies and the exploitation of undeveloped and attic oil zones in the Gulf of Mexico oil fields that are related to piercement salt domes. This project is a one year continuation of this research and will continue work in reservoir description, extraction processes, and technology transfer. Detailed data will be collected for two previously studies reservoirs: a South Marsh Island reservoir operated by Taylor Energy and one additional Gulf of Mexico reservoir operated by Mobil. Additional reservoirs identified during the project will also be studied if possible. Data collected will include reprocessed 2-D seismic data, newly acquired 3-D data, fluid data, fluid samples, pressure data, well test data, well logs, and core data/samples. The new data will be used to refine reservoir and geologic characterization of these reservoirs. Further laboratory investigation will provide additional simulation input data in the form of PVT properties, relative permeabilities, capillary pressure, and water compatibility. Geological investigations will be conducted to refine the models of mud-rich submarine fan architectures used by seismic analysts and reservoir engineers. Research on advanced reservoir simulation will also be conducted. This report describes a review of fine-grained submarine fans and turbidite systems.

  3. Mid amphibolite facies metamorphism of harzburgites in the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTMANN LÉO A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuable information is retrieved from the integrated investigation of the field relationships, microstructure and mineral compositions of harzburgites from the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite. This important tectonic marker of the geological evolution of southernmost Brazilian Shield was thoroughly serpentinized during progressive metamorphism, because the oldest mineral assemblage is: olivine + orthopyroxene + tremolite + chlorite + chromite. This M1 was stabilized in mid amphibolite facies - 550-600ºC as calculated from mineral equilibria. No microstructural (e.g. ductile deformation of olivine or chromite or compositional (e.g. mantle spinel remnant of mantle history was identified. A metamorphic event M2 occurred in the low amphibolite facies along 100 m-wide shear zones, followed by intense serpentinization (M3 and narrow 1-3 m-wide shear zones (M4 containing asbestos.

  4. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn

    2011-01-01

    The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes......, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition...... to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif­ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down...

  5. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Brunner, Daniel; Soriano, Miguel C.

    2017-05-01

    We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir's complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  6. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  7. Reservoir quality of intrabasalt volcaniclastic units onshore Faroe Islands, North Atlantic Igneous Province, northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólavsdóttir, Jana; Andersen, Morten Sparre; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    The Paleocene and Eocene strata in the western part of the FaroeShetland Basin contain abundant volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. Recently, hydrocarbon discoveries have been made in reservoirs of siliciclastic origin in intra- and post-volcanic strata in the central Faroe-Shetland Basin that show...... an active petroleum system is present in the volcanic affected area. The siliciclastic reservoirs are present in the same stratigraphic levels as the volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, and in places, the siliciclastics and the volcanics interfinger. The assumption from published studies so far, based...... on limited data, is that the volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks are nonreservoir facies. In this study, based on studies of 140 core samples representing more than 70 different volcaniclastic interbeds from onshore Faroe Islands, it is demonstrated that 18 samples are in the helium (He) porosity range of 20...

  8. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  9. A history of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  10. Worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that all underground salt deposits can serve as storage sites for toxic and nuclear waste does not always hold water—literally. According to Daniel Ronen and Brian Berkowitz of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science and Yoseph Yechieli of the Geological Survey of Israel, some buried salt layers are in fact highly conductive of liquids, suggesting that wastes buried in their confines could easily leech into groundwater and nearby soil.When drilling three wells into a 10,000-year-old salt layer near the Dead Sea, the researchers found that groundwater had seeped into the layer and had absorbed some of its salt.

  11. The investigation of sedimentary facies and stacking pattern in the Mulid River (Southeastern Qayen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Fayazi Borujeni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In the most gravel bed rivers, particle size exponentially decreases to the downstream. The study of particle size fining trend to the downstream and determination of the effective processes on it along the recent rivers is accomplished in the different parts of Iran. The river sedimentary facies are deposited in the channel and overbank areas and they are provided important information about sedimentary environment and deposition rate, the extent and development of the river channel and floodplain. These sedimentary facies that are deposited in the different depositional conditions have been achieved from variations of flow regime and/ or variation in the depositional environment in the large scale. The aim of this study is to investigate of the particle size variations and the effective controllers of fining trend to downstream, to determine of the important factors in creating sedimentary discontinuities and to study of the sedimentary facies, architectural elements, determination of depositional model and some paleohydraulic parameters of river. The Mulid River catchment with elongated shape is located in 120 km of southeast Qayen in the Southern Khorasan Province, in the 33̊ 24ʹ 44.3ʺ to 33̊ 35ʹ 11.4ʺ east latitude and 59̊ 56ʹ 42.5ʺ to 59̊ 58ʹ 44ʺ north longitude. According to the geological classification of Iran, this basin is a part of the East Iran flysch and mélange belt that is located in the east of the Lut Block.  Materials and Methods  In order to sedimentological studies, 30 sediment samples unsystematically were collected from upstream to downstream and from about 20 cm depth of the main channel bottom of river (with 30 km long. The granulometry analysis of the studied samples were achieved using the dry sieving method with 0.5 φ intervals and weight percent of gravel, sand and mud size particles were estimated. The sediment naming is done using Folk (1980 classification and the estimation of sorting

  12. Diagenetic setting, dolomitization and reservoir characterization of Late Cretaceous Kawagarh Formation, Khanpur Dam section, Hazara, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maqsood Ur Rahman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kawagarh Formation is well exposed in Hazara basin in different sections. Due to deep depositional settings, the Kawagarh Formation is least appealing to geologists to investigate it as a hydrocarbon reservoir. In the present study, the diagenetic settings of Kawagarh Formation were chronologically studied to interpret its diagenetic history and the effect of different diagenetic phases on the reservoir potential. The dolomitization is also studied in depth to use it as a key for its reservoir potential. Kawagarh Formation is sampled at Khanpur Dam Section for porosity analysis. The samples were taken from limestone and dolomite facies randomly. The dolomites are in the form of veins and well developed thick size beds. These dolomites are secondary in nature which is hosted by fractures and joints of limestone, which affect about 25% of limestone facies. At outcrop scale different types of dolomites are recognised on the basis of color and texture, yellowish fine-grained, brown blackish coarse-grained in the top portion and saddle dolomites. In petrographic study partial and complete dolomitization are observed. On the basis of crystal sizes and geometry different types of dolomites are recognized which are; (1 fine crystalline planar-euhedral dolomite, (2 medium crystalline planar-subhedral dolomite, (3 medium crystalline non-planar-anhedral dolomite, (4 coarse crystalline planar-subhedral dolomite, (5 coarse crystalline, non-planar-anhedral dolomite and (6 saddle dolomites (SD1. In petrographic study, high inclusions and disturbance are observed at the surfaces of dolomitic rhombs which indicate low Mg replacement or dedolomitization phenomena. On image J porosity analysis, the porosity is found of limestone and dolomitic samples. In limestone facies which is mostly, non-laminated mudstone has very low up to 2 to 3% in the form of vugs and fractures. In dolomitic facies, the porosity is ranging from 5% to 14%. In most of the dolomitic

  13. The identification of provenance-controlled facies by geochemical methods on a portion of the Vaal Reef, Klerksdorp Goldfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henckel, J.; Schweitzer, J.K.; Horsch, H.

    1990-01-01

    The use of geochemical methods for identifying provenance controlled facies in Witwatersrand reefs is considered. Three methods - whole rock geochemistry, zircon analysis, and chromite analysis - have been evaluated in order to establish the feasibility of using these geochemical techniques. An area of Vaal Reef where two sedimentological facies with distinct gold distributions had previously been identified was investigated. The studies reported here gave evidence of differences in the source areas for these two facies. Accordingly, it is concluded that the application of geochemistry to identify provenance-controlled facies is a useful technique which can help geologists arrive at a better interpretation of depositional systems within Witwatersrand reefs and thereby assist in the understanding of gold distribution patterns. 26 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Distribution and composition of verdine and glaucony facies from the sediments of the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thamban, M.; Rao, V.P.

    on the outer shelf. The distribution of verdine and glaucony facies on the southwestern margin of India is different from those of the distribution along the east coast of India, Senegal, and French Guiana margins, suggesting different paleogeography...

  15. Verdine and other associated authigenic (glaucony, phosphate) facies from the surficial sediments of the southwestern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Lamboy, M.; Dupeuble, P.A

    in the South. Study of the nature, distribution, mineralogy and internal structure of these particles resulted in (1) the discovery of a verdine facies and (2) determination of the relationships of phosphate with glaucony and verdine in these sediments...

  16. Sedimentary facies and evolution of the upper member of cretaceou Sunjiawan formation in Heishui area of western Liaoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhonghua; Xi Haiyin; Chen Debing; Wang Liming; Rao Minghui

    2010-01-01

    The upper member of Sunjiawan formation in Heishui area is mainly alluvial fan facies. From the macroscopic view, alluvial fan facies can be divided into three sub-facies of proximal end gravel braided plain, distal end gravel braided plain and pre-fan flood-plain and further into some micro-facies of debris flow, gravel braided channel, gravel dam, flood-fine and peat bog etc. The upper member of Sunjiawan formation could be divided into three sub-members. The first sub-member is retrograding dry land type fan sediment under drought-humid climate. The second sub-member is retrograding wet land type fan deposit under humid climate. Third sub-member is progradational wetland type fan sediments under humid climate. Sunjiawan formation in Heishui area experienced three evolutionary stages: the early retrograding dryland type fan deposition, the medium term retrograding wet land type fan deposition and the later progradational wetland type fan. (authors)

  17. The potential role of fluids during regional granulite-facies dehydration in the lower crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Harlov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available High-grade dehydration of amphibolite-facies rocks to granulite-facies is a process that can involve partial melting, fluid-aided solid-state dehydration, or varying degrees of both. On the localized meter scale, solid-state dehydration, due to CO2-rich fluids traveling along some fissure or crack and subsequently outwards along the mineral grain boundaries of the surrounding rock, normally is the means by which the breakdown of biotite and amphibole to orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene occur. Various mineral textures and changes in mineral chemistry seen in these rocks are also seen in more regional orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene-bearing rocks which, along with accompanying amphibolite-facies rocks, form traverses of lower crust. This suggests that solid-state dehydration during high-grade metamorphism could occur on a more regional scale. The more prominent of these fluid-induced textures in the granulite-facies portion of the traverse take the form of micro-veins of K-feldspar along quartz grain boundaries and the formation of monazite inclusions in fluorapatite. The fluids believed responsible take the form of concentrated NaCl- and KCl- brines from a basement ultramafic magma heat source traveling upwards along grain boundaries. Additional experimental work involving CaSO4 dissolution in NaCl-brines, coupled with natural observation of oxide and sulfide mineral associations in granulite-facies rocks, have demonstrated the possibility that NaCl-brines, with a CaSO4 component, could impose the oxygen fugacity on these rocks as opposed to the oxygen fugacity being inherent in their protoliths. These results, taken together, lend credence to the idea that regional chemical modification of the lower crust is an evolutionary process controlled by fluids migrating upwards from the lithospheric mantle along grain boundaries into and through the lower crust where they both modify the rock and are modified by it. Their presence allows for rapid mass and

  18. Porosity and permeability evolution of vesicular basalt reservoirs with increasing depth: constraints from the Big Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, John; Haskins, Eric; Thomas, Donald; Jerram, Dougal; Planke, Sverre; Healy, Dave; Kück, Jochem; Rossetti, Lucas; Farrell, Natalie; Pierdominici, Simona

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic reservoirs are becoming increasingly important in the targeting of petroleum, geothermal and water resources globally. However, key areas of uncertainty in relation to volcanic reservoir properties during burial in different settings remain. In this contribution, we present results from borehole logging and sampling operations within two fully cored c. 1.5 km deep boreholes, PTA2 and KMA1, from the Humúula saddle region on the Big Island of Hawai'i. The boreholes were drilled as part of the Humu'ula Groundwater Research Project (HGRP) between 2013-2016 and provide unique insights into the evolution of pore structure with increasing burial in a basaltic dominated lava sequence. The boreholes encounter mixed sequences of 'a'ā, pāhoehoe and transitional lava flows along with subsidiary intrusions and sediments from the shield to post-shield phases of Mauna Kea. Borehole wireline data including sonic, spectral gamma and Televiewer imagery were collected along with density, porosity, permeability and ultrasonic velocity laboratory measurements from core samples. A range of intra-facies were sampled for analysis from various depths within the two boreholes. By comparison with core data, the potential for high resolution Televiewer imaging to reveal spectacular intra-facies features including individual vesicles, vesicle segregations, 'a'ā rubble zones, intrusive contacts, and intricate pāhoehoe lava flow lobe morphologies is demonstrated. High quality core data enables the calibration of Televiewer facies enabling improved interpretation of volcanic reservoir features in the more common exploration scenario where core is absent. Laboratory results record the ability of natural vesicular basalt samples to host very high porosity (>50%) and permeability (>10 darcies) within lava flow top facies which we demonstrate are associated with vesicle coalescence and not micro-fractures. These properties may be maintained to depths of c. 1.5 km in regions of limited

  19. A National Probabilistic Study of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Fish from US Lakes and Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National estimates were developed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States (excluding the Laurentian Great Lakes and Great Salt Lake) using an unequal probability design. Predator (fillet) and bottom-dweller (w...

  20. Application of sequence stratigraphy to carbonate reservoir prediction, Early Palaeozoic eastern Warburton basin, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaowen S.; Stuart, W.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Early Palaeozoic Warburton Basin underlies the gas and oil producing Cooper and Eromanga Basins. Postdepositional tectonism created high potential fracture porosities, complicating the stratigraphy and making reservoir prediction difficult. Sequence stratigraphy integrating core, cuttings, well-log, seismic and biostratigraphic data has recognized a carbonate-dominated to mixed carbonate/siliciclastic supersequence comprising several depositional sequences. Biostratigraphy based on trilobites and conodonts ensures reliable well and seismic correlations across structurally complex areas. Lithofacies interpretation indicates sedimentary environments ranging from carbonate inner shelf, peritidal, shelf edge, deep outer shelf and slope to basin. Log facies show gradually upward shallowing trends or abrupt changes indicating possible sequence boundaries. With essential depositional models and sequence analysis from well data, seismic facies suggest general reflection configurations including parallel-continuous layered patterns indicating uniform neuritic shelf, and mounded structures suggesting carbonate build-ups and pre-existing volcanic relief. Seismic stratigraphy also reveals inclined slope and onlapping margins of a possibly isolated platform geometry. The potential reservoirs are dolomitized carbonates containing oomoldic, vuggy, intercrystalline and fracture porosities in lowstand systems tracts either on carbonate mounds and shelf crests or below shelf edge. The source rock is a deep basinal argillaceous mudstone, and the seal is fine-grained siltstone/shale of the transgressive system tract.

  1. Application of sequence stratigraphy to carbonate reservoir prediction, Early Palaeozoic eastern Warburton basin, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaowen S.; Stuart, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Early Palaeozoic Warburton Basin underlies the gas and oil producing Cooper and Eromanga Basins. Postdepositional tectonism created high potential fracture porosities, complicating the stratigraphy and making reservoir prediction difficult. Sequence stratigraphy integrating core, cuttings, well-log, seismic and biostratigraphic data has recognized a carbonate-dominated to mixed carbonate/siliciclastic supersequence comprising several depositional sequences. Biostratigraphy based on trilobites and conodonts ensures reliable well and seismic correlations across structurally complex areas. Lithofacies interpretation indicates sedimentary environments ranging from carbonate inner shelf, peritidal, shelf edge, deep outer shelf and slope to basin. Log facies show gradually upward shallowing trends or abrupt changes indicating possible sequence boundaries. With essential depositional models and sequence analysis from well data, seismic facies suggest general reflection configurations including parallel-continuous layered patterns indicating uniform neuritic shelf, and mounded structures suggesting carbonate build-ups and pre-existing volcanic relief. Seismic stratigraphy also reveals inclined slope and onlapping margins of a possibly isolated platform geometry. The potential reservoirs are dolomitized carbonates containing oomoldic, vuggy, intercrystalline and fracture porosities in lowstand systems tracts either on carbonate mounds and shelf crests or below shelf edge. The source rock is a deep basinal argillaceous mudstone, and the seal is fine-grained siltstone/shale of the transgressive system tract.

  2. Aspects of the thermal and transport properties of crystalline salt in designing radioactive waste storages in halogen formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, A. N.; Pocheptsova, O. A.; Matthies, S.

    2010-05-01

    Some of the properties of natural rock salt are described. This rock is of great practical interest, because, along with its conventional applications in the chemical and food industries, it is promising for use in engineering underground radioactive waste storages and natural gas reservoirs. The results of structural and texture studies of rock salt by neutron diffraction are discussed. The nature of the salt permeability under temperature and stress gradients is theoretically estimated.

  3. Reservoir Simulations of Low-Temperature Geothermal Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedre, Madhur Ganesh

    The eastern United States generally has lower temperature gradients than the western United States. However, West Virginia, in particular, has higher temperature gradients compared to other eastern states. A recent study at Southern Methodist University by Blackwell et al. has shown the presence of a hot spot in the eastern part of West Virginia with temperatures reaching 150°C at a depth of between 4.5 and 5 km. This thesis work examines similar reservoirs at a depth of around 5 km resembling the geology of West Virginia, USA. The temperature gradients used are in accordance with the SMU study. In order to assess the effects of geothermal reservoir conditions on the lifetime of a low-temperature geothermal system, a sensitivity analysis study was performed on following seven natural and human-controlled parameters within a geothermal reservoir: reservoir temperature, injection fluid temperature, injection flow rate, porosity, rock thermal conductivity, water loss (%) and well spacing. This sensitivity analysis is completed by using ‘One factor at a time method (OFAT)’ and ‘Plackett-Burman design’ methods. The data used for this study was obtained by carrying out the reservoir simulations using TOUGH2 simulator. The second part of this work is to create a database of thermal potential and time-dependant reservoir conditions for low-temperature geothermal reservoirs by studying a number of possible scenarios. Variations in the parameters identified in sensitivity analysis study are used to expand the scope of database. Main results include the thermal potential of reservoir, pressure and temperature profile of the reservoir over its operational life (30 years for this study), the plant capacity and required pumping power. The results of this database will help the supply curves calculations for low-temperature geothermal reservoirs in the United States, which is the long term goal of the work being done by the geothermal research group under Dr. Anderson at

  4. Hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics and enrichment laws of multi-layered reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sichuan Basin represents the earliest area where natural gas is explored, developed and comprehensively utilized in China. After over 50 years of oil and gas exploration, oil and gas reservoirs have been discovered in 24 gas-dominant layers in this basin. For the purpose of predicting natural gas exploration direction and target of each layer in the Sichuan Basin, the sedimentary characteristics of marine and continental strata in this basin were summarized and the forms of multi-cycled tectonic movement and their controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation were analyzed. Based on the analysis, the following characteristics were identified. First, the Sichuan Basin has experienced the transformation from marine sedimentation to continental sedimentation since the Sinian with the former being dominant. Second, multiple source–reservoir assemblages are formed based on multi-rhythmed deposition, and multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics are vertically presented. And third, multi-cycled tectonic movement appears in many forms and has a significant controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation. Then, oil and gas reservoir characteristics and enrichment laws were investigated. It is indicated that the Sichuan Basin is characterized by coexistence of conventional and unconventional oil and gas reservoirs, multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon supply, multiple reservoir types, multiple trap types, multi-staged hydrocarbon accumulation and multiple hydrocarbon accumulation models. Besides, its natural gas enrichment is affected by hydrocarbon source intensity, large paleo-uplift, favorable sedimentary facies belt, sedimentary–structural discontinuity plane and structural fracture development. Finally, the natural gas exploration and research targets of each layer in the Sichuan Basin were predicted according to the basic petroleum geologic conditions

  5. Prima facie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Madeleine-Thérèse; Chappell, M Jahi

    2017-01-01

    In principle, intellectual property protections (IPPs) promote and protect important but costly investment in research and development. However, the empirical reality of IPPs has often gone without critical evaluation, and the potential of alternative approaches to lend equal or greater support for useful innovation is rarely considered. In this paper, we review the mounting evidence that the global intellectual property regime (IPR) for germplasm has been neither necessary nor sufficient to generate socially beneficial improvements in crop plants and maintain agrobiodiversity. Instead, based on our analysis, the dominant global IPR appears to have contributed to consolidation in the seed industry while failing to genuinely engage with the potential of alternatives to support social goods such as food security, adaptability, and resilience. The dominant IPR also constrains collaborative and cumulative plant breeding processes that are built upon the work of countless farmers past and present. Given the likely limits of current IPR, we propose that social goods in agriculture may be better supported by alternative approaches, warranting a rapid move away from the dominant single-dimensional focus on encouraging innovation through ensuring monopoly profits to IPP holders.

  6. Sedimentary tectonic evolution and reservoir-forming conditions of the Dazhou–Kaijiang paleo-uplift, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Great breakthrough recently achieved in the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic gas exploration in the Leshan–Longnüsi paleo-uplift, Sichuan Basin, has also made a common view reached, i.e., large-scale paleo-uplifts will be the most potential gas exploration target in the deep strata of this basin. Apart from the above-mentioned one, the other huge paleo-uplifts are all considered to be the ones formed in the post-Caledonian period, the impact of which, however, has rarely ever been discussed on the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic oil and gas reservoir formation. In view of this, based on outcrops, drilling and geophysical data, we analyzed the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic tectonic setting and sedimentary background in the East Sichuan Basin, studied the distribution rules of reservoirs and source rocks under the control of paleo-uplifts, and finally discussed, on the basis of structural evolution analysis, the conditions for the formation of Sinian–Lower Paleozoic gas reservoirs in this study area. The following findings were achieved. (1 The Dazhou–Kaijiang inherited uplift in NE Sichuan Basin which was developed before the Middle Cambrian controlled a large area of Sinian and Cambrian beach-facies development. (2 Beach-facies reservoirs were developed in the upper part of the paleo-uplift, while in the peripheral depression belts thick source rocks were developed like the Upper Sinian Doushantuo Fm and Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm, so there is a good source–reservoir assemblage. (3 Since the Permian epoch, the Dazhou–Kaijiang paleo-uplift had gradually become elevated from the slope zone, where the Permian oil generation peak occurred in the slope or lower and gentle uplift belts, while the Triassic gas generation peak occurred in the higher uplift belts, both with a favorable condition for hydrocarbon accumulation. (4 The lower structural layers, including the Lower Cambrian and its underlying strata, in the East Sichuan Basin, are now equipped with a

  7. Accumulation conditions and enrichment patterns of natural gas in the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm reservoirs of the Leshan-Longnǚsi Palaeohigh, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chunchun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As several major new gas discoveries have been made recently in the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm reservoirs in the Leshan-Longnǚsi Palaeohigh of the Sichuan Basin, a super-huge gas reservoir group with multiple gas pay zones vertically and cluster reservoirs laterally is unfolding in the east segment of the palaeohigh. Study shows that the large-scale enrichment and accumulation of natural gas benefits from the good reservoir-forming conditions, including: (1 multiple sets of source rocks vertically, among which, the high-quality Lower Paleozoic source rocks are widespread, and have a hydrocarbon kitchen at the structural high of the Palaeohigh, providing favorable conditions for gas accumulation near the source; (2 three sets of good-quality reservoirs, namely, the porous-vuggy dolomite reservoirs of mound-shoal facies in the 2nd and 4th members of the Sinian Dengying Fm as well as the porous dolomite reservoirs of arene-shoal facies in the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm, are thick and wide in distribution; (3 structural, lithological and compound traps developed in the setting of large nose-like uplift provide favorable space for hydrocarbon accumulation. It is concluded that the inheritance development of the Palaeohigh and its favorable timing configuration with source rock evolution are critical factors for the extensive enrichment of gas in the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm reservoirs. The structural high of the Palaeohigh is the favorable area for gas accumulation. The inherited structural, stratigraphic and lithological traps are the favorable sites for gas enrichment. The areas where present structures and ancient structures overlap are the sweet-spots of gas accumulation.

  8. A review of reservoir desiltation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Anders

    2000-01-01

    physical geography, hydrology, desilation efficiency, reservoir flushing, density-current venting, sediment slucing, erosion pattern, downstream effects, flow characteristics, sedimentation......physical geography, hydrology, desilation efficiency, reservoir flushing, density-current venting, sediment slucing, erosion pattern, downstream effects, flow characteristics, sedimentation...

  9. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on

  10. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  11. Reservoir engineering and hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Summaries are included which show advances in the following areas: fractured porous media, flow in single fractures or networks of fractures, hydrothermal flow, hydromechanical effects, hydrochemical processes, unsaturated-saturated systems, and multiphase multicomponent flows. The main thrust of these efforts is to understand the movement of mass and energy through rocks. This has involved treating fracture rock masses in which the flow phenomena within both the fractures and the matrix must be investigated. Studies also address the complex coupling between aspects of thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository in a fractured rock medium. In all these projects, both numerical modeling and simulation, as well as field studies, were employed. In the theoretical area, a basic understanding of multiphase flow, nonisothermal unsaturated behavior, and new numerical methods have been developed. The field work has involved reservoir testing, data analysis, and case histories at a number of geothermal projects

  12. Chalk as a reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    basin, so stylolite formation in the chalk is controlled by effective burial stress. The stylolites are zones of calcite dissolution and probably are the source of calcite for porefilling cementation which is typical in water zone chalk and also affect the reservoirs to different extent. The relatively...... 50% calcite, leaving the remaining internal surface to the fine grained silica and clay. The high specific surface of these components causes clay- and silica rich intervals to have high irreducible water saturation. Although chalks typically are found to be water wet, chalk with mixed wettability...... stabilizes chemically by recrystallization. This process requires energy and is promoted by temperature. This recrystallization in principle does not influence porosity, but only specific surface, which decreases during recrystallization, causing permeability to increase. The central North Sea is a warm...

  13. Pacifiers: a microbial reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comina, Elodie; Marion, Karine; Renaud, François N R; Dore, Jeanne; Bergeron, Emmanuelle; Freney, Jean

    2006-12-01

    The permanent contact between the nipple part of pacifiers and the oral microflora offers ideal conditions for the development of biofilms. This study assessed the microbial contamination on the surface of 25 used pacifier nipples provided by day-care centers. Nine were made of silicone and 16 were made of latex. The biofilm was quantified using direct staining and microscopic observations followed by scraping and microorganism counting. The presence of a biofilm was confirmed on 80% of the pacifier nipples studied. This biofilm was mature for 36% of them. Latex pacifier nipples were more contaminated than silicone ones. The two main genera isolated were Staphylococcus and Candida. Our results confirm that nipples can be seen as potential reservoirs of infections. However, pacifiers do have some advantages; in particular, the potential protection they afford against sudden infant death syndrome. Strict rules of hygiene and an efficient antibiofilm cleaning protocol should be established to answer the worries of parents concerning the safety of pacifiers.

  14. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Sande Guy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir’s complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  15. Discovery and reservoir-forming geological characteristics of the Shenmu Gas Field in the Ordos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2014, the giant Shenmu Gas Field had been found in the Ordos Basin with an explored gas-bearing area of 4069 km2 and the proved geological gas reserves of 333.4 billion m3. This paper aims to review the exploration history of this field and discusses its reservoir-forming mechanism and geological characteristics, which may guide the further discovery and exploration of such similar gas fields in this basin and other basins. The following research findings were concluded. (1 There are typical tight sand gas reservoirs in this field primarily with the pay zones of the Upper Paleozoic Taiyuan Fm, and secondly with those of the Shanxi and Shihezi Fms. (2 Gas types are dominated by coal gas with an average methane content of 88% and no H2S content. (3 The gas reservoirs were buried 1700–2800 m deep underneath with multiple pressure systems and an average pressure coefficient of 0.87. (4 The reservoir strata are composed of fluvial delta facies sandstones with an average porosity of 7.8% and permeability of 0.63 mD, having high pressure sensibility and a strong water-locking effect because the pore throat radius are mostly less than 1 μm. (5 There are different dynamics at various stages in the gas reservoir-forming process. The abnormal well-developed strata pressure was the main reservoir-forming force at the Early Cretaceous setting stage while the fluid expansibility became the main gas-migrating force at the uplift and denudation stage after the Early Cretaceous period. (6 Gas reservoirs with ultra-low water saturation are mainly controlled by many factors such as changes of high temperature and high pressure fields in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous periods, the charging of dry gas at the highly-mature stage, and the gas escape and dissipation at the post-reservoir-forming periods. (7 Natural gas migrated and accumulated vertically in a shortcutting path to form gas reservoirs. At such areas near the source rocks

  16. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  17. [Salt and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Marija

    2010-05-01

    Besides cardiovascular disease, a high salt intake causes other adverse health effects, i.e., gastric and some other cancers, obesity (risk factor for many cancer sites), Meniere's disease, worsening of renal disease, triggering an asthma attack, osteoporosis, exacerbation of fluid retention, renal calculi, etc. Diets containing high amounts of food preserved by salting and pickling are associated with an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, nose and throat. Because gastric cancer is still the most common cancer in some countries (especially in Japan), its prevention is one of the most important aspects of cancer control strategy. Observations among Japanese immigrants in the U.S.A. and Brazil based on the geographic differences, the trend in cancer incidence with time, and change in the incidence patterns indicate that gastric cancer is closely associated with dietary factors such as the intake of salt and salted food. The findings of many epidemiological studies suggest that high dietary salt intake is a significant risk factor for gastric cancer and this association was found to be strong in the presence of Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection with atrophic gastritis. A high-salt intake strips the lining of the stomach and may make infection with H. pylori more likely or may exacerbate the infection. Salting, pickling and smoking are traditionally popular ways of preparing food in Japan and some parts of Asia. In addition to salt intake, cigarette smoking and low consumption of fruit and vegetables increase the risk of stomach cancer. However, it is not known whether it is specifically the salt in these foods or a combination of salt and other chemicals that can cause cancer. One study identified a mutagen in nitrite-treated Japanese salted fish, and chemical structure of this mutagen suggests that it is derived from methionine and that salt and nitrite are precursors for its formation. Working under conditions of heat stress greatly increased the workers

  18. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))

    1988-08-01

    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  19. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The

  20. Establishing the Relationship between Fracture-Related Dolomite and Primary Rock Fabric on the Distribution of Reservoirs in the Michigan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Michael Grammer

    2006-09-30

    This topical report covers the year 2 of the subject 3-year grant, evaluating the relationship between fracture-related dolomite and dolomite constrained by primary rock fabric in the 3 most prolific reservoir intervals in the Michigan Basin (Ordovician Trenton-Black River Formations; Silurian Niagara Group; and the Devonian Dundee Formation). The characterization of select dolomite reservoirs has been the major focus of our efforts in Phase II/Year 2. Fields have been prioritized based upon the availability of rock data for interpretation of depositional environments, fracture density and distribution as well as thin section, geochemical, and petrophysical analyses. Structural mapping and log analysis in the Dundee (Devonian) and Trenton/Black River (Ordovician) suggest a close spatial relationship among gross dolomite distribution and regional-scale, wrench fault related NW-SE and NE-SW structural trends. A high temperature origin for much of the dolomite in the 3 studied intervals (based upon initial fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and stable isotopic analyses,) coupled with persistent association of this dolomite in reservoirs coincident with wrench fault-related features, is strong evidence for these reservoirs being influenced by hydrothermal dolomitization. For the Niagaran (Silurian), a comprehensive high resolution sequence stratigraphic framework has been developed for a pinnacle reef in the northern reef trend where we had 100% core coverage throughout the reef section. Major findings to date are that facies types, when analyzed at a detailed level, have direct links to reservoir porosity and permeability in these dolomites. This pattern is consistent with our original hypothesis of primary facies control on dolomitization and resulting reservoir quality at some level. The identification of distinct and predictable vertical stacking patterns within a hierarchical sequence and cycle framework provides a high degree of confidence at this point

  1. Bathymetric and underwater video survey of Lower Granite Reservoir and vicinity, Washington and Idaho, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Marshall L.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Weakland, Rhonda J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of the Lower Granite Reservoir, Washington, using a multibeam echosounder, and an underwater video mapping survey during autumn 2009 and winter 2010. The surveys were conducted as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineer's study on sediment deposition and control in the reservoir. The multibeam echosounder survey was performed in 1-mile increments between river mile (RM) 130 and 142 on the Snake River, and between RM 0 and 2 on the Clearwater River. The result of the survey is a digital elevation dataset in ASCII coordinate positioning data (easting, northing, and elevation) useful in rendering a 3×3-foot point grid showing bed elevation and reservoir geomorphology. The underwater video mapping survey was conducted from RM 107.73 to 141.78 on the Snake River and RM 0 to 1.66 on the Clearwater River, along 61 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers established cross sections, and dredge material deposit transects. More than 900 videos and 90 bank photographs were used to characterize the sediment facies and ground-truth the multibeam echosounder data. Combined, the surveys were used to create a surficial sediment facies map that displays type of substrate, level of embeddedness, and presence of silt.

  2. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  3. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  4. Dissolution of the Upper Seven Rivers and Salado salt in the interior Palo Duro Basin, Texas: Revision: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeConto, R.T.; Murphy, P.J.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Seven Rivers and Salado Formations contain the uppermost salts within the interior Palo Duro Basin, Stratigraphic and structural evidence based on geophysical well logs indicate that both dissolution and facies change have influenced the thickness of these uppermost salts. The magnitude of vertical salt loss due to dissolution is interminable at this time because original salt thickness is unknown. Gradual thinning of the Upper Seven Rivers Formation is recognized from south to north across the Palo Duro Basin. Anhydrites within the formation pinch out toward the basin margins, indicating that section loss is in part depositionally controlled. Additionally, informal subdivision of the Upper Seven Rivers Formation suggests that salt dissolution has occurred in the uppermost salt. A northeast-trending zone of thin Upper Seven Rivers Formation in portions of Deaf Smith, Randall, Castro, and Parmer Counties is possibly related to Tertiary dissolution. In New Mexico, local thinning of the Upper Seven Rivers Formation may be associated with faulting. Triassic erosion on uplifted fault blocks has affected the Upper Permian section. The Salado salt margin is located within the interior Palo Duro Basin. Geophysical well logs and core evidence indicate that the salt margin has migrated basinward as a result of dissolution. Permian dissolution probably contributed to some salt loss. 106 refs., 31 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Well testing in gas hydrate reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Kome, Melvin Njumbe

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir testing and analysis are fundamental tools in understanding reservoir hydraulics and hence forecasting reservoir responses. The quality of the analysis is very dependent on the conceptual model used in investigating the responses under different flowing conditions. The use of reservoir testing in the characterization and derivation of reservoir parameters is widely established, especially in conventional oil and gas reservoirs. However, with depleting conventional reserves, the ...

  6. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Surlyk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  7. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea: Plate 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlyk, Finn

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  8. Thermal structure of pumpellyite-actinolite facies regions in the Sanbagawa belt, Shikoku, SW Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, M.

    2003-12-01

    On the basis of the mineral assemblages of pelitic rocks, the Sanbagawa belt in Shikoku, SW Japan, has been divided, from low- to high-grade parts, into the chlorite, garnet, albite-biotite and oligoclase-biotite zones (Higashino, 1990). Also, the mineral assemblage of pumpellyite + actinolite + epidote + chlorite or epidote + actinolite + hematite + chlorite, which defines the pumpellyite-actinolite (PA) facies (e.g., Banno, 1998), is widely recognized in metabasites in the chlorite zone (e.g. Banno & Sakai, 1989). However, the detailed study on the PA facies regions has been done only in the Omoiji-Nagasawa area (Nakajima et al., 1977) and Asemigawa-Shirataki area (Nakajima, 1982) in central Shikoku, and thus, it is still hard to solve the regional thermal structure of the PA facies region. This study is aimed to reveal the thermal structure of the PA facies region of the Sanbagawa belt in Shikoku by analyzing the mineral assemblages and mineral chemistries of metabasites from the nine newly studied areas. The studied areas studied belong to the chlorite zone in the Oboke and Besshi units; the Oboke unit structurally underlay the Besshi unit. The mineral assemblages include pumpellyite + epidote + actinolite, epidote + actinolite _ hematite and epidote + Na-amphibole + actinolite + hematite. The metabasites from some areas involve Na-pyroxene-bearing assemblages, but the analyses of the Schreinemakers bundle of Tagiri et al. (1992) show that these assemblages do not define the Na-pyroxene-chlorite subfacies. As the low-grade metamorphic rocks do not have the hematite + pumpellyite paragenesis, its metamorphic temperature is estimated to be higher than the discontinuous reaction temperature of pumpellyite + hematite + quartz = epidote + actinolite + H2O, as shown by Nakajima et al. (1977). It is difficult to detect the difference in temperature in the PA facies regions by analyzing mineral assemblages. To detect the difference in temperature, and then to reveal

  9. Depositional sequences and facies in the Torok Formation, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska (NPRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    Brookian turbidites (Cretaceous through Tertiary) have become oil exploration objectives on the NorthSlope of Alaska during the past decade, and it is likely this focus will extend into the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA). A regional grid of 2-D seismic data, sparse well control, and field work in the Brooks Range foothills provide constraints for an ongoing effort to establish a sequence stratigraphic framework for Brookian turbidites in the Torok Formation across NPRA. The Torok Formation and overlying Nanushuk Formation (both mostly Albian) display the overall seismic geometry of bottomset-clinoform-topset strata indicating northeastward migration of a shelf margin. Within bottomset and clinoform strata of the Torok, depositional sequences have been identified that represent four distinct phases of shelf-margin sedimentation. (1) Regression, representing low relative sea level, is characterized by the development of an erosional surface on the shelf and upper slope, and the deposition of turbidite channel deposits on the middle to lower slope and submarine fan deposits at the base of slope. These deposits constitute a lowstand systems tract (LST). (2) Transgression, representing rising relative sea level, is characterized by the deposition of a mudstone drape on the basin floor, slope, and outer shelf. This drape comprises relatively condensed facies that constitute a transgressive systems tract (TST). (3) Aggradation, representing high relative sea level, is characterized by the deposition of relatively thick strata on the outer shelf and moderately thick mudstones on the slope. (4) Progradation, also representing high relative sea level, is characterized by the deposition of relatively thin strata on the outer shelf and very thick mudstones on the slope. Together, deposits of the aggradation and progradation phases constitute a highstand systems tract (HST). Large scale geometries of Torok strata vary across the Colville basin. In southern NPRA, high

  10. Recent benthic foraminifera and sedimentary facies distribution of the Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.

    2014-05-01

    The distribution of benthic foraminifera and sedimentary facies from Recent coastline environments adjacent to the coastline of Abu Dhabi (UAE) was studied in detail with the aim to: 1) provide reliable analogs for understanding and interpreting the depositional environment of ancient shallow-marine sediments from the UAE; 2) assess any modifications in the distribution of benthic environments and sedimentary facies in an area affected by significant anthropogenic activities - particular construction and land reclamation. A total of 100 sea-floor sediment samples were collected in different shallow-marine sedimentary environments (nearshore shelf, beach-front, channels, ooid shoals, lagoon and mangals) close to the coastline of Abu Dhabi Island. Where possible, we revisited the sampling sites used in several studies conducted in the middle of last century (prior to any significant anthropogenic activities) to assess temporal changes in Recent benthic foraminifera and sedimentary facies distribution during the last 50 years. Five foraminiferal assemblages were recognized in the studied area. Species with a porcellaneous test mainly belonging to the genera Quinqueloculina, Triloculina, Spiroloculina, Sigmoilinita are common in all studied areas. Larger benthic foraminifera Peneroplis and Spirolina are particularly abundant in samples collected on seaweed. Hyaline foraminifera mostly belonging to the genera Elphidium, Ammonia, Bolivina and Rosalina are also common together with Miliolidae in the nearshore shelf and beach front. Agglutinated foraminifera (Clavulina, Textularia, Ammobaculites and Reophax) are present in low percentages. The species belonging to the genera Ammobaculites and Reophax are present only in the finest grain samples particularly in lagoons and mangal environments and have not been reported previously in the studied area. The majority of the ooid shoal sediments, the coarser sediments of the beach-front and samples collected in dredged channels

  11. Sediment Characteristics of Tennessee Streams and Reservoirs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trimble, Stanley W; Carey, William P

    1984-01-01

    Suspended-sediment and reservoir sedimentation data have been analyzed to determine sediment yields and transport characteristics of Tennessee streams Data from 31 reservoirs plus suspended-sediment...

  12. Determination of heterogeneity by high-resolution seismic reservoir characterization in the heavy oil Temblor reservoir of Coalinga Field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Sailendra Nath

    The research focuses on analysis and subsurface imaging of siliciclastics rocks on steam-affected 3D poststack seismic data, merged from different vintages, from the Temblor Formation in the Coalinga heavy oil reservoir in the San Joaquin basin, California. The objective was identification, delineation, and demarcation of reservoir heterogeneities by seismostratigraphic and seismogeomorphic analysis. The proximity of the San Andreas Transforms greatly controlled basin evolution and caused substantial reservoir heterogeneity by changing the depositional environment from shallow marine to near-shore fluvial. Moreover, two unconformities dissect the reservoir interval. The seismic dataset exhibits erratic, distorted reflection strengths and amplitudes caused by steam-injection-aided production. A petrophysical analysis based on Gassmann fluid substitution suggests a 27% P-wave velocity decrease in steam-saturated intervals. Seismic to well log ties were problematic and vexing due to the resulting statics, wavelet changes, and line mismatches. Mapping and flattening on a deeper horizon, however, allowed mapping of the internal unconformities and well ties which were crucial for seismostratigraphic sequence identification. Visualization of seismic attributes brought out stratification patterns and two distinct, laterally and vertically extensive, porous, and interconnected facies tracts interpreted as incised valley fills and tidal-to-subtidal deposits as evidenced by bright, steam related amplitudes. Seismic attribute analysis, Geobody Visualization and Interpretation, and structure and isochron maps brought out two prominent channel-systems, recut and restacked in the central part of the area. These deposits were identified on seismic data and correlated to high-gamma coarsening-upward sands on logs and cores. The deeper one, shifting towards SSE with depth, lies between the Base Temblor and Buttonbed unconformities both in the southwestern and northwestern parts of

  13. Reservoir heterogeneity in Carboniferous sandstone of the Black Warrior basin. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.; Irvin, G.D.; Moore, H.E.

    1994-04-01

    Although oil production in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama is declining, additional oil may be produced through improved recovery strategies, such as waterflooding, chemical injection, strategic well placement, and infill drilling. High-quality characterization of reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin is necessary to utilize advanced technology to recover additional oil and to avoid premature abandonment of fields. This report documents controls on the distribution and producibility of oil from heterogeneous Carboniferous reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report summarizes the structural and depositional evolution of the Black Warrior basin and establishes the geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks and oil in the basin. This second part characterizes facies heterogeneity and petrologic and petrophysical properties of Carter and Millerella sandstone reservoirs. This is followed by a summary of oil production in the Black Warrior basin and an evaluation of seven improved-recovery projects in Alabama. In the final part, controls on the producibility of oil from sandstone reservoirs are discussed in terms of a scale-dependent heterogeneity classification.

  14. Reservoir heterogeneity in carboniferous sandstone of the Black Warrior basin. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.; Irvin, G.D.; Moore, H.E.

    1994-06-01

    Although oil production in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama is declining, additional oil may be produced through improved recovery strategies, such as waterflooding, chemical injection, strategic well placement, and infill drilling. High-quality characterization of reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin is necessary to utilize advanced technology to recover additional oil and to avoid premature abandonment of fields. This report documents controls on the distribution and producibility of oil from heterogeneous Carboniferous reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report summarizes the structural and depositional evolution of the Black Warrior basin and establishes the geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks and oil in the basin. This second part characterizes facies heterogeneity and petrologic and petrophysical properties of Carter and Millerella sandstone reservoirs. This is followed by a summary of oil production in the Black Warrior basin and an evaluation of seven improved-recovery projects in Alabama. In the final part, controls on the producibility of oil from sandstone reservoirs are discussed in terms of a scale-dependent heterogeneity classification.

  15. Changes to the Bakomi Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubinský Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the analysis and evaluation of the changes of the bottom of the Bakomi reservoir, the total volume of the reservoir, ecosystems, as well as changes in the riparian zone of the Bakomi reservoir (situated in the central Slovakia. Changes of the water component of the reservoir were subject to the deposition by erosion-sedimentation processes, and were identifed on the basis of a comparison of the present relief of the bottom of reservoir obtained from feld measurements (in 2011 with the relief measurements of the bottom obtained from the 1971 historical maps, (i.e. over a period of 40 years. Changes of landscape structures of the riparian zone have been mapped for the time period of 1949–2013; these changes have been identifed with the analysis of ortophotomaps and the feld survey. There has been a signifcant rise of disturbed shores with low herb grassland. Over a period of 40 years, there has been a deposition of 667 m3 of sediments. The results showed that there were no signifcant changes in the local ecosystems of the Bakomi reservoir in comparison to the other reservoirs in the vicinity of Banská Štiavnica.

  16. TRITIUM RESERVOIR STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE PREDICTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, P.S.; Morgan, M.J

    2005-11-10

    The burst test is used to assess the material performance of tritium reservoirs in the surveillance program in which reservoirs have been in service for extended periods of time. A materials system model and finite element procedure were developed under a Savannah River Site Plant-Directed Research and Development (PDRD) program to predict the structural response under a full range of loading and aged material conditions of the reservoir. The results show that the predicted burst pressure and volume ductility are in good agreement with the actual burst test results for the unexposed units. The material tensile properties used in the calculations were obtained from a curved tensile specimen harvested from a companion reservoir by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). In the absence of exposed and aged material tensile data, literature data were used for demonstrating the methodology in terms of the helium-3 concentration in the metal and the depth of penetration in the reservoir sidewall. It can be shown that the volume ductility decreases significantly with the presence of tritium and its decay product, helium-3, in the metal, as was observed in the laboratory-controlled burst tests. The model and analytical procedure provides a predictive tool for reservoir structural integrity under aging conditions. It is recommended that benchmark tests and analysis for aged materials be performed. The methodology can be augmented to predict performance for reservoir with flaws.

  17. Stratigraphy and depositional environments of Catahoula Formation sandstones and associated facies in south-central Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.P. (Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg (USA)); Day, L.A. (Geraghty and Miller, Baton Rouge, LA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Surface and subsurface studies of the Catahoula Formation in a seven county area of south-central Mississippi have revealed major problems and misconceptions regarding Neogene stratigraphy and geological mapping in this part of the Gulf basin. The results of these investigations show that the traditional stratigraphic subdivisions of the up-dip Neogene section in Mississippi are invalid, and that the fundamental criteria for defining rock stratigraphic units at the formation rank are nonexistent. Although the base of the Neogene section is reasonably well defined by virtue of its relatively continuous contact with the Bucatunna Formation (Oligocene Vicksburg Group), a mappable bounding sequence above the Catahoula-Bucatunna Formation contact does not exist in the study area. An overall fine-grained interval above the Catahoula Formation appears to wedge out before reaching outcrop. Hence, differentiation between up-dip sandy gravels of the Catahoula and similar facies of the Citronelle Formation is difficult. Further complicating the problem of stratigraphic unit discrimination is the discovery of sandy gravels within the Hattiesburg Formation interval. A subsurface analysis in this study area revealed that the Catahoula Formation, as defined by Day, attains a thickness of 625 ft and has a rough three-tiered stratigraphy: (a) a basal unit composed of sands and subordinate fine-grained facies; (b) a relatively fine-grained middle unit composed of silts and clays with recurrent, discontinuous, sand bodies; and (c) an upper unit composed largely of sand and gravels. This study confirmed that most of these sediments are the product of fluvial channel and associated floodplain deposition. However, in the basal unit deltaic facies appear to be preserved on outcrop in Smith County and perhaps in a mild structural depression in the southwest portion of the study area.

  18. Analysis of hydrogeochemical facies in groundwater of upper part of Cross River Basin, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ukpai N.; Celestine, Okogbue O.; Solomon, Onwuka O.

    2017-07-01

    Upper Cross River Hydrogeological Basin lies within latitudes 60 021N to 60 241N and longitudes 80 001E to 80 161E, and is generally underlain by shales of Asu River group of Albian age. The area has Histories of intensive mineralization which influenced groundwater system, resulting to occurrence of different water types. This study determines the various water types via evaluation of major ion concentration from representative water samples collected across the area. Twenty (20) water samples were analyzed using Spectrophotometer of HACH DR/2010 series, and results showed that groundwater in the area is generally hard and polluted with TDS in some places. Statistical inspection was performed on the results using aqua-chem, and it delineated five hydro-chemical facies, namely: Ca-Mg-Cl-S04, Ca-Mg-HCO3-Cl-SO4, Ca-Mg-HCO3, Na-K-HCO3 and Na-K-Cl-SO4; all lie between slight acidic and weak alkaline water. These chemical facies (water types) diffused from non-point sources in urban area and point source from south of Abakaliki town. The dispersion of the facies plumes is possibly controlled by advection process through structural weak zones such as fractures. Hydraulic heads determined from hand-dug wells indicate local potentiometric surfaces, hence, showed local groundwater flow system which is possibly controlled by the underlying low permeable aquicludes formed by shales. The protective capacity of the aquitards was somewhat reduced by the permeating fractures which exposed the aquifers to polluting effects of mineralized water-types.

  19. Ultra-high temperature granulite-facies metamorphic rocks from the Mozambique belt of SW Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, H.; Kröner, A.

    2013-06-01

    The metamorphic rocks in the Neoproterozoic (Pan-African) Mozambique belt of southwestern Tanzania, around the town of Songea, can be subdivided into one- and two pyroxene bearing charnockitic gneisses, migmatitic granitoid gneisses and amphibolite-facies metapelites. Lower-grade amphibolite-facies rocks are rare and can be classified as sillimanite- and/or garnet-bearing metapelites. Most of the studied charnockitic gneisses show excellent corona textures with large orthopyroxene grains rimmed by clinopyroxene, followed by quartz and well developed garnet rims due to the reaction Opx + Pl = Grt + Cpx + Qtz that formed during isobaric cooling. These and other charnockitic gneisses show symplectites of orthopyroxene and An-rich plagioclase that resulted from the breakdown of garnet during isothermal decompression due to the reaction Grt + Cpx + Qtz = Opx + Pl. Geothermobarometric calculations yield up to ~ 1050 °C and up to ~ 12 kbar for peak metamorphic conditions. These are higher temperature and slightly lower pressure conditions than reported for other granulite-facies terrains in the Mozambique belt of Tanzania. Single zircon Pb-Pb evaporation and U-Pb SHRIMP ages for magmatic zircons extracted from two charnockitic and two granitic gneisses cluster in two groups, one at ~ 750 Ma and one at ~ 1150 Ma with the older reflecting the time of emplacement of the igneous precursors, and the younger approximating the time of charnockitization. These protolith ages are similar to those farther east in the Masasi area of southern Tanzania, as well as in northern Mozambique and in southern Malawi, and suggest that the Mozambique belt consists of chronologically heterogeneous assemblages whose pre-metamorphic tectonic setting remains obscure.

  20. Middle slope contourite deposits and associated sedimentary facies off NE Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzano, Graziella; Violante, Roberto A.; Cerredo, Maria Elena

    2011-12-01

    The Argentine continental margin is characterised by a large contourite depositional system driven by southern-sourced water masses flowing at different water depths. Interest in contourite deposits is increasing in geoscience and related fields, though knowledge of the Argentine contourite system is still limited. In particular, studies based on core data providing detailed descriptions of sedimentary facies are lacking, as are investigations of principal sediment source areas and of key factors controlling sedimentary processes. This study combines visual core description and downcore grain-size analyses as well as petrographic thin-section and magnetic susceptibility analyses of 14 cores from intermediate water depths of 616-1,208 m to characterise contourite deposits on the north-eastern Argentinean slope. Gravel-rich, sandy-silty and muddy contourites as well as hemipelagic facies were identified. The deposition of these contourites was presumably controlled by sea level, the depth range of the Antarctic water mass, climate conditions and windborne terrigenous supply. It is proposed that, during glacial lowstands, muddy contourites were deposited at depths sandy-silty sequences dominated at deeper depths. During the late Pleistocene-Holocene transition, sandy-silty contourites covered the entire middle slope. Hemipelagic facies draped limited sectors of the middle slope when the sea level reached the present-day position and gravel-rich contourites became restricted to contouritic channels and moats. Northern Patagonia and the southern Pampa are the most plausible sources for sediments deposited via along-slope processes, whereas the Tandilia Range is the best candidate for sediments deposited via down-slope processes.

  1. Coralgal facies of the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestones in Letca-Rastoci area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Prica

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are described the coralgal facies identified in the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestone succession (Cozla Formation outcropping in two quarries at Letca and Rastoci (Sălaj district, Romania. In the studied profiles the coral and algae limestones are interlayered with bioclastic limestones with foraminifera. On the top of relatively deep water deposits, coral and algae crusts and dendritic corals coated by algae were deposited. The environment registered a gradual deepening, the deposits being completely immersed, while bioclastic limestones with foraminifera were recurrently formed. This cycle is repeated, the whole succession being caracterized by several such “parasequences”.

  2. Some physio-graphical keys to interpret reservoirs-traps, hosts of uranium-bearing mineralizations; Quelques clefs physiographiques pour interpreter les reservoirs-pieges, hotes des mineralisations uraniferes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parize, O.; Feybesse, J.L.; Wattinne-Morice, A.; Benedicto, A.; Richard, Y.; Sol, R.; Milesi, J.P. [AREVA NC - BU Mines - Direction des Geosciences, 92 - Paris - La Defense (France); Duchemin, Ch.; James, O. [AREVA NC Niger, Niamey (Niger); Girard, Ch. [COMINAK, Akokan (Niger)

    2009-07-01

    As an approach in the search for silici-clastic formations which are reservoirs-traps hosting uranium-bearing mineralizations, the authors describe the use of facies sedimentology to describe successive deposits the arrangement of which determines the sequences according to which mineralisation will preferentially concentrate. They describe the use of sequential stratigraphy and how uranium had moved and deposited in successive eras and formations. They illustrate this approach by discussing different uranium-bearing deposits located in Niger and in France. They show how diagenesis, tectonics and sedimentology are combined to analyse these sites, and even to reassess them while exploiting them

  3. A reservoir simulation approach for modeling of naturally fractured reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the Warren and Root model proposed for the simulation of naturally fractured reservoir was improved. A reservoir simulation approach was used to develop a 2D model of a synthetic oil reservoir. Main rock properties of each gridblock were defined for two different types of gridblocks called matrix and fracture gridblocks. These two gridblocks were different in porosity and permeability values which were higher for fracture gridblocks compared to the matrix gridblocks. This model was solved using the implicit finite difference method. Results showed an improvement in the Warren and Root model especially in region 2 of the semilog plot of pressure drop versus time, which indicated a linear transition zone with no inflection point as predicted by other investigators. Effects of fracture spacing, fracture permeability, fracture porosity, matrix permeability and matrix porosity on the behavior of a typical naturally fractured reservoir were also presented.

  4. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Main Glauconite Bed in the Middle Eocene of Texas: Paleoenvironmental Implications for the Verdine Facies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Sherie C.; Nash, Barbara P.; Petersen, Erich U.; Ekdale, A. A.; Bradbury, Christopher D.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2014-01-01

    The Main Glauconite Bed (MGB) is a pelleted greensand located at Stone City Bluff on the south bank of the Brazos River in Burleson County, Texas. It was deposited during the Middle Eocene regional transgression on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Stratigraphically it lies in the upper Stone City Member, Crockett Formation, Claiborne Group. Its mineralogy and geochemistry were examined in detail, and verdine facies minerals, predominantly odinite, were identified. Few glauconitic minerals were found in the green pelleted sediments of the MGB. Without detailed mineralogical work, glaucony facies minerals and verdine facies minerals are easily mistaken for one another. Their distinction has value in assessing paleoenvironments. In this study, several analytical techniques were employed to assess the mineralogy. X-ray diffraction of oriented and un-oriented clay samples indicated a clay mixture dominated by 7 and 14Å diffraction peaks. Unit cell calculations from XRD data for MGB pellets match the odinite-1M data base. Electron microprobe analyses (EMPA) from the average of 31 data points from clay pellets accompanied with Mössbauer analyses were used to calculate the structural formula which is that of odinite: Fe3+ 0.89 Mg0.45 Al0.67 Fe2+ 0.30 Ti0.01 Mn0.01) Σ = 2.33 (Si1.77 Al0.23) O5.00 (OH)4.00. QEMSCAN (Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by Scanning Electron Microscopy) data provided mineral maps of quantitative proportions of the constituent clays. The verdine facies is a clay mineral facies associated with shallow marine shelf and lagoonal environments at tropical latitudes with iron influx from nearby runoff. Its depositional environment is well documented in modern nearshore locations. Recognition of verdine facies clays as the dominant constituent of the MGB clay pellets, rather than glaucony facies clays, allows for a more precise assessment of paleoenvironmental conditions. PMID:24503875

  5. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  6. Stratigraphic and structural compartmentalization observed within a model turbidite reservoir, Pennsylvanian Upper Jackfork Formation, Hollywood Quarry, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatt, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, D. [Arco International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States); Stone, C. [Arkansas Geological Commission, Little Rock, AR (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Hollywood Quarry is a 600 x 375 x 150 ft. (200 x 125 x 50m) excavation which provides a window into lower Pennsylvanian Jackfork Formation turbidite stratal architecture along the crest of a faulted anticlinal fold. A variety of turbidite facies are present, including: (a) lenticular, channelized sandstones, pebbly sandstones, and conglomerates within shale, (b) laterally continuous, interbedded thin sandstones and shales, and (c) thicker, laterally continuous shales. The sandstone and shale layers we broken by several strike-slip and reverse faults, with vertical displacements of up to several feet. This combination of facies and structural elements has resulted in a highly compartmentalized stratigraphic interval, both horizontally and vertically, along the anticlinal flexure. The quarry can be considered analogous to a scaled-down turbidite reservoir. Outcrop gamma-ray logs, measured sections, a fault map, and cross sections provide a database which is analogous to what would be available for a subsurface reservoir. Thus, the quarry provides an ideal outdoor geologic and engineering {open_quote}workshop{close_quote} venue for visualizing the potential complexities of a combination structural-stratigraphic (turbidite) reservoir. Since all forms of compartmentalization are readily visible in the quarry, problems related to management of compartmentalized reservoirs can be discussed and analyzed first-hand while standing in the quarry, within this {open_quote}model reservoir{close_quotes}. These problems include: (a) the high degree of stratigraphic and structural complexity that may be encountered, even at close well spacings, (b) uncertainty in well log correlations and log-shape interpretations, (c) variations in volumetric calculations as a function of amount of data available, and (d) potential production problems associated with specific {open_quote}field{close_quote} development plans.

  7. Lithofacies paleogeography mapping and reservoir prediction in tight sandstone strata: A case study from central Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sand-rich tight sandstone reservoirs are potential areas for oil and gas exploration. However, the high ratio of sandstone thickness to that of the strata in the formation poses many challenges and uncertainties to traditional lithofacies paleogeography mapping. Therefore, the prediction of reservoir sweet spots has remained problematic in the field of petroleum exploration. This study provides new insight into resolving this problem, based on the analyses of depositional characteristics of a typical modern sand-rich formation in a shallow braided river delta of the central Sichuan Basin, China. The varieties of sand-rich strata in the braided river delta environment include primary braided channels, secondary distributary channels and the distribution of sediments is controlled by the successive superposed strata deposited in paleogeomorphic valleys. The primary distributary channels have stronger hydrodynamic forces with higher proportions of coarse sand deposits than the secondary distributary channels. Therefore, lithofacies paleogeography mapping is controlled by the geomorphology, valley locations, and the migration of channels. We reconstructed the paleogeomorphology and valley systems that existed prior to the deposition of the Xujiahe Formation. Following this, rock-electro identification model for coarse skeletal sand bodies was constructed based on coring data. The results suggest that skeletal sand bodies in primary distributary channels occur mainly in the valleys and low-lying areas, whereas secondary distributary channels and fine deposits generally occur in the highland areas. The thickness distribution of skeletal sand bodies and lithofacies paleogeography map indicate a positive correlation in primary distributary channels and reservoir thickness. A significant correlation exists between different sedimentary facies and petrophysical properties. In addition, the degree of reservoir development in different sedimentary facies

  8. Mechanics of a contracting reservoir in an elastic half-space with an intervening visco-elasto-plastic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossop, A.; Fredrich, J. T.

    2004-12-01

    The extraction of fluids from porous rocks within the Earth's crust leads to localised volume strains. These in turn induce stress changes and displacements in the surrounding rock mass. The relationships between these processes are governed by the constitutive properties of the rocks. For the case of a poroelastic fluid reservoir in a linear-elastic matrix the mechanics are relatively well known and understood. In this study we extend these models by investigating the case of a contracting rock body (caused by declining pore pressure) embedded within a linear-elastic half space, but with the addition of a visco-elasto-plastic layer between the contracting reservoir and the free surface. The problem is of growing importance as the exploitation of hydrocarbon reservoirs beneath salt bodies occurs at ever greater depths in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. This is because the creep properties of salt are strongly temperature dependent, so that as depths increase, and hence ambient temperatures, creep can occur at a rate that is impossible to ignore over the reservoir lifecycle. The models are explored using a finite element approach and make use of sophisticated salt constitutive models and large-deformation three-dimensional geomechanical simulation codes; the reservoir deformations are governed by either poro-elastic or cap plasticity constitutive laws. However, a general behaviour pattern can be observed: the visco-elasto-plastic salt layer tends to decouple the deformation fields from the free surface with stress and displacements accentuated below the salt. The magnitude of the increased horizontal displacements below the salt layer are relatively independent of the layer thickness. The accentuated vertical displacements though are more strongly dependent on the thickness of the salt layer. This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories funded by the US DOE under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Sandia is a multiprogam laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation

  9. THE SURDUC RESERVOIR (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Iulian TEODORESCU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Surduc reservoir was projected to ensure more water when water is scarce and to thus provide especially the city Timisoara, downstream of it with water.The accumulation is placed on the main affluent of the Bega river, Gladna in the upper part of its watercourse.The dam behind which this accumulation was created is of a frontal type made of enrochements with a masque made of armed concrete on the upstream part and protected/sustained by grass on the downstream. The dam is 130m long on its coping and a constructed height of 34 m. It is also endowed with spillway for high water and two bottom outlets formed of two conduits, at the end of which is the microplant. The second part of my paper deals with the hydrometric analysis of the Accumulation Surduc and its impact upon the flow, especially the maximum run-off. This influence is exemplified through the high flood from the 29th of July 1980, the most significant flood recorded in the basin with an apparition probability of 0.002%.

  10. Comparison between the sandy and the shaly facies of the Opalinus Clay (Mont Terri, Switzerland): mechanical properties obtained from triaxial deformation, mineralogical composition and micro fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufhold, Annette; Siegesmund, Siegfried; Graesle, Werner; Plischke, Ingo; Dohrmann, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In Switzerland, the international research project Mont Terri investigates the Opalinus Clay (Jurassic formation) in the underground rock laboratory (URL) Mont Terri. The Opalinus Clay is subdivided into different facies (sandy, shaly, and carbonate rich facies). In the Mont Terri URL the sandy facies is less abundant and only a relatively thin layer of the carbonate rich facies is present. The currently favored HLRW repository site in Switzerland, however, is supposed to be in the sandy facies of the Opalinus Clay. Yet, most of the investigations focused on the shaly facies. Generally the understanding of the relation of properties and performances of clays and clay-stones is poor which is relevant for mineralogical micro fabric but also mechanical processes. For the safety assessment of the repository models describing both chemical and mechanical processes are required. Such models have to be based on a solid understanding of the mechanisms behind the processes considered. With respect to the understanding of the deformation behavior of different Opalinus Clay samples, Klinkenberg et al. (2009) found the carbonates to play a major role. For different samples of the shaly facies they found carbonate to represent a kind of predetermined breaking planes. Therefore, carbonate rich materials showed lower mechanical strengths. Interestingly, they also observed the opposite when considering samples of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay, which is investigated in France. Considering the micro fabric of all samples suggests that the carbonate - mechanical strength relation depends on the type and amount of carbonates. Therefore, Kaufhold et al. investigated the micro fabric - mechanical strength relation of the sandy facies. They concluded that the sandy facies is comparable with the investigated samples of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay. The mechanical behavior of the shaly facies was already investigated. A detailed comparison of

  11. Compressed air energy storage system reservoir size for a wind energy baseload power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind generated electricity can be transformed from an intermittent to a baseload resource using an oversized wind farm in conjunction with a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system. The size of the storage reservoir for the CAES system (solution mined salt cavern or porous media) as a function of the wind speed autocorrelation time (C) has been examined using a Monte Carlo simulation for a wind class 4 (wind power density 450 W m{sup -2} at 50 m hub height) wind regime with a Weibull k factor of 2.5. For values of C typically found for winds over the US Great Plains, the storage reservoir must have a 60 to 80 hour capacity. Since underground reservoirs account for only a small fraction of total system cost, this larger storage reservoir has a negligible effect on the cost of energy from the wind energy baseload system. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew G. Cole; George B. Asquith; Jose I. Guzman; Mark D. Barton; Mohammad A. Malik; Shirley P. Dutton; Sigrid J. Clift

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based enhanced oil recovery. The study focused on the Ford Geraldine unit, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). Reservoirs in this and other Delaware Mountain Group fields have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Outcrop analogs were studied to better interpret the depositional processes that formed the reservoirs at the Ford Geraldine unit and to determine the dimensions of reservoir sandstone bodies. Facies relationships and bedding architecture within a single genetic unit exposed in outcrop in Culberson County, Texas, suggest that the sandstones were deposited in a system of channels and levees with attached lobes that initially prograded basinward, aggraded, and then turned around and stepped back toward the shelf. Channel sandstones are 10 to 60 ft thick and 300 to 3,000 ft wide. The flanking levees have a wedge-shaped geometry and are composed of interbedded sandstone and siltstone; thickness varies from 3 to 20 ft and length from several hundred to several thousands of feet. The lobe sandstones are broad lens-shaped bodies; thicknesses range up to 30 ft with aspect ratios (width/thickness) of 100 to 10,000. Lobe sandstones may be interstratified with laminated siltstones.

  13. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... and Addiction Drug Overdoses in Youth Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) and Drug Use Real Questions from Real ...

  14. Understanding the True Stimulated Reservoir Volume in Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Maaruf

    2017-06-06

    Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically-induced fractures that connect the wellbore to a larger fracture surface area within the reservoir rock volume. Thus, accurate estimation of the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) becomes critical for the reservoir performance simulation and production analysis. Micro-seismic events (MS) have been commonly used as a proxy to map out the SRV geometry, which could be erroneous because not all MS events are related to hydraulic fracture propagation. The case studies discussed here utilized a fully 3-D simulation approach to estimate the SRV. The simulation approach presented in this paper takes into account the real-time changes in the reservoir\\'s geomechanics as a function of fluid pressures. It is consisted of four separate coupled modules: geomechanics, hydrodynamics, a geomechanical joint model for interfacial resolution, and an adaptive re-meshing. Reservoir stress condition, rock mechanical properties, and injected fluid pressure dictate how fracture elements could open or slide. Critical stress intensity factor was used as a fracture criterion governing the generation of new fractures or propagation of existing fractures and their directions. Our simulations were run on a Cray XC-40 HPC system. The studies outcomes proved the approach of using MS data as a proxy for SRV to be significantly flawed. Many of the observed stimulated natural fractures are stress related and very few that are closer to the injection field are connected. The situation is worsened in a highly laminated shale reservoir as the hydraulic fracture propagation is significantly hampered. High contrast in the in-situ stresses related strike-slip developed thereby shortens the extent of SRV. However, far field nature fractures that were not connected to

  15. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-08-01

    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  16. Features of Composition and Cement Type of the Lower Triassic Reservoirs in the North of the Timan-Pechora Oil and Gas Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Timonina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the study of cement type and composition of the Lower Triassic deposits of the Timan-Pechora province, their influence on reservoir properties of rocks. The work was based on laboratory studies of core, generalization of published data. Morphological and genetic analysis of clay minerals was carried out using X-ray and electron-microscopic methods. As a result of the conducted studies it was established that the type, composition and distribution of the cement is influenced by the composition of demolition sources, sedimentation conditions, and post-sedimentation transformations. Kaolinite, chlorite, smectite and hydromica associations are distinguished according to the predominance of clay mineral in the sandstone cement. Kaolinite cement of sandstones is most typical for continental fluvial facies, especially channel beds. Smectite association is most characteristic of the floodplain, oxbow and lake facies of the zone. The revealed regularities will contribute to the improvement of accurate reconstruction of sedimentation conditions, construction of more adequate geological models of the reservoir, taking into account its reservoir heterogeneity both at the level of the reservoir and its constituent interlayers.

  17. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. Emphasize is put essentially on the fuel salt of the primary circuit inside which fission reactions occur. The reasons why the (LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 -UF 4 ) salt was chosen for the M.S.B.R. concept are examined; the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of this salt are discussed with its interactions with the structural materials and its evolution in time. An important part of this volume is devoted to the continuous reprocessing of the active salt, the project designers having deemed advisable to take advantage at best from the availability of a continuous purification, in a thermal breeding. The problem of tritium formation and distribution inside the reactor is also envisaged and the fundamentals of the chemistry of the secondary coolant salt are given. The solutions proposed are: the hydrogen scavenging of the primary circuit, a reduction in metal permeability by an oxyde layer deposition on the side in contact with the vapor, and tritium absorption through an isotope exchange with the hydroxifluoroborate [fr

  18. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.

  19. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  20. Effects of road salts on groundwater and surface water ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Road salts are a growing environmental concern in urban watersheds. We examined groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) dynamics of Na+ and Cl− in Minebank Run (MBR), an urban stream in Maryland, USA. We observed an increasing salinity trend in this restored stream. Current baseflow salinity does not exceed water quality recommendations, but rapid “first flush” storm flow was approximately one-third that of seawater. Comparisons between the upstream and downstream study reaches suggest that a major interstate highway is the primary road salt source. A heavily used road parallels most of MBR and was an additional source to GW concentrations, especially the downstream right bank. A baseflow synoptic survey identified zones of increased salinity. Downstream piezometer wells exhibited increases in salt concentrations and there was evidence that Na+ is exchanging Ca2+ and Mg2+ on soils. SW salt concentrations were generally elevated above GW concentrations. Salinity levels persisted at MBR throughout the year and were above background levels at Bynum Run, a nearby reference stream not bisected by a major highway, suggesting that GW is a long-term reservoir for accumulating road salts. Chronic salinity levels may be high enough to damage vegetation and salinity peaks could impact other biota. Beneficial uses and green infrastructure investments may be at risk from salinity driven degradation. Therefore, road salt may represent an environmental risk that could af

  1. The Potosi Reservoir Model 2013c, Property Modeling Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adushita, Yasmin; Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    property modeling workflows and layering. This model was retained as the base case. In the preceding Task [1], the Potosi reservoir model was updated to take into account the new data from the Verification Well #2 (VW2) which was drilled in 2012. The porosity and permeability modeling was revised to take into account the log data from the new well. Revisions of the 2010 modeling assumptions were also done on relative permeability, capillary pressures, formation water salinity, and the maximum allowable well bottomhole pressure. Dynamic simulations were run using the injection target of 3.5 million tons per annum (3.2 MTPA) for 30 years. This dynamic model was named Potosi Dynamic Model 2013b. In this Task, a new property modeling workflow was applied, where seismic inversion data guided the porosity mapping and geobody extraction. The static reservoir model was fully guided by PorosityCube interpretations and derivations coupled with petrophysical logs from three wells. The two main assumptions are: porosity features in the PorosityCube that correlate with lost circulation zones represent vugular zones, and that these vugular zones are laterally continuous. Extrapolation was done carefully to populate the vugular facies and their corresponding properties outside the seismic footprint up to the boundary of the 30 by 30 mi (48 by 48 km) model. Dynamic simulations were also run using the injection target of 3.5 million tons per annum (3.2 MTPA) for 30 years. This new dynamic model was named Potosi Dynamic Model 2013c. Reservoir simulation with the latest model gives a cumulative injection of 43 million tons (39 MT) in 30 years with a single well, which corresponds to 40% of the injection target. The injection rate is approx. 3.2 MTPA in the first six months as the well is injecting into the surrounding vugs, and declines rapidly to 1.8 million tons per annum (1.6 MTPA) in year 3 once the surrounding vugs are full and the CO2 start to reach the matrix. After, the injection

  2. Investigation of Facies Types and Associations of Kuhlan Red Bed Formation in NW Yemen: A New Hypothesis for Origin and Depositional Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Wosabi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of thirteen facies types were recognized in the Kuhlan Formation represented by red bed siliciclastic sequences of argillaceous sediments. Examination of the Kuhlan stratigraphic column included sequence relationships, lithology, sedimentary characters, structures and petrography of the dominant rock types. These facies types are grouped in three distinct associations of facies. The lower unit A comprises association of facies (Distal turbidites represented by alternates of turbidity sequences including sandstone, siltstone and thick shale beds. These facies types confirm a regressive depositional environment in deep marine shelf conditions. There are three facies types which are identified as massive sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone and pebbly sandstone facies. The middle unit B association of facies (Proximal turbedites represents glaciomarine sequences displaying high lateral and vertical facies changes of glacioturbidite sediment alternates with diamictites and tillite beds. The sequences are affected by eustatic and eustatism of the glacial advance and retreat. This unit B includes eight types of facies. These are identified as; tillite, massive diamictites, stratified diamictites, laminated siltstone/shale, deformed siltstone/mudstone, graded rhythmic siltstone, massive conglomerate and cross-stratified sandy conglomerate facies. The upper unit C association of facies is represented by shallow marine shelf sequences displaying very thick massive and locally cross-bedded sand bar sandstone overlying the laminated siltstone/shale interbeds. The upward gradual changes in mineralogical composition and color confirms the start of marine transgression and later deposited platform Amran Group. Mineralogical composition of Kuhlan sandstone displays impure dirty rocks consisting of more than 30% of argillaceous matrix, 50% of cristobalite and quartz grains, more than 10% of ferruginous cement and 10% of detrital iron oxide grains, potash

  3. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  4. Petroleum reservoir data for testing simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, J.M.; Harrison, W.

    1980-09-01

    This report consists of reservoir pressure and production data for 25 petroleum reservoirs. Included are 5 data sets for single-phase (liquid) reservoirs, 1 data set for a single-phase (liquid) reservoir with pressure maintenance, 13 data sets for two-phase (liquid/gas) reservoirs and 6 for two-phase reservoirs with pressure maintenance. Also given are ancillary data for each reservoir that could be of value in the development and validation of simulation models. A bibliography is included that lists the publications from which the data were obtained.

  5. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  6. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure >15mmHg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% Females, 16% Blacks, BMI 28.5±4.2 Kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mmHg) as compared to high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mmHg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dl, 10.8±7.3 mIU/L and 2.6±1.9) as compared to high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dl, 9.4±5.8 mIU/L and 2.1±1.4) (p salt sensitive (N=193) versus salt resistant (N=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in HOMA on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt resistant subjects (p=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in HOMA after including age, BMI, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:25185125

  7. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Glegola, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The added value of gravity data for reservoir monitoring and characterization is analyzed within closed-loop reservoir management concept. Synthetic 2D and 3D numerical experiments are performed where var...

  8. Lacustrine sedimentation and facies model for the last 45,000 yr in Chalco basin. Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, B.; Lozano, S.; Caballero, M.; Herrera, D.

    2013-05-01

    Chalco basin in central Mexico (19° 15' N, 98° 58' W, 2200 m asl) is one of the most detailed lake sediment sequence analyzed in Mexico for paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental studies. In this former lake, five drill cores up to 27 m depth were recovered in 1987-1989 by the UNAM team, and three cores covering most of the former sequence were obtained in 2008 and 2011. The upper 27 m of the Chalco lacustrine sequence contains the record of the last 45 kyr climate history in the northern American tropics. The active tectonic and volcanic setting of Chalco Lake in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, provides an opportunity to evaluate environmental (volcanic + tectonic vs. climatic) controls on lacustrine sedimentation. The establishment of a detailed time scale by 14C in pollen extracts provides an accurate chronological control. The stratigraphical and sedimentological analyses presented here provided the recognition of depositional environments and the architecture of the upper lacustrine succession. Sedimentary facies were defined on the basis of sedimentological descriptions, microscopic observation and compositional analyses. According to compositional criteria, facies were identified and groped into two main categories according to compositional criteria: 1) detrital and volcaniclastic, and 2) biogenic facies. The clastic facies includes massive to laminated, silty and clayey sediments composed of clay minerals, feldspars, amphiboles with minor amounts of quartz, opaque minerals and calcite. Diatoms are the most common biological remains in all the clastic facies. Most of the volcaniclastic deposits correspond to fall-out deposits, some of them of well documented eruptions of the nearby large stratovolcanoes Popocatepetl and Nevado de Toluca, which in turn serve as stratigraphical markers. The biogenic facies are massive to finely laminated diatom ooze and ostracod ooze layers. The sedimentary architecture of the lacustrine succession has been controlled by

  9. Distribution, facies, ages, and proposed tectonic associations of regionally metamorphosed rocks in Southwestern Alaska and the Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Doyle, Elizabeth O.; Box, Stephen E.

    1996-01-01

    The oldest dated metamorphic sequence in Alaska, the fault-bounded Kilbuck Terrane, consists of continental rocks that were metamorphosed under amphibolite-facies conditions during early Proterozoic (1.77 Ga) time. Proterozoic or early Paleozoic metamorphic ages are also possible for greenschist- and amphibolite-facies continental rocks in interior Alaska (Ruby and Nixon Fork terranes). Medium-grade metamorphism on the Alaska Peninsula accompanied intrusion of a Jurassic arc. North of Bristol Bay, low-grade, locally high-pressure Mesozoic metamorphism is attributed to the progressive underthrusting of a subduction complex beneath an oceanic arc followed by underthrusting of the Kilbuck Terrane beneath the subduction complex.

  10. Palynostratigraphy and sedimentary facies of Middle Miocene fluvial deposits of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dino, Rodolfo; Soares, Emílio Alberto Amaral; Antonioli, Luzia; Riccomini, Claudio; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Palynostratigraphic and sedimentary facies analyses were made on sedimentary deposits from the left bank of the Solimões River, southwest of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. These provided the age-dating and subdivision of a post-Cretaceous stratigraphic succession in the Amazonas Basin. The Novo Remanso Formation is subdivided into upper and lower units, and delineated by discontinuous surfaces at its top and bottom. The formation consists primarily of sandstones and minor mudstones and conglomerates, reflecting fluvial channel, point bar and floodplain facies of a fluvial meandering paleosystem. Fairly well-preserved palynoflora was recovered from four palynologically productive samples collected in a local irregular concentration of gray clay deposits, rich in organic material and fossilized wood, at the top of the Novo Remanso Formation upper unit. The palynoflora is dominated by terrestrial spores and pollen grains, and is characterized by abundant angiosperm pollen grains ( Tricolpites, Grimsdalea, Perisyncolporites, Tricolporites and Malvacearumpollis). Trilete spores are almost as abundant as the angiosperm pollen, and are represented mainly by the genera Deltoidospora, Verrutriletes, and Hamulatisporis. Gymnosperm pollen is scarce. The presence of the index species Grimsdalea magnaclavata Germeraad et al. (1968) indicates that these deposits belong to the Middle Miocene homonymous palynozone (Lorente, 1986; Hoorn, 1993; Jaramillo et al., 2011). Sedimentological characteristics (poorly sorted, angular to sub-angular, fine to very-coarse quartz sands facies) are typical of the Novo Remanso Formation upper part. These are associated with a paleoflow to the NE-E and SE-E, and with an entirely lowland-derived palinofloristic content with no Andean ferns and gymnosperms representatives. All together, this suggests a cratonic origin for this Middle Miocene fluvial paleosystem, which was probably born in the Purus Arch eastern flank and areas surrounding the

  11. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  12. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  13. Reservoir-induced seismicity at Castanhao reservoir, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, B.; do Nascimento, A.; Ferreira, J.; Bezerra, F.

    2012-04-01

    Our case study - the Castanhão reservoir - is located in NE Brazil on crystalline rock at the Borborema Province. The Borborema Province is a major Proterozoic-Archean terrain formed as a consequence of convergence and collision of the São Luis-West Africa craton and the São Francisco-Congo-Kasai cratons. This reservoir is a 60 m high earth-filled dam, which can store up to 4.5 billion m3 of water. The construction begun in 1990 and finished in October 2003.The first identified reservoir-induced events occurred in 2003, when the water level was still low. The water reached the spillway for the first time in January 2004 and, after that, an increase in seismicity occured. The present study shows the results of a campaign done in the period from November 19th, 2009 to December 31th, 2010 at the Castanhão reservoir. We deployed six three-component digital seismographic station network around one of the areas of the reservoir. We analyzed a total of 77 events which were recorded in at least four stations. To determine hypocenters and time origin, we used HYPO71 program (Lee & Lahr, 1975) assuming a half-space model with following parameters: VP= 5.95 km/s and VP/VS=1.73. We also performed a relocation of these events using HYPODD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000) programme. The input data used we used were catalogue data, with all absolute times. The results from the spatio-temporal suggest that different clusters at different areas and depths are triggered at different times due to a mixture of: i - pore pressure increase due to diffusion and ii - increase of pore pressure due to the reservoir load.

  14. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  15. Statistical analysis and experiment planning in reservoir engineering; Analyse statistique et planification d'experience en ingenierie de reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabalza-Mezghani, I.

    2000-05-24

    The aim of this thesis first part is the prediction of simulated production responses, when controlled or uncontrolled parameters act on them. The specificity of our work was to study an uncontrolled parameter: the geostatistical seed, which leads to an hetero-scedastic response behavior. In this context, a joint modelling of both mean and variance of the response was essential to get an efficient prediction. We have proposed two prediction intervals of the response, which either resorted to bootstrap re-sampling or not, and which were very efficient to predict the response accounting for the hetero-scedastic framework. Another aim of this part was to use the available information on gradient response to improve prediction. We have suggested a Bayesian prediction, that involves both response and gradients, in order to highlight the significance of gradient information to reach safe predictions. In the second part, which deals. with history matching problem, the originality of our work was the resort to experimental designs. This problem, which consists in calibrating a reservoir model with respect to dynamic data, fits the description of an objective function minimization. As the objective function behavior is non-linear and therefore cannot fit a polynomial function, we suggest to combine the simplex method, which permits to select a domain where the objective function reveals simple behavior, and experimental design theory, which allows to build an analytical model of the objective function. A minimization of this analytical model makes it possible to reach the parameter values that ensure dynamic data respect. In this way, this methodology highlights the efficiency of experimental designs for history matching, particularly when optimization methods are inadequate because of non-differentiability, as for the calibration of geostatistical facies models. Several reservoir application cases illustrate the efficiency of the approaches we have proposed in this thesis

  16. Coupling level set methods with the ensemble kalman filter conditioning geological facies models to well and production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, David Leonardo

    2009-04-15

    In the present work a coupling methodology between level set methods and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for modeling and conditioning geological facies with respect to production and, well data is presented. The modeling of the facies is based on the concept of implicit interfaces where level set methods are used to add dynamics to the implicit interfaces. The conditioning of the facies models is done through the application of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), a sequential Bayesian inversion technique completely automatic that does not require the calculation of gradients or uses the information of previous states. The EnKF has been presented as an evolution of the extended Kalman filter (EKF) that solves the problem of the unbounded error growth of the covariance of a non-linear dynamical system by extending the traditional Kalman filter(KF) to a Monte Carlo ensemble type filter where the covariance representation is centered on the first moment of an ensemble distribution instead of the unknown true model, however, for the problem to be well defined, the parameters to be estimated should still be Gaussian or approximately Gaussian. For updating facies models defined as highly non-Gaussian systems the EnKF fails at first, since if facies types with different petrophysical properties are mixed, the generated petrophysical model will have some average properties that do not behave like any of the original facies types. The methodology presented in this work is designed to avoid the problem of the non-Gaussianity provided by facies models by applying a transformation of the facies into implicit interfaces and uses a more Gaussian variable to perturb and move the implicit representations of the facies. The result is a methodology that conditions Gaussian random fields (GRFs) to production and well data with the EnKF, later used as velocity fields in the level set equations for moving boundaries between facies systems with the purpose of obtaining good topological

  17. Lower Tertiary Sedimentary Turbidite Facies at the Chicontepec Basin, East-Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santillán-Piña N.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area comprises the northwestern portion of the Chicontepec Basin at southeastern San Luis Potosí and northeastern Hidalgo States. At the stratigraphy sequences of the Chicontepec Formation from Lower Paleocene in isolated outocrops, were herein interpreted two major sedimentary sub-environments into the fan model: the middle and the external sedimentary settings; the applied criteria for their identification were: (a lithostratigraphic (thickness, geometry and distribution; (b internal and external primary sedimentary structures, and (c intra-formational deformation structures. The sedimentary facies are composed of siliciclastic and calcareous particles sourced from the Sierra Madre Oriental, western; the Tuxpan paleo-island, eastern; and from the Teziutlan Massif, southern; the sediments were massively transported by slideing, slumping, flow debris and turbidity currents, then deposited as massive, tabular, lenticular and lobely in shape at the slope foot and on the sea marine floor.

  18. Pennsylvanian coniferopsid forests in sabkha facies reveal the nature of seasonal tropical biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Jud, N.A.; John, Nelson W.; DiMichele, W.A.; Chaney, D.S.; Lucas, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    Pennsylvanian fossil forests are known from hundreds of sites across tropical Pangea, but nearly all comprise remains of humid Coal Forests. Here we report a unique occurrence of seasonally dry vegetation, preserved in growth position along >5 km of strike, in the Pennsylvanian (early Kasimovian, Missourian) of New Mexico (United States). Analyses of stump anatomy, diameter, and spatial density, coupled with observations of vascular traces and associated megaflora, show that this was a deciduous, mixed-age, coniferopsid woodland (~100 trees per hectare) with an open canopy. The coniferopsids colonized coastal sabkha facies and show tree rings, confirming growth under seasonally dry conditions. Such woodlands probably served as the source of coniferopsids that replaced Coal Forests farther east in central Pangea during drier climate phases. Thus, the newly discovered woodland helps unravel biome-scale vegetation dynamics and allows calibration of climate models. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  19. Implementation of the Iterative Proportion Fitting Algorithm for Geostatistical Facies Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yupeng; Deutsch, Clayton V.

    2012-01-01

    In geostatistics, most stochastic algorithm for simulation of categorical variables such as facies or rock types require a conditional probability distribution. The multivariate probability distribution of all the grouped locations including the unsampled location permits calculation of the conditional probability directly based on its definition. In this article, the iterative proportion fitting (IPF) algorithm is implemented to infer this multivariate probability. Using the IPF algorithm, the multivariate probability is obtained by iterative modification to an initial estimated multivariate probability using lower order bivariate probabilities as constraints. The imposed bivariate marginal probabilities are inferred from profiles along drill holes or wells. In the IPF process, a sparse matrix is used to calculate the marginal probabilities from the multivariate probability, which makes the iterative fitting more tractable and practical. This algorithm can be extended to higher order marginal probability constraints as used in multiple point statistics. The theoretical framework is developed and illustrated with estimation and simulation example.

  20. Sediment Composition and Facies of Coral Reef Islands in the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Janßen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentological and geomorphological characteristics of coral reef islands are strongly related to past and recent boundary conditions such as the hydrodynamic regime, wind directions, sea-level fluctuations, and the ecological footprint of the surrounding reef complexes. Alterations in the physical, chemical, and biological boundary controls may affect the stability of reef islands. Additionally, these factors are of importance in the context of future climate change. Such alterations through time may well be documented within the sedimentary record of reef islands and a better knowledge on its effects could help to improve our understanding of island responses to future changes of the status quo. However, detailed studies on the sedimentology and geomorphology of reef islands from southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia, are still rare. Here we report on the sedimentary composition and related facies zonation of four uninhabited coral reef islands in the Spermonde Archipelago. Sediment samples from onshore- and reef-flat environments were analyzed in regard to their grain size, component assemblages and facies distribution. Our results show that the analyzed island sediments are characterized by medium- to coarse-grained sand fractions and are well to poorly sorted. Across all islands examined, the surface sediment is predominately composed of materials identified as scleractinian coral and coralline red algae fragments, with minor additions from bivalves, gastropods and foraminifers. Importantly, statistical analyses of the variations in the percentage of these components allow for a clear sedimentary distinction of the four study sites into three outer shelf islands, situated closer to the open marine Makassar Strait, and one inner shelf island. On the inner shelf island, additional subsurface sedimentological analyses indicate a potential shift in major sediment contributors through time, preserved as coral-dominated accumulations within the

  1. Glacimarine sedimentary processes, facies and morphology of the south-southeast Alaska shelf and fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R.D.; Molnia, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    High precipitation from Gulf of Alaska air masses can locally reach up to 800 cm a-1. This precipitation on tectonically active mountains creates cool-temperate glaciation with extremely active erosion and continuously renewed resources. High basal debris loads up to 1.5 m thick of pure debris and rapid glacial flow, which can be more than 3000 m a-1, combine to produce large volumes of siliciclastic glacimarine sediment at some of the highest sediment accumulation rates on record. At tidewater fronts of valley glaciers, sediment accumulation rates can be over 13 m a-1 and deltas commonly grow at about 106 m3 a-1. Major processes influencing glacimarine sedimentation are glacial transport and glacier-contact deposition, meltwater (subaerial and submarine) and runoff transport and deposition, iceberg rafting and gouging, sea-ice transport, wave action and storm reworking, tidal transport and deposition, alongshelf transport, sliding and slumping and gravity flows, eolian transport, and biogenic production and reworking. Processes are similar in both shelf and fjord settings; however, different intensities of some processes create different facies associations and geometries. The tectonoclimatic regime also controls morphology because bedrock structure is modified by glacial action. Major glacimarine depositional systems are all siliciclastic. They are subglacial, marginal-morainal bank and submarine outwash, and proglacial/paraglacial-fluvial/deltaic, beach, tidal flat/estuary, glacial fjord, marine outwash fjord and continental shelf. Future research should include study of long cores with extensive dating and more seismic surveys to evaluate areal and temporal extent of glacial facies and glaciation; time-series oceanographic data, sidescan sonar surveys and submersible dives to evaluate modern processes; biogenic diversity and production to evaluate paleoecological, paleobiogeographic and biofacies analysis; and detailed comparisons of exposed older rock of the

  2. Beaulieu-Boycott-Innes syndrome: an intellectual disability syndrome with characteristic facies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Jillian; Jenkinson, Allan; Magee, Alex; Ennis, Sean; Monavari, Ahmad; Green, Andrew; Lynch, Sally A; Crushell, Ellen; Hughes, Joanne

    2016-10-01

    We report a female child from an Irish Traveller family presenting with severe intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, renal anomalies, dental caries and cyclical vomiting. Current health issues include global developmental delay, mild concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, dental malocclusion and caries and a single duplex left kidney. The proband and her mother also have multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the underlying genetic cause. DNA from the proband was enriched with the Agilent Sure Select v5 Exon array and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq. Rare homozygous variants were prioritized. Whole-exome sequencing identified three linked homozygous missense variants in THOC6 (c.298T>A, p.Trp100Arg; c.700G>C, p.Val234Leu; c.824G>A, p.Gly275Asp) as the likely cause of this child's intellectual disability syndrome, resulting in a molecular diagnosis of Beaulieu-Boycott-Innes syndrome (BBIS). This is the first report of BBIS in Europe. BBIS has been reported previously in two Hutterite families and one Saudi family. A review of all patients to date shows a relatively homogenous phenotype. Core clinical features include low birth weight with subsequent growth failure, short stature, intellectual disability with language delay, characteristic facies, renal anomalies and dental malocclusion with caries. Some patients also have cardiac defects. All patients show characteristic dysmorphic facial features including a tall forehead with high anterior hairline and deep-set eyes with upslanting palpebral fissures. The coexistence of intellectual disability together with these characteristic facies should provide a diagnostic clue for BBIS during patient evaluation.

  3. Volumetric facies analysis of a Late Holocene mudbelt environment on the Galician shelf (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, F. K. J.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.; Schwenk, T.

    2012-04-01

    This case study uses geographically dense, shallow-seismic data from the Galician continental shelf in order to quantify the sedimentary volume of a confined mudbelt depocenter. Mud depocenters on shelves are of particular economic and environmental interest because they represent areas where fishing and other ground disturbing activities are most intense and ecosystems hold some of the highest biodiversities. Also, up until now, studies of sedimentary shelf systems have mainly focused on the temporal and special development of sedimentary facies in relation to sea-level changes while little is known about the sedimentary budgets and fluxes that control these systems. Budget analyses of sedimentary shelf environments are, difficult to accomplish and only very few studies exist to this date that have attempted this due to the required high geographic density of shallow-seismic reflection profiles and sediment cores to calculate sedimentary volumes in an adequate accuracy. In this study we use 1500 km of new (May, 2011) shallow-seismic (PARASOUND) data in conjunction with multiple sediment cores to calculate a high-resolution isopach map that represents the Late Holocene (Galician coast. This is especially noteworthy in the wake of urbanization of watershed areas and associated higher erosion rates and consequent higher riverine sedimentary load. While previous studies show that shelfal mud depocenters represent a major sink for sediments on shelves little is known about their importance for global material flux calculations. This study contributes rare quantitative data from a high-energy shelf environment that helps develop a more in depth understanding of their significance within global material fluxes. In addition, a high resolution spatial record of this modern mudbelt will enable researchers to analyze future seasonal or annual shifts of material pathways and spatial distribution and volume of this facies. Such an analysis may hold serious implications for a

  4. Facies volcánicas del depósito de avalancha de detritos del volcán Tata Sabaya, Andes Centrales Volcanic facies of the debris avalanche deposit of Tata Sabaya Volcano, Central Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benigno Godoy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Las avalanchas de detritos, asociadas a colapsos parciales de edificios volcánicos, son fenómenos comunes en la evolución de un volcán. Este tipo de flujos son por inestabilidades, que pueden deberse a factores tales como la existencia de zonas afectadas por alteración hidrotermal, cambios climáticos, terremotos, intrusión de magmas en zonas superficiales (criptodomos y/o diques y/o movimiento de fallas bajo el edificio volcánico o cercanas a él. El producto final de estos flujos -denominado depósito de avalancha de detritos (DAD- presenta morfologías típicas de cerrillos y drenajes cerrados. En los Andes Centrales se han reconocido, al menos, 14 centros volcánicos con depósitos de avalancha asociados, entre los que está el volcán Tata Sabaya (Bolivia. El colapso que ha dado origen a este depósito podría haberse generado por una combinación de actividad sísmica y magmática en el volcán. El depósito asociado al colapso parcial de este volcán se distribuye sobre la parte baja del flanco sur del volcán y sobre la parte noroccidental de la cuenca del salar de Coipasa. Cubre una superficie de más de 230 km² y tiene un volumen estimado de 6±1 km³. Sobre la base de las composiciones litológicas, se ha establecido que el depósito está constituido por 6 tipos distintos de cerrillos, los cuales son: lávicos, piroclásticos, sedimentarios mixtos, brecha piroclástica y andesítico-basálticos. Considerando el tipo predominante de cerrillos y su distribución espacial dentro del depósito, se ha definido 6 facies diferentes (Facies de Bloques Toreva, Facies de Cerrillos Volcánicos, Facies Central, Facies de Cerrillos Sedimentarios, Facies Mixta y Facies de Cerrillos de Brecha Piroclástica. Tomando en cuenta la distribución espacial de estas facies, se propone la estructura del paleovolcán previa a su colapso parcial.Debris avalanches associated with partial sector collapse of volcanic edifices are common phenomena in the

  5. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  6. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-01-01

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  7. Cloud computing and Reservoir project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beco, S.; Maraschini, A.; Pacini, F.; Biran, O.

    2009-01-01

    The support for complex services delivery is becoming a key point in current internet technology. Current trends in internet applications are characterized by on demand delivery of ever growing amounts of content. The future internet of services will have to deliver content intensive applications to users with quality of service and security guarantees. This paper describes the Reservoir project and the challenge of a reliable and effective delivery of services as utilities in a commercial scenario. It starts by analyzing the needs of a future infrastructure provider and introducing the key concept of a service oriented architecture that combines virtualisation-aware grid with grid-aware virtualisation, while being driven by business service management. This article will then focus on the benefits and the innovations derived from the Reservoir approach. Eventually, a high level view of Reservoir general architecture is illustrated.

  8. Stochastic modeling applied to characterization of Namorado field reservoir (Bacia de Campos - RJ, Brasil); Modelagem estocastica aplicada a caracterizacao do reservatorio de campo de Namorado (Bacia de Campos - RJ, Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Caio Graco Pereira; Clennell, Bennedict [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Geofisica]. E-mail: cgps@cpgg.ufba.br; clennell@cpgg.ufba.br; Mato, Luiz Ferradans [PETROBRAS, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao]. E-mail: ferradans@petrobras.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The Namorado field is in the centre of the Campos Basin, 70 km from shore, between the 150 and 250 m isobaths. This field is divided into four blocks separated by faults. The main blocks have several levels of turbiditic sands interfingering with shale. The external geometry of the sand bodies is lenticular aligned in the direction NW/SE. The media thickness of the genetic units is 160 m, the thickness of porous sandstones varies from 5 to 105 m. The main faciologic types that occurs in the Namorado field do not have internal structure, leading to poor discrimination of internal characteristics. For application of stochastic modeling to the Namorado reservoir log data and core data, were grouped into reservoir and non-reservoir according to the facies, in addition to the application of the binary discriminant function. The method of simulation used was the Sequential Indicator Simulation. The anisotropy defined was 100:1 in the horizontal direction, the structure has transverse isotropy with a range of 40 m (obtained from the experimental variogram). After several model realizations were averaged, the predicted pattern of reservoir facies distribution (probability of reservoir a quality) were combined, and to correlate well with published sections and other quality indicators. (author)

  9. Effects of salt on the `drying' transition and hydrophobic interaction between nano-sized spherical solutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzubiella, Joachim; Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    The effects of sodium halide salts on the hydration and effective interaction between two nanometer-sized, spherical hydrophobic solutes are studied using explicit-water molecular dynamics computer simulations. The system exhibits bimodal wet-dry hydration oscillations that are found to be significantly shifted to dryer states by the presence of salt at and above physiological concentrations. We find that the wet-dry equilibrium of the confined solvent and the resulting interaction between the two solutes can be sensitively tuned by varying the salt type and concentration. A free energy analysis indicates that the strong salt effects can be traced back to large changes in the water chemical potential for the transfer process of a water molecule from the bulk reservoir into the ion-depleted confined region. Our results provide a better understanding of salt effects at the onset of aggregation and self-assembly of large hydrophobic solutes such as globular proteins.

  10. Soil Carbon Stocks in a Shifting Ecosystem; Climate Induced Migration of Mangroves into Salt Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, L.; Osborne, T.; Feller, I. C.

    2015-12-01

    Across the globe, coastal wetland vegetation distributions are changing in response to climate change. The increase in global average surface temperature has already caused shifts in the structure and distribution of many ecological communities. In parts of the southeastern United States, increased winter temperatures have resulted in the poleward range expansion of mangroves at the expense of salt marsh habitat. Our work aims to document carbon storage in the salt marsh - mangrove ecotone and any potential changes in this reservoir that may ensue due to the shifting range of this habitat. Differences in SOM and C stocks along a latitudinal gradient on the east coast of Florida will be presented. The gradient studied spans 342 km and includes pure mangrove habitat, the salt marsh - mangrove ecotone, and pure salt marsh habitat.This latitudinal gradient gives us an exceptional opportunity to document and investigate ecosystem soil C modifications as mangroves transgress into salt marsh habitat due to climatic change.

  11. Reservoir effects in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The radiocarbon dating technique depends essentially on the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide containing the cosmogenic radioisotope 14 C enters into a state of equilibrium with all living material (plants and animals) as part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Terrestrial reservoir effects occur when the atmospheric 14 C signal is diluted by local effects where systems depleted in 14 C mix with systems that are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Naturally, this can occur with plant material growing close to an active volcano adding very old CO 2 to the atmosphere (the original 14 C has completely decayed). It can also occur in highly industrialised areas where fossil fuel derived CO 2 dilutes the atmospheric signal. A terrestrial reservoir effect can occur in the case of fresh water shells living in rivers or lakes where there is an input of ground water from springs or a raising of the water table. Soluble bicarbonate derived from the dissolution of very old limestone produces a 14 C dilution effect. Land snail shells and stream carbonate depositions (tufas and travertines) can be affected by a similar mechanism. Alternatively, in specific cases, these reservoir effects may not occur. This means that general interpretations assuming quantitative values for these terrestrial effects are not possible. Each microenvironment associated with samples being analysed needs to be evaluated independently. Similarly, the marine environment produces reservoir effects. With respect to marine shells and corals, the water depth at which carbonate growth occurs can significantly affect quantitative 14 C dilution, especially in areas where very old water is uplifted, mixing with top layers of water that undergo significant exchange with atmospheric CO 2 . Hence, generalisations with respect to the marine reservoir effect also pose problems. These can be exacerbated by the mixing of sea water with either terrestrial water in estuaries, or ground water where

  12. Sedimentological and Geomorphological Effects of Reservoir Flushing: The Cachi Reservoir, Costa Rica, 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Anders; Swenning, Joar

    1999-01-01

    Physical geography, hydrology, geomorphology, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, dams, reservoirs......Physical geography, hydrology, geomorphology, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, dams, reservoirs...

  13. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. K. Pande

    1998-10-29

    Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency

  14. Integrated petrophysical and sedimentological study of the Middle Miocene Nullipore Formation (Ras Fanar Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt): An approach to volumetric analysis of reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afife, Mohamed M.; Sallam, Emad S.; Faris, Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to integrate sedimentological, log and core analyses data of the Middle Miocene Nullipore Formation at the Ras Fanar Field (west central Gulf of Suez, Egypt) to evaluate and reconstruct a robust petrophysical model for this reservoir. The Nullipore Formation attains a thickness ranging from 400 to 980 ft and represents a syn-rift succession of the Middle Miocene marine facies. It consists of coralline-algal-reefal limestone, dolomitic limestone and dolostone facies, with few clay and anhydrite intercalations. Petrographically, seven microfacies types (MF1 to MF7) have been recognized and assembled genetically into three related facies associations (FA1 to FA3). These associations accumulated in three depositional environments: 1) peritidal flat, 2) restricted lagoon, and 3) back-shoal environments situated on a shallow inner ramp (homoclinal) setting. The studied rocks have been influenced by different diagenetic processes (dolomitization, cementation, compaction, authigenesis and dissolution), which led to diminishing and/or enhancing the reservoir quality. Three superimposed 3rd-order depositional sequences are included in the Nullipore succession displaying both retrogradational and aggradational packages of facies. Given the hydrocarbon potential of the Nullipore Formation, conventional well logs of six boreholes and core analyses data from one of these wells (RF-B12) are used to identify electrofacies zones of the Nullipore Formation. The Nullipore Formation has been subdivided into three electrofacies zones (the Nullipore-I, Nullipore-II, and Nullipore-III) that are well-correlated with the three depositional sequences. Results of petrographical studies and log analyses data have been employed in volumetric calculations to estimate the amount of hydrocarbon-in-place and then the ultimate recovery of the Nullipore reservoir. The volumetric calculations indicate that the total volume of oil-in-place is 371 MMSTB at 50% probability (P50), whereas

  15. SIRIU RESERVOIR, BUZAU RIVER (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Constantin DIACONU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Siriu reservoir, owes it`s creation to the dam built on the river Buzau, in the town which bears the same name. The reservoir has a hydro energetic role, to diminish the maximum flow and to provide water to the localities below. The partial exploitation of the lake, began in 1984; Since that time, the initial bed of the river began to accumulate large quantities of alluvia, reducing the retention capacity of the lake, which had a volume of 125 million m3. The changes produced are determined by many topographic surveys at the bottom of the lake.

  16. Phytoplankton assemblage of a small, shallow, tropical African reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-12-01

    I measured physico-chemical properties and phytoplankton in the small, shallow tropical reservoir of Oyun (Offa, Nigeria) between January 2002 and December 2003. I identified 25 phytoplankton genera in three sampling stations. Bacillariophyceae dominated (75.3%), followed by Chlorophyceae (12.2%), Cyanobacteria (11.1%) and Desmidiaceae (0.73%). The high amount of nutrients (e.g. nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and silica) explain phytoplankton heterogeneity (p<0.05). Phytoplankton was abundant during the rainy season, but the transition period had the richest assemblage and abundance. Fluctuations in phytoplankton density were a result of seasonal changes in concentration of nutrients, grazing pressure and reservoir hydrology. The reservoir is eutrophic with excellent water quality and a diverse phytoplankton assemblage: fish production would be high. These conditions resulted from strategies such as watershed best management practices (BMPs) to control eutrophication and sedimentation, and priorities for water usage established through legislation. Additional measures are recommended to prevent oligotrophy, hypereutrophy, excessive phytoplankton bloom, toxic cyanobacteria, and run-off of organic waste and salts.

  17. Elastic and Electrical Properties Evaluation of Low Resistivity Pays in Malay Basin Clastics Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanna Lubis, Luluan; Ghosh, Deva P.; Hermana, Maman

    2016-07-01

    The elastic and electrical properties of low resistivity pays clastics reservoirs in Malay Basin are strongly dependent on the complex nature of the clay content, either dispersed or laminated/layered. Estimating the hydrocarbon pore volume from conventional electrical log, i.e. resistivity log, is quite a challenge. The low elastic impedance contrast also found as one of the challenge thus create a problem to map the distribution of the low resistivity reservoirs. In this paper, we evaluate the electrical properties and elastic rock properties to discriminate the pay from the adjacent cap rock or shale. Forward modeling of well log responses including electrical properties are applied to analyze the nature of the possible pays on laminated reservoir rocks. In the implementation of rock properties analysis, several conventional elastic properties are comparatively analyzed for the sensitivity and feasibility analysis on each elastic parameters. Finally, we discussed the advantages of each elastic parameters in detail. In addition, cross-plots of elastic and electrical properties attributes help us in the clear separation of anomalous zone and lithologic properties of sand and shale facies over conventional elastic parameter crossplots attributes. The possible relationship on electrical and elastic properties are discussed for further studies.

  18. Fault features and enrichment laws of narrow-channel distal tight sandstone gas reservoirs: A case study of the Jurassic Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in the Zhongjiang Gas Field, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongping Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Jurassic Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in the Zhongjiang Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, is the main base of Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company for gas reserves and production increase during the 12th Five-Year Plan. However, its natural gas exploration and development process was restricted severely, since the exploration wells cannot be deployed effectively in this area based on the previous gas accumulation and enrichment pattern of “hydrocarbon source fault + channel sand body + local structure”. In this paper, the regional fault features and the gas accumulation and enrichment laws were discussed by analyzing the factors like fault evolution, fault elements, fault-sand body configuration (the configuration relationship between hydrocarbon source faults and channel sand bodies, trap types, and reservoir anatomy. It is concluded that the accumulation and enrichment of the Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in this area is controlled by three factors, i.e., hydrocarbon source, sedimentary facies and structural position. It follows the accumulation laws of source controlling region, facies controlling zone and position controlling reservoir, which means deep source and shallow accumulation, fault-sand body conductivity, multiphase channel, differential accumulation, adjusted enrichment and gas enrichment at sweet spots. A good configuration relationship between hydrocarbon source faults and channel sand bodies is the basic condition for the formation of gas reservoirs. Natural gas accumulated preferentially in the structures or positions with good fault-sand body configuration. Gas reservoirs can also be formed in the monoclinal structures which were formed after the late structural adjustment. In the zones supported by multiple faults or near the crush zones, no gas accumulation occurs, but water is dominantly produced. The gas-bearing potential is low in the area with undeveloped faults or being 30 km away from the hydrocarbon source faults. So

  19. Facies analysis and paleoenvironmental interpretation of Piacenzian carbonate deposits from the Guitar Formation of Car Nicobar Island, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K. Ghosh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Facies characterization of Piacenzian (late Pliocene carbonate sediments of the Guitar Formation in Car Nicobar Island, India and the subsequent integration of paleoecological data have been applied to interpret the paleoenvironment of the coralline algal-reef deposits. Thin-section analysis reveals that Amphiroa, Corallina and Jania are the dominant geniculate corallines, while Lithothamnion, Mesophyllum, Phymatolithon, Lithophyllum, Spongites and Lithoporella are the major non-geniculate corallines contributing to the sedimentary facies. Numerous small and larger benthic foraminifera also dominate the biogenic assemblages. Corals, barnacle shells, echinoid spines, fragments of bryozoans, mollusks and ostracodes are the subordinate constituents. Grainstones dominate the studied facies while packstones and boundstones (with wackestone elements are the sub-lithofacies showing a fair representation. Six carbonate facies presenting a complete reef complex have been distinguished that were deposited in shallow intertidal, back-reef shelf/lagoon, reef and deeper fore-reef shelf settings. Evidences of coralline algal and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, taphonomic signatures of abrasion and fragmentation, grain size, angularity and encrustation indicate a shallow to relatively deeper bathymetric horizon of approximately 10–60 m that corresponds to a regime of high to moderate hydrodynamic conditions.

  20. Principal component analysis (PCA) and mineral associations of litoraneous facies of continental shelf carbonates from northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Wanessa Sousa; Sial, Alcides Nobrega; de Albuquerque Menor, Eldemar; Ferreira, Valderez Pinto; Freire, George Satander Sá; de Albuquerque Medeiros Lima, Enjolras; do Amaral Vaz Manso, Valdir

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of mineral phases according to the provenance of carbonate and terrigenous facies of carbonate sediments from a large area of the continental shelf of northeast Brazil was investigated using a major element multivariate analysis approach. Heavy minerals such as ilmenite are restricted to the litoraneous facies of the continental shelf of the states of Paraíba and Pernambuco, and clay minerals are found in distal facies of the continental shelf of the State of Ceará. In the carbonate fraction, composed essentially by Mg-calcite and aragonite, there is co-variation between CaO/MgO and bathimetry in part of the studied continental shelf from depths between 15 and 20 m, apparently due to influence of the seawater temperature, degree of oxygenation and luminosity. The terrigenous facies are mainly composed of quartz, clay minerals, K-feldspars and micro-micaceous minerals, having Fe and Ti oxide and hydroxide minerals as major accessory phases. Major element behavior attests to the presence of arenaceous quartz-rich relict sediments in the 35, 60 and 80 m isobaths of the continental shelf of the state of Ceará which is here interpreted as a proxy of ancient coast lines during the Flandrian transgression.

  1. Oxygenation in carbonate microbialites and associated facies after the end-Permian mass extinction: Problems and potential solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Kershaw

    2018-01-01

    The oxygenation state of post-end-Permian extinction shallow marine facies continues to present a challenge of interpretation, and requires high-resolution sampling and careful attention to small-scale changes, as well as loss of rock through pressure solution, as the next step to resolve the issue.

  2. Objective justification and Prima Facie anti-competitive unilateral conduct : an exploration of EU Law and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, Tjarda Desiderius Oscar van der

    2014-01-01

    The prohibition of anti-competitive unilateral conduct by firms with market power is not absolute, but allows for derogation. For the purposes of EU law, the ECJ has accepted that a so-called ‘objective justification’ plea may be invoked in the case of a prima facie abuse of dominance. Even though

  3. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  4. Crossing the Salt Barrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fry. RIVER. To cross the salt barrier is, therefore, an obligatory part of every amphihaline fish cycle. Figure 2a. Life Cycle of. Salmon. Adult salmon migrate from sea towards the river. After reaching their hatching ground, the eggs are laid in the gravel. The spawned fishes are called kelts. Alevin is a stage from hatching to fry.

  5. Molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  6. Salt og forbrugervalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. Dokumentet over linket er selve leveringen til ministeriet med følgebrev. Viden om forbrugernes holdning til og købsintention for saltreducerede fødevarer er central, i forhold til industriens udvikling af nye produkter og...... af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt...

  7. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  8. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  9. Wabamun salt removal and shale compaction effects, Rumsey Area, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, T.A.; Cowper, N.W.

    1983-09-01

    Salt removal from the Upper Devonian Wabamun Group in one well (3-30-33-19W4) in the Rumsey area occurred during Late Cretaceous time. About 77 m of evaporites were removed, and this Wabamun thinning was compensated by 65 m of thickening of Upper Cretaceous shales. The Late Cretaceous thickening accounts for 84% of the missing salt, and the remaining 16% is accounted for by subsequent shale compaction. In the anomalous well, salt removal was not related to basement topography, pre-Ireton reef build-ups, or faulting. Solution took place from about the time of deposition of Second White Specks to above the top of Colorado Group, and then stopped. The saline solutions generated were not transported vertically upward to surface, but presumably moved laterally into permeable reservoirs. The area was completely covered by a Late Cretaceous seaway during the period of solution; consequently, salt removal was not related to a period of subaerial erosion. Recognition of geological and geophysical anomalies created by salt removal and compaction is important in exploration for Leduc reefs in the immediate area.

  10. Facies analysis, depositional environments and paleoclimate of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - Basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettima, B.; Abubakar, M. B.; Kuku, A.; Haruna, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    Facies analysis of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub -basin of the Northern Benue Trough northeastern Nigeria indicated that the Lower Bima Member is composed of alluvial fan and braided river facies associations. The alluvial fan depositional environment dominantly consists of debris flow facies that commonly occur as matrix supported conglomerate. This facies is locally associated with grain supported conglomerate and mudstone facies, representing sieve channel and mud flow deposits respectively, and these deposits may account for the proximal alluvial fan region of the Lower Bima Member. The distal fan facies were represented by gravel-bed braided river system of probably Scot - type model. This grade into sandy braided river systems with well developed floodplains facies, forming probably at the lowermost portion of the alluvial fan depositional gradient, where it inter-fingers with basinal facies. In the Middle Bima Member, the facies architecture is dominantly suggestive of deep perennial sand-bed braided river system with thickly developed amalgamated trough crossbedded sandstone facies fining to mudstone. Couplets of shallow channels are also locally common, attesting to the varying topography of the basin. The Upper Bima Member is characterized by shallow perennial sand-bed braided river system composed of successive succession of planar and trough crossbedded sandstone facies associations, and shallower channels of the flashy ephemeral sheetflood sand - bed river systems defined by interbedded succession of small scale trough crossbedded sandstone facies and parallel laminated sandstone facies. The overall stacking pattern of the facies succession of the Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - basin is generally thinning and fining upwards cycles, indicating scarp retreat and deposition in a relatively passive margin setting. Dominance of kaolinite in the clay mineral fraction of the Bima Formation points to predominance of humid sub - tropical

  11. Mechanical properties, mineralogical composition, and micro fabric of Opalinus Clay. Sandy and shaly facies (Mont Terri, Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufhold, Annette; Graesle, Werner [BGR Hannover (Germany); Plischke, Ingo

    2015-07-01

    For the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste, different host rocks are currently considered. The favorable properties of claystone are low permeability, retention capacity for some radionuclides, and the ability to self-seal cracks, e.g. by swelling or time-dependent compaction creep. For the understanding of the long-term behavior of clay host rocks, the interaction between mechanical behavior, micro fabric, and mineral composition has to be understood (Bock et al., 2010). In the international research project Mont Terri (Switzerland) the Opalinus Clay (Jurassic Formation) is investigated in an underground rock laboratory (URL). In the present study the relationship between mechanical, mineralogical and micro fabric properties were studied on representative samples of the sandy and shaly facies of the Opalinus Clay (OPA) from Mont Terri. The mineral composition of all samples was analysed by using a complex mineral phase analysis. Therefore, the results of the X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluoreszence, organic and inorganic carbonate analysis (LECO) were adjusted with each other. In the case of the sandy facies (OPA) the mechanical strength inrcreases with increasing carbonate content. Here small carbonate particles form the matrix and act as stabilisator. The carbonates of the shaly facies (OPA), on the other hand, are mainly fossil fragments (e.g. shells) aligned parallel to bedding. These large carbonate particles are acting as predetermined breaking surfaces. Hence, in the case of shaly facies (OPA) the mechanical strength decreases with increasing carbonate content. Image Analyses (Fiji {sup registered}) of scattering electron microscope images of polished sections proved the determined microstructural differences. Besides, carbonate particles in the sandy facies are mostly isometric, in contrast carbonates of the shaly facies show different shapes. This is explained further in terms of the aspect ratio. The mechanical tests were carried out as triaxial

  12. Metals removal from spent salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  13. Actinide removal from spent salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  14. Dietary salt and gastric ulcer.

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenberg, A

    1986-01-01

    Statistically significant linear correlations between geographic variations in salt consumption and mortality from gastric, but not duodenal ulcer, are reported. It is suggested that dietary consumption of salt is a risk factor in mortality from gastric ulcer.

  15. Should we eat less salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaye, François

    2013-05-01

    High blood pressure is a major cardiovascular risk factor. There is overwhelming evidence that high salt consumption is a major cause of increased blood pressure. There is also a link between high salt consumption and risk of stroke, left ventricular hypertrophy, renal disease, obesity, renal stones and stomach cancer. Reducing salt consumption leads to a decrease in blood pressure and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. There are no deleterious effects associated with reducing salt consumption and it is also very cost-effective. Many organizations and state governments have issued recommendations regarding the suitable amount of salt consumption. In France, the objective is a salt consumptionsalt comes from manufactured products in developed countries, reduction of salt consumption requires the participation of the food industry. The other tool is consumer information and education. Salt consumption has already decreased in France in recent years, but efforts must continue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Reservoir Sedimentation Based on Uncertainty Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Imanshoar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir sedimentation can result in loss of much needed reservoir storage capacity, reducing the useful life of dams. Thus, sufficient sediment storage capacity should be provided for the reservoir design stage to ensure that sediment accumulation will not impair the functioning of the reservoir during the useful operational-economic life of the project. However, an important issue to consider when estimating reservoir sedimentation and accumulation is the uncertainty involved in reservoir sedimentation. In this paper, the basic factors influencing the density of sediments deposited in reservoirs are discussed, and uncertainties in reservoir sedimentation have been determined using the Delta method. Further, Kenny Reservoir in the White River Basin in northwestern Colorado was selected to determine the density of deposits in the reservoir and the coefficient of variation. The results of this investigation have indicated that by using the Delta method in the case of Kenny Reservoir, the uncertainty regarding accumulated sediment density, expressed by the coefficient of variation for a period of 50 years of reservoir operation, could be reduced to about 10%. Results of the Delta method suggest an applicable approach for dead storage planning via interfacing with uncertainties associated with reservoir sedimentation.

  17. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  18. 3D architecture modeling of reservoir compartments in a Shingled Turbidite Reservoir using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control, example from Mars {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, M.A.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Tiller, G.M. [Shell Exploration and Production Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Economics of most deep-water development projects require large reservoir volumes to be drained with relatively few wells. The presence of reservoir compartments must therefore be detected and planned for in a pre-development stage. We have used 3-D seismic data to constrain large-scale, deterministic reservoir bodies in a 3-D architecture model of Pliocene-turbidite sands of the {open_quotes}E{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. Reservoir compartmentalization is influenced by stratigraphic shingling, which in turn is caused by low accommodation space predentin the upper portion of a ponded seismic sequence within a salt withdrawal mini-basin. The accumulation is limited by updip onlap onto a condensed section marl, and by lateral truncation by a large scale submarine erosion surface. Compartments were suggested by RFT pressure variations and by geochemical analysis of RFT fluid samples. A geological interpretation derived from high-resolution 3-D seismic and three wells was linked to 3-D architecture models through seismic inversion, resulting in a reservoir all available data. Distinguishing subtle stratigraphical shingles from faults was accomplished by detailed, loop-level mapping, and was important to characterize the different types of reservoir compartments. Seismic inversion was used to detune the seismic amplitude, adjust sandbody thickness, and update the rock properties. Recent development wells confirm the architectural style identified. This modeling project illustrates how high-quality seismic data and architecture models can be combined in a pre-development phase of a prospect, in order to optimize well placement.

  19. 3D architecture modeling of reservoir compartments in a Shingled Turbidite Reservoir using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control, example from Mars [open quotes]Pink[close quotes] reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, M.A.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Tiller, G.M. (Shell Exploration and Production Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Economics of most deep-water development projects require large reservoir volumes to be drained with relatively few wells. The presence of reservoir compartments must therefore be detected and planned for in a pre-development stage. We have used 3-D seismic data to constrain large-scale, deterministic reservoir bodies in a 3-D architecture model of Pliocene-turbidite sands of the [open quotes]E[close quotes] or [open quotes]Pink[close quotes] reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. Reservoir compartmentalization is influenced by stratigraphic shingling, which in turn is caused by low accommodation space predentin the upper portion of a ponded seismic sequence within a salt withdrawal mini-basin. The accumulation is limited by updip onlap onto a condensed section marl, and by lateral truncation by a large scale submarine erosion surface. Compartments were suggested by RFT pressure variations and by geochemical analysis of RFT fluid samples. A geological interpretation derived from high-resolution 3-D seismic and three wells was linked to 3-D architecture models through seismic inversion, resulting in a reservoir all available data. Distinguishing subtle stratigraphical shingles from faults was accomplished by detailed, loop-level mapping, and was important to characterize the different types of reservoir compartments. Seismic inversion was used to detune the seismic amplitude, adjust sandbody thickness, and update the rock properties. Recent development wells confirm the architectural style identified. This modeling project illustrates how high-quality seismic data and architecture models can be combined in a pre-development phase of a prospect, in order to optimize well placement.

  20. Data assimilation in reservoir management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommelse, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis aims at improving computer models that allow simulations of water, oil and gas flows in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This is done by integrating, or assimilating, measurements into physics-bases models. In recent years petroleum technology has developed

  1. Reservoirs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, G. Earl

    1948-01-01

    Man has engaged in the control of flowing water since history began. Among his early recorded efforts were reservoirs for muncipal water-supplies constructed near ancient Jerusalem to store water which was brought there in masonry conduits. 1/  Irrigation was practiced in Egypt as early as 2000 B. C. There the "basin system" was used from ancient times until the 19th century. The land was divided , into basins of approximately 40,000 acres, separated by earthen dikes. 2/  Flood waters of the Nile generally inundated the basins through canals, many of which were built by the Pharaohs. Even then the economic consequences of a deficient annual flood were recognized. Lake Maeris, which according to Herodotus was an ancient storage reservoir, is said to have had an area of 30,000 acres. In India, the British found at the time of their occupancy of the Presidency of Madras about 50,000 reservoirs for irrigation, many believed to be of ancient construction. 3/ During the period 115-130 A. D. reservoirs were built to improve the water-supply of Athens. Much has been written concerning the elaborate collection and distribution system built to supply Rome, and parts of it remain to this day as monuments to the engineering skill employed by the Romans in solving the problem of large-scale municipal water-supplies.

  2. Reasons for reservoir effect variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    , aquatic plants and fish from the rivers Alster and Trave range between zero and about 3,000 radiocarbon years. The reservoir age of water DIC depends to a large extent on the origin of the water and is for example correlated with precipitation amounts. These short-term variations are smoothed out in water...

  3. Characterization of microbial community and the alkylscccinate synthase genes in petroleum reservoir fluids of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lei; Mu, Bo-Zhong [University of Science and Technology (China)], email: bzmu@ecust.edu.cn; Gu, Ji-Dong [The University of Hong Kong (China)], email: jdgu@hkucc.hku.hk

    2011-07-01

    Petroleum reservoirs represent a special ecosystem consisting of specific temperature, pressure, salt concentration, oil, gas, water, microorganisms and, enzymes among others. This paper presents the characterization of microbial community and the alkyl succinate synthase genes in petroleum reservoir fluids in China. A few samples were analyzed and the physical and chemical characteristics are given in a tabular form. A flow chart shows the methods and procedures for microbial activities. Six petroleum reservoirs were studied using an archaeal 16S rRNA gene-based approach to establish the presence of archaea and the results are given. The correlation of archaeal and bacterial communities with reservoir conditions and diversity of the arachaeal community in water-flooding petroleum reservoirs at different temperatures is also shown. From the study, it can be summarized that, among methane producers, CO2-reducing methanogens are mostly found in oil reservoir ecosystems and as more assA sequences are revealed, more comprehensive molecular probes can be designed to track the activity of anaerobic alkane-degrading organisms in the environment.

  4. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a reservoir cathode to improve performance in both ion and Hall-effect thrusters. We propose to adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this...

  5. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of the equalizing piston chamber of the automatic brake valve, to provide uniform service reductions in brake pipe...

  6. Dissolved methane in Indian freshwater reservoirs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvenkar, G.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kurian, S.; Shenoy, D.M.; Pratihary, A.K.; Naik, H.; Patil, S.; Sarkar, A.; Gauns, M.

    Emission of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, from tropical reservoirs is of interest because such reservoirs experience conducive conditions for CH4 production through anaerobic microbial activities. It has been suggested that Indian...

  7. The Methane Hydrate Reservoir System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, P. B.; Liu, X.

    2007-12-01

    We use multi phase flow modeling and field examples (Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon and Blake Ridge, offshore North Carolina) to demonstrate that the methane hydrate reservoir system links traditional and non- traditional hydrocarbon system components: free gas flow is a fundamental control on this system. As in a traditional hydrocarbon reservoir, gas migrates into the hydrate reservoir as a separate phase (secondary migration) where it is trapped in a gas column beneath the base of the hydrate layer. With sufficient gas supply, buoyancy forces exceed either the capillary entry pressure of the cap rock or the fracture strength of the cap rock, and gas leaks into the hydrate stability zone, or cap rock. When gas enters the hydrate stability zone and forms hydrate, it becomes a very non traditional reservoir. Free gas forms hydrate, depletes water, and elevates salinity until pore water is too saline for further hydrate formation: salinity and hydrate concentration increase upwards from the base of the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ) to the seafloor and the base of the hydrate stability zone has significant topography. Gas chimneys couple the free gas zone to the seafloor through high salinity conduits that are maintained at the three-phase boundary by gas flow. As a result, significant amounts of gaseous methane can bypass the RHSZ, which implies a significantly smaller hydrate reservoir than previously envisioned. Hydrate within gas chimneys lie at the three-phase boundary and thus small increases in temperature or decreases in pressure can immediately transport methane into the ocean. This type of hydrate deposit may be the most economical for producing energy because it has very high methane concentrations (Sh > 70%) located near the seafloor, which lie on the three-phase boundary.

  8. The SALT HRS Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyas, Luke Martin Graham

    2012-05-01

    SALT HRS (Southern African Large Telescope High Resolution Échelle Spectrograph) is a high-resolution, high-efficiency spectrograph for the 11m SALT telescope in Sutherland, South Africa. The initial optical design work was performed at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. Revisions to the concept, the mechanical design, manufacture, assembly and testing have been handled by the Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, at Durham University in the United Kingdom. SALT HRS is a fibre-fed échelle grating spectrograph with four operational modes: low-, medium- and high-resolution and high-stability modes, having spectral resolutions of R≈16000, 37000, 67000 and 67000 respectively over a wavelength range of 370-890nm. The instrument is of a dual channel, 'white pupil' design, in which the primary mirror acts to collimate light onto a single R4 échelle grating, and also to focus dispersed light to an intermediate focus. A dichroic beam-splitter separates the dispersed light into two separate spectral channels. Spherical pupil mirrors transfer the separated beams via a fold mirror to two wavelength-specific volume-phase holographic gratings (VPHGs) used as cross-dispersers. Cross-dispersed spectra are then imaged by two fully dioptric camera systems onto optimized CCD detectors. This thesis presents the results of the laboratory testing and specification of several critical sub-systems of SALT HRS, as well as the development of key software tools for the design verification and operation at the telescope. In Chapter 1 we first review the technical development of high-resolution spectroscopy and its specific implementation in SALT HRS. In Chapter 2 we develop a comprehensive throughput model of the entire system based on a combination of as-built performance and specific throughput measurements in the laboratory. This is used to make some specific predictions for the on-sky performance of SALT HRS and the magnitude limits for science targets. We also present a

  9. The management of the Diama reservoir (Senegal River)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvail, S.; Hamerlynck, O.

    2003-04-01

    The Senegal River is regulated by 2 dams built in the 1980's by the "Organisation pour la Mise en Valeur du fleuve Sénégal" (OMVS), a river basin management organisation grouping Mali, Senegal and Mauritania. The initial objectives of OMVS, which were to regulate the Senegal flows in order to develop irrigated agriculture, produce hydropower and facilitate river navigation has been only partially met. The maintenance of the annual flood by the upstream dam (Manantali), initially to be phased out when irrigated agriculture would have replaced the traditional recession agriculture, is now scheduled to continue indefinitely on the basis of socio-economic and environmental concerns. This change of mindset has however not affected the management of the downstream dam (Diama). Initially conceived as a salt-wedge dam, its function evolved to a reservoir dam with a high and constant water level. During the dry season, the water level is maintained high and constant in order to reduce the pumping costs for the irrigated agriculture in the delta. During the flood season (July-October) the dam is primarily managed for risk avoidance: limit flooding downstream of the dam (especially the city of St. Louis) and secure the infrastructure of the dam itself. The permanent freshwater reservoir lake has adverse effects on ecosystems, on human and animal health and a high social cost for the traditional stakeholders of the deltaic floodplain (fishermen, livestock keepers and gatherers). Upstream of the reservoir there is an excess of stagnant freshwater and managers are confronted with the development of invasive species while substantial downstream flooding is essential for the estuarine ecosystems and local livelihoods. The presentation will review the different approaches to the management of the Diama reservoir and proposes different management scenarios and compares their economical, environmental, and social costs and benefits.

  10. Reservoir characterization of the Snorre Field

    OpenAIRE

    Gjestvang, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering The fluvial sandstone in the Snorre field consists of braided to meander streams deposited in arid and in humid climate that show a clear differences in the sedimentology and reservoir properties, especially the silt content in large part of the reservoir which decrease the reservoir properties and water saturation. The heterogeneity of these fluvial formations combined with the faulting history makes this reservoir highly complex with many local an...

  11. Reservoir resistivity characterization incorporating flow dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Arango, Santiago

    2016-04-07

    Systems and methods for reservoir resistivity characterization are provided, in various aspects, an integrated framework for the estimation of Archie\\'s parameters for a strongly heterogeneous reservoir utilizing the dynamics of the reservoir are provided. The framework can encompass a Bayesian estimation/inversion method for estimating the reservoir parameters, integrating production and time lapse formation conductivity data to achieve a better understanding of the subsurface rock conductivity properties and hence improve water saturation imaging.

  12. Classroom Demonstration and Interactive Model of Sea-Level Control on Lateral and Vertical Facies Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.; Pound, K. S.; Jones, M. H.; Schmitt, L.; Campbell, K.

    2005-12-01

    Students often have difficulty understanding and visualizing the role that relative sea-level change plays in controlling vertical and lateral facies changes; they also struggle with explanations of regional facies patterns and changes as sea-level dependant. This interactive, dynamic, in-class model has been developed to build their understanding both of this topic, and of the nature of predictive scientific models. The model can be used as a follow-up to field observations, or to pre-teach concepts. The model assumes a land-ocean transect that is divided into 5 sedimentary settings. Each setting in the land-ocean transect is associated with sediment grain size that decreases basinward; the most basinward component is carbonate. In the model, seven 10-cm diameter see-through tubes are set up to represent `cores' spread along the land-ocean transect. Brightly-colored plastic beads are used to represent sediment deposited in each of the sedimentary settings. At the start, the position of the shoreline (sea level) is fixed between the fluvial (tube 2) and beach (tube 3) sediments. Students then deposit beads that represent their sediment type in the each tube. Other students control the sea-level marker, which can be raised or lowered, and students with the sediment (beads) move shoreward or basinward accordingly, and deposit their sediments (beads) in the appropriate tube. This produces a simple visual record (tubes with layers of distinctly colored beads) that show the idealized sedimentary consequences of relative sea-level change. After large-scale patterns in facies changes have been demonstrated and discussed, students can manipulate variables such as supply and rate. Students can fill a basin using a sequence of events they determine, and other student groups can interpret their cores. The learning and approach of this model can be extended to include real sediment (gravel, sand, silt, mud) deposited in cardboard tubes that are then opened and treated as cores

  13. Tenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-22

    The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)

  14. 32 CFR 644.4 - Reservoir Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reservoir Projects. 644.4 Section 644.4 National... HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.4 Reservoir Projects. (a) Joint land acquisition policy for reservoir projects. The joint policies of the Department of the Interior and the Department of the Army...

  15. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" data-affiliation=" (Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" >Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Susilowati

    2015-01-01

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia

  16. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

    2001-08-07

    This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  17. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  18. The material flow of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostick, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, M.L.; Evans, R.D.; Brown, R.L.; Gupta, A.

    2001-03-28

    This report focuses on integrating geoscience and engineering data to develop a consistent characterization of the naturally fractured reservoirs. During this reporting period, effort was focused on relating seismic data to reservoir properties of naturally fractured reservoirs, scaling well log data to generate interwell descriptors of these reservoirs, enhancing and debugging a naturally fractured reservoir simulator, and developing a horizontal wellbore model for use in the simulator.

  20. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  1. Reservoir microseismicity at the Ekofisk Oil Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutledge, J.T.; Fairbanks, T.D. [Nambe Geophysical, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States); Albright, J.N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Boade, R.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Dangerfield, J.; Landa, G.H. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Tananger (Norway)

    1994-07-01

    A triaxial, downhole geophone was deployed within the Ekofisk oil reservoir for monitoring ambient microseismicity as a test to determine if microearthquake signals generated from discrete shear failure of the reservoir rock could be detected. The results of the test were positive. During 104 hours of monitoring, 572 discrete events were recorded which have been identified as shear-failure microearthquakes. Reservoir microseismicity was detected at large distances (1000 m) from the monitor borehole and at rates (> 5 events per hour) which may allow practical characterization of the reservoir rock and overburden deformation induced by reservoir pressure changes.

  2. Facies control on seismites in an alluvial-aeolian system: The Pliocene dunefield of the Teruel half-graben basin (eastern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesa, Carlos L.; Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; Ezquerro, Lope; Alfaro, Pedro; Rodríguez-Pascua, Miguel Ángel; Lafuente, Paloma; Arlegui, Luis; Simón, José L.

    2016-10-01

    The recognition of seismically induced soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) in sedimentary successions characterized by different facies, and hence by different rheology, is challenging. This is the case for high porosity and high permeability aeolian facies interbedded with muddy wet interdune deposits and alluvial conglomerates and sandstones. Several types of SSDS have been studied in two exposures of the Upper Pliocene (2.9-2.6 Ma) sediments of a fault-bounded intracontinental aeolian dune field in the Teruel Basin (Iberian Chain, eastern Spain). Among SSDS, load and fluid-escape structures, apart from several animal tracks, have been recognized. Those structures show an irregular distribution through the studied stratigraphic sections, being scarce in homogenous aeolian sands and frequent in water-related facies. A detailed study of the distribution and geometry of SSDS and their relationships with respect to the stratigraphic architecture and facies has allowed a critical discrimination of trigger mechanisms, i.e. biological or physical overloading vs. earthquakes. The seismically induced structures are concentrated into seven deformed beds, showing an uneven lateral distribution and geometry closely controlled by the hosting sedimentary facies and their rheology. These seismites resulted from liquefaction during moderate earthquakes (estimated magnitude from 5.0 to 6.8). The most probable seismogenic source was the Sierra del Pobo normal fault zone, located 2 km to the East. Results show how an appropriate recognition of sedimentary facies is crucial to understand the lateral variability of seismites in sedimentary environments characterized by sharp facies changes.

  3. Geological modeling for methane hydrate reservoir characterization in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Fujii, T.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern Nankai trough, which is located offshore of central Japan, is considered as an attractive potential resource field of methane hydrates. Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough. The depositional environment of methane hydrate-bearing sediments around the production test site is a deep submarine-fan turbidite system, and it is considered that the reservoir properties should show lateral as well as vertical heterogeneity. Since the variations in the reservoir heterogeneity have an impact on the methane hydrate dissociation and gas production performance, precise geological models describing reservoir heterogeneity would be required for the evaluation of reservoir potentials. In preparation for the production test, 3 wells; two monitoring boreholes (AT1-MC and AT1-MT1) and a coring well (AT1-C), were newly acquired in 2012. In addition to a geotechnical hole drilling survey in 2011 (AT1-GT), totally log data from 2 wells and core data from 2 wells were obtained around the production test site. In this study, we conducted well correlations between AT1 and A1 wells drilled in 2003 and then, 3D geological models were updated including AT1 well data in order to refine hydrate reservoir characterization around the production test site. The results of the well correlations show that turbidite sand layers are characterized by good lateral continuity, and give significant information for the distribution morphology of sand-rich channel fills. We also reviewed previously conducted 3D geological models which consist of facies distributions and petrophysical properties distributions constructed from integration of 3D seismic data and a well data (A1 site) adopting a geostatistical approach. In order to test the practical validity of the previously generated models, cross-validation was conducted using AT1 well data. The

  4. Evolution of the Cretaceous organic facies in Colombia: implications for oil composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón, J. C.; Dzou, L. I.; Hughes, W. B.; Holba, A. G.

    2001-04-01

    Cretaceous source rocks in Colombia are characterized by significant variations in organic matter input and depositional environments. Organic matter input, sedimentary environments, redox conditions and lithology of the source rocks as interpreted from bulk properties, trace elements, biomarker and isotopic composition of oils correspond to changes in the organic facies geographically and through time. Marginal marine/tidal Aptian-Albian units found in the Putumayo and Upper Magdalena Basins contain marine algal/bacterial and higher-plant organic matter. Coeval units in the Middle Magdalena Basin (MMB) and the Eastern Cordillera contain less terrestrial input because they were deposited on a broad platform that locally developed evaporites. Cenomanian-Coniacian marine-shelf shales and marls in the Putumayo, Upper and MMBs contain marine organic matter deposited on a marl/carbonate-prone shelf resulting in a type II kerogen. Upper Cretaceous offshore and lower shoreface mudstones preserved in the present-day position of the Eastern Cordillera and Llanos Basin contain higher-plant terrestrial input derived from the Guyana Shield, mixed with marine organic matter. Although similar to the oils generated from Lower Cretaceous rocks, Upper Cretaceous-derived oils can be distinguished by the presence of oleanane and other angiosperm biomarkers.

  5. Late Neogene organic-rich facies from the Mediterranean region: the role of productivity and anoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, M.W.; Thunell, R.C.; Tappa, E.

    1985-01-01

    Various factors influence the deposition of organic-rich facies in the marine environment, including: bulk sedimentation rate, water depth, primary productivity and oxygen content of bottom waters. Organic-rich sediments have been periodically deposited during the Neogene within both the deep basins and the marginal areas of the Mediterranean, and have been attributed to either the development of bottom water anoxia or greatly increased surface productivity. In order to evaluate the relative importance of each of these factors, organic-rich sediments from both the deep eastern Mediterranean and an uplifted sequence at Vrica (Calabria, Italy) have been studied. The deep sea sapropels examined were deposited during the last full interglacial (approx. 125,000 YBP) and preceeding glacial (approx. 160,000 YBP), while the laminites from Vrica are late Pliocene and early Pleistocene in age. The sapropels have maximum organic carbon contents of 10%, with C/N ratios typically between 15-20. In contrast, the maximum organic carbon content of the laminites if approx. 1%, and the C/N ratios are between 5-10. The C/N ratios, particularly those for the sapropels, are indicative of a multiple source, and may reflect some terrestrial organic matter input. The oxygen isotopic composition of calcareous plankton associated with both laminite and sapropel deposition is suggestive of reduced surface water salinities, while the carbon isotopic composition is suggestive of a change in source of surface waters which maybe responsible for increased productivity.

  6. Application of Musical Information Retrieval (MIR Techniques to Seismic Facies Classification. Examples in Hydrocarbon Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Dell’Aversana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for automatic pattern recognition and classification of geophysical data based on digital music technology. We import and apply in the geophysical domain the same approaches commonly used for Musical Information Retrieval (MIR. After accurate conversion from geophysical formats (example: SEG-Y to musical formats (example: Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or briefly MIDI, we extract musical features from the converted data. These can be single-valued attributes, such as pitch and sound intensity, or multi-valued attributes, such as pitch histograms, melodic, harmonic and rhythmic paths. Using a real data set, we show that these musical features can be diagnostic for seismic facies classification in a complex exploration area. They can be complementary with respect to “conventional” seismic attributes. Using a supervised machine learning approach based on the k-Nearest Neighbors algorithm and on Automatic Neural Networks, we classify three gas-bearing channels. The good performance of our classification approach is confirmed by borehole data available in the same area.

  7. Towards the definition of AMS facies in the deposits of pyroclastic density currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, M.H.; Newkirk, T.T.; Vilas, J.F.; Vazquez, J.A.; Ort, M.H.; Porreca, Massimiliano; Geissman, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) provides a statistically robust technique to characterize the fabrics of deposits of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). AMS fabrics in two types of pyroclastic deposits (small-volume phreatomagmatic currents in the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Arizona, USA, and large-volume caldera-forming currents, Caviahue Caldera, Neuquén, Argentina) show similar patterns. Near the vent and in areas of high topographical roughness, AMS depositional fabrics are poorly grouped, with weak lineations and foliations. In a densely welded proximal ignimbrite, this fabric is overprinted by a foliation formed as the rock compacted and deformed. Medial deposits have moderate–strong AMS lineations and foliations. The most distal deposits have strong foliations but weak lineations. Based on these facies and existing models for pyroclastic density currents, deposition in the medial areas occurs from the strongly sheared, high-particle-concentration base of a density-stratified current. In proximal areas and where topography mixes this denser base upwards into the current, deposition occurs rapidly from a current with little uniformity to the shear, in which particles fall and collide in a chaotic fashion. Distal deposits are emplaced by a slowing or stalled current so that the dominant particle motion is vertical, leading to weak lineation and strong foliation.

  8. Anatomy of amphibolite facies strain gradients in granitoids of the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Shulman, Deborah; Foley, Maura; Culshaw, Nicholas; Marsh, Jeffrey; Yates, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Observations of physical and chemical changes across strain gradients can provide information about the processes that lead to localization and therefore provide better tools for prediction of spatial and temporal strain patterns. Much of orogenic crust comprises granitoid lithologies, yet mechanisms for viscous localization at the kilometer scale in these rock types remain poorly documented. In contrast to mafic and pelitic compositions, granitoids have little capacity for changes in phase assemblage that can drive localization, so strain must focus due to other, mainly microstructural, factors. We describe microstructural and compositional data across several kilometer-scale amphibolite facies strain gradients from middle levels of the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone, Ontario, Canada. Whole rock analyses reveal only minor heterogeneity in major element distribution in the granite - attributable to the protolith - and homogeneity in the trace elements, indicating that strain did not affect the bulk rock composition. In contrast, microstructures and mineral chemistry vary with strain, in particular biotite, hornblende, and plagioclase compositions, the fraction of recrystallized grains, and the development of a mixed-phase matrix. The spatial distribution of the microscale changes indicates an evolution of deformation mechanisms with increased localization. Stress concentrations at the unit boundaries were insufficient to cause the strain gradient alone, but were sufficient to initiate the microstructural processes leading to rheological change. Homogenization algorithms based on phase assemblage, phase morphology, and intracrystalline deformation mechanisms do not predict the strength reduction indicated from the macroscale strain patterns. Thus, dynamic rock strength is likely lower than is immediately apparent from exhumed tectonites.

  9. Sedimentology and reservoir heterogeneity of a valley-fill deposit-A field guide to the Dakota Sandstone of the San Rafael Swell, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Valley-fill deposits form a significant class of hydrocarbon reservoirs in many basins of the world. Maximizing recovery of fluids from these reservoirs requires an understanding of the scales of fluid-flow heterogeneity present within the valley-fill system. The Upper Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone in the San Rafael Swell, Utah contains well exposed, relatively accessible outcrops that allow a unique view of the external geometry and internal complexity of a set of rocks interpreted to be deposits of an incised valley fill. These units can be traced on outcrop for tens of miles, and individual sandstone bodies are exposed in three dimensions because of modern erosion in side canyons in a semiarid setting and by exhumation of the overlying, easily erodible Mancos Shale. The Dakota consists of two major units: (1) a lower amalgamated sandstone facies dominated by large-scale cross stratification with several individual sandstone bodies ranging in thickness from 8 to 28 feet, ranging in width from 115 to 150 feet, and having lengths as much as 5,000 feet, and (2) an upper facies composed of numerous mud-encased lenticular sandstones, dominated by ripple-scale lamination, in bedsets ranging in thickness from 5 to 12 feet. The lower facies is interpreted to be fluvial, probably of mainly braided stream origin that exhibits multiple incisions amalgamated into a complex sandstone body. The upper facies has lower energy, probably anastomosed channels encased within alluvial and coastal-plain floodplain sediments. The Dakota valley-fill complex has multiple scales of heterogeneity that could affect fluid flow in similar oil and gas subsurface reservoirs. The largest scale heterogeneity is at the formation level, where the valley-fill complex is sealed within overlying and underlying units. Within the valley-fill complex, there are heterogeneities between individual sandstone bodies, and at the smallest scale, internal heterogeneities within the bodies themselves. These

  10. Smart Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel

    During the last decade, smart waterflooding has been developed into an emerging EOR technology both for carbonate and sandstone reservoirs that does not require toxic or expensive chemicals. Although it is widely accepted that different salinity brines may increase the oil recovery for carbonate...... reservoirs, understanding of the mechanism of this increase is still developing. To understand this smart waterflooding process, an extensive research has been carried out covering a broad range of disciplines within surface chemistry, thermodynamics of crude oil and brine, as well as their behavior...... that a heavy oil (that with a large fraction of heavy components) exhibited viscosity reduction in contact with brine, while a light crude oil exhibited emulsion formation. Most of reported high salinity waterflooding studies were carried out with outcrop chalk core plugs, and by performing spontaneous...

  11. Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten

    With an increasing demand for oil and diculties in nding new major oil elds, research on methods to improve oil recovery from existing elds is more necessary now than ever. The subject of this thesis is to construct ecient numerical methods for simulation and optimization of oil recovery...... programming (SQP) with line-search and BFGS approximations of the Hessian, and the adjoint method for ecient computation of the gradients. We demonstrate that the application of NMPC for optimal control of smart-wells has the potential to increase the economic value of an oil reservoir....... with emphasis on optimal control of water ooding with the use of smartwell technology. We have implemented immiscible ow of water and oil in isothermal reservoirs with isotropic heterogenous permeability elds. We use the method of lines for solution of the partial differential equation (PDE) system that governs...

  12. Multilevel techniques for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour

    for both variational upscaling and the construction of linear solvers. In particular, it is found to be beneficial (or even necessary) to apply an AMGe based multigrid solver to solve the upscaled problems. It is found that the AMGe upscaling changes the spectral properties of the matrix, which renders...... is extended to include a hybrid strategy, where FAS is combined with Newton’s method to construct a multilevel nonlinear preconditioner. This method demonstrates high efficiency and robustness. Second, an improved IMPES formulated reservoir simulator is implemented using a novel variational upscaling approach...... based on element-based Algebraic Multigrid (AMGe). In particular, an advanced AMGe technique with guaranteed approximation properties is used to construct a coarse multilevel hierarchy of Raviart-Thomas and L2 spaces for the Galerkin coarsening of a mixed formulation of the reservoir simulation...

  13. MIKROMITSETY- MIGRANTS IN MINGECHEVIR RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Salmanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. It is hardly possible to predict the continued stability of the watercourse ecosystems without the study of biological characteristics and composition of organisms inhabiting them. In the last 35-40 years, environmental conditions of the Mingachevir reservoir are determined by the stationary anthropogenic pressure. It was found that such components of plankton as algae, bacteria and fungi play a leading role in the transformation and migration of pollutants. The role of the three groups of organisms is very important in maintaining the water quality by elimination of pollutants. Among the organisms inhabiting the Mingachevir Reservoir, micromycetes have not yet been studied. Therefore, the study of the species composition and seasonal dynamics, peculiarities of their growth and development in the environment with the presence of some of the pollutants should be considered to date.Methods. In order to determine the role of micromycetes-migrants in the mineralization of organic substrates, as an active participant of self-purification process, we used water samples from the bottom sediments as well as decaying and skeletonized stalks of cane, reeds, algae, macrophytes, exuvia of insects and fish remains submerged in water.Findings. For the first time, we obtained the data on the quality and quantity of microscopic mycelial fungi in freshwater bodies on the example of the Mingachevir water reservoir; we also studied the possibilities for oxygenating the autochthonous organic matter of allochthonous origin with micromycetes-migrants.Conclusions. It was found that the seasonal development of micromycetes-migrants within the Mingachevir reservoir is characterized by an increase in the number of species in the summer and a gradual reduction in species diversity in the fall. 

  14. Facies associations, depositional environments and stratigraphic framework of the Early Miocene-Pleistocene successions of the Mukah-Balingian Area, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Muhammad; Rahman, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Sum, Chow Weng; Konjing, Zainey

    2018-02-01

    Thirty-five stratigraphic section exposed along the Mukah-Selangau road in the Mukah-Balingian area have been studied. Sedimentological and palynological data have been integrated to gain a better insight into the depositional architecture of the area. Broadly, the Mukah-Balingian area is dominated by fluvial, floodplain and estuarine related coal-bearing deposits. The Balingian, Begrih and Liang formations have been described and interpreted in terms of seven facies association. These are: FA1 - Fluvial-dominated channel facies association; FA2 - Tide-influenced channel facies association; FA3 - Tide-dominated channel facies association; FA4 - Floodplain facies association; FA5 - Estuarine central basin-mud flats facies association; FA6 - Tidal flat facies association and FA7 - Coastal swamps and marshes facies association. The Balingian Formation is characterised by the transgressive phase in the base, followed by a regressive phase in the upper part. On the basis of the occurrence of Florscheutzia trilobata with Florscheutzia levipoli, the Early to Middle Miocene age has been assigned to the Balingian Formation. The distinct facies pattern and foraminifera species found from the samples taken from the Begrih outcrop imply deposition in the intertidal flats having pronounced fluvio-tidal interactions along the paleo-margin. Foraminiferal data combined with the pronounced occurrence of Stenochlaena laurifolia suggest at least the Late Miocene age for the Begrih Formation. The internal stratigraphic architecture of the Liang Formation is a function of a combination of sea level, stable tectonic and autogenic control. Based on stratigraphic position, the Middle Pliocene to Pleistocene age for the Liang Formation is probable. The Balingian, Begrih and Liang formations display deposits of multiple regressive-transgressive cycles while the sediments were derived from the uplifted Penian high and Rajang group.

  15. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  16. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  17. Reservoir Model Information System: REMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yun; Lee, Kwang-Wu; Rhee, Taehyun; Neumann, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel data visualization framework named Reservoir Model Information System (REMIS) for the display of complex and multi-dimensional data sets in oil reservoirs. It is aimed at facilitating visual exploration and analysis of data sets as well as user collaboration in an easier way. Our framework consists of two main modules: the data access point module and the data visualization module. For the data access point module, the Phrase-Driven Grammar System (PDGS) is adopted for helping users facilitate the visualization of data. It integrates data source applications and external visualization tools and allows users to formulate data query and visualization descriptions by selecting graphical icons in a menu or on a map with step-by-step visual guidance. For the data visualization module, we implemented our first prototype of an interactive volume viewer named REMVR to classify and to visualize geo-spatial specific data sets. By combining PDGS and REMVR, REMIS assists users better in describing visualizations and exploring data so that they can easily find desired data and explore interesting or meaningful relationships including trends and exceptions in oil reservoir model data.

  18. Well-Production Data and Gas-Reservoir Heterogeneity -- Reserve Growth Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Schmoker, James W.

    2003-01-01

    Oil and gas well production parameters, including peakmonthly production (PMP), peak-consecutive-twelve month production (PYP), and cumulative production (CP), are tested as tools to quantify and understand the heterogeneity of reservoirs in fields where current monthly production is 10 percent or less of PMP. Variation coefficients, defined as VC= (F5-F95)/F50, where F5, F95, and F50 are the 5th, 95th, and 50th (median) fractiles of a probability distribution, are calculated for peak and cumulative production and examined with respect to internal consistency, type of production parameter, conventional versus unconventional accumulations, and reservoir depth. Well-production data for this study were compiled for 69 oil and gas fields in the Lower Pennsylvanian Morrow Formation of the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma. Of these, 47 fields represent production from marine clastic facies. The Morrow data were supplemented by data from the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician Arbuckle Group, Middle Ordovician Simpson Group, Middle Pennsylvanian Atoka Formation, and Silurian and Lower Devonian Hunton Group of the Anadarko Basin, one large gas field in Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of north-central Montana (Bowdoin field), and three areas of the Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation continuous-type (unconventional) oil accumulation in the Williston Basin, North Dakota and Montana. Production parameters (PMP, PYP, and CP) measure the net result of complex geologic, engineering, and economic processes. Our fundamental hypothesis is that well-production data provide information about subsurface heterogeneity in older fields that would be impossible to obtain using geologic techniques with smaller measurement scales such as petrographic, core, and well-log analysis. Results such as these indicate that quantitative measures of production rates and production volumes of wells, expressed as dimensionless variation coefficients, are potentially valuable tools for

  19. Reservoir uncertainty, Precambrian topography, and carbon sequestration in the Mt. Simon Sandstone, Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leetaru, H.E.; McBride, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Sequestration sites are evaluated by studying the local geological structure and confirming the presence of both a reservoir facies and an impermeable seal not breached by significant faulting. The Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone is a blanket sandstone that underlies large parts of Midwest United States and is this region's most significant carbon sequestration reservoir. An assessment of the geological structure of any Mt. Simon sequestration site must also include knowledge of the paleotopography prior to deposition. Understanding Precambrian paleotopography is critical in estimating reservoir thickness and quality. Regional outcrop and borehole mapping of the Mt. Simon in conjunction with mapping seismic reflection data can facilitate the prediction of basement highs. Any potential site must, at the minimum, have seismic reflection data, calibrated with drill-hole information, to evaluate the presence of Precambrian topography and alleviate some of the uncertainty surrounding the thickness or possible absence of the Mt. Simon at a particular sequestration site. The Mt. Simon is thought to commonly overlie Precambrian basement granitic or rhyolitic rocks. In places, at least about 549 m (1800 ft) of topographic relief on the top of the basement surface prior to Mt. Simon deposition was observed. The Mt. Simon reservoir sandstone is thin or not present where basement is topographically high, whereas the low areas can have thick Mt. Simon. The paleotopography on the basement and its correlation to Mt. Simon thickness have been observed at both outcrops and in the subsurface from the states of Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Missouri. ?? 2009. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  20. Maximizing reservoir exposure with proactive well placement in high geological complexity field of Venezuelan Orinoco Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Luis; Leon, Maryesther; Meunier, Antoine [Schlumberger, Caracas (Venezuela); Lara, Manuel; Herrera, Yoanna; Granado, Miguel [Petrolera Indovenezolana S.A. (PIV), El Tigre (Venezuela)

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, Petrolera Indovenezolana S.A. (PIV), a joint venture between Corporacion Venezolana del Petroleo (CVP) and the Indian company ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL), started planning for two horizontal wells in the Norte Zuata (San Cristobal) field in the Orinoco belt of eastern Venezuela. The focus for this campaign was to evaluate the productivity of horizontal wells in thin sands and avoid areas of complex geology because of the high uncertainty in the structural behavior, applying technology that provided absolute control of the drilling process into the Oficina formation. Within the Oficina formation, thin sand reservoirs with variations in thickness and dip, geologically facies changes and sub seismic faults presented the main challenge to geosteering a horizontal well. Because the project faced high geological uncertainties, a pilot hole was drilled as the first stage in the first well to verify the structural levels and the continuity of the sand bodies. To achieve the above challenges, the combination of a rotary steerable system (RSS) 'point-the-bit' and a deep azimuthal electromagnetic resistivity tool (DAEMR) was used. The measurements provided accurate information to the well-placement engineers for proactive decisions in real time, mitigating the possible loss of the target by these geologic uncertainties. High-quality and valuable data for real time geological model update were the expected results obtained from the effort made by PIV in the Norte Zuata (San Cristobal) field, and the data showed the oil-producing potential of one of the main reservoir (Sand F,G). This application of high-tier technologies demonstrated that drilling and data measurements can be improved and optimized to yield added value for reservoir development and 100% net to gross (NTG) targets. This reduces operational cost, makes it possible to drill in the right place the first time, and pushes forward the limit of the achievable in terms of reservoir exposure. (author)

  1. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...... sediments, the diapir extruded an overhang. Using the asymmetric Klodawa Salt Structure (KSS) in central Poland as a prototype, a series of analogue models were carried out to investigate the evolution history and salt supply driven by asymmetric differential loading. During extension of the model, a daipir...

  2. Integration of Well & Core Data of Carbonate Reservoirs with Surface Seismic in Garraf Oil Field, Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhuder, J. J.; Muhlhl, A. A.; Basra Geologiests

    2013-05-01

    The Garraf Field is situated in Southern Iraq in Nasiriya area, is located in Mesopotamian basin. The carbonate facies are dominant in main reservoirs in Garraf field (Mishrif and Yammama Formations) which is Cretaceous in age. The structure of the reservoir in this field are low relief gentle anticlinal structure aligned in NW to SE direction, and No fault were observed and interpreted in 3D seismic section. 3D seismic survey by Iraqi Oil Exploration Company No 2 was successfully conducted on the Garraf field at 2008-2009 using recording system SERCEL 408UL and Vibrators Nomad 65. Bin size: 25*25, Fold: 36, SP Interval: 50m, Lines Interval: 300m, 3 wells were drilled Ga (1, 2, 3) and it used for seismic to well tie in Petrel. Data analysis was conducted for each reservoirs for Lithological and sedimentological studies were based on core and well data .The study showed That the Mishrif Formation deposited in a broad carbonate platform with shallowing upward regressive succession and The depositional environment is extending from outer marine to shallow middle-inner shelf settings with restricted lagoons as supported by the present of Miliolid fossils. The fragmented rudist biostromes accumulated in the middle shelf. No rudist reef is presence in the studied cores. While the Major sequences are micritic limestone of lagoonal and oolitic/peloidal grainstone sandy shoal separated by mudstone of Yamama formation. Sedimentation feature are seen on seismic attributes and it is help for understanding of sedimentation environment and suitable structure interpretation. There is good relationship between Acustic Impedance and porosity, Acustic Impedance reflects porosity or facies change of carbonate rather than fluid content. Data input used for 3D Modeling include 3D seismic and AI data, petrophysical analysis, core and thin section description. 3D structure modeling were created base on the geophysical data interpretation and Al analysis. Data analysis for Al data were

  3. A new ‘superassemblage’ model explaining proximal-to-distal and lateral facies changes in fluvial environments, based on the Proterozoic Sanjauli Formation (Lesser Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mukhopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Facies analysis of fluvial deposits of the Proterozoic Sanjauli Formation in the Lesser Himalaya was combined with an architectural analysis. On this basis, a model was developed that may be applied to other fluvial systems as well, whether old or recent. The new model, which might be considered as an assemblage of previous models, explains lateral variations in architecture and facies but is not in all respects consistent with the standard fluvial models. The Sanjauli fluvial model is unique in that it deals with lateral facies variations due to shifts of the base-level along with fluctuations in accommodation space owing to changes in palaeoclimate.

  4. Where Does Road Salt Go - a Static Salt Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. W.; Liu, F.; Moriarty, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    Each winter, more than 15 million tons of road salt is applied in the United States for the de-icing purpose. Considerable amount of chloride in road salt flows into streams/drainage systems with the snow melt runoff and spring storms, and eventually goes into ecologically sensitive low-lying areas in the watershed, such as ponds and lakes. In many watersheds in the northern part of US, the chloride level in the water body has increased significantly in the past decades, and continues an upward trend. The environmental and ecological impact of the elevated chloride level can no longer be ignored. However although there are many studies on the biological impact of elevated chloride levels, there are few investigations on how the spatially distributed road salt application affects various parts of the watershed. In this presentation, we propose a static road salt model as a first-order metric to address spacial distribution of salt loading. Derived from the Topological Wetness Index (TWI) in many hydrological models, this static salt model provides a spatial impact as- sessment of road salt applications. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the static model, National Elevation Dataset (NED) of ten-meter resolution of Lake George watershed in New York State is used to generate the TWI, which is used to compute a spatially dis- tributed "salt-loading coefficient" of the whole watershed. Spatially varying salt applica- tion rate is then aggregated, using the salt-loading coefficients as weights, to provide salt loading assessments of streams in the watershed. Time-aggregated data from five CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensors in selected streams are used for calibration. The model outputs and the sensor data demonstrate a strong linear correlation, with the R value of 0.97. The investigation shows that the static modeling approach may provide an effective method for the understanding the input and transport of road salt to within watersheds.

  5. Calcareous nannofossils and sedimentary facies in the Upper Cretaceous Bozeş Formation (Southern Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Balc

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The lithology, sedimentology and biostratigraphy of the Bozes Formation, which crop out in the SE Metaliferi Mountains (Apuseni Mts. have been investigated in order to establish the age of the deposits and the depositional environment. The sedimentary structures and facies are interpreted as indicating a deep-water depositional environment, representing part of a submarine fan lobe. Three facies assemblages have been identified and described. Calcareous nannofossils were used to determine the age of the investigated deposits. The presence of Lucianorhabdus cayeuxii and Calculites obscurus indicates the CC17 biozone, while UC13 Zone is pointed out by the continuous occurrence of Arkhangelskiella cymbiformis and the absence of Broinsonia parca parca. Thus, the age of the studied deposits is Late Santonian -?Early Campanian.

  6. Fluoride characterization by principal component analysis in the hydrochemical facies of Serra Geral Aquifer System in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, Arthur; Roisenberg, Ari; Fachel, Jandyra M G; Mesquita, Gilberto; Danieli, Cristiano

    2008-12-01

    Principal component analysis is applied to 309 groundwater chemical data information from wells in the Serra Geral Aquifer System. Correlations among seven hydrochemical parameters are statistically examined. A four-component model is suggested and explains 81% of total variance. Component 1 represents calcium-magnesium bicarbonated groundwaters with long time of residence. Component 2 represents sulfated and chlorinated calcium and sodium groundwaters; Component 3 represents sodium bicarbonated groundwaters; and Component 4 is characterized by sodium sulfated with high fluoride facies. The components' spatial distribution shows high fluoride concentration along analyzed tectonic fault system and aligned on northeast direction in other areas, suggesting other hydrogeological fault systems. High fluoride concentration increases according to groundwater pumping depth. The Principal Component Analysis reveals features of the groundwater mixture and individualizes water facies. In this scenery, it can be determined hydrogeological blocks associated with tectonic fault system here introduced.

  7. Sequence stratigraphic and sedimentologic significance of biogenic structures from a late Paleozoic marginal- to open-marine reservoir, Morrow Sandstone, subsurface of southwest Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.; Alissa, A.; Carr, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated ichnologic, sedimentologic, and stratigraphic studies of cores and well logs from Lower Pennsylvanian oil and gas reservoirs (lower Morrow Sandstone, southwest Kansas) allow distinction between fluvio-estuarine and open marine deposits in the Gentzler and Arroyo fields. The fluvio-estuarine facies assemblage is composed of both interfluve and valley-fill deposits, encompassing a variety of depositional environments such as fluvial channel, interfluve paleosol, bay head delta, estuary bay, restricted tidal flat, intertidal channel, and estuary mouth. Deposition in a brackish-water estuarine valley is supported by the presence of a low diversity, opportunistic, impoverished marine ichnofaunal assemblage dominated by infaunal structures, representing an example of a mixed, depauperate Cruziana and Skolithos ichnofacies. Overall distribution of ichnofossils along the estuarine valley was mainly controlled by the salinity gradient, with other parameters, such as oxygenation, substrate and energy, acting at a more local scale. The lower Morrow estuarine system displays the classical tripartite division of wave-dominated estuaries (i.e. seaward-marine sand plug, fine-grained central bay, and sandy landward zone), but tidal action is also recorded. The estuarine valley displays a northwest-southeast trend, draining to the open sea in the southeast. Recognition of valley-fill sandstones in the lower Morrow has implications for reservoir characterization. While the open marine model predicts a "layer-cake" style of facies distribution as a consequence of strandline shoreline progradation, identification of valley-fill sequences points to more compartmentalized reservoirs, due to the heterogeneity created by valley incision and subsequent infill. The open-marine facies assemblage comprises upper, middle, and lower shoreface; offshore transition; offshore; and shelf deposits. In contrast to the estuarine assemblage, open marine ichnofaunas are characterized by a

  8. Sequence stratigraphic and sedimentologic significance of biogenic structures from a late Paleozoic marginal- to open-marine reservoir, Morrow Sandstone, subsurface of southwest Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, Luis A.; Mángano, M. Gabriela; Alissa, Abdulrahman; Carr, Timothy R.

    2002-09-01

    Integrated ichnologic, sedimentologic, and stratigraphic studies of cores and well logs from Lower Pennsylvanian oil and gas reservoirs (lower Morrow Sandstone, southwest Kansas) allow distinction between fluvio-estuarine and open marine deposits in the Gentzler and Arroyo fields. The fluvio-estuarine facies assemblage is composed of both interfluve and valley-fill deposits, encompassing a variety of depositional environments such as fluvial channel, interfluve paleosol, bay head delta, estuary bay, restricted tidal flat, intertidal channel, and estuary mouth. Deposition in a brackish-water estuarine valley is supported by the presence of a low diversity, opportunistic, impoverished marine ichnofaunal assemblage dominated by infaunal structures, representing an example of a mixed, depauperate Cruziana and Skolithos ichnofacies. Overall distribution of ichnofossils along the estuarine valley was mainly controlled by the salinity gradient, with other parameters, such as oxygenation, substrate and energy, acting at a more local scale. The lower Morrow estuarine system displays the classical tripartite division of wave-dominated estuaries (i.e. seaward-marine sand plug, fine-grained central bay, and sandy landward zone), but tidal action is also recorded. The estuarine valley displays a northwest-southeast trend, draining to the open sea in the southeast. Recognition of valley-fill sandstones in the lower Morrow has implications for reservoir characterization. While the open marine model predicts a "layer-cake" style of facies distribution as a consequence of strandline shoreline progradation, identification of valley-fill sequences points to more compartmentalized reservoirs, due to the heterogeneity created by valley incision and subsequent infill. The open-marine facies assemblage comprises upper, middle, and lower shoreface; offshore transition; offshore; and shelf deposits. In contrast to the estuarine assemblage, open marine ichnofaunas are characterized by a

  9. Influence of the Atlantic inflow and Mediterranean outflow currents on late Quaternary sedimentary facies of the Gulf of Cadiz continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.H.; Baraza, J.; Maldonado, A.; Rodero, J.; Escutia, C.; Barber, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    The late Quaternary pattern of sedimentary facies on the Spanish Gulf of Cadiz continental shelf results from an interaction between a number of controlling factors that are dominated by the Atlantic inflow currents flowing southeastward across the Cadiz shelf toward the Strait of Gibraltar. An inner shelf shoreface sand facies formed by shoaling waves is modified by the inflow currents to form a belt of sand dunes at 10-20 m that extends deeper and obliquely down paleo-valleys as a result of southward down-valley flow. A mid-shelf Holocene mud facies progrades offshore from river mouth sources, but Atlantic inflow currents cause extensive progradation along shelf toward the southeast. Increased inflow current speeds near the Strait of Gibraltar and the strong Mediterranean outflow currents there result in lack of mud deposition and development of a reworked transgressive sand dune facies across the entire southernmost shelf. At the outer shelf edge and underlying the mid-shelf mud and inner shelf sand facies is a late Pleistocene to Holocene transgressive sand sheet formed by the eustatic shoreline advance. The late Quaternary pattern of contourite deposits on the Spanish Gulf of Cadiz continental slope results from an interaction between linear diapiric ridges that are oblique to slope contours and the Mediterranean outflow current flowing northwestward parallel to the slope contours and down valleys between the ridges. Coincident with the northwestward decrease in outflow current speeds from the Strait there is the following northwestward gradation of contourite sediment facies: (1) upper slope sand to silt bed facies, (2) sand dune facies on the upstream mid-slope terrace, (3) large mud wave facies on the lower slope, (4) sediment drift facies banked against the diapiric ridges, and (5) valley facies between the ridges. The southeastern sediment drift facies closest to Gibraltar contains medium-fine sand beds interbedded with mud. The adjacent valley floor

  10. Reactive halogen species above salt lakes and salt pans

    OpenAIRE

    Holla, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Salt lakes can be found on all continents and saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth (FAO, 2012). This thesis investigates the presence of reactive halogen species (RHS) above salt lakes and saline soils to evaluate their relevance for tropospheric chemistry of the planetary boundary layer. Ground-based MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS measurements were conducted at salt lakes and two other sites with high halogen content. Prior to this work, RHS were found at three salt ...

  11. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  12. First occurrence of the Salvador Formation in the Jatobá Basin (Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil): Facies characterization and depositional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Bruno Ludovico Dihl; Melo Ferrer de Morais, Débora

    2016-12-01

    Fan deltas, constituting proximal depositional systems adjacent to boundary faults, are common features associated with rift basins. The Cretaceous fan delta systems of the Salvador Formation, deposited during the rift phase of the Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá Basin, were first reported in the Recôncavo Basin and later discovered in the Tucano Basin. Because of the absence of any outcrops in the Jatobá Basin until now, these alluvial fans were interpreted solely through seismic analysis. We report the first revealed outcrops of the Salvador Formation in that basin and characterize their depositional systems as interlayered with the lacustrine Candeias Formation. Based on facies and architecture, the alluvial system can be subdivided into three associations: (1) proximal fan delta, characterized by meter-scale conglomerate bodies with a predominance of boulders and cobbles with thin sandstone layers; (2) distal fan delta, characterized by sheet-like pebble conglomerate and sandstone layers with flame and load structures; and (3) lacustrine, further subdivided into shallow lake facies reddish shales and mudstones with oolitic limestones and deep lake facies grey to green shales with pyrite. Paleocurrent measurements for the proximal fan association show paleoflow direction varying from SW to SE, which is expected for the rift phase alluvial system. The Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá rift system has two conglomeratic units, namely the Salvador and Marizal Formations, the former a syn-rift and the latter a post-rift unit. The absence of sedimentary clasts in the conglomerates, very low maturity, the presence of giant clasts, and a visible relationship between boundary faults in the outcrop, define the syn-rift Salvador Formation characteristics. Based on the facies and paleocurrent analyses, the Salvador Formation deposits in Jatobá Basin were interpreted as a deposition of a debris flow-dominated fan delta, indicating the lacustrine setting represented by the Candeias

  13. The behaviour of monazite from greenschist facies phyllites to anatectic gneisses: An example from the Chugach Metamorphic Complex, southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Deta; Bruand, Emilie; Rubatto, Daniela; Stüwe, Kurt

    2012-03-01

    Monazite is a common accessory mineral in various metamorphic and magmatic rocks, and is widely used for U-Pb geochronology. However, linking monazite U-Pb ages with the PT evolution of the rock is not always straightforward. We investigated the behaviour of monazite in a metasedimentary sequence ranging from greenschist facies phyllites into upper amphibolites facies anatectic gneisses, which is exposed in the Eocene Chugach Metamorphic Complex of southern Alaska. We investigated textures, chemical compositions and U-Pb dates of monazite grains in samples of differing bulk rock composition and metamorphic grade, with particular focus on the relationship between monazite and other REE-bearing minerals such as allanite and xenotime. In the greenschist facies phyllites, detrital and metamorphic allanite is present, whereas monazite is absent. In lower amphibolites facies schists (~ 550-650 °C and ≥ 3.4 kbar), small, medium-Y monazite is wide-spread (Mnz1), indicating monazite growth prior and/or simultaneous with growth of garnet and andalusite. In anatectic gneisses, new low-Y, high-Th monazite (Mnz2) crystallised from partial melts, and a third, high-Y, low-Th monazite generation (Mnz3) formed during initial cooling and garnet resorption. U-Pb SHRIMP analysis of the second and third monazite generations yields ages of ~ 55-50 Ma. Monazite became unstable and was overgrown by allanite and/or allanite/epidote/apatite coronas within retrograde muscovite- and/or chlorite-bearing shear zones. This study documents polyphase, complex monazite growth and dissolution during a single, relatively short-lived metamorphic cycle.

  14. Optical-televiewer-based identification and characterization of material facies associated with an Antarctic ice-shelf rift

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbard, B.; Tison, J.-L.; Pattyn, F.; Dierckx, M.; Boereboom, T.; Samyn, D.

    2012-01-01

    We have drilled 13 boreholes within and around a through-cutting rift on the (unofficially named) Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, East Antarctica. Logging by optical televiewer (OPTV) combined with core inspection has resulted in the identification and characterization of several material facies. Outside the rift, OPTV-imaged annual layering indicates ~150 years of accumulation over the 66m length of one of the boreholes. Luminosity analysis of this image also reveals the presence of numerous dark me...

  15. Challenges of reservoir properties and production history matching in a CHOPS reservoir study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Mahbub [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In order to meet increasing world energy demand, wells have to be drilled within very thin reservoir beds. This paper, we present one of the solutions for optimizing the reservoir characterization. Reservoir characterization is the process between the discovery of a property and the reservoir management phase. Principal data for reservoir modeling are: 4D Seismic interpretation, wireline log interpretation, core analysis, and petrophysical analysis. Reservoir conditions, perforation and completion technology are the key issues to the production rate of cold production. Reservoir modeling intends to minimize the risk factor, maximize production, and help determine the location for infill drillings. Cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) is a method for enhancing primary production from heavy oil reservoirs. Gravitational forces, natural fluid pressure gradients and foamy oil flow phenomena are the major driving forces of the CHOPS mechanism. Finally, Reservoir characterization allows better understanding of permeability and porosity prediction.

  16. CARBONATE FACIES ZONATION OF THE UPPER JURASSIC-LOWER CRETACEOUS APULIA PLATFORM MARGIN (GARGANO PROMONTORY, SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHELE MORSILLI

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Apulia platform margin and the transition to adjacent basinal deposits (inner platform to basin are well exposed in the Gargano Promontory. Detailed field work has allowed to recognize eight main facies associations which reflect various depositional environments, and which document a differentiated zonation, from the inner platform to the basin. A shallow lagoon existed in the internal part of the Gargano Promontory with a transition to tidal flat areas (F1. Oolitic shoals (F2 bordered this internal peritidal area passing seaward to a reef-flat with abundant corals (F3. A reef-front, associated with a coral rubble zone, has been found in some areas (F4. In the external margin zone, massive wackestones with Ellipsactinia occur (F5 and pass gradually to a rudstone facies on the proximal slope (F6. The base-of-slope facies association consists of pelagic sediments interbedded with gravity-displaced deposits (F7 and F8. The depositional profile of the Apulia Platform is typical of the Tethyan Jurassic-Early Cretaceous platforms, with slope declivities in the order of 25°-28°. The remarkable progradation of the platform in the northern tract of the Gargano (Lesina and Varano lakes area and its substantial stability east- and southwards (Mattinata area suggest a possible windward position of the margin in this latter portion and, in contrast, a leeward position of the northern portion.   

  17. Preliminary investigation on the sedimentary facies of the middle silurian uraniferous rock formations in western Qinling Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yunian; Min Yongming.

    1987-01-01

    The Middle Silurian stratabound uranium deposits in Western Qinling were formed due to hydrothermal modification of ground water and reconcentration of uranium from the sedimentary source rocks. The Silurian system consists of the sediments deposited in the marginal sea of the passive continent, to the south of which is the Ruoergai palaeocontinent. The Middle Silurian is divided into three formations. The lower members of each formation are composed of fine-grained clastic rocks with bay-lagoon facies, while the upper members of each formation are uraniferous rock formations consisted of carbonaceous-siliceous-limestone-argillaceous rocks. During the Middle Silurian period there occurred an island chain barrier which is roughly parallel to the palaeocoast and was formed by undersea uplifts. The uraniferous rock formations belong to the assemblage of lagoon-reef-back tidal flat-reef beach facies. Nearshore shallow water environment, abundant terrestrial fine detritus, local reduction facies and zones are three cardinal conditions for the formation of uranium-rich sediments. Uranium deposition mainly took place in the environments of the inner part of reef beach and reef-back tidal flat, which are characterized by having medium to slightly lower energy, the terrestrial fine detritus involved, and local reduction field resulting from the decomposition of organism after their massive death. Furing the process of relative slow deposition, UO 2 2+ in the sea water was formed by means of infiltration, diffusion and alternative absorption of water at the bottom into organic matter and clay

  18. Analysis on the overpressure characterization with respect to depositional environment facies: Case Study in Miri Area, Baram Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhd Hanapiah, N.; Yusoff, W. I. Wan; Zakariah, M. N. A.

    2017-10-01

    Overpressure studies in oil and gas exploration and production are carried out in order to mitigate any losses that could happen while drilling. These concerns can be addressed by enhancing the understanding of overpressure characterization in the fields. This research emphasizes in determining the pore pressure trend in Miri area to assist pore pressure prediction for future hydrocarbon exploration and production. Generally, pore pressure trends are related to mechanisms that contribute to the overpressure generation. In the region predominant overpressure are disequilibrium compaction within the prodelta shales meanwhile in outer shelf overpressure generation controlled by fluid expansion in deltaic sequence of inner shelf area. The objective of this research is to analyze the pore pressure profile of wells for determining vertical trends of pore pressure for various depositional environment facies of Miri area. Integration of rock physics and pore pressure analysis and relating the trends to environment depositional environment facies within shale underlying sand interval. Analysis done shows that overpressure top is characterize by depositional environment facies within shale underlying sand interval.

  19. Evolution of sedimentary facies and fossil communities in the Middle Permian Maokou Formation in Zigui County, Hubei Province, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Yu Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A geological event that happened at the end of the Middle Permian resulted in different levels of erosion in a shallow-water platform of South China, which led to diverse geological records in different sections. The Lianziya section in western Hubei Province of South China has a well-exposed stratigraphic sequence of the late Middle Permian rocks with abundant fossils and sedimentary facies types, providing new evidences for understanding the evolution of marine biota and environment in the late Middle Permian. Our study shows that four fossil communities can be recognized with the change of sedimentary facies in the late Middle Permian: Foraminiferal–algal community, phylloid algal community, bryozoan community and Ungdarella community. The foraminiferal–algal community is dominated by fusulinids and calcareous algae, but was soon replaced by the phylloid algal community. With an increase of terrestrial input, the phylloid algal community was again replaced by the bryozoan community. Near the end of the Middle Permian, with a decrease of terrestrial input, the bryozoan fossil community disappeared while the Ungdarella community became dominant. A 10 cm-thick weathered crust occurred at the top of the Middle Permian limestone, marking a large amplitude fall in sea-level and the beginning of a terrestrial erosion stage. The sedimentary facies and fossil community changes in the Lianziya section indicates that the Middle Permian crisis was a gradual process while the sea-level fall mainly occurred in the latest Middle Permian.

  20. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  1. Zircon (Hf, O isotopes) as melt indicator: Melt infiltration and abundant new zircon growth within melt rich layers of granulite-facies lenses versus solid-state recrystallization in hosting amphibolite-facies gneisses (central Erzgebirge, Bohemian Massif)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichomirowa, Marion; Whitehouse, Martin; Gerdes, Axel; Schulz, Bernhard

    2018-03-01

    In the central Erzgebirge within the Bohemian Massif, lenses of high pressure and ultrahigh pressure felsic granulites occur within meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous amphibolite-facies felsic rocks. In the felsic granulite, melt rich parts and restite form alternating layers, and were identified by petrology and bulk rock geochemistry. Mineral assemblages representing the peak P-T conditions were best preserved in melanocratic restite layers. In contrast, in the melt rich leucocratic layers, garnet and related HP minerals as kyanite are almost completely resorbed. Both layers display differences in accessory minerals: melanosomes have frequent and large monazite and Fe-Ti-minerals but lack xenotime and apatite; leucosomes have abundant apatite and xenotime while monazite is rare. Here we present a detailed petrographic study of zircon grains (abundance, size, morphology, inclusions) in granulite-facies and amphibolite-facies felsic gneisses, along with their oxygen and hafnium isotope compositions. Our data complement earlier Usbnd Pb ages and trace element data (REE, Y, Hf, U) on zircons from the same rocks (Tichomirowa et al., 2005). Our results show that the degree of melting determines the behaviour of zircon in different layers of the granulites and associated amphibolite-facies rocks. In restite layers of the granulite lenses, small, inherited, and resorbed zircon grains are preserved and new zircon formation is very limited. In contrast, new zircons abundantly grew in the melt rich leucocratic layers. In these layers, the new zircons (Usbnd Pb age, trace elements, Hf, O isotopes) best preserve the information on peak metamorphic conditions due to intense corrosion of other metamorphic minerals. The new zircons often contain inherited cores. Compared to cores, the new zircons and rims show similar or slightly lower Hf isotope values, slightly higher Hf model ages, and decreased oxygen isotope ratios. The isotope compositions (Hf, O) of new zircons indicate

  2. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  3. Salt fluoridation and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthaler, Thomas M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the caries-protective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%). In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67%) and Switzerland (85%). In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  4. Salt, caprock, and sheath study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karably, L.S. Jr.; Jernigan, B.L.; Petre, I.C.; Sullivan, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Salt domes of the Gulf Coast region of the United States consist of four component parts: 1) a salt stock, 2) caprock material, 3) sheath material, and 4) the surrounding upturned sediments. Salt stock consists of remarkably pure halite (NaCl), which represents 90 to 99% of the total mass, with the major impurity being anhydrite. Salt stocks are markedly homogeneous and continuous with respect to composition, texture and structure. Caprock consists primarily of anhydrite, gypsum and calcite which commonly occur in monomineralic zones oriented roughly parallel to the top of the salt stock. Caprock composition varies markedly over any single salt stock as well as from one salt stock to another. Fracturing, porosity and permeability of caprock material are correspondingly variable, but are usually developed tto a higher degree in the upper portions of caprock; porosity and permeability may also be relatively high at the caprock-salt interface. Caprock is generally believed to form by residual accumulation of anhydrite from the dissolution of salt, with subsequent alteration of the anhydrite to calcite and gypsum. Sheath material, probably a mixture of sedimentary rocks (clastic and evaporite), formed as a result of mechanical interaction between the salt stock and surrounding sediments during diapirism. Sheath material is thought to be distributed throughout an external zone, consisting mainly of disturbed sediment, and an internal zone, consisting mainly of disturbed salt. Sheath material forms along a roughly cylindrical shear zone which encloses thesalt stock. Sheath material may be overpressured and is generally thought to be impermeable. Upturned sediments around the salt diapirs are the result of dome genesis; hovever, these sedimentary beds and other structures are beyond the scope of this report

  5. First direct observations linking confined supercritical turbidity currents to their depositional architecture and facies characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, S.; Cartigny, M.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Clare, M. A.; Sumner, E.; Hubbard, S. M.; Talling, P.; Lintern, G.; Stacey, C.; Vardy, M. E.; Hunt, J.; Vendettuoli, D.; Yokokawa, M.; Hizzett, J. L.; Vellinga, A. J.; Azpiroz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents transfer globally significant amounts of sediment via submarine channels from the continental margin to deep submarine fans. Submarine channel inception is thought to result from erosive, supercritical turbidity currents that are common in proximal settings of the marine realm. Recent monitoring of submarine processes have provided the first measurements of supercritical turbidity currents (Hughes Clarke, 2016), demonstrating that they drive the upstream migration of crescentic bedforms in confined submarine channels. Although upstream-migrating bedforms are common in confined channels across the world's oceans, there is considerable debate over the type of deposits that they produce. It is important to understand what types of deposit record these supercritical bedforms to potentially identify them from geological archives. For the first time, we combine direct measurements from supercritical field-scale turbidity currents with the facies and depositional architecture resulting from such flows. We show how the subsurface architecture evolves in a highly active channel at Squamish submarine delta, British Columbia, Canada. Repeated upstream migration of bedforms is found to create two main deposit geometries. First, regular back-stepping beds result from flow deceleration on the slightly-inclined sides of the bedforms. Second, lens-shaped scour fills composed of massive deposits result from erosion of the back-stepping beds by subsequent turbidity currents. We relate our findings to a range of ancient outcrop studies to demonstrate that supercritical flows are common in proximal settings through the geological record. This study provides the first direct observation-based model to identify confined supercritical turbidity currents and their associated upslope-migrating bedforms in the sedimentary record. This is important for correctly identifying the proximal sites of ancient submarine channels that served as past conduits for globally

  6. Shale Gas Geomechanics for Development and Performance of Unconventional Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domonik, Andrzej; Łukaszewski, Paweł; Wilczyński, Przemysław; Dziedzic, Artur; Łukasiak, Dominik; Bobrowska, Alicja

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical properties of individual shale formations are predominantly determined by their lithology, which reflects sedimentary facies distribution, and subsequent diagenetic and tectonic alterations. Shale rocks may exhibit complex elasto-viscoplastic deformation mechanisms depending on the rate of deformation and the amount of clay minerals, also bearing implications for subcritical crack growth and heterogeneous fracture network development. Thus, geomechanics for unconventional resources differs from conventional reservoirs due to inelastic matrix behavior, stress sensitivity, rock anisotropy and low matrix permeability. Effective horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies are required to obtain and maintain high performance. Success of these techniques strongly depends on the geomechanical investigations of shales. An inelastic behavior of shales draws increasing attention of investigators [1], due to its role in stress relaxation between fracturing phases. A strong mechanical anisotropy in the vertical plane and a lower and more variable one in the horizontal plane are characteristic for shale rocks. The horizontal anisotropy plays an important role in determining the direction and effectiveness of propagation of technological hydraulic fractures. Non-standard rock mechanics laboratory experiments are being applied in order to obtain the mechanical properties of shales that have not been previously studied in Poland. Novel laboratory investigations were carried out to assess the creep parameters and to determine time-dependent viscoplastic deformation of shale samples, which can provide a limiting factor to tectonic stresses and control stress change caused by hydraulic fracturing. The study was supported by grant no.: 13-03-00-501-90-472946 "An integrated geomechanical investigation to enhance gas extraction from the Pomeranian shale formations", funded by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBiR). References: Ch. Chang M. D

  7. Zechstein salt Denmark. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngsie Jacobsen, F.; Soenderholm, M.; Springer, N.; Gutzon Larsen, J.; Lagoni, P.; Fabricius, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Salt Research Project EFP-81 has mainly been aiming upon an elucidation of the stratigraphy of the Danish Zechstein evaporites. Also an attempt to clarify the connection between the fabric and the strength of the strongly deformed domal rock salt is performed. The unravelling of the stratigraphy is carried out by means of renewed interpretations of new and old data from all the wells drilling in the Danish Permian basin in connection with a revaluation of the core descriptions. By means of trace elements analysis it is possible to some extent to distinguish between Zestein 1 and 2 ''grey salt''. A description of the transition zone between Zechstein 1 and 2 is carried out. New methods of fabric analyses are introduced and the strength measurements of the rock salt are treated statistically in connection with new defined rock salt parameters. An investigation of fluid inclusions in halite and quartz crystals from dome salt has resulted in the determination of salinity and chemical composition of the brines present in the salt. Temperatures and corresponding pressures during the evolution of the salt pillow and salt dome have been established. The dehydration conditions of natural carnallite in situ are clarified. (author)

  8. Salt formations offer disposal alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funderburk, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston

  9. Pathophysiology of salt sensitivity hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    Dietary salt intake is the most important factor contributing to hypertension, but the salt susceptibility of blood pressure (BP) is different in individual subjects. Although the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension is heterogeneous, it is mainly attributable to an impaired renal capacity to excrete sodium (Na(+) ). We recently identified two novel mechanisms that impair renal Na(+) -excreting function and result in an increase in BP. First, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation in the kidney, which facilitates distal Na(+) reabsorption through epithelial Na(+) channel activation, causes salt-sensitive hypertension. This mechanism exists not only in models of high-aldosterone hypertension as seen in conditions of obesity or metabolic syndrome, but also in normal- or low-aldosterone type of salt-sensitive hypertension. In the latter, Rac1 activation by salt excess causes MR stimulation. Second, renospecific sympathoactivation may cause an increase in BP under conditions of salt excess. Renal beta2 adrenoceptor stimulation in the kidney leads to decreased transcription of the gene encoding WNK4, a negative regulator of Na(+) reabsorption through Na(+) -Cl (-) cotransporter in the distal convoluted tubules, resulting in salt-dependent hypertension. Abnormalities identified in these two pathways of Na(+) reabsorption in the distal nephron may present therapeutic targets for the treatment of salt-sensitive hypertension.

  10. Laboratory and simulation approach to the polymer EOR evaluation in German reservoir characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, S.; Hincapie-Reina, R.; Ganzer, L. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays, polymer flooding is widely used as it enhances oil recovery. As polymer has relatively higher viscosity than water, which leads to better mobility ratio compared to it, and thus better sweep efficiency. However, this technique is limited by some factors. As normal polymers are not tolerant to high temperature or salinity or hardness, which lead to lose of most their viscosity, and thus lost their function in enhanced oil recovery. Therefore, new polymers which are resistant to high temperature, high salinity or other factors which may happen in the reservoir should be employed. In that direction, the present work focus in characterize two different polymers, Flopaam AN 125 and ZLPAM 22051, how they would be influenced by polymer concentration, salinity, shear rate and temperature, and to predict how they would work in the reservoir. A synthetic brine from a German reservoir (Valendis, Suderbruch Field) is used to analyze the polymer. In many different previous experiments is observed the divalent and monovalent effect of salt in polymers was carried out. Rheology characterization was done under the reservoir conditions to get the best approximation related to concentration, shear rate and temperature effect; filtration ratio and filterability plot are used as a quality check for the solutions. Finally, all the data is used into the Polymer Flood Predictive Model (PFPM), to figure out how polymer acted in German typical reservoir conditions, and the specific incremental in oil recovery and effect due the possible polymer application, which might provide information for future polymer flooding application decisions. (orig.)

  11. Fused salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm 2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  12. Controls on facies and sequence stratigraphy of an upper Miocene carbonate ramp and platform, Melilla basin, NE Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, K.J.; Collins, Luke S.

    2002-01-01

    Upwelling of cool seawater, paleoceanographic circulation, paleoclimate, local tectonics and relative sea-level change controlled the lithofacies and sequence stratigraphy of a carbonate ramp and overlying platform that are part of a temporally well constrained carbonate complex in the Melilla basin, northeastern Morocco. At Melilla, from oldest to youngest, a third-order depositional sequence within the carbonate complex contains (1) a retrogradational, transgressive, warm temperate-type rhodalgal ramp; (2) an early highstand, progradational, bioclastic platform composed mainly of a temperate-type, bivalve-rich molechfor facies; and (3) late highstand, progradational to downstepping, subtropical/tropical-type chlorozoan fringing Porites reefs. The change from rhodalgal ramp to molechfor platform occurred at 7.0??0.14 Ma near the Tortonian/Messinian boundary. During a late stage in the development of the bioclastic platform a transition from temperate-type molechfor facies to subtropical/tropical-type chlorozoan facies occurred and is bracketed by chron 3An.2n (??? 6.3-6.6 Ma). Comparison to a well-dated carbonate complex in southeastern Spain at Cabo de Gata suggests that upwelling of cool seawater influenced production of temperate-type limestone within the ramp and platform at Melilla during postulated late Tortonian-early Messinian subtropical/tropical paleoclimatic conditions in the western Paleo-Mediterranean region. The upwelling of cool seawater across the bioclastic platform at Melilla could be related to the beginning of 'siphoning' of deep, cold Atlantic waters into the Paleo-Mediterranean Sea at 7.17 Ma. The facies change within the bioclastic platform from molechfor to chlorozoan facies may be coincident with a reduction of the siphoning of Atlantic waters and the end of upwelling at Melilla during chron 3An.2n. The ramp contains one retrogradational parasequence and the bioclastic platform three progradational parasequences. Minor erosional surfaces

  13. Sediments of the Dry Tortugas, south Florida, USA: Facies distribution on a ramp-like isolated carbonate platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischler, Eberhard; Isaack, Anja; Hudson, J. Harold

    2017-04-01

    Four sedimentary facies may be delineated based on quantitative analysis of texture and composition of modern surface sediments on the Dry Tortugas carbonate platform. These include (1) mollusk-Halimeda wackestone, (2) mollusk packstone-to-grainstone, (3) coralgal-Halimeda grainstone, and (4) coralgal grainstone. Even though the Tortugas platform is characterized by an open circulation due to deep, broad marginal channels and a lack of a continuous surface-breaking marginal reef, facies are not distributed at random and show bathymetrical zonation. Also, facies appear to cover wide belts rather than forming a mosaic. Mollusk-Halimeda wackestone occurs in protected platform interior areas ca. 10-18 m deep. Mollusk packstone-to-grainstone occurs in more open platform interior settings adjacent to channels and in deeper outer reef areas of 14-25 m water depth. Coralgal-Halimeda grainstone is found on shallow marginal shoals (1-11 m deep), and coralgal grainstone on the somewhat deeper (3-16 m), seaward edges of these shoals. However, there is bathymetrical overlap of facies in intermediate depths of ca. 5-17 m. This limitation has implications for the interpretation of the fossil record, because changes in water depth are commonly thought to be reflected in facies changes, e.g., in sequence stratigraphy. Comparison with previous sediment studies of the 1930s, 1960s, and 1970s in the area exhibit a decrease in coral fragments and increases in coralline algal and mollusk shell fragments. These observations might be a result of environmental changes such as coral decline and die-outs during temperature events, disease, and the increase in macroalgae (due to the ecological extinction of the echinoid Diadema). The results suggest that more long-term studies are needed that further explore the influence of environmental change on reef sediment composition. Dry Tortugas surface sediments consist of lower portions of Halimeda plates and mollusk shell fragments and higher

  14. Foraminifera and sedimentary facies distribution changes along the Abu Dhabi (UAE) coastline over the last 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Changes in Recent benthic foraminifera and sedimentary facies distribution along the coastline of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE) were assessed. Anthropogenic activities are modifying the morphology of the coastline causing changes to coastal sedimentary systems. During the early 1960's, prior to any major construction activities, a number of studies examined the distribution of shallow-marine foraminifera and sedimentary facies in the shallow off-shore coastal zone of Abu Dhabi providing a good overall assessment of the distribution of sedimentary facies and foraminifera prior to the anthropogenic activities. The present study revisited, the sampling sites used in the studies conducted in the 1960's. One hundred sea-floor sediment samples were collected, proximal to the coastline of Abu Dhabi Island in nearshore shelf, beach front, channels, ooid shoals and lagoonal settings. Samples were collected at a water depth of 1 to 15m in water with a temperature of 22-29˚C and a salinity of 40-46‰. The identified foraminifera consist mainly of species with a porcellaneous test belonging to the genera Quinqueloculina, Triloculina, Spiroloculina, Sigmoilinita. Larger benthic foraminifera mainly belonging to the genera Peneroplis and Spirolina are particularly abundant in samples collected on seaweed. Hyaline foraminifera mostly belonging to the genera Elphidium, Ammonia, Bolivina and Rosalina are also common together with Miliolidae in the nearshore shelf and beach front. Agglutinated foraminifera (Clavulina, Textularia, Ammobaculites and Reophax) are present in low percentages. Among the agglutinated foraminifera the species belonging to the genera Ammobaculites and Reophax are present only in the finest grain samples and have not reported previously in the studied area. The majority of the oolith shoal sediments, the coarser sediments of the beach front and samples collected in dredged channels do not contain living foraminifera and the dead assemblage is mostly

  15. Are Geotehrmal Reservoirs Stressed Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatzes, N. C.; Laboso, R. C.; Layland-Bachmann, C. E.; Feigl, K. L.; Foxall, W.; Tabrez, A. R.; Mellors, R. J.; Templeton, D. C.; Akerley, J.

    2017-12-01

    Crustal permeability can be strongly influenced by developing connected networks of open fractures. However, the detailed evolution of a fracture network, its extent, and the persistence of fracture porosity are difficult to analyze. Even in fault-hosted geothermal systems, where heat is brought to the surface from depth along a fault, hydrothermal flow is heterogeneously distributed. This is presumably due to variations in fracture density, connectivity, and attitude, as well as variations in fracture permeability caused by sealing of fractures by precipitated cements or compaction. At the Brady Geothermal field in Nevada, we test the relationship between the modeled local stress state perturbed by dislocations representing fault slip or volume changes in the geothermal reservoir inferred from surface deformation measured by InSAR and the location of successful geothermal wells, hydrothermal activity, and seismicity. We postulate that permeability is favored in volumes that experience positive Coulomb stress changes and reduced compression, which together promote high densities of dilatant fractures. Conversely, permeability can be inhibited in locations where Coulomb stress is reduced, compression promotes compaction, or where the faults are poorly oriented in the stress field and consequently slip infrequently. Over geologic time scales spanning the development of the fault system, these local stress states are strongly influenced by the geometry of the fault network relative to the remote stress driving slip. At shorter time scales, changes in fluid pressure within the fracture network constituting the reservoir cause elastic dilations and contractions. We integrate: (1) direct observations of stress state and fractures in boreholes and the mapped geometry of the fault network; (2) evidence of permeability from surface hydrothermal features, production/injection wells and surface deformations related to pumping history; and (3) seismicity to test the

  16. Nonlinear Multigrid for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour; Eskildsen, Klaus Langgren; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2016-01-01

    modeled after local linearization, leading to a nonlinear multigrid method in the form of the full-approximation scheme (FAS). It is demonstrated through numerical experiments that, without loss of robustness, the FAS method can outperform the conventional techniques in terms of algorithmic and numerical...... efficiency for a black-oil model. Furthermore, the use of the FAS method enables a significant reduction in memory usage compared with conventional techniques, which suggests new possibilities for improved large-scale reservoir simulation and numerical efficiency. Last, nonlinear multilevel preconditioning...

  17. A reservoir trap for antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, Christian; Franke, Kurt; Nagahama, Hiroki; Schneider, Georg; Higuchi, Takashi; Van Gorp, Simon; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Ulmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract arbitrary fractions of antiprotons from an accumulated reservoir, and to inject them into a Penning-trap system for high-precision measurements. In our trap-system antiproton storage times > 1.08 years are estimated. The device is fail-safe against power-cuts of up to 10 hours. This makes our planned comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons independent from accelerator cycles, and will enable us to perform experiments during long accelerator shutdown periods when background magnetic noise is low. The demonstrated scheme has the potential to be applied in many other precision Penning trap experiments dealing with exotic particles.

  18. Effect of reservoir heterogeneity on air injection performance in a light oil reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Air injection is a good option to development light oil reservoir. As well-known that, reservoir heterogeneity has great effect for various EOR processes. This also applies to air injection. However, oil recovery mechanisms and physical processes for air injection in heterogeneous reservoir with dip angle are still not well understood. The reported setting of reservoir heterogeneous for physical model or simulation model of air injection only simply uses different-layer permeability of porous media. In practice, reservoir heterogeneity follows the principle of geostatistics. How much of contrast in permeability actually challenges the air injection in light oil reservoir? This should be investigated by using layered porous medial settings of the classical Dykstra-Parsons style. Unfortunately, there has been no work addressing this issue for air injection in light oil reservoir. In this paper, Reservoir heterogeneity is quantified based on the use of different reservoir permeability distribution according to classical Dykstra-Parsons coefficients method. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on physical process and production performance of air injection in light oil reservoir through numerical reservoir simulation approach. The basic model is calibrated based on previous study. Total eleven pseudo compounders are included in this model and ten complexity of reactions are proposed to achieve the reaction scheme. Results show that oil recovery factor is decreased with the increasing of reservoir heterogeneity both for air and N2 injection from updip location, which is against the working behavior of air injection from updip location. Reservoir heterogeneity sometimes can act as positive effect to improve sweep efficiency as well as enhance production performance for air injection. High O2 content air injection can benefit oil recovery factor, also lead to early O2 breakthrough in heterogeneous reservoir. Well

  19. Geomorphology, facies architecture, and high-resolution, non-marine sequence stratigraphy in avulsion deposits, Cumberland Marshes, Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, K. M.

    2001-02-01

    This paper demonstrates field relationships between landforms, facies, and high-resolution sequences in avulsion deposits. It defines the building blocks of a prograding avulsion sequence from a high-resolution sequence stratigraphy perspective, proposes concepts in non-marine sequence stratigraphy and flood basin evolution, and defines the continental equivalent to a parasequence. The geomorphic features investigated include a distributary channel and its levee, the Stage I crevasse splay of Smith et al. (Sedimentology, vol. 36 (1989) 1), and the local backswamp. Levees and splays have been poorly studied in the past, and three-dimensional (3D) studies are rare. In this study, stratigraphy is defined from the finest scale upward and facies are mapped in 3D. Genetically related successions are identified by defining a hierarchy of bounding surfaces. The genesis, architecture, geometry, and connectivity of facies are explored in 3D. The approach used here reveals that avulsion deposits are comparable in process, landform, facies, bounding surfaces, and scale to interdistributary bayfill, i.e. delta lobe deposits. Even a simple Stage I splay is a complex landform, composed of several geomorphic components, several facies and many depositional events. As in bayfill, an alluvial ridge forms as the feeder crevasse and its levees advance basinward through their own distributary mouth bar deposits to form a Stage I splay. This produces a shoestring-shaped concentration of disconnected sandbodies that is flanked by wings of heterolithic strata, that join beneath the terminal mouth bar. The proposed results challenge current paradigms. Defining a crevasse splay as a discrete sandbody potentially ignores 70% of the landform's volume. An individual sandbody is likely only a small part of a crevasse splay complex. The thickest sandbody is a terminal, channel associated feature, not a sheet that thins in the direction of propagation. The three stage model of splay evolution

  20. Geomorphology, facies architecture, and high-resolution, non-marine sequence stratigraphy in avulsion deposits, Cumberland Marshes, Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper demonstrates field relationships between landforms, facies, and high-resolution sequences in avulsion deposits. It defines the building blocks of a prograding avulsion sequence from a high-resolution sequence stratigraphy perspective, proposes concepts in non-marine sequence stratigraphy and flood basin evolution, and defines the continental equivalent to a parasequence. The geomorphic features investigated include a distributary channel and its levee, the Stage I crevasse splay of Smith et al. (Sedimentology, vol. 36 (1989) 1), and the local backswamp. Levees and splays have been poorly studied in the past, and three-dimensional (3D) studies are rare. In this study, stratigraphy is defined from the finest scale upward and facies are mapped in 3D. Genetically related successions are identified by defining a hierarchy of bounding surfaces. The genesis, architecture, geometry, and connectivity of facies are explored in 3D. The approach used here reveals that avulsion deposits are comparable in process, landform, facies, bounding surfaces, and scale to interdistributary bayfill, i.e. delta lobe deposits. Even a simple Stage I splay is a complex landform, composed of several geomorphic components, several facies and many depositional events. As in bayfill, an alluvial ridge forms as the feeder crevasse and its levees advance basinward through their own distributary mouth bar deposits to form a Stage I splay. This produces a shoestring-shaped concentration of disconnected sandbodies that is flanked by wings of heterolithic strata, that join beneath the terminal mouth bar. The proposed results challenge current paradigms. Defining a crevasse splay as a discrete sandbody potentially ignores 70% of the landform's volume. An individual sandbody is likely only a small part of a crevasse splay complex. The thickest sandbody is a terminal, channel associated feature, not a sheet that thins in the direction of propagation. The three stage model of splay evolution

  1. Data Compression of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Simulation Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan

    2015-05-28

    A dense volumetric grid coming from an oil/gas reservoir simulation output is translated into a compact representation that supports desired features such as interactive visualization, geometric continuity, color mapping and quad representation. A set of four control curves per layer results from processing the grid data, and a complete set of these 3-dimensional surfaces represents the complete volume data and can map reservoir properties of interest to analysts. The processing results yield a representation of reservoir simulation results which has reduced data storage requirements and permits quick performance interaction between reservoir analysts and the simulation data. The degree of reservoir grid compression can be selected according to the quality required, by adjusting for different thresholds, such as approximation error and level of detail. The processions results are of potential benefit in applications such as interactive rendering, data compression, and in-situ visualization of large-scale oil/gas reservoir simulations.

  2. Environmental Status of Kam’yanske Reservoir (Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharamok Tetyana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental status of Kam’yanske reservoir (47°55′51.6″N 33°46′08.4″E as one of the small water bodies belonging to southeast Ukraine was investigated. The integrated environmental assessment based on the quality indices of salt content, trophic–saprobiological indicators and specific toxic water indicators of Kam’yanske reservoir are characterised as ‘satisfactory’ and ‘slightly polluted’. Defined bottom accumulation coefficient (BAC shows continuing heavy metals enlargement in the upper layer of the bottom sediments and chronic pollution in ecosystem. The content of heavy metals in the muscles of industrial fish in the researched pond did not exceed maximal allowed concentration (MAC for fish as food according to Ukrainian standards. Accumulation of heavy metals in fish was due to the peculiarities of their ways of nutrition and existing. The total contents of heavy metals in common carp was almost twice as large compared to other fish. The maximum accumulation rates set for fish muscles of essential elements – zinc and iron.

  3. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Dave Martin and Associates, Inc., Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by pr