WorldWideScience

Sample records for reservoir construction operation

  1. Optimising reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le

    Anvendelse af optimeringsteknik til drift af reservoirer er blevet et væsentligt element i vandressource-planlægning og -forvaltning. Traditionelt har reservoirer været styret af heuristiske procedurer for udtag af vand, suppleret i en vis udstrækning af subjektive beslutninger. Udnyttelse af...... reservoirer involverer en lang række interessenter med meget forskellige formål (f.eks. kunstig vanding, vandkraft, vandforsyning mv.), og optimeringsteknik kan langt bedre lede frem til afbalancerede løsninger af de ofte modstridende interesser. Afhandlingen foreslår en række tiltag, hvormed traditionelle...

  2. Fuzzy rule-based model for hydropower reservoirs operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeini, R.; Afshar, A.; Afshar, M.H. [School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Real-time hydropower reservoir operation is a continuous decision-making process of determining the water level of a reservoir or the volume of water released from it. The hydropower operation is usually based on operating policies and rules defined and decided upon in strategic planning. This paper presents a fuzzy rule-based model for the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The proposed fuzzy rule-based model presents a set of suitable operating rules for release from the reservoir based on ideal or target storage levels. The model operates on an 'if-then' principle, in which the 'if' is a vector of fuzzy premises and the 'then' is a vector of fuzzy consequences. In this paper, reservoir storage, inflow, and period are used as premises and the release as the consequence. The steps involved in the development of the model include, construction of membership functions for the inflow, storage and the release, formulation of fuzzy rules, implication, aggregation and defuzzification. The required knowledge bases for the formulation of the fuzzy rules is obtained form a stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) model with a steady state policy. The proposed model is applied to the hydropower operation of ''Dez'' reservoir in Iran and the results are presented and compared with those of the SDP model. The results indicate the ability of the method to solve hydropower reservoir operation problems. (author)

  3. Reservoirs operation and water resources utilization coordination in Hongshuihe basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chonghao; Chi, Kaige; Pang, Bo; Tang, Hongbin

    2018-06-01

    In the recent decade, the demand for water resources has been increasing with the economic development. The reservoirs of cascade hydropower stations in Hongshuihe basin, which are constructed with a main purpose of power generation, are facing more integrated water resources utilization problem. The conflict between power generation of cascade reservoirs and flood control, shipping, environmental protection and water supply has become increasingly prominent. This paper introduces the general situation and integrated water demand of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin, and it analyses the impact of various types of integrated water demand on power generation and supply. It establishes mathematic models, constrained by various types of integrated water demand, to guide the operation and water resources utilization management of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin. Integrated water coordination mechanism of Hongshuihe basin is also introduced. It provides a technical and management guide and demonstration for cascade reservoirs operation and integrated water management at home and abroad.

  4. Ecological operation for Three Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian Guo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir has mainly focused on water for flood control, power generation, navigation, water supply, and recreation, and given less attention to the negative impacts of reservoir operation on the river ecosystem. In order to reduce the negative influence of reservoir operation, ecological operation of the reservoir should be studied with a focus on maintaining a healthy river ecosystem. This study considered ecological operation targets, including maintaining the river environmental flow and protecting the spawning and reproduction of the Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Using flow data from 1900 to 2006 at the Yichang gauging station as the control station data for the Yangtze River, the minimal and optimal river environmental flows were analyzed, and eco-hydrological targets for the Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps in the Yangtze River were calculated. This paper proposes a reservoir ecological operation model, which comprehensively considers flood control, power generation, navigation, and the ecological environment. Three typical periods, wet, normal, and dry years, were selected, and the particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to analyze the model. The results show that ecological operation modes have different effects on the economic benefit of the hydropower station, and the reservoir ecological operation model can simulate the flood pulse for the requirements of spawning of the Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. According to the results, by adopting a suitable re-operation scheme, the hydropower benefit of the reservoir will not decrease dramatically while the ecological demand is met. The results provide a reference for designing reasonable operation schemes for the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  5. Operational trade-offs in reservoir control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakos, Aris P.

    1993-11-01

    Reservoir operation decisions require constant reevaluation in the face of conflicting objectives, varying hydrologic conditions, and frequent operational policy changes. Optimality is a relative concept very much dependent on the circumstances under which a decision is made. More than anything else, reservoir management authorities need the means to assess the impacts of various operational options. It is their responsibility to define what is desirable after a thorough evaluation of the existing circumstances. This article presents a model designed to generate operational trade-offs common among reservoir systems. The model avoids an all-encompassing problem formulation and distinguishes three operational modes (levels) corresponding to normal, drought, and flood operations. Each level addresses only relevant system elements and uses a static and a dynamic control module to optimize turbine performance within each planning period and temporally. The model is used for planning the operation of the Savannah River System.

  6. Operations management for construction

    CERN Document Server

    March, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Students studying construction management and related subjects need to have a broad understanding of the major aspects of controlling the building processes. Operations Management for Construction is one of three textbooks (Business Organisation, Operations Management and Finance Control) written to systematically cover the field. Focusing on construction sites and operations which are challenging to run, Chris March explores issues such as the setting up of the site, the deciding of the methodology of construction, and the sequence of work and resourcing. As changing and increasing regulations affect the way sites are managed, he also considers the issues and methods of successful administering, safety, quality and environment. Finally, the contractor's responsibility to the environment, including relationships with third parties, selection of materials, waste management and sustainability is discussed. Chris March has a wealth of practical experience in the construction industry, as well as considerable exp...

  7. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  8. Decision Support System for Reservoir Management and Operation in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navar, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Africa is currently experiencing a surge in dam construction for flood control, water supply and hydropower production, but ineffective reservoir management has caused problems in the region, such as water shortages, flooding and loss of potential hydropower generation. Our research aims to remedy ineffective reservoir management by developing a novel Decision Support System(DSS) to equip water managers with a technical planning tool based on the state of the art in hydrological sciences. The DSS incorporates a climate forecast model, a hydraulic model of the watershed, and an optimization model to effectively plan for the operation of a system of cascade large-scale reservoirs for hydropower production, while treating water supply and flood control as constraints. Our team will use the newly constructed hydropower plants in the Omo Gibe basin of Ethiopia as the test case. Using the basic HIDROTERM software developed in Brazil, the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) utilizes a combination of linear programing (LP) and non-linear programming (NLP) in conjunction with real time hydrologic and energy demand data to optimize the monthly and daily operations of the reservoir system. We compare the DSS model results with the current reservoir operating policy used by the water managers of that region. We also hope the DSS will eliminate the current dangers associated with the mismanagement of large scale water resources projects in Africa.

  9. Probabilistic construction of inflow scenarios at a reservoir; Construction probabiliste de scenarios d'apports a un reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidou, O.; Robert, B.; Marche, C.; Rousselle, J. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Departement des Genies Civil, Geologique et des Mines, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Lefebvre, M. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Departement de Mathematiques et de Genie Industriel, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2004-02-01

    Development of risk indicators to aid in decisions affecting the operation of hydric systems is described. The significant part of the risk affecting hydric systems is the uncertainty surrounding future inflows. A method to construct inflow scenarios starting from an arbitrary date 'y' of the year is developed using a Markovian process which also has been used to model short-term uncertainty in stream flow. The text is divided in five parts: (1) methodology, (2) terminology, (3) theory, (4) application, and (5) results. The scenarios are built to reproduce the statistical behaviour of the river or reservoir and have the shape of an event tree whose structure is defined by the user before application of the method. Application of the method is illustrated by two examples, one involving the Harricana River, the other the Cabonga Reservoir, both situated in the province of Quebec. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Optimal Operation of Hydropower Reservoirs under Climate Change: The Case of Tekeze Reservoir, Eastern Nile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikru Fentaw Abera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation of reservoirs is very essential for water resource planning and management, but it is very challenging and complicated when dealing with climate change impacts. The objective of this paper was to assess existing and future hydropower operation at the Tekeze reservoir in the face of climate change. In this study, a calibrated and validated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was used to model runoff inflow into the Tekeze hydropower reservoir under present and future climate scenarios. Inflow to the reservoir was simulated using hydro-climatic data from an ensemble of downscaled climate data based on the Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment over African domain (CORDEX-Africa with Coupled Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 simulations under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios. Observed and projected inflows to Tekeze hydropower reservoir were used as input to the US Army Corps of Engineer’s Reservoir Evaluation System Perspective Reservoir Model (HEC-ResPRM, a reservoir operation model, to optimize hydropower reservoir release, storage and pool level. Results indicated that climate change has a clear impact on reservoir inflow and showed increase in annual and monthly inflow into the reservoir except in dry months from May to June under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios. HEC-ResPRM optimal operation results showed an increase in Tekeze reservoir power storage potential up to 25% and 30% under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios, respectively. This implies that Tekeze hydropower production will be affected by climate change. This analysis can be used by water resources planners and mangers to develop reservoir operation techniques considering climate change impact to increase power production.

  11. Estimation of Bank Erosion Due To Reservoir Operation in Cascade (Case Study: Citarum Cascade Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Legowo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is such a crucial issue to be noted once the accumulated sediment begins to fill the reservoir dead storage, this will then influence the long-term reservoir operation. The sediment accumulated requires a serious attention for it may influence the storage capacity and other reservoir management of activities. The continuous inflow of sediment to the reservoir will decrease the capacity of reservoir storage, the reservoir value in use, and the useful age of reservoir. Because of that, the rate of the sediment needs to be delayed as possible. In this research, the delay of the sediment rate is considered based on the rate of flow of landslide of the reservoir slope. The rate of flow of the sliding slope can be minimized by way of each reservoir autonomous efforts. This effort can be performed through; the regulation of fluctuating rate of reservoir surface current that does not cause suddenly drawdown and upraising as well. The research model is compiled using the searching technique of Non Linear Programming (NLP.The rate of bank erosion for the reservoir variates from 0.0009 to 0.0048 MCM/year, which is no sigrificant value to threaten the life time of reservoir.Mean while the rate of watershed sediment has a significant value, i.e: 3,02 MCM/year for Saguling that causes to fullfill the storage capacity in 40 next years (from years 2008.

  12. Assessing reservoir operations risk under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, L.D.; Maurer, E.P.; Anderson, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Townsley, E.S.; Harrison, A.; Pruitt, T.

    2009-01-01

    Risk-based planning offers a robust way to identify strategies that permit adaptive water resources management under climate change. This paper presents a flexible methodology for conducting climate change risk assessments involving reservoir operations. Decision makers can apply this methodology to their systems by selecting future periods and risk metrics relevant to their planning questions and by collectively evaluating system impacts relative to an ensemble of climate projection scenarios (weighted or not). This paper shows multiple applications of this methodology in a case study involving California's Central Valley Project and State Water Project systems. Multiple applications were conducted to show how choices made in conducting the risk assessment, choices known as analytical design decisions, can affect assessed risk. Specifically, risk was reanalyzed for every choice combination of two design decisions: (1) whether to assume climate change will influence flood-control constraints on water supply operations (and how), and (2) whether to weight climate change scenarios (and how). Results show that assessed risk would motivate different planning pathways depending on decision-maker attitudes toward risk (e.g., risk neutral versus risk averse). Results also show that assessed risk at a given risk attitude is sensitive to the analytical design choices listed above, with the choice of whether to adjust flood-control rules under climate change having considerably more influence than the choice on whether to weight climate scenarios. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Multiobjective Optimization Modeling Approach for Multipurpose Single Reservoir Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosvany Recio Villa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The water resources planning and management discipline recognizes the importance of a reservoir’s carryover storage. However, mathematical models for reservoir operation that include carryover storage are scarce. This paper presents a novel multiobjective optimization modeling framework that uses the constraint-ε method and genetic algorithms as optimization techniques for the operation of multipurpose simple reservoirs, including carryover storage. The carryover storage was conceived by modifying Kritsky and Menkel’s method for reservoir design at the operational stage. The main objective function minimizes the cost of the total annual water shortage for irrigation areas connected to a reservoir, while the secondary one maximizes its energy production. The model includes operational constraints for the reservoir, Kritsky and Menkel’s method, irrigation areas, and the hydropower plant. The study is applied to Carlos Manuel de Céspedes reservoir, establishing a 12-month planning horizon and an annual reliability of 75%. The results highly demonstrate the applicability of the model, obtaining monthly releases from the reservoir that include the carryover storage, degree of reservoir inflow regulation, water shortages in irrigation areas, and the energy generated by the hydroelectric plant. The main product is an operational graph that includes zones as well as rule and guide curves, which are used as triggers for long-term reservoir operation.

  14. System Dynamics Modeling of Multipurpose Reservoir Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Momeni

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available System dynamics, a feedback – based object – oriented simulation approach, not only represents complex dynamic systemic systems in a realistic way but also allows the involvement of end users in model development to increase their confidence in modeling process. The increased speed of model development, the possibility of group model development, the effective communication of model results, and the trust developed in the model due to user participation are the main strengths of this approach. The ease of model modification in response to changes in the system and the ability to perform sensitivity analysis make this approach more attractive compared with systems analysis techniques for modeling water management systems. In this study, a system dynamics model was developed for the Zayandehrud basin in central Iran. This model contains river basin, dam reservoir, plains, irrigation systems, and groundwater. Current operation rule is conjunctive use of ground and surface water. Allocation factor for each irrigation system is computed based on the feedback from groundwater storage in its zone. Deficit water is extracted from groundwater.The results show that applying better rules can not only satisfy all demands such as Gawkhuni swamp environmental demand, but it can also  prevent groundwater level drawdown in future.

  15. Reservoir Operating Rule Optimization for California's Sacramento Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Nelson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss1art6Reservoir operating rules for water resource systems are typically developed by combining intuition, professional discussion, and simulation modeling. This paper describes a joint optimization–simulation approach to develop preliminary economically-based operating rules for major reservoirs in California’s Sacramento Valley, based on optimized results from CALVIN, a hydro-economic optimization model. We infer strategic operating rules from the optimization model results, including storage allocation rules to balance storage among multiple reservoirs, and reservoir release rules to determine monthly release for individual reservoirs. Results show the potential utility of considering previous year type on water availability and various system and sub-system storage conditions, in addition to normal consideration of local reservoir storage, season, and current inflows. We create a simple simulation to further refine and test the derived operating rules. Optimization model results show particular insights for balancing the allocation of water storage among Shasta, Trinity, and Oroville reservoirs over drawdown and refill seasons, as well as some insights for release rules at major reservoirs in the Sacramento Valley. We also discuss the applicability and limitations of developing reservoir operation rules from optimization model results.

  16. Simulation and optimisation modelling approach for operation of the Hoa Binh Reservoir, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Hoa Binh, the largest reservoir in Vietnam, plays an important role in flood control for the Red River delta and hydropower generation. Due to its multi-purpose character, conflicts and disputes in operating the reservoir have been ongoing since its construction, particularly in the flood season....... This paper proposes to optimise the control strategies for the Hoa Binh reservoir operation by applying a combination of simulation and optimisation models. The control strategies are set up in the MIKE 11 simulation model to guide the releases of the reservoir system according to the current storage level......, the hydro-meteorological conditions, and the time of the year. A heuristic global optimisation tool, the shuffled complex evolution (SCE) algorithm, is adopted for optimising the reservoir operation. The optimisation puts focus on the trade-off between flood control and hydropower generation for the Hoa...

  17. Constructing optimized binary masks for reservoir computing with delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appeltant, Lennert; van der Sande, Guy; Danckaert, Jan; Fischer, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a novel bio-inspired computing method, capable of solving complex tasks in a computationally efficient way. It has recently been successfully implemented using delayed feedback systems, allowing to reduce the hardware complexity of brain-inspired computers drastically. In this approach, the pre-processing procedure relies on the definition of a temporal mask which serves as a scaled time-mutiplexing of the input. Originally, random masks had been chosen, motivated by the random connectivity in reservoirs. This random generation can sometimes fail. Moreover, for hardware implementations random generation is not ideal due to its complexity and the requirement for trial and error. We outline a procedure to reliably construct an optimal mask pattern in terms of multipurpose performance, derived from the concept of maximum length sequences. Not only does this ensure the creation of the shortest possible mask that leads to maximum variability in the reservoir states for the given reservoir, it also allows for an interpretation of the statistical significance of the provided training samples for the task at hand.

  18. Reservoir shorelines : a methodology for evaluating operational impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, M.; Braund-Read, J.; Musgrave, B. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    BC Hydro has been operating hydroelectric facilities for over a century in British Columbia. The integrity and stability of the shorelines and slopes bordering hydroelectric reservoirs is affected by changing water levels in the reservoir, natural processes of flooding, wind and wave action and modification of groundwater levels. Establishing setbacks landward of the shoreline are needed in order to protect useable shoreline property that may be at risk of flooding, erosion or instability due to reservoir operations. Many of the reservoirs in British Columbia are situated in steep, glaciated valleys with diverse geological, geomorphological and climatic conditions and a variety of eroding shorelines. As such, geotechnical studies are needed to determine the operational impacts on reservoir shorelines. Since the 1960s BC Hydro has been developing a methodology for evaluating reservoir impacts and determining the land around the reservoir perimeter that should remain as a right of way for operations while safeguarding waterfront development. The methodology was modified in the 1990s to include geomorphological and geological processes. However, uncertainties in the methodology still exist due to limited understanding of key issues such as rates of erosion and shoreline regression, immaturity of present day reservoir shorelines and impacts of climate change. 11 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  19. Modelling of Reservoir Operations using Fuzzy Logic and ANNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Giesen, N.; Coerver, B.; Rutten, M.

    2015-12-01

    Today, almost 40.000 large reservoirs, containing approximately 6.000 km3 of water and inundating an area of almost 400.000 km2, can be found on earth. Since these reservoirs have a storage capacity of almost one-sixth of the global annual river discharge they have a large impact on the timing, volume and peaks of river discharges. Global Hydrological Models (GHM) are thus significantly influenced by these anthropogenic changes in river flows. We developed a parametrically parsimonious method to extract operational rules based on historical reservoir storage and inflow time-series. Managing a reservoir is an imprecise and vague undertaking. Operators always face uncertainties about inflows, evaporation, seepage losses and various water demands to be met. They often base their decisions on experience and on available information, like reservoir storage and the previous periods inflow. We modeled this decision-making process through a combination of fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks in an Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). In a sensitivity analysis, we compared results for reservoirs in Vietnam, Central Asia and the USA. ANFIS can indeed capture reservoirs operations adequately when fed with a historical monthly time-series of inflows and storage. It was shown that using ANFIS, operational rules of existing reservoirs can be derived without much prior knowledge about the reservoirs. Their validity was tested by comparing actual and simulated releases with each other. For the eleven reservoirs modelled, the normalised outflow, , was predicted with a MSE of 0.002 to 0.044. The rules can be incorporated into GHMs. After a network for a specific reservoir has been trained, the inflow calculated by the hydrological model can be combined with the release and initial storage to calculate the storage for the next time-step using a mass balance. Subsequently, the release can be predicted one time-step ahead using the inflow and storage.

  20. Diffuser Operations at Spring Hollow Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Gantzer, Paul Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Stratification is a natural occurrence in deep lakes and reservoirs. This phenomenon results in two distinct layers, the warmer, less dense epilimnion on top and the colder, denser, hypolimnion on the bottom. The epilimnion remains saturated with dissolved oxygen (DO) from mass transfer with the atmosphere, while the hypolimnion continues to undergo oxygen-depleting processes. During seasons of high oxygen demand the hypolimnion often becomes anoxic and results in the release of compounds,...

  1. Advancing reservoir operation description in physically based hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Giudici, Federico; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Last decades have seen significant advances in our capacity of characterizing and reproducing hydrological processes within physically based models. Yet, when the human component is considered (e.g. reservoirs, water distribution systems), the associated decisions are generally modeled with very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the actual operators' behaviour on a daily or sub-daily basis. For example, reservoir operations are usually described by a target-level rule curve, which represents the level that the reservoir should track during normal operating conditions. The associated release decision is determined by the current state of the reservoir relative to the rule curve. This modeling approach can reasonably reproduce the seasonal water volume shift due to reservoir operation. Still, it cannot capture more complex decision making processes in response, e.g., to the fluctuations of energy prices and demands, the temporal unavailability of power plants or varying amount of snow accumulated in the basin. In this work, we link a physically explicit hydrological model with detailed hydropower behavioural models describing the decision making process by the dam operator. In particular, we consider two categories of behavioural models: explicit or rule-based behavioural models, where reservoir operating rules are empirically inferred from observational data, and implicit or optimization based behavioural models, where, following a normative economic approach, the decision maker is represented as a rational agent maximising a utility function. We compare these two alternate modelling approaches on the real-world water system of Lake Como catchment in the Italian Alps. The water system is characterized by the presence of 18 artificial hydropower reservoirs generating almost 13% of the Italian hydropower production. Results show to which extent the hydrological regime in the catchment is affected by different behavioural models and reservoir

  2. Sudden water pollution accidents and reservoir emergency operations: impact analysis at Danjiangkou Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hezhen; Lei, Xiaohui; Shang, Yizi; Duan, Yang; Kong, Lingzhong; Jiang, Yunzhong; Wang, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Danjiangkou Reservoir is the source reservoir of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (MRP). Any sudden water pollution accident in the reservoir would threaten the water supply of the MRP. We established a 3-D hydrodynamic and water quality model for the Danjiangkou Reservoir, and proposed scientific suggestions on the prevention and emergency management for sudden water pollution accidents based on simulated results. Simulations were performed on 20 hypothetical pollutant discharge locations and 3 assumed amounts, in order to model the effect of pollutant spreading under different reservoir operation types. The results showed that both the location and mass of pollution affected water quality; however, different reservoir operation types had little effect. Five joint regulation scenarios, which altered the hydrodynamic processes of water conveyance for the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams, were considered for controlling pollution dispersion. The results showed that the spread of a pollutant could be effectively controlled through the joint regulation of the two dams and that the collaborative operation of the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams is critical for ensuring the security of water quality along the MRP.

  3. Modeling Reservoir-River Networks in Support of Optimizing Seasonal-Scale Reservoir Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, D. L.; Lowry, T. S.; Bier, A.; Barco, J.; Sun, A.

    2011-12-01

    HydroSCOPE (Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization of Power and the Environment) is a seasonal time-scale tool for scenario analysis and optimization of reservoir-river networks. Developed in MATLAB, HydroSCOPE is an object-oriented model that simulates basin-scale dynamics with an objective of optimizing reservoir operations to maximize revenue from power generation, reliability in the water supply, environmental performance, and flood control. HydroSCOPE is part of a larger toolset that is being developed through a Department of Energy multi-laboratory project. This project's goal is to provide conventional hydropower decision makers with better information to execute their day-ahead and seasonal operations and planning activities by integrating water balance and operational dynamics across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This presentation details the modeling approach and functionality of HydroSCOPE. HydroSCOPE consists of a river-reservoir network model and an optimization routine. The river-reservoir network model simulates the heat and water balance of river-reservoir networks for time-scales up to one year. The optimization routine software, DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications - dakota.sandia.gov), is seamlessly linked to the network model and is used to optimize daily volumetric releases from the reservoirs to best meet a set of user-defined constraints, such as maximizing revenue while minimizing environmental violations. The network model uses 1-D approximations for both the reservoirs and river reaches and is able to account for surface and sediment heat exchange as well as ice dynamics for both models. The reservoir model also accounts for inflow, density, and withdrawal zone mixing, and diffusive heat exchange. Routing for the river reaches is accomplished using a modified Muskingum-Cunge approach that automatically calculates the internal timestep and sub-reach lengths to match the conditions of

  4. Reservoir operation schemes for water pollution accidents in Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-kang Xin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the Three Gorges Reservoir starts running, it can not only take into consideration the interest of departments such as flood control, power generation, water supply, and shipping, but also reduce or eliminate the adverse effects of pollutants by discharge regulation. The evolution of pollutant plumes under different operation schemes of the Three Gorges Reservoir and three kinds of pollutant discharge types were calculated with the MIKE 21 AD software. The feasibility and effectiveness of the reservoir emergency operation when pollution accidents occur were investigated. The results indicate that the emergency operation produces significant effects on the instantaneous discharge type with lesser effects on the constant discharge type, the impact time is shortened, and the concentration of pollutant is reduced. Meanwhile, the results show that the larger the discharge is and the shorter the operation duration is, the more favorable the result is.

  5. Design and modeling of reservoir operation strategies for sediment management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.; Omer, A.Y.A.; Heynert, K.V.; Mohamed, Y.A.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate operation strategies that allow for sediment flushing and sluicing (sediment routing) can reduce rapid storage losses of (hydropower and water-supply) reservoirs. In this study we have shown, using field observations and computational models, that the efficiency of these operations

  6. Quantifying the robustness of optimal reservoir operation for the Xinanjiang-Fuchunjiang Reservoir Cascade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, E.; Xu, YuePing; Booij, Martijn J.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this research we investigate the robustness of the common implicit stochastic optimization (ISO) method for dam reoperation. As a case study, we focus on the Xinanjiang-Fuchunjiang reservoir cascade in eastern China, for which adapted operating rules were proposed as a means to reduce the impact

  7. Determination of the Cascade Reservoir Operation for Optimal Firm-Energy Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmeri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia today face a new paradigm in water management where aim to apply integrated water resources management has become unavoidable task in purpose of achieving greater level of effectiveness and efficiency. On of most interesting case study is the case of Citarum river, one of the most potential river for water supply in West Java, Indonesia. Alongside the river, Saguling, Cirata and Djuanda Reservoirs had been constructed in series/cascade. Saguling and Cirata reservoirs are particularly operated for hydroelectric power and Djuanda is multipurpose reservoir mainly operated for irrigation and contribute domestic water supply for Jakarta (capital city of Indonesia. Basically all reservoirs are relying on same resources, therefore this condition has considered addressing management and operational problem. Therefore, an approach toward new management and operation system are urgently required in order to achieve the effective and efficient output and to avoid conflicts of water used. This study aims to obtain energy production from Citarum Cascade Reservoir System using Genetic Algorithms optimization with the objective function to maximize firm-energy. Firm-energy is the minimum energy requirements must be available in a certain time period. Then, the result obtained by using the energy produced by GA is compared to the conventional searching technique of Non-Linier Programming (NLP. The GA derived operating curves reveal the higher energy and firm-energy than NLP model

  8. Rule Optimization monthly reservoir operation Salvajina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Garcia, Maria Clemencia; Santacruz Salazar, Santiago; Ramirez Callejas, Carlos A

    2007-01-01

    In the present study a model was designed for the optimization of the rule for monthly operation of the Salvajina dam (Colombia) based in the technology) of dynamic programming. The model maximizes the benefits for electric power generation, ensuring at the same time flood regulation in winter and pollution relief during the summer. For the optimization of the rule of operation, it was necessary to define the levels and volumes of reserve and holding required for the control of flood zones in the Cauca river and to provide an effluent minimal flow and assure a daily flow at the Juanchito station (located 141 km downstream from the dam) of the Cauca river, 90 % of the time during the most critical summer periods.

  9. Inflow forecasting using Artificial Neural Networks for reservoir operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chiamsathit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, multi-layer perceptron (MLP artificial neural networks have been applied to forecast one-month-ahead inflow for the Ubonratana reservoir, Thailand. To assess how well the forecast inflows have performed in the operation of the reservoir, simulations were carried out guided by the systems rule curves. As basis of comparison, four inflow situations were considered: (1 inflow known and assumed to be the historic (Type A; (2 inflow known and assumed to be the forecast (Type F; (3 inflow known and assumed to be the historic mean for month (Type M; and (4 inflow is unknown with release decision only conditioned on the starting reservoir storage (Type N. Reservoir performance was summarised in terms of reliability, resilience, vulnerability and sustainability. It was found that Type F inflow situation produced the best performance while Type N was the worst performing. This clearly demonstrates the importance of good inflow information for effective reservoir operation.

  10. Facility design, construction, and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    France has been disposing of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Centre de Stockage de la Manche (CSM) since 1969 and now at the Centre de Stockage de l'Aube (CSA) since 1992. In France, several agencies and companies are involved in the development and implementation of LLW technology. The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomic (CEA), is responsible for research and development of new technologies. The Agence National pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs is the agency responsible for the construction and operation of disposal facilities and for wastes acceptance for these facilities. Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires provides fuel services, including uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, and fuel reprocessing, and is thus one generator of LLW. Societe pour les Techniques Nouvelles is an engineering company responsible for commercializing CEA waste management technology and for engineering and design support for the facilities. Numatec, Inc. is a US company representing these French companies and agencies in the US. In Task 1.1 of Numatec's contract with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Numatec provides details on the design, construction and operation of the LLW disposal facilities at CSM and CSA. Lessons learned from operation of CSM and incorporated into the design, construction and operating procedures at CSA are identified and discussed. The process used by the French for identification, selection, and evaluation of disposal technologies is provided. Specifically, the decisionmaking process resulting in the change in disposal facility design for the CSA versus the CSM is discussed. This report provides' all of the basic information in these areas and reflects actual experience to date

  11. River Stream-Flow and Zayanderoud Reservoir Operation Modeling Using the Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Jamali

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Zayanderoud basin is located in the central plateau of Iran. As a result of population increase and agricultural and industrial developments, water demand on this basin has increased extensively. Given the importance of reservoir operation in water resource and management studies, the performance of fuzzy inference system (FIS for Zayanderoud reservoir operation is investigated in this paper. The model of operation consists of two parts. In the first part, the seasonal river stream-flow is forecasted using the fuzzy rule-based system. The southern oscillated index, rain, snow, and discharge are inputs of the model and the seasonal river stream-flow its output. In the second part, the operation model is constructed. The amount of releases is first optimized by a nonlinear optimization model and then the rule curves are extracted using the fuzzy inference system. This model operates on an "if-then" principle, where the "if" is a vector of fuzzy permits and "then" is the fuzzy result. The reservoir storage capacity, inflow, demand, and year condition factor are used as permits. Monthly release is taken as the consequence. The Zayanderoud basin is investigated as a case study. Different performance indices such as reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability are calculated. According to results, FIS works more effectively than the traditional reservoir operation methods such as standard operation policy (SOP or linear regression.

  12. Modeling of reservoir operation in UNH global hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, Alexander; Prusevich, Alexander; Frolking, Steve; Glidden, Stanley; Lammers, Richard; Wisser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Climate is changing and river flow is an integrated characteristic reflecting numerous environmental processes and their changes aggregated over large areas. Anthropogenic impacts on the river flow, however, can significantly exceed the changes associated with climate variability. Besides of irrigation, reservoirs and dams are one of major anthropogenic factor affecting streamflow. They distort hydrological regime of many rivers by trapping of freshwater runoff, modifying timing of river discharge and increasing the evaporation rate. Thus, reservoirs is an integral part of the global hydrological system and their impacts on rivers have to be taken into account for better quantification and understanding of hydrological changes. We developed a new technique, which was incorporated into WBM-TrANS model (Water Balance Model-Transport from Anthropogenic and Natural Systems) to simulate river routing through large reservoirs and natural lakes based on information available from freely accessible databases such as GRanD (the Global Reservoir and Dam database) or NID (National Inventory of Dams for US). Different formulations were applied for unregulated spillway dams and lakes, and for 4 types of regulated reservoirs, which were subdivided based on main purpose including generic (multipurpose), hydropower generation, irrigation and water supply, and flood control. We also incorporated rules for reservoir fill up and draining at the times of construction and decommission based on available data. The model were tested for many reservoirs of different size and types located in various climatic conditions using several gridded meteorological data sets as model input and observed daily and monthly discharge data from GRDC (Global Runoff Data Center), USGS Water Data (US Geological Survey), and UNH archives. The best results with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient in the range of 0.5-0.9 were obtained for temperate zone of Northern Hemisphere where most of large

  13. Optimal reservoir operation policies using novel nested algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delipetrev, Blagoj; Jonoski, Andreja; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2015-04-01

    Historically, the two most widely practiced methods for optimal reservoir operation have been dynamic programming (DP) and stochastic dynamic programming (SDP). These two methods suffer from the so called "dual curse" which prevents them to be used in reasonably complex water systems. The first one is the "curse of dimensionality" that denotes an exponential growth of the computational complexity with the state - decision space dimension. The second one is the "curse of modelling" that requires an explicit model of each component of the water system to anticipate the effect of each system's transition. We address the problem of optimal reservoir operation concerning multiple objectives that are related to 1) reservoir releases to satisfy several downstream users competing for water with dynamically varying demands, 2) deviations from the target minimum and maximum reservoir water levels and 3) hydropower production that is a combination of the reservoir water level and the reservoir releases. Addressing such a problem with classical methods (DP and SDP) requires a reasonably high level of discretization of the reservoir storage volume, which in combination with the required releases discretization for meeting the demands of downstream users leads to computationally expensive formulations and causes the curse of dimensionality. We present a novel approach, named "nested" that is implemented in DP, SDP and reinforcement learning (RL) and correspondingly three new algorithms are developed named nested DP (nDP), nested SDP (nSDP) and nested RL (nRL). The nested algorithms are composed from two algorithms: 1) DP, SDP or RL and 2) nested optimization algorithm. Depending on the way we formulate the objective function related to deficits in the allocation problem in the nested optimization, two methods are implemented: 1) Simplex for linear allocation problems, and 2) quadratic Knapsack method in the case of nonlinear problems. The novel idea is to include the nested

  14. Designing adaptive operating rules for a large multi-purpose reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geressu, Robel; Rougé, Charles; Harou, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Reservoirs whose live storage capacity is large compared with annual inflow have "memory", i.e., their storage levels contain information about past inflows and reservoir operations. Such "long-memory" reservoirs can be found in basins in dry regions such as the Nile River Basin in Africa, the Colorado River Basin in the US, or river basins in Western and Central Asia. There the effects of a dry year have the potential to impact reservoir levels and downstream releases for several subsequent years, prompting tensions in transboundary basins. Yet, current reservoir operation rules in those reservoirs do not reflect this by integrating past climate history and release decisions among the factors that influence operating decisions. This work proposes and demonstrates an adaptive reservoir operating rule that explicitly accounts for the recent history of release decisions, and not only current storage level and near-term inflow forecasts. This implies adding long-term (e.g., multiyear) objectives to the existing short-term (e.g., annual) ones. We apply these operating rules to the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, a large reservoir under construction on the Blue Nile River. Energy generation has to be balanced with the imperative of releasing enough water in low flow years (e.g., the minimum 1, 2 or 3 year cumulative flow) to avoid tensions with downstream countries, Sudan and Egypt. Maximizing the minimum multi-year releases could be of interest for the Nile problem to minimize the impact on performance of the large High Aswan Dam in Egypt. Objectives include maximizing the average and minimum annual energy generation and maximizing the minimum annual, two year and three year cumulative releases. The system model is tested using 30 stochastically generated streamflow series. One can then derive adaptive release rules depending on the value of one- and two-year total releases with respect to thresholds. Then, there are 3 sets of release rules for the reservoir depending

  15. Completion of potential conflicts of interest through optimization of Rukoh reservoir operation in Pidie District, Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmeri, Hadihardaja, Iwan K.; Shaskia, Nina; Admaja, Kamal Surya

    2017-11-01

    Rukoh Reservoir's construction was planned to be built in Krueng Rukoh Watershed with supplet ion from Krueng Tiro River. Rukoh Reservoir operating system as a multipurpose reservoir raised potential conflict of interest between raw water and irrigation water. In this study, the operating system of Rukoh Reservoirs was designed to supply raw water in Titeu Sub-District and replenish water shortage in Baro Irrigation Area which is not able to be served by the Keumala Weir. Reservoir operating system should be planned optimally so that utilization of water in accordance with service area demands. Reservoir operation method was analyzed by using optimization technique with nonlinear programming. Optimization of reservoir operation is intended to minimize potential conflicts of interest in the operation. Suppletion discharge from Krueng Tiro River amounted to 46.62%, which was calculated based on ratio of Baro and Tiro irrigation area. However, during dry seasons, water demands could not be fully met, so there was a shortage of water. By considering the rules to minimize potential conflicts of interest between raw water and irrigation water, it would require suppletion from Krueng Tiro amounted to 52.30%. The increment of suppletion volume could minimize conflicts of interest. It produced l00% reservoir reliability for raw water and irrigation demands. Rukoh reservoir could serve raw water demands of Titeu Sub-District and irrigation demands of Baro irrigation area which is covering an area of 6,047 hectars. Reservoir operation guidelines can specify reservoir water release to balance the demands and the target storage.

  16. Optimizing Reservoir Operation to Adapt to the Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadgar, S.; Jung, I.; Moradkhani, H.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change and upcoming variation in flood timing necessitates the adaptation of current rule curves developed for operation of water reservoirs as to reduce the potential damage from either flood or draught events. This study attempts to optimize the current rule curves of Cougar Dam on McKenzie River in Oregon addressing some possible climate conditions in 21th century. The objective is to minimize the failure of operation to meet either designated demands or flood limit at a downstream checkpoint. A simulation/optimization model including the standard operation policy and a global optimization method, tunes the current rule curve upon 8 GCMs and 2 greenhouse gases emission scenarios. The Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) is used as the hydrology model to project the streamflow for the period of 2000-2100 using downscaled precipitation and temperature forcing from 8 GCMs and two emission scenarios. An ensemble of rule curves, each associated with an individual scenario, is obtained by optimizing the reservoir operation. The simulation of reservoir operation, for all the scenarios and the expected value of the ensemble, is conducted and performance assessment using statistical indices including reliability, resilience, vulnerability and sustainability is made.

  17. Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operation and Maintenance, 2006-2007 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellman, Jake; Dykstra, Tim [Shoshone-Paiute Tribes

    2009-05-11

    The Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operations and Maintenance (DV Fisheries) project is an ongoing resident fish program that serves to partially mitigate the loss of anadromous fish that resulted from downstream construction of the hydropower system. The project's goals are to enhance subsistence fishing and educational opportunities for Tribal members of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes and provide resident fishing opportunities for non-Tribal members. In addition to stocking rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Mountain View, Lake Billy Shaw, and Sheep Creek Reservoirs, the program is also designed to maintain healthy aquatic conditions for fish growth and survival, to provide superior facilities with wilderness qualities to attract non-Tribal angler use, and to offer clear, consistent communication with the Tribal community about this project as well as outreach and education within the region and the local community. Tasks for this performance period are divided into operations and maintenance plus monitoring and evaluation. Operation and maintenance of the three reservoirs include fences, roads, dams and all reservoir structures, feeder canals, water troughs and stock ponds, educational signs, vehicles and equipment, and outhouses. Monitoring and evaluation activities included creel, gillnet, wildlife, and bird surveys, water quality and reservoir structures monitoring, native vegetation planting, photo point documentation, control of encroaching exotic vegetation, and community outreach and education. The three reservoirs are monitored in terms of water quality and fishery success. Sheep Creek Reservoir was very unproductive this year as a fishery. Fish morphometric and water quality data indicate that the turbidity is severely impacting trout survival. Lake Billy Shaw was very productive as a fishery and received good ratings from anglers. Mountain View was also productive and anglers reported a high number of quality sized fish. Water quality

  18. River and Reservoir Operations Model, Truckee River basin, California and Nevada, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berris, Steven N.; Hess, Glen W.; Bohman, Larry R.

    2001-01-01

    The demand for all uses of water in the Truckee River Basin, California and Nevada, commonly is greater than can be supplied. Storage reservoirs in the system have a maximum effective total capacity equivalent to less than two years of average river flows, so longer-term droughts can result in substantial water-supply shortages for irrigation and municipal users and may stress fish and wildlife ecosystems. Title II of Public Law (P.L.) 101-618, the Truckee?Carson?Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990, provides a foundation for negotiating and developing operating criteria, known as the Truckee River Operating Agreement (TROA), to balance interstate and interbasin allocation of water rights among the many interests competing for water from the Truckee River. In addition to TROA, the Truckee River Water Quality Settlement Agreement (WQSA), signed in 1996, provides for acquisition of water rights to resolve water-quality problems during low flows along the Truckee River in Nevada. Efficient execution of many of the planning, management, or environmental assessment requirements of TROA and WQSA will require detailed water-resources data coupled with sound analytical tools. Analytical modeling tools constructed and evaluated with such data could help assess effects of alternative operational scenarios related to reservoir and river operations, water-rights transfers, and changes in irrigation practices. The Truckee?Carson Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, to support U.S. Department of the Interior implementation of P.L. 101-618, is developing a modeling system to support efficient water-resources planning, management, and allocation. The daily operations model documented herein is a part of the modeling system that includes a database management program, a graphical user interface program, and a program with modules that simulate river/reservoir operations and a variety of hydrologic processes. The operations module is capable of simulating lake

  19. Future changes in Mekong River hydrology: impact of climate change and reservoir operation on discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lauri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The transboundary Mekong River is facing two ongoing changes that are expected to significantly impact its hydrology and the characteristics of its exceptional flood pulse. The rapid economic development of the riparian countries has led to massive plans for hydropower construction, and projected climate change is expected to alter the monsoon patterns and increase temperature in the basin. The aim of this study is to assess the cumulative impact of these factors on the hydrology of the Mekong within next 20–30 yr. We downscaled the output of five general circulation models (GCMs that were found to perform well in the Mekong region. For the simulation of reservoir operation, we used an optimisation approach to estimate the operation of multiple reservoirs, including both existing and planned hydropower reservoirs. For the hydrological assessment, we used a distributed hydrological model, VMod, with a grid resolution of 5 km × 5 km. In terms of climate change's impact on hydrology, we found a high variation in the discharge results depending on which of the GCMs is used as input. The simulated change in discharge at Kratie (Cambodia between the baseline (1982–1992 and projected time period (2032–2042 ranges from −11% to +15% for the wet season and −10% to +13% for the dry season. Our analysis also shows that the changes in discharge due to planned reservoir operations are clearly larger than those simulated due to climate change: 25–160% higher dry season flows and 5–24% lower flood peaks in Kratie. The projected cumulative impacts follow rather closely the reservoir operation impacts, with an envelope around them induced by the different GCMs. Our results thus indicate that within the coming 20–30 yr, the operation of planned hydropower reservoirs is likely to have a larger impact on the Mekong hydrograph than the impacts of climate change, particularly during the dry season. On the other hand, climate change will

  20. SYSTEM OF STANDARTIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS ARRANGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleynik Pavel Pavlovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed article, management of construction operations is represented as a multi-level system; it is considered with the framework of projects including new construction, restructuring and overhaul of buildings and structures. The system of management of construction operations is to be composed of the following three constituent parts. They include a construction and assembling entity, project and operations, and a procurement base. Such matters as the quality of construction products, purchase (lease of building machinery and vehicles are incorporated into the level of the construction and assembling entity. The project level comprises such components of construction operations management as pre-construction preparation of a project, methods and forms of construction management, preparatory works, management of construction activities, real-time operations control, construction quality control, etc. The level of operations and the procurement base covers the needs for materials and equipment, their purchase and procurement, as well as the warehouse management. The main elements of the standardization system are identified. Standards of construction operations management are explained, including 1. General Provisions; 2. Preparation and performance of construction and assembling works; 3. New construction. Building site organization; 4. Demolition (dismantling of buildings and structures; 5. Rules of preparation for acceptance and commissioning of completed residential buildings. The prospects for the further development of the system of standardization of construction operations management are outlined

  1. Quantum heat engine operating between thermal and spin reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jackson S. S. T.; Gould, Tim; Carvalho, André R. R.; Bedkihal, Salil; Vaccaro, Joan A.

    2018-05-01

    Landauer's erasure principle is a cornerstone of thermodynamics and information theory [R. Landauer, IBM J. Res. Dev. 5, 183 (1961), 10.1147/rd.53.0183]. According to this principle, erasing information incurs a minimum energy cost. Recently, Vaccaro and Barnett [J. A. Vaccaro and S. M. Barnett, Proc. R. Soc. A 467, 1770 (2011), 10.1098/rspa.2010.0577] explored information erasure in the context of multiple conserved quantities and showed that the erasure cost can be solely in terms of spin angular momentum. As Landauer's erasure principle plays a fundamental role in heat engines, their result considerably widens the possible configurations that heat engines can have. Motivated by this, we propose here an optical heat engine that operates under a single thermal reservoir and a spin angular momentum reservoir coupled to a three-level system with two energy degenerate ground states. The proposed heat engine operates without producing waste heat and goes beyond the traditional Carnot engine where the working fluid is subjected to two thermal baths at different temperatures.

  2. The use of contained nuclear explosions to create underground reservoirs, and experience of operating these for gas condensate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovskij, O.L.; Myasnikov, K.V.; Leonov, E.A.; Romadin, N.M.; Dorodnov, V.F.; Nikiforov, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations on the creation of underground reservoirs by means of nuclear explosions have been going on in the Soviet Union for many years. In this paper the authors consider three main kinds of sites or formations that can be used for constructing reservoirs by this method, namely, low-permeable rocks, worked-out mines and rock salt formations. Formulae are given for predicting the mechanical effect of an explosion in rocks, taking their strength characteristics into account. Engineering procedures are described for sealing and restoring the emplacement holes, so that they can be used for operating the underground reservoir. Experience with the contruction and operation of a 50 000 m 3 gas-condensate reservoir in a rock salt formation is described. In the appendix to the paper a method is presented for calculating the stability of spherical cavities created by nuclear explosions in rock salt, allowing for the development of elasto-plastic deformations and creep

  3. Design and development of bio-inspired framework for reservoir operation optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvini, M. Sakthi; Amudha, T.

    2017-12-01

    Frameworks for optimal reservoir operation play an important role in the management of water resources and delivery of economic benefits. Effective utilization and conservation of water from reservoirs helps to manage water deficit periods. The main challenge in reservoir optimization is to design operating rules that can be used to inform real-time decisions on reservoir release. We develop a bio-inspired framework for the optimization of reservoir release to satisfy the diverse needs of various stakeholders. In this work, single-objective optimization and multiobjective optimization problems are formulated using an algorithm known as "strawberry optimization" and tested with actual reservoir data. Results indicate that well planned reservoir operations lead to efficient deployment of the reservoir water with the help of optimal release patterns.

  4. Construal operations of the English progressive construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2011-01-01

    present paper provides an overview of construal operations that are likely to be at play in the construction of the aspectual and actional meaning components of the progressive construction. The discussion also involves instances of the progressive construction, which display low semantic compatibility...

  5. Stochastic reservoir operation under drought with fuzzy objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, E.; Duckstein, L.

    1993-01-01

    Biojective reservoir operation under drought conditions is investigated using stochastic dynamic programming. As both objectives (irrigation water supply, water quality) can only be defined imprecisely, a fuzzy set approach is used to encode the decision maker (DM)'s preferences. The nature driven components are modeled by means of classical stage-state system analysis. The state is three dimensional (inflow memory, drought irrigation index, reservoir level); the decision vector elements are release and irrigation allocation. Stochasticity stems from the random nature of inflows and irrigation demands. The transition function includes a lag one inflow Markov model and mass balance equations. The human driven component is designed as a confluence of fuzzy objectives and constraints after Bellman and Zadeh. Fuzzy numbers are assessed to represent the DM's objectives by two different techniques, the direct one and indirect pairwise comparison. The real case study of the Neste river system in southwestern France is used to illustrate the approach; the result are compared to a classical sequential decision theoretical model derived earlier from the viewpoints of ease of modeling, computational efforts, plausibility and robustness of results

  6. Construction and operation costs of constructed wetlands treating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, Dimitra; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2014-01-01

    Design data from nine constructed wetlands (CW) facilities of various capacities (population equivalent (PE)) are used to estimate construction and operation costs, and then to derive empirical equations relating the required facility land area and the construction cost to PE. In addition, comparisons between the costs of CW facilities based on various alternative construction materials, i.e., reinforced concrete and earth structures (covered with either high density polyethylene or clay), are presented in relation to the required area. The results show that earth structures are economically advantageous. The derived equations can be used for providing a preliminary cost estimate of CW facilities for domestic wastewater treatment.

  7. A dimension reduction method for flood compensation operation of multi-reservoir system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, B.; Wu, S.; Fan, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple reservoirs cooperation compensation operations coping with uncontrolled flood play vital role in real-time flood mitigation. This paper come up with a reservoir flood compensation operation index (ResFCOI), which formed by elements of flood control storage, flood inflow volume, flood transmission time and cooperation operations period, then establish a flood cooperation compensation operations model of multi-reservoir system, according to the ResFCOI to determine a computational order of each reservoir, and lastly the differential evolution algorithm is implemented for computing single reservoir flood compensation optimization in turn, so that a dimension reduction method is formed to reduce computational complexity. Shiguan River Basin with two large reservoirs and an extensive uncontrolled flood area, is used as a case study, results show that (a) reservoirs' flood discharges and the uncontrolled flood are superimposed at Jiangjiaji Station, while the formed flood peak flow is as small as possible; (b) cooperation compensation operations slightly increase in usage of flood storage capacity in reservoirs, when comparing to rule-based operations; (c) it takes 50 seconds in average when computing a cooperation compensation operations scheme. The dimension reduction method to guide flood compensation operations of multi-reservoir system, can make each reservoir adjust its flood discharge strategy dynamically according to the uncontrolled flood magnitude and pattern, so as to mitigate the downstream flood disaster.

  8. Comparison of static and dynamic resilience for a multipurpose reservoir operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonovic, Slobodan P.; Arunkumar, R.

    2016-11-01

    Reliability, resilience, and vulnerability are the traditional risk measures used to assess the performance of a reservoir system. Among these measures, resilience is used to assess the ability of a reservoir system to recover from a failure event. However, the time-independent static resilience does not consider the system characteristics, interaction of various individual components and does not provide much insight into reservoir performance from the beginning of the failure event until the full performance recovery. Knowledge of dynamic reservoir behavior under the disturbance offers opportunities for proactive and/or reactive adaptive response that can be selected to maximize reservoir resilience. A novel measure is required to provide insight into the dynamics of reservoir performance based on the reservoir system characteristics and its adaptive capacity. The reservoir system characteristics include, among others, reservoir storage curve, reservoir inflow, reservoir outflow capacity, and reservoir operating rules. The reservoir adaptive capacity can be expressed using various impacts of reservoir performance under the disturbance (like reservoir release for meeting a particular demand, socioeconomic consequences of reservoir performance, or resulting environmental state of the river upstream and downstream from the reservoir). Another way of expressing reservoir adaptive capacity to a disturbing event may include aggregated measures like reservoir robustness, redundancy, resourcefulness, and rapidity. A novel measure that combines reservoir performance and its adaptive capacity is proposed in this paper and named "dynamic resilience." The paper also proposes a generic simulation methodology for quantifying reservoir resilience as a function of time. The proposed resilience measure is applied to a single multipurpose reservoir operation and tested for a set of failure scenarios. The dynamic behavior of reservoir resilience is captured using the system

  9. Construction of Nijenhuis operators and dendriform trialgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Leroux

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct Nijenhuis operators from particular bialgebras called dendriform-Nijenhuis bialgebras. It turns out that such Nijenhuis operators commute with TD-operators, a kind of Baxter-Rota operators, and are therefore closely related to dendriform trialgebras. This allows the construction of associative algebras, called dendriform-Nijenhuis algebras, made out of nine operations and presenting an exotic combinatorial property. We also show that the augmented free dendriform-Nijenhuis algebra and its commutative version have a structure of connected Hopf algebras. Examples are given.

  10. A real-time control framework for urban water reservoirs operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, S.; Goedbloed, A.; Schwanenberg, D.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water demand in urban areas is growing parallel to the worldwide urban population, and it is acquiring an increasing part of the total water consumption. Since the delivery of sufficient water volumes in urban areas represents a difficult logistic and economical problem, different metropolitan areas are evaluating the opportunity of constructing relatively small reservoirs within urban areas. Singapore, for example, is developing the so-called 'Four National Taps Strategies', which detects the maximization of water yields from local, urban catchments as one of the most important water sources. However, the peculiar location of these reservoirs can provide a certain advantage from the logistical point of view, but it can pose serious difficulties in their daily management. Urban catchments are indeed characterized by large impervious areas: this results in a change of the hydrological cycle, with decreased infiltration and groundwater recharge, and increased patterns of surface and river discharges, with higher peak flows, volumes and concentration time. Moreover, the high concentrations of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges can cause further water quality problems. In this critical hydrological context, the effective operation of urban water reservoirs must rely on real-time control techniques, which can exploit hydro-meteorological information available in real-time from hydrological and nowcasting models. This work proposes a novel framework for the real-time control of combined water quality and quantity objectives in urban reservoirs. The core of this framework is a non-linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme, which employs the current state of the system, the future discharges furnished by a predictive model and a further model describing the internal dynamics of the controlled sub-system to determine an optimal control sequence over a finite prediction horizon. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its reduced

  11. Enterprise risk management in international construction operations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xianbo; Low, Sui Pheng

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers an understanding of the implementation of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) for international construction operations. In an extended case study, it primarily focuses on Chinese construction firms (CCFs) based in Singapore. In this regard, the book explains the differences and similarities between Risk Management (RM), Project Risk Management (PRM) and ERM in the construction industry, and examines their linkages for international construction operations in a broader context. The explanation elaborates on how companies may adopt and implement RM, PRM and ERM as appropriate in their various operations, both in their home market as well as in overseas host markets. The book also reviews the whole spectrum of work relating to organizational behavior (OB) as one of the key underpinnings for companies to evaluate and implement ERM. It will benefit practitioners from the industry as well as academics interested in the implementation of ERM practices in international construction operat...

  12. Design and Construction of Dams, Reservoirs, and Balancing Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2003-01-01

    The general data presented in sections two and three gives an idea of the extreme diversity of the millions of very large or very small dams worldwide. Dam design and construction methods for the most usual types of large dams are presented and justified in section four. The possibility and usefulness of building as many dams in the 21. century as have been built in the 20. is analyzed in section six. (author)

  13. Measurement of Lake Roosevelt biota in relation to reservoir operations. 1991 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.R.; McDowell, A.C.; Scholz, A.T.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that would predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review program. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model included: quantification of impacts to phytoplankton, zooplanktons, benthic invertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; quantification of number, distribution, and use of fish food organisms in the reservoir by season; determination of seasonal growth of fish species as related to reservoir operations, prey abundance and utilization; and quantification of entrainment levels of zooplankton and fish as related to reservoir operations and water retention times. This report summarized the data collected on Lake Roosevelt for 1991 and includes limnological, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrate, fishery, and reservoir operation data. Discussions cover reservoir operation affect upon zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Reservoir operations brought reservoir elevations to a low of 1,221.7 in April, the result of power operations and a flood control shift from Dworshak Dam, in Idaho, to Grand Coulee Dam. Water retention times were correspondingly low reaching a minimum of 14.7 days on April 27th

  14. Measurement of Lake Roosevelt Biota in Relation to Reservoir Operations; 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Janelle R.; McDowell, Amy C.; Scholz, Allan T.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that would predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review program. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model included: quantification of impacts to phytoplankton, zooplanktons, benthic invertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; quantification of number, distribution, and use of fish food organisms in the reservoir by season; determination of seasonal growth of fish species as related to reservoir operations, prey abundance and utilization; and quantification of entrainment levels of zooplankton and fish as related to reservoir operations and water retention times. This report summarized the data collected on Lake Roosevelt for 1991 and includes limnological, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrate, fishery, and reservoir operation data. Discussions cover reservoir operation affect upon zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Reservoir operations brought reservoir elevations to a low of 1,221.7 in April, the result of power operations and a flood control shift from Dworshak Dam, in Idaho, to Grand Coulee Dam. Water retention times were correspondingly low reaching a minimum of 14.7 days on April 27th.

  15. Construction of vertex operators using operator formalism techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gato, B.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1989-01-01

    We derive vertex operators in oscillator form as an application of the conserved charges method developed by Vafa for the operator formalism in higher genus Riemann surfaces. This construction proves to be clear, direct and valid for the bosonic and fermionic strings as wells as for twisted strings on orbifolds. We discuss the method and construct vertex operators for the bosonic string moving on Z N orbifolds and for the fermionic string in the NSR formulation. (orig.)

  16. Operations Management on The Construction Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    this as a refreshing renewal and improvement of practical operations management at the site. However this paper will present a first step of development of a new approach to operations management at the building site, which at the same time builds on, and criticize lean construction for missing the point...... of the knowledge economy. This endeavour is carried out in two ways. First by a reading of the operations management literature. Juxtaposing this with lean construction extentions and the critique developed by other scholars. And also drawing on human resource management approaches. Second through a series......” scheme. In both directions it is revealed that the human resource and knowledge element of building processes is largely left untouched by lean construction methods. It is suggested to introduce at least two more dimensions of operations management at the site than the ones offered in lean construction...

  17. Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within Realistic Reservoir Operating Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on realistic policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level

  18. Nested algorithms for optimal reservoir operation and their embedding in a decision support platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delipetrev, B.

    2016-01-01

    Reservoir operation is a multi-objective optimization problem traditionally solved with dynamic programming (DP) and stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) algorithms. The thesis presents novel algorithms for optimal reservoir operation named nested DP (nDP), nested SDP (nSDP), nested reinforcement

  19. Constructing development and integrated coastal zone management in the conditions of the landslide slopes of Cheboksary water reservoir (Volga River)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonorova, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    Uncontrolled construction and insufficient accounting of engineering-geological and hydro-geological conditions of the coastal zone, intensified technogenic impact on sloping surfaces and active urbanization led to the emergence of serious problems and emergency situations on the coasts of many Volga reservoirs, including the Cheboksary reservoir, within Cheboksary urban district and adjacent territories of Chuvashia. This article is devoted to substantiation of the possibility of rational construction development of landslide slopes of the Cheboksary water reservoir.

  20. Effect of flow forecasting quality on benefits of reservoir operation - a case study for the Geheyan reservoir (China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Xiaohua; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to determine the effect of flow forecasting quality on the benefits of reservoir operation. The benefits are calculated in terms of the electricity generated, and the quality of the flow forecasting is defined in terms of lead time and accuracy of the forecasts. In

  1. Reservoir release patterns for hydropower operations at the Aspinall Unit on the Gunnison River, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, S.C.L.; Sedlacek, J.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the development of reservoir release patterns for the Aspinall Unit, which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal Reservoirs on the Gunnison River in Colorado. Release patterns were assessed for two hydropower operational scenarios--seasonally adjusted steady flows and seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flows--and three representative hydrologic years--moderate (1987), dry (1989), and wet (1983). The release patterns for the operational scenarios were developed with the aid of monthly, daily, and hourly reservoir operational models, which simulate the linked operation of the three Aspinall Unit reservoirs. Also presented are reservoir fluctuations and downstream water surface elevations corresponding to the reservoir release patterns. Both of the hydropower operational scenarios evaluated are based on the ecological research flows proposed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service for the Aspinall Unit. The first operational scenario allows only seasonally adjusted steady flows (no hourly fluctuations at any dam within one day), whereas the second scenario permits high fluctuating flows from Blue Mesa and Morrow Point Reservoirs during certain times of the year. Crystal Reservoir would release a steady flow within each day under both operational scenarios

  2. On-farm irrigation reservoirs for surface water storage in eastern Arkansas: Trends in construction in response to aquifer depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Reba, M. L.; Massey, J. H.; Adviento-Borbe, A.

    2017-12-01

    On-farm surface water storage reservoirs have been constructed to address declines in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial aquifer, the primary source of irrigation for most of the row crops grown in eastern Arkansas. These reservoirs and their associated infrastructure represent significant investments in financial and natural resources, and may cause producers to incur costs associated with foregone crop production and long-term maintenance. Thus, an analysis of reservoir construction trends in the Grand Prairie Critical Groundwater Area (GPCGA) and Cache River Critical Groundwater Area (CRCGA) was conducted to assist future water management decisions. Between 1996 and 2015, on average, 16 and 4 reservoirs were constructed per year, corresponding to cumulative new reservoir surface areas of 161 and 60 ha yr-1, for the GPCGA and the CRCGA, respectively. In terms of reservoir locations relative to aquifer status, after 1996, 84.5% of 309 total reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and 91.0% of 78 in the CRCGA were located in areas with remaining saturated aquifer thicknesses of 50% or less. The majority of new reservoirs (74% in the GPCGA and 63% in the CRCGA) were constructed on previously productive cropland. The next most common land use, representing 11% and 15% of new reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and CRCGA, respectively, was the combination of a field edge and a ditch, stream, or other low-lying area. Less than 10% of post-1996 reservoirs were constructed on predominately low-lying land, and the use of such lands decreased in both critical groundwater areas during the past 20 years. These disparities in reservoir construction rates, locations, and prior land uses is likely due to groundwater declines being first observed in the GPCGA as well as the existence of two large-scale river diversion projects under construction in the GPCGA that feature on-farm storage as a means to offset groundwater use.

  3. Restoring Natural Streamflow Variability by Modifying Multi-purpose Reservoir Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Multi-purpose reservoirs typically provide benefits of water supply, hydroelectric power, and flood mitigation. Hydroelectric power generations generally do not consume water. However, temporal distribution of downstream flows is highly changed due to hydro-peaking effects. Associated with offstream diversion of water supplies for municipal, industrial, and agricultural requirements, natural streamflow characteristics of magnitude, duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change is significantly altered by multi-purpose reservoir operation. Natural flow regime has long been recognized a master factor for ecosystem health and biodiversity. Restoration of altered flow regime caused by multi-purpose reservoir operation is the main objective of this study. This study presents an optimization framework that modifying reservoir operation to seeking balance between human and environmental needs. The methodology presented in this study is applied to the Feitsui Reservoir, located in northern Taiwan, with main purpose of providing stable water-supply and auxiliary purpose of electricity generation and flood-peak attenuation. Reservoir releases are dominated by two decision variables, i.e., duration of water releases for each day and percentage of daily required releases within the duration. The current releasing policy of the Feitsui Reservoir releases water for water-supply and hydropower purposes during 8:00 am to 16:00 pm each day and no environmental flows releases. Although greater power generation is obtained by 100% releases distributed within 8-hour period, severe temporal alteration of streamflow is observed downstream of the reservoir. Modifying reservoir operation by relaxing these two variables and reserve certain ratio of streamflow as environmental flow to maintain downstream natural variability. The optimal reservoir releasing policy is searched by the multi-criterion decision making technique for considering reservoir performance in terms of shortage ratio

  4. Measurement of Lake Roosevelt biota in relation to reservoir operations. Appendices 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.R.; McDowell, A.C.; Scholz, A.T.

    1991-01-01

    This report consists of appendices A-F containing the biological data which were collected from Lake Roosevelt, Washington. The data are to be used in the design of a computer model that would predict biological responses of reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review program. Major components of the model included: Quantification of impacts to phytoplankton, zooplanktons, benthic invertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; quantification of number, distribution, and use of fish food organisms in the reservoir by season; determination of seasonal growth of fish species as related to reservoir operations, prey abundance and utilization; and quantification of entrainment levels of zooplankton and fish as related to reservoir operations and water retention times

  5. Investigation of the effects of construction and stage filling of reservoirs on the environment and ecology: Preproject baseline. [Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, R. E. (Principal Investigator); Anderson, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results: (1) LANDSAT imagery can be used effectively as a baseline for detection of environmental change, resulting from construction of a major inland reservoir. (2) Forest cover can be observed adequately on two-band composite enlargements at a scale of 1:130,000. (3) Forest cover delineated on LANDSAT enlargements compares accurately with ground truth at a scale of 1:250,000. (4) A dual image mapping technique superimposing winter, summer, and spring scenes using the zoom transfer scope facilitates the determination. (5) The same technique can be used to detect changes in the project area, resulting from construction activities. (6) High altitude aircraft imagery can also be used to interpret changes in land use and forest type. (7) Construction operations can be more clearly detailed on the air photos than on LANDSAT imagery.

  6. Evaluation of reservoir operation strategies for irrigation in the Macul Basin, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Tinoco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study focus: An irrigation project is planned in the study basin for developing the agriculture as the main income in the region. The proposed water system comprises three large reservoirs damming the rivers Macul and Maculillo. The river basin planning and operation were investigated by modelling alternative reservoir operation strategies aiming at a sustainable balance between irrigation and river ecology by integrated reservoir/river management. New hydrological insights for the region: After simulation of long-term meteorological series in a model of the integrated water system, covering several historical extreme events, results indicate that the planned irrigation volumes are higher than the available water for a sustainable irrigation strategy. Two lines of action are suggested for reaching the target irrigation demands: design of a deficit irrigation system, and modifications to the reservoir's spillway height. Keywords: Reservoir operation, Conceptual model, Irrigation

  7. Effect of Streamflow Forecast Uncertainty on Real-Time Reservoir Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T.; Cai, X.; Yang, D.

    2010-12-01

    Various hydrological forecast products have been applied to real-time reservoir operation, including deterministic streamflow forecast (DSF), DSF-based probabilistic streamflow forecast (DPSF), and ensemble streamflow forecast (ESF), which represent forecast uncertainty in the form of deterministic forecast error, deterministic forecast error-based uncertainty distribution, and ensemble forecast errors, respectively. Compared to previous studies that treat these forecast products as ad hoc inputs for reservoir operation models, this paper attempts to model the uncertainties involved in the various forecast products and explores their effect on real-time reservoir operation decisions. In hydrology, there are various indices reflecting the magnitude of streamflow forecast uncertainty; meanwhile, few models illustrate the forecast uncertainty evolution process. This research introduces Martingale Model of Forecast Evolution (MMFE) from supply chain management and justifies its assumptions for quantifying the evolution of uncertainty in streamflow forecast as time progresses. Based on MMFE, this research simulates the evolution of forecast uncertainty in DSF, DPSF, and ESF, and applies the reservoir operation models (dynamic programming, DP; stochastic dynamic programming, SDP; and standard operation policy, SOP) to assess the effect of different forms of forecast uncertainty on real-time reservoir operation. Through a hypothetical single-objective real-time reservoir operation model, the results illustrate that forecast uncertainty exerts significant effects. Reservoir operation efficiency, as measured by a utility function, decreases as the forecast uncertainty increases. Meanwhile, these effects also depend on the type of forecast product being used. In general, the utility of reservoir operation with ESF is nearly as high as the utility obtained with a perfect forecast; the utilities of DSF and DPSF are similar to each other but not as efficient as ESF. Moreover

  8. Studies Regarding the Safety in Operation of Ezer Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Isabela

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The dam of the non-permanent reservoir Ezer, located on Jijia river is an earth dam with a maximum height of 6.18 m, which provides a global retention to the canopy of 10.330 million cubic meters. The dam founded on weak, muddy soils suffered in the years 1989 and 1992 downstream slope failures of the fillings. It was found that hydrostatic levels were high in the piezometric wells and that consolidation of the foundation soil was reduced. This paper presents a brief history of the dam and aspects regarding the behaviour monitoring of Ezer non-permanent reservoir during the years 2000-2012.

  9. Effects of Coordinated Operation of Weirs and Reservoirs on the Water Quality of the Geum River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Min Ahn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional weirs can be used to maintain water supply during dry seasons and to improve downstream water quality during drought conditions through discharge based on retained flux. Sixteen multifunctional weirs were recently constructed in four river systems as part of the Four Rivers Restoration Project. In this study, three multifunctional weirs in the Geum River Basin were investigated to analyze the environmental effects of multifunctional weir operation on downstream flow. To determine seasonal vulnerability to drought, the basin was evaluated using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI. Furthermore, the downstream flow regime and the effect on water quality improvement of a coordinated dam–multifunctional weir operation controlled by: (a a rainfall–runoff model; (b a reservoir optimization model; and (c a water quality model, were examined. A runoff estimate at each major location in the Geum River Basin was performed using the water quality model, and examined variation in downstream water quality depending on the operational scenario of each irrigation facility such as dams and weirs. Although the water quality was improved by the coordinated operation of the dams and weirs, when the discharged water quality is poor, the downstream water quality is not improved. Therefore, it is necessary to first improve the discharged water quality on the lower Geum River. Improvement of the water quality of main stream in the Geum River is important, but water quality from tributaries should also be improved. By applying the estimated runoff data to the reservoir optimization model, these scenarios will be utilized as basic parameters for assessing the optimal operation of the river.

  10. Measurement of Lake Roosevelt biota in relation to reservoir operations. Final report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voeller, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that will predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review Program. This study worked in conjunction with Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Project which investigated the effectiveness of two kokanee salmon hatcheries. This report summarized the data collected from Lake Roosevelt from 1993 and includes limnological, reservoir operation, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrate, experimental trawling, and net-pen rainbow trout tagging data. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model include quantification of impacts to zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times

  11. On the effect of operation of the hydropower plant on the water quality of Rapel reservoir, central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossel, V.; De La Fuente, A.

    2013-12-01

    Eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs is a common problem in systems with high incoming loads of nutrients. The consequent algae bloom related to the eutrophication alters the water quality and generates an incompatibility with the tourist and recreational activities. This study is focused on Rapel reservoir: an old, dentritic and monomictic reservoir, located in central Chile (34°S, 71.6°W), that has experienced numerous algae bloom events in the past years produced by high loads of nutrients, sediments and metals. This reservoir was originally constructed in 1968 for hydropower generation without environmental restrictions on its operation. Rapel is part of Chile's Central Interconnected System (SIC), and is controlled by an independent system operator (ISO) that decides the optimal allocation of water by minimizing the SIC's operation cost. As a result of this framework, Rapel reservoir operates based on a hydropeaking scheme, thus producing energy few hours a day while zero outflows are observed the remaining hours, impacting on Rapel river located downstream the reservoir. However, previous research showed that this hydropeaking has important effects on the hydrodynamic of the reservoir as well. Particularly, it enhances vertical mixing nears the dam, and reduces horizontal dispersion. Furthermore, hydropeaking defines the outflows water temperature, and the temperature profile near the dam. As a consequence of this role of hydropeaking on the hydrodynamics and mixing of Rapel reservoir, it is expected to be a link between hydropeaking and water quality. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of the operation of hydropower plant on the water quality of Rapel reservoir, for which the reservoir system is modeled using the three dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model ELCOM-CAEDYM. Field data to validate the results and to define boundary and initial conditions are available for the austral summer period of 2009-2010. Different scenarios of

  12. Model Development to Establish Integrated Operational Rule Curves for Hungry Horse and Libby Reservoirs - Montana, 1996 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marotz, Brian; Althen, Craig; Gustafson, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Hungry Horse and Libby dams have profoundly affected the aquatic ecosystems in two major tributaries of the Columbia River by altering habitat and water quality, and by imposing barriers to fish migration. In 1980, the U.S. Congress passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, designed in part to balance hydropower development with other natural resources in the Columbia System. The Act formed the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) who developed a program to protect, mitigate and enhance fish and wildlife on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Pursuant to the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program for the Columbia River System (1987), we constructed computer models to simulate the trophic dynamics of the reservoir biota as related to dam operation. Results were used to develop strategies to minimize impacts and enhance the reservoir and riverine fisheries, following program measures 903(a)(1-4) and 903(b)(1-5). Two FORTRAN simulation models were developed for Hungry Horse and Libby reservoirs located in northwestern Montana. The models were designed to generate accurate, short-term predictions specific to two reservoirs and are not directly applicable to other waters. The modeling strategy, however, is portable to other reservoir systems where sufficient data are available. Reservoir operation guidelines were developed to balance fisheries concerns in the headwaters with anadromous species recovery actions in the lower Columbia (Biological Rule Curves). These BRCs were then integrated with power production and flood control to reduce the economic impact of basin-wide fisheries recovery actions. These Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) were developed simultaneously in the Columbia Basin System Operation Review (SOR), the Council`s phase IV amendment process and recovery actions associated with endangered Columbia Basin fish species.

  13. The impact of foundation conditions on the design and construction of the Snake Lake Reservoir dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, G. D.

    1998-01-01

    Unique aspects of the design and construction of two small dams for the Snake Lake Reservoir Project and some of the lessons learned in the process are described. The outstanding feature of this project was that although relatively close together and in the same post-glacial channel, the foundations of the two dams were quite different. The West Dam had permeable silt, sand and gravel with deep bedrock, while the East Dam had impermeable high plastic clay and shallow bedrock as foundation. The challenge to the design was to develop a cross section that would work for both foundation conditions. The final design turned out to be an impermeable fill with toe berms accommodating the variability in the foundations. Instrumentation was used to determine when the second construction stage should commence. At the end of the construction, the reservoir was partially filled relying on the instrumentation to suggest when that would be safe enough to proceed without impacting the overall embankment stability. In the event, the West Dam foundation soils proved to be several orders of magnitude higher than estimated from grain size analyses, requiring installation of a relief valve after construction was completed. Apart from that, dam construction proceeded smoothly and the instrumentation performed as expected.12 refs., 7 figs

  14. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Owned and Operated Reservoirs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset shows maximum conservation pool or is a reasonable representation of the boundaries for reservoirs and lakes owned and operated by USACE. Data is from...

  15. The Improvement of Particle Swarm Optimization: a Case Study of Optimal Operation in Goupitan Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichen; Qin, Tao; Wang, Weiping; Lei, Xiaohui; Wu, Wenhui

    2018-02-01

    Due to the weakness in holding diversity and reaching global optimum, the standard particle swarm optimization has not performed well in reservoir optimal operation. To solve this problem, this paper introduces downhill simplex method to work together with the standard particle swarm optimization. The application of this approach in Goupitan reservoir optimal operation proves that the improved method had better accuracy and higher reliability with small investment.

  16. Development and operation of Northern Natural's aquifer gas storage reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, E V

    1969-01-01

    There are no depleted (or nondepleted) oil and gas fields in Northern Natural Gas Co.'s market area. Consequently, when the search was started for a possible underground field, the company had to resort to the possibility of locating a water-filled, porous-rock formation (aquifer) in a geological structure which would form a suitable trap for gas storage. Geological research and exploratory drilling was carried on in S. Minnesota, E. Nebraska, and W.-central Iowa. An area located about 40 miles northwest of Des Moines, Iowa, near Redfield, appeared to have the most desirable characteristics for development of a gas-storage field. Drilling of deep developmental wells was started in late 1953 on a double- plunging anticline. The geological structure is similar to that of many oil and gas fields, but the porous formations contained only fresh water. To date, 2 major reservoirs and a minor reservoir have been developed in this structure. As much as 120 billion cu ft has been stored in the 3 reservoirs which supplied 43 billion cu ft gas withdrawals this past season from a total of 85 wells. A second aquifer gas-storage field is under development in N.-central Iowa about 15 miles northeast of Ft. Dodge.

  17. Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operation and Maintenance, 2005-2006 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellman, Jake; Dykstra, Tim [Shoshone-Paiute Tribes

    2009-05-11

    The Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operations and Maintenance (DV Fisheries) project is an ongoing resident fish program designed to enhance both subsistence fishing, educational opportunities for Tribal members of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes, and recreational fishing facilities for non-Tribal members. In addition to stocking rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Mountain View, Lake Billy Shaw, and Sheep Creek Reservoirs, the program also intends to afford and maintain healthy aquatic conditions for fish growth and survival, to provide superior facilities with wilderness qualities to attract non-Tribal angler use, and to offer clear, consistent communication with the Tribal community about this project as well as outreach and education within the region and the local community. Tasks for this performance period are divided into operations and maintenance plus monitoring and evaluation. Operation and maintenance of the three reservoirs include fences, roads, dams and all reservoir structures, feeder canals, water troughs and stock ponds, educational signs, vehicles and equipment, and outhouses. Monitoring and evaluation activities included creel, gillnet, wildlife, and bird surveys, water quality and reservoir structures monitoring, native vegetation planting, photo point documentation, control of encroaching exotic vegetation, and community outreach and education. The three reservoirs are monitored in terms of water quality and fishery success. Sheep Creek Reservoir was the least productive as a result of high turbidity levels and constraining water quality parameters. Lake Billy Shaw trout were in poorer condition than in previous years potentially as a result of water quality or other factors. Mountain View Reservoir trout exhibit the best health of the three reservoirs and was the only reservoir to receive constant flows of water.

  18. Real-time reservoir operation considering non-stationary inflow prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Xu, W.; Cai, X.; Wang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Stationarity of inflow has been a basic assumption for reservoir operation rule design, which is now facing challenges due to climate change and human interferences. This paper proposes a modeling framework to incorporate non-stationary inflow prediction for optimizing the hedging operation rule of large reservoirs with multiple-year flow regulation capacity. A multi-stage optimization model is formulated and a solution algorithm based on the optimality conditions is developed to incorporate non-stationary annual inflow prediction through a rolling, dynamic framework that updates the prediction from period to period and adopt the updated prediction in reservoir operation decision. The prediction model is ARIMA(4,1,0), in which parameter 4 stands for the order of autoregressive, 1 represents a linear trend, and 0 is the order of moving average. The modeling framework and solution algorithm is applied to the Miyun reservoir in China, determining a yearly operating schedule during the period from 1996 to 2009, during which there was a significant declining trend of reservoir inflow. Different operation policy scenarios are modeled, including standard operation policy (SOP, matching the current demand as much as possible), hedging rule (i.e., leaving a certain amount of water for future to avoid large risk of water deficit) with forecast from ARIMA (HR-1), hedging (HR) with perfect forecast (HR-2 ). Compared to the results of these scenarios to that of the actual reservoir operation (AO), the utility of the reservoir operation under HR-1 is 3.0% lower than HR-2, but 3.7% higher than the AO and 14.4% higher than SOP. Note that the utility under AO is 10.3% higher than that under SOP, which shows that a certain level of hedging under some inflow prediction or forecast was used in the real-world operation. Moreover, the impacts of discount rate and forecast uncertainty level on the operation will be discussed.

  19. Intelligent control for modeling of real-time reservoir operation, part II: artificial neural network with operating rule curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John

    2005-04-01

    To bridge the gap between academic research and actual operation, we propose an intelligent control system for reservoir operation. The methodology includes two major processes, the knowledge acquired and implemented, and the inference system. In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA) and a fuzzy rule base (FRB) are used to extract knowledge based on the historical inflow data with a design objective function and on the operating rule curves respectively. The adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is then used to implement the knowledge, to create the fuzzy inference system, and then to estimate the optimal reservoir operation. To investigate its applicability and practicability, the Shihmen reservoir, Taiwan, is used as a case study. For the purpose of comparison, a simulation of the currently used M-5 operating rule curve is also performed. The results demonstrate that (1) the GA is an efficient way to search the optimal input-output patterns, (2) the FRB can extract the knowledge from the operating rule curves, and (3) the ANFIS models built on different types of knowledge can produce much better performance than the traditional M-5 curves in real-time reservoir operation. Moreover, we show that the model can be more intelligent for reservoir operation if more information (or knowledge) is involved.

  20. Studying Operation Rules of Cascade Reservoirs Based on Multi-Dimensional Dynamics Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many optimization models and methods are applied to the optimization of reservoir operation at present, the optimal operation decision that is made through these models and methods is just a retrospective review. Due to the limitation of hydrological prediction accuracy, it is practical and feasible to obtain the suboptimal or satisfactory solution by the established operation rules in the actual reservoir operation, especially for the mid- and long-term operation. In order to obtain the optimized sample data with global optimality; and make the extracted operation rules more reasonable and reliable, this paper presents the multi-dimensional dynamic programming model of the optimal joint operation of cascade reservoirs and provides the corresponding recursive equation and the specific solving steps. Taking Li Xianjiang cascade reservoirs as a case study, seven uncertain problems in the whole operation period of the cascade reservoirs are summarized after a detailed analysis to the obtained optimal sample data, and two sub-models are put forward to solve these uncertain problems. Finally, by dividing the whole operation period into four characteristic sections, this paper extracts the operation rules of each reservoir for each section respectively. When compared the simulation results of the extracted operation rules with the conventional joint operation method; the result indicates that the power generation of the obtained rules has a certain degree of improvement both in inspection years and typical years (i.e., wet year; normal year and dry year. So, the rationality and effectiveness of the extracted operation rules are verified by the comparative analysis.

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment of reservoir construction: new perspectives for restoration economy, and development: the Belo Monte Power Plant case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundisi, J G; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Tundisi, J E M

    2015-08-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment of reservoir construction can be viewed as a new strategic perspective for the economic development of a region. Based on the principles of a watershed approach a interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary systemic view including biogeophysiographical, economic and socio environmental studies the new vision of a EIA provides a basic substratum for the restoration economy and an advanced model for the true development much well ahead of the modernization aspects of the project of a reservoir construction.

  2. Efficient operation of a multi-purpose reservoir in Chile: Tradeoffs between irrigation and hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Olivares, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study proposes a method to develop efficient operational policies for a reservoir the southern Chile. The main water uses in this system are hydropower and irrigation, with conflicting seasonal demands. The conflict between these two uses is currently managed through a so-called "irrigation agreement" which defines a series of operational conditions on the reservoir by restricting volumes used for power production depending on reservoir storage level. Other than that, the reservoir operation is driven by cost-minimization over the power grid. Recent evidence shows an increasing degree of conflict in this basin, which suggests that the static approach of irrigation agreements, might no longer be appropriate. Moreover, this agreement could be revised in light of decreased water availability. This problem poses a challenge related to the spatial scope of analysis. Thus, irrigation benefits are driven by decisions made within the basin, whereas hydropower benefits depend on the operation of the entire power grid. Exploring the tradeoffs between these two water uses involves modeling both scales. The proposed methodology integrates information from both a grid-wide power operations model and a basin-wide agro-economic model into a decision model for optimal reservoir operation. The first model, a hydrothermal coordination tool, schedules power production by each plant in the grid, and allows capturing technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The agro-economic model incorporates economic features of irrigation in the basin, and allows obtaining irrigation water demand functions. Finally, the results of both models are integrated into a single model for optimal reservoir operation considering the tradeoffs between the two uses. The result of the joint operation of water resources, show a flexible coordination of uses, revealing the opportunity cost of irrigation, which it gives the possibility of negotiating transfers of water to

  3. Development of Future Rule Curves for Multipurpose Reservoir Operation Using Conditional Genetic and Tabu Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anongrit Kangrang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal rule curves are necessary guidelines in the reservoir operation that have been used to assess performance of any reservoir to satisfy water supply, irrigation, industrial, hydropower, and environmental conservation requirements. This study applied the conditional genetic algorithm (CGA and the conditional tabu search algorithm (CTSA technique to connect with the reservoir simulation model in order to search optimal reservoir rule curves. The Ubolrat Reservoir located in the northeast region of Thailand was an illustrative application including historic monthly inflow, future inflow generated by the SWAT hydrological model using 50-year future climate data from the PRECIS regional climate model in case of B2 emission scenario by IPCC SRES, water demand, hydrologic data, and physical reservoir data. The future and synthetic inflow data of reservoirs were used to simulate reservoir system for evaluating water situation. The situations of water shortage and excess water were shown in terms of frequency magnitude and duration. The results have shown that the optimal rule curves from CGA and CTSA connected with the simulation model can mitigate drought and flood situations than the existing rule curves. The optimal future rule curves were more suitable for future situations than the other rule curves.

  4. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  5. A prediction of Power Duration Curve from the Optimal Operation of the Multi Reservoirs System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahab Younis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available  This study aims of predication Power Duration Curves(PDC resulting from the optimal operation of the multi reservoirs system which comprises the reservoirs of Bakhma dam,Dokan dam and Makhool dam for the division of years over 30 years.Discrete Differential Dynamic Programming(DDDP has been employed to find the optimal operation of the said reservoirs.    PDC representing the relationship between the generated hydroelectric power and percentage of operation time equaled or exceeded . The importance of these curves lies in knowing the volume of electric power available for that percentage of operation time. The results have shown that the sum of yearly hydroelectric power for average Release and for the single operation was 5410,1604,2929(Mwfor the reservoirs of Bakhma, Dokan, Makhool dams, which resulted from the application of independent DDDP technology. Also, the hydroelectric power whose generation can be guranteed for 90% of the time is 344.91,107.7,188.15 (Mw for the single operation and 309.1,134.08,140.7 (Mw for the operation as a one system for the reservoirs of Bakhma, Dokan, and Makhool dams respectively.

  6. Biogas plants: Design, construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    At the big readiness of waste coming from the agricultural activities are looked for the production of Energy and Payments, the biogas like product of the organic decomposition under anaerobic conditions, their composition and characteristic. The elements that conform the design as the digester, the storage, the load tanks and it discharges and the conduction is described and analyzed. They are given a series of elements to obtain the characteristics of the system possible to place as: planning, calculations, evaluation, execution and operation. Lastly the steps are indicated that should be continued in the construction of the plant including planning for the work

  7. VIDRARU RESERVOIR, ROMANIA. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE HYDROTEHNICAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON THE UPPER COURSE OF ARGES RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ana MITITELU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Having an important hydrographic system, with a significant discharge potential and being located in a place that has all the forms of relief, the basin Arges is, at present, one of the most complex hydroelectric facilities from all the rivers with reservoirs in the country. Vidraru reservoir is the biggest of its 11 reservoirs. The information (data about the management of the water in Walachia dates from the year 1576, and the oldest writing about protection against floods is known as the “Ipsilantis canal”, which stated that the big waters of Dambovita river were deviated at Lunguletu in the riverbed of Ciorogarla rivulet and dates from 1774.The effects caused by the hydrotehnical constructions on the environment are numerous and profound, both positive and negative. In this essay, the analysis of the environmental impact of the hydrotehnical facilities on Arges River is made from two perspectives. The first method of analysis is the Water Directive 2000/60 and the second method is basd on a SWOT analysis, a method taken from the economy, but very efficient in establishing the current state, and also the perpective of this environemental impact.

  8. Incorporating teleconnection information into reservoir operating policies using Stochastic Dynamic Programming and a Hidden Markov Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sean; Galelli, Stefano; Wilcox, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Water reservoir systems are often affected by recurring large-scale ocean-atmospheric anomalies, known as teleconnections, that cause prolonged periods of climatological drought. Accurate forecasts of these events -- at lead times in the order of weeks and months -- may enable reservoir operators to take more effective release decisions to improve the performance of their systems. In practice this might mean a more reliable water supply system, a more profitable hydropower plant or a more sustainable environmental release policy. To this end, climate indices, which represent the oscillation of the ocean-atmospheric system, might be gainfully employed within reservoir operating models that adapt the reservoir operation as a function of the climate condition. This study develops a Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) approach that can incorporate climate indices using a Hidden Markov Model. The model simulates the climatic regime as a hidden state following a Markov chain, with the state transitions driven by variation in climatic indices, such as the Southern Oscillation Index. Time series analysis of recorded streamflow data reveals the parameters of separate autoregressive models that describe the inflow to the reservoir under three representative climate states ("normal", "wet", "dry"). These models then define inflow transition probabilities for use in a classic SDP approach. The key advantage of the Hidden Markov Model is that it allows conditioning the operating policy not only on the reservoir storage and the antecedent inflow, but also on the climate condition, thus potentially allowing adaptability to a broader range of climate conditions. In practice, the reservoir operator would effect a water release tailored to a specific climate state based on available teleconnection data and forecasts. The approach is demonstrated on the operation of a realistic, stylised water reservoir with carry-over capacity in South-East Australia. Here teleconnections relating

  9. Cascade reservoir flood control operation based on risk grading and warning in the Upper Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuejiao, M.; Chang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Flood risk reduction with non-engineering measures has become the main idea for flood management. It is more effective for flood risk management to take various non-engineering measures. In this paper, a flood control operation model for cascade reservoirs in the Upper Yellow River was proposed to lower the flood risk of the water system with multi-reservoir by combining the reservoir flood control operation (RFCO) and flood early warning together. Specifically, a discharge control chart was employed to build the joint RFCO simulation model for cascade reservoirs in the Upper Yellow River. And entropy-weighted fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was adopted to establish a multi-factorial risk assessment model for flood warning grade. Furthermore, after determining the implementing mode of countermeasures with future inflow, an intelligent optimization algorithm was used to solve the optimization model for applicable water release scheme. In addition, another model without any countermeasure was set to be a comparative experiment. The results show that the model developed in this paper can further decrease the flood risk of water system with cascade reservoirs. It provides a new approach to flood risk management by coupling flood control operation and flood early warning of cascade reservoirs.

  10. Constructed wetlands for pollution control: processes, performance, design and operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... Types of constructed wetland, major design parameters, role of vegetation, hydraulic patterns, loadings, treatment efficiency, construction, operation and maintenance costs are discussed in depth...

  11. Derivation of Optimal Operating Rules for Large-scale Reservoir Systems Considering Multiple Trade-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Lei, X.; Liu, P.; Wang, H.; Li, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Flood control operation of multi-reservoir systems such as parallel reservoirs and hybrid reservoirs often suffer from complex interactions and trade-off among tributaries and the mainstream. The optimization of such systems is computationally intensive due to nonlinear storage curves, numerous constraints and complex hydraulic connections. This paper aims to derive the optimal flood control operating rules based on the trade-off among tributaries and the mainstream using a new algorithm known as weighted non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (WNSGA II). WNSGA II could locate the Pareto frontier in non-dominated region efficiently due to the directed searching by weighted crowding distance, and the results are compared with those of conventional operating rules (COR) and single objective genetic algorithm (GA). Xijiang river basin in China is selected as a case study, with eight reservoirs and five flood control sections within four tributaries and the mainstream. Furthermore, the effects of inflow uncertainty have been assessed. Results indicate that: (1) WNSGA II could locate the non-dominated solutions faster and provide better Pareto frontier than the traditional non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) due to the weighted crowding distance; (2) WNSGA II outperforms COR and GA on flood control in the whole basin; (3) The multi-objective operating rules from WNSGA II deal with the inflow uncertainties better than COR. Therefore, the WNSGA II can be used to derive stable operating rules for large-scale reservoir systems effectively and efficiently.

  12. Applicability of adapted reservoir operation for water stress mitigation under dry year conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsson, O.; Ikramova, M.; Bauer, M.; Froebrich, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the conjunctive use of a deterministic water quality model and water balance criteria for supporting the assessment of simulation and to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed operation strategies. By this, the applicability of enhanced reservoir operation strategies addressing

  13. Evaluation of the operation of Yermasoyia surface and groundwater reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacovides, I.S.

    1988-07-01

    The environmental isotope technique has been used in conjunction with hydrochemical methods to study the conjunctive use of surface and groundwater in the Yermasoyia area of Cyprus. The isotopes used in this study are 18 O, 2 H and 3 H. The isotopically enriched water in the Yermasoyia dam is released periodically in order to study the movement of the released water. From the stable isotopes and tritium data, it became evident that two regions can be distinguished in the aquifer, the Upper part and the Delta area. The secondary aquifer on either side of the river valley does not appear to receive any water from the seepage of the dam. The overall tracer average velocity in the aquifer was computed to be 16±3m per day and this is equivalent to a permeability of 160m per day. Water bodies originating from low frequency spills have been identified at the coast on the basis of oxygen-18 and tritium. A successful simulation of the reservoir for 1985 increased the confidence in the water balance and was used to verify the quantities estimated for evaporation and seepage. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. AI techniques for optimizing multi-objective reservoir operation upon human and riverine ecosystem demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Ping; Chang, Fi-John; Chang, Li-Chiu; Herricks, Edwin E.

    2015-11-01

    Flow regime is the key driver of the riverine ecology. This study proposes a novel hybrid methodology based on artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for quantifying riverine ecosystems requirements and delivering suitable flow regimes that sustain river and floodplain ecology through optimizing reservoir operation. This approach addresses issues to better fit riverine ecosystem requirements with existing human demands. We first explored and characterized the relationship between flow regimes and fish communities through a hybrid artificial neural network (ANN). Then the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) was established for river flow management over the Shihmen Reservoir in northern Taiwan. The ecosystem requirement took the form of maximizing fish diversity, which could be estimated by the hybrid ANN. The human requirement was to provide a higher satisfaction degree of water supply. The results demonstrated that the proposed methodology could offer a number of diversified alternative strategies for reservoir operation and improve reservoir operational strategies producing downstream flows that could meet both human and ecosystem needs. Applications that make this methodology attractive to water resources managers benefit from the wide spread of Pareto-front (optimal) solutions allowing decision makers to easily determine the best compromise through the trade-off between reservoir operational strategies for human and ecosystem needs.

  15. Optimization of conventional rule curves coupled with hedging rules for reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghian, Mehrdad; Rosbjerg, Dan; Haghighi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    As a common approach to reservoir operating policies, water levels at the end of each time interval should be kept at or above the rule curve. In this study, the policy is captured using rationing of the target yield to reduce the intensity of severe water shortages. For this purpose, a hybrid...... to achieve the optimal water allocation and the target storage levels for reservoirs. As a case study, a multipurpose, multireservoir system in southern Iran is selected. The results show that the model has good performance in extracting the optimum policy for reservoir operation under both normal...... model is developed to optimize simultaneously both the conventional rule curve and the hedging rule. In the compound model, a simple genetic algorithm is coupled with a simulation program, including an inner linear programming algorithm. In this way, operational policies are imposed by priority concepts...

  16. Investigation on the effect of the reservoir variables and operational parameters on SAGD performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi Kiasari, H.; Naderifar, A. [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Petroleum Engineering Dept.; Sedaee Sola, B. [University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Engineering. Inst. of Petroleum Engineering], e-mail: sedaeesola@yahoo.com

    2010-04-15

    Steam injection is the most important thermal enhanced oil recovery method. One typical procedure is Steam- Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), which is a promising recovery process to produce heavy oil and bitumen. The method ensures a stable displacement of steam at economical rates by using gravity as the driving force and a pair of horizontal wells for injection/production. There are numerous studies done on SAGD in conventional reservoirs, but the majority of them focus on the investigation of the process in microscopic scale. In this study, we investigate the SAGD process with a preheating period, using steam circulation in well pair on a field scale. The synthetic homogenous model was constructed by CMG and simulated using the STARS module. The effects of operational parameters, such as preheating period, vertical well spacing, well pair length, steam quality and production pressure, and reservoir variables, such as rock porosity and permeability, vertical-to-horizontal permeability ratio, thermal conductivity of the formation and rock heat capacity, on the SAGD performance were investigated. The results show that the preheating period affects mainly the initial stages of production. Due to preheating, the well pair communication with the higher vertical distances is also established; therefore, there was no considerable difference between oil productions in various well spacing cases. As steam quality increases, the oil production in later production times also increases. At shorter well pair, more steam can be injected per unit length of well, but, on the other hand, the production well recovers less heated oil area; therefore the well pair length should be optimized in all cases. By decreasing the production well bottom-hole pressure, more heated oil in near well region is produced; therefore, the injected steam raises more in the depleted area. The results of the simulations show that very low permeability leads to a fully unsuccessful SAGD process. In the

  17. Complex relationship between seasonal streamflow forecast skill and value in reservoir operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. D. Turner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research effort has recently been directed at improving and operationalising ensemble seasonal streamflow forecasts. Whilst this creates new opportunities for improving the performance of water resources systems, there may also be associated risks. Here, we explore these potential risks by examining the sensitivity of forecast value (improvement in system performance brought about by adopting forecasts to changes in the forecast skill for a range of hypothetical reservoir designs with contrasting operating objectives. Forecast-informed operations are simulated using rolling horizon, adaptive control and then benchmarked against optimised control rules to assess performance improvements. Results show that there exists a strong relationship between forecast skill and value for systems operated to maintain a target water level. But this relationship breaks down when the reservoir is operated to satisfy a target demand for water; good forecast accuracy does not necessarily translate into performance improvement. We show that the primary cause of this behaviour is the buffering role played by storage in water supply reservoirs, which renders the forecast superfluous for long periods of the operation. System performance depends primarily on forecast accuracy when critical decisions are made – namely during severe drought. As it is not possible to know in advance if a forecast will perform well at such moments, we advocate measuring the consistency of forecast performance, through bootstrap resampling, to indicate potential usefulness in storage operations. Our results highlight the need for sensitivity assessment in value-of-forecast studies involving reservoirs with supply objectives.

  18. Hybrid Multi-Objective Optimization of Folsom Reservoir Operation to Maximize Storage in Whole Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharian, E.; Gailey, R.; Maples, S.; Azizipour, M.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Fogg, G. E.

    2017-12-01

    The drought incidents and growing water scarcity in California have a profound effect on human, agricultural, and environmental water needs. California experienced multi-year droughts, which have caused groundwater overdraft and dropping groundwater levels, and dwindling of major reservoirs. These concerns call for a stringent evaluation of future water resources sustainability and security in the state. To answer to this call, Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) was passed in 2014 to promise a sustainable groundwater management in California by 2042. SGMA refers to managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a key management option, especially in areas with high variation in water availability intra- and inter-annually, to secure the refill of underground water storage and return of groundwater quality to a desirable condition. The hybrid optimization of an integrated water resources system provides an opportunity to adapt surface reservoir operations for enhancement in groundwater recharge. Here, to re-operate Folsom Reservoir, objectives are maximizing the storage in the whole American-Cosumnes watershed and maximizing hydropower generation from Folsom Reservoir. While a linear programing (LP) module tends to maximize the total groundwater recharge by distributing and spreading water over suitable lands in basin, a genetic based algorithm, Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II), layer above it controls releases from the reservoir to secure the hydropower generation, carry-over storage in reservoir, available water for replenishment, and downstream water requirements. The preliminary results show additional releases from the reservoir for groundwater recharge during high flow seasons. Moreover, tradeoffs between the objectives describe that new operation performs satisfactorily to increase the storage in the basin, with nonsignificant effects on other objectives.

  19. Estimating irrigation water demand using an improved method and optimizing reservoir operation for water supply and hydropower generation: a case study of the Xinfengjiang reservoir in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for water due to growth of population and socioeconomic development in the past several decades has posed a worldwide threat to water supply security and to the environmental health of rivers. This study aims to derive reservoir operating rules through establishing a multi-objective optimization model for the Xinfengjiang (XFJ) reservoir in the East River Basin in southern China to minimize water supply deficit and maximize hydropower generation. Additionally, to enhance the estimation of irrigation water demand from the downstream agricultural area of the XFJ reservoir, a conventional method for calculating crop water demand is improved using hydrological model simulation results. Although the optimal reservoir operating rules are derived for the XFJ reservoir with three priority scenarios (water supply only, hydropower generation only, and equal priority), the river environmental health is set as the basic demand no matter which scenario is adopted. The results show that the new rules derived under the three scenarios can improve the reservoir operation for both water supply and hydropower generation when comparing to the historical performance. Moreover, these alternative reservoir operating policies provide the flexibility for the reservoir authority to choose the most appropriate one. Although changing the current operating rules may influence its hydropower-oriented functions, the new rules can be significant to cope with the increasingly prominent water shortage and degradation in the aquatic environment. Overall, our results and methods (improved estimation of irrigation water demand and formulation of the reservoir optimization model) can be useful for local watershed managers and valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  20. Total output operation chart optimization of cascade reservoirs and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Ji, Changming; Sun, Ping; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yanke

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new double nested model for cascade reservoirs operation optimization. • We use two methods to extract the output distribution ratio. • The adopted two methods perform better than the widely used methods at present. • Stepwise regression method performs better than mean value method on the whole. - Abstract: With the rapid development of cascade hydropower stations in recent decades, the cascade system composed of multiple reservoirs needs unified operation and management. However, the output distribution problem has not yet been solved reasonably when the total output of cascade system obtained, which makes the full utilization of hydropower resources in cascade reservoirs very difficult. Discriminant criterion method is a traditional and common method to solve the output distribution problem at present, but some shortcomings cannot be ignored in the practical application. In response to the above concern, this paper proposes a new total output operation chart optimization model and a new optimal output distribution model, the two models constitute to a double nested model with the goal of maximizing power generation. This paper takes the cascade reservoirs of Li Xianjiang River in China as an instance to obtain the optimal total output operation chart by the proposed double nested model and the 43 years historical runoff data, progressive searching method and progressive optimality algorithm are used in solving the model. In order to take the obtained total output operation chart into practical operation, mean value method and stepwise regression method are adopted to extract the output distribution ratios on the basis of the optimal simulation intermediate data. By comparing with discriminant criterion method and conventional method, the combined utilization of total output operation chart and output distribution ratios presents better performance in terms of power generation and assurance rate, which proves it is an effective

  1. Forecast Informed Reservoir Operations: Bringing Science and Decision-Makers Together to Explore Use of Hydrometeorological Forecasts to Support Future Reservoir Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, F. M.; Jasperse, J.

    2017-12-01

    Forecast Informed Reservoir Operations (FIRO) is a proposed strategy that is exploring inorporation of improved hydrometeorological forecasts of land-falling atmospheric rivers on the U.S. West Coast into reservoir operations. The first testbed for this strategy is Lake Mendocino, which is located in the East Fork of the 1485 mi2 Russian River Watershed in northern California. This project is guided by the Lake Mendocino FIRO Steering Committee (SC). The SC is an ad hoc committee that consists of water managers and scientists from several federal, state, and local agencies, and universities who have teamed to evaluate whether current or improved technology and scientific understanding can be utilized to improve water supply reliability, enhance flood mitigation and support recovery of listed salmon for the Russian River of northern California. In 2015, the SC created a detailed work plan, which included a Preliminary Viability Assessment, which has now been completed. The SC developed a vision that operational efficiency would be improved by using forecasts to inform decisions about releasing or storing water. FIRO would use available reservoir storage in an efficient manner by (1) better forecasting inflow (or lack of inflow) with enhanced technology, and (2) adapting operation in real time to meet the need for storage, rather than making storage available just in case it is needed. The envisioned FIRO strategy has the potential to simultaneously improve water supply reliability, flood protection, and ecosystem outcomes through a more efficient use of existing infrastructure while requiring minimal capital improvements in the physical structure of the dam. This presentation will provide an overview of the creation of the FIRO SC and how it operates, and describes the lessons learned through this partnership. Results in the FIRO Preliminary Viability Assessment will be summarized and next steps described.

  2. Simulation-optimization model of reservoir operation based on target storage curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-bin Fang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new storage allocation rule based on target storage curves. Joint operating rules are also proposed to solve the operation problems of a multi-reservoir system with joint demands and water transfer-supply projects. The joint operating rules include a water diversion rule to determine the amount of diverted water in a period, a hedging rule based on an aggregated reservoir to determine the total release from the system, and a storage allocation rule to specify the release from each reservoir. A simulation-optimization model was established to optimize the key points of the water diversion curves, the hedging rule curves, and the target storage curves using the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. The multi-reservoir water supply system located in Liaoning Province, China, including a water transfer-supply project, was employed as a case study to verify the effectiveness of the proposed join operating rules and target storage curves. The results indicate that the proposed operating rules are suitable for the complex system. The storage allocation rule based on target storage curves shows an improved performance with regard to system storage distribution.

  3. Impacts of operation of CVP regulating reservoirs on water temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vail, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets and transmits electric power throughout 15 western states. Western's Sierra Nevada Customer Service Region (Sierra Nevada Region) markets approximately 1,480 megawatts (MW) of firm power (and 100 MW of seasonal peaking capacity) from the Central Valley Project (CVP) and other sources and markets available nonfirm power from the Washoe Project. Western's mission is to sell and deliver electricity generated from CVP powerplants. The hydroelectric facilities of the CVP are operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation). Reclamation manages and releases water in accordance with the various acts authorizing specific projects and with enabling legislation. Western's capacity and energy sales must be in conformance with the laws that govern its sale of electrical power. Further, Western's hydropower operations at each facility must comply with minimum and maximum flows and other constraints set by Reclamation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, or other agencies, acting in accord with law or policy

  4. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Greg; Marotz, Brian L.; Dunnigan, James (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2002-09-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness.

  5. Assessing the operation rules of a reservoir system based on a detailed modelling-chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwier, M.; Erpicum, S.; Pirotton, M.; Archambeau, P.; Dewals, B.

    2014-09-01

    According to available climate change scenarios for Belgium, drier summers and wetter winters are expected. In this study, we focus on two muti-purpose reservoirs located in the Vesdre catchment, which is part of the Meuse basin. The current operation rules of the reservoirs are first analysed. Next, the impacts of two climate change scenarios are assessed and enhanced operation rules are proposed to mitigate these impacts. For this purpose, an integrated model of the catchment was used. It includes a hydrological model, one-dimensional and two-dimensional hydraulic models of the river and its main tributaries, a model of the reservoir system and a flood damage model. Five performance indicators of the reservoir system have been defined, reflecting its ability to provide sufficient drinking, to control floods, to produce hydropower and to reduce low-flow condition. As shown by the results, enhanced operation rules may improve the drinking water potential and the low-flow augmentation while the existing operation rules are efficient for flood control and for hydropower production.

  6. Assessing the operation rules of a reservoir system based on a detailed modelling chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwier, M.; Erpicum, S.; Pirotton, M.; Archambeau, P.; Dewals, B. J.

    2015-03-01

    According to available climate change scenarios for Belgium, drier summers and wetter winters are expected. In this study, we focus on two multi-purpose reservoirs located in the Vesdre catchment, which is part of the Meuse basin. The current operation rules of the reservoirs are first analysed. Next, the impacts of two climate change scenarios are assessed and enhanced operation rules are proposed to mitigate these impacts. For this purpose, an integrated model of the catchment was used. It includes a hydrological model, one-dimensional and two-dimensional hydraulic models of the river and its main tributaries, a model of the reservoir system and a flood damage model. Five performance indicators of the reservoir system have been defined, reflecting its ability to provide sufficient drinking water, to control floods, to produce hydropower and to reduce low-flow conditions. As shown by the results, enhanced operation rules may improve the drinking water potential and the low-flow augmentation while the existing operation rules are efficient for flood control and for hydropower production.

  7. Extraction of Static and Dynamic Reservoir Operation Rules by Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Akbari Alashti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the necessity of desirable operation of limited water resources and assuming the significant role of dams in controlling and consuming the surface waters, highlights the advantageous of suitable operation rules for optimal and sustainable operation of dams. This study investigates the hydroelectric supply of a one-reservoir system of Karoon3 using nonlinear programming (NLP, genetic algorithm (GA, genetic programming (GP and fixed length gen GP (FLGGP in real-time operation of dam considering two approaches of static and dynamic operation rules. In static operation rule, only one rule curve is extracted for all months in a year whereas in dynamic operation rule, monthly rule curves (12 rules are extracted for each month of a year. In addition, nonlinear decision rule (NLDR curves are considered, and the total deficiency function as the target (objective function have been used for evaluating the performance of each method and approach. Results show appropriate efficiency of GP and FLGGP methods in extracting operation rules in both approaches. Superiority of these methods to operation methods yielded by GA and NLP is 5%. Moreover, according to the results, it can be remarked that, FLGGP method is an alternative for GP method, whereas the GP method cannot be used due to its limitations. Comparison of two approaches of static and dynamic operation rules demonstrated the superiority of dynamic operation rule to static operation rule (about 10% and therefore this method has more capabilities in real-time operation of the reservoirs systems.

  8. Reservoir adaptive operating rules based on both of historical streamflow and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Pan; Wang, Hao; Chen, Jie; Lei, Xiaohui; Feng, Maoyuan

    2017-10-01

    Climate change is affecting hydrological variables and consequently is impacting water resources management. Historical strategies are no longer applicable under climate change. Therefore, adaptive management, especially adaptive operating rules for reservoirs, has been developed to mitigate the possible adverse effects of climate change. However, to date, adaptive operating rules are generally based on future projections involving uncertainties under climate change, yet ignoring historical information. To address this, we propose an approach for deriving adaptive operating rules considering both historical information and future projections, namely historical and future operating rules (HAFOR). A robustness index was developed by comparing benefits from HAFOR with benefits from conventional operating rules (COR). For both historical and future streamflow series, maximizations of both average benefits and the robustness index were employed as objectives, and four trade-offs were implemented to solve the multi-objective problem. Based on the integrated objective, the simulation-based optimization method was used to optimize the parameters of HAFOR. Using the Dongwushi Reservoir in China as a case study, HAFOR was demonstrated to be an effective and robust method for developing adaptive operating rules under the uncertain changing environment. Compared with historical or projected future operating rules (HOR or FPOR), HAFOR can reduce the uncertainty and increase the robustness for future projections, especially regarding results of reservoir releases and volumes. HAFOR, therefore, facilitates adaptive management in the context that climate change is difficult to predict accurately.

  9. Guiding rational reservoir flood operation using penalty-type genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chiu

    2008-06-01

    SummaryReal-time flood control of a multi-purpose reservoir should consider decreasing the flood peak stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage during typhoon seasons. This study proposes a reservoir flood control optimization model with linguistic description of requirements and existing regulations for rational operating decisions. The approach involves formulating reservoir flood operation as an optimization problem and using the genetic algorithm (GA) as a search engine. The optimizing formulation is expressed not only by mathematical forms of objective function and constraints, but also by no analytic expression in terms of parameters. GA is used to search a global optimum of a mixture of mathematical and nonmathematical formulations. Due to the great number of constraints and flood control requirements, it is difficult to reach a solution without violating constraints. To tackle this bottleneck, the proper penalty strategy for each parameter is proposed to guide the GA searching process. The proposed approach is applied to the Shihmen reservoir in North Taiwan for finding the rational release and desired storage as a case study. The hourly historical data sets of 29 typhoon events that have hit the area in last thirty years are investigated bye the proposed method. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the simplex method was performed. The results demonstrated that a penalty-type genetic algorithm could effectively provide rational hydrographs to reduce flood damage during the flood operation and to increase final storage for future usages.

  10. Monthly Optimal Reservoirs Operation for Multicrop Deficit Irrigation under Fuzzy Stochastic Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncertain monthly reservoirs operation and multicrop deficit irrigation model was proposed under conjunctive use of underground and surface water for water resources optimization management. The objective is to maximize the total crop yield of the entire irrigation districts. Meanwhile, ecological water remained for the downstream demand. Because of the shortage of water resources, the monthly crop water production function was adopted for multiperiod deficit irrigation management. The model reflects the characteristics of water resources repetitive transformation in typical inland rivers irrigation system. The model was used as an example for water resources optimization management in Shiyang River Basin, China. Uncertainties in reservoir management shown as fuzzy probability were treated through chance-constraint parameter for decision makers. Necessity of dominance (ND was used to analyse the advantages of the method. The optimization results including reservoirs real-time operation policy, deficit irrigation management, and the available water resource allocation could be used to provide decision support for local irrigation management. Besides, the strategies obtained could help with the risk analysis of reservoirs operation stochastically.

  11. Advanced construction management for lunar base construction - Surface operations planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    The study proposes a conceptual solution and lays the framework for developing a new, sophisticated and intelligent tool for a lunar base construction crew to use. This concept integrates expert systems for critical decision making, virtual reality for training, logistics and laydown optimization, automated productivity measurements, and an advanced scheduling tool to form a unique new planning tool. The concept features extensive use of computers and expert systems software to support the actual work, while allowing the crew to control the project from the lunar surface. Consideration is given to a logistics data base, laydown area management, flexible critical progress scheduler, video simulation of assembly tasks, and assembly information and tracking documentation.

  12. The role of predictive uncertainty in the operational management of reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Todini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the operational management of multi-purpose reservoirs, whose optimisation-based rules are derived, in the planning phase, via deterministic (linear and nonlinear programming, dynamic programming, etc. or via stochastic (generally stochastic dynamic programming approaches. In operation, the resulting deterministic or stochastic optimised operating rules are then triggered based on inflow predictions. In order to fully benefit from predictions, one must avoid using them as direct inputs to the reservoirs, but rather assess the "predictive knowledge" in terms of a predictive probability density to be operationally used in the decision making process for the estimation of expected benefits and/or expected losses. Using a theoretical and extremely simplified case, it will be shown why directly using model forecasts instead of the full predictive density leads to less robust reservoir management decisions. Moreover, the effectiveness and the tangible benefits for using the entire predictive probability density instead of the model predicted values will be demonstrated on the basis of the Lake Como management system, operational since 1997, as well as on the basis of a case study on the lake of Aswan.

  13. Assessing ecosystem effects of reservoir operations using food web-energy transfer and water quality models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, L.; Johnson, B.M.; Bartholow, J.; Hanna, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effects on the reservoir food web of a new temperature control device (TCD) on the dam at Shasta Lake, California. We followed a linked modeling approach that used a specialized reservoir water quality model to forecast operation-induced changes in phytoplankton production. A food web–energy transfer model was also applied to propagate predicted changes in phytoplankton up through the food web to the predators and sport fishes of interest. The food web–energy transfer model employed a 10% trophic transfer efficiency through a food web that was mapped using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Stable isotope analysis provided an efficient and comprehensive means of estimating the structure of the reservoir's food web with minimal sampling and background data. We used an optimization procedure to estimate the diet proportions of all food web components simultaneously from their isotopic signatures. Some consumers were estimated to be much more sensitive than others to perturbations to phytoplankton supply. The linked modeling approach demonstrated that interdisciplinary efforts enhance the value of information obtained from studies of managed ecosystems. The approach exploited the strengths of engineering and ecological modeling methods to address concerns that neither of the models could have addressed alone: (a) the water quality model could not have addressed quantitatively the possible impacts to fish, and (b) the food web model could not have examined how phytoplankton availability might change due to reservoir operations.

  14. Genetic Algorithm (GA Method for Optimization of Multi-Reservoir Systems Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Momtahen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A Genetic Algorithm (GA method for optimization of multi-reservoir systems operation is proposed in this paper. In this method, the parameters of operating policies are optimized using system simulation results. Hence, any operating problem with any sort of objective function, constraints and structure of operating policy can be optimized by GA. The method is applied to a 3-reservoir system and is compared with two traditional methods of Stochastic Dynamic Programming and Dynamic Programming and Regression. The results show that GA is superior both in objective function value and in computational speed. The proposed method is further improved using a mutation power updating rule and a varying period simulation method. The later is a novel procedure proposed in this paper that is believed to help in solving computational time problem in large systems. These revisions are evaluated and proved to be very useful in converging to better solutions in much less time. The final GA method is eventually evaluated as a very efficient procedure that is able to solve problems of large multi-reservoir system which is usually impossible by traditional methods. In fact, the real performance of the GA method starts where others fail to function.

  15. Environmental hedging: A theory and method for reconciling reservoir operations for downstream ecology and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L. E.; Lund, J. R.; Moyle, P. B.; Quiñones, R. M.; Herman, J. D.; O'Rear, T. A.

    2017-09-01

    Building reservoir release schedules to manage engineered river systems can involve costly trade-offs between storing and releasing water. As a result, the design of release schedules requires metrics that quantify the benefit and damages created by releases to the downstream ecosystem. Such metrics should support making operational decisions under uncertain hydrologic conditions, including drought and flood seasons. This study addresses this need and develops a reservoir operation rule structure and method to maximize downstream environmental benefit while meeting human water demands. The result is a general approach for hedging downstream environmental objectives. A multistage stochastic mixed-integer nonlinear program with Markov Chains, identifies optimal "environmental hedging," releases to maximize environmental benefits subject to probabilistic seasonal hydrologic conditions, current, past, and future environmental demand, human water supply needs, infrastructure limitations, population dynamics, drought storage protection, and the river's carrying capacity. Environmental hedging "hedges bets" for drought by reducing releases for fish, sometimes intentionally killing some fish early to reduce the likelihood of large fish kills and storage crises later. This approach is applied to Folsom reservoir in California to support survival of fall-run Chinook salmon in the lower American River for a range of carryover and initial storage cases. Benefit is measured in terms of fish survival; maintaining self-sustaining native fish populations is a significant indicator of ecosystem function. Environmental hedging meets human demand and outperforms other operating rules, including the current Folsom operating strategy, based on metrics of fish extirpation and water supply reliability.

  16. On the effects of adaptive reservoir operating rules in hydrological physically-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, Federico; Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Recent years have seen a significant increase of the human influence on the natural systems both at the global and local scale. Accurately modeling the human component and its interaction with the natural environment is key to characterize the real system dynamics and anticipate future potential changes to the hydrological regimes. Modern distributed, physically-based hydrological models are able to describe hydrological processes with high level of detail and high spatiotemporal resolution. Yet, they lack in sophistication for the behavior component and human decisions are usually described by very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the catchment dynamics. In the case of water reservoir operators, these simplistic rules usually consist of target-level rule curves, which represent the average historical level trajectory. Whilst these rules can reasonably reproduce the average seasonal water volume shifts due to the reservoirs' operation, they cannot properly represent peculiar conditions, which influence the actual reservoirs' operation, e.g., variations in energy price or water demand, dry or wet meteorological conditions. Moreover, target-level rule curves are not suitable to explore the water system response to climate and socio economic changing contexts, because they assume a business-as-usual operation. In this work, we quantitatively assess how the inclusion of adaptive reservoirs' operating rules into physically-based hydrological models contribute to the proper representation of the hydrological regime at the catchment scale. In particular, we contrast target-level rule curves and detailed optimization-based behavioral models. We, first, perform the comparison on past observational records, showing that target-level rule curves underperform in representing the hydrological regime over multiple time scales (e.g., weekly, seasonal, inter-annual). Then, we compare how future hydrological changes are affected by the two modeling

  17. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications particularly for

  18. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  19. An Analytical Method for Deriving Reservoir Operation Curves to Maximize Social Benefits from Multiple Uses of Water in the Willamette River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K. M.; Jaeger, W. K.; Jones, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    A central characteristic of large river basins in the western US is the spatial and temporal disjunction between the supply of and demand for water. Water sources are typically concentrated in forested mountain regions distant from municipal and agricultural water users, while precipitation is super-abundant in winter and deficient in summer. To cope with these disparities, systems of reservoirs have been constructed throughout the West. These reservoir systems are managed to serve two main competing purposes: to control flooding during winter and spring, and to store spring runoff and deliver it to populated, agricultural valleys during the summer. The reservoirs also provide additional benefits, including recreation, hydropower and instream flows for stream ecology. Since the storage capacity of the reservoirs cannot be used for both flood control and storage at the same time, these uses are traded-off during spring, as the most important, or dominant use of the reservoir, shifts from buffering floods to storing water for summer use. This tradeoff is expressed in the operations rule curve, which specifies the maximum level to which a reservoir can be filled throughout the year, apart from real-time flood operations. These rule curves were often established at the time a reservoir was built. However, climate change and human impacts may be altering the timing and amplitude of flood events and water scarcity is expected to intensify with anticipated changes in climate, land cover and population. These changes imply that reservoir management using current rule curves may not match future societal values for the diverse uses of water from reservoirs. Despite a broad literature on mathematical optimization for reservoir operation, these methods are not often used because they 1) simplify the hydrologic system, raising doubts about the real-world applicability of the solutions, 2) exhibit perfect foresight and assume stationarity, whereas reservoir operators face

  20. An effective streamflow process model for optimal reservoir operation using stochastic dual dynamic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Raso , L.; Malaterre , P.O.; Bader , J.C.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This article presents an innovative streamflow process model for use in reservoir operational rule design in stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP). Model features, which can be applied independently, are (1) a multiplicative process model for the forward phase and its linearized version for the backward phase; and (2) a nonuniform time-step length that is inversely proportional to seasonal variability. The advantages are (1) guaranteeing positive streamflow values...

  1. Efficient Operation of a Multi-purpose Reservoir in Chile: Integration of Economic Water Value for Irrigation and Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, M. A.; Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Moreno, R.

    2016-12-01

    Operation of hydropower reservoirs in Chile is prescribed by an Independent Power System Operator. This study proposes a methodology that integrates power grid operations planning with basin-scale multi-use reservoir operations planning. The aim is to efficiently manage a multi-purpose reservoir, in which hydroelectric generation is competing with other water uses, most notably irrigation. Hydropower and irrigation are competing water uses due to a seasonality mismatch. Currently, the operation of multi-purpose reservoirs with substantial power capacity is prescribed as the result of a grid-wide cost-minimization model which takes irrigation requirements as constraints. We propose advancing in the economic co-optimization of reservoir water use for irrigation and hydropower at the basin level, by explicitly introducing the economic value of water for irrigation represented by a demand function for irrigation water. The proposed methodology uses the solution of a long-term grid-wide operations planning model, a stochastic dual dynamic program (SDDP), to obtain the marginal benefit function for water use in hydropower. This marginal benefit corresponds to the energy price in the power grid as a function of the water availability in the reservoir and the hydrologic scenarios. This function allows capture technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoir in the power grid and is generated with the dual variable of the power-balance constraint, the optimal reservoir operation and the hydrologic scenarios used in SDDP. The economic value of water for irrigation and hydropower are then integrated into a basin scale stochastic dynamic program, from which stored water value functions are derived. These value functions are then used to re-optimize reservoir operations under several inflow scenarios.

  2. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, Jay; Garrow, Larry (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2005-06-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) uses a combination of techniques to collect physical and biological data within the Kootenai River Basin. These data serve several purposes including: the development and refinement of models used in management of water resources and operation of Libby Dam; investigations into the limiting factors of native fish populations, gathering basic life history information, tracking trends in endangered and threatened species, and the assessment of restoration or management activities designed to restore native fishes and their habitats.

  3. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, Jay; Garrow, Larry (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2004-06-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan. Montana FWP uses a combination of diverse techniques to collect a variety of physical and biological data within the Kootenai River Basin. These data serve several purposes including: the development and refinement of models used in management of water resources and operation of Libby Dam; investigations into the limiting factors of native fish populations, gathering basic life history information, tracking trends in endangered, threatened species, and the assessment of restoration or management activities intended to restore native fishes and their habitats.

  4. Reservoir operation using El Niño forecasts-case study of Daule Peripa and Baba, Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelati, Emiliano; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Reservoir operation is studied for the Daule Peripa and Baba system in Ecuador, where El Niño events cause anomalously heavy precipitation. Reservoir inflow is modelled by a Markov-switching model using El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indices as input. Inflow is forecast using 9-month lead time...... Reservoir. Optimized operation is compared to historical management of Daule Peripa. Hypothetical management scenarios are used as the benchmark for the planned system, for which no operation policy is known. Upper bounds for operational performance are found via dynamic programming by assuming perfect...... knowledge of future inflow. The results highlight the advantages of combining inflow forecasts and storage targets in reservoir operation. © 2014 © 2014 IAHS Press....

  5. Knowledge transfer from building operation to construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Chatzilazarou, Stamatia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how knowledge that derives from operation and maintenance of buildings can be stored and transferred in order to be reused in a future building project? Design/methodology/approach: The paper is theoretically based on knowledge management with a particular focus...... on interdepartmental knowledge transfer between departments responsible for operation and management and departments responsible for building projects in organisations with large and fast changing building portfolios. The paper includes a case study of the FM organisation of the Technical University of Denmark...... with data collection mainly by interviews with managers and staff in the relevant departments in this organisation. Findings: The case organisation seems to be aware of the importance of sharing and transferring their organisational knowledge. Over the last five years, the organisation has developed...

  6. Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Swalley U.S. Department of State, Overseas Buildings Operations Toby Wilson U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineer R&D Center Jeff Wix AEC3 The...exchanged in COBIE. To map those information exchanges to the IFC model, the Information Delivery Manual (IDM) process [ Wix 2007] was also used. The...Folksonomy. Wikimedia Foundation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folksonomy/, accessed 3 August 2007. Wix , Jeffrey. 2007. Information Delivery Manual

  7. Operation of Dokan Reservoir under Stochastic Conditions as Regards the Inflows and the Energy Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, G. I.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presented a way of obtaining certain operating rules on time steps for the management of a large reservoir operation with a peak hydropower plant associated to it. The rules were allowed to have the form of non-linear regression equations which link a decision variable (here the water volume in the reservoir at the end of the time step) by several parameters influencing it. This paper considered the Dokan hydroelectric development KR-Iraq, which operation data are available for. It was showing that both the monthly average inflows and the monthly power demands are random variables. A model of deterministic dynamic programming intending the minimization of the total amount of the squares differences between the demanded energy and the generated energy is run with a multitude of annual scenarios of inflows and monthly required energies. The operating rules achieved allow the efficient and safe management of the operation and it is quietly and accurately known the forecast of the inflow and of the energy demand on the next time step.

  8. Dokan Hydropower Reservoir Operation under Stochastic Conditions as Regards the Inflows and the Energy Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izat Rashed, Ghamgeen

    2018-03-01

    This paper presented a way of obtaining certain operating rules on time steps for the management of a large reservoir operation with a peak hydropower plant associated to it. The rules were allowed to have the form of non-linear regression equations which link a decision variable (here the water volume in the reservoir at the end of the time step) by several parameters influencing it. This paper considered the Dokan hydroelectric development KR-Iraq, which operation data are available for. It was showing that both the monthly average inflows and the monthly power demands are random variables. A model of deterministic dynamic programming intending the minimization of the total amount of the squares differences between the demanded energy and the generated energy is run with a multitude of annual scenarios of inflows and monthly required energies. The operating rules achieved allow the efficient and safe management of the operation and it is quietly and accurately known the forecast of the inflow and of the energy demand on the next time step.

  9. Integrating desalination to reservoir operation to increase redundancy for more secure water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Rashi; Ng, Tze Ling

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the potential of integrating desalination to existing reservoir systems to mitigate supply uncertainty. Desalinated seawater and wastewater are relatively reliable but expensive. Water from natural resources like reservoirs is generally cheaper but climate sensitive. We propose combining the operation of a reservoir and seawater and wastewater desalination plants for an overall system that is less vulnerable to scarcity and uncertainty, while constraining total cost. The joint system is modeled as a multiobjective optimization problem with the double objectives of minimizing risk and vulnerability, subject to a minimum limit on resilience. The joint model is applied to two cases, one based on the climate and demands of a location in India and the other of a location in California. The results for the Indian case indicate that it is possible for the joint system to reduce risk and vulnerability to zero given a budget increase of 20-120% under current climate conditions and 30-150% under projected future conditions. For the Californian case, this would require budget increases of 20-80% and 30-140% under current and future conditions, respectively. Further, our analysis shows a two-way interaction between the reservoir and desalination plants where the optimal operation of the former is just as much affected by the latter as the latter by the former. This highlights the importance of an integrated management approach. This study contributes to a greater quantitative understanding of desalination as a redundancy measure for adapting water supply infrastructures for a future of greater scarcity and uncertainty.

  10. AP1000 construction and operating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, J.W.; Corletti, M.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Thompson, M

    2001-07-01

    Market analysis of the U.S. electricity generating market indicates that the generating cost of competitive new generating capacity must be less than $0.03/kw-hr. When such factors as an attractive return on investment and payback period are considered for a new nuclear electric generating facility, this results in the requirement to have an overnight capital cost of approximately $1000/kw. Industry executives indicate that any new nuclear plant must be able to compete in the de-regulated generation wholesale marketplace and provide a return to the shareholders. Against this standard, the costs of advanced nuclear power plants currently available are still too high. In the United States, the Utility Requirements Document for advanced light water reactor plants included a cost goal that was based on the cost of coal generated electricity at the time the document was written. Since that time, the cost of new generating capacity and the overall operating cost of generating electricity has gone down. This is a result of low natural gas prices, more efficient plants in general and the current record breaking reductions in outage times and operating costs for nuclear plants. The plant designs resulting from the United States advanced light water reactor plant programs received Design Certification from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Some are being deployed, with variations, in countries other than the United States. But they can not compete today with other sources of central station generation in the United States. (author)

  11. AP1000 construction and operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.W.; Corletti, M.M.; Thompson, M.

    2001-01-01

    Market analysis of the U.S. electricity generating market indicates that the generating cost of competitive new generating capacity must be less than $0.03/kw-hr. When such factors as an attractive return on investment and payback period are considered for a new nuclear electric generating facility, this results in the requirement to have an overnight capital cost of approximately $1000/kw. Industry executives indicate that any new nuclear plant must be able to compete in the de-regulated generation wholesale marketplace and provide a return to the shareholders. Against this standard, the costs of advanced nuclear power plants currently available are still too high. In the United States, the Utility Requirements Document for advanced light water reactor plants included a cost goal that was based on the cost of coal generated electricity at the time the document was written. Since that time, the cost of new generating capacity and the overall operating cost of generating electricity has gone down. This is a result of low natural gas prices, more efficient plants in general and the current record breaking reductions in outage times and operating costs for nuclear plants. The plant designs resulting from the United States advanced light water reactor plant programs received Design Certification from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Some are being deployed, with variations, in countries other than the United States. But they can not compete today with other sources of central station generation in the United States. (author)

  12. Investigation on Reservoir Operation of Agricultural Water Resources Management for Drought Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Investigation on Reservoir Operation of Agricultural Water Resources Management for Drought Mitigation Chung-Lien Cheng, Wen-Ping Tsai, Fi-John Chang* Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Da-An District, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC.Corresponding author: Fi-John Chang (changfj@ntu.edu.tw) AbstractIn Taiwan, the population growth and economic development has led to considerable and increasing demands for natural water resources in the last decades. Under such condition, water shortage problems have frequently occurred in northern Taiwan in recent years such that water is usually transferred from irrigation sectors to public sectors during drought periods. Facing the uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and the problems of increasing water shortages, it is a primary and critical issue to simultaneously satisfy multiple water uses through adequate reservoir operations for sustainable water resources management. Therefore, we intend to build an intelligent reservoir operation system for the assessment of agricultural water resources management strategy in response to food security during drought periods. This study first uses the grey system to forecast the agricultural water demand during February and April for assessing future agricultural water demands. In the second part, we build an intelligent water resources system by using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II), an optimization tool, for searching the water allocation series based on different water demand scenarios created from the first part to optimize the water supply operation for different water sectors. The results can be a reference guide for adequate agricultural water resources management during drought periods. Keywords: Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II); Grey System; Optimization; Agricultural Water Resources Management.

  13. Reservoir operations under climate change: Storage capacity options to mitigate risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Nima; Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Fekete, Balázs M.; Stakhiv, Eugene Z.

    2017-12-01

    Observed changes in precipitation patterns, rising surface temperature, increases in frequency and intensity of floods and droughts, widespread melting of ice, and reduced snow cover are some of the documented hydrologic changes associated with global climate change. Climate change is therefore expected to affect the water supply-demand balance in the Northeast United States and challenge existing water management strategies. The hydrological implications of future climate will affect the design capacity and operating characteristics of dams. The vulnerability of water resources systems to floods and droughts will increase, and the trade-offs between reservoir releases to maintain flood control storage, drought resilience, ecological flow, human water demand, and energy production should be reconsidered. We used a Neural Networks based General Reservoir Operation Scheme to estimate the implications of climate change for dams on a regional scale. This dynamic daily reservoir module automatically adapts to changes in climate and re-adjusts the operation of dams based on water storage level, timing, and magnitude of incoming flows. Our findings suggest that the importance of dams in providing water security in the region will increase. We create an indicator of the Effective Degree of Regulation (EDR) by dams on water resources and show that it is expected to increase, particularly during drier months of year, simply as a consequence of projected climate change. The results also indicate that increasing the size and number of dams, in addition to modifying their operations, may become necessary to offset the vulnerabilities of water resources systems to future climate uncertainties. This is the case even without considering the likely increase in future water demand, especially in the most densely populated regions of the Northeast.

  14. Libby Mitigation Program, 2007 Annual Progress Report: Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, J.; Garrow, L.

    2009-05-26

    and fish habitat in basin streams and lakes. 'Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan.

  15. Development of a Reservoir System Operation Model for Water Sustainability in the Yaqui River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounir, A.; Che, D.; Robles-Morua, A.; Kauneckis, D.

    2017-12-01

    The arid state of Sonora, Mexico underwent the Sonora SI project to provide additional water supply to the capital of Hermosillo. The main component of the project involves an interbasin transfer from the Yaqui River Basin (YRB) to the Sonora River Basin via the Independencia aqueduct. This project has generated conflicts over water among different social sectors in the YRB. To improve the management of the Yaqui reservoir system, we developed a daily watershed model. This model allowed us to predict the amount of water available in different regions of the basin. We integrated this simulation to an optimization model which calculates the best water allocation according to water rights established in Mexico's National Water Law. We compared different precipitation forcing scenarios: (1) a network of ground observations from Mexican water agencies during the historical period of 1980-2013, (2) gridded fields from the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at 12 km resolution, and (3) we will be studying a future forecast scenario. The simulation results were compared to historical observations at the three reservoirs existing in the YRB to generate confidence in the simulation tools. Our results are presented in the form of flow duration, reliability and exceedance frequency curves that are commonly used in the water management agencies. Through this effort, we anticipate building confidence among regional stakeholders in utilizing hydrological models in the development of reservoir operation policies.

  16. Effects of bubbling operations on a thermally stratified reservoir: implications for water quality amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, R L; Bonansea, M; Cosavella, A; Monarde, F; Ferreyra, M; Bresciano, J

    2012-01-01

    Artificial thermal mixing of the water column is a common method of addressing water quality problems with the most popular method of destratification being the bubble curtain. The air or oxygen distribution along submerged multiport diffusers is based on similar basic principles as those of outfall disposal systems. Moreover, the disposal of sequestered greenhouse gases into the ocean, as recently proposed by several researchers to mitigate the global warming problem, requires analogous design criteria. In this paper, the influence of a bubble-plume is evaluated using full-scale temperature and water quality data collected in San Roque Reservoir, Argentina. A composite system consisting of seven separated diffusers connected to four 500 kPa compressors was installed at this reservoir by the end of 2008. The original purpose of this air bubble system was to reduce the stratification, so that the water body may completely mix under natural phenomena and remain well oxygenated throughout the year. By using a combination of the field measurements and modelling, this work demonstrates that thermal mixing by means of compressed air may improve water quality; however, if improperly sized or operated, such mixing can also cause deterioration. Any disruption in aeration during the destratification process, for example, may result in a reduction of oxygen levels due to the higher hypolimnetic temperatures. Further, the use of artificial destratification appears to have insignificant influence on reducing evaporation rates in relatively shallow impoundments such as San Roque reservoir.

  17. Operating experience and construction status of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.C.; DenHartog, P.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.

    1984-01-01

    The present Argonne Tandem-Linac accelerator has operated in a reliable manner during the past year. The accelerator system provided 4402 hours of experimental beam time with a wide variety of heavy-ions. Figure 1 shows the beams which have been provided during the past year. New beams accelerated by the linac include 300 MeV 82 Se and 390 MeV 109 Ag. In tests, the tandem accelerated 102 MeV 127 I. This is the heaviest beam ever accelerated by the Argonne tandem. The long-term performance of the niobium resonators appears to be good. No significant degradation of performance has been observed for most resonators over many years of use with the exceptions of problems caused by catastrophic vacuum accidents. Resonators whose performance has deteriorated after vacuum accidents have recently been restored to their original performance state by a simple technique. The technique used is to rinse the interior of the resonator with a sequence of baths of solvents and water

  18. Night-time road construction operations synthesis of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    report synthesizes existing literature on nighttime construction operations, identifies gaps in the current state of knowledge, and summarizes research in progress studies that are planned or underway. The literature review and synthesis found the fo...

  19. Design, construction and operation features of high-rise structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylnik, Alexey; Mylnik, Vladimir; Zubeeva, Elena; Mukhamedzhanova, Olga

    2018-03-01

    The article considers design, construction and operation features of high-rise facilities. The analysis of various situations, that come from improper designing, construction and operation of unique facilities, is carried out. The integrated approach is suggested, when the problems of choosing acceptable constructional solutions related to the functional purpose, architectural solutions, methods of manufacturing and installation, operating conditions for unique buildings and structures are being tackled. A number of main causes for the emergency destruction of objects under construction and operation is considered. A number of measures are proposed on the basis of factor classification in order to efficiently prevent the situations, when various negative options of design loads and emergency impacts occur.

  20. Optimizing Water Use and Hydropower Production in Operational Reservoir System Scheduling with RiverWare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, T. M.; Zagona, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    Practical operational optimization of multipurpose reservoir systems is challenging for several reasons. Each purpose has its own constraints which may conflict with those of other purposes. While hydropower generation typically provides the bulk of the revenue, it is also among the lowest priority purposes. Each river system has important details that are specific to the location such as hydrology, reservoir storage capacity, physical limitations, bottlenecks, and the continuing evolution of operational policy. In addition, reservoir operations models include discrete, nonlinear, and nonconvex physical processes and if-then operating policies. Typically, the forecast horizon for scheduling needs to be extended far into the future to avoid near term (e.g., a few hours or a day) scheduling decisions that result in undesirable future states; this makes the computational effort much larger than may be expected. Put together, these challenges lead to large and customized mathematical optimization problems which must be solved efficiently to be of practical use. In addition, the solution process must be robust in an operational setting. We discuss a unique modeling approach in RiverWare that meets these challenges in an operational setting. The approach combines a Preemptive Linear Goal Programming optimization model to handle prioritized policies complimented by preprocessing and postprocessing with Rulebased Simulation to improve the solution with regard to nonlinearities, discrete issues, and if-then logic. An interactive policy language with a graphical user interface allows modelers to customize both the optimization and simulation based on the unique aspects of the policy for their system while the routine physical aspect of operations are modeled automatically. The modeler is aided by a set of compiled predefined functions and functions shared by other modelers. We illustrate the success of the approach with examples from daily use at the Tennessee Valley

  1. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch River. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received containments, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. Water-soluble contaminants released to ORR surface waters are rapidly diluted upon entering the Clinch River and then quickly transported downstream to the Tennessee River where further dilution occurs. Almost the entire quantity of these diluted contaminants rapidly flows through LWBR. In contrast, particle-associated contaminants tend to accumulate in the lower Clinch River and in LWBR in areas of sediment deposition. Those particle-associated contaminants that were released in peak quantities during the early years of ORR operations (e.g., mercury and 137 Cs) are buried under as much as 80 cm of cleaner sediment in LWBR. Certain contaminants, most notably polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have accumulated in LWBR biota. The contamination of aquatic biota with PCBs is best documented for certain fish species and extends to reservoirs upstream of the ORR, indicating a contamination problem that is regional in scope and not specific to the ORR

  2. Construction, testing, and initial operation of Fort St. Vrain PCRV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ople, F.S. Jr.; Neylan, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The Fort St. Vrain (FSV) Nuclear Generating Station is the first station in the USA to use a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV). The PCRV was designed and constructed by General Atomic. Construction of the PCRV was completed in 1970; the pressure and leak tests were completed in 1971. The structural behavior of the PCRV has been monitored by installed instrumentation since start of construction. The highlights of the actual construction, testing, and initial operation of the PCRV, including a comparison of structural behavior, where possible, between observed data and analytical predictions. (U.S.)

  3. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR.

  4. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR

  5. Optimization of Multipurpose Reservoir Operation with Application Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Fallah Mehdipour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation of multipurpose reservoirs is one of the complex and sometimes nonlinear problems in the field of multi-objective optimization. Evolutionary algorithms are optimization tools that search decision space using simulation of natural biological evolution and present a set of points as the optimum solutions of problem. In this research, application of multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO in optimal operation of Bazoft reservoir with different objectives, including generating hydropower energy, supplying downstream demands (drinking, industry and agriculture, recreation and flood control have been considered. In this regard, solution sets of the MOPSO algorithm in bi-combination of objectives and compromise programming (CP using different weighting and power coefficients have been first compared that the MOPSO algorithm in all combinations of objectives is more capable than the CP to find solution with appropriate distribution and these solutions have dominated the CP solutions. Then, ending points of solution set from the MOPSO algorithm and nonlinear programming (NLP results have been compared. Results showed that the MOPSO algorithm with 0.3 percent difference from the NLP results has more capability to present optimum solutions in the ending points of solution set.

  6. Optimization of European call options considering physical delivery network and reservoir operation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei-Chen; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Cheng, Wen-Ming; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2011-10-01

    This paper develops alternative strategies for European call options for water purchase under hydrological uncertainties that can be used by water resources managers for decision making. Each alternative strategy maximizes its own objective over a selected sequence of future hydrology that is characterized by exceedance probability. Water trade provides flexibility and enhances water distribution system reliability. However, water trade between two parties in a regional water distribution system involves many issues, such as delivery network, reservoir operation rules, storage space, demand, water availability, uncertainty, and any existing contracts. An option is a security giving the right to buy or sell an asset; in our case, the asset is water. We extend a flow path-based water distribution model to include reservoir operation rules. The model simultaneously considers both the physical distribution network as well as the relationships between water sellers and buyers. We first test the model extension. Then we apply the proposed optimization model for European call options to the Tainan water distribution system in southern Taiwan. The formulation lends itself to a mixed integer linear programming model. We use the weighing method to formulate a composite function for a multiobjective problem. The proposed methodology provides water resources managers with an overall picture of water trade strategies and the consequence of each strategy. The results from the case study indicate that the strategy associated with a streamflow exceedence probability of 50% or smaller should be adopted as the reference strategy for the Tainan water distribution system.

  7. Fermionic construction of vertex operators for twisted affine algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappat, L.; Sorba, P.; Sciarrino, A.

    1988-03-01

    We construct vertex operator representations of the twisted affine algebras in terms of fermionic (or parafermionic in some cases) elementary fields. The folding method applied to the extended Dynkin diagrams of the affine algebras allows us to determine explicitly these fermionic fields as vertex operators

  8. Determining effective forecast horizons for multi-purpose reservoirs with short- and long-term operating objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchner, Jakob; Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Real-time control of multi-purpose reservoirs can benefit significantly from hydro-meteorological forecast products. Because of their reliability, the most used forecasts range on time scales from hours to few days and are suitable for short-term operation targets such as flood control. In recent years, hydro-meteorological forecasts have become more accurate and reliable on longer time scales, which are more relevant to long-term reservoir operation targets such as water supply. While the forecast quality of such products has been studied extensively, the forecast value, i.e. the operational effectiveness of using forecasts to support water management, has been only relatively explored. It is comparatively easy to identify the most effective forecasting information needed to design reservoir operation rules for flood control but it is not straightforward to identify which forecast variable and lead time is needed to define effective hedging rules for operational targets with slow dynamics such as water supply. The task is even more complex when multiple targets, with diverse slow and fast dynamics, are considered at the same time. In these cases, the relative importance of different pieces of information, e.g. magnitude and timing of peak flow rate and accumulated inflow on different time lags, may vary depending on the season or the hydrological conditions. In this work, we analyze the relationship between operational forecast value and streamflow forecast horizon for different multi-purpose reservoir trade-offs. We use the Information Selection and Assessment (ISA) framework to identify the most effective forecast variables and horizons for informing multi-objective reservoir operation over short- and long-term temporal scales. The ISA framework is an automatic iterative procedure to discriminate the information with the highest potential to improve multi-objective reservoir operating performance. Forecast variables and horizons are selected using a feature

  9. Operational Precipitation prediction in Support of Real-Time Flash Flood Prediction and Reservoir Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakos, K. P.

    2006-05-01

    The presentation will outline the implementation and performance evaluation of a number of national and international projects pertaining to operational precipitation estimation and prediction in the context of hydrologic warning systems and reservoir management support. In all cases, uncertainty measures of the estimates and predictions are an integral part of the precipitation models. Outstanding research issues whose resolution is likely to lead to improvements in the operational environment are presented. The presentation draws from the experience of the Hydrologic Research Center (http://www.hrc-lab.org) prototype implementation projects at the Panama Canal, Central America, Northern California, and South-Central US. References: Carpenter, T.M, and K.P. Georgakakos, "Discretization Scale Dependencies of the Ensemble Flow Range versus Catchment Area Relationship in Distributed Hydrologic Modeling," Journal of Hydrology, 2006, in press. Carpenter, T.M., and K.P. Georgakakos, "Impacts of Parametric and Radar Rainfall Uncertainty on the Ensemble Streamflow Simulations of a Distributed Hydrologic Model," Journal of Hydrology, 298, 202-221, 2004. Georgakakos, K.P., Graham, N.E., Carpenter, T.M., Georgakakos, A.P., and H. Yao, "Integrating Climate- Hydrology Forecasts and Multi-Objective Reservoir Management in Northern California," EOS, 86(12), 122,127, 2005. Georgakakos, K.P., and J.A. Sperfslage, "Operational Rainfall and Flow Forecasting for the Panama Canal Watershed," in The Rio Chagres: A Multidisciplinary Profile of a Tropical Watershed, R.S. Harmon, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, Chapter 16, 323-334, 2005. Georgakakos, K. P., "Analytical results for operational flash flood guidance," Journal of Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.05.009, 2005.

  10. AN ACD DIAGRAM DEVELOPED FOR SIMULATING A BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Zaeri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Success in the performance of construction projects can be substantially enhanced if plans are formulated more realistically, ahead of time. Planning includes identifying project activities, required resources, interdependencies, and also recognizing the uncertainties in the duration of activities. Inherent features of construction projects, such as high repetition, complexity and uniqueness on the one hand, and advances in technology and methodologies on the other, create more difficulties in planning construction delivery. This is true for bridge operations. This study presents an innovative incremental beam launching method with twin truss gantry. This construction method has significant advantages in terms of cost and speed of performance, but increases the level of planning and management required for the bridge operation. Further, because of the newness of the method, no specific Work Breakdown Structure nor conceptual framework has been developed as yet. The aim of the current study is to explore the use of a simulation-based tool (EZStrobe to facilitate the planning and management of a bridge construction operation (case study. The process followed in the development of a conceptual framework for the case study project is described. An Activity Cycle Diagram is produced alongside the conceptual framework and process models, with the intent of illustrating the key steps in the simulation modelling method. The developed models could assist in scheduling and controlling inherent construction features such as uncertainties, complexities, and repetitions in bridge construction projects, consequently improving their delivery.

  11. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neural reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers, geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  12. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  13. Reservoir Operation Rules for Controlling Algal Blooms in a Tributary to the Impoundment of Three Gorges Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijian Lian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the first impoundment of Three Gorges Dam in 2003, algal blooms occur frequently in the near-dam tributaries. It is widely recognized that the impoundment-induced change in hydrodynamic condition with the lower current velocity will make the eutrophication problem even more severe when an excessive amount of nutrients is already loaded into a reservoir and/or its tributaries. Operation tests carried out by Three Gorges Corporation in 2010 point to some feasible reservoir operation schemes that may have positive impacts on reducing the algal bloom level. In our study, an attempt is made to obtain, through a numerical hydrodynamic and water quality modeling and analysis, the reservoir operation rules that would reduce the level of algal blooms in the Xiangxi River (XXR, a near-dam tributary. Water movements and algal blooms in XXR are simulated and analyzed under different scenarios of one-day water discharge fluctuation or two-week water level variation. The model results demonstrate that the reservoir operations can further increase the water exchange between the mainstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR and the XXR tributary and thus move a larger amount of algae into the deep water where it will die. Analysis of the model results indicate that the water discharge fluctuation constituted of a lower valley-load flow and a larger flow difference for the short-term operation (within a day, the rise in water level for the medium-term operation (e.g., over weeks, and the combination of the above two for the long-term operation (e.g., over months can be the feasible reservoir operation rules in the non-flood season for TGR.

  14. Constructive Activation of Reservoir-Resident Microbes for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruyn, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial communities living in subsurface oil reservoirs biodegrade oil, producing methane. If this process could create methane within the waterflooded pore spaces of an oilfield, the methane would be expected to remain and occupy pore space, decreasing water relative permeability, diverting water flow, and increasing oil recovery by expanding the swept zone of the waterflood. This approach was tested in an oilfield in northern Montana. Preliminary assessments were made of geochemical conditions and microbiological habitations. Then, a formulation of microbial activators, with composition tailored for the reservoir's conditions, was metered at low rates into the existing injection water system for one year. In the field, the responses observed included improved oil production performance; a slight increase in injection pressure; and increased time needed for tracers to move between injection and producing wells. We interpret these results to confirm that successful stimulation of the microbial community caused more methane to be created within the swept zone of the waterflooded reservoir. When the methane exsolved as water flowed between high-pressure injection and low-pressure production wells, the bubbles occupied pore space, reducing water saturation and relative permeability, and re-directing some water flow to "slower" unswept rock with lower permeability and higher oil saturation. In total, the waterflood's swept zone had been expanded to include previously-unflooded rock. This technology was applied in this field after screening based on careful anaerobic sampling, advanced microbiological analysis, and the ongoing success of its waterflood. No reservoir or geological or geophysical simulation models were employed, and physical modifications to field facilities were minor. This technology of utilizing existing microbial populations for enhanced oil recovery can therefore be considered for deployment into waterfloods where small scale, advanced maturity, or

  15. SWOT data assimilation for operational reservoir management on the upper Niger River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, S.; Polebistki, A.; Brown, C.; Belaud, G.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    The future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will provide two-dimensional maps of water elevation for rivers with width greater than 100 m globally. We describe a modeling framework and an automatic control algorithm that prescribe optimal releases from the Selingue dam in the Upper Niger River Basin, with the objective of understanding how SWOT data might be used to the benefit of operational water management. The modeling framework was used in a twin experiment to simulate the "true" system state and an ensemble of corrupted model states. Virtual SWOT observations of reservoir and river levels were assimilated into the model with a repeat cycle of 21 days. The updated state was used to initialize a Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm that computed the optimal reservoir release that meets a minimum flow requirement 300 km downstream of the dam. The data assimilation results indicate that the model updates had a positive effect on estimates of both water level and discharge. The "persistence," which describes the duration of the assimilation effect, was clearly improved (greater than 21 days) by integrating a smoother into the assimilation procedure. We compared performances of the MPC with SWOT data assimilation to an open-loop MPC simulation. Results show that the data assimilation resulted in substantial improvements in the performances of the Selingue dam management with a greater ability to meet environmental requirements (the number of days the target is missed falls to zero) and a minimum volume of water released from the dam.

  16. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. General Guidelines for Monitoring Contaminants in Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    espacially trte for the topics of sampling and analytical methods, statistical considerations, and the design of general water quality monitoring networks. For...and to the establishment and habitat differentiation of biological populations within reservoirs. Reservoir operatirn, esp- cially the timing...8217 % - - % properties of bottom sediments, as well as specific habitat associations of biological populations of reservoirs. Thus, such heterogeneities

  17. Integrated safety analysis to operate while constructing Urenco USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohrt, Rick; Su, Shiaw-Der; Lehman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The URENCO USA (UUSA) site in Lea County, New Mexico, USA is authorized by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility under 10 CFR 70 (Ref 1). The facility employs the gas centrifuge process to separate natural uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) feed material into a product stream enriched up to 5% U-235 and a depleted UF 6 stream containing approximately 0.2 to 0.34% U-235. Initial plant operations, with a limited number of cascades on line, commenced in the second half of 2010. Construction activities continue as each subsequent cascade is commissioned and placed into service. UUSA performed an Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA) to allow the facility to operate while constructing the remainder of the facility. The ISA Team selected the What-If/Checklist method based on guidance in NUREG-1513 (Ref 2) and AIChE Guidelines (Ref 3). Of the three methods recommended for high risk events HAZOP, What-If/Checklist, or Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), the What-If/Checklist lends itself best to construction activities. It combines the structure of a checklist with an unstructured 'brainstorming' approach to create a list of specific accident events that could produce an undesirable consequence. The What-If/Checklist for Operate While Constructing divides the UUSA site into seven areas and creates what-if questions for sixteen different construction activities, such as site preparation, external construction cranes, and internal construction lifts. The result is a total of 112 nodes, for which the Operate While Constructing ISA Team created hundreds of what-if questions. For each what-if question the team determined the likelihood, consequences, safeguards, and acceptability of risk. What-if questions with unacceptable risk are the accident sequences and their selected safeguards are the Items Relied on For Safety (IROFS). The final ISA identified four (4) new accident sequences that, unless

  18. Natural and human drivers of salinity in reservoirs and their implications in water supply operation through a Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Linares-Sáez, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Salt can be a problem when is originally in aquifers or when it dissolves in groundwater and comes to the ground surface or flows into streams. The problem increases in lakes hydraulically connected with aquifers affecting water quality. This issue is even more alarming when water resources are used for urban and irrigation supply and water quantity and quality restrict that water demand. This work shows a data based and physical modeling approach in the Guadalhorce reservoir, located in southern Spain. This water body receives salt contribution from mainly groundwater flow, getting salinity values in the reservoir from 3500 to 5500 μScm-1. Moreover, Guadalhorce reservoir is part of a complex system of reservoirs fed from the Guadalhorce River that supplies all urban, irrigation, tourism, energy and ecology water uses, which makes that implementation and validation of methods and tools for smart water management is required. Meteorological, hydrological and water quality data from several monitoring networks and data sources, with both historical and real time data during a 40-years period, were used to analyze the impact salinity. On the other hand, variables that mainly depend on the dam operation, such as reservoir water level and water outflow, were also analyzed to understand how they affect to salinity in depth and time. Finally surface and groundwater inflows to the reservoir were evaluated through a physically based hydrological model to forecast when the major contributions take place. Reservoir water level and surface and groundwater inflows were found to be the main drivers of salinity in the reservoir. When reservoir water level is high, daily water inflow around 0.4 hm3 causes changes in salinity (both drop and rise) up to 500 μScm-1, but no significant changes are found when water level falls 2-3 m. However the gradual water outflows due to dam operation and consequent decrease in reservoir water levels makes that, after dry periods, salinity

  19. Operational resilience of reservoirs to climate change, agricultural demand, and tourism: A case study from Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, Simone; Sušnik, Janez; Trabucco, Antonio; Daccache, Andre; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia; Renoldi, Stefano; Virdis, Andrea; Savić, Dragan; Assimacopoulos, Dionysis

    2016-02-01

    Many (semi-) arid locations globally, and particularly islands, rely heavily on reservoirs for water supply. Some reservoirs are particularly vulnerable to climate and development changes (e.g. population change, tourist growth, hydropower demands). Irregularities and uncertainties in the fluvial regime associated with climate change and the continuous increase in water demand by different sectors will add new challenges to the management and to the resilience of these reservoirs. The resilience of vulnerable reservoirs must be studied in detail to prepare for and mitigate potential impacts of these changes. In this paper, a reservoir balance model is developed and presented for the Pedra e' Othoni reservoir in Sardinia, Italy, to assess resilience to climate and development changes. The model was first calibrated and validated, then forced with extensive ensemble climate data for representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5, agricultural data, and with four socio-economic development scenarios. Future projections show a reduction in annual reservoir inflow and an increase in demand, mainly in the agricultural sector. Under no scenario is reservoir resilience significantly affected, the reservoir always achieves refill. However, this occurs at the partial expenses of hydropower production with implications for the production of renewable energy. There is also the possibility of conflict between the agricultural sector and hydropower sector for diminishing water supply. Pedra e' Othoni reservoir shows good resilience to future change mostly because of the disproportionately large basin feeding it. However this is not the case of other Sardinian reservoirs and hence a detailed resilience assessment of all reservoirs is needed, where development plans should carefully account for the trade-offs and potential conflicts among sectors. For Sardinia, the option of physical connection between reservoirs is available, as are alternative water supply measures

  20. Increasing Crop Yields in Water Stressed Countries by Combining Operations of Freshwater Reservoir and Wastewater Reclamation Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, R.; Ng, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater resources around the world are increasing in scarcity due to population growth, industrialization and climate change. This is a serious concern for water stressed countries, including those in Asia and North Africa where future food production is expected to be negatively affected by this. To address this problem, we investigate the potential of combining freshwater reservoir and wastewater reclamation operations. Reservoir water is the cheaper source of irrigation, but is often limited and climate sensitive. Treated wastewater is a more reliable alternative for irrigation, but often requires extensive further treatment which can be expensive. We propose combining the operations of a reservoir and a wastewater reclamation plant (WWRP) to augment the supply from the reservoir with reclaimed water for increasing crop yields in water stressed regions. The joint system of reservoir and WWRP is modeled as a multi-objective optimization problem with the double objective of maximizing the crop yield and minimizing total cost, subject to constraints on reservoir storage, spill and release, and capacity of the WWRP. We use the crop growth model Aquacrop, supported by The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), to model crop growth in response to water use. Aquacrop considers the effects of water deficit on crop growth stages, and from there estimates crop yield. We generate results comparing total crop yield under irrigation with water from just the reservoir (which is limited and often interrupted), and yield with water from the joint system (which has the potential of higher supply and greater reliability). We will present results for locations in India and Africa to evaluate the potential of the joint operations for improving food security in those areas for different budgets.

  1. Laparotomy operative note template constructed through a modified Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lolonya; Churley-Strom, Ruth; Singal, Bonita; O'Leary, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    An operative note is indispensable to physician documentation and decision-making; however, there are no accepted standards for operative note content. Our aim was to use a modified Delphi consensus-building method to construct a uniform operative note template for laparotomy. Using Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations requirements, literature review, and feedback from 15 medical malpractice defense attorneys, we compiled a draft operative note template of 31 elements. We surveyed 37 Association of Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics/Solvay scholars asking for their input on inclusion of each item as essential content of the operative note. Two iterations of the survey were required to reach a predetermined 75% level of consensus. Nine elements were eliminated from the template: 6 original and 3 expert-suggested elements. We provide an operative note template that was compiled through a Delphi process.

  2. Construction and initial operation of the Advanced Toroidal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, G.L.; Bell, J.D.; Benson, R.D.

    1989-08-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron was designed on a physics basis for access to the second stability regime and on an engineering basis for independent fabrication of high-accuracy components. The actual construction, assembly, and initial operation of ATF are compared with the characteristics expected during the design of ATF. 31 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Research Trends on Benefits of Implementing Constructability, Operability, and Maintainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordestani Ghaleenoe, N.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite allocating huge budgets to civil engineering projects, detailed planning, and employing human resources, project managers still face time, cost, and quality constraints. Most of these challenges are due to a lack of integration of different project phases and the limitations of the presence of construction and maintenance contractors in the initial stages of the project. Considering the benefits of applying constructability, operability, and maintainability (COM concepts, many problems caused by lack of coordination, or duplications and weakness in management, and also time and extra costs due to lack of presence of construction and maintenance contractors in the early stages of the project are resolvable. In this regard, various studies have investigated the benefits of applying these concepts; however, there has been no comprehensive analysis of the benefits of COM. As a result of focus on the benefits of implementation of these concepts and evaluating the effect of each of these strategies and benefits, from different perspectives during various time periods, managers can increase project efficiency and productivity, and improve their performance, through using concepts and strategies of their implementation. This research aims to evaluate the trend of studies on the benefits of implementing constructability, operability, and maintainability in the construction industry. For that, the in-depth literature review method is applied. For qualitative analysis of the obtained information, descriptive analysis has been used. Then, the data was coded, and classified using Excel Software for quantitative data analysis. Finally, the charts presented were evaluated according to the classified fields of study. The necessity of performing such a study is significant because of the fact that a large share of a project’s problems, such as lack of plans’ integration and weakness of administrative system, and increasing time and cost, are due to

  4. The Application of GA, SMPSO and HGAPSO in Optimal Reservoirs Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Moghaddam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The reservoir operation is a multi-objective optimization problem with large-scale which consider reliability and the needs of hydrology, energy, agriculture and the environment. There were not the any algorithms with this ability which consider all the above-mentioned demands until now. Almost the existing algorithms usually solve a simple form of the problem for their limitations. In the recent decay the application of meta-heuristic algorithms were introduced into the water resources problem to overcome on some complexity, such as non-linear, non-convex and description of these problems which limited the mathematical optimization methods. In this paper presented a Simple Modified Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (SMPSO with applying a new factor in Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm. Then a new suggested hybrid method which called HGAPSO developed based on combining with Genetic algorithm (GA. In the end, the performance of GA, MPSO and HGAPSO algorithms on the reservoir operation problem is investigated with considering water supplying as objective function in a period of 60 months according to inflow data. Materials and Methods: The GA is one of the newer programming methods which use of the theory of evolution and survival in biology and genetics principles. GA has been developed as an effective method in optimization problems which doesn’t have the limitation of classical methods. The SMPSO algorithm is the member of swarm intelligence methods that a solution is a population of birds which know as a particle. In this collection, the birds have the individual artificial intelligence and develop the social behavior and their coordinate movement toward a specific destination. The goal of this process is the communication between individual intelligence with social interaction. The new modify factor in SMPSO makes to improve the speed of convergence in optimal answer. The HGAPSO is a suggested combination of GA

  5. AUTOCAD IN THE OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT OF THE CONSTRUCTION SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsareva Marina Vladimirovna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Operational management of the construction is usually based on information analysis systems, which are aimed at the monitoring of working schedule and volumes as consistent with predicated schedules. The result of such systems’ operation is traditional information graphics (diagrams, charts, etc., which provides idea on the current state of the construction site and deviations from the planned settings. The author considers the visualization technology of construction of objects using an image of the situation on the AutoCAD drawings, converted into an interactive format. The article focuses on imperfections of the existing technologies of information support of the managers. The creation of unified IT platform is offered on the basis of CAD for creating an integrated information storage and visualization of the environment using electronic drawings and diagrams. Using interactive methods it is possible to illustrate the condition of almost any part of the construction project using these drawings and diagrams. E-drawings contain the basic information resources - estimates, plans, sections, specifications, technology, construction, etc. necessary for the calculation of indicators. The author proved that implementation of visualization is most efficient in case of electronic drawings in 3D format.

  6. SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF THE HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OPERATION IN A HEAVY OIL RESERVOIR IN SOUTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REZA MASOOMI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of oil from some Iranian reservoirs due to high viscosity of their oil or reducing the formation permeability due to asphaltene precipitation or other problems is not satisfactory. Hydraulic fracturing method increases production in the viscous oil reservoirs that the production rate is low. So this is very important for some Iranian reservoirs that contain these characteristics. In this study, hydraulic fracturing method has been compositionally simulated in a heavy oil reservoir in southern Iran. In this study, the parameters of the fracture half length, the propagation direction of the cracks and the depth of fracturing have been considered in this oil reservoir. The aim of this study is to find the best scenario which has the highest recovery factor in this oil reservoir. For this purpose the parameters of the length, propagation direction and depth of fracturing have been optimized in this reservoir. Through this study the cumulative oil production has been evaluated with the compositional simulation for the next 10 years in this reservoir. Also at the end of this paper, increasing the final production of this oil reservoir caused by optimized hydraulic fracturing has been evaluated.

  7. Adapting Reservoir Operations to Reduce the Multi-Sectoral Impacts of Flood Intensification in the Lower Susquehanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatarain-Salazar, J.; Reed, P. M.; Quinn, J.

    2017-12-01

    This study characterizes how changes in reservoir operations can be used to better balance growing flood intensities and the conflicting multi-sectorial demands in the Lower Susequehanna River Basin (LSRB), USA. Tensions in the LSRB are increasing with urban population pressures, evolving energy demands, and growing flood-based infrastructure vulnerabilities. This study explores how re-operation of the Conowingo Reservoir, located in the LSRB, can improve the balance between competing demands for hydropower production, urban water supply to Chester, PA and Baltimore, MD, cooling water supply for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Plant, recreation, federal environmental flow requirements and improved mitigation of growing flood hazards. The LSRB is also one of the most flood prone basins in the US, impacted by hurricanes and rain-on-snow induced flood events causing on average $100 million in economic losses and infrastructure damages to downstream settlements every year. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the consequences of mathematical formulation choices, uncertainty characterization and the value of information when defining the Conowingo reservoir's multi-purpose operations. This work seeks to strike a balance between the complexity and the efficacy of rival framings for the problem formulations used to discover effective operating policies. More broadly, the problem of intensifying urban floods in reservoir systems with complex multi-sectoral demands is broadly relevant to developed river basins globally.

  8. Succession of phytoplankton assemblages in response to large-scale reservoir operation: a case study in a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Li, Zhe; Guo, Jinsong; Fang, Fang; Smith, Val H

    2016-03-01

    The Three Gorges Dam (TGD) has greatly altered ecological and environmental conditions within the reservoir region, but it is not known how these changes affect phytoplankton structure and dynamics. Here, a bimonthly monitoring program was implemented from 2007 to 2009 to study the impact of damming on phytoplankton assemblages in the backwater area of the Pengxi River (PBA). By application of the phytoplankton functional group (C strategists, competitive species; S strategists, stress-tolerant species; R strategists, rapid propagation species), seasonal changes in phytoplankton relative to environmental variations were evaluated using ordination analysis. Seasonal patterns of phytoplankton dynamics were detected during this study, with CS/S strategists causing algal blooms from mid-spring to early summer, CS/CR strategists often observed during flood season, and CS strategists dominant during mid-autumn. CR/R groups dominated during winter and caused algal blooms in February. Our results indicated that phytoplankton assemblages were directly related to reservoir operation effects. Generally, the TGD had a low water level during flood season, resulting in a relatively short hydraulic retention time and intensive variability, which supported the cooccurrence of CS and CR species. During the winter drought season, water storage in the TGD increased the water level and the hydraulic retention time in the PBA, enabling R/CR strategists to overcome the sedimentation effect and to out-compete S/CS species in winter. As expected, these diversity patterns were significantly correlated with the hydraulic retention time and nutrient limitation pattern in the PBA. This study provides strategic insight for evaluating the impacts of reservoir operations on phytoplankton adaptation.

  9. Optimal Operation of a Network of Multi-purpose Reservoir : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nay Myo Lin, N.M.; Rutten, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the effects of climate change and population growth, reservoirs play a more and more important role in water resources management. The management of a multi-reservoir system is complex due to the curse of dimensionalities, nonlinearities and conflicts between different objectives. The

  10. Oscillator construction of su(n|m) Q-operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frassek, Rouven, E-mail: rfrassek@physik.hu-berlin.de [Institut fuer Mathematik und Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Johann von Neumann-Haus, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Lukowski, Tomasz, E-mail: lukowski@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Institut fuer Mathematik und Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Johann von Neumann-Haus, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Meneghelli, Carlo, E-mail: carlo@aei.mpg.de [Institut fuer Mathematik und Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Johann von Neumann-Haus, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Staudacher, Matthias, E-mail: matthias@aei.mpg.de [Institut fuer Mathematik und Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Johann von Neumann-Haus, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    We generalize our recent explicit construction of the full hierarchy of Baxter Q-operators of compact spin chains with su(n) symmetry to the supersymmetric case su(n|m). The method is based on novel degenerate solutions of the graded Yang-Baxter equation, leading to an amalgam of bosonic and fermionic oscillator algebras. Our approach is fully algebraic, and leads to the exact solution of the associated compact spin chains while avoiding Bethe ansatz techniques. It furthermore elucidates the algebraic and combinatorial structures underlying the system of nested Bethe equations. Finally, our construction naturally reproduces the representation, due to Z. Tsuboi, of the hierarchy of Baxter Q-operators in terms of hypercubic Hasse diagrams.

  11. Origins, and the construction, commissioning and operation of the SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The SRS was initiated in 1973 and approved in 1975. It came into use in 1981. The paper describes the organizational framework at the different stages, the pre-approval, construction, commissioning and operational phases of the storage ring, the build-up of experimental stations, and future plans. The emphasis is on lessons which can be learned by those about to embark on such a project, rather than on a detailed historical account, and on managerial rather than physics matters

  12. The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector: construction, operation, and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Shreyasi; Adam, Jaroslav; Ahmad, Nazeer; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Umaka, Ejiro Naomi; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Bhom, Jihyun

    2018-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) was designed and built to enhance the capabilities of the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). While aimed at providing electron identification and triggering, the TRD also contributes significantly to the track reconstruction and calibration in the central barrel of ALICE. In this paper the design, construction, operation, and performance of this detector are discussed. A pion rejection factor of up to 410 is achieved at a momentum of 1 G...

  13. First report of the successful operation of a side stream supersaturation hypolimnetic oxygenation system in a eutrophic, shallow reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerling, Alexandra B; Browne, Richard G; Gantzer, Paul A; Mobley, Mark H; Little, John C; Carey, Cayelan C

    2014-12-15

    Controlling hypolimnetic hypoxia is a key goal of water quality management. Hypoxic conditions can trigger the release of reduced metals and nutrients from lake sediments, resulting in taste and odor problems as well as nuisance algal blooms. In deep lakes and reservoirs, hypolimnetic oxygenation has emerged as a viable solution for combating hypoxia. In shallow lakes, however, it is difficult to add oxygen into the hypolimnion efficiently, and a poorly designed hypolimnetic oxygenation system could potentially result in higher turbidity, weakened thermal stratification, and warming of the sediments. As a result, little is known about the viability of hypolimnetic oxygenation in shallow bodies of water. Here, we present the results from recent successful tests of side stream supersaturation (SSS), a type of hypolimnetic oxygenation system, in a shallow reservoir and compare it to previous side stream deployments. We investigated the sensitivity of Falling Creek Reservoir, a shallow (Zmax = 9.3 m) drinking water reservoir located in Vinton, Virginia, USA, to SSS operation. We found that the SSS system increased hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen concentrations at a rate of ∼1 mg/L/week without weakening stratification or warming the sediments. Moreover, the SSS system suppressed the release of reduced iron and manganese, and likely phosphorus, from the sediments. In summary, SSS systems hold great promise for controlling hypolimnetic oxygen conditions in shallow lakes and reservoirs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Derivation of optimal joint operating rules for multi-purpose multi-reservoir water-supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiao-feng; Wang, Xu; Wang, Hao; Wang, Chao; Lei, Xiao-hui; Xiong, Yi-song; Zhang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    The derivation of joint operating policy is a challenging task for a multi-purpose multi-reservoir system. This study proposed an aggregation-decomposition model to guide the joint operation of multi-purpose multi-reservoir system, including: (1) an aggregated model based on the improved hedging rule to ensure the long-term water-supply operating benefit; (2) a decomposed model to allocate the limited release to individual reservoirs for the purpose of maximizing the total profit of the facing period; and (3) a double-layer simulation-based optimization model to obtain the optimal time-varying hedging rules using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II, whose objectives were to minimize maximum water deficit and maximize water supply reliability. The water-supply system of Li River in Guangxi Province, China, was selected for the case study. The results show that the operating policy proposed in this study is better than conventional operating rules and aggregated standard operating policy for both water supply and hydropower generation due to the use of hedging mechanism and effective coordination among multiple objectives.

  15. Experience from construction and operation of Karachi nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, S.M.N.

    1977-01-01

    Pakistan's first nuclear power plant (KANUPP) is owned and operated by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). It uses a heavy water moderated and cooled natural uranium fuelled reactor. Total installed capacity is 137 MW(e). It was designed, constructed and commissioned by Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd. (CGE) as Prime Contractor. Construction started in mid-1966 and was completed in mid 1970; commissioning started in early 1970 and was completed at the end of 1972. Intensive on-the-job training for 20 engineers and 15 operators was provided by CGE in Canada. Ten engineers also worked in CGE's design offices. With this key group of engineers and technicians PAEC had no difficulty in taking over the plant from CGE after completion. The construction of the plant in a developing country presented special problems to CGE. The relatively small local construction firms had limited experience and equipment. Construction plant, equipment and tools were scarce. Fabrication and workshop facilities of limited scope were available but their quotations were relatively high. A scarcity of engineering, technical and skilled manpower for the construction of the project left as the only alternative on-site training for carefully recruited technicians. The results were most gratifying and compared favourably with CGE's Canadian experience. Welding, pipe fitting, tubing work and electrical connections were excellent. The local staff's productivity and dedication were very good. In the commissioning period, PAEC and CGE engineers and technicians worked as one team, testing and debugging the equipment and systems and demonstrating the contractual performance warranties. This period extended to approximately three years due to many technical problems resulting from equipment failures, environmental problems, system problems, plant loading limitations in view of the relatively small size of the grid system and special requirement of fuel conditioning to avoid premature fuel

  16. Monitoring algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs using the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Darryl; Rover, Jennifer; Green, Jason; Zalewsky, Brian; Charpentier, Mike; Hursby, Glen; Bishop, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor is a powerful tool that can provide periodic and system-wide information on the condition of drinking water reservoirs. The OLI is a multispectral radiometer (30 m spatial resolution) that allows ecosystem observations at spatial and temporal scales that allow the environmental community and water managers another means to monitor changes in water quality not feasible with field-based monitoring. Using the provisional Land Surface Reflectance product and field-collected chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations from drinking water monitoring programs in North Carolina and Rhode Island, we compared five established approaches for estimating chl-aconcentrations using spectral data. We found that using the three band reflectance approach with a combination of OLI spectral bands 1, 3, and 5 produced the most promising results for accurately estimating chl-a concentrations in lakes (R2 value of 0.66; root mean square error value of 8.9 µg l−1). Using this model, we forecast the spatial and temporal variability of chl-a for Jordan Lake, a recreational and drinking water source in piedmont North Carolina and several small ponds that supply drinking water in southeastern Rhode Island.

  17. In the Way of Peacemaker Guide Curve between Water Supply and Flood Control for Short Term Reservoir Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, G.; Sensoy, A.; Yavuz, O.; Sorman, A. A.; Gezgin, T.

    2012-04-01

    Effective management of a controlled reservoir system where it involves multiple and sometimes conflicting objectives is a complex problem especially in real time operations. Yuvacık Dam Reservoir, located in the Marmara region of Turkey, is built to supply annual demand of 142 hm3 water for Kocaeli city requires such a complex management strategy since it has relatively small (51 hm3) effective capacity. On the other hand, the drainage basin is fed by both rainfall and snowmelt since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. Excessive water must be stored behind the radial gates between February and May in terms of sustainability especially for summer and autumn periods. Moreover, the downstream channel physical conditions constraint the spillway releases up to 100 m3/s although the spillway is large enough to handle major floods. Thus, this situation makes short term release decisions the challenging task. Long term water supply curves, based on historical inflows and annual water demand, are in conflict with flood regulation (control) levels, based on flood attenuation and routing curves, for this reservoir. A guide curve, that is generated using both water supply and flood control of downstream channel, generally corresponds to upper elevation of conservation pool for simulation of a reservoir. However, sometimes current operation necessitates exceeding this target elevation. Since guide curves can be developed as a function of external variables, the water potential of a basin can be an indicator to explain current conditions and decide on the further strategies. Besides, releases with respect to guide curve are managed and restricted by user-defined rules. Although the managers operate the reservoir due to several variable conditions and predictions, still the simulation model using variable guide curve is an urgent need to test alternatives quickly. To that end, using HEC-ResSim, the several variable guide curves are defined to meet the requirements by

  18. Design improvements, construction and operating experience with BWRs in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchigasaki, G.; Yokomi, M.; Sasaki, M.; Aoki, R.; Hashimoto, H.

    1983-01-01

    (1) The first domestic-made 1100-MW(e) BWR in Japan commenced commercial operation in April 1982. The unit is the leading one of the subsequent three in Fukushima Daini nuclear power station owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company Inc. (Tepco). Based on the accumulated construction and operation experience of 500-MW(e) and 800-MW(e) class BWRs, improvements in various aspects during both the design and construction stages were introduced in core and fuel design with advanced gadolinia distribution, reactor feedwater treatment technology for crud reduction, a radwaste island, control and instrumentation to cope with the lessons learned through Three Mile Island assessment etc. (2) Based on many operating experiences with BWRs, an improved BWR core, which has easier operability and higher load factor than the conventional core, has been developed. The characteristic of the improved core is ''axially two-zoned uranium enrichment distribution''; the enrichment of the upper part of the fuel is slightly higher than that of the lower part. Through the improved core it became possible to optimize the axial power flattening and core reactivity control separately by axial enrichment distribution and burnable poison content. The improved fuels were loaded into operating BWRs and successfully proved the performance by this experience. (3) To shorten annual outage time, to reduce radiation exposure, to save manpower, and to achieve high reliability and safety of inspection operation, the remote automatic service and inspection equipment were developed in Japan. This paper presents the concept, distinctive features, and actual operation experience of the automatic refuelling machine, control-rod drive (CRD) remote-handling machine, improved main steam line isolation plug, and the automated ultrasonic inspection system with a computerized data processing unit, which have been developed by Hitachi, Ltd. with excellent results. (author)

  19. Effects of the uncertainty of energy price and water availability forecasts on the operation of Alpine hydropower reservoir systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Burlando, P.

    2016-12-01

    European energy markets have experienced dramatic changes in the last years because of the massive introduction of Variable Renewable Sources (VRSs), such as wind and solar power sources, in the generation portfolios in many countries. VRSs i) are intermittent, i.e., their production is highly variable and only partially predictable, ii) are characterized by no correlation between production and demand, iii) have negligible costs of production, and iv) have been largely subsidized. These features result in lower energy prices, but, at the same time, in increased price volatility, and in network stability issues, which pose a threat to traditional power sources because of smaller incomes and higher maintenance costs associated to a more flexible operation of power systems. Storage hydropower systems play an important role in compensating production peaks, both in term of excess and shortage of energy. Traditionally, most of the research effort in hydropower reservoir operation has focused on modeling and forecasting reservoir inflow as well as designing reservoir operation accordingly. Nowadays, price variability may be the largest source of uncertainty in the context of hydropower systems, especially when considering medium-to-large reservoirs, whose storage can easily buffer small inflow fluctuations. In this work, we compare the effects of uncertain inflow and energy price forecasts on hydropower production and profitability. By adding noise to historic inflow and price trajectories, we build a set of synthetic forecasts corresponding to different levels of predictability and assess their impact on reservoir operating policies and performances. The study is conducted on different hydropower systems, including storage systems and pumped-storage systems, with different characteristics, e.g., different inflow-capacity ratios. The analysis focuses on Alpine hydropower systems where the hydrological regime ranges from purely ice and snow-melt dominated to mixed snow

  20. Constructive Representation Theory for the Feynman Operator Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, T L

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we survey recent progress on the constructive theory of the Feynman operator calculus. We first develop an operator version of the Henstock-Kurzweil integral, and a new Hilbert space that allows us to construct the elementary path integral in the manner originally envisioned by Feynman. After developing our time-ordered operator theory we extend a few of the important theorems of semigroup theory, including the Hille-Yosida theorem. As an application, we unify and extend the theory of time-dependent parabolic and hyperbolic evolution equations. We then develop a general perturbation theory and use it to prove that all theories generated by semigroups are asympotic in the operator-valued sense of Poincar e. This allows us to provide a general theory for the interaction representation of relativistic quantum theory. We then show that our theory can be reformulated as a physically motivated sum over paths, and use this version to extend the Feynman path integral to include more general interaction...

  1. 30 CFR 285.620 - What is a Construction and Operations Plan (COP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a Construction and Operations Plan (COP... Information Requirements Construction and Operations Plan for Commercial Leases § 285.620 What is a Construction and Operations Plan (COP)? The COP describes your construction, operations, and conceptual...

  2. Multi-Objective Optimization of the Hedging Model for reservoir Operation Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sadegh sadeghitabas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-objective problems rarely ever provide a single optimal solution, rather they yield an optimal set of outputs (Pareto fronts. Solving these problems was previously accomplished by using some simplifier methods such as the weighting coefficient method used for converting a multi-objective problem to a single objective function. However, such robust tools as multi-objective meta-heuristic algorithms have been recently developed for solving these problems. The hedging model is one of the classic problems for reservoir operation that is generally employed for mitigating drought impacts in water resources management. According to this method, although it is possible to supply the total planned demands, only portions of the demands are met to save water by allowing small deficits in the current conditions in order to avoid or reduce severe deficits in future. The approach heavily depends on economic and social considerations. In the present study, the meta-heuristic algorithms of NSGA-II, MOPSO, SPEA-II, and AMALGAM are used toward the multi-objective optimization of the hedging model. For this purpose, the rationing factors involved in Taleghan dam operation are optimized over a 35-year statistical period of inflow. There are two objective functions: a minimizing the modified shortage index, and b maximizing the reliability index (i.e., two opposite objectives. The results show that the above algorithms are applicable to a wide range of optimal solutions. Among the algorithms, AMALGAM is found to produce a better Pareto front for the values of the objective function, indicating its more satisfactory performance.

  3. Design and Construction of Operation Bridge for Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Choi, Jinbok; Lee, Jongmin; Oh, Jinho

    2015-01-01

    The operation bridge contains a lower working deck mounted on a saddle that travels on rails. Upright members are mounted on the saddle to support the upper structure and two hoist monorails. The saddle contains an anti-derail system that is composed of seismic lugs and guide rollers. The operation bridge travels along the rails to transport the fuel assembly, irradiated object, and reactor components in the pools by using tools. Hoists are installed at the top girder. The hoist is suspended from the monorail by means of a motor driven trolley that runs along the monorail. Movements of hoist and trolley are controlled by using the control pendant switch. Processes of design and construction of the operation bridge for the research reactor are introduced. The operation bridge is designed under consideration of functions of handling equipment in the pool and operational limits for safety. Structural analysis is carried out to evaluate the structural integrity in the seismic events. Tests and inspections are also performed during fabrication and installation to confirm the function and safety of the operation bridge

  4. Mechanic- and hydraulic shock-absorbers - layout, construction, operation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, M.

    1981-01-01

    The problem lies in the protection of the flexible supported power plant components against undesired sudden movements. Various shock absorbing systems are at disposal in this case: Mechanical and hydraulic shock absorbers, whose functioning systems are shown in figures. The operation experience showed a series of deficiencies, as demonstrated on various figures. In order to avoid them, some important recommendations are given. Requirements and layout are demonstrated according to todays' state-of-the-art. The admissible stresses, resulting from the summary of various specifications for the analytical evidence will be described. Development and construction will be explained in detail by means of pictures with cross sections of original shock absorbers. Todays' construction characteristics will be summarized. The final remark includes a request for generally valid guidelines. (orig.) [de

  5. Regulatory aspects of construction and operation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugi, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory mission with respect to radioactive waste disposal in Switzerland consists of the following tasks: to assess proposed solutions and supervise the preparation for geological disposal of radioactive waste, to review the licence applications in accord with the stepwise implementation process; to supervise the transport of radioactive material to and from nuclear installations; to supervise surface facilities and underground installations of deep geological repositories; and to supervise the safety of staff and the public and their protection from radiation. Related nuclear legislation consists of the Nuclear Energy Act, the Radiological Protection Act including the corresponding Ordinances, and the Ordinance on the Decommissioning Fund and the Waste Disposal Fund for Nuclear Installations. Design, construction and operating principles for DGRs and requirements for the safety case have been developed recently by the Swiss regulatory body. The corresponding guideline specifies protection objectives, protection criteria and specific requirements for DGRs, defines the procedure to be followed for demonstrating the safety of a geological repository, and identifies requirements for the operation of facilities and for their closure. The Nuclear Energy Act stipulates a series of licences that must be obtained prior to completion of a DGR - starting with a general licence, followed by the licences for construction and operation, and finally the closure order

  6. Impact of upstream river inputs and reservoir operation on phosphorus fractions in water-particulate phases in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chaonan; Zheng, Binghui; Qin, Yanwen; Ma, Yingqun; Yang, Chenchen; Liu, Zhichao; Cao, Wei; Chi, Minghui

    2018-01-01

    The impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has changed water-sand transport regime, with inevitable effects on phosphorus transport behavior in the TGR. In this study, we measured phosphorus fractions in water and suspended particles transported from upstream rivers of the TGR (the Yangtze River, the Jialing River and the Wu River) to reservoir inner region over the full operation schedule of the TGR. The aim was to determine how phosphorus fractions in water and particulate phases varied in response to natural hydrological processes and reservoir operations. The results showed that total phosphorus concentration (TP) in water in the TGR inner region was 0.17±0.05mg/L, which was lower than that in the Yangtze River (0.21±0.04mg/L) and the Wu River (0.23±0.03mg/L), but higher than that in the Jialing River (0.12±0.07mg/L). In the TGR inner region, there was no clear trend of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), but total particulate phosphorus (TPP) showed a decreasing trend from tail area to head area because of particle deposition along the TGR mainstream. In addition, the concentrations of TPP in water and particulate phosphorus in a unit mass of suspended particles (PP) in the TGR inner region were higher in October 2014 and January 2015 (the impounding period and high water level period) than that in July 2015 (the low water level period). The temporal variations of PP and TPP concentrations in the TGR may be linked to the change of particle size distribution of suspended particles in the TGR. The particle size tended to be finer due to large-size particle deposition under stable hydrodynamic conditions in the process of TGR impoundment, resulting in high adsorption capacities of phosphorus in suspended particles. The results implied that phosphorus temporal variations in the TGR could exert different impacts on water quality in the TGR tributaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Waterproofing with polymeric geo synthetic barriers (GBR-P) in the manual for the design, construction, management and maintenance of reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, M.; Cea, J. C.; Garcia, F.; Sanchez, F. J.; Castillo, F.; Mora, J.; Crespo, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a part of Manual for the Design, Construction, Management and Maintenance of Reservoirs relative to waterproofing with Polymeric Geo synthetic Barriers (GBR-P). the nature materials of geo membranes is studied also theirs characteristics and specifications. (Author) 26 refs.

  8. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer: from construction to operation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00218666; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is the innermost layer of pixel detectors, and was installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis, between the existing Pixel detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D sensors and CMOS 130 nm technology. The IBL detector construction was completed within about two years (2012-2014), and the key features and challenges met during the IBL project are presented, as well as its commissioning and operational experience at the LHC

  9. Vertex operator construction of superconformal ghosts and string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezawa, Z.F.; Nakamura, S.; Tezuka, A.

    1987-01-01

    Superconformal ghosts in string theories are characterized by the SU(1,1) Kac-Moody algebra with central charge -1/2. These ghost fields are constructed as the vertex operators realizing spinor representations of the Kac-Moody algebra. Representations of the canonical commutation relations of the superconformal ghosts are analyzed extensively. All irreducible representations are found to possess only the trivial inner product but for one exceptional case. Consequently, in superstring field theory it is necessary to consider reducible representations in general. Hilbert spaces with a non-trivial inner product are explicitly obtained upon which second quantization of superstring may be carried out. (orig.)

  10. Reservoir floodplains support distinct fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Wigen, S. L.; Dagel, Jonah D.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs constructed on floodplain rivers are unique because the upper reaches of the impoundment may include extensive floodplain environments. Moreover, reservoirs that experience large periodic water level fluctuations as part of their operational objectives seasonally inundate and dewater floodplains in their upper reaches, partly mimicking natural inundations of river floodplains. In four flood control reservoirs in Mississippi, USA, we explored the dynamics of connectivity between reservoirs and adjacent floodplains and the characteristics of fish assemblages that develop in reservoir floodplains relative to those that develop in reservoir bays. Although fish species richness in floodplains and bays were similar, species composition differed. Floodplains emphasized fish species largely associated with backwater shallow environments, often resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Conversely, dominant species in bays represented mainly generalists that benefit from the continuous connectivity between the bay and the main reservoir. Floodplains in the study reservoirs provided desirable vegetated habitats at lower water level elevations, earlier in the year, and more frequently than in bays. Inundating dense vegetation in bays requires raising reservoir water levels above the levels required to reach floodplains. Therefore, aside from promoting distinct fish assemblages within reservoirs and helping promote diversity in regulated rivers, reservoir floodplains are valued because they can provide suitable vegetated habitats for fish species at elevations below the normal pool, precluding the need to annually flood upland vegetation that would inevitably be impaired by regular flooding. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Planning, Investment, Construction and Operation of Rail Transit in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In Beijing, the rail transit firstly came into existence in the mid 1960s and was officially put into operation for civil use in the early 1980s. It has entered a period of rapid development since 2001, with thanks to the coming of the Olympic Games in 2008, and has been playing a more and more important role in the passenger transport of Beijing since then on, as a key part of the public transportation. Based on a resume on the evolution of rail transit development in Beijing, this paper analyzes the mechanism of policy-making, the mode of investment and financing, the procedure of construction, and the management of operation of rail transit, all of which ensure its rapid development and effective performance.

  12. Submicron particle monitoring of paving and related road construction operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Alice; Zuckerman, Norman; Baum, Lisa; Milek, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This study identified activities and sources that contribute to ultrafine and other submicron particle exposure that could trigger respiratory symptoms in highway repair workers. Submicron particle monitoring was conducted for paving, milling, and pothole repair operations in a major metropolitan area where several highway repair workers were identified as symptomatic for respiratory illness following exposures at the 2001 World Trade Center disaster site. Exposure assessments were conducted for eight trades involved in road construction using a TSI P-Trak portable condensation particle counter. Direct readings near the workers' breathing zones and observations of activities and potential sources were logged on 7 days on 27 workers using four different models of pavers and two types of millers. Average worker exposure levels ranged from 2 to 3 times background during paving and from 1 to 4 times background during milling. During asphalt paving, average personal exposures to submicron particulates were 25,000-60,000, 28,000-70,000, and 23,000-37,000 particles/ cm(3) for paver operators, screed operators, and rakers, respectively. Average personal exposures during milling were 19,000-111,000, 28,000-81,000, and 19,000 particles/cm(3) for the large miller operators, miller screed operators, and raker, respectively. Personal peak exposures were measured up to 467,000 and 455,000 particles/cm(3) in paving and milling, respectively. Several sources of submicron particles were identified. These included the diesel and electric fired screed heaters; engine exhaust from diesel powered construction vehicles passing by or idling; raking, dumping, and paving of asphalt; exhaust from the hotbox heater; pavement dust or fumes from milling operations, especially when the large miller started and stopped; and secondhand cigarette smoke. To reduce the potential for health effects in workers, over 40 recommendations were made to control exposures, including improved maintenance of

  13. Impact of the operation of cascade reservoirs in upper Yangtze River on hydrological variability of the mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changjiang, Xu; Dongdong, Zhang

    2018-06-01

    As the impacts by climate changes and human activities are intensified, variability may occur in river's annual runoff as well as flood and low water characteristics. In order to understand the characteristics of variability in hydrological series, diagnosis and identification must be conducted specific to the variability of hydrological series, i.e., whether there was variability and where the variability began to occur. In this paper, the mainstream of Yangtze River was taken as the object of study. A model was established to simulate the impounding and operation of upstream cascade reservoirs so as to obtain the runoff of downstream hydrological control stations after the regulation by upstream reservoirs in different level years. The Range of Variability Approach was utilized to analyze the impact of the operation of upstream reservoirs on the variability of downstream. The results indicated that the overall hydrologic alterations of Yichang hydrological station in 2010 level year, 2015 level year and the forward level year were 68.4, 72.5 and 74.3 % respectively, belonging to high alteration in all three level years. The runoff series of mainstream hydrological stations presented variability in different degrees, where the runoff series of the four hydrological stations including Xiangjiaba, Gaochang and Wulong belonged to high alteration in the three level years; and the runoff series of Beibei hydrological station in 2010 level year belonged to medium alteration, and high alteration in 2015 level year and the forward level year. The study on the impact of the operation of cascade reservoirs in Upper Yangtze River on hydrological variability of the mainstream had important practical significance on the sustainable utilization of water resources, disaster prevention and mitigation, safe and efficient operation and management of water conservancy projects and stable development of the economic society.

  14. Assessment of Short Term Flood Operation Strategies Using Numerical Weather Prediction Data in YUVACΙK DAM Reservoir, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, G.; Yavuz, O.; Sensoy, A.; Sorman, A.; Akgun, T.; Gezgin, T.

    2011-12-01

    Yuvacik Dam Reservoir Basin, located in the Marmara region of Turkey with 248 km2 drainage area, has steep topography, mild and rainy climate thus induces high flood potential with fast flow response, especially to early spring and fall precipitation events. Moreover, the basin provides considerable snowmelt contribution to the streamflow during melt season since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. The long term strategies are based on supplying annual demand of 142 hm3 water despite a relatively small reservoir capacity of 51 hm3. This situation makes short term release decisions as the challenging task regarding the constrained downstream safe channel capacity especially in times of floods. Providing the demand of 1.5 million populated city of Kocaeli is the highest priority issue in terms of reservoir management but risk optimization is also required due to flood regulation. Although, the spillway capacity is 1560 m3/s, the maximum amount of water to be released is set as 100 m3/s by the regional water authority taking into consideration the downstream channel capacity which passes through industrial region of the city. The reservoir is a controlled one and it is possible to hold back the 15 hm3 additional water by keeping the gates closed. Flood regulation is set to achieve the maximum possible flood attenuation by using the full flood-control zone capacity in the reservoir before making releases in excess of the downstream safe-channel capacity. However, the operators still need to exceed flood regulation zones to take precautions for drought summer periods in order to supply water without any shortage that increases the risk in times of flood. Regarding to this circumstances, a hydrological model integrated reservoir modeling system, is applied to account for the physical behavior of the system. Hence, this reservoir modeling is carried out to analyze both previous decisions and also the future scenarios as a decision support tool for operators. In the

  15. Basic national requirements for safe design, construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have to be save. Vendors and utilities operating such plants, are convinced that their plants meet this requirement. Who, however, is establishing the safety requirements to be met by those manufacturing and operating nuclear power plants. What are the mechanisms to control whether the features provided assure the required safety level. Who controls whether the required and planned safety features are really provided. Who is eventually responsible for assuring safety after commissioning of a nuclear power plant. These fundamental questions being raised in many discussions on safety and environmental protection are dealt with in the following sections: (1) Fundamental safety requirements on nuclear power plants, in which such items as risk, legal bases and licensing procedure are discussed, (2) Surveillance during construction, in which safety analysis report, siting, safety evaluation, document examination, quality assurance, and commissioning testing are dealt with, (3) Operating tests and conditions in which recurrent inspections, environmental protection during operation, investigation of abnormal occurences and backfitting requirements as reviewed, and (4) Safety philosophy and safety policy to conclude this presentation. The German approach to nuclear safety serves as an example for an effective way of assuring safe nuclear power. (orig.)

  16. Mechanism study on a plague outbreak driven by the construction of a large reservoir in southwest china (surveillance from 2000-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wei, Xiaoyu; Song, Zhizhong; Wang, Mingliu; Xi, Jinxiao; Liang, Junrong; Liang, Yun; Duan, Ran; Tian, Kecheng; Zhao, Yong; Tang, Guangpeng; You, Lv; Yang, Guirong; Liu, Xuebin; Chen, Yuhuang; Zeng, Jun; Wu, Shengrong; Luo, Shoujun; Qin, Gang; Hao, Huijing; Jing, Huaiqi

    2017-03-01

    Plague, a Yersinia pestis infection, is a fatal disease with tremendous transmission capacity. However, the mechanism of how the pathogen stays in a reservoir, circulates and then re-emerges is an enigma. We studied a plague outbreak caused by the construction of a large reservoir in southwest China followed 16-years' surveillance. The results show the prevalence of plague within the natural plague focus is closely related to the stability of local ecology. Before and during the decade of construction the reservoir on the Nanpan River, no confirmed plague has ever emerged. With the impoundment of reservoir and destruction of drowned farmland and vegetation, the infected rodent population previously dispersed was concentrated together in a flood-free area and turned a rest focus alive. Human plague broke out after the enzootic plague via the flea bite. With the construction completed and ecology gradually of human residential environment, animal population and type of vegetation settling down to a new balance, the natural plague foci returned to a rest period. With the rodent density decreased as some of them died, the flea density increased as the rodents lived near or in local farm houses where had more domestic animals, and human has a more concentrated population. In contrast, in the Himalayan marmot foci of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the Qilian Mountains. There are few human inhabitants and the local ecology is relatively stable; plague is prevalence, showing no rest period. Thus the plague can be significantly affected by ecological shifts.

  17. A method for the assessment of long-term changes in carbon stock by construction of a hydropower reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Julio Werner Yoshioka; Mannich, Michael; Hilgert, Stephan; Fernandes, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo; Bleninger, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Sustainability of hydropower reservoirs has been questioned since the detection of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which are mainly composed of carbon dioxide and methane. A method to assess the impact on the carbon cycle caused by the transition from a natural river system into a reservoir is presented and discussed. The method evaluates the long term changes in carbon stock instead of the current approach of monitoring and integrating continuous short term fluxes. A case study was conducted in a subtropical reservoir in Brazil, showing that the carbon content within the reservoir exceeds that of the previous landuse. The average carbon sequestration over 43 years since damming was 895 mg C m[Formula: see text] and found to be mainly due to storage of carbon in sediments. These results demonstrate that reservoirs have two opposite effects on the balance of GHGs. By storing organic C in sediments, reservoirs are an important carbon sink. On the other hand, reservoirs increase the flux of methane into the atmosphere. If the sediments of reservoirs could be used for long term C storage, reservoirs might have a positive effect on the balance of GHGs.

  18. Construction and operation of the Howard T. Ricketts Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Stull, L.; Butler, J.; Chang, Y.; Allison, T.; O' Rourke, D.

    2006-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has proposed to partially fund the construction of the Howard T. Ricketts (HTR) regional biocontainment laboratory (RBL) by the University of Chicago at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. The HTR Laboratory (HTRL) would be constructed, owned, and operated by the University of Chicago on land leased to it by DOE. The preferred project site is located north of Eastwood Drive and west of Outer Circle Road and is near the biological sciences building. This environmental assessment addresses the potential environmental effects resulting from construction and operation of the proposed facility. The proposed project involves the construction of a research facility with a footprint up to approximately 44,000 ft{sup 2} (4,088 m{sup 2}). The proposed building would house research laboratories, including Biosafety Level 2 and 3 biocontainment space, animal research facilities, administrative offices, and building support areas. The NIH has identified a need for new facilities to support research on potential bioterrorism agents and emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, to protect the nation from such threats to public health. This research requires specialized laboratory facilities that are designed, managed, and operated to protect laboratory workers and the surrounding community from accidental exposure to agents. The proposed HTRL would provide needed biocontainment space to researchers and promote the advancement of knowledge in the disciplines of biodefense and emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Several alternatives were considered for the location of the proposed facility, as well as a no action alternative. The preferred alternative includes the construction of a research facility, up to 44,000 ft{sup 2} (4,088 m{sup 2}), at Argonne National Laboratory, a secure government location. Potential impacts to natural and cultural resources have been

  19. BR3/Vulcain Nuclear Power Station. Construction and Operational Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storrer, J. [Belgonucleaire, S.A., Brussels (Belgium)

    1968-04-15

    A full-scale reactor experiment was set out as the main objective of the Vulcain research and development programme agreed in May 1962 between the UKAEA and BelgoNucleaire, manager of ''Syndicat Vulcain''. Vulcain uses variable moderation as the long-term method to control reactivity: the reactor is cooled and moderated by a mixture of heavy and light water, the D{sub 2}O content being stepwise reduced to permit power operation with all control rods completely out of the core. To carry out the Vulcain power experiment it was decided to modify the BR3 nuclear power plant located at Mol, Belgium, which had operated from 1962 to 1964 as a conventional PWR with outputs of 40.9 MW(th) and 11.45 MW(e). The BR3/Vulcain plant was started in December 1966 and since then is running with a load factor around 90%. It is the first time that such a reactor type has been built and operated and the experience gained by its design, construction, commissioning and operation has proven to be most valuable. D{sub 2}O is being used at a pressure (2000 lb/in{sup 2} abs.) never before achieved in a heavy-water reactor and the leak rate from the HP primary systems to the atmosphere has been kept to a negligible value, around 1 to 2 grams/h. Commissioning of the primary plant had been carried out with light water first without fuel, and thereafter with fuel, at which time the water was poisoned with boric acid. The reactor vessel contains experimental devices such as 65 in-pile instrumentation detectors and four hydraulically operated Zircaloy control rods. They required the interposition of a collar between the vessel and its lid. Refuelling is performed under boronated light water, the interchange between the primary water and the H{sub 2}O being carried out by means of a draining and spraying system. The reactor had been operated for two years before its modifications for Vulcain: many lessons have therefore been learned about working on irradiated systems. The BR3/Vulcain core has a

  20. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer: from construction to operation

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. The IBL detector construction was achieved within about two years starting from mid-2012 to the May 2014 installation in ATLAS, a very tight schedule to meet the ATLAS installation and detector closure before starting the Run2 in Spring 2015. The key features and challenges met during the IBL project will be presented, as well as its commissioning and operational experience in LHC.

  1. The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector: Construction, operation, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alice Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) was designed and built to enhance the capabilities of the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). While aimed at providing electron identification and triggering, the TRD also contributes significantly to the track reconstruction and calibration in the central barrel of ALICE. In this paper the design, construction, operation, and performance of this detector are discussed. A pion rejection factor of up to 410 is achieved at a momentum of 1 GeV/ c in p-Pb collisions and the resolution at high transverse momentum improves by about 40% when including the TRD information in track reconstruction. The triggering capability is demonstrated both for jet, light nuclei, and electron selection.

  2. Design, construction and operation of Ontario Hydro's CANDU plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.G.

    1981-06-01

    Ontario Hydro has been producing electricity commercially from nuclear power since 1968, using CANDU reactors which have proved enormously successful. The 206-MW Douglas Point station, nearly 10 times larger than the first Canadian power reactor, NPD-2, resulted from a cooperative effort between Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., the provincial government of Ontario, and Ontario Hydro. This approach led to a basic working relationship between the parties, with Ontario Hydro acting as project manager and builder, and AECL acting as consultant with respect to the nuclear components. Before Douglas Point was fully commissioned Ontario Hydro was ready to commit itself to more nuclear stations, and work was started on the four-unit Pickering nuclear generating station. Multi-unit stations were adopted to achieve economies of scale, and the concept has been retained for all subsequent nuclear power plants constructed in the province. The organization of Ontario Hydro's project management, construction, and operation of nuclear generating stations is described. Performance of the existing stations and cost of the power they produce have been entirely acceptable

  3. Assessment of dam construction impact on hydrological regime changes in lowland river – A case of study: the Stare Miasto reservoir located on the Powa River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojka Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented research is analysis and assessment of the Stare Miasto reservoir impact on the hydrological regime changes of the Powa River. The reservoir was built in 2006 and is located in the central part of Poland. The total area of inundation in normal conditions is 90.68 ha and its capacity is 2.159 mln m3. Hydrological regime alteration of the Powa River is analysed on the basis of daily flows from the Posoka gauge station observed during period 1974–2014. Assessment of hydrological regime changes is carried out on the basis of Range of Variability Approach (RVA method. All calculations are made by means of Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA software version 7.1.0.10. The analysis shows that the Stare Miasto reservoir has a moderate impact on hydrological regime of the Powa River. Construction of the reservoir has positive effect on stability of minimal flows, which are important for protection of river ecosystems. The results obtained indicate that the Stare Miasto reservoir reduces a spring peak flow and enables to moderate control of floods.

  4. Using a Bayesian Probabilistic Forecasting Model to Analyze the Uncertainty in Real-Time Dynamic Control of the Flood Limiting Water Level for Reservoir Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dedi; Li, Xiang; Guo, Shenglian

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic control of the flood limiting water level (FLWL) is a valuable and effective way to maximize the benefits from reservoir operation without exceeding the design risk. In order to analyze the impacts of input uncertainty, a Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) is adopted. Applying quantile water...... inflow values and their uncertainties obtained from the BFS, the reservoir operation results from different schemes can be analyzed in terms of benefits, dam safety, and downstream impacts during the flood season. When the reservoir FLWL dynamic control operation is implemented, there are two fundamental......, also deterministic water inflow was tested. The proposed model in the paper emphasizes the importance of analyzing the uncertainties of the water inflow forecasting system for real-time dynamic control of the FLWL for reservoir operation. For the case study, the selected quantile inflow from...

  5. Experience in construction and operation of HWR plants in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madero, C.C.; Cosentino, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    ''ATUCHA I'', the first nuclear power plant in Argentina, is in commerical operation since 1974 with a high capacity factor. The reactor is based on the MZFR prototype designed by SIEMENS with natural uranium and heavy water and PWR technic. The plant was built by SIEMENS on a turnkey contract and was rated 340 MWe. The offer presented in that opportunity by KWU was based on two reactors (ATUCHA I type) inside one single containment, due to the limitation in power of the reactor. Subsequent changes in the nature of the contract resulted in an active participation of CNEA engineering groups in the erection and commissioning of the reactor. In 1978 the national government approved a nuclear power plan to install four 600 MWe HWR plants until 1995. To start implementing this program, CNEA called for tenders for the supply of components and services for the ATUCHA II plant, in connection with the establishment of a local engineering company and the supply and construction of a heavy water production plant. In 1980 a contract was signed with KWU and the local company ENACE was formed to act as architect engineer and site coordinator. The plant will be located in the ATUCHA I site and the reactor will be similar but double in power to that one. Following the schedule of the nuclear plan, CNEA has just started preliminary studies for the next nuclear plant. ENACE will be responsible for the preparation of an offer for an ATUCHA reactor type. Local engineering and manufacturing firms, upon request and coordination from CNEA, and evaluating the local capacity to participate in the design and construction of a CANDU type nuclear plant. Final decision on this fourth nuclear plant in Argentina will be taken middle 1983. (J.P.N.)

  6. A unique application of the instream flow incremental methodology (IFIM) to predict impacts on riverine aquatic habitat, resulting from construction of a proposed hydropower reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    The City of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, proposed to construct a new low-head hydroelectric project on the Susquehanna River in the central part of the state in 1986, about 108 km upstream of the river mouth. As part of the licensing process, the city was required by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to carry out studies that would forecast the impacts on riverine aquatic habitat as a result of construction of the proposed 13 km long by 1.5 km wide reservoir. The methodology selected by the city and its consultants was to use the IFIM to model the habitat conditions in the project reach both before and after construction of the proposed reservoir.The IFIM is usually used to model instream flow releases downstream of dams and diversions, and had not been used before to model habitat conditions within the proposed reservoir area. The study team hydraulically modelled the project reach using existing hydraulic data, and a HEC-2 backwater analysis to determine post-project water surface elevations. The IFG-4 model was used to simulate both pre- and post-project water velocities, by distributing velocities across transects based on known discharges and cell depth. Effects on aquatic habitat were determined using the IFIM PHABSIM program, in which criteria for several evaluation species and life stages were used to yield estimates of Weighted Usable Area. The analysis showed, based on trends in WUA from pre- and post-project conditions, that habitat conditions would improve for several species and life stages, and would be negatively affected for fewer life stages and species. Some agency concerns that construction of the proposed reservoir would have significant adverse effects on the resident and anadromous fish populations were responded to using these results

  7. An Alternative Approach to the Operation of Multinational Reservoir Systems: Application to the Amistad & Falcon System (Lower Rio Grande/Rí-o Bravo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Valdes, J. B.

    2005-12-01

    An optimization approach for the operation of international multi-reservoir systems is presented. The approach uses Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) algorithms, both steady-state and real-time, to develop two models. In the first model, the reservoirs and flows of the system are aggregated to yield an equivalent reservoir, and the obtained operating policies are disaggregated using a non-linear optimization procedure for each reservoir and for each nation water balance. In the second model a multi-reservoir approach is applied, disaggregating the releases for each country water share in each reservoir. The non-linear disaggregation algorithm uses SDP-derived operating policies as boundary conditions for a local time-step optimization. Finally, the performance of the different approaches and methods is compared. These models are applied to the Amistad-Falcon International Reservoir System as part of a binational dynamic modeling effort to develop a decision support system tool for a better management of the water resources in the Lower Rio Grande Basin, currently enduring a severe drought.

  8. GestAqua.AdaPT - Mediterranean river basin modeling and reservoir operation strategies for climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Diogo, Paulo; Nunes, João Pedro; Marco, Machado; Aal, Carlo; Carmona Rodrigues, António; Beça, Pedro; Casanova Lino, Rafael; Rocha, João; Carvalho Santos, Cláudia

    2016-04-01

    Climate change (CC) scenarios for the Mediterranean region include an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as drought periods. higher average temperatures and evapotranspiration, combined with the decrease of annual precipitation may strongly affect the sustainability of water resources. In face of these risks, improving water management actions? by anticipating necessary operational measures is required to insure water quantity and quality according to the needs of the populations and irrigation in agriculture. This is clearly the case of the Alentejo region, southern Portugal, where present climatic conditions already pose significant challenges to water resources stakeholders, mainly from the agricultural and the urban supply sectors. With this in mind, the GestAqua.AdaPT project is underway during 2015 and 2016, aiming at analyzing CC impacts until 2100 and develop operational procedures to ensure water needs are adequately satisfied in the Monte Novo and Vigia reservoirs, which supply water for the city of Évora and nearby irrigation systems. Specific project objectives include: a) defining management and operational adaptation strategies aiming to ensure resource sustainability, both quantitatively and qualitatively; b) evaluate future potential costs and available alternatives to the regional water transfer infrastructure linked with the large Alqueva reservoir implemented in 2011; c) defining CC adaptation strategies to reduce irrigation water needs and d) identification of CC adaptation strategies which can be suitable also to other similar water supply systems. The methodology is centered on the implementation of a cascade of modeling tools, allowing the integrated simulation of the multiple variables under analysis. The project is based on CC scenarios resulting from the CORDEX project for 10 combinations of Global and regional climate models (GCMs and RCMs). The study follows by using two of these combinations

  9. Construction site Voice Operated Information System (VOIS) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Debbie J.; Hettchen, William

    1991-01-01

    The Voice Activated Information System (VAIS), developed by USACERL, allows inspectors to verbally log on-site inspection reports on a hand held tape recorder. The tape is later processed by the VAIS, which enters the information into the system's database and produces a written report. The Voice Operated Information System (VOIS), developed by USACERL and Automated Sciences Group, through a ESACERL cooperative research and development agreement (CRDA), is an improved voice recognition system based on the concepts and function of the VAIS. To determine the applicability of the VOIS to Corps of Engineers construction projects, Technology Transfer Test Bad (T3B) funds were provided to the Corps of Engineers National Security Agency (NSA) Area Office (Fort Meade) to procure and implement the VOIS, and to train personnel in its use. This report summarizes the NSA application of the VOIS to quality assurance inspection of radio frequency shielding and to progress payment logs, and concludes that the VOIS is an easily implemented system that can offer improvements when applied to repetitive inspection procedures. Use of VOIS can save time during inspection, improve documentation storage, and provide flexible retrieval of stored information.

  10. Construction and operation of a drift-collection calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambats, I.; Ayres, D.S.; Dawson, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Large areas planar drift chambers with long drift distance (up to 50 cm) have been developed for possible use in the new Soudan 2 nucleon decay detector. Design goals included fine sampling to determine the topology of complex events with several low-energy tracks. The large scale of the experiment (> 1000 metric tons) required large area inexpensive chambers, which also had good position resolution and multi-track separation. The chambers were to be installed between thin sheets of steel to form a finegrained detector. A second goal was the sampling of dE/dx with each position measurement, in order to determine the direction and particle identity of each track. In this paper we report on the construction and operation of a prototype dectector consisting of 50 chambers, separated by 3 mm-thick steel plates. Readout of drift time and pulse height from anode wires and an orthogonal grid of bussed cathode pads utilized 6-bit flash ADC's. This application of the drift-collection calorimeter technique to a nucleon decay detector follows the investigation by a number of groups of calorimeters for high energy detectors based on long drifting

  11. A two-stage method of quantitative flood risk analysis for reservoir real-time operation using ensemble-based hydrologic forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of the risk for reservoir real-time operation is a hard task owing to the difficulty of accurate description of inflow uncertainties. The ensemble-based hydrologic forecasts directly depict the inflows not only the marginal distributions but also their persistence via scenarios. This motivates us to analyze the reservoir real-time operating risk with ensemble-based hydrologic forecasts as inputs. A method is developed by using the forecast horizon point to divide the future time into two stages, the forecast lead-time and the unpredicted time. The risk within the forecast lead-time is computed based on counting the failure number of forecast scenarios, and the risk in the unpredicted time is estimated using reservoir routing with the design floods and the reservoir water levels of forecast horizon point. As a result, a two-stage risk analysis method is set up to quantify the entire flood risks by defining the ratio of the number of scenarios that excessive the critical value to the total number of scenarios. The China's Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is selected as a case study, where the parameter and precipitation uncertainties are implemented to produce ensemble-based hydrologic forecasts. The Bayesian inference, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, is used to account for the parameter uncertainty. Two reservoir operation schemes, the real operated and scenario optimization, are evaluated for the flood risks and hydropower profits analysis. With the 2010 flood, it is found that the improvement of the hydrologic forecast accuracy is unnecessary to decrease the reservoir real-time operation risk, and most risks are from the forecast lead-time. It is therefore valuable to decrease the avarice of ensemble-based hydrologic forecasts with less bias for a reservoir operational purpose.

  12. Mechanism study on a plague outbreak driven by the construction of a large reservoir in southwest china (surveillance from 2000-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plague, a Yersinia pestis infection, is a fatal disease with tremendous transmission capacity. However, the mechanism of how the pathogen stays in a reservoir, circulates and then re-emerges is an enigma.We studied a plague outbreak caused by the construction of a large reservoir in southwest China followed 16-years' surveillance.The results show the prevalence of plague within the natural plague focus is closely related to the stability of local ecology. Before and during the decade of construction the reservoir on the Nanpan River, no confirmed plague has ever emerged. With the impoundment of reservoir and destruction of drowned farmland and vegetation, the infected rodent population previously dispersed was concentrated together in a flood-free area and turned a rest focus alive. Human plague broke out after the enzootic plague via the flea bite. With the construction completed and ecology gradually of human residential environment, animal population and type of vegetation settling down to a new balance, the natural plague foci returned to a rest period. With the rodent density decreased as some of them died, the flea density increased as the rodents lived near or in local farm houses where had more domestic animals, and human has a more concentrated population. In contrast, in the Himalayan marmot foci of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the Qilian Mountains. There are few human inhabitants and the local ecology is relatively stable; plague is prevalence, showing no rest period. Thus the plague can be significantly affected by ecological shifts.

  13. Constructing reservoir-scale 3D geomechanical FE-models. A refined workflow for model generation and calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K.; Henk, A. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    2013-08-01

    The tectonic stress field strongly affects the optimal exploitation of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. Amongst others, wellbore stability, orientation of hydraulically induced fractures and - particularly in fractured reservoirs - permeability anisotropies depend on the magnitudes and orientations of the recent stresses. Geomechanical reservoir models can provide unique insights into the tectonic stress field revealing the local perturbations resulting from faults and lithological changes. In order to provide robust predictions, such numerical models are based on the finite element (FE) method and account for the complexities of real reservoirs with respect to subsurface geometry, inhomogeneous material distribution and nonlinear rock mechanical behavior. We present a refined workflow for geomechanical reservoir modeling which allows for an easier set-up of the model geometry, high resolution submodels and faster calculation times due to element savings in the load frame. Transferring the reservoir geometry from the geological subsurface model, e.g., a Petrel {sup registered} project, to the FE model represents a special challenge as the faults are discontinuities in the numerical model and no direct interface exists between the two software packages used. Point clouds displaying faults and lithostratigraphic horizons can be used for geometry transfer but this labor-intensive approach is not feasible for complex field-scale models with numerous faults. Instead, so-called Coon's patches based on horizon lines, i.e. the intersection lines between horizons and faults, are well suited to re-generate the various surfaces in the FE software while maintaining their topology. High-resolution submodels of individual fault blocks can be incorporated into the field-scale model. This allows to consider both a locally refined mechanical stratigraphy and the impact of the large-scale fault pattern. A pressure load on top of the model represents the

  14. Base reinforcement of the provisional platform for the construction of piles screen on the Flix reservoir (Tarragona)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amo Sanz, P.; Diego Pereda, I.; Santalla Prieto, J.

    2014-01-01

    Decontamination works on Flix reservoir aimed at the removal of accumulated debris in the bed of the river Ebro, as result of historical discharge of pollutants by a chemical complex located there. The Flix reservoir currently retains in his base a lot of cubic meters of sludge from the solid fraction of the discharge of the aforementioned complex that sits on the right bank ( a non-negligible volume of alluvial substrate potentially affected by pollution from the sludge must be considered). The contaminants belong to there main groups: organo chlorines, heavy metals (particularly mercury) and radionuclides. they are in high concentrations, capable of transmitting contamination to the sediments and basement of the reservoir and the water flowing through the river. In the case of water, that transmission occurs in fact, and there is a register of episodes that have exceeded the limits of tolerance of aggressive components contained in the ecosystem. (Author)

  15. The Impact of Impoundment on Mercury Bioaccumulation in Fish Downstream from a Newly Constructed Reservoir, Wujiang River, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixin; Zhou, Lianfeng; Chang, Jianbo; Yang, Zhi; Hu, Juxiang; Hongjun, Wang

    2017-11-01

    Mercury concentrations in fish were investigated downstream from a newly impounded subtropical reservoir in August 2008. After 6-7 months of reservoir impoundment, mean mercury concentration in fish from downstream is significantly increased by 1.9 times. Not only carnivorous fish but also benthic fish had significantly higher total mercury concentrations than others. No significant correlation was found between total mercury concentrations and body length or weight of 13 fish species. Compared with the pre-impoundment, total mercury in fish from downstream is significantly increased by reservoir impoundment, but the increased rate is lower than those in subarctic and temperate areas. Fish samples surpassed the Chinese hygienic standard for tolerances of mercury in foods increased by 4.3%. More attention should be given to fish mercury levels from downstream sites to prevent possible adverse effects on the health of local people.

  16. Impact of Risk Aversion on the Operation of Hydroelectric Reservoirs in the Presence of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Jovanović

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing share of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar generation, has a direct impact on the planning and operation of power systems. In addition, the consideration of risk criteria within the decision support tools used by market participants (generation companies, energy services companies, and arbitrageurs is becoming a common activity given the increasing level of uncertainties faced by them. As a consequence, the behavior of market participants is affected by their level of risk aversion, and the application of equilibrium-based models is a common technique used in order to simulate their behavior. This paper presents a multi-stage market equilibrium model of risk-averse agents in order to analyze up to what extent the operation of hydro reservoirs can be affected by the risk-averse profile of market participants in a context of renewable energy source penetration and fuel price volatility.

  17. Radio Frequency Identification in Construction Operation and Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristian Birch; Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    As early as in 1995 it was stated that automatic identification of objects using RFID was a promising technology for the construction industry. However, 13 years later the applications of RFID in the construction industry are rare and mostly used in prototype projects or used for theft prevention...

  18. Round table: The New Constructions; New Build; IAEA Services Nuclear Power Reactor Technologies Construction and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choho, Tarik; Ward, Tony; Koshy, Thomas; )

    2014-01-01

    The first round-table of Atoms for the Future 2014 focused on the topic of 'The new construction'. Attendees had the opportunity to see Tarik Choho, Chief Commercial Executive Officer at AREVA, Tony Ward, Partner and Head of Power and Utilities at EY, as well as Thomas Koshy, Head of Nuclear Power technology Development Section at the IAEA, share their respective point of view and discuss together. They first started with their own presentation before sitting together at the discussion panel. Tarik Choho explained that there are many opportunities for new builds around the world, and especially in new comer countries. Thomas Koshy brought his expert point of view as an international regulator. He showed that the technology landscape also includes new designs as well as non-electricity generation uses. Those two aspects could bring both opportunities and challenges for licensing. Tony Ward showed how difficult it was to finance such a capitalistically intensive project as a new build, and how one could try to find an electricity retail price which is acceptable for both the general private consumer and the plant operator. All speakers agreed that preparation was core to a nuclear new build project. They also pointed out that every project involves more and more actors, and that it could be challenging to let everyone have the appropriate say

  19. Analysis of selected reservoirs functioning in the Wielkopolska region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Sojka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problems related to the functioning of reservoirs in the Wielkopolska province and suggests their possible solutions. The reservoirs chosen as examples include typical dam constructions with a single water body (Jeziorsko, Rydzyna, two water body objects with separated preliminary part (Stare Miasto, Kowalskie, Radzyny and lateral constructions (Pakosław, Jutrosin. The reservoirs were built in period from 1970 to 2014. They differ in construction, functions and water management rules. Analysis of the main problems related to the reservoir functioning is aimed at finding ways of improving the construction of new reservoirs that would satisfy increasingly stringent environmental and legal restrictions and the methods of water management in the reservoirs. On the basis of a questionnaire filled in by the reservoir operators, the main problem is water quality. Especially the huge inflow of biogenic compounds causes blooms of algae and overgrowth with riparian vegetation. Some difficulties are also related to management of the reservoirs of multi-purpose operation. It is difficult to take into account the requirements of environmental flow maintenance, flood protection, water supply for agriculture and water use for tourism and recreation and hydropower generation, etc.

  20. Evaluating delay factors in the construction and operation of port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Iran, between 30% and 40% of the total budget of the country `is allocated to this ... improper allocation of resources (24%), cash flows changes(28%), failure to ... Keywords: Delay Factors, Port Construction Projects, Project Management.

  1. Correlation Analysis of Rainstorm Runoff and Density Current in a Canyon-Shaped Source Water Reservoir: Implications for Reservoir Optimal Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather has recently become frequent. Heavy rainfall forms storm runoff, which is usually very turbid and contains a high concentration of organic matter, therefore affecting water quality when it enters reservoirs. The large canyon-shaped Heihe Reservoir is the most important raw water source for the city of Xi’an. During the flood season, storm runoff flows into the reservoir as a density current. We determined the relationship among inflow peak discharge (Q, suspended sediment concentration, inflow water temperature, and undercurrent water density. The relationships between (Q and inflow suspended sediment concentration (CS0 could be described by the equation CS0 = 0.3899 × e0.0025Q, that between CS0 and suspended sediment concentration at the entrance of the main reservoir area S1 (CS1 was determined using CS1 = 0.0346 × e0.2335CS0, and air temperature (Ta and inflow water temperature (Tw based on the meteorological data were related as follows: Tw = 0.7718 × Ta + 1.0979. Then, we calculated the density of the undercurrent layer. Compared to the vertical water density distribution at S1 before rainfall, the undercurrent elevation was determined based on the principle of equivalent density inflow. Based on our results, we proposed schemes for optimizing water intake selection and flood discharge during the flood season.

  2. An Optimization Model for Kardeh Reservoir Operation Using Interval-Parameter, Multi-stage, Stochastic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rastegaripour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates water allocation of Kardeh Reservoir to domestic and agricultural users using an Interval Parameter, Multi-stage, Stochastic Programming (IMSLP under uncertainty. The advantages of the method include its dynamics nature, use of a pre-defined policy in its optimization process, and the use of interval parameter and probability under uncertainty conditions. Additionally, it offers different decision-making alternatives for different scenarios of water shortage. The required data were collected from Khorasan Razavi Regional Water Organization and from the Water and Wastewater Co. for the period 1988-2007. Results showed that, under the worst conditions, the water deficits expected to occur for each of the next 3 years will be 1.9, 2.55, and 3.11 million cubic meters for the domestic use and 0.22, 0.32, 0.75 million cubic meters for irrigation. Approximate reductions of 0.5, 0.7, and 1 million cubic meters in the monthly consumption of the urban community and enhanced irrigation efficiencies of about 6, 11, and 20% in the agricultural sector are recommended as approaches for combating the water shortage over the next 3 years.

  3. Tank Operations Contract Construction Management Methodology. Utilizing The Agency Method Of Construction Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesko, K.F.; Berriochoa, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business constructioin subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the WRPS contract, construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper descirbes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method (John E Schaufelberger, Len Holm, 'Management of Construction Projects, A Constructor's Perspective', University of Washington, Prentice Hall 2002). This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (FY2009), where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted

  4. TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LESKO KF; BERRIOCHOA MV

    2010-02-26

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business constructioin subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the WRPS contract, construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper descirbes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method (John E Schaufelberger, Len Holm, "Management of Construction Projects, A Constructor's Perspective", University of Washington, Prentice Hall 2002). This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (FY2009), where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are

  5. Future changes in Mekong River hydrology: impact of climate change and reservoir operation on discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauri, H.; de Moel, H.; Ward, P.J.; Räsänen, T.A.; Keskinen, M.; Kummu, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The transboundary Mekong River is facing two ongoing changes that are expected to significantly impact its hydrology and the characteristics of its exceptional flood pulse. The rapid economic development of the riparian countries has led to massive plans for hydropower construction, and projected

  6. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James L.; Marotz, Brian L.; DeShazer, Jay (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2003-06-01

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River Treaty 1964). Libby Reservoir inundated 109 stream miles of the mainstem Kootenai River in the United States and Canada, and 40 miles of tributary streams in the U.S. that provided habitat for spawning, juvenile rearing, and migratory passage (Figure 1). The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power (91.5%), flood control (8.3%), and navigation and other benefits (0.2%; Storm et al. 1982). The Pacific Northwest Power Act of 1980 recognized possible conflicts stemming from hydroelectric projects in the northwest and directed Bonneville Power Administration to ''protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries...'' (4(h)(10)(A)). Under the Act, the Northwest Power Planning Council was created and recommendations for a comprehensive fish and wildlife program were solicited from the region's federal, state, and tribal fish and wildlife agencies. Among Montana's recommendations was the proposal that research be initiated to quantify acceptable seasonal minimum pool elevations to maintain or enhance the existing fisheries (Graham et al. 1982). Research to determine how operations of Libby Dam affect the reservoir and river fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these effects began in May, 1983. The framework for the Libby Reservoir Model (LRMOD) was completed in 1989. Development of Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) for Libby Dam operation was completed in 1996 (Marotz et al. 1996). The Libby Reservoir Model and the IRCs continue to be refined (Marotz et al 1999). Initiation of mitigation projects such as lake rehabilitation and stream restoration began in 1996. The primary focus of the Libby Mitigation project now is to

  7. Construction, start-up and operation of a continuously aerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scale SHARON reactor are discussed, along with the construction of the reactor. Special attention is given to the start-up in view of possible toxic effects of high nitrogen concentrations (up to 4 000 mgN·ℓ-1) on the nitrifier population and ...

  8. Construction and operation of a solar lighting system | Asuquo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A solar lighting system which can make a 3w lamp glow continuously for about one hour if the battery is fully charged has been constructed. The device can be used for small-scale lighting applications in remote areas that are far away from the power grid. The system has a panel to collect the sun's energy, a battery to store ...

  9. Trade-off analysis of discharge-desiltation-turbidity and ANN analysis on sedimentation of a combined reservoir-reach system under multi-phase and multi-layer conjunctive releasing operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Lin; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Wei, Chih-Chiang; Yao, Chun-Hao

    2017-10-01

    Multi-objective reservoir operation considering the trade-off of discharge-desiltation-turbidity during typhoons and sediment concentration (SC) simulation modeling are the vital components for sustainable reservoir management. The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze the multi-layer release trade-offs between reservoir desiltation and intake turbidity of downstream purification plants and thus propose a superior conjunctive operation strategy and (2) to develop ANFIS-based (adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system) and RTRLNN-based (real-time recurrent learning neural networks) substitute SC simulation models. To this end, this study proposed a methodology to develop (1) a series of multi-phase and multi-layer sediment-flood conjunctive release modes and (2) a specialized SC numerical model for a combined reservoir-reach system. The conjunctive release modes involve (1) an optimization model where the decision variables are multi-phase reduction/scaling ratios and the timings to generate a superior total release hydrograph for flood control (Phase I: phase prior to flood arrival, Phase II/III: phase prior to/subsequent to peak flow) and (2) a combination method with physical limitations regarding separation of the singular hydrograph into multi-layer release hydrographs for sediment control. This study employed the featured signals obtained from statistical quartiles/sediment duration curve in mesh segmentation, and an iterative optimization model with a sediment unit response matrix and corresponding geophysical-based acceleration factors, for efficient parameter calibration. This research applied the developed methodology to the Shihmen Reservoir basin in Taiwan. The trade-off analytical results using Typhoons Sinlaku and Jangmi as case examples revealed that owing to gravity current and re-suspension effects, Phase I + II can de-silt safely without violating the intake's turbidity limitation before reservoir discharge reaches 2238 m3/s; however

  10. Longitudinal variability of phosphorus fractions in sediments of a canyon reservoir due to cascade dam construction: a case study in Lancang River, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liu

    Full Text Available Dam construction causes the accumulation of phosphorus in the sediments of reservoirs and increases the release rate of internal phosphorus (P loading. This study investigated the longitudinal variability of phosphorus fractions in sediments and the relationship between the contents of phosphorus fractions and its influencing factors of the Manwan Reservoir, Lancang River, Yunnan Province, China. Five sedimentary phosphorus fractions were quantified separately: loosely bound P (ex-P; reductant soluble P (BD-P; metal oxide-bound P (NaOH-P; calcium-bound P (HCl-P, and residual-P. The results showed that the total phosphorus contents ranged from 623 to 899 µg/g and were correlated positively with iron content in the sediments of the reservoir. The rank order of P fractions in sediments of the mainstream was HCl-P>NaOH-P>residual-P>BD-P>ex-P, while it was residual-P>HCl-P>NaOH-P>BD-P>ex-P in those of the tributaries. The contents of bio-available phosphorus in the tributaries, including ex-P, BD-P and NaOH-P, were significantly lower than those in the mainstream. The contents of ex-P, BD-P, NaOH-P showed a similar increasing trend from the tail to the head of the Manwan Reservoir, which contributed to the relatively higher content of bio-available phosphorus, and represents a high bio-available phosphorus releasing risk within a distance of 10 km from Manwan Dam. Correlation and redundancy analyses showed that distance to Manwan Dam and the silt/clay fraction of sediments were related closely to the spatial variation of bio-available phosphorus.

  11. Integrating a Typhoon Event Database with an Optimal Flood Operation Model on the Real-Time Flood Control of the Tseng-Wen Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. W.; Chang, L. C.

    2012-04-01

    Typhoons which normally bring a great amount of precipitation are the primary natural hazard in Taiwan during flooding season. Because the plentiful rainfall quantities brought by typhoons are normally stored for the usage of the next draught period, the determination of release strategies for flood operation of reservoirs which is required to simultaneously consider not only the impact of reservoir safety and the flooding damage in plain area but also for the water resource stored in the reservoir after typhoon becomes important. This study proposes a two-steps study process. First, this study develop an optimal flood operation model (OFOM) for the planning of flood control and also applies the OFOM on Tseng-wun reservoir and the downstream plain related to the reservoir. Second, integrating a typhoon event database with the OFOM mentioned above makes the proposed planning model have ability to deal with a real-time flood control problem and names as real-time flood operation model (RTFOM). Three conditions are considered in the proposed models, OFOM and RTFOM, include the safety of the reservoir itself, the reservoir storage after typhoons and the impact of flooding in the plain area. Besides, the flood operation guideline announced by government is also considered in the proposed models. The these conditions and the guideline can be formed as an optimization problem which is solved by the genetic algorithm (GA) in this study. Furthermore, a distributed runoff model, kinematic-wave geomorphic instantaneous unit hydrograph (KW-GIUH), and a river flow simulation model, HEC-RAS, are used to simulate the river water level of Tseng-wun basin in the plain area and the simulated level is shown as an index of the impact of flooding. Because the simulated levels are required to re-calculate iteratively in the optimization model, applying a recursive artificial neural network (recursive ANN) instead of the HEC-RAS model can significantly reduce the computational burden of

  12. Operational reservoir inflow forecasting with radar altimetry: The Zambezi case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    uncertainty. Data assimilation is widely used in operational applications to update hydrological models with in situ discharge or level measurements. In areas where timely access to in situ data is not possible, remote sensing data products can be used in assimilation schemes. While river discharge itself...... cannot be measured from space, radar altimetry can track surface water level variations at crossing locations between the satellite ground track and the river system called virtual stations (VS). Use of radar altimetry versus traditional monitoring in operational settings is complicated by the low...

  13. Sustainability Criteria for Planning, Constructing, and Operating Contingency Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    common PREREQ 1 Walkable Streets yes Planning, Desi gn, Construction, OaM Medium use areas. Plan careft,j!y to accommodate simftar functions in the...apjly the specific LEED·ND criteria. Pay special attention to roads that connect LSA ~ife support areas) to common Walkable Streets yes Planning... Walkable Streets  Intent: ►To promote transportation efficiency. ►To promote walking by providing: • Safe •Appealing •Comfortable street

  14. 43 CFR 419.4 - What specific provisions govern operations of the reservoirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in the following sections of the TROA . . . Recitals, Definitions Recitals 1 through 9. Definitions (1) through (106). Satisfaction of provisions of law, general operational principles, protection of... 1.F. Administration Sections 2.A through 2.C. Accounting, reporting, forecasting, and monitoring...

  15. Construction of adjoint operators for coupled equations depending on different variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure is described for the construction of the adjoint operator matrix in case of coupled equations defining quantities that depend on different sets of variables. This case is not properly treated in the literature. From this procedure a simple rule can be deduced for the construction of such adjoint operator matrices

  16. 75 FR 76444 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Construction and Operation of a Panoramic Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... potential environmental impacts associated with construction and operation of the proposed Panoramic Survey... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Construction and Operation of a Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) at the Summit...

  17. Operation environment construction of geological information database for high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Gao Min; Huang Shutao; Wang Shuhong; Zhao Yongan

    2014-01-01

    To fulfill the requirements of data storage and management in HLW geological disposal, a targeted construction method for data operation environment was proposed in this paper. The geological information database operation environment constructed by this method has its unique features. And it also will be the important support for HLW geological disposal project and management. (authors)

  18. Forecasting analysis of runoff for reservoir regulation of dams and weirs in terms of hydro power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maradjieva, Mariana; Nikolov, Nikola

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of Hydropower Plant (HPP) production new algorithms and software were developed for daily, seasonal, annual and long-term control of the runoff for the design of dam and weirs. This control is carried out for monitored periods from 20 to 50 years. The control depends on economic considerations, namely that the accepted probability of required water power is 90%, i.e. concerning the runoff and in this way for the useful volume of water dams. The research is accomplished by a design with the observations. First the hydrometric stations are selected at the available analogy with the building project and then the correlative connection is found assessed by general and true correlative coefficients. The transferring to the project of the observations for the average annual and average monthly water discharges is made with the coefficient of the analogy. The theoretical probability curves are chosen with a minimum dispersion. By the last curves the average monthly distributions are settled with probability from 2% to 90% by statistical method. During the investigated period of the regulation the volumes of discharge, overflow and shortage are calculated as and the determination for the accepted volume of the reservoir if the normative probability of the need is executed. As well the power output of the HPP and its participation in the coverage of the charge diagram on the peak load, under peak load, daily and nightly part are determined in separate observed or forecasting periods. The upper problems about the design and the operation of HPP, water output, reservoir volume and coverage of the charge diagram are solved by iterations. Practical examples are given for the runoff and for the time forecasting system.

  19. Assessment of Blasting Operations Effects During Highway Tunnel Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valašková Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blasting operations are one of the fundamental parts of daily civil engineering. Drilling and blasting still remain the only possible ways of tunnelling in very adverse geological conditions. However, this method is a source of various disadvantages, the main one being tremors propagating through the geological environment which not only affect buildings, but also disturb the comfort of living in the vicinity of the source. Designing this procedure is mostly done using standardized empirical relations. This article shows the possibility of using a FEM technique in predicting blast effects. This approach is demonstrated in a simple case study on the impact of blasting operations on steel pipes.

  20. Wind Power Plants Fundamentals, Design, Construction and Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Twele, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Wind power plants teaches the physical foundations of usage of Wind Power. It includes the areas like Construction of Wind Power Plants, Design, Development of Production Series, Control, and discusses the dynamic forces acting on the systems as well as the power conversion and its connection to the distribution system. The book is written for graduate students, practitioners and inquisitive readers of any kind. It is based on lectures held at several universities. Its German version it already is the standard text book for courses on Wind Energy Engineering but serves also as reference for practising engineers.

  1. Constructing Secure Mobile Agent Systems Using the Agent Operating System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Noordende, G.J.; Overeinder, B.J.; Timmer, R.J.; Brazier, F.M.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Designing a secure and reliable mobile agent system is a difficult task. The agent operating system (AOS) is a building block that simplifies this task. AOS provides common primitives required by most mobile agent middleware systems, such as primitives for secure communication, secure and

  2. Construction, assembling and operation of an equipment for sodium purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becquart, E.T.; Botbol, J.; Echenique, P.N.; Fruchtenicht, F.W.; Gil, D.A.; Perillo, P.; Vardich, R.N.; Vigo, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the production of high purity metallic sodium for bench-scale, research studies. A stainless steel equipment was built and assembled, including high vacuum, heating and cooling systems. It was satisfactorily operated in two successive steps, filtration and vacuum distillation, with a good yield. (Author). 5 refs., 5 figs

  3. Application of multi-agent simulation to evaluate the influence of reservoir operation strategies on the distribution of water availability in the semi-arid Jaguaribe basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2012-01-01

    Studying the processes responsible for the distribution of water resources in a river basin over space and time is of great importance for spatial planning. In this study a multi-agent simulation approach is applied for exploring the influence of alternative reservoir operation strategies on water

  4. [Effects of cascading hydropower dams operation on the structure and distribution pattern of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in Manwan Reservoir, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin Peng; Dong, Shi Kui; Peng, Ming Chun; Wu, Xuan; Zhou, Fang; Yu, Yin

    2017-12-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages are one of the biological groups in aquatic ecosystem most sensitive to the habitat change and degradation, and can be a biological indicator for the aquatic ecosystem change and succession in cascading hydropower dam reservoir. The middle and lower reaches of the Lancang River are key spot for international biodiversity conservation and ecological studies on the effects of cascading hydropower dam exploitation. In this study, the reservoir of Manwan hydropower dam, the first dam in Lancang-Mekong river main stream, was selected as the study site. The benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled in 2011 and 2016 respectively. Meanwhile, the survey data before impounding (natural river, 1996) and early stage of single dam (1997) were collected to conduct the overall analysis for structure, distribution pattern and evolution of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. The results showed that the dominant biological group was gradually changed from the Oligochaeta and Insecta to the Mollusca. Along the longitudinal gradient, the density and biomass of the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were remarkably increased in reservoir, especially in the lacustrine zone. As for the functional feeding group, the predator and gatherer-collector changed into filter-collector predominantly in lacustrine zone. With the cascading dams operation, the biotic index indicated that the water quality of reservoir in 2016 was better than in 2011. The evolution of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Manwan Reservoir was related to the operation of Xiaowan dam in the upper reach, the hydrological regime and siltation in the reservoir, and would continue with dynamic changes with the operation of the cascading hydropower dam.

  5. Reflection Phenomena in Underground Pumped Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pummer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage through hydropower leads to free surface water waves in the connected reservoirs. The reason for this is the movement of water between reservoirs at different elevations, which is necessary for electrical energy storage. Currently, the expansion of renewable energies requires the development of fast and flexible energy storage systems, of which classical pumped storage plants are the only technically proven and cost-effective technology and are the most used. Instead of classical pumped storage plants, where reservoirs are located on the surface, underground pumped storage plants with subsurface reservoirs could be an alternative. They are independent of topography and have a low surface area requirement. This can be a great advantage for energy storage expansion in case of environmental issues, residents’ concerns and an unusable terrain surface. However, the reservoirs of underground pumped storage plants differ in design from classical ones for stability and space reasons. The hydraulic design is essential to ensure their satisfactory hydraulic performance. The paper presents a hybrid model study, which is defined here as a combination of physical and numerical modelling to use the advantages and to compensate for the disadvantages of the respective methods. It shows the analysis of waves in ventilated underground reservoir systems with a great length to height ratio, considering new operational aspects from energy supply systems with a great percentage of renewable energies. The multifaceted and narrow design of the reservoirs leads to complex free surface flows; for example, undular and breaking bores arise. The results show excessive wave heights through wave reflections, caused by the impermeable reservoir boundaries. Hence, their knowledge is essential for a successful operational and constructive design of the reservoirs.

  6. Exploring the interactions between forecast accuracy, risk perception and perceived forecast reliability in reservoir operator's decision to use forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee-Jood, M.; Cai, X.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in streamflow forecasts at different time scales offer a promise for proactive flood management and improved risk management. Despite the huge potential, previous studies have found that water resources managers are often not willing to incorporate streamflow forecasts information in decisions making, particularly in risky situations. While low accuracy of forecasts information is often cited as the main reason, some studies have found that implementation of streamflow forecasts sometimes is impeded by institutional obstacles and behavioral factors (e.g., risk perception). In fact, a seminal study by O'Connor et al. (2005) found that risk perception is the strongest determinant of forecast use while managers' perception about forecast reliability is not significant. In this study, we aim to address this issue again. However, instead of using survey data and regression analysis, we develop a theoretical framework to assess the user-perceived value of streamflow forecasts. The framework includes a novel behavioral component which incorporates both risk perception and perceived forecast reliability. The framework is then used in a hypothetical problem where reservoir operator should react to probabilistic flood forecasts with different reliabilities. The framework will allow us to explore the interactions among risk perception and perceived forecast reliability, and among the behavioral components and information accuracy. The findings will provide insights to improve the usability of flood forecasts information through better communication and education.

  7. Correlation between hydrological drought, climatic factors, reservoir operation, and vegetation cover in the Xijiang Basin, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingxia; Wu, Zhiyong; Singh, Vijay P.; Sadeghi, S. H. R.; He, Hai; Lu, Guihua

    2017-06-01

    The Xijiang River is known as the Golden Watercourse because of its role in the development of the Pearl River Delta Regional Economic System in China, which was made possible by its abundant water resources. At present, the hydrological regime of the Xijiang River has now become complicated, the water shortages and successive droughts pose a threat to regional economic development. However, the complexity of hydroclimatological processes with emphasizes on drought has not been comprehended. In order to effectively predict and develop the adaptation strategies to cope with the water scarcity damage caused by hydrological droughts, it is essential to thoroughly analyze the relationship between hydrological droughts and pre/post-dependent hydroclimatological factors. To accomplish this, the extreme-point symmetric mode decomposition method (ESMD) was utilized to reveal the periodic variation in hydrological droughts that is characterized by the Standardized Drought Index (SDI). In addition, the cross-wavelet transform method was applied to investigate the correlation between large-scale climate indices and drought. The results showed that hydrological drought had the most significant response to spring ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation), and the response lags in sub-basins were mostly 8-9 months except that in Yujiang River were mainly 5 or 8 months. Signal reservoir operation in the Yujiang River reduced drought severity by 52-95.8% from January to April over the 2003-2014 time period. Similarly, the cascade reservoir alleviated winter and spring droughts in the Hongshuihe River Basin. However, autumn drought was aggravated with severity increased by 41.9% in September and by 160.9% in October, so that the land surface models without considering human intervention must be used with caution in the hydrological simulation. The response lags of the VCI (Vegetation Condition Index) to hydrological drought were different in the sub-basins. The response lag for the

  8. Design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report is a part of the IAEA publications under its Programme on Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes and is addressed to administrative and technical authorities and specialists who consider the shallow-ground disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes of short half-lives. The report emphasizes the technological aspects, however it briefly discusses the safety philosophy and regulatory considerations too. The design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of the repositories in shallow ground are considered in some detail, paying special attention to their interrelated aspects. In particular, a review is given of the following aspects: main design and construction considerations in relation to the natural features of the site; design and construction aspects during the repository development process; activities related to operational and post-operational stages of the repository; major steps in repository operation and essential activities in shutdown and operational and post-operational surveillance

  9. Study on evaluation of construction reliability for engineering project based on fuzzy language operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu-Fang; Ma, Yi-Yi; Song, Ping-Ping

    2018-03-01

    System Reliability Theory is a research hotspot of management science and system engineering in recent years, and construction reliability is useful for quantitative evaluation of project management level. According to reliability theory and target system of engineering project management, the defination of construction reliability appears. Based on fuzzy mathematics theory and language operator, value space of construction reliability is divided into seven fuzzy subsets and correspondingly, seven membership function and fuzzy evaluation intervals are got with the operation of language operator, which provides the basis of corresponding method and parameter for the evaluation of construction reliability. This method is proved to be scientific and reasonable for construction condition and an useful attempt for theory and method research of engineering project system reliability.

  10. Method of approximate electric modeling of oil reservoir operation with formation of a gas cap during mixed exploitation regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragin, V A; Lyadkin, V Ya

    1969-01-01

    A potentiometric model is used to simulate the behavior of a reservoir in which pressure was dropped rapidly and solution gas migrated to the top of the structure forming a gas cap. Behavior of the system was represented by a differential equation, which was solved by an electrointegrator. The potentiometric model was found to closely represent past history of the reservoir, and to predict its future behavior. When this method is used in reservoirs where large pressure drops occur, repeated determination should be made at various time intervals, so that changes in relative permeability are taken into account.

  11. The licensing procedure for construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatore, J.E.L.

    1980-03-01

    The licensing procedure for the construction and operation of the nuclear power plants in Brazil is analysed, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency orientation. The risks related to the nuclear energy is also emphasized. (A.L.) [pt

  12. Planning and realization of river diversions for the construction of reservoirs and river power stations; Planung und Ausfuehrung von Flussumleitungen im Talsperren- und Flusskraftwerksbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, M

    1992-03-19

    River diversions are necessary measures in reservoir and river power station construction in order to be able to construct the planned buildings in dry building ground. These diversion measures are only temporary as only in the construction phase of the retaining works the flow is led through the site. As in the recent past large hydraulic engineering plants have reached new dimensions also river diversions have gained importance with regard to the flow to be controlled. With this work the author wants to contribute to an improvement in river diversion with regard to safety, economy and environmental compatibility. (orig.) [Deutsch] Flussumleitungen sind im Talsperren- und Flusskraftwerksbau notwendige Massnahmen, um die projektierten Bauwerke in trockenen Baugruben errichten zu koennen. Diese Umleitungsmassnahmen besitzen einen temporaeren Charakter, da mit ihrer Hilfe der Abfluss ausschliesslich in der Bauphase des Sperrprojekts durch die Baustelle gewaehrleistet wird. Da in juengster Vergangenheit die wasserbaulichen Grossanlagen in neue Dimensionen vorgestossen sind, haben auch die Flussumleitungen hinsichtlich der Abfluesse, die es zu beherrschen gilt, an Bedeutung gewonnen. Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit moechte ich einen Beitrag leisten zur Verbesserung von Flussumleitungen im Hinblick auf Sicherheit, Wirtschaftlichkeit und Umweltvertraeglichkeit. (orig.)

  13. 75 FR 55631 - U. S. Rail Corporation-Construction and Operation Exemption-Brookhaven Rail Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... the proposed construction is to enable U. S. Rail to serve the BRT as a common carrier and to deliver... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35141] U. S. Rail Corporation--Construction and Operation Exemption-- Brookhaven Rail Terminal AGENCY: Surface Transportation...

  14. A Neo-Piagetian Theory of Constructive Operators: Applications to Perceptual-Motor Development and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, John I.

    The author presents an overview of Pascual-Leone's Theory of Constructive Operators, a process-structural theory based upon Piagetian constructs which has evolved to both explain and predict the temporal unfolding of behavior. An application is made of the theory to the demands of a discrete motor task and prediction of (a) the minimal age…

  15. Chiral measurements with the Fixed-Point Dirac operator and construction of chiral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, P.; Hauswirth, S.; Holland, K.; Joerg, T.; Niedermayer, F.

    2002-01-01

    In this preliminary study, we examine the chiral properties of the parametrized Fixed-Point Dirac operator D FP , see how to improve its chirality via the Overlap construction, measure the renormalized quark condensate Σ-circumflex and the topological susceptibility χ t , and investigate local chirality of near zero modes of the Dirac operator. We also give a general construction of chiral currents and densities for chiral lattice actions

  16. Identification of Environment Chase in Surround of Sermo Reservoir; and the Influence Possibility for Function and at the Age of Reservoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmadji Sudarmadji

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sermo reservoir is the only one belongs to Yogyakarta Special Province; it is relatively a new reservoir with the area of 1.9 kilometer square and its capacity of 25 million cubic meter: It started to operate since 1996 as flood control, irigation, water supply, tourism and fishery purposes. As a reservoir it could be considered to be a manmade lake, as its condition nearly similar to a lake. Since it operated (even during construction period there were some significant environmental changes within the reservoir and in the area around the reservoir due to the human activities. These changes could threat the sustainability of the reservoir itself This research aims to identiflr the human activities living around the reservoir and visitors coming to the area, and to evaluate the potensial of the activities to produce wastes which is discharging in into the reservoir; which may threat the sustainability of the reservoir: The observatorium in the field has been conducted in the area of the reservoir and its sorrounding. I t was firund fiom the observation that activities o f fishery using net (karamba, tourism altogether with its facilities, land use around the reservoir for agriculture purposes, mining of class C ore, have given a lot of contribution to wastes (liquid and solids and sediments into the reservoir: Those activities may cause water quality of the reservoir lo decrease as well as reducing the reservoir depth. Those situation was observed in the northern and north western parts of the reservoir Water quality degradation of the reservoir may threat reservoir as source of domestic water supply, while the sedimentation may reduce the life time of the reservoir The fishery and tourism activities was estimated as a main cause of water quality degradation, beside agricultural and domestic wastes originated from sattlement area around the reservoir: Sediments coming into the reservoir are derived fiom transported and movement of

  17. Point-form electrodynamics and the construction of conserved current operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klink, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    A general procedure for constructing conserved electromagnetic current operators in the presence of hadronic interactions is given. The four-momentum operator in point-form relativistic quantum mechanics is written as the sum of hadronic, photon, and electromagnetic four-momentum operators, where the electromagnetic four-momentum operator is generated from a vertex operator, in which a conserved current operator is contracted with the four-vector potential operator. The current operator is the sum of free, dynamically determined and model-dependent operators. The dynamically determined current operator is formed form a free current operator and the interacting hadronic four-momentum operator, in such a way that the sum of free and dynamically determined current operators is conserved with respect to the hadronic interactions. The model-dependent operator is a many-body current operator, formed as the commutator of an antisymmetric operator with the hadronic four-momentum operator. It is shown that such an operator is also conserved with respect to the hadronic interactions and also does not renormalize the charge. Refs. 9 (author)

  18. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  19. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal

  20. Effects of flood control and other reservoir operations on the water quality of the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Roanoke River is an important natural resource for North Carolina, Virginia, and the Nation. Flood plains of the lower Roanoke River, which extend from Roanoke Rapids Dam to Batchelor Bay near Albemarle Sound, support a large and diverse population of nesting birds, waterfowl, freshwater and anadromous fish, and other wildlife, including threatened and endangered species. The flow regime of the lower Roanoke River is affected by a number of factors, including flood-management operations at the upstream John H. Kerr Dam and Reservoir. A three-dimensional, numerical water-quality model was developed to explore links between upstream flows and downstream water quality, specifically in-stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. Calibration of the hydrodynamics and dissolved-oxygen concentrations emphasized the effect that flood-plain drainage has on water and oxygen levels, especially at locations more than 40 kilometers away from the Roanoke Rapids Dam. Model hydrodynamics were calibrated at three locations on the lower Roanoke River, yielding coefficients of determination between 0.5 and 0.9. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were calibrated at the same sites, and coefficients of determination ranged between 0.6 and 0.8. The model has been used to quantify relations among river flow, flood-plain water level, and in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations in support of management of operations of the John H. Kerr Dam, which affects overall flows in the lower Roanoke River. Scenarios have been developed to mitigate the negative effects that timing, duration, and extent of flood-plain inundation may have on vegetation, wildlife, and fisheries in the lower Roanoke River corridor. Under specific scenarios, the model predicted that mean dissolved-oxygen concentrations could be increased by 15 percent by flow-release schedules that minimize the drainage of anoxic flood-plain waters. The model provides a tool for water-quality managers that can help identify options that improve

  1. Chemistry control at Bruce NGS 'B' from constructed to commercial operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Pre-operational storage chemistry and flushing of the secondary side is described. The approach devised for Bruce NGS 'B' Unit 6 was unique for an Ontario Hydro Nuclear Unit. The significance of the improved Construction installation and Quality Assurance procedures, combined with those of Operations is identified. Secondary side chemistry during both commissioning and later operation is reported. It will be shown that the application of ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable) concept has resulted in tighter chemical specifications being met

  2. A selective study of Information technologies to improve operations efficiency in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konikov Alexandr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, information technologies (IT are used in almost every production industry. While the aspects of IT are well studied and discussed in relevant monographs, articles, web sources, etc., this paper reviews the performance improvement options in the construction industry by leveraging IT. From a wide range of information technologies the author has picked the most relevant solutions, from his point of view, based on several considerations, the most important one being the lack of adequate attention to these technologies specifically in the construction industry. The paper covers the following technologies: Big Data (a smart technology for high-speed processing of huge and diverse data arrays; situation centers (SC for construction and operations projects (SCs are successfully used in other industries for operating control of sophisticated facilities; data warehouses (DW for the construction industry (DWs are viewed as a standalone project rather than a supplement to Data Mining or Big Data; operational and dispatch radio communication service (radio communication can ensure instant connectivity between several subscribers; VSAT (a satellite technology for prompt connection of a distant construction site with the 'outer world' when no alternatives are available. The paper briefly presents the essence of each technology, describes the pre-requisites for its use in construction, outlines the key advantages, limits and shortcomings, and lists construction projects where it shall be worthwhile to use a specific technology projects.

  3. Spatio-temporal variations of carbon dioxide and its gross emission regulated by artificial operation in a typical hydropower reservoir in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Zhang, Zengyu; Xiao, Yan; Guo, Jinsong; Wu, Shengjun; Liu, Jing

    2014-05-01

    Supersaturation and excess emission of greenhouse gases in freshwater reservoirs have received a great deal of attention in recent years. Although impoundment of reservoirs has been shown to contribute to the net emission of greenhouse gases, reservoir age, geographical distribution, submerged soil type and artificial regulation also have a great impact on their emissions. To examine how large scale reservoir operation impact the water column CO2 and its air-water interface flux, a field study was conducted in 2010 to evaluate potential ecological processes that regulate the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the water column in the Pengxi River backwater area (PBA), a typical tributary in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Measurements of total alkalinity (TA), pH and water temperature were applied to compute the pCO2. And this approach was also validated by calculation of pCO2 from the dissolved inorganic carbon data of samples. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to determine how the dynamics of the water pCO2 were related to the available variables. The estimated pCO2 in our sample ranged from 26 to 4,087 μatm in the surface water. During low water operation from July to early September, there was an obvious pCO2 stratification, and pCO2 in the surface was almost unsaturated. This phenomenon was also observed in the spring bloom during discharge period. Conversely, there was no significant pCO2 stratification and the entire water column was supersaturated during high water operation from November to the following February. Significant correlation was observed between the magnitude of pCO2, DO and chlorophyll a, suggesting that phytoplankton dynamics regulate pCO2 in the PBA. The average areal rate of CO2 emissions from the Pengxi River ranged from 18.06 to 48.09 mmol m(-2) day(-1), with an estimated gross CO2 emission from the water surface of 14-37 t day(-1) in this area in 2010. Photosynthesis and respiration rates by phytoplankton might be the

  4. Evaluating the Implications of Climate Phenomenon Indices in Supporting Reservoir Operation Using the Artificial Neural Network and Decision-Tree Methods: A Case Study on Trinity Lake in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Akbari Asanjan, A.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2016-12-01

    Reservoirs are fundamental human-built infrastructures that collect, store, and deliver fresh surface water in a timely manner for all kinds of purposes, including residential and industrial water supply, flood control, hydropower, and irrigation, etc. Efficient reservoir operation requires that policy makers and operators understand how reservoir inflows, available storage, and discharges are changing under different climatic conditions. Over the last decade, the uses of Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI & DM) techniques in assisting reservoir management and seasonal forecasts have been increasing. Therefore, in this study, two distinct AI & DM methods, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Random Forest (RF), are employed and compared with respect to their capabilities of predicting monthly reservoir inflow, managing storage, and scheduling reservoir releases. A case study on Trinity Lake in northern California is conducted using long-term (over 50 years) reservoir operation records and 17 known climate phenomenon indices, i.e. PDO and ENSO, etc., as predictors. Results show that (1) both ANN and RF are capable of providing reasonable monthly reservoir storage, inflow, and outflow prediction with satisfactory statistics, and (2) climate phenomenon indices are useful in assisting monthly or seasonal forecasts of reservoir inflow and outflow. It is also found that reservoir storage has a consistent high autocorrelation effect, while inflow and outflow are more likely to be influenced by climate conditions. Using a Gini diversity index, RF method identifies that the reservoir discharges are associated with Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and reservoir inflows are influenced by multiple climate phenomenon indices during different seasons. Furthermore, results also show that, during the winter season, reservoir discharges are controlled by the storage level for flood-control purposes, while, during the summer season, the flood-control operation is not as

  5. Response of currents and water quality to changes in dam operations in Hoover Reservoir, Columbus, Ohio, August 24–28, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonins, Branden L.; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2017-05-25

    Hoover Reservoir, an important drinking water supply for the City of Columbus, Ohio, has been the source of a series of taste and odor problems in treated drinking water during the past few years. These taste and odor problems were caused by the compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, which are thought to have been related to cyanobacteria blooms. In an effort to reduce the phosphorus available for cyanobacteria blooms at fall turnover, the City of Columbus began experimenting with the dam’s selective withdrawal system to remove excess phosphorus in the hypolimnion, which is released from bottom sediments during summer anoxic conditions.The U.S. Geological Survey completed two synoptic survey campaigns to assess distributions of water quality and water velocity in the lower part of Hoover Reservoir to provide information on the changes to reservoir dynamics caused by changing dam operations. One campaign (campaign 1) was done while water was being withdrawn from the reservoir through the dam’s middle gate and the other (campaign 2) while water was being withdrawn through the dam’s lower gate. Velocities were measured using an acoustic Doppler current profiler, and water-quality parameters were measured using an autonomous underwater vehicle equipped with water-quality sensors. Along with the water-quality and water-velocity data, meteorological, inflow and outflow discharges, and independent water-quality data were compiled to monitor changes in other parameters that affect reservoir behavior. Monthly nutrient data, collected by the City of Columbus, were also analyzed for trends in concentration during periods of expected stratification.Based on the results of the two campaigns, when compared to withdrawing water through the middle gate, withdrawing water through the lower gate seemed to increase shear-driven mixing across the thermocline, which resulted in an increase in the depth of the epilimnion throughout the lower part of Hoover Reservoir. The

  6. Classification and Construction of Invertible Linear Differential Operators on a One-Dimensional Manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Chetverikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invertible linear differential operators with one independent variable are investigated. The problem of description of such operators is important, because it is connected with transformations and the classification of control systems, in particular, with the flatness problem.Each invertible linear differential operator represents a square matrix of scalar differential operators. Its product with an operator-column is an operator-column whose order does not exceed the sum of orders of initial operators. The operators-columns, the product with which leads to order fall, i.e. the order of the product is less than sum of orders of factors, are interesting for the description of invertible operators. In this paper the classification of invertible operators is based on dimensions dk,p of intersections of modules Gp and Fk for various k and p, where Gp is the module of all operators-columns of order not above p, and Fk is the module of compositions of the invertible operator with all operators-columns of order not above k. The invertible operators that have identical sets of numbers dk,p form one class.In the paper the general properties of tables of numbers dk,p for invertible operators are investigated. A correspondence between invertible operators and elementary-geometrical models which in the paper are named by d-schemes of squares is constructed. The invertible operator is ambiguously defined by its d-scheme of squares. The mathematical structure that must be set for its unique definition and an algorithm for the construction of the invertible operator are offered.In the proof of the main result, methods of the theory of chain complexes and their spectral sequences are used. In the paper all necessary concepts of this theory are formulated and the corresponding facts are proved.Results of the paper can be used for solving problems in which invertible linear differential operators are arisen. Namely, it is necessary to formulate the conditions on

  7. THE STRUCTURE OF THE WATER CONSTRUCTIONS IN THE SEBES HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN AND THE STORAGE RESERVOIRS. EFFECT ON THE AVERAGE DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Iulian Ioan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the upper basin of the Sebes Valley, the oldest storage lakes have been temporary artificial lakes, called haituri in Romanian. They were created within the forest exploitation areas. Inside the dams of those retention lakes, which dams are made of a wooden skeleton, filled with soil and stones, there have been weirs for the quick discharge of the water, having the purpose of creating some flood trends, capable of carrying over the logs, downstream the lake. At present, some of those temporary artificial lakes are used as trout farms, while others are damaged, or operate as basins for the sedimentation of the alluvial deposits. The difference of level between the springs of the Sebes and the Mures Rivers generates a convertible hydroelectric potential, having an average power exceeding 60,000 kW" />

  8. BIM-Integrated Construction Operation Simulation for Just-In-Time Production Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WoonSeong Jeong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional construction planning, which depends on historical data and heuristic modification, prevents the integration of managerial details such as productivity dynamics. Specifically, the distance between planning and execution brings cost overruns and duration extensions. To minimize variations, this research presents a Building Information Modeling (BIM-integrated simulation framework for predicting productivity dynamics at the construction planning phase. To develop this framework, we examined critical factors affecting productivity at the operational level, and then forecast the productivity dynamics. The resulting plan includes specific commands for retrieving the required information from BIM and executing operation simulations. It consists of the following steps: (1 preparing a BIM model to produce input data; (2 composing a construction simulation at the operational level; and (3 obtaining productivity dynamics from the BIM-integrated simulation. To validate our framework, we applied it to a structural steel model; this was due to the significance of steel erections. By integrating BIM with construction operation simulations, we were able to create reliable construction plans that adapted to project changes. Our results show that the developed framework facilitates the reliable prediction of productivity dynamics, and can contribute to improved schedule reliability, optimized resource allocation, cost savings associated with buffers, and reduced material waste.

  9. The Iġnik Sikumi Field Experiment, Alaska North Slope: Design, operations, and implications for CO2−CH4 exchange in gas hydrate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Ray; Schoderbek, David; Collett, Timothy S.; Ohtsuki, Satoshi; White, Mark; Anderson, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    The Iġnik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Exchange Field Experiment was conducted by ConocoPhillips in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy, the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, and the U.S. Geological Survey within the Prudhoe Bay Unit on the Alaska North Slope during 2011 and 2012. The primary goals of the program were to (1) determine the feasibility of gas injection into hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and (2) observe reservoir response upon subsequent flowback in order to assess the potential for CO2 exchange for CH4 in naturally occurring gas hydrate reservoirs. Initial modeling determined that no feasible means of injection of pure CO2 was likely, given the presence of free water in the reservoir. Laboratory and numerical modeling studies indicated that the injection of a mixture of CO2 and N2 offered the best potential for gas injection and exchange. The test featured the following primary operational phases: (1) injection of a gaseous phase mixture of CO2, N2, and chemical tracers; (2) flowback conducted at downhole pressures above the stability threshold for native CH4 hydrate; and (3) an extended (30-days) flowback at pressures near, and then below, the stability threshold of native CH4 hydrate. The test findings indicate that the formation of a range of mixed-gas hydrates resulted in a net exchange of CO2 for CH4 in the reservoir, although the complexity of the subsurface environment renders the nature, extent, and efficiency of the exchange reaction uncertain. The next steps in the evaluation of exchange technology should feature multiple well applications; however, such field test programs will require extensive preparatory experimental and numerical modeling studies and will likely be a secondary priority to further field testing of production through depressurization. Additional insights gained from the field program include the following: (1) gas hydrate destabilization is self-limiting, dispelling any notion of the potential for

  10. Explicit construction of quasiconserved local operator of translationally invariant nonintegrable quantum spin chain in prethermalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Ju; Motrunich, Olexei I.

    2017-12-01

    We numerically construct translationally invariant quasiconserved operators with maximum range M , which best commute with a nonintegrable quantum spin chain Hamiltonian, up to M =12 . In the large coupling limit, we find that the residual norm of the commutator of the quasiconserved operator decays exponentially with its maximum range M at small M , and turns into a slower decay at larger M . This quasiconserved operator can be understood as a dressed total "spin-z " operator, by comparing with the perturbative Schrieffer-Wolff construction developed to high order reaching essentially the same maximum range. We also examine the operator inverse participation ratio of the operator, which suggests its localization in the operator Hilbert space. The operator also shows an almost exponentially decaying profile at short distance, while the long-distance behavior is not clear due to limitations of our numerical calculation. Further dynamical simulation confirms that the prethermalization-equilibrated values are described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble that includes such quasiconserved operator.

  11. Experience from the construction and operation of Tarapur and Rajasthan Nuclear Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.C.; Pardiwala, T.F.; Kothare, V.V.; Rao, M.H.P.; Nanjundeswaran, K.

    1977-01-01

    India's experience in construction and operation of nuclear power stations so far covers two BWR and four PHWR Units in three power stations. Two more PHWR units are at an early stage of construction. The twin unit Tarapur Station (2x210 MWe BWR) was built as a turnkey project which restricted participation of Indian engineers in design and construction considerably. The contrasting approach adopted for Rajasthan Station (2x220 MWe PHWR) involved Indian personnel and contractors fully in construction and commissioning, with Canadians providing supervisory assistance in Rajasthan I and essentially consultative help for Rajasthan II. Subsequent stations are wholly Indian efforts. Tarapur went into commercial operation in 1969, 60 months after breaking of ground. Construction was essentially uneventful, major problems faced being stress corrosion induced cracks in the reactor lining and complete change of steam generator tubes. In its seven years of operations, Tarapur has faced several problems mainly arising from rather early designs, indifferent fuel performance, constraints of twin-unit approach and operations in an inadequately developed grid system apart from those generally stemming from assimilation of an advanced technology in a developing country. The Station has undergone six refuellings during this period. Most of the problems have been overcome by design changes, system augmentations and experience and the Station operation since mid 1974 have generally been steady at around 90% of the rated capacity. Construction of Rajasthan I at a remote and isolated site proceeded relatively slowly. Local availability of skilled and semi-skilled manpower was poor, affecting construction. Inadequate roads impeded movements of overdimensioned components. Observing strict Quality Assurance standards required several major rectifications at site. Rajasthan I went on line in 1973 after overcoming major turbine bearing problems during commissioning. Since then, while

  12. Spherical and plane integral operators for PDEs construction, analysis, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sabelfeld, Karl K

    2013-01-01

    The book presents integral formulations for partial differential equations, with the focus on spherical and plane integral operators. The integral relations are obtained for different elliptic and parabolic equations, and both direct and inverse mean value relations are studied. The derived integral equations are used to construct new numerical methods for solving relevant boundary value problems, both deterministic and stochastic based on probabilistic interpretation of the spherical and plane integral operators.

  13. APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Bergeron; Tom Blasingame; Louis Doublet; Mohan Kelkar; George Freeman; Jeff Callard; David Moore; David Davies; Richard Vessell; Brian Pregger; Bill Dixon; Bryce Bezant

    2000-03-01

    Reservoir performance and characterization are vital parameters during the development phase of a project. Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to characterization does not optimize development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, especially carbonate reservoirs. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: (1) large, discontinuous pay intervals; (2) vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties; (3) low reservoir energy; (4) high residual oil saturation; and (5) low recovery efficiency. The operational problems they encounter in these types of reservoirs include: (1) poor or inadequate completions and stimulations; (2) early water breakthrough; (3) poor reservoir sweep efficiency in contacting oil throughout the reservoir as well as in the nearby well regions; (4) channeling of injected fluids due to preferential fracturing caused by excessive injection rates; and (5) limited data availability and poor data quality. Infill drilling operations only need target areas of the reservoir which will be economically successful. If the most productive areas of a reservoir can be accurately identified by combining the results of geological, petrophysical, reservoir performance, and pressure transient analyses, then this ''integrated'' approach can be used to optimize reservoir performance during secondary and tertiary recovery operations without resorting to ''blanket'' infill drilling methods. New and emerging technologies such as geostatistical modeling, rock typing, and rigorous decline type curve analysis can be used to quantify reservoir quality and the degree of interwell communication. These results can then be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The application of reservoir surveillance techniques to identify additional reservoir ''pay'' zones

  14. The Hydraulic Project Włocławek: Design, Studies, Construction and Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hydraulic Project Włocławek was commissioned in 1970 as the first barrage of the Lower Vistula Cascade (LVC. The purpose of the LVC was to create an important source of hydro-energy and inland navigation route connecting central Poland with the port city of Gdańsk. Along the Lower Vistula (LV important cities and industrial centres are located. The Włocławek project still remains the only barrage on the LV thus creating a number of problems. The paper presents the basic hydrological and hydraulic data for the Vistula river, and describes the Włocławek project, hydraulic model investigations conducted in the design phase, the construction of the project and the main problems, attendant on its use, including the winter flood of 1982 in the upper part of the Włocławek reservoir. The paper ends with conclusions on project construction and exploitation. The next barrage downstream from Włocławek is proposed.

  15. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  16. Changing priorities of codes and standards -- quality engineering: Experiences in plant construction, maintenance, and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, D.D.; Suleski, P.F.; Meier, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Application of the ASME Code across various fossil and nuclear plants necessitates a Company approach adapted by unique status of each plant. This arises from State Statutes, Federal Regulations and consideration of each plant's as-built history over a broad time frame of design, construction and operation. Additionally, the National Board Inspection Code accompanies Minnesota Statutes for plants owned by Northern States Power Company. This paper addresses some key points on NSP's use of ASME Code as a principal mechanical standard in plant design, construction and operation. A primary resource facilitating review of Code provisions is accurate status on current plant configuration. As plant design changes arise, the Code Edition/Addenda of original construction and installed upgrades or replacements are considered against available options allowed by current standards and dialog with the Jurisdictional Authority. Consistent with the overall goal of safe and reliable plant operation, there are numerous Code details and future needs to be addressed in concert with expected plant economics and planned outages for implementation. The discussion begins in the late 60's with new construction of Monticello and Prairie Island (both nuclear), through Sherburne County Units 1 through 3 (fossil), and their changes, replacements or repairs as operating plants

  17. Defense Infrastructure: Actions Needed to Enhance Oversight of Construction Projects Supporting Military Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    supporting documentation for reviews that the U.S. Forces-Afghanistan conducted beginning in November 2011 of planned or ongoing contingency ...12 Contingency basing includes the planning , designing, constructing, operating, managing, and transitioning or closing of a non-enduring location...2016). Background Definition of “ Contingency Construction” Project Page 7 GAO-16-406 Defense Infrastructure statutory authority

  18. 78 FR 75359 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waterfront facility handling and storing Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG) at its Orange, Texas facility. The... LHG marine traffic in the associated waterway. INVISTA, S.a.r.l. located in Orange, Texas submitted an...

  19. The primary ion source for construction and optimization of operation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synowiecki, A.; Gazda, E.

    1986-01-01

    The construction of primary ion source for SIMS has been presented. The influence of individual operation parameters on the properties of ion source has been investigated. Optimization of these parameters has allowed to appreciate usefulness of the ion source for SIMS study. 14 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  20. 47 CFR 25.133 - Period of construction; certification of commencement of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Period of construction; certification of commencement of operation. 25.133 Section 25.133 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.133 Period...

  1. Developmental Differences in Motor Task Integration: A Test of Pascual-Leone's Theory of Constructive Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, John I.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the ability of Pascual-Leone's Theory of Constructive Operators to predict the minimum age or maturational level at which integration of a motor task could be achieved. Subjects were 114 elementary school children ranging in age from 5 to 12. (Author/MP)

  2. Canonical construction of differential operators intertwining representations of real semisimple Lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrev, V.K.

    1986-11-01

    Let G be a real linear connected semisimple Lie group. We present a canonical construction of the differential operators intertwining elementary (≡ generalized principal series) representations of G. The results are easily extended to real linear reductive Lie groups. (author). 20 refs

  3. Costs of construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants - determinant factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.A. da

    1981-01-01

    A study about the construction costs of the Angra-1 nuclear power plant, including direct costs, equipment costs, installation and indirect costs such as: engineering, job-training and administration is presented. The operation and maintenance costs of the Angra-1 nuclear power plant and costs of energy generation are still studied. (E.G.) [pt

  4. Optimization of multi-reservoir operation with a new hedging rule: application of fuzzy set theory and NSGA-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadianfar, Iman; Adib, Arash; Taghian, Mehrdad

    2017-10-01

    The reservoir hedging rule curves are used to avoid severe water shortage during drought periods. In this method reservoir storage is divided into several zones, wherein the rationing factors are changed immediately when water storage level moves from one zone to another. In the present study, a hedging rule with fuzzy rationing factors was applied for creating a transition zone in up and down each rule curve, and then the rationing factor will be changed in this zone gradually. For this propose, a monthly simulation model was developed and linked to the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm for calculation of the modified shortage index of two objective functions involving water supply of minimum flow and agriculture demands in a long-term simulation period. Zohre multi-reservoir system in south Iran has been considered as a case study. The results of the proposed hedging rule have improved the long-term system performance from 10 till 27 percent in comparison with the simple hedging rule, where these results demonstrate that the fuzzification of hedging factors increase the applicability and the efficiency of the new hedging rule in comparison to the conventional rule curve for mitigating the water shortage problem.

  5. Ten years of cryo-magnetic W7-X test facility construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, B.; Dispau, G.; Donati, A.; Genini, L.; Gournay, J.F.; Kuster, O.; Molinie, F.; Schild, T.; Touzery, R.; Vieillard, L.; Walter, C.

    2011-01-01

    The construction, commissioning, and operation phases of the W7-X cryo-magnetic test facility in CEA Saclay lasted ten years. The large diversity of equipments called, specialties involved and problems solved attest the expertise that was required to operate the test facility and test the coils. Nearly one hundred cryogenic tests were performed on the seventy W7-X coils, at a rate always increasing, using two cryostats each holding two coils. This paper presents the test facility and its operation first, the cryogenic difficulties that were confronted with their solutions, the electro-magnetic difficulties encountered along with corrective actions, and finally the instrumentation and data acquisition aspects. (authors)

  6. Field theoretical construction of an infinite set of quantum commuting operators related with soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Ryu; Yamanaka, Itaru

    1987-01-01

    The quantum version of an infinite set of polynomial conserved quantities of a class of soliton equations is discussed from the point of view of naive continuum field theory. By using techniques of two dimensional field theories, we show that an infinite set of quantum commuting operators can be constructed explicitly from the knowledge of its classical counterparts. The quantum operators are so constructed as to coincide with the classical ones in the ℎ → 0 limit (ℎ; Planck's constant divided by 2π). It is expected that the explicit forms of these operators would shed some light on the structure of the infinite dimensional Lie algebras which underlie a certain class of quantum integrable systems. (orig.)

  7. Surface facilities for geological deep repositories - Measures against dangers during construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    This brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses the measures that are to be taken to address the dangers encountered during the construction and operation of deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes. Firstly, the operation of such repositories during the emplacement of nuclear wastes is discussed and examples of possible repositories for fuel rods and highly-radioactive waste are presented. Various emission-protection issues and safety measures to be taken during construction of such repositories are looked at as is the protection of ground water. Safety considerations during the operational phase are discussed, including inclusion methods used for the wastes and radiation protection. The handling of radioactive wastes, the recognition of dangers and measures to be taken to counteract them are discussed. Various possible accidents are looked at

  8. Field theoretical construction of an infinite set of quantum commuting operators related with soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Ryu; Yamanaka, Itaru.

    1986-08-01

    The quantum version of an infinite set of polynomial conserved quantities of a class of soliton equations is discussed from the point of view of naive continuum field theory. By using techniques of two dimensional field theories, we show that an infinite set of quantum commuting operators can be constructed explicitly from the knowledge of its classical counterparts. The quantum operators are so constructed as to coincide with the classical ones in the ℎ → 0 limit (ℎ; Planck's constant divided by 2π). It is expected that the explicit forms of these operators would shed some light on the structure of the infinite dimensional Lie algebras which underlie certain class of quantum integrable systems. (author)

  9. Construction techniques and operation principles of Geiger-Mueller counters using external cathode (Mazetype)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevegnani, F.X.

    1988-01-01

    The construction techniques for external cathode (Maze) and internal cathode Geiger-Muller counters are described, showing the operation principles and the used material nature. More than 200 counter types were evaluated analysing their characteristics. The influence of several types of guard-rings was studied, for optimizing counter operation conditions. Plateaus of the order of 700 V with slope of 0,3%/100 V for the net counting rate, and 1400 V with a slope of 0,8/100 V for total counts using total pressure of 10 cmHg, were obtained. A counter for β detection, using blown glass window in one of the edges of the cylinder was constructed. Counters of long life using materials such as, mica, adhesive glues, etc., were obtained. The results shown that the best counter operation occurs when it is empty in a vacuum of 10 -5 mmHg. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Technical data for concentrated solar power plants in operation, under construction and in project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Pelay

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents technical data for concentrated solar power (CSP plants in operation, under construction and in project all over the world in the form of tables. These tables provide information about plants (e.g., name of the CSP plant, country of construction, owner of the plant, aim of the plant and their technical characteristics (e.g., CSP technology, solar power, area of the plant, presence and type of hybridization system, electricity cost, presence and type of TES, power cycle fluid, heat transfer fluid, operating temperature, operating pressure, type of turbine, type and duration of storage, etc.. Further interpretation of the data and discussions on the current state-of-the-art and future trends of CSP can be found in the associated research article (Pelay et al., 2017 [1].

  11. Assessment of the impact of nuclear power plant construction and operation on small regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.H. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This study addresses the problem of the comprehensive, quantitative evaluation of the environmental, economic, and social impacts of the construction and operation of nuclear power plant on a given region. A theoretical model of the regional impacts is constructed employing input-output methods that are extended to include ecologic as well as economic effects. Thus, the regional model explicitly incorporates environmental feedback as a consequence of economic activity. The model is then employed to estimate the impact of the construction and operation of a nuclear power facility on a small region in South Carolina. Measures of economic and environmental effects include estimates of changes in output, income, employment, local government revenue and expenditure, external costs of environmental decay, pollution loads, and common-property resource usage. Results indicate that, in the South Carolina case study, significant gains in social welfare accrued to the region due to the construction and operation of the nuclear power facility. Further, the theoretical method developed herein provides a comprehensive method of objectively assessing various types of impacts on a region as small as several contiguous counties or even a single county

  12. Fortescue reservoir development and reservoir studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzell, S.T.; Hicks, G.J.; Horden, M.J.; Irrgang, H.R.; Janssen, E.J.; Kable, C.W.; Mitchell, R.A.H.; Morrell, N.W.; Palmer, I.D.; Seage, N.W.

    1985-03-01

    The Fortescue field in the Gippsland Basin, offshore southeastern Australia is being developed from two platforms (Fortescue A and Cobia A) by Esso Australia Ltd. (operator) and BHP Petroleum. The Fortescue reservoir is a stratigraphic trap at the top of the Latrobe Group of sediments. It overlies the western flank of the Halibut and Cobia fields and is separated from them by a non-net sequence of shales and coals which form a hydraulic barrier between the two systems. Development drilling into the Fortescue reservoir commenced in April 1983 with production coming onstream in May 1983. Fortescue, with booked reserves of 44 stock tank gigalitres (280 million stock tank barrels) of 43/sup 0/ API oil, is the seventh major oil reservoir to be developed in the offshore Gippsland Basin by Esso/BHP. In mid-1984, after drilling a total of 20 exploration and development wells, and after approximately one year of production, a detailed three-dimensional, two-phase reservoir simulation study was performed to examine the recovery efficiency, drainage patterns, pressure performance and production rate potential of the reservoir. The model was validated by history matching an extensive suite of Repeat Formation Test (RFT) pressure data. The results confirmed the reserves basis, and demonstrated that the ultimate oil recovery from the reservoir is not sensitive to production rate. This result is consistent with studies on other high quality Latrobe Group reservoirs in the Gippsland Basin which contain undersaturated crudes and receive very strong water drive from the Basin-wide aquifer system. With the development of the simulation model during the development phase, it has been possible to more accurately define the optimal well pattern for the remainder of the development.

  13. Design, construction, and operation of the contact size reduction facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, D.E.; Reeves, S.R.; Valenti, P.J.

    1988-05-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and initial operation of the Contact-Handled Size Reduction Facility (CSRF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project. The facility was constructed to size reduce contaminated tanks, piping, and other metallic scrap and package the scrap for disposal. In addition, the CSRF has the capability to decontaminate scrap prior to disposal. The anticipated result of decontaminating the scrap is to reduce waste classified as transuranic or low-level Class B and C to Class A or release for unrestricted use as nonradioactive equipment. 10 figs., 1 tab

  14. MeProRisk - a toolbox for evaluating risks in exploration, development, and operation of geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, C.

    2009-04-01

    When developing geothermal resources, the risk of failure is still high when compared to hydrocarbon exploration. The MeProRisk projects aims at the improvement of strategies in all phases of the reservoir life cycle. It is a joint enterprise of five university institutes at RWTH Aachen University, Free University Berlin, and Kiel University. Two partners, namely Geophysica Beratunggesellschaft mbH, (Aachen), and RWE Dea AG (Hamburg) present the industrial side. It is funded by the German Ministry of Education and Science (BMBF). The key idea followed in this project is that the development of the understanding of a given reservoir is an iterative process. Starting from geological base knowledge and geophysical exploration one or more conceptual models will emerge, which will be incorporated in first numerical models. The use of inverse techniques in a broad sense will not only lead to an optimal model, but will produce uncertainty and resolution estimates for this model. This information may be used for further setup of optimal experiments, including the choice of exploration well locations. In later stages of reservoir development, the numerical models will be continuously updated based on the most recent models. Once wells have been drilled, the character of experiments shifts from static methods to dynamic interaction with the reservoir, e.g. by injection experiments and their monitoring. The use of all the methods with one simulation tool poses large challenges. Inverse problems require orders of magnitude larger computer resources, and the development of appropriate theoretical and numerical methods for this is on of the primary aims of this project. Due to the less obvious signatures of geothermally relevant targets, it is also necessary to improve the experimental base for model setup and update by developing new and better methods for some of the key problems in the case of geothermal targets. Among these are the development of methods to estimate

  15. Enhancement of the sweep efficiency of waterflooding operations by the in-situ microbial population of petroleum reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.R.; Vadie, A.A.; Stephens, J.O.; Azadpour, A.

    1995-12-31

    Live cores were obtained from five reservoirs using special precautions to prevent contamination by exogenous microorganisms and minimize exposure to oxygen. The depths from which the cores were obtained ranged from 2,705 ft to 6,568 ft. Core plugs were cut radially from live cores, encased in heat-shrink plastic tubes, placed in core holders, and fitted with inlets and outlets. Nutrient additions stimulated the in-situ microbial population to increase, dissolve stratal material, produce gases, and release oil. Reduction in flow through the core plugs was observed in some cases, while in other cases flow was increased, probably due to the dissolution of carbonates in the formation. A field demonstration of the ability of the in-situ microbial population to increase oil recovery by blocking the more permeable zones of the reservoir is currently underway. This demonstration is being conducted in the North Blowhorn Creek Unit situated in Lamar County, Alabama. Live cores were obtained from a newly drilled well in the field and tested as described above. The field project involves four test patterns each including one injector, four to five producers, and a comparable control injector with its four to five producers. Nutrient injection in the field began November 1994.

  16. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  17. Experience Gained From the Construction, Test and Operation of the Large 4-T CMS Coil

    CERN Document Server

    Hervé, A; Curé, B; Fabbricatore, P; Gaddi, A; Kircher, F; Sgobba, S

    2008-01-01

    The 4-T, 6-m free bore CMS solenoid has been successfully tested, operated and mapped at CERN during the autumn of 2006; R&D studies started in 1993 and the construction proper in 1997. The main parameters of this 100 MUS$ project (including yoke) were then considered beyond what was thought possible, as the total stored magnetic energy reaches 2.6 GJ for a specific magnetic energy density exceeding 11 kJ/kg of cold mass. During this period, the international design and construction team had to make several important technical choices, in particular mechanical, to maximize the chances of reaching the nominal induction of 4 Tesla. The paper will review these choices in the light of what is presently known and examine if better solutions would be possible today for constructing a new large high-field thin solenoid for a future detector magnet.

  18. Case study of restaurant successfully designed, constructed, and operated for excellent dining acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollard, Paul; Des Jardins, Stephen

    2005-09-01

    Prior to the construction of La Provence Restaurant in Roseville, California in 2004, the owner, Stephen Des Jardins, traveled with his cook, architect, and engineer to the Provence Region of France to study the cuisine, architecture, and acoustics of the local restaurants. This information was incorporated into the design, construction, and operation of his restaurant, with acoustical design assistance provided by the author, Paul Bollard. The result of the owner's painstaking attention to detail is a restaurant which has received very positive reviews for its architecture, quality of food, service, and acoustic ambience. This paper documents the measures included in the construction of the restaurant to ensure that the building acoustics enhance the dining experience, rather than detract from it. Photographs of acoustic treatments are included, as are reverberation time (RT60) test results and ambient noise level measurement results.

  19. Construction and operation of biogas plants. Bau und Betrieb von Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, F. von

    1985-01-01

    Biogas utilisation in agriculture has increased considerably as a consequence of the energy crisis. So far, energy production was the most important aspect, and the high-quality natural fertilizer offered by the fermentation residues was commonly neglected. This fertilizer is an effective substitute for commercial fertilizers and thus contributes to the reduction of environmental pollution. The book discusses the chemical and biological mechanisms, the criteria of selection for plants and materials, optimum gas production techniques, uses of the product gas, and the advantages and properties of the biofertilizer produced. Planning procedures, design, construction, function and performance of several biogas production plants now in operation are described. Hints are given for do-it-yourself construction, as are cost-benefit calculations and decision aids for construction.

  20. [Construction and operation status of management system of laboratories of schistosomiasis control institutions in Hubei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao-Hui, Zheng; Jun, Qin; Li, Chen; Hong, Zhu; Li, Tang; Zu-Wu, Tu; Ming-Xing, Zeng; Qian, Sun; Shun-Xiang, Cai

    2016-10-09

    To analyze the construction and operation status of management system of laboratories of schistosomiasis control institutions in Hubei Province, so as to provide the reference for the standardized detection and management of schistosomiasis laboratories. According to the laboratory standard of schistosomiasis at provincial, municipal and county levels, the management system construction and operation status of 60 schistosomiasis control institutions was assessed by the acceptance examination method from 2013 to 2015. The management system was already occupied over all the laboratories of schistosomiasis control institutions and was officially running. There were 588 non-conformities and the inconsistency rate was 19.60%. The non-conformity rate of the management system of laboratory quality control was 38.10% (224 cases) and the non-conformity rate of requirements of instrument and equipment was 23.81% (140 cases). The management system has played an important role in the standardized management of schistosomiasis laboratories.

  1. A team leadership approach to managing the transition from construction to operations for an environmental project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.W.

    1994-06-01

    This presentation describes a team approach, at the totalproject level that focused team members with common objectives, for the transition to start-up and operation of the project. The Integrated Management Team (IMT) approach has been successful for this US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental restoration project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The $53.8-million project will collect, treat, and dispose of low-level mixed waste water discharges from the Hanford Site. Construction is scheduled for completion in September 1994 and facility start-up in June 1995. The project challenge is for leadership that is committed to the transition from construction to operation of the environmental restoration project

  2. Three integrated photovoltaic/sound barrier power plants. Construction and operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, T.; Froelich, A.; Clavadetscher, L.

    2002-01-01

    After an international ideas competition by TNC Switzerland and Germany in 1996, six companies where given the opportunity to construct a prototype of their newly developed integrated PV-sound barrier concepts. The main goal was to develop highly integrated concepts, allowing the reduction of PV sound barrier systems costs, as well as the demonstration of specific concepts for different noise situations. This project is strongly correlated with a German project. Three of the concepts of the competition are demonstrated along a highway near Munich, constructed in 1997. The three Swiss installations had to be constructed at different locations, reflecting three typical situations for sound barriers. The first Swiss installation was the world first Bi-facial PV-sound barrier. It was built on a highway bridge at Wallisellen-Aubrugg in 1997. The operational experience of the installation is positive. But due to the different efficiencies of the two cell sides, its specific yield lies somewhat behind a conventional PV installation. The second Swiss plant was finished in autumn 1998. The 'zig-zag' construction is situated along the railway line at Wallisellen in a densely inhabited area with some local shadowing. Its performance and its specific yield is comparatively low due to a combination of several reasons (geometry of the concept, inverter, high module temperature, local shadows). The third installation was constructed along the motor way A1 at Bruettisellen in 1999. Its vertical panels are equipped with amorphous modules. The report show, that the performance of the system is reasonable, but the mechanical construction has to be improved. A small trial field with cells directly laminated onto the steel panel, also installed at Bruettisellen, could be the key development for this concept. This final report includes the evaluation and comparison of the monitored data in the past 24 months of operation. (author)

  3. Using game technologies to improve the safety of construction plant operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongling; Li, Heng; Chan, Greg; Skitmore, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Many accidents occur world-wide in the use of construction plant and equipment, and safety training is considered by many to be one of the best approaches to their prevention. However, current safety training methods/tools are unable to provide trainees with the hands-on practice needed. Game technology-based safety training platforms have the potential to overcome this problem in a virtual environment. One such platform is described in this paper - its characteristics are analysed and its possible contribution to safety training identified. This is developed and tested by means of a case study involving three major pieces of construction plant, which successfully demonstrates that the platform can improve the process and performance of the safety training involved in their operation. This research not only presents a new and useful solution to the safety training of construction operations, but illustrates the potential use of advanced technologies in solving construction industry problems in general. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Legal preconditions for the construction and operation of district gas mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joachim, H

    1977-06-01

    The course of procedure in connection with the construction of district gas mains is outlined. This includes acquisition of main rights under private law and expropriation law, special problems such as peculiarities of land or landscape, road crossings, facilities of the Federal railway, agriculture etc., operational problems such as protection zones, building territories within the area of the main layout, drainage effects, high-pressure pipes, etc.

  5. Black Fox Station, Units 1 and 2. Application for construction permits and operating licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An application to construct and operate Black Fox Station, Units 1 and 2, is presented. The two BWR type reactors will have a rated core thermal power of 3579 MW(t) and a net electrical power of approximately 1150 MW(e). The facility will be located in Inola Township, 23 miles east of Tulsa on the east side of the Verdigris River in Rogers County, Oklahoma

  6. Subsurface flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of wastewater from different sources. Design and operation

    OpenAIRE

    Torrens Armengol, Antonina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to examine the viability of the subsurface constructed wetlands for the treatment of wastewater derived from three different sources (treatment ponds, pig farms and car wash facilities), and to evaluate the influence of design (size, type and depth of media, presence of Phragmites australis) and operational parameters (hydraulic load, dosing and feeding modes) on treatment efficiency and hydraulic behavior. Several studies were done in the framework of different ...

  7. Spaceborne construction and operations planning - Decision rules for selecting EVA, telerobot, and combined work-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.

    1992-01-01

    An approach is presented for selecting an appropriate work-system for performing construction and operations tasks by humans and telerobots. The decision to use extravehicular activity (EVA) performed by astronauts, extravehicular robotics (EVR), or a combination of EVA and EVR is determined by the ratio of the marginal costs of EVA, EVR, and IVA. The approach proposed here is useful for examining cost trade-offs between tasks and performing trade studies of task improvement techniques (human or telerobotic).

  8. Design, construction, and operations experience with the SWSA 6 [Solid Waste Storage Area] Tumulus Disposal Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Van Cleve, J.E.; Wylie, A.N.; Williams, L.C.; Bolinsky, J.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge to improve the performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. An engineered disposal concept demonstration involving placement of concrete encased waste on a monitored concrete pad with an earthen cover is being conducted. The design, construction, and operations experience with this project, the SWSA 6 Tumulus Disposal Demonstration, is described. 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Assessing the effect of nuclear power installation construction and operation on the socio-economic sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvirova, E.

    1984-01-01

    A demographic analysis is made of the area within 25 km from the Dukovany nuclear power plant. The problem is discussed of sources and requirements for manpower for the construction and operation of the power plant. It was found that the capacity of creches and nursery schools for children of power plant employees is inadequate, as are health care facilities for personnel. (E.S.)

  10. Optimization of cascade hydropower system operation by genetic algorithm to maximize clean energy output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Tayebiyan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several reservoir systems have been constructed for hydropower generation around the world. Hydropower offers an economical source of electricity with reduce carbon emissions. Therefore, it is such a clean and renewable source of energy. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue. Yet, reservoir systems are inefficiently operated and manage according to policies determined at the construction time. It is worth noting that with little enhancement in operation of reservoir system, there could be an increase in efficiency of the scheme for many consumers. Methods: This research develops simulation-optimization models that reflect discrete hedging policy (DHP to manage and operate hydropower reservoir system and analyse it in both single and multireservoir system. Accordingly, three operational models (2 single reservoir systems and 1 multi-reservoir system were constructed and optimized by genetic algorithm (GA. Maximizing the total power generation in horizontal time is chosen as an objective function in order to improve the functional efficiency in hydropower production with consideration to operational and physical limitations. The constructed models, which is a cascade hydropower reservoirs system have been tested and evaluated in the Cameron Highland and Batang Padang in Malaysia. Results: According to the given results, usage of DHP for hydropower reservoir system operation could increase the power generation output to nearly 13% in the studied reservoir system compared to present operating policy (TNB operation. This substantial increase in power production will enhance economic development. Moreover, the given results of single and multi-reservoir systems affirmed that hedging policy could manage the single system much better than operation of the multi-reservoir system. Conclusion: It can be summarized that DHP is an efficient and feasible policy, which could be used

  11. Forecast on Water Locking Damage of Low Permeable Reservoir with Quantum Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Sun, Yuxue; Feng, Fuping; Zhao, Fulei; Sui, Dianjie; Xu, Jianjun

    2018-01-01

    It is of great importance in oil-gas reservoir protection to timely and correctly forecast the water locking damage, the greatest damage for low permeable reservoir. An analysis is conducted on the production mechanism and various influence factors of water locking damage, based on which a quantum neuron is constructed based on the information processing manner of a biological neuron and the principle of quantum neural algorithm, besides, the quantum neural network model forecasting the water locking of the reservoir is established and related software is also made to forecast the water locking damage of the gas reservoir. This method has overcome the defects of grey correlation analysis that requires evaluation matrix analysis and complicated operation. According to the practice in Longxi Area of Daqing Oilfield, this method is characterized by fast operation, few system parameters and high accuracy rate (the general incidence rate may reach 90%), which can provide reliable support for the protection technique of low permeable reservoir.

  12. Does modern helicopter construction reduce noise exposure in helicopter rescue operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Thomas; Jansing, Paul; Schöffl, Volker; van Der Giet, Simone

    2013-01-01

    During helicopter rescue operations the medical personnel are at high risk for hearing damage by noise exposure. There are two important factors to be taken into account: first, the extreme variability, with some days involving no exposure but other days with extreme exposure; second, the extreme noise levels during work outside the helicopter, e.g. during winch operations. The benefit of modern, less noisier constructions and the consequences for noise protection are still unknown. We estimated the noise exposure of the personnel for different helicopter types used during rescue operations in the Alps and in other regions of the world with special regard to the advanced types like Eurocopter EC 135 to compare the benefit of modern constructions for noise protection with earlier ones. The rescue operations over 1 year of four rescue bases in the Alps (Raron and Zermatt in Switzerland; Landeck and Innsbruck in Austria, n = 2731) were analyzed for duration of rescue operations (noise exposure). Noise levels were measured during rescue operations at defined points inside and outside the different aircraft. The setting is according to the European standard (Richtlinie 2003/10/EG Amtsblatt) and to Class 1 DIN/IEC 651. With both data sets the equivalent noise level L(eq8h) was calculated. For comparison it was assumed that all rescue operations were performed with a specific type of helicopter. Then model calculations for noise exposure by different helicopter types, such as Alouette IIIb, Alouette II 'Lama', Ecureuil AS350, Bell UH1D, Eurocopter EC135, and others were performed. Depending on modern technologies the situation for the personnel has been improved significantly. Nevertheless noise prevention, which includes noise intermissions in spare time, is essential. Medical checks of the crews by occupational medicine (e.g. 'G20' in Germany) are still mandatory.

  13. Final environmental impact statement, construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source Facility. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed, spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation Neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulator ring and a second target. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this FEIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. The No-Action Alternative describes the expected condition of the environment if no action were taken. Four siting alternatives for the Spallation Neutron Source are evaluated: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, (preferred alternative); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

  14. Final environmental impact statement, construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed, spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulator ring and a second target. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this FEIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. The No-Action Alternative describes the expected condition of the environment if no action were taken. Four siting alternatives for the Spallation Neutron Source are evaluated: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, (preferred alternative); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

  15. Operational Work System Design and Staff Performance in the Nigerian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ejikeme Isichei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study investigated the impact of operational work system design on staff performance in selected construction firms in Nigeria. Research Design & Methods: The study used primary data gathered with the use of a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire format administered to 138 respondents. A hypothesis was postulated to test the significance of the research problem. Data analysis was carried out using correlation and multiple regression analysis which proved the significance of the alternative hypothesis as a result of testing the hypothesis. Findings: The findings show that there is a significant relationship between operational work system design and staff performance. The study concludes that operational job design can be advanced as a motivation tool, which is non-monetary in nature, to improve staff performance. Implications & Recommendations: A key drive to improve performance is the satisfaction of staff coupled with an outstanding operational job design which takes into consideration the total physical and mental well-being of staff and its interaction with other organisational factors. The study recommends, among others, that there should be active participation of staff in the design of work in the organisation. Contribution & Value Added: The study provides an empirical approach to enhancing performance in the construction industry and thereby developing an indigenous firm to compete favourably on a growing market.

  16. Construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source: Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation Neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulation ring and a second target. Volume 1 of this document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this EIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. This volume contains the following appendices: (A) SNS accident source terms for EIS input; (B) Reports on the selection of alternative sites for the SNS; (C) Letters of consultation on protected species and cultural resources; (D) Ecological resource survey reports and summaries; (E) Descriptions of ORNL research projects in the Walker Branch Watershed; (F) Atmospheric dispersion and dose calculations for normal and accident conditions; (G) Projected air quality modeling effects at NOAA's Walker Branch Monitoring Tower

  17. Nuclear power plants in Europe 1995. Report about operation, construction, and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Report about Operation, Construction, and Planning in 18 European Countries Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1995. The ''Nuclear Power Plants in Europe 1995'' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1995, 214 (1994: 215) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 177,010 (176,322) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation in seventeen countries, and 26 (30) units with 24,786 (28,086) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 240 (245) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 201,796 (204,408) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1048 TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1994; 792 TWh of this aggregate was converted in 137 units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 36%. Lithuania, with 77%, has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 75% and Belgium with 56%. The lowest percentage, only 5%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power plants are operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  18. 77 FR 30588 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-Construction and Operation Exemption-In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35116] R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-- Construction and Operation Exemption--In Clearfield County, PA.... 10901 for R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc. (RJCP) to construct and operate 10.8...

  19. Guidebook on design, construction and operation of pilot plants for uranium ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The design, construction and operation of a pilot plant are often important stages in the development of a project for the production of uranium concentrates. Since building and operating a pilot plant is very costly and may not always be required, it is important that such a plant be built only after several prerequisites have been met. The main purpose of this guidebook is to discuss the objectives of a pilot plant and its proper role in the overall project. Given the wide range of conditions under which a pilot plant may be designed and operated, it is not possible to provide specific details. Instead, this book discusses the rationale for a pilot plant and provides guidelines with suggested solutions for a variety of problems that may be encountered. This guidebook is part of a series of Technical Reports on uranium ore processing being prepared by the IAEA's Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management. 42 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Study on the construction and its operating characteristics of Marx high voltage pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, W.K.; Yook, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    This study is to investigate the operating characteristics of a Marx high voltage pulse generator, which is designed and fabricated for the purpose of constructing a linear theta-pinch plasma generating facility. The Marx generator consists of a 2 kJ capacitor bank of maximum output voltage of 200kV, a set of main spark switch, a triggring system, and high voltage charging power supply. The experimental results show that the operating characteristics of the generator can be controlled through varying nitrogen pressure as a filling gas. The output pulse of the generator is achieved close to the estimated voltage with the rise time of 3*m seconds. The stability of the generator is also very satisfactory within operating range of main spark switch. (Author)

  1. Problems of economic assessment of social impacts of construction anO operation of nuctear power plant in the area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koudelka, F.

    1984-01-01

    The impacts of nuclear power plant construction and operation are divided into economic, demographic, on town planning, historic, etc. Further subdivision is performed according to the intensity of construction impacts, to the sequence and quality of impact and to the effects in space and time. The area of environmental impacts is classified into the protective area and the areas of immediate, limited and broad impact. The methods of the evaluation of nuclear power plant construction and operation impacts are discussed. (E.S.)

  2. Authorization procedure for the construction and operation of nuclear installations within the EEC member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, J.M.

    1974-12-01

    For Belgium and Luxembourg, the authorization procedure varies according to the class in which the installation concerned falls (assigned according to the degree of hazard involved classes I, II or III). Moreover, separate authorizations are needed, one for construction and another for operation of class I and II installations. With respect to Germany also, two such separate authorizations are needed, but there is no specific procedure relating to the potential extent of hazard involved in the installation concerned. In France, the basic nuclear installations are subject to a special procedure. Furthermore, the construction and operation of these installations are also subject to two separate authorizations. While the latter two authorizations are required in Italy for the main nuclear installations, no system of classified installations exists according to extent of hazard involved. Similar legislation is applicable in the Netherlands. Neither does such a system of classified installations exist in the United Kingdom. Moreover, there is only one single authorization (the site licence), which is successively adapted during construction. On the other hand, in Denmark and Ireland, no detailed legislation has been developed on the subject

  3. Environmental assessment report: Nuclear Test Technology Complex. [Construction and operation of proposed facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonnessen, K.; Tewes, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is planning to construct and operate a structure, designated the Nuclear Test Technology Complex (NTTC), on a site located west of and adjacent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NTTC is designed to house 350 nuclear test program personnel, and will accommodate the needs of the entire staff of the continuing Nuclear Test Program (NTP). The project has three phases: land acquisition, facility construction and facility operation. The purpose of this environmental assessment report is to describe the activities associated with the three phases of the NTTC project and to evaluate potential environmental disruptions. The project site is located in a rural area of southeastern Alameda County, California, where the primary land use is agriculture; however, the County has zoned the area for industrial development. The environmental impacts of the project include surface disturbance, high noise levels, possible increases in site erosion, and decreased air quality. These impacts will occur primarily during the construction phase of the NTTC project and can be mitigated in part by measures proposed in this report.

  4. Licensing procedure for the construction and operation of nuclear installations within the EEC member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, J.M.

    1976-08-01

    For Belgium and Luxembourg, the authorization procedure varies according to the Class in which the installation concerned falls (assigned according to the degree of hazard involved: Classes I, II or III). Moreover, separate authorizations are needed, one for construction and another for operation of Class I and II installations. With respect to Germany also, two such separate authorization are needed, but there is no specific procedure relating to the potential extent of hazard involved in the installation concerned. In France, the 'basic' nuclear installations are subject to a special procedure. Furthermore, the construction and operation of these installations are also subject to two separate authorizations. While the latter two authorizations are required in Italy for the main nuclear installations, no system of 'classified' installations exists according to extent of hazard involved. Similar legislation is applicable in the Netherlands. Neither does such a system of 'classified' installations exist in the United Kingdom. Moreover, there is only one single authorization (the 'site licence'), which is succesively adapted during construction. On the other hand, in Denmark and Ireland, no detailed legislation has been developed on the subject

  5. Limno-reservoirs as a new landscape, environmental and touristic resource: Pareja Limno-reservoir as a case of study (Guadalajara, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Carrión, I.; Sastre-Merlín, A.; Martínez-Pérez, S.; Molina-Navarro, E.; Bienes-Allas, R.

    2012-04-01

    A limno-reservoir is a hydrologic infrastructure with the main goal of generating a body of water with a constant level in the riverine zone of a reservoir, building a dam that makes de limno-reservoir independent from the main body of water. This dam can be built in the main river supplying the reservoir or any tributary as well flowing into it. Despite its novel conception and design, around a dozen are already operative in some Spanish reservoirs. This infrastructure allows the new water body to be independent of the main reservoir management, so the water level stability is its main distinctive characteristic. It leads to the development of environmental, sports and cultural initiatives; which may be included in a touristic exploitation in a wide sense. An opinion poll was designed in 2009 to be carried out the Pareja Limno-reservoir (Entrepeñas reservoir area, Tajo River Basin, central Spain). The results showed that for both, Pareja inhabitants and occasional visitors, the limno-reservoir has become an important touristic resource, mainly demanded during summer season. The performance of leisure activities (especially swimming) are being the main brand of this novel hydraulic and environmental infrastructure, playing a role as corrective and/or compensatory action which is needed to apply in order to mitigate the environmental impacts of the large hydraulic constructions.

  6. Construction and operation of replacement hazardous waste handling facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0423, for the construction and operation of a replacement hazardous waste handling facility (HWHF) and decontamination of the existing HWHF at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Berkeley, California. The proposed facility would replace several older buildings and cargo containers currently being used for waste handling activities and consolidate the LBL's existing waste handling activities in one location. The nature of the waste handling activities and the waste volume and characteristics would not change as a result of construction of the new facility. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC. 4321 et seq. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required

  7. Procedure guide of design, construction of prototypes, calibration and sure operation of nucleonic control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banados Perez, H.; Griffith Martinez, J.; Desdin Garcia, L.F.; Rodriguez Cardona, R.L.; Molina, G.; Sebastian Calvo, C.

    1999-01-01

    This Guide was elaborated in the mark of the project RLA/8/024 ARCAL XLII 'Industrial Applications of the Tracer Technology and Nucleonic Control Systems'. Its objective is to establish the approaches for the design, the construction, the selection and the procedures for the sure operation of the Nucleonic Control Systems (NCS) in the industry. The NCS is used to control processes to high speeds, materials with extreme conditions or with noxious chemical properties, susceptible materials of being damaged by contact and packed products. In this document is defined the scope of the procedure. The SCN are classified according to: type of radiations, the mobility of the components, the degree of the beams collimation; and in function of the security. The design and construction criteria of the nuclear meters and of the systems of control nucleonic are exposed

  8. Construction and operation of replacement hazardous waste handling facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0423, for the construction and operation of a replacement hazardous waste handling facility (HWHF) and decontamination of the existing HWHF at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Berkeley, California. The proposed facility would replace several older buildings and cargo containers currently being used for waste handling activities and consolidate the LBL`s existing waste handling activities in one location. The nature of the waste handling activities and the waste volume and characteristics would not change as a result of construction of the new facility. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC. 4321 et seq. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required.

  9. Evaluation of the energy required for constructing and operating a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1982-09-01

    The energy required for constructing and operating a tokamak fusion power plant is appraised with respect to the energy output during the lifetime of the plant. A harvesting factor is deduced as a relevant figure of energetic merit and is used for a comparison between fusion, fission, and coal-fired power plants. Because fusion power plants involve considerable uncertainties the comparison is supplemented by a sensitivity analysis. In comparison with Light Water Reactor plants fusion power plants appear to be rather favourable in this respect. The energy required for providing the fuel is relatively low for fusion plants, thus overcompensating the considerable higher amount of energy necessary for constructing the fusion power plant. (orig.)

  10. Nutrient-based ecological consideration of a temporary river catchment affected by a reservoir operation to facilitate efficient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoraki, Ourania A; Dörflinger, Gerald; Kathijotes, Nicholas; Kontou, Artemis

    2014-01-01

    The water quality status of the Kouris river in Cyprus was examined in order to fulfil the requirements for ecological quality as defined by the Water Framework Directive-2000/60/EC. Nitrate concentration (mean value) was increased in the Limnatis (2.8 mg L(-1)) tributary in comparison with the Kryos (2.1 mg L(-1)) and Kouris (1.0 mg L(-1)) tributaries depicting the influence of anthropogenic activities. The total maximum daily nutrients loads (TMDLs) based on the flow duration curves approach, showed that nutrients loads exceeded threshold values (33.3-75.6% in all hydrologic condition classes in the Kouris tributary, and 65-78% in the Limnatis tributary) especially under low flow conditions. The TMDL graph is intended to guide the temporal schedule for chemical sampling in all hydrologic classes. Kouris reservoir is an oligotrophic system, strongly influenced by the river's flash-flood character but also by the implemented management practices. Kouris river outflow, which was reduced to one-tenth in the post dam period altered the wetland hydrologic network and contributed to the decrease of aquifer thickness. Continuous evaluation and update of the River Basin Management Plans will be the basis for the sustainable development of the Kouris basin.

  11. Information management system for design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolch, M.C.; Jones, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the principal requirements and features of a computerized information management system (IMS) believed to be a necessary part of the program to design, build and operate the next generation of nuclear power plants in the United States. This way a result of extensive review and input from an industry group studying future nuclear power plant construction improvements. The needs of the power plant constructor, owner and operator for such a computerized technical data base are described in terms of applications and scope and timing of turnover of the IMS by the plant designer. The applications cover the full life cycle of the plant including project control, construction activities, quality control, maintenance and operation. The scope of the IMS is also described in terms of the technical data to be included, hardware and software capabilities and training. The responsibilities of the plant designer for developing the IMS and generating the technical data base is defined as part of the plant process. The requirements to be met include a comprehensive plant data model and computer system hardware and software

  12. Construction and operation of an improved radiation calibration facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Calibration of instruments used to detect and measure ionizing radiation has been conducted over the last 20 years at Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Radiation Calibration Facility, Building 348. Growth of research facilities, projects in progress, and more stringent Department of Energy (DOE) orders which involve exposure to nuclear radiation have placed substantial burdens on the existing radiation calibration facility. The facility currently does not meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.4 or American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N323-1978, which establish calibration methods for portable radiation protection instruments used in the detection and measurement of levels of ionizing radiation fields or levels of radioactive surface contaminations. Failure to comply with this standard could mean instrumentation is not being calibrated to necessary levels of sensitivity. The Laboratory has also recently obtained a new neutron source and gamma beam irradiator which can not be made operational at existing facilities because of geometry and shielding inadequacies. These sources are needed to perform routine periodic calibrations of radiation detecting instruments used by scientific and technical personnel and to meet BNL's substantial increase in demand for radiation monitoring capabilities. To place these new sources into operation, it is proposed to construct an addition to the existing radiation calibration facility that would house all calibration sources and bring BNL calibration activities into compliance with DOE and ANSI standards. The purpose of this assessment is to identify potential significant environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of an improved radiation calibration facility at BNL

  13. Information management system for design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolch, M.C. (Duke Power Co. (US)); Jones, C.R. (S. Levy Inc. (US))

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the principal requirements and features of a computerized information management system (IMS) believed to be a necessary part of the program to design, build and operate the next generation of nuclear power plants in the United States. This way a result of extensive review and input from an industry group studying future nuclear power plant construction improvements. The needs of the power plant constructor, owner and operator for such a computerized technical data base are described in terms of applications and scope and timing of turnover of the IMS by the plant designer. The applications cover the full life cycle of the plant including project control, construction activities, quality control, maintenance and operation. The scope of the IMS is also described in terms of the technical data to be included, hardware and software capabilities and training. The responsibilities of the plant designer for developing the IMS and generating the technical data base is defined as part of the plant process. The requirements to be met include a comprehensive plant data model and computer system hardware and software.

  14. Project Guarantee 1985. Repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste: construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A constructional engineering project study aimed at clarification of the feasibility of a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (type B repository) has been carried out; the study is based on a model data-set derived from the geological, rock mechanical and topographical characterictics of one of Nagra's planned exploration areas. Final storage is effected in subterranean rock caverns accessed by horizontal tunnel. The reception area also is sited below the surface. Storage is conceived in such a way that, after closure of the repository, maintenance and supervision can be dispensed with and a guarantee of high long-term safety can nevertheless be provided. The envisaged repository consists of an entry tunnel for road vehicles and a reception area with a series of caverns for receiving waste, for additional technical facilities and for the production of the concrete back-fill material. The connecting tunnel is serviced by a tunnel railway and the actual repository area consists of several storage caverns. The repository is intended to accomodate a total of 200'000 m3 of solidified low- and intermediate-level waste. Valanginian marl is assumed as the host rock, although it would also be basically possible to house the proposed installations in other host rocks. The excavated material will total around 1'000'000 m3. The construction time for the whole installation is estimated as about 7 years and a working team of around 30 people will be required for the estimated 60-year operational duration. The project described in the present report justifies the conclusion that construction of a repository for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste is feasible with present-day technology. This conclusion takes into consideration quantitative and operational constraints as well as geological and hydrogeological data relevant to constructional engineering. The latter are derived from a model data-set based on a specific locality

  15. Pre-operative simulation of periacetabular osteotomy via a three-dimensional model constructed from salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukushima Kensuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO is an effective joint-preserving procedure for young adults with developmental dysplasia of the hip. Although PAO provides excellent radiographic and clinical results, it is a technically demanding procedure with a distinct learning curve that requires careful 3D planning and, above all, has a number of potential complications. We therefore developed a pre-operative simulation method for PAO via creation of a new full-scale model. Methods: The model was prepared from the patient’s Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM formatted data from computed tomography (CT, for construction and assembly using 3D printing technology. A major feature of our model is that it is constructed from salt. In contrast to conventional models, our model provides a more accurate representation, at a lower manufacturing cost, and requires a shorter production time. Furthermore, our model realized simulated operation normally with using a chisel and drill without easy breakage or fissure. We were able to easily simulate the line of osteotomy and confirm acetabular version and coverage after moving to the osteotomized fragment. Additionally, this model allowed a dynamic assessment that avoided anterior impingement following the osteotomy. Results: Our models clearly reflected the anatomical shape of the patient’s hip. Our models allowed for surgical simulation, making realistic use of the chisel and drill. Our method of pre-operative simulation for PAO allowed for the assessment of accurate osteotomy line, determination of the position of the osteotomized fragment, and prevented anterior impingement after the operation. Conclusion: Our method of pre-operative simulation might improve the safety, accuracy, and results of PAO.

  16. Construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source: Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation Neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulation ring and a second target. The US needs a high-flux, short-pulsed neutron source to provide the scientific and industrial research communities with a much more intense source of pulsed neutrons for neutron scattering research than is currently available, and to assure the availability of a state-of-the-art facility in the decades ahead. This next-generation neutron source would create new scientific and engineering opportunities. In addition, it would help replace the neutron science capacity that will be lost by the eventual shutdown of existing sources as they reach the end of their useful operating lives in the first half of the next century. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this EIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. The No-Action Alternative describes the expected condition of the environment if no action were taken. Four siting alternatives for the Spallation Neutron Source are evaluated: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, (preferred alternative); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

  17. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  18. A review on the sustainability of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: Design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Hu, Zhen; Liang, Shuang; Fan, Jinlin; Liu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used as a green technology to treat various wastewaters for several decades. CWs offer a land-intensive, low-energy, and less-operational-requirements alternative to conventional treatment systems, especially for small communities and remote locations. However, the sustainable operation and successful application of these systems remains a challenge. Hence, this paper aims to provide and inspire sustainable solutions for the performance and application of CWs by giving a comprehensive review of CWs' application and the recent development on their sustainable design and operation for wastewater treatment. Firstly, a brief summary on the definition, classification and application of current CWs was presented. The design parameters and operational conditions of CWs including plant species, substrate types, water depth, hydraulic load, hydraulic retention time and feeding mode related to the sustainable operation for wastewater treatments were then discussed. Lastly, future research on improving the stability and sustainability of CWs were highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of residual life of material of power plant construction elements after long-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osasyuk, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Existing methods are analyzed for estimation of residual resource of elements of constructions, working in creep conditions. A suggested and experimentally verified new method of residual durability forecasting is described permitting the value of the supplementary resource to be specified according to the real state of the material after preoperation. Evaluation results are given for residual life of steam lines received by different methods and advantages of the technique proposed are shown. Reliability of the new technique is confirmed by steam line operation at thermal power plants

  20. Economic Effects of Reservoir Re-operation Policy in the Rio Grande/Bravo for Sustainable Human and Environmental Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Partida, J. P.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Lane, B.

    2015-12-01

    A central challenge of integrated water management is the design and implementation of policies to allocate water to both humans and the environment in a sustainable manner. This study uses the results from a reach-scale water-planning model to quantify and compare the economic benefits of two water management policies: (1) a business as usual (Baseline) policy and (2) a proposed reservoir re-operation policy to provide environmental flows (EFs). Results show that the EF policy would increase water supply profit, slightly decrease recreational activities profit, and reduce costs from flood damage and environmental restoration compared to the Baseline policy. In addition to supporting ecological objectives, the proposed EF policy would increase the economic benefits of water management objectives.

  1. Gribov horizon and i-particles: About a toy model and the construction of physical operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulieu, L.; Dudal, D.; Vandersickel, N.; Guimaraes, M. S.; Sorella, S. P.; Huber, M. Q.; Zwanziger, D.

    2010-01-01

    Restricting the functional integral to the Gribov region Ω leads to a deep modification of the behavior of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the infrared region. For example, a gluon propagator of the Gribov type, (k 2 /k 4 +γ 4 ), can be viewed as a propagating pair of unphysical modes, called here i-particles, with complex masses ±iγ 2 . From this viewpoint, gluons are unphysical and one can see them as being confined. We introduce a simple toy model describing how a suitable set of composite operators can be constructed out of i-particles whose correlation functions exhibit only real branch cuts, with associated positive spectral density. These composite operators can thus be called physical and are the toy analogy of glueballs in the Gribov-Zwanziger theory.

  2. Construction of a magnetostrictive hysteresis operator using a tripod-like primitive hopfield neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, A. A.; Abd-El-Hafiz, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    It is well known that accurate modeling of magnetostrictive hysteresis is crucial to different industrial applications. Although several magnetostrictive models have been developed in the past, the accuracy-efficiency balance has always been crucial. Recently, the possibility of constructing a primitive vector hysteresis operator using a tri-node Hopfield Neural Network (HNN) was demonstrated. Based upon the fact that mechanical stress along a certain direction results in dimensional deformation, this paper introduces a novel extension to the aforementioned recently developed approach. More specifically, a stress-driven evolution of a tri-node HNN hysteresis operator pair is proposed, thus yielding a tripod-like HNN pair having different input offset values. Model identification, sample simulation results and comparison with experimental measurements are given in the paper.

  3. Ensemble Flow Forecasts for Risk Based Reservoir Operations of Lake Mendocino in Mendocino County, California: A Framework for Objectively Leveraging Weather and Climate Forecasts in a Decision Support Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, C.; Hartman, R. K.; Mendoza, J.; Whitin, B.

    2017-12-01

    Forecast informed reservoir operations (FIRO) is a methodology that incorporates short to mid-range precipitation and flow forecasts to inform the flood operations of reservoirs. The Ensemble Forecast Operations (EFO) alternative is a probabilistic approach of FIRO that incorporates ensemble streamflow predictions (ESPs) made by NOAA's California-Nevada River Forecast Center (CNRFC). With the EFO approach, release decisions are made to manage forecasted risk of reaching critical operational thresholds. A water management model was developed for Lake Mendocino, a 111,000 acre-foot reservoir located near Ukiah, California, to evaluate the viability of the EFO alternative to improve water supply reliability but not increase downstream flood risk. Lake Mendocino is a dual use reservoir, which is owned and operated for flood control by the United States Army Corps of Engineers and is operated for water supply by the Sonoma County Water Agency. Due to recent changes in the operations of an upstream hydroelectric facility, this reservoir has suffered from water supply reliability issues since 2007. The EFO alternative was simulated using a 26-year (1985-2010) ESP hindcast generated by the CNRFC. The ESP hindcast was developed using Global Ensemble Forecast System version 10 precipitation reforecasts processed with the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast System to generate daily reforecasts of 61 flow ensemble members for a 15-day forecast horizon. Model simulation results demonstrate that the EFO alternative may improve water supply reliability for Lake Mendocino yet not increase flood risk for downstream areas. The developed operations framework can directly leverage improved skill in the second week of the forecast and is extendable into the S2S time domain given the demonstration of improved skill through a reliable reforecast of adequate historical duration and consistent with operationally available numerical weather predictions.

  4. Cesium reservoir and interconnective components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW range. A thermionic converter must be supplied with cesium vapor for two reasons. Cesium atoms adsorbed on the surface of the emitter cause a reduction of the emitter work function to permit high current densities without excessive heating of the emitter. The second purpose of the cesium vapor is to provide space-charge neutralization in the emitter-collector gap so that the high current densities may flow across the gap unattenuated. The function of the cesium reservoir is to provide a source of cesium atoms, and to provide a reserve in the event that cesium is lost from the plasma by any mechanism. This can be done with a liquid cesium metal reservoir in which case it is heated to the desired temperature with auxiliary heaters. In a TFE, however, it is desirable to have the reservoir passively heated by the nuclear fuel. In this case, the reservoir must operate at a temperature intermediate between the emitter and the collector, ruling out the use of liquid reservoirs. Integral reservoirs contained within the TFE will produce cesium vapor pressures in the desired range at typical electrode temperatures. The reservoir material that appears to be the best able to meet requirements is graphite. Cesium intercalates easily into graphite, and the cesium pressure is insensitive to loading for a given intercalation stage. The goals of the cesium reservoir test program were to verify the performance of Cs-graphite reservoirs in the temperature-pressure range of interest to TFE operation, and to test the operation of these reservoirs after exposure to a fast neutron fluence corresponding to seven year mission lifetime. In addition, other materials were evaluated for possible use in the integral reservoir

  5. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to provide an evaluation of the... License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites (Package). ML112630039 Federal...

  6. Construction and initial operation of MHD PbLi facility at UCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolentsev, S., E-mail: sergey@fusion.ucla.edu; Li, F.-C.; Morley, N.; Ueki, Y.; Abdou, M.; Sketchley, T.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • New MHD PbLi loop has been constructed and tested at UCLA. • Pressure diagnostics system has been developed and successfully tested. • Ultrasound Doppler velocimeter is tested as velocity diagnostics. • Experiments on pressure drop reduction have been performed. • Experiments on MHD flow in a duct with SiC flow channel insert are underway. -- Abstract: A magnetohydrodynamic flow facility MaPLE (Magnetohydrodynamic PbLi Experiment) that utilizes molten eutectic alloy lead–lithium (PbLi) as working fluid has been constructed and tested at University of California, Los Angeles. The loop operation parameters are: maximum magnetic field 1.8 T, PbLi temperature up to 350 °C, maximum PbLi flow rate with/without a magnetic field 15/50 l/min, maximum pressure head 0.15 MPa. The paper describes the loop itself and its major components, basic operation procedures, experience of handling PbLi, initial loop testing, flow diagnostics and current and near-future experiments. The obtained test results of the loop and its components have demonstrated that the new facility is fully functioning and ready for experimental studies of magnetohydrodynamic, heat and mass transfer phenomena in PbLi flows and also can be used in mock up testing in conditions relevant to fusion applications.

  7. Advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR). Design, construction, operation and maintenance experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idesawa, M.

    1998-01-01

    The ABWR has experienced all phases of design, construction, operation and maintenance at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Units No.6 and 7 and confirmed that originally intended development targets have been achieved with highly satisfactory results. This is the fruit of a project that collected wisdom from various sources under a international cooperative organization, with Tokyo Electric Power Company taking the leading role from the onset. These two units have not only demonstrated that ABWRs have superior performance as the first standard units of advanced light water reactor but also aroused a hope for the big potential advantages that ABWRs can provide us. The ABWR has already been awarded a U.S. standard license for having proved that it can comply with the requirements of international regulatory systems with an ample margin. There are also many construction programs with ABWRs progressing both domestically and abroad, suggesting that it has won recognition as an international standard plant. We will do our utmost to perfect the operation and maintenance records of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Units No.6 and 7, which is the top runner among ABWRs, and to make known the superiority of this reactor to the world. (J.P.N.)

  8. Project Guarantee 1985. Repository for high-level radioactive waste: construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An engineering project study aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of constructing a deep repository for high-level waste (Type C repository) has been carried out; the study is based on a model data-set representing typical geological and rock mechanical conditions as found outside the so-called Permocarboniferous basin in the regions under investigation by Nagra in Cantons Aargau, Schaffhausen, Solothurn and Zuerich. The repository is intended for disposal of high-level waste and any intermediate-level waste from re-processing in which the concentration of long-lived alpha-emitters exceeds the permissible limits set for a Type B repository. Final disposal of high-level waste is in subterranean, horizontally mined tunnels and of intermediate-level waste in underground vertical silos. The repository is intended to accomodate a total of around 6'000 HWL-cylinders (gross volume of around 1'200 m3) and around 10'000 m3 of intermediate-level waste. The total excavated volume is around 1'100'000 m3 and a construction time for the whole repository (up to the beginning of emplacement) of around 15 years is expected. For the estimated 50-year emplacement operations, a working team of around 60 people will be needed and a team of around 160 for the simultaneous tunnelling operations and auxiliary work. The project described in the present report permits the conclusion that construction of a repository for high-level radioactive waste and, if necessary, spent fuel-rods is feasible with present-day technology

  9. Understanding satellite-based monthly-to-seasonal reservoir outflow estimation as a function of hydrologic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnema, Matthew; Sikder, Safat; Miao, Yabin; Chen, Xiaodong; Hossain, Faisal; Ara Pervin, Ismat; Mahbubur Rahman, S. M.; Lee, Hyongki

    2016-05-01

    Growing population and increased demand for water is causing an increase in dam and reservoir construction in developing nations. When rivers cross international boundaries, the downstream stakeholders often have little knowledge of upstream reservoir operation practices. Satellite remote sensing in the form of radar altimetry and multisensor precipitation products can be used as a practical way to provide downstream stakeholders with the fundamentally elusive upstream information on reservoir outflow needed to make important and proactive water management decisions. This study uses a mass balance approach of three hydrologic controls to estimate reservoir outflow from satellite data at monthly and annual time scales: precipitation-induced inflow, evaporation, and reservoir storage change. Furthermore, this study explores the importance of each of these hydrologic controls to the accuracy of outflow estimation. The hydrologic controls found to be unimportant could potentially be neglected from similar future studies. Two reservoirs were examined in contrasting regions of the world, the Hungry Horse Reservoir in a mountainous region in northwest U.S. and the Kaptai Reservoir in a low-lying, forested region of Bangladesh. It was found that this mass balance method estimated the annual outflow of both reservoirs with reasonable skill. The estimation of monthly outflow from both reservoirs was however less accurate. The Kaptai basin exhibited a shift in basin behavior resulting in variable accuracy across the 9 year study period. Monthly outflow estimation from Hungry Horse Reservoir was compounded by snow accumulation and melt processes, reflected by relatively low accuracy in summer and fall, when snow processes control runoff. Furthermore, it was found that the important hydrologic controls for reservoir outflow estimation at the monthly time scale differs between the two reservoirs, with precipitation-induced inflow being the most important control for the Kaptai

  10. Forecasting water demand using back propagation networks in the operation of reservoirs in the citarum cascade, west java, indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulya R. Mashudi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of Neural Networks (NN as a potential means of more accurately forecasting water demand in the Citarum River basin cascade. Neural Networks have the ability to recognise nonlinear patterns when sufficiently trained with historical data. The study constructs a NN model of the cascade, based on Back Propagation Networks (BPN. Data representing physical characteristics and meteorological conditions in the Citarum River basin from 1989 through 1995 were used to train the BPN. Nonlinear activation functions (sigmoid, tangent, and gaussian functions and hidden layers in the BPN were chosen for the study.

  11. Tank Operations Contract Construction Management Methodology. Utilizing The Agency Method Of Construction Management To Safely And Effectively Complete Nuclear Construction Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leso, K.F.; Hamilton, H.M.; Farner, M.; Heath, T.

    2010-01-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business construction subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC contract, Construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper describes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method. This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2009, where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by DRS personnel. Each small

  12. TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT TO SAFELY AND EFFECTIVELY COMPLETE NUCLEAR CONSTRUCTION WORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LESO KF; HAMILTON HM; FARNER M; HEATH T

    2010-01-14

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business construction subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC contract, Construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper describes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method. This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2009, where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by DRS personnel. Each small

  13. Stochastic nonlinear time series forecasting using time-delay reservoir computers: performance and universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Henriques, Julie; Larger, Laurent; Ortega, Juan-Pablo

    2014-07-01

    Reservoir computing is a recently introduced machine learning paradigm that has already shown excellent performances in the processing of empirical data. We study a particular kind of reservoir computers called time-delay reservoirs that are constructed out of the sampling of the solution of a time-delay differential equation and show their good performance in the forecasting of the conditional covariances associated to multivariate discrete-time nonlinear stochastic processes of VEC-GARCH type as well as in the prediction of factual daily market realized volatilities computed with intraday quotes, using as training input daily log-return series of moderate size. We tackle some problems associated to the lack of task-universality for individually operating reservoirs and propose a solution based on the use of parallel arrays of time-delay reservoirs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Smolt monitoring at the head of lower granite reservoir and lower Granite Dam, annual report 1999 operations.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Fish and Wildlife; Idaho. Dept. of Fish and Game.

    2001-01-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 1999 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1999. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 440% of the 1998 number. The wild chinook catch was 603% of the previous year's catch. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 93% of 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 68% of 1998 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 62 age-0 chinook salmon. During 1998 the Snake River trap captured 173 hatchery and 37 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 130 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 25. The trap was out of operation for 18 d during the season due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 214%, and wild chinook salmon catch was 384% of 1998 numbers. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 210% of the 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 203% of the 1998 catch. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 21. The trap was out of operation for 17 d during the season due to high flow and debris

  15. Smolt monitoring at the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, annual report 1997 operations.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Fish and Wildlife.

    1999-01-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1997 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1997. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 49% of the 1996 number but only 6% of the 1995 catch. The wild chinook catch was 77% of the 1996 but was only 13% of 1995. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 18% of 1996 numbers but only 7% of the 1995 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 22% of 1996 but only 11% of the 1995 numbers. The Snake River trap collected eight age-0 chinook salmon and one sockeye/kokanee salmon O. nerka. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations were terminated for the season due to high flows and trap damage on May 8 and were out of operation for 23 d due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 37% and wild chinook salmon catch was 60% of 1996 numbers but only 5% and 11% of 1995 catch, respectively. The 1997 hatchery steelhead trout collection was 13% of the 1996 catch and 32% of the 1995 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1997 was 21% of the 1996 catch and 13% of the 1995 numbers. Trap operations were terminated for the season due to high flows and trap damage on May 7 and were out of operation for 19 d due to high flow and debris

  16. THE SIMULATION DIAGNOSTIC METHODS AND REGENERATION WAYS OF REINFORCED - CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS OF BRIDGES IN PROVIDING THEIR OPERATING RELIABILITY AND LONGEVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Savchinskiy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analysis of existing diagnostic methods and regeneration ways of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges the recommendations on introduction of new modern technologies of renewal of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges in providing their operating reliability and longevity are offered.

  17. THE SIMULATION DIAGNOSTIC METHODS AND REGENERATION WAYS OF REINFORCED - CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS OF BRIDGES IN PROVIDING THEIR OPERATING RELIABILITY AND LONGEVITY

    OpenAIRE

    B. V. Savchinskiy

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of analysis of existing diagnostic methods and regeneration ways of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges the recommendations on introduction of new modern technologies of renewal of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges in providing their operating reliability and longevity are offered.

  18. The Potential of a Surfactant/Polymer Flood in a Middle Eastern Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshal Algharaib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated full-field reservoir simulation study has been performed to determine the reservoir management and production strategies in a mature sandstone reservoir. The reservoir is a candidate for an enhanced oil recovery process or otherwise subject to abandonment. Based on its charateristics, the reservoir was found to be most suited for a surfactant/polymer (SP flood. The study started with a large data gathering and the building of a full-field three-dimensional geological model. Subsequently, a full field simulation model was built and used to history match the water flood. The history match of the water flood emphasizes the areas with remaining high oil saturations, establishes the initial condition of the reservoir for an SP flood, and generates a forecast of reserves for continued water flood operations. A sector model was constructed from the full field model and then used to study different design parameters to maximize the project profitability from the SP flood. An economic model, based on the estimated recovery, residual oil in-place, oil price, and operating costs, has been implemented in order to optimize the project profitability. The study resulted in the selection of surfactant and polymer concentrations and slug size that yielded the best economic returns when applied in this reservoir. The study shows that, in today’s oil prices, surfactant/polymer flood when applied in this reservoir has increased the ultimate oil recovery and provide a significant financial returns.

  19. Design and construction of automatic operating system of double chamber plasma nitriding device PLC based

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminto; Slamet Santosa; Eko Priyono

    2012-01-01

    The automatic operating system of double chamber plasma nitriding device has been done. The system is used for operating double chamber plasma nitriding automatically as according to the standard operating procedure by pressing push button on the human machine interface (HMI). The system consists of hardware and software. The hardware was constructed using main components T100MD1616+ PLC module and supported by temperature signal conditioner module, Wheatstone bridge module, isolated amplifier module and EMS 30A H Bridge motor driver module. A software program that is planted on T100MD1616+ PLC using ladder diagrams and Tbasic program. Test system functions performed by inserting a set values of temperature and pressure by pressing the button on the human machine interface (HMI). The test results show that the temperature control with a set of values 100 °C obtained stable coverage of 98 °C to 102 °C, (Δ ± 2 °C) with a 2% tolerance and the output voltage of the DAC is 2.436 volts to 2.913 volts. The pressure control with a set of values 2.169 x 10 -1 mbar obtained stable coverage of 1.995 x 10 -1 mbar to 2.205 x 10 -1 mbar, (Δ ± 0.105 x 10 -1 mbar) with a 5% tol. (author)

  20. Nuclear power plants in Europe 1996. Report on operation, construction and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1996. The 'Nuclear Power Plants in Europe 1996' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1996, 216 (1995: 215) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 177,916 (177,010) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation and 24 (26) units with 23,086 (24,786) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 240 (241) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 201,002 (201,796) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1067 (1048) TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1995; 802 (792) TWh of this aggregate was converted in 142 (137) units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 36%. Lithuania, with 86 (77)% has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 76 (75)% and Belgium with 56%. The lowest percentage, only 4 (5)%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power are operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  1. 1997: Nuclear power plants in Europe. Report on operation, construction and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1997. The '1997: Nuclear Power Plants in Europe' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1997, 216 (1996: 216) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 180, 184 (177, 916) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation and 22 (24) units with 20,054 (23,086) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 238 (240) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 200,238 (201,002) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1138 (1067) TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1996: 806 (802) TWh of this aggregate was converted in 142 (142) units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 35,4 (36,0)%. Lithuania, with 83,4 (85,6)% has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 77,4 (76,0)% and Belgium with 57,2 (55,5)%. The lowest percentage, only 4,8 (3,8)%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power is operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  2. The FAST-T approach for operational, real time, short term hydrological forecasting: Results from the Betania Hydropower Reservoir case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Efraín; Angarita, Hector; Rosmann, Thomas; Mendez, Zulma; Angulo, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    A viable quantitative hydrological forecasting service is a combination of technological elements, personnel and knowledge, working together to establish a stable operational cycle of forecasts emission, dissemination and assimilation; hence, the process for establishing such system usually requires significant resources and time to reach an adequate development and integration in order to produce forecasts with acceptable levels of performance. Here are presented the results of this process for the recently implemented Operational Forecast Service for the Betania's Hydropower Reservoir - or SPHEB, located at the Upper-Magdalena River Basin (Colombia). The current scope of the SPHEB includes forecasting of water levels and discharge for the three main streams affluent to the reservoir, for lead times between +1 to +57 hours, and +1 to +10 days. The core of the SPHEB is the Flexible, Adaptive, Simple and Transient Time forecasting approach, namely FAST-T. This comprises of a set of data structures, mathematical kernel, distributed computing and network infrastructure designed to provide seamless real-time operational forecast and automatic model adjustment in case of failures in data transmission or assimilation. Among FAST-T main features are: an autonomous evaluation and detection of the most relevant information for the later configuration of forecasting models; an adaptively linearized mathematical kernel, the optimal adaptive linear combination or OALC, which provides a computationally simple and efficient algorithm for real-time applications; and finally, a meta-model catalog, containing prioritized forecast models at given stream conditions. The SPHEB is at present feed by the fraction of hydrological monitoring network installed at the basin that has telemetric capabilities via NOAA-GOES satellites (8 stages, approximately 47%) with data availability of about a 90% at one hour intervals. However, there is a dense network of 'conventional' hydro

  3. Impacts of Mechanical Macrophyte Removal Devices on Sediment Scouring in Littoral Habitats: II. Experimental Operation in the Littoral Zone of Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, William F; Wright, David I; Barko, John W; Eakin, Harry L

    2006-01-01

    ... in Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin. Mechanical macrophyte removal devices are an attractive, low-cost means of removing macrophytes in specific areas without herbicides or repeated mechanical harvesting...

  4. Feasibility of Construction of the Continuously Operating Geodetic GPS Network of Sinaloa, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, G. E.; Jacobo, C.

    2011-12-01

    This research is based on the study and analysis of feasibility for the construction of the geodetic network for GPS continuous operation for Sinaloa, hereafter called (RGOCSIN). A GPS network of continuous operation is defined as that materialized structure physically through permanent monuments where measurements to the systems of Global Positioning (GPS) is performed continuously throughout a region. The GPS measurements in this network are measurements of accuracy according to international standards to define its coordinates, thus constituting the basic structure of geodetic referencing for a country. In this context is that in the near future the RGOCSIN constitutes a system state only accurate and reliable georeferencing in real-time (continuous and permanent operation) and will be used for different purposes; i.e., in addition to being fundamental basis for any lifting topographic or geodetic survey, and other areas such as: (1) Different construction processes (control and monitoring of engineering works); (2) Studies of deformation of the Earth's crust (before and after a seismic event); (3) GPS meteorology (weather forecasting); (4) Demarcation projects (natural and political); (5) Establishment of bases to generate mapping (necessary for the economic and social development of the state); (6) Precision agriculture (optimization of economic resources to the various crops); (7) Geographic information systems (Organization and planning activities associated with the design and construction of public services); (8) Urban growth (possible settlements in the appropriate form and taking care of the environmental aspect), among others. However there are criteria and regulations according to the INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, http://www.inegi.org.mx/) that must be met; even for this stage of feasibility of construction that sees this project as a first phase. The fundamental criterion to be taken into account according to INEGI is a

  5. Effects of construction and operation of a satellite power system upon the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Luhmann, J.G.; Schulz, M.; Cornwall, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    This is the final report of an initial assessment of magnetospheric effects of the construction and operation of a satellite power system. This assessment effort is based on application of present scientific knowledge rather than on original scientific research. As such, it appears that mass and energy injections of the system are sufficient to modify the magnetosphere substantially, to the extent of possibly requiring mitigation measures for space systems but not to the extent of causing major redirection of efforts and concepts. The scale of the SPS is so unprecedentedly large, however, that these impressions require verification (or rejection) by in-depth assessment based on scientific treatment of the principal issues. Indeed, it is perhaps appropriate to state that present ignorance far exceeds present knowledge in regard to SPS magnetospheric effects, even though we only seek to define the approximate limits of magnetospheric modifications here

  6. Study on the construction and operation for management system of municipal domestic wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wei; Wang Shuqiang; Chen Jingxin

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the quantity of our country's municipal domestic wastes increase rapidly, but the waste disposal still has problems, such as the simple way of processing, wasting the resources, the serious environmental pollution and so on. By holding waste minimization as the center, the developed countries have formed perfect waste management system. Based on analyzing the status quo and problems of processing in our country, on the principle of benefit, scale,waste minimization, reclamation and hazard-free treatment, according to the recycling model of processing, the article has constructed our country's domestic wastes management system, proposed the measures of promoting the operation of system. It has realized the transformation of waste management system from terminal disposal to source reduction,achieved the goals, including domestic wastes categorizing and reclaiming, industrialization and non-pollution processing,and finally brought sustainable development for resources, environment, economy and society.

  7. Economic viability of the construction and operation of a biomass gasificator for poultry houses heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Fabio Luiz; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Tinoco, Ilda de Fatima Ferreira; Martin, Samuel; Melo, Lucas D.; Bueno, Mateus [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: fzanatta@vicosa.ufv.br

    2008-07-01

    In all poultry farms, at least in the first days of life of the chicken, it is necessary to heat the environment to obtain a good development of the chicken and good economics results. However, this additional heat generation is sometimes neglected or not well executed, because of the costs that this practice could bring. This research has the objective of analyze the costs of construction and operation of a Biomass Gasificator for Poultry Houses Heating in comparison with a direct furnace system. The fuel used in both systems was firewood of eucalyptus. For so much, economic analyzes was make considering the costs of the gasification systems implementation in substitution of the traditional system used in the company (direct furnace system). For the viability the adopted method was the partial budget and the complementary investments were analyzed through the cash flow elaboration and of determination of indicator of economic feasibility. (author)

  8. Social and legal aspects of preparing the construction and operation of a nuclear power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curin, K.

    1989-01-01

    The main activities are described involved in creating territorial, technical and economic conditions for the building of nuclear power plants. The basic precondition is the prognostic evaluation of national requirements for power in each planning time stage. From this proceeds the need of a range of power sources with a definition of their types and their incorporation in the power system and of possible power supply to the district heating system. As for nuclear power plants the building should be divided into three stages: from planning investments to the issuance of an investment intent, the stage of construction and that of operation. A detailed description is presented of the activities of all participants in building nuclear power plants in Czechoslovak conditions. Attention is devoted to the aspects of reliability and safety of nuclear power plants and to the effect of the respective activities on reliability and safety. (Z.M.). 1 tab

  9. The further environmental development of Polyphyto Hydroelectric Project reservoir in Kozani prefecture and its contribution to the life quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saounatsou, Chara; Georgi, Julia

    2014-08-01

    The Polyphyto Hydroelectric Project was constructed in 1974 and it has been operating since on the Aliakmonas River, Kozani prefecture, by the Greek Public Power Corporation. The construction of the Ilarion Hydroelectric Project, upstream from the Polyphyto Reservoir, has been recently completed and will start operating in the near future. Apart from hydroelectric power production, the Polyphyto reservoir provides flood control to the areas below the Polyphyto dam. It is also used to manage water provision to the city of Thessaloniki and adjacent agricultural plain, providing at the same time cooling water to the Thermo Electric Projects in Ptolemaida. The Polyphyto reservoir has potential for further development as an economic fulcrum to the region in which is located. The Kozani and Servia-Velvendos Municipalities have proceeded to the construction of several touristic, nautical - athletic and fishing projects. In order to promote such developments, while preserving the artificial wetland, flora and fauna of the Polyphyto Reservoir, it is important to reduce the fluctuation of the reservoir elevation which according to its technical characteristics is 21m. The aim of this paper is to propose the combined operation of the two Hydroelectric Project reservoirs to satisfy all the present Polyphyto Hydroelectric Project functions and to reduce the annual fluctuation of the Polyphyto Reservoir. The HEC-5, Version 8 / 1998 computer model was used in our calculations, as developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the US Army Corps of Engineers for reservoir operation simulation. Five possible operation scenarios are tested in this paper to show that the present fluctuation of the Polyphyto Reservoir can be reduced, with some limitations, except during dry weather periods.

  10. Construction and operation of a covered lagoon methane recovery system for the Cal Poly Dairy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.W.; Moser, M.A.; Norris, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and anticipated operation of a lagoon-type methane recovery system for the Cal Poly Dairy. The initial design was based upon the present and anticipated herd size, 300 to 600 cows, heifers and calves. The lagoon design meets USDA-NRCS standards, and accounts for limitations of the site, primarily shallow sandstone bedrock. The new lagoon, which has a liquid volume of 14,000 m 3 , was constructed next to an existing lagoon. The new lagoon was covered with a flexible membrane incorporating buoyant material so that the cover floats on the surface, and a gas collection system. The predicted output of the lagoon for the present population of approximately 350 cows, heifers and calves is estimated to average up to 320 m 3 of biogas per day. The biogas will fuel a micro-turbine electric generator, and produce up to 23 kW in parallel with the utility system. Odor control is the most important non-economic benefit. This project will provide environmental benefits-odor control by capturing the odorous gases that result from dairy manure storage; methane, a significant greenhouse gas is kept out of the atmosphere; and water pollution is reduced through the reduction in organic matter in the lagoon. Economic benefits include electricity and process heat, together worth up to 16,000 US dollars per year. (author)

  11. Making the error-controlling algorithm of observable operator models constructive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Jie; Jaeger, Herbert; Thon, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Observable operator models (OOMs) are a class of models for stochastic processes that properly subsumes the class that can be modeled by finite-dimensional hidden Markov models (HMMs). One of the main advantages of OOMs over HMMs is that they admit asymptotically correct learning algorithms. A series of learning algorithms has been developed, with increasing computational and statistical efficiency, whose recent culmination was the error-controlling (EC) algorithm developed by the first author. The EC algorithm is an iterative, asymptotically correct algorithm that yields (and minimizes) an assured upper bound on the modeling error. The run time is faster by at least one order of magnitude than EM-based HMM learning algorithms and yields significantly more accurate models than the latter. Here we present a significant improvement of the EC algorithm: the constructive error-controlling (CEC) algorithm. CEC inherits from EC the main idea of minimizing an upper bound on the modeling error but is constructive where EC needs iterations. As a consequence, we obtain further gains in learning speed without loss in modeling accuracy.

  12. Reindeer habitat use in relation to two small wind farms, during preconstruction, construction, and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarin, Anna; Alam, Moudud

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide there is a rush toward wind power development and its associated infrastructure. In Fennoscandia, large-scale wind farms comprising several hundred windmills are currently built in important grazing ranges used for Sámi reindeer husbandry. In this study, reindeer habitat use was assessed using reindeer fecal pellet group counts in relation to two relatively small wind farms, with 8 and 10 turbines, respectively. In 2009, 1,315 15-m 2 plots were established and pellet groups were counted and cleaned from the plots. This was repeated once a year in May, during preconstruction, construction, and operation of the wind farms, covering 6 years (2009-2014) of reindeer habitat use in the area. We modeled the presence/absence of any pellets in a plot at both the local (wind farm site) and regional (reindeer calving to autumn range) scale with a hierarchical logistic regression, where spatial correlation was accounted for via random effects, using vegetation type, and the interaction between distance to wind turbine and time period as predictor variables. Our results revealed an absolute reduction in pellet groups by 66% and 86% around each wind farm, respectively, at local scale and by 61% at regional scale during the operation phase compared to the preconstruction phase. At the regional, scale habitat use declined close to the turbines in the same comparison. However, at the local scale, we observed increased habitat use close to the wind turbines at one of the wind farms during the operation phase. This may be explained by continued use of an important migration route close to the wind farm. The reduced use at the regional scale nevertheless suggests that there may be an overall avoidance of both wind farms during operation, but further studies of reindeer movement and behavior are needed to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms behind this suggested avoidance.

  13. Construction of an integrated down-converter for operation at 200 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digby, J.W.

    1999-05-01

    There is currently considerable interest in the part of the electromagnetic spectrum known as the terahertz region (100 GHz to 10 THz). Traditionally, terahertz radiation was the preserve of specialist applications in astronomy, atmospheric studies and plasma diagnostics. However, potential or actual applications in such diverse fields as medicine, security, communications and military applications are now emerging. At present there are very few devices and systems that operate in this spectral region and those which exist are expensive and difficult to manufacture. For the potential of terahertz radiation to be realised by industry, a low-cost (i.e. 'manufacturable') method of constructing terahertz systems is needed; new methods of generating radiation at terahertz frequencies are also urgently required. This thesis presents the development of a novel technique for producing passive and active devices and systems for use at terahertz frequencies. This novel approach utilises standard semiconductor techniques to fabricate metal-pipe waveguides directly onto semiconductor wafers. As standard semiconductor techniques are used, it provides a possible low-cost and highly manufacturable method of producing terahertz devices and systems. The key processes that are needed to produce components and devices for terahertz systems have been developed and presented in this work. Metal-pipe rectangular waveguides for use at W-band (70 GHz - 110 GHz) and G-band (140 GHz - 220 GHz) have been fabricated and S-parameter measurements have been performed on them using a specially designed test fixture. The measured attenuation for these waveguides is approximately 0.2 dB to 5 dB per guide wavelength for W-band and 0.6 dB per guide wavelength for G-band; these results suggest that these components could be used in practical systems. A method of interfacing with terahertz systems and free-space is needed in real applications, so a horn antenna has been designed which can be

  14. A physiological exploration on operational stance and occupational musculoskeletal problem manifestations amongst construction labourers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arijit; Sahu, Subhashis

    2018-03-29

    A huge number of labourers engaged in construction industry in India both in organized and unorganized sectors. The construction labourers most often work for an extended period of time and they are compelled to uphold altered static and dynamic operational stance in awkward positions during the complete period of work which raises the demand on the musculoskeletal system and may lead to work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). This study is intended to explore the operational stance and occupation related musculoskeletal manifestations amongst the construction labourers. One sixty four male labourers from different construction sites of West Bengal was randomly taken for this study. A modified Nordic questionnaire on MSD and the 12 item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) were administered on the construction labourers. Rapid Entire Body Assessment [REBA] and Ovako Work Analysis System [OWAS] methods were applied to analyze the operational stance. Finally, discomfort levels of the specific operational stance were calculated by the use of risk level and BPD scale. From the study it was revealed that most of the construction labourers habitually in awkward operational stance and were affected by altering musculoskeletal manifestations like pain in low back, neck, and wrist. It has been also found that there is a significant (pconstruction labourers in unorganized sectors.

  15. The design, construction, and operation of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS) Drum Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, B.; Russillo, A.; Frank, D.; Garland, D.

    1989-12-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and the operation of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment Systems (IRTS) Drum Cell at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The IRTS Drum Cell was designed to provide a shielded, secure storage area for the remote handling and placement of low-level Class C radioactive waste produced in the IRTS. The Drum Cell was designed to contain up to approximately 8,804 drums from decontaminated supernatant processing. This waste is to be poured into 0.27m 3 in a temperature controlled environment to ensure the cement will not be subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. A Temporary Weather Structure (TWS), a pre-engineered building, now encloses the Drum Cell and associated equipment so that remote waste-handling and placement operations can continue without regard to weather conditions. The Drum Cell was designed so that this TWS could be removed and the low-level waste entombed in place. Final disposition of this low-level waste is currently being evaluated in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  16. A Systems Engineering Framework for Design, Construction and Operation of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edward J. Gorski; Charles V. Park; Finis H. Southworth

    2004-01-01

    Not since the International Space Station has a project of such wide participation been proposed for the United States. Ten countries, the European Union, universities, Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and industry will participate in the research and development, design, construction and/or operation of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants with a demonstration reactor to be built at a DOE site and operational by the middle of the next decade. This reactor will be like no other. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be passively safe, economical, highly efficient, modular, proliferation resistant, and sustainable. In addition to electrical generation, the NGNP will demonstrate efficient and cost effective generation of hydrogen to support the President's Hydrogen Initiative. To effectively manage this multi-organizational and technologically complex project, systems engineering techniques and processes will be used extensively to ensure delivery of the final product. The technological and organizational challenges are complex. Research and development activities are required, material standards require development, hydrogen production, storage and infrastructure requirements are not well developed, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission may further define risk-informed/performance-based approach to licensing. Detailed design and development will be challenged by the vast cultural and institutional differences across the participants. Systems engineering processes must bring the technological and organizational complexity together to ensure successful product delivery. This paper will define the framework for application of systems engineering to this $1.5B - $1.9B project

  17. Construction, commissioning and initial operation of 2400W refrigerator and cold test stand for CDM testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubbs, J.D.; Kreinbrink, K.

    1994-01-01

    Air Products and CVI collaborated to design, construct and commission a refrigerator, test stands and integrated control system for the General Dynamics Collider Dipole Magnet Cold Test Facility (CTF) in Hammond, LA. The original project schedule required the cold test facility to be operational within 17 months of the notice to proceed. Midway through the project, changes in General Dynamics magnet testing requirements necessitated doubling the plant capacity, but the on stream date for the initial capacity increment could not be relaxed. The Air Products/CVI team had to adapt the project execution strategy to mitigate the schedule impact of the expansion in a cost effective manner without impacting system functionality, quality or safety. An equally challenging aspect of the job was that the (CTF) was being designed while several major systems that would interface with the CTF were being engineered. General Dynamics, Air Products and CVI had to work very closely to manage the interface issues. The teams efforts were very successful. The Hammond refrigerator/liquifier was started up on schedule. The first two test stands are currently being commissioned and will be on stream just six weeks later than the pre-expansion schedule target and all four test stands will be operational in time to support General Dynamics magnet testing requirements

  18. Production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach Evgeniya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies is to justify the feasibility of recycling different types of industrial waste instead of conventional expensive raw materials in production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties. The impact of wastes from various industries on the environmental condition of affected areas, as well as the results of their environmental assessment were analyzed to determine whether these wastes could be used in production of high-performance building materials. The assessment of industrial wastes in aerated concrete production suggests that industrial wastes of hazard class IV can be recycled to produce aerated concrete. An environmentally friendly method for large-scale waste recycling, including a two-step environmentally sustainable mechanism, was developed. The basic quality indicators of the modified aerated concrete proved that the environmental safety could be enhanced by strengthening the structure, increasing its uniformity and improving thermal insulation properties. The modified non-autoclaved aerated concrete products with improved physical and operational properties were developed. They have the following properties: density – D700; class of concrete – B3.5; thermal transmittance coefficient – 0.143 W/(m·°C; frost resistance – F75.

  19. 77 FR 33782 - License Amendment To Construct and Operate New In Situ Leach Uranium Recovery Facility; Uranium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... and Operate New In Situ Leach Uranium Recovery Facility; Uranium One Americas; Ludeman AGENCY: Nuclear... provided the first time that a document is referenced. The Ludeman facility In Situ Leach Uranium Recovery... request to amend Source Material License SUA-1341 to construct and operate a new in situ leach uranium...

  20. An efficient linear approach in the reservoirs operation for electric power generation; Uma eficiente abordagem linear na operacao de reservatorios para geracao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambon, Katia Livia

    1997-07-01

    A new approach for the Scheduling of Hydrothermal Systems, with a formulation that allows the solution of the problem through the linear programming techniques, otherwise the original form, which is complex and difficult is presented. The models were developed through a linear form for the generation function of hydroelectric plants, successive of the linearization of the cost function of the problem. The linear techniques used were the Simplex Method, with some modification that is is efficient, fast and simple. The important physical aspects of the system were preserved, like the individual representation of the hydroelectric plant, the features of cost function with the exponential increase and the head effect. Besides, this formulation can lead to stochastic approaches. All the optimization methods were implemented for the solution of the problem. The performance obtained were compared with each other and with that obtained through the non linear techniques. The algorithms showed to be efficient, with good results and very near to the optimal behavior of the reservoir operation planning obtained by traditional methods. (author)

  1. Experience from the construction and operation of the STAR PXL detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, L.; Anderssen, E.C.; Contin, G.; Silber, J.; Stezelberger, T.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.H.; Woodmansee, S.; Schambach, J.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.

    2015-01-01

    A new silicon based vertex detector called the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) was installed at the Soleniodal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) experiment for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 2014 heavy ion run to improve the vertex resolution and extend the measurement capabilities of STAR in the heavy flavor domain. The HFT consists of four concentric cylinders around the STAR interaction point composed of three different silicon detector technologies based on strips, pads and for the first time in an accelerator experiment CMOS monolithic active pixels (MAPS) . The two innermost layers at a radius of 2.8 cm and 8 cm from the beam line are constructed with 400 high resolution MAPS sensors arranged in 10-sensor ladders mounted on 10 thin carbon fiber sectors giving a total silicon area of 0.16 m 2 . Each sensor consists of a pixel array of nearly 1 million pixels with a pitch of 20.7 μm with column-level discriminators, zero-suppression circuitry and output buffer memory integrated into one silicon die with a sensitive area of ∼ 3.8 cm 2 . The pixel (PXL) detector has a low power dissipation of 170 mW/cm 2 , which allows air cooling. This results in a global material budget of 0.5% radiation length per layer for detector used in this run. A novel mechanical approach to detector insertion allows for the installation and integration of the pixel sub detector within a 12 hour period during an on-going STAR run. The detector specifications, experience from the construction and operation, lessons learned and initial measurements of the PXL performance in the 200 GeV Au-Au run will be presented

  2. Experience from the construction and operation of the STAR PXL detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, L.; Anderssen, E. C.; Contin, G.; Schambach, J.; Silber, J.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H. H.; Woodmansee, S.

    2015-04-01

    A new silicon based vertex detector called the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) was installed at the Soleniodal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) experiment for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 2014 heavy ion run to improve the vertex resolution and extend the measurement capabilities of STAR in the heavy flavor domain. The HFT consists of four concentric cylinders around the STAR interaction point composed of three different silicon detector technologies based on strips, pads and for the first time in an accelerator experiment CMOS monolithic active pixels (MAPS) . The two innermost layers at a radius of 2.8 cm and 8 cm from the beam line are constructed with 400 high resolution MAPS sensors arranged in 10-sensor ladders mounted on 10 thin carbon fiber sectors giving a total silicon area of 0.16 m2. Each sensor consists of a pixel array of nearly 1 million pixels with a pitch of 20.7 μm with column-level discriminators, zero-suppression circuitry and output buffer memory integrated into one silicon die with a sensitive area of ~ 3.8 cm2. The pixel (PXL) detector has a low power dissipation of 170 mW/cm2, which allows air cooling. This results in a global material budget of 0.5% radiation length per layer for detector used in this run. A novel mechanical approach to detector insertion allows for the installation and integration of the pixel sub detector within a 12 hour period during an on-going STAR run. The detector specifications, experience from the construction and operation, lessons learned and initial measurements of the PXL performance in the 200 GeV Au-Au run will be presented.

  3. Construction, start-up and operation of Dukovany nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornicek, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The Labor Safety Inspectorate have been supervising the construction of the Dukovany nuclear power plant since the construction start in 1977. It was found that in concreting the reactor building walls with concrete mixes, the regulations were not observed on the highest level for the concrete mix drop, and on the gap processing and concrete treatment when concreting was interrupted. Thus, concreting was halted until the conditions for concreting were met. Attention was focused on the protection of the hermetic casing from damage, which had very often happened. A number of shortcomings were detected in storing technology parts. The cleanliness was inspected of the facilities being assembled. The inspections also revealed shortcomings in sealed space tightness. The inspections of assembly and testing of facilities showed failures of the facilities themselves (control valves, electric motors, filter and pump sealing) and of the assembly process. Faults were also detected in electrical equipment. Only a very small part of the installation showed lifetime as specified by Decree 105/1982 Coll. laws on safety assurance in the nuclear power industry. Missing data in documentation led to delays in the start-up stages. The State Surveillance Body also inspected the results of equipment testing. Prior to physical start-up, all production facilities and buildings were inspected, labor safety was inspected for all personnel in communicating corridors, staircases, manholes and onservice and handling posts. Shortcomings were removed. The organization of assembly work was a considerable problem if staff from more organizations had to work together in the same workplace. A list of tasks is presented of State Surveillance Body in operation, maintenance, outages, repairs, and troubleshooting in a nuclear power plant. (J.B.)

  4. Multiscale iterative methods, coarse level operator construction and discrete homogenization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebel, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    For problems which model locally strong varying phenomena on a micro-scale level, the grid for numerical simulation can not be chosen sufficiently fine enough due to reasons of storage requirements and numerical complexity. A typical example for such kind of a problem is the diffusion equation with strongly varying diffusion coefficients as it arises as Darcy law in reservoir simulation and related problems for flow in porous media. Therefore, on the macro-scale level, it is necessary to work with averaged equations which describe directly the large-scale behavior of the problem under consideration. In the numerical simulation of reservoir performance this is achieved e.g. by renormalization or homogenization, as simpler approaches like the arithmetic, geometric or harmonic mean turn out to be invalid for systems with strong permeability variations.

  5. Construct validity in Operations Management by using Rasch Measurement Theory. The case of the construct “motivation to implement continuous improvement"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Sanchez-Ruiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Construct design and validation is a common practise in the Operations Management field. In this sense, the aim of this study is to present Rasch Measurement Theory (RMT as richful and useful methodology in order to validate constructs. In order to do so, the measurement controversy in the social science is presented; then, RMT is explained as a solution for this measurement issue; after that, the different applications of RMT are described and, finally, the different stages of the validation process are presented. Thus, this work aims to serve as a guide for those researchers interested in the methodology. Therefore, a specific case is included: the validation of the construct “motivation to implement continuous improvement”.

  6. Multilevel techniques lead to accurate numerical upscaling and scalable robust solvers for reservoir simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour; Villa, Umberto; Vassilevski, Panayot

    2015-01-01

    approach is well suited for the solution of large problems coming from finite element discretizations of systems of partial differential equations. The AMGe technique from 10,9 allows for the construction of operator-dependent coarse (upscaled) models and guarantees approximation properties of the coarse...... implementation of the reservoir simulator is demonstrated....

  7. Equivalent construction of the infinitesimal time translation operator in algebraic dynamics algorithm for partial differential evolution equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We give an equivalent construction of the infinitesimal time translation operator for partial differential evolution equation in the algebraic dynamics algorithm proposed by Shun-Jin Wang and his students. Our construction involves only simple partial differentials and avoids the derivative terms of δ function which appear in the course of computation by means of Wang-Zhang operator. We prove Wang’s equivalent theorem which says that our construction and Wang-Zhang’s are equivalent. We use our construction to deal with several typical equations such as nonlinear advection equation, Burgers equation, nonlinear Schrodinger equation, KdV equation and sine-Gordon equation, and obtain at least second order approximate solutions to them. These equations include the cases of real and complex field variables and the cases of the first and the second order time derivatives.

  8. Effects of golf course construction and operation on water chemistry of headwater streams on the Precambrian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Jennifer G.; Dillon, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effects of golf course construction and operation on the water chemistry of Shield streams, we compared the water chemistry in streams draining golf courses under construction (2) and in operation (5) to streams in forested reference locations and to upstream sites where available. Streams were more alkaline and higher in base cation and nitrate concentrations downstream of operational golf courses. Levels of these parameters and total phosphorus increased over time in several streams during golf course construction through to operation. There was evidence of inputs of mercury to streams on two of the operational courses. Nutrient (phosphorus and nitrogen) concentrations were significantly related to the area of unmanaged vegetation in a 30 x 30 m area on either side of the sampling sites, and to River Bank Quality Index scores, suggesting that maintaining vegetated buffers along the stream on golf courses will reduce in-stream nutrient concentrations. - Golf course construction and operation had a significant impact on alkalinity, nitrogen and base cation concentrations of streams

  9. Economic and ecological assessment of impact of construction and operation of nuclear power plant as large capital construction project with respect to control of national economy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucek, M.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation of costs and environmental impacts of the construction and operation of nuclear power plants is concentrated into two problem areas: 1. the calculation of capital and operation costs for the prevention and minimization of envirommental damage and restoration of the environment, 2. the calculation of damage to the environment of nuclear power plant construction and operation. The ecological cost benefit of capital costs is assessed. In Czechoslovakia there does not exist any method for converting cost effectiveness of investments into environmental protection. This problem is incorporated in the general method of assessing capital cost benefit. The relations are given for total socio-economic capital cost benefit and cost benefit of investments into environmental protection. Ecological investment is not exempted from the investment fund and from the point of view of content may be devided into net and gross ecological investment and from the point of view of time into preventive and compensation ecological investment. In the USSR the method has beem developed of the ecological and economic evaluation of projects for the construction and reconstruction of production units which proceeds from the evaluation of the negative environmental impact of wastes. The basic relations are given of the benefit of ecological investments. (E.S.)

  10. A Study on the Construct Validity of Safety Culture Oversight Model for Nuclear Power Operating Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Su Jin; Choi, Young Sung; Oh, Jang Jin

    2015-01-01

    In Korea, the safety policy statement declared in 1994 by government stressed the importance of safety culture and licensees were encouraged to manage and conduct their self-assessments. A change in regulatory position about safety culture oversight was made after the event of SBO cover-up in Kori unit 1 and several subsequent falsification events. Since then KINS has been developing licensee's safety culture oversight system including conceptual framework of oversight, prime focus area for oversight, and specific details on regulatory expectations, all of which are based on defence-in-depth (DiD) safety enhancement approach. Development and gathering of performance data which is related to actual 'safety' of nuclear power plant are needed to identify the relationship between safety culture and safety performance. Authors consider this study as pilot which has a contribution on verifying the construct validity of the model and the effectiveness of survey based research. This is the first attempt that the validity of safety culture oversight model has been investigated with empirical data obtained from Korean nuclear power operating organization

  11. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from dairy wastewater using constructed wetlands systems operating in batch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Rocha Bastos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study conducted for a period of seven months on the effectiveness of constructed wetland systems for the treatment of dairy wastewater aiming at removing, nitrogen and phosphorus. Six experimental systems were assembled with a net volume of 115 L using HDPE tanks, with length/width ratio of 2:1. In three of the systems, gravel 0 was used as substrate, while gravel 0 and sand was used in the three others, in the percentage of 80% and 20%, respectively. The systems were operated in batch cycles of 48 hours, applying 7.5 L of influent per cycle. Four of the experimental units were cultivated, and two kept as controls. The selected species chosen were the macrophytes, Typha domingensis and Hedychium coronarium. The removal efficiency concerning nitrogen compounds showed to be quite promising with values ranging from 29.4 to 73.4%, while phosphorus removal from the beds was lower, reaching efficiencies between 18.61 and 34.3%, considered good values, since the removal of these substances is quite difficult through conventional treatment.

  12. Final environmental impact statement, construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    DOE issued the ''Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Construction and Operation of the Spallation Neutron Source'' in December 1998. This document was made available for review by federal agencies; tribal governments; the state of Tennessee, New Mexico, Illinois, and New York; local governments; and the general public. DOE invited comments on the accuracy and adequacy of the DEIS and any other matters pertaining to environmental review of the document. The formal review and comment period extended from December 24, 1998 until February 8, 1999. DOE considered all comments submitted after the review and comment period. This appendix to the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) contains the 206 comments received and the DOE responses to these comments. It consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the contents of this appendix and discusses the general methodology DOE used for documenting, considering, and responding to the review comments on the DEIS. Chapter 2 summarizes the principal issues of public concern collectively reflected by the comments and presents DOE's responses to these issues. The full texts of the comments on the DEIS are presented in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 contains DOE's written responses to these comments and the locations of textual changes in the FEIS that were made in response to the comments

  13. Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shubiao; Wallace, Scott; Brix, Hans; Kuschk, Peter; Kirui, Wesley Kipkemoi; Masi, Fabio; Dong, Renjie

    2015-06-01

    The application of constructed wetlands (CWs) has significantly expanded to treatment of various industrial effluents, but knowledge in this field is still insufficiently summarized. This review is accordingly necessary to better understand this state-of-the-art technology for further design development and new ideas. Full-scale cases of CWs for treating various industrial effluents are summarized, and challenges including high organic loading, salinity, extreme pH, and low biodegradability and color are evaluated. Even horizontal flow CWs are widely used because of their passive operation, tolerance to high organic loading, and decolorization capacity, free water surface flow CWs are effective for treating oil field/refinery and milking parlor/cheese making wastewater for settlement of total suspended solids, oil, and grease. Proper pretreatment, inflow dilutions through re-circulated effluent, pH adjustment, plant selection and intensifications in the wetland bed, such as aeration and bioaugmentation, are recommended according to the specific characteristics of industrial effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The construction and operation of a low-cost poultry waste digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsberger, S C; Shih, J C

    1984-05-01

    A simple and low-cost poultry waste digester (PWD) was constructed to treat the waste from 4000 caged laying hens on University Research Unit No. 2 at North Carolina State University. The system was built basically of a plastic lining with insulation, a heating system, a hot-water tank, and other metering equipment. It was operated at 50 degrees C and pH 7.5-8.0. The initiation of methane production was achieved using the indigenous microflora in the poultry waste. At an optimal loading rate (7.5 kg volatile solids/m(3) day), the PWD produced biogas (55% methane) at a rate of 4.0 m(3)/m(3) day. The PWD was biologically stable and able to tolerate temporary overloads and shutdowns. A higher loading rate failed to maintain a high gas production rate and caused drops in methane content and pH value. Under optimal conditions, a positive energy balance was demonstrated with a net surplus of 50.6% of the gross energy. For methane production, the PWD system was proved to be technically feasible. The simple design and inexpensive materials used for this model could significantly reduce the cost of digestion compared to more conventional systems. More studies are needed to determine the durability, the required maintenance of the system, and the most economical method of biogas and solid residue utilization.

  15. On the factorial and construct validity of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory: conceptual and operational concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markland, D; Hardy, L

    1997-03-01

    The Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) has been gaining acceptance in the sport and exercise domain since the publication of research by McAuley, Duncan, and Tammen (1989) and McAuley, Wraith, and Duncan (1991), which reported confirmatory support for the factorial validity of a hierarchical model of intrinsic motivation. Authors of the present study argue that the results of these studies did not conclusively support the hierarchical model and that the model did not accurately reflect the tenets of cognitive evaluation theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) from which the IMI is drawn. It is also argued that a measure of perceived locus of causality is required to model intrinsic motivation properly. The development of a perceived locus of causality for exercise scale is described, and alternative models, in which perceived competence and perceived locus of causality are held to have causal influences on intrinsic motivation, are compared with an oblique confirmatory factor analytic model in which the constructs are held at the same conceptual level. Structural equation modeling showed support for a causal model in which perceived locus of causality mediates the effects of perceived competence on pressure-tension, interest-enjoyment, and effort-importance. It is argued that conceptual and operational problems with the IMI, as currently used, should be addressed before it becomes established as the instrument of choice for assessing levels of intrinsic motivation.

  16. Construction and Operation Costs of Wastewater Treatment and Implications for the Paper Industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kunyu; Wu, Jian; Yu, Fang; Guo, Jingli

    2016-11-15

    This paper aims to develop a construction and operation cost model of wastewater treatment for the paper industry in China and explores the main factors that determine these costs. Previous models mainly involved factors relating to the treatment scale and efficiency of treatment facilities for deriving the cost function. We considered the factors more comprehensively by adding a regional variable to represent the economic development level, a corporate ownership factor to represent the plant characteristics, a subsector variable to capture pollutant characteristics, and a detailed-classification technology variable. We applied a unique data set from a national pollution source census for the model simulation. The major findings include the following: (1) Wastewater treatment costs in the paper industry are determined by scale, technology, degree of treatment, ownership, and regional factors; (2) Wastewater treatment costs show a large decreasing scale effect; (3) The current level of pollutant discharge fees is far lower than the marginal treatment costs for meeting the wastewater discharge standard. Key implications are as follows: (1) Cost characteristics and impact factors should be fully recognized when planning or making policies relating to wastewater treatment projects or technology development; (2) There is potential to reduce treatment costs by centralizing wastewater treatment via industrial parks; (3) Wastewater discharge fee rates should be increased; (4) Energy efficient technology should become the future focus of wastewater treatment.

  17. A Study on the Construct Validity of Safety Culture Oversight Model for Nuclear Power Operating Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Choi, Young Sung; Oh, Jang Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea, the safety policy statement declared in 1994 by government stressed the importance of safety culture and licensees were encouraged to manage and conduct their self-assessments. A change in regulatory position about safety culture oversight was made after the event of SBO cover-up in Kori unit 1 and several subsequent falsification events. Since then KINS has been developing licensee's safety culture oversight system including conceptual framework of oversight, prime focus area for oversight, and specific details on regulatory expectations, all of which are based on defence-in-depth (DiD) safety enhancement approach. Development and gathering of performance data which is related to actual 'safety' of nuclear power plant are needed to identify the relationship between safety culture and safety performance. Authors consider this study as pilot which has a contribution on verifying the construct validity of the model and the effectiveness of survey based research. This is the first attempt that the validity of safety culture oversight model has been investigated with empirical data obtained from Korean nuclear power operating organization.

  18. Authorization procedure for the construction and operation of nuclear installations within the EC Member States, including supervision and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaducci, Sandro; Didier, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    This report is an updating of the report EUR 5284, Authorization procedure for the construction and operation of nuclear installations within the EEC Member States, prepared in 1974 by J.M. Didier and Associates. Recent developments regarding the authorization procedure for the construction and operation of nuclear installations have taken place in Italy (introduction of a site approval procedure) and in Denmark (adoption of an overall legislation on the subject, however not yet in force). With respect to supervision and control of nuclear installations during construction and operation, competences of, as well as their exercise by, supervisory authorities in all EC Member States, with the exception of Ireland, are also analysed in the current study

  19. A Continuing Education Short Course and Engineering Curriculum to Accelerate Workforce Development in Wind Power Plant Design, Construction, and Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinjum, James [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-11-29

    Significant advances in wind turbine technology and wind turbine power plant capabilities are appearing in the U.S. Sites that only 10 years ago might have been overlooked are being considered for build out. However, the development of a skilled workforce in the engineering fields and construction trades lags the potential market, especially if the industry is expected to site, design, construct, and operate sufficient wind power plant sites to meet the potential for 20% wind energy by 2030. A select few firms have penetrated the engineer-procure-construction (EPC) market of wind power plant construction. Competition and know-how in this market is vital to achieve cost-effective, design-construct solutions. The industry must produce or retrain engineers, contractors, and technicians to meet ambitious goals. Currently, few universities offer undergraduate or graduate classes that teach the basics in designing, building, and maintaining wind power plants that are safe, efficient, and productive.

  20. Aging Reservoirs in a Changing Climate: Examining Storage Loss of Large Reservoirs and Variability of Sedimentation Rate in a Dominant Cropland Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, V.; Kastens, J.; deNoyelles, F.; Huggins, D.; Martinko, E.

    2015-12-01

    Dam construction has multiple environmental and hydrological consequences including impacts on upstream and downstream ecosystems, water chemistry, and streamflow. Behind the dam the reservoir can trap sediment from the stream and fill over time. With increasing population and drinking and irrigation water demands, particularly in the areas that have highly variable weather and extended drought periods such as the United States Great Plains, reservoir sedimentation escalates water management concerns. Under nearly all projected climate change scenarios we expect that reservoir water storage and management will come under intense scrutiny because of the extensive use of interstate river compacts in the Great Plains. In the state of Kansas, located in the Great Plains, bathymetric surveys have been completed during the last decade for many major lakes by the Kansas Biological Survey, Kansas Water Office, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In this paper, we studied the spatial and temporal changes of reservoir characteristics including sedimentation yield, depletion rate, and storage capacity loss for 24 federally-operated reservoirs in Kansas. These reservoirs have an average age of about 50 years and collectively have lost approximately 15% of their original capacity, with the highest annual observed single-reservoir depletion rate of 0.84% and sedimentation yield of 1,685 m3 km-2 yr-1.

  1. Environmental assessment for construction and operation of a Human Genome Laboratory at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) proposes to construct and operate a new laboratory for consolidation of current and future activities of the Human Genome Center (HGC). This document addresses the potential direct, indirect, and cumulative environmental and human-health effects from the proposed facility construction and operation. This document was prepared in accordance the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (United States Codes 42 USC 4321-4347) (NEPA) and the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Final Rule for NEPA Implementing Procedures [Code of Federal Regulations 10CFR 1021].

  2. Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft 2 waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft 2 waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft 2 mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required

  3. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these

  4. Direct approach to operator conformal constructions: from fermions to primary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    I discuss the direct solution of Sugawara and coset constructions, including a path to construction of the primary fields. The basic tools are (1) a construction of affine-conformal highest-weight states, pretensors and tensors form quantum-irreducible representations of the currents of affine g, and (2) construction of primary fields by factorization and boosting of the pretensors. Large classes of pretensors are easily obtained in fermionic constructions, and guesswork is minimized with factorization of bosonized fermionic pretensors: The simplest case constructs conformal-weights h g =mN(n--N)/2n of SU m (n) and h K =mN(n--N)/n of SU m (n)direct-product SU m (n)/SU 2m (n) and extension to simply-laced g is clear. More general cases are left for future study. copyright Academic Prss, Inc. 1989

  5. An environmental data base for all Hydro-Quebec reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, C.

    1988-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec has created two management positions specifically for reservoirs, namely Reservoir Ecology Advisor and Reservoir Management Advisor. To assist management decisions, a means was required of bringing together all existing environmental information for each reservoir operated by Hydro-Quebec, including storage reservoirs, auxiliary reservoirs and forebays. A relational database using Reflex software was developed on a network of Macintosh computers. The database contains five blocks of information: general information, and physical, physiochemical, biologic and socioeconomic characteristics for each reservoir. Data will be collected on over 100 sites, and the tool will form the basis for developing a medium-range study program on reservoir ecology. The program must take into account the physical, biological and socioeconomic aspects of the environment, as well as the concerns of management personnel operating the reservoirs, the local population, reservoir users, and various government departments. 2 figs

  6. Military Construction of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Operations Facility, Columbus, Ohio

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The audit objectives were to determine whether the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Columbus Center properly planned and programmed the FY 1996 proposed military construction project and whether...

  7. Global (and Local) Analyticity for Second Order Operators Constructed from Rigid Vector Fields on Products of Tori

    OpenAIRE

    Tartakoff, David S.

    1994-01-01

    We prove global analytic hypoellipticity on a product of tori for partial differential operators which are constructed as rigid (variable coefficient) quadratic polynomials in real vector fields satisfying the H\\"ormander condition and where $P$ satisfies a `maximal' estimate. We also prove an analyticity result that is local in some variables and global in others for operators whose prototype is $$ P= \\left({\\partial \\over {\\partial x_1}}\\right)^2 + \\left({\\partial \\over {\\partial x_2}}\\righ...

  8. Studies on sustainability of simulated constructed wetland system for treatment of urban waste: Design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, A K; Bankoti, N S; Rai, U N

    2016-03-15

    New system configurations and wide range of treatability make constructed wetland (CW) as an eco-sustainable on-site approach of waste management. Keeping this view into consideration, a novel configured three-stage simulated CW was designed to study its performance efficiency and relative importance of plants and substrate in purification processes. Two species of submerged plant i.e., Potamogeton crispus and Hydrilla verticillata were selected for this study. After 6 months of establishment, operation and maintenance of simulated wetland, enhanced reduction in physicochemical parameters was observed, which was maximum in the planted CW. The percentage removal (%) of the pollutants in three-stage mesocosms was; conductivity (60.42%), TDS (67.27%), TSS (86.10%), BOD (87.81%), NO3-N (81.28%) and PO4-P (83.54%) at 72 h of retention time. Submerged macrophyte used in simulated wetlands showed a significant time dependent accumulation of toxic metals (p ≤ 0.05). P. crispus accumulated the highest Mn (86.36 μg g(-1) dw) in its tissue followed by Cr (54.16 μg g(-1) dw), Pb (31.56 μg g(-1) dw), Zn (28.06 μg g(-1) dw) and Cu (25.76 μg g(-1) dw), respectively. In the case of H. verticillata, it was Zn (45.29), Mn (42.64), Pb (22.62), Cu (18.09) and Cr (16.31 μg g(-1) dw). Thus, results suggest that the application of simulated CW tackles the water pollution problem more efficiently and could be exploited in small community level as alternative and cost effective tools of phytoremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Design, construction and operating experience of boilers at Wylfa power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razzell, R N [Wylfa Power Station, Central Electricity Generating Board, Gwynedd (United Kingdom)

    1988-07-01

    The report will describe the boilers, but will emphasise the problems encountered and the solutions. The boilers are 'once through' with start up drums. Some redundancy was provided but this advantage was lost due to downrating of gas temperature. The boilers are carbon steel suspended plattens (992 per reactor) tightly packed in the annular space between the core shielding and the spherical wall of the pressure vessel. This construction denies access to repair tube leaks. when a leak occurs the faulty platten has to be plugged off. This is done with the reactor at 60% power. The process will be described. Reactor 1 commenced operation in 1971, Reactor 2 in June 1971. Between 1972 and May 1984 21 leaks occurred which resulted in a major shutdown for investigation. This revealed the leaks were caused by gas flow induced vibration resulting in fretting of tubes in clips. Restraints and additional clamps were fitted. This has been successful but the modifications were extensive and in very difficult working conditions, the Reactor being shut down until May 1976. A family of leaks adjacent to personnel access ways commenced in Reactor 1 in 1975 which was later identified as erosion/corrosion on the water/steam side caused by the feed flow instability. This problem is common to both Reactors. Various modifications have been applied. Redistribution of feed flow using orifice plates and ferrules was only temporarily successful. Following extensive rig testing the feed water has been dosed with amino methyl proponal (AMP) since September 1983 with an immediate and sustained reduction in the leak rate. The amine provides protection through the steam/water phase. Rig testing continues to attain a better understanding of the erosion/corrosion. (author)

  10. Design, construction and operating experience of boilers at Wylfa power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzell, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    The report will describe the boilers, but will emphasise the problems encountered and the solutions. The boilers are 'once through' with start up drums. Some redundancy was provided but this advantage was lost due to downrating of gas temperature. The boilers are carbon steel suspended plattens (992 per reactor) tightly packed in the annular space between the core shielding and the spherical wall of the pressure vessel. This construction denies access to repair tube leaks. when a leak occurs the faulty platten has to be plugged off. This is done with the reactor at 60% power. The process will be described. Reactor 1 commenced operation in 1971, Reactor 2 in June 1971. Between 1972 and May 1984 21 leaks occurred which resulted in a major shutdown for investigation. This revealed the leaks were caused by gas flow induced vibration resulting in fretting of tubes in clips. Restraints and additional clamps were fitted. This has been successful but the modifications were extensive and in very difficult working conditions, the Reactor being shut down until May 1976. A family of leaks adjacent to personnel access ways commenced in Reactor 1 in 1975 which was later identified as erosion/corrosion on the water/steam side caused by the feed flow instability. This problem is common to both Reactors. Various modifications have been applied. Redistribution of feed flow using orifice plates and ferrules was only temporarily successful. Following extensive rig testing the feed water has been dosed with amino methyl proponal (AMP) since September 1983 with an immediate and sustained reduction in the leak rate. The amine provides protection through the steam/water phase. Rig testing continues to attain a better understanding of the erosion/corrosion. (author)

  11. EOS: A project to investigate the design and construction of real-time distributed Embedded Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. H.; Essick, Ray B.; Johnston, Gary; Kenny, Kevin; Russo, Vince

    1987-01-01

    Project EOS is studying the problems of building adaptable real-time embedded operating systems for the scientific missions of NASA. Choices (A Class Hierarchical Open Interface for Custom Embedded Systems) is an operating system designed and built by Project EOS to address the following specific issues: the software architecture for adaptable embedded parallel operating systems, the achievement of high-performance and real-time operation, the simplification of interprocess communications, the isolation of operating system mechanisms from one another, and the separation of mechanisms from policy decisions. Choices is written in C++ and runs on a ten processor Encore Multimax. The system is intended for use in constructing specialized computer applications and research on advanced operating system features including fault tolerance and parallelism.

  12. Co-operation an competition in the construction industry of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doree, Andries G.; Holmen, Elsebeth; Caerteling, Jasper; Greenwood, D

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, a Parliamentary Enquiry Committee exposed widespread collusion practices in the Dutch construction industry. The construction industry in the Netherlands is in turmoil and is seen as not living up to the standards that society requires. There seems to be a culture and an environment that

  13. Traffic condition with road upgrading during construction and operation stages based on level-of-service (LOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, A. C.; Lee, H. H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, traffic survey was done at signalized intersection of both ends of an upgrading road during morning and afternoon peak hours throughout construction period. The intersections of Tudan Road located at Miri City in Sarawak State, Malaysia were chosen as study sites. The aim of this research was to investigate the traffic condition for the signalized intersections of a R3 secondary road that being upgrading to standard U5 dual carriageway during peak hours for construction and operation stages. Data collected from these sites were analyzed according to Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) 2010. From the results, the level-of-services (LOS) of Kuala Baram By Pass Road intersection improved from Level F to Level E at operation stage for weekday during peak hours in the morning. LOS of Lutong-Kuala Baram Road intersection at construction stage were Level C during peak hours in the morning and Level D during peak hours in the afternoon for weekends. However, the LOS during both peak hours for weekends were projected to improve to Level B at the operation stage. It proved that the road construction has affected LOS, and this temporary issue can be solved after the upgraded road is in operation.

  14. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the construction and operation of Claiborne Enrichment Center, Homer, Louisiana (Docket No. 70-3070)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitoun, A. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This two-volume Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with regulation 10 CFR Part 51, which implements the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Volume 1 contains the assessment of the potential environmental impacts for licensing the construction and operation of a proposed gaseous centrifuge enrichment facility to be built in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana, by Louisiana Energy Services, LP. (LES). The proposed facility would have a production capacity of about 866 metric tons annually of up to 5 weight percent enriched UF{sub 6}, using a proven centrifuge technology. Included in the assessment are construction, both normal operations and potential accidents (internal and external events), and the eventual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D)- of the site. Issues addressed include the purpose and need for the facility, the alternatives to the proposed action, potential disposition of the tails, the site selection process, and environmental justice. The NRC staff concludes that the facility can be constructed and operated with small and acceptable impacts on the public and the environment. The FEIS supports issuance of a license to the applicant, Louisiana Energy Services, to authorize construction and operation of the proposed facility.

  15. Environmental impact assessment of a package type IFAS reactor during construction and operational phases: a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Singh, Rana Pratap; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to analyse the environmental impacts associated with the construction and operational phases of an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor treating municipal wastewater. This study was conducted within the boundaries of a research project that aimed to investigate the implementation related challenges of a package type IFAS reactor from an environmental perspective. Along with the LCA results of the construction phase, a comparison of the LCA results of seven operational phases is also presented in this study. The results showed that among all the inputs, the use of stainless steel in the construction phase caused the highest impact on environment, followed by electricity consumption in raw materials production. The impact of the construction phase on toxicity impact indicators was found to be significant compared to all operational phases. Among the seven operational phases of this study, the dissolved oxygen phase III, having a concentration of ∼4.5 mg/L, showed the highest impact on abiotic depletion, acidification, global warming, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, fresh water eco-toxicity, marine aquatic eco-toxicity, terrestrial eco-toxicity, and photochemical oxidation. However, better effluent quality in this phase reduced the eutrophication load on environment.

  16. 25 CFR 502.22 - Construction and maintenance of the gaming facility, and the operation of that gaming is...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction and maintenance of the gaming facility, and the operation of that gaming is conducted in a manner which adequately protects the environment and the public health and safety. 502.22 Section 502.22 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION...

  17. Regulatory principles, criteria and guidelines for site selection, design, construction and operation of uranium tailings retention systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coady, J.R.; Henry, L.C.

    1978-01-01

    Principles, criteria and guidelines developed by the Atomic Energy Control Board for the management of uranium mill tailings are discussed. The application of these concepts is considered in relation to site selection, design and construction, operation and decommissioning of tailings retention facilities

  18. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH... possibility of operator injury resulting from overhead hazards such as flying and falling objects, and at the... used in construction work (see 29 CFR 1926.1002(b) and (j)). In the case of machines to which 29 CFR...

  1. Main trends in scientific-research works during construction and operation of uranium mines and open cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosinets, V.N.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to main trends in research works during construction and operation of uranium mines and open cuts of Priargunsky mine-chemical association. Develops and introduced principally new design solutions and technologies in the field of open mining, underground mining, as well as in-situ and heap leaching, are described

  2. Hungry Horse Mitigation Plan; Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam, 1990-2003 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.; Marotz, Brian L. (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, MT); DosSantos, Joseph M. (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2003-04-01

    In this document we present fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives, and recommendations to protect, mitigate, and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. This plan addresses six separate program measures in the 1987 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. We designed the plan to be closely coordinated in terms of dam operations, funding, and activities with the Kerr Mitigation Plan presently before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. This document represents a mitigation plan for consideration by the Northwest Power Planning Council process; it is not an implementation plan. Flathead Lake is one of the cleanest lakes of its size in the world. The exceptional water quality and unique native fisheries make the Flathead Lake/River system extremely valuable to the economy and quality of life in the basin. The recreational fishery in Flathead Lake has an estimated value of nearly eight million dollars annually. This mitigation process represents our best opportunity to reduce the impacts of hydropower in this valuable aquatic system and increase angling opportunity. We based loss estimates and mitigation alternatives on an extensive data base, agency reports, nationally and internationally peer-reviewed scientific articles, and an innovative biological model for Hungry Horse Reservoir and the Flathead River. We conducted an extensive, 14-month scoping and consultation process with agency representatives, representatives of citizen groups, and the general public. This consultation process helped identify issues, areas of agreement, areas of conflict, and advantages and disadvantages of mitigation alternatives. The results of the scoping and consultation process helped shape our mitigation plan. Our recommended plan is based firmly on principles of adaptive management and recognition of biological uncertainty. After we receive direction from the NPPC, we will add more detailed hypotheses and

  3. Network design and operational modelling for construction green supply chain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Zhou Dong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on studying organizational structure of Construction Green Supply Chain Management (CGSCM, a mathematical programming model of CGSCM was proposed. The model aimed to maximize the aggregate profits of normalized construction logistics, the reverse logistics and the environmental performance. Numerical experiments show that the proposed approach can improve the aggregate profit effectively. In addition, return ratio, subsidies from governmental organizations, and environmental performance were analyzed for CGSCM performance. Herein, the proper return, subsidy and control strategy could optimize construction green supply chain.

  4. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    Geophysical Institute/International Arctic Research Center, both located in Fairbanks (Barboza and Trebelhorn 2001), available electronically at http://www.gi.alaska.edu/services/library/pipeline.html codes. The Association of Oil Pipe Lines (AOPL) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) jointly provide an overview covering the life cycle of design, construction, operations, maintenance, economic regulation, and deactivation of liquid pipelines (AOPL/API 2007).

  5. The legal position of the operator and the constructor as regards construction of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartorelli, Claudio

    1976-01-01

    Implementation of the Italian nuclear power programme requires that ENEL (the Italian State Electricity Agency) should solve a series of problems which are not only political, technical and financial, but also legal. The latter include the different positions held by constructors and operators in the nuclear law field. Although the operator must necessarily entrust construction work by contract to specialized agencies, the constructor as a person proper is completely ignored by the legislation in force, while the operator, as the holder of the construction licence is responsible with regard to all the provisions concerning controls, tests, inspections, etc. In recent years ENEL has frequently concluded ''turnkey'' contracts, but in future, given the desirability of diversifying the orders, ENEL may adopt a different policy, and negotiate different contracts with the suppliers of various components. (N.E.A.)

  6. Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Waste Segregation Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction, operation and decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the Waste Segregation Facility (WSF) for the sorting, shredding, and compaction of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The LLW to be processed consists of two waste streams: legacy waste which is currently stored in E-Area Vaults of SRS and new waste generated from continuing operations. The proposed action is to construct, operate, and D ampersand D a facility to process low-activity job-control and equipment waste for volume reduction. The LLW would be processed to make more efficient use of low-level waste disposal capacity (E-Area Vaults) or to meet the waste acceptance criteria for treatment at the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at SRS

  7. Under niche construction: an operational bridge between ecology, evolution, and ecosystem science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, B.; De Meester, L.; Jones, C.G.; Ibelings, B.W.; Bouma, T.J.; Nuutinen, V.; van de Koppel, J.; Odling-Smee, J.

    2014-01-01

    All living organisms modify their biotic and abiotic environment. Niche construction theory posits that organism-mediated modifications to the environment can change selection pressures and influence the evolutionary trajectories of natural populations. While there is broad support for this

  8. Long-term Stabilization of Disturbed Slopes Resulting from Construction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Highway construction disturbs soil, which must be stabilized to prevent migration of soil particles into water bodies. Stabilization is enforced by law, regulation, and a permit system. Stabilization is most efficiently attained by reestablishment of...

  9. Smooth Operator - Mobile Information Technology for Improved Flow at the Construction Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2010-01-01

    is used; mobility is classified as remote, local or micro. Furthermore an extensive literature study is employed along with both market screening for systems and case studies of companies adopting as well as rejecting the technology. Both within research communities, software manufacturers......Mobile information technology (IT) seems an ideal innovation to promote effectiveness of the construction process, particularly at the construction site; research has over the last 15 years focused on solutions, potentials and barriers with this field. This paper aim at the duality between research...... and industry for an updated and forward looking comprehension, and view of tendencies, of the roles and potentials of mobile IT at the construction site including potential for further research. Qualitative and interpretive methodology inspired by information systems and sociology of research and construction...

  10. Hydrology and Mosquito Population Dynamics around a Hydropower Reservoir in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, N.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Malaria is associated with dams because their reservoirs provide mosquitoes, the vector of malaria, with permanent breeding sites. The risk of contracting malaria is likely to be enhanced following the increasing trend of hydropower dam construction to satisfy the expanding energy needs in developing countries. A close examination of its adverse health impacts is critical in the design, construction, and operation phases. We will present results of extensive field studies in 2012 and 2013 around the Koka Reservoir, Ethiopia. The results uncover the importance of reservoir management especially after the rainy seasons. Furthermore, we show the capability of a newly modified hydrology, entomology and malaria transmission simulator, HYDREMATS (Bomblies et al, 2008), and its potential as a tool for evaluating environmental management strategies to control malaria. HYDREMATS was developed to represent how the hydrology in nearby villages is impacted by the reservoir system, and the role of different types of vector ecologies associated with different Anopheles mosquito species. The hydrology component of HYDREMATS simulates three different mosquito breeding habitats: rain-fed pools, groundwater pools, and shoreline water. The entomology component simulates the life cycles of An. funestus and An. arabiensis, the two main vectors around the reservoir. The model was calibrated over the 2012-2013 period. The impact of reservoir water level management on the mosquito population is explored based on numerical model simulations and field experiments.

  11. Socio-demographic and economic aspects of nuclear power plant construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings contain 10 papers of which 9 have been inputted in INIS. The papers deal with the economic, social and ecological consequences of the construction of nuclear power plants. Various approaches are listed to the economic evaluation of the said consequences. The question is discussed of the efficiency of investments for the construction of nucliear power plants as are the probiems of sitting large projects. (E.S.)

  12. Enhancement of organizational and technical solutions regarding anchoring of completed construction facilities of underground railway system to operating control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Г. Козин

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stages of practical realization of measures prescribed by requirements documents regarding anchoring of capital structures of underground railway system to operating control are considered in the article. On the basis of algorithm structure analysis, which includes obtaining a permit for putting into operation and cadastre works execution a range of solutions was proposed concerning optimization of construction project owner and operating organization activities with the purpose of terms reduction of capital structures handover to operation. The results of work of a commission responsible for completed underground railway system objects acceptance and putting into operation were analyzed. Considering example of object «Second entrance hall area of «Sportivnaya» station the statistical data of revealed snagging items is consolidated and dynamics of corrective actions is provided.Proposed solutions laid the foundation for corrections of requirements documents and were accepted for realization in the process of works acceptance of Saint-Petersburg underground railway system objects.

  13. The Design, Construction and Operation of a 75 kW Two-Stage Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, Torben Kvist

    2003-01-01

    The Two-Stage Gasifier was operated for several weeks (465 hours) and of these 190 hours continuously. The gasifier is operated automatically unattended day and night, and only small adjustments of the feeding rate were necessary once or twice a day. The operation was successful, and the output...... as expected. The engine operated well on the produced gas, and no deposits were observed in the engine afterwards. The bag house filter was an excellent and well operating gas cleaning system. Small amounts of deposits consisting of salts and carbonates were observed in the hot gas heat exchangers. The top...

  14. Geo textiles and related products used in the waterproofing of reservoirs. Situation in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiro Lopez, A.; Mateo Sanz, B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the geo textiles, and products related to geo textiles, used for the building of water-storage reservoirs, which can be applicable to the construction of this kind of structures in Morocco. It presents different types of geo textiles and related products most commonly used in reservoirs, such as geo nets, geo grids, geo mats and geo composites, describing their characteristics and experimental methodology. Furthermore, and drawing on the Spanish Manual for Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Reservoirs, emphasis is placed on the functions that geo synthetics can perform, such as protection and filter in the case of geo textiles, and drainage in the case of geo nets and draining composites. Finally, several works of this sort of structures located in Morocco are cited. (Author)

  15. Multilevel techniques for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour

    The subject of this thesis is the development, application and study of novel multilevel methods for the acceleration and improvement of reservoir simulation techniques. The motivation for addressing this topic is a need for more accurate predictions of porous media flow and the ability to carry...... Full Approximation Scheme) • Variational (Galerkin) upscaling • Linear solvers and preconditioners First, a nonlinear multigrid scheme in the form of the Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) is implemented and studied for a 3D three-phase compressible rock/fluids immiscible reservoir simulator...... is extended to include a hybrid strategy, where FAS is combined with Newton’s method to construct a multilevel nonlinear preconditioner. This method demonstrates high efficiency and robustness. Second, an improved IMPES formulated reservoir simulator is implemented using a novel variational upscaling approach...

  16. The construction of power grid operation index system considering the risk of maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jihong; Wang, Canlin; Jiang, Xinfan; Ye, Jianhui; Pan, Feilai

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, large-scale blackout occurred at home and abroad caused widespread concern about the operation of the grid in the world, and the maintenance risk is an important indicator of grid safety. The barrier operation of the circuit breaker exists in the process of overhaul of the power grid. The operation of the different barrier is of great significance to the change of the power flow, thus affecting the safe operation of the system. Most of the grid operating status evaluation index system did not consider the risk of maintenance, to this end, this paper from the security, economy, quality and cleanliness of the four angles, build the power grid operation index system considering the risk of maintenance.

  17. Hydrologic-agronomic-economic model for the optimal operation of the Yaqui river reservoir system using genetic algorithms; Modelo hidrologico-agronomico-economico para la operacion optima del sistema de presas del rio Yaqui, usando algoritmos geneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minjares-Lugo, Jose Luis; Salmon-Castelo, Roberto Fernando; Oroz-Ramos, Lucas Antonio [Comision Nacional del Agua (Mexico); Cruz-Medina, Isidro Roberto [Instituto Tecnologico de Sonora (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this study is to develop an integrated hydrologic-agronomic-economic annual model for the optimal operation of the Yaqui River reservoir system to support irrigation and urban water supply in the watershed. The model solves for each year's water allocations by crop, maximizing annual agricultural income for a specified risk of reservoir shortages and spills. It accounts for adjustments in water supply arising from changes in precipitation and runoff uncertainty and from changes in water demand arising from variations in crop prices and production costs. Model predictions for the agricultural year 2000-2001 are compared with observed results to test the model's predictive ability. Results demonstrate that the model can be used to optimize and analyze reservoir system operation and for water resources management in the Irrigation District No. 041, providing a framework for improving the operation of a reservoir system, selecting an optimal cropping pattern according to its maximum economic benefits, and in the optimal monthly water releases from the reservoir system. The model considers the simultaneous operation of three dams and it is applied to the Irrigation District No. 041, Rio Yaqui. [Spanish] El objetivo de este estudio es desarrollar un modelo integral de optimizacion anual para definir la operacion del sistema de presas del rio Yaqui y la asignacion del volumen mensual de agua para la irrigacion de diferentes cultivos, asi como para satisfacer los requerimientos de uso urbano basado en las condiciones hidrologicas, agronomicas y economicas en la cuenca. El modelo maximiza los beneficios anuales netos del sector agricola, minimizando el riesgo de deficit o derrames en el sistema de presas; incluye cambios en el suministro de agua debido a la incertidumbre de las precipitaciones y del escurrimiento del rio y cambios en la demanda de agua provocados por la incertidumbre de los precios y costos de los cultivos. Se utilizaron datos del

  18. Construction and initial operation of MHD PbLi facility at UCLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugi, T.; Yokomine, T.; Ueki, Y.; Smolentsev, S.; Li, F.-C.; Sketchley, T.; Abdou, M.A.; Yuki, K.

    2014-01-01

    We review current accomplishments in Task 1-3 'Flow Control and Thermofluid Modeling' of the Japan-US 'TITAN' collaboration program. Our task focuses on experimental activities and also computer modeling of magnetohydrodynamic flows and heat and mass transfer of electrically conducting fluids under conditions relevant to fusion blankets. Since our task started, major efforts were taken to design, construct and test a new magnetohydrodynamic lead-lithium (PbLi) loop at UCLA, to accumulate the PbLi handling technology, and to develop a high-temperature ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry and a differential-pressure measurement system for PbLi flows. In the present paper, the loop construction, the electromagnetic pump performance test, our on-going experiments with the constructed loop are described. (author)

  19. Waterproofing with polymeric geo synthetic barriers (GBR-P) in the manual for the design, construction, management and maintenance of reservoirs; La impermeabilizacion con barreras geosinteticas polimericas (GBR-P) en el manual para el diseno, construccion, explotacion y mantenimiento de balsas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M.; Cea, J. C.; Garcia, F.; Sanchez, F. J.; Castillo, F.; Mora, J.; Crespo, M. A.

    2010-07-01

    This article presents a part of Manual for the Design, Construction, Management and Maintenance of Reservoirs relative to waterproofing with Polymeric Geo synthetic Barriers (GBR-P). the nature materials of geo membranes is studied also theirs characteristics and specifications. (Author) 26 refs.

  20. Construction of Fuzzy Sets and Applying Aggregation Operators for Fuzzy Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudec, Miroslav; Sudzina, Frantisek

    Flexible query conditions could use linguistic terms described by fuzzy sets. The question is how to properly construct fuzzy sets for each linguistic term and apply an adequate aggregation function. For construction of fuzzy sets, the lowest value, the highest value of attribute...... and the distribution of data inside its domain are used. The logarithmic transformation of domains appears to be suitable. This way leads to a balanced distribution of tuples over fuzzy sets. In addition, users’ opinions about linguistic terms as well as current content in database are merged. The second investigated...

  1. Trends in the design, construction and operation of green roofs to improve the rainwater quality. State of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Andrés Morales Mojica

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The green roofs appear as technology for the improvement water quality. This article identifies trends in the conditions of design, construction and operation of green roofs, which aim is to improve the quality of rainwater. A literature review was carried out in order to collect 45 original research papers from databases as Scopus, Science Direct, and Redalyc. From the information collected trends in increments and reductions in the concentrations of the main water quality parameters, seasons of the year with the best results, types of green roofs , types of substrate and most common components, construction trends (dimensions, inclination, Materials and layers and vegetation used in these systems have been determined. The results show that green roofs have the ability to neutralize acid rain. Extensive type roofs are the ones most commonly used, due to its characteristics of construction, functionality and low maintenance requirements.

  2. IMPROVED METHOD OF DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF HIGH SPEED MAINLINE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU. S. Barash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop an advanced methodology and formulate the measures concerning the definition of economic efficiency of high-speed movement organization taking into account the operating experience of rapid transportations in Ukraine, travel time, number of stops on the route, schedule and the demand for these transportations. Methodology. The economic feasibility for appropriateness of high-speed movement organization in Ukraine is an investment project, which involves step-by-step money investment to the construction. To solve such problems one uses net present value, which UZ or newly created companies can get during the project realization and after its completion. Findings. On the basis of obtained studies one can state that the methodology of complex determination of construction efficiency and high-speed passenger trains operation taking into account the cost of infrastructure, rolling stock, impact of environmental factors, etc. was developed in the article. Originality. We propose a scientific approach to determine the economic efficiency of the construction and high-speed main lines operation. This approach, unlike the existing one, includes the improved principles of determining the passenger traffic, the cost of high-speed mainline construction, the number of rolling stock; optimizes income and expenditure calculations in the context of competitive advantages and impact of the external factors on the company. For the first time it was taken into account the transit flow of passengers departing from CIS countries to the vacation in the Crimea, the Carpathians, Odessa and Lviv regions. The account of these factors increases the feasibility of administrative decisions concerning ensuring the efficiency of high-speed traffic functioning. Practical value. The proposed methodology and the research results allowed determining the construction reasonability of high-speed mainline for the passenger trains with a speed at least250 km/h in

  3. Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft{sup 2} mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  4. 33 CFR 148.725 - What are the design, construction and operational criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: GENERAL Environmental Review... the basis of how well they: (a) Reflect the use of best available technology in design, construction... plans to minimize the possibility and consequences of pollution incidents such as spills and discharges...

  5. Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Construction and Operation of New Vehicle Maintenance Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    reasonably foreseeable future actions regardless of what agency (federal or non-federal) or person undertakes such actions” (40 CFR 1508.7). Cumulative... clubhouse /pool and playgrounds. MFH 734,789 and Clughouse 22,500 sf (Under Construction) 70,355 757,298 Yes (05) 05 1500 Army Aviation Support

  6. Innovation of construction in the Dutch railways : Lessons from inter-organizational co-operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Bas; Voordijk, Hans; Dorée, André; Akintoye, Akintola

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally innovation in the construction industry is analysed at an industry-level. This results in generalist observations on the low level of innovation when compared to other industries and the identification of factors that, on industry level, hamper innovation. With these factors in mind

  7. Technical report on the design, construction, commissioning and operation of the super-FRS of FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissel, H.; Winkler, M.; Weick, H.

    2005-04-01

    In this report the construction of the super-FRS is described. Especially described are the ion-optical lay-out, the production targets, the magnets, the beam dumps, the degrader systems and the ion catcher, detectors and data-acquisition systems, as well as the safety aspects. (HSI)

  8. Development, Construction, and Operation of a Multisample Volumetric Apparatus for the Study of Gas Adsorption Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rui P. P. L.; Silva, Ricardo J. S.; Esteves, Isabel A. A. C.; Mota, Jose´ P. B.

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a simple volumetric adsorption apparatus is highlighted. The setup is inexpensive and provides a clear demonstration of gas phase adsorption concepts. The topic is suitable for undergraduate chemistry and chemical engineering students. Moreover, this unit can also provide quantitative data that can be used by young researchers…

  9. Transparency, market operation and trust in the Dutch construction industry: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Nijhof, A.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    After the discovery of illegal price agreements in the Dutch construction industry, the government and major players in the sector have initiated a transition process towards more professional commercial relations. In the transition process transparency plays an important part, as it is a

  10. A Duration Prediction Using a Material-Based Progress Management Methodology for Construction Operation Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongho Ko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Precise and accurate prediction models for duration and cost enable contractors to improve their decision making for effective resource management in terms of sustainability in construction. Previous studies have been limited to cost-based estimations, but this study focuses on a material-based progress management method. Cost-based estimations typically used in construction, such as the earned value method, rely on comparing the planned budget with the actual cost. However, accurately planning budgets requires analysis of many factors, such as the financial status of the sectors involved. Furthermore, there is a higher possibility of changes in the budget than in the total amount of material used during construction, which is deduced from the quantity take-off from drawings and specifications. Accordingly, this study proposes a material-based progress management methodology, which was developed using different predictive analysis models (regression, neural network, and auto-regressive moving average as well as datasets on material and labor, which can be extracted from daily work reports from contractors. A case study on actual datasets was conducted, and the results show that the proposed methodology can be efficiently used for progress management in construction.

  11. Research on the application of PPP model in the Chinese construction and operation of new energy vehicle charging facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liping

    2017-05-01

    New energy car charging equipment is the development and popularization of new energy vehicles. It has the nature of quasi-public goods. Due to the large number of construction projects, wide distribution, big investment, it needs huge sums of money. PPP mode is a new financing model and has the inherent driving force to lead the idea the technology and the system innovation. The government and the social subject cooperate on the basis of the spirit of contract thus achieve benefit sharing. This mode effectively improve the operation of new energy vehicle charging facilities operating efficiency

  12. Regulating Nuclear Reactor Construction and Commissioning, and Preparation for Operation – Challenges for a New Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorsson, C.

    2016-01-01

    Following an introduction with a description of the peaceful nuclear energy program in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and an overview of the regulatory framework for safety, security and safeguards, this paper describes the regulatory approach for oversight of construction and the granting of an Operating Licence for the first nuclear power plant in the UAE. The paper describes the inspection programme set up by the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR) to verify construction and preoperational testing by the licensee. Moreover, it outlines the content of the operating licence application and focus areas for the regulatory review and assessment. Also, the paper describes the basic elements required by FANR for the decision-making regarding the issuance of the Operating Licence including integration of the results of review and assessment and the implementation of a systematic inspection programme to ensure operational readiness to operate and maintain the plant in accordance with FANR regulations. Finally, the paper addresses the preparation for regulatory oversight and the skill-set needed at FANR to ensure an effective and efficient oversight of safety, security of the nuclear energy power in the UAE. (author)

  13. Gas Reactor International Cooperative Program. Interim report. Construction and operating experience of selected European Gas-Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The construction and operating experience of selected European Gas-Cooled Reactors is summarized along with technical descriptions of the plants. Included in the report are the AVR Experimental Pebble Bed Reactor, the Dragon Reactor, AGR Reactors, and the Thorium High Temperature Reactor (THTR). The study demonstrates that the European experience has been favorable and forms a good foundation for the development of Advanced High Temperature Reactors

  14. SPS microwave subsystem potential impacts and benefits. [environmental and societal effects of Solar Power System construction and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the possible environmental and societal effects of the construction, installation, and operation of the space end and earth end of the microwave power transmission subsystem that delivers satellite power system (SPS) energy (at about 5 GW per beam) to the power grid on earth. The intervening propagation medium near the earth is also considered. Separate consideration is given to the spacecraft transmitting array, propagation in the ionosphere, and the ground-based rectenna. Radio frequency interference aspects are also discussed.

  15. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Beebe

    2003-05-05

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  16. Earth-covered storage of LPG - Development, construction and operating experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuldt, P.; Grote, G.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the planning, approval procedures, design, fabrication, site-assembling and the testing of liquefied petroleum gas storage tanks. The practical experience after three years of operation is reported. 8 figs

  17. Expanding transportation systems management and operations (TSM&O) from planning to construction primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has initiated business plans to promote the Transportation : Systems Management and Operations (TSM&O) program throughout the State. TSM&O is traditionally managed : by traffic engineers that focus on o...

  18. Construction of two-dimensional Schrodinger operator with given scattering amplitude at fixed energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The classical necessary properties of the scattering amplitude (reciprocity and unitarity) are, provided its L 2 norm is small, sufficient for the existence of a two-dimensional Schrodinger operator with the given scattering amplitude at fixed energy

  19. Design, construction, and operation of SciFi tracking detector for K2K experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, A.; Park, H.; Aoki, S.; Echigo, S.; Fujii, K.; Hara, T.; Iwashita, T.; Kitamura, M.; Kohama, M.; Kume, G.; Onchi, M.; Otaki, T.; Sato, K.; Takatsuki, M.; Takenaka, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Tashiro, K.; Inagaki, T.; Kato, I.; Mukai, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Sasao, N.; Shima, A.; Yokoyama, H.; Chikamatsu, T.; Hayato, Y.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Ishino, H.; Jeon, E.J.; Kobayashi, T.; Lee, S.B.; Nakamura, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, M.; Tumakov, V.; Fukuda, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Ishizuka, M.; Itow, Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kaneyuki, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Obayashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Sakurai, N.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Toshito, T.; Yamada, S.; Miyano, K.; Nakamura, M.; Tamura, N.; Nakano, I.; Yoshida, M.; Kadowaki, T.; Kishi, S.; Yokoyama, H.; Maruyama, T.; Etoh, M.; Nishijima, K.; Bhang, H.C.; Khang, B.H.; Kim, B.J.; Kim, H.I.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, S.B.; So, H.; Yoo, J.H.; Choi, J.H.; Jang, H.I.; Jang, J.S.; Kim, J.Y.; Lim, I.T.; Pac, M.Y.; Kearns, E.; Scholberg, K.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Walter, C.W.; Casper, D.; Gajewski, W.; Kropp, W.; Mine, S.; Sobel, H.; Vagins, M.; Matsuno, S.; Hill, J.; Jung, C.K.; Martens, K.; Mauger, C.; McGrew, C.; Sharkey, E.; Yanagisawa, C.; Berns, H.; Boyd, S.; Wilkes, J.; Kielczewska, D.; Golebiewska, U.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the construction and performance of a scintillating fiber detector used in the near detector for the K2K (KEK to Kamioka, KEK E362) long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. The detector uses 3.7 m long and 0.692 mm diameter scintillating fiber coupled to image-intensifier tubes (IIT), and a CCD camera readout system. Fiber sheet production and detector construction began in 1997, and the detector was commissioned in March 1999. Results from the first K2K runs confirm good initial performance: position resolution is estimated to be about 0.8 mm, and track finding efficiency is 98±2% for long tracks (i.e., those which intersect more than 5 fiber planes). The hit efficiency was estimated to be 92±2% using cosmic-ray muons, after noise reduction at the offline stage. The possibility of using the detector for particle identification is also discussed

  20. Stability of Quantum Loops and Exchange Operations in the Construction of Quantum Computation Gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermúdez, D; Delgado, F

    2017-01-01

    Quantum information and quantum computation is a rapidly emergent field where quantum systems and their applications play a central role. In the gate version of quantum computation, the construction of universal quantum gates to manipulate quantum information is currently an intensive arena for quantum engineering. Specific properties of systems should be able to reproduce such idealized gates imitating the classically inspired computational gates. Recently, for magnetic systems driven by the bipartite Heisenberg-Ising model a universal set of gates has been realized, an alternative easy design for the Boykin set but using the Bell states as grammar. Exact control can be then used to construct specific prescriptions to achieve those gates. Physical parameters impose a challenge in the gate control. This work analyzes, based on the worst case quantum fidelity, the associated instability for the proposed set of gates. An strong performance is found in those gates for the most of quantum states involved. (paper)

  1. Theater of Operations Construction in the Desert: A Handbook of Lessons Learned in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    concentration. 7. When using natural desert or beach pavements (calcrete duricrusts ) for coarse aggregate sources, discard the top 1 ft because it is most...profile comprises a mountain duricrusts ; unsuitable construction and a piedmont plain. Although such a P.G. Fookes materials - e.g. some silts, sands...surface, where for stops when sand and silts are damp; " duricrust ". The latter is often, but not example layers of fibrous gypsum can capillary moisture

  2. Design options for HLW repository operation technology. (4) Shotclay technique for seamless construction of EBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Ichizo; Fujisawa, Soh; Nakajima, Makoto; Toida, Masaru; Nakashima, Hitoshi; Asano, Hidekazu

    2011-01-01

    The shotclay method is construction method of the high density bentonite engineered barrier by spraying method. Using this method, the dry density of 1.6 Mg/m 3 , which was considered impossible with the spray method, is achieved. In this study, the applicability of the shotclay method to HLW bentonite-engineered barriers was confirmed experimentally. In the tests, an actual scale vertical-type HLW bentonite-engineered barrier was constructed. This was a bentonite-engineered barrier with a diameter of 2.22 m and a height of 3.13 m. The material used was bentonite with 30% silica sand, and water content was adjusted by mixing chilled bentonite with powdered ice before thawing. Work progress was 11.2 m 3 and the weight was 21.7 Mg. The dry density of the entire buffer was 1.62 Mg/m 3 , and construction time was approximately 8 hours per unit. After the formworks were removed, the core and block of the actual scale HLW bentonite-engineered barrier were sampled to confirm homogeneity. As a result, homogeneity was confirmed, and no gaps were observed between the formwork and the buffer material and between the simulated waste and the buffer material. The applicability to HLW of the shotclay method has been confirmed through this examination. (author)

  3. First assessment of the ecological status of Karaoun reservoir, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, A.; Lemaire, B.; Vinc on Leite, B.; Tassin, B.; Amacha, N.; Slim, K.; Atoui, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many reservoirs have been constructed throughout the world during the 20th century, with many also suffering from eutrophication. The resulting increased phytoplankton biomass in reservoirs impairs their use. Except for Lake Kinneret, the environmental status of lakes and reservoirs in the Middle East is poorly documented. Karaoun reservoir, also known as Qaroun, Qaraoun or Qarun, is the largest water body in Lebanon, having been constructed for irrigation and hydropower production. This present study reviews Karaoun reservoir, including its characteristics, uses, water quality and phytoplankton succession, to assess the environmental status of the reservoir on the basis of the few existing previous publications about the reservoir. Since 2004, which is 39 years after its construction, the reservoir is considered to be hypereutrophic, with low phytoplankton biodiversity and regular blooms of toxic cyanobacteria. The nutrient and trace metal concentrations would not prevent use of the reservoir for a drinking water supply for Beirut, as is currently being planned, although not all the micropollutants in the lake were documented. Karaoun reservoir is compared to other monitored lakes and reservoirs around the Mediterranean Sea. They share annual toxic cyanobacteria blooms of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and of Microcystis aeruginosa. The phytoplankton composition and succession of Karaoun reservoir is more similar to El Gergal reservoir (Spain) than nearby natural lakes such as Lake Kinneret (Israel) and Lake Trichonis (Greece). Phytoplankton diversity in Karaoun reservoir was the lowest, due to higher nutrient concentrations and a larger decrease in water level in the dry season. Karaoun reservoir represents an interesting example of the potential response of the phytoplankton community in other lakes and reservoirs during the drought periods expected to occur as a result of global climate change. (author)

  4. Bathymetry of Ashokan, Cannonsville, Neversink, Pepacton, Rondout, and Schoharie Reservoirs, New York, 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2018-02-01

    Drinking water for New York City is supplied from several large reservoirs, including a system of reservoirs west of the Hudson River. To provide updated reservoir capacity tables and bathymetry maps of the City’s six West of Hudson reservoirs, bathymetric surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 2013 to 2015. Depths were surveyed with a single-beam echo sounder and real-time kinematic global positioning system along planned transects at predetermined intervals for each reservoir. A separate quality assurance dataset of echo sounder points was collected along transects at oblique angles to the main transects for accuracy assessment. Field-survey data were combined with water surface elevations in a geographic information system to create three-dimensional surfaces in the form of triangulated irregular networks (TINs) representing the elevations of the reservoir geomorphology. The TINs were linearly enforced to better represent geomorphic features within the reservoirs. The linearly enforced TINs were then used to create raster surfaces and 2-foot-interval contour maps of the reservoirs. Elevation-area-capacity tables were calculated at 0.01-foot intervals. The results of the surveys show that the total capacity of the West of Hudson reservoirs has decreased by 11.5 billion gallons (Ggal), or 2.3 percent, since construction, and the useable capacity (the volume above the minimum operating level required to deliver full flow for drinking water supply) has decreased by 7.9 Ggal (1.7 percent). The available capacity (the volume between the spillway elevation and the lowest intake or sill elevation used for drinking water supply) decreased by 9.6 Ggal (2.0 percent), and dead storage (the volume below the lowest intake or sill elevation) decreased by 1.9 Ggal (11.6 percent).

  5. Final Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of an office building at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1107, analyzing the environmental effects relating to the construction and operation of an office building at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). SLAC is a national facility operated by Stanford University, California, under contract with DOE. The center is dedicated to research in elementary particle physics and in those fields that make use of its synchrotron facilities. The objective for the construction and operation of an office building is to provide adequate office space for existing SLAC Waste Management (WM) personnel, so as to centralize WM personnel and to make WM operations more efficient and effective. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  6. A Study of the Optimal Planning Model for Reservoir Sustainable Management- A Case Study of Shihmen Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. Y.; Ho, C. C.; Chang, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    The reservoir management in Taiwan faces lots of challenge. Massive sediment caused by landslide were flushed into reservoir, which will decrease capacity, rise the turbidity, and increase supply risk. Sediment usually accompanies nutrition that will cause eutrophication problem. Moreover, the unevenly distribution of rainfall cause water supply instability. Hence, how to ensure sustainable use of reservoirs has become an important task in reservoir management. The purpose of the study is developing an optimal planning model for reservoir sustainable management to find out an optimal operation rules of reservoir flood control and sediment sluicing. The model applies Genetic Algorithms to combine with the artificial neural network of hydraulic analysis and reservoir sediment movement. The main objective of operation rules in this study is to prevent reservoir outflow caused downstream overflow, minimum the gap between initial and last water level of reservoir, and maximum sluicing sediment efficiency. A case of Shihmen reservoir was used to explore the different between optimal operating rule and the current operation of the reservoir. The results indicate optimal operating rules tended to open desilting tunnel early and extend open duration during flood discharge period. The results also show the sluicing sediment efficiency of optimal operating rule is 36%, 44%, 54% during Typhoon Jangmi, Typhoon Fung-Wong, and Typhoon Sinlaku respectively. The results demonstrate the optimal operation rules do play a role in extending the service life of Shihmen reservoir and protecting the safety of downstream. The study introduces a low cost strategy, alteration of operation reservoir rules, into reservoir sustainable management instead of pump dredger in order to improve the problem of elimination of reservoir sediment and high cost.

  7. Adding a hydroelectric power station to the public water supply of St-Jean; Projet de construction d'une centrale hydraulique sur le reservoir principal de la commune de St-Jean. Etude d'avant projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perruchoud, A. [Sierre Energie SA, Sierre (Switzerland); Denis, V. [MHyLab, Montcherand (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    Drinking water for the community of St-Jean, southwestern Switzerland is collected at three different locations with altitudes of 2004, 1998 and 1958 m respectively, and is fed into a common chamber at 1933 m. The project foresees the construction of an intermediate reservoir at the elevation of 1460 m, the total hydraulic head of 473 m being used to drive a Pelton turbine of 110 kW nominal power. The useful net height difference after deduction of the pressure drop in the piping is 373 meters at a typical water flow rate of 0.034 m{sup 3}/s. At this flow rate the turbine efficiency is estimated to 0.89. The asynchronous generator rotates at 1500 rpm and has a nominal electric power output of 125 kW. The estimated annual production amounts to 450,000 kWh and the investment costs to 449,000 Swiss francs. Depending on the time of amortization assumed (20 to 40 years), the production cost is estimated to 0.0615 to 0.0845 Swiss francs/kWh, a value considered favorable for the realization of the project.

  8. Construction, commissioning and operational experience of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.; Arnold, N.; Berg, W.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source linear accelerator system consists of a 200 MeV, 2856 MHz S-Band electron linac and a 2-radiation-thick tungsten target followed by a 450 MeV positron linac. The linac system has operated 24 hours per day for the past year to support accelerator commissioning and beam studies and to provide beam for the user experimental program. It achieves the design goal for positron current of 8 mA and produces electron energies up to 650 MeV without the target in place. The linac is described and its operation and performance are discussed

  9. Construction, commissioning and operational experience of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.; Arnold, N.; Berg, W.; Cours, A.; Fuja, R.; Grelick, A. E.; Sereno, N.; Wesolowski, W.; Ko, K.; Qian, Y.L.; Russell, T.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source linear accelerator system consists of a 200-MeV, 2856-MHz S-band electron linac and a 2-radiation-thick tungsten target followed by a 450-MeV positron linac. The linac system has operated 24 hours per day for the past year to support accelerator commissioning and beam studies and to provide beam for the user experimental program. It achieves the design goal for positron current of 8 mA and produces electron energies up to 650 MeV without the target in place. The linac is described and its operation and performance are discussed. (author)

  10. Backfitting possibilities of process instrumentation during planning, construction or operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, G.E.; Schemmel, R.R.; Warren, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity for backfitting existing C and I equipment in nuclear power plants arises as a result of new licensing requirements being imposed or through a need for improved performance as experience with operating plants becomes available. These changes arise either because additional process variables need to be monitored; improved sensors need to be installed (to increase safety or operating margin); more directly sense the processes; or to address concerns in signal conditioning, control algorithms, control system strategy, or safety system design. This paper discusses examples of backfitting experiences on existing plants and some being developed for future improvements

  11. Constructing an Evaluation Framework for Eco-Museum Operations-Management Performance, Based on the Case of Jhushan, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Wei Hsu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The bamboo-art industry in Taiwan’s Jhushan Township is inseparable from local life. In the face of local industrial-development difficulties in smaller towns, the Taiwan government aimed to achieve a range of (redevelopment goals using eco-museums as collaboration platforms and required such museums to combine their operations management with cultural preservation, local industrial development, and local residents’ goals. As such, the likely future performance of such operations management has emerged as a crucially important factor in decision-making about whether such museums should be constructed. This study, therefore, reviews the relevant literature on the operations-management performance of museums, with special attention to eco-museums, and proposes an operations-management performance measurement framework for eco-museums based on that review and a two-stage questionnaire administered to experts. The first stage utilized the Fuzzy Delphi Method, which focuses on impact factors, and the second, the Analytica Network Process Method, deals with performance factors. The results indicate that the key impacts on the performance of eco-museums and their operations management were, in order of importance, (1 community symbiosis, (2 cultural inheritance, and (3 regional revitalization. The preservation of cultural heritage, local identity, and community participation are the most important criteria in the operations management of eco-museums, and Jhushan Town can promote such museums through these guidelines.

  12. Disengagement Operations: Context, Violence, and Spoilers in a New Phase IV Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    disengagement from Operation 4 Robert M. Gates, “Gates Calls European Mood a Danger to Peace,” The New York Times, February 23, 2010; and Noam Chomsky ...September 2009. Chomsky , Noam. Failed States. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2006. Citino, Robert M. Blitzkrieg to Desert Storm: The Evolution of

  13. 78 FR 24734 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Construction and Operation of an Infantry Platoon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Final Environmental Impact Statement for the... Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), Southwest of Range 20, is not operationally feasible and has been.... The Army identified and analyzed environmental and socioeconomic impacts associated with the proposed...

  14. Construction of wave operator for two-dimensional Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger systems with Yukawa coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Tsuruta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence of the wave operator for the Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger system with Yukawa coupling. This non-linearity type is below Strichartz scaling, and therefore classic perturbation methods will fail in any Strichartz space. Instead, we follow the "first iteration method" to handle these critical non-linearities.

  15. Model for energy planning of degraded river basins based on hydrological evaluation of hydroelectric reservoirs in operation; Modelo de planejamento energetico de bacias hidrograficas degradadas baseado na avaliacao hidrica de reservatorios hidreletricos em operacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Ferreira, Aloisio Caetano; Ottoni, Arthur Benedicto; Nogueira Neto, Claudio; Silva, Denis de Souza

    2008-07-01

    The human occupation of the hydrographic basin, made in the past without plans, generated alteration of the hydrology characteristics, presenting as direct consequence modifications of its hydric availabilities. Or either, the floods in the rainy periods and the droughts in the ones of dryness currently tend to be more frequent and with bigger intensity. These conditions have affected the operation as well as the planning of the hydroelectric reservoirs, that have generated energy in conditions of different hydric availabilities (worse) of those foreseeing at the time of the project. These situations result in uncertainties and energy losses for the investor as well as in the system. Under such premises, the present article analyzes the energy-economic influences of the deterioration of the hydric regimen of some on exploitations in operation to the system, located in basins degrades in the South, Southeastern and Northeast regions; enhancing the importance of the studies of hydric economy of these units of management (degraded basins) as subsidy of taking of decision for gradual recovery of its hydric availabilities; taking in account the energy optimization of the hydroelectric reservoirs in located operation as well as the minimization of inherent the financial losses to the uncertainties of its hydric resources. (author)

  16. Safety Evaluation Report related to the construction permit and operating license for the research reactor at the University of Texas (Docket No. 50-602)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the University of Texas for a construction permit and operating license to construct and operate a TRIGA research reactor has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is owned and operated by the University of Texas and is located at the university's Balcones Research Center, about 7 miles (11.6 km) north of the main campus in Austin, Texas. The staff concludes that the TRIGA reactor facility can be constructed and operated by the University of Texas without endangering the health and safety of the public

  17. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservior Fisheries, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, Bradley B.

    1985-06-01

    We are evaluating the potential impacts of Libby Reservoir operation on the fishery in Libby Reservoir. The sampling program has been tested and modified to provide data for developing an understanding of how reservoir operation impacts the reservoir fishery. Temperature appears to be an important variable influenced by reservoir operation which regulates fish and fish food production and distribution. 39 refs., 21 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... using air or vacuum braking must have either reserve capacity, or a reservoir, that would enable the... have a condensate drain valve that can be manually operated. Automatic condensate drain valves may be...

  19. SILTATION IN RESERVOIRS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: reservoir model, siltation, sediment, catchment, sediment transport. 1. Introduction. Sediment ... rendered water storage structures useless in less than 25 years. ... reservoir, thus reducing the space available for water storage and ...

  20. Reservoir fisheries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.S. De.

    1990-01-01

    At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop

  1. Approaches to assessment of socio-demographic and economic aspects of nuclear power plant construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvirova, E.

    1984-01-01

    The paper informs of solving the task of economic evaluation of transient and permanent social consequences of the construction and operation of nuclear power plants. The solution takes place in three stages: 1. drafting of methodology, 2. trial of methodology in localities of current nuclear power plant construction, 3. analysis of results and finalizing of methodology. The task is aimed at studying the questions of the return and profitability of investments, the evaluation of optimal economic lifetime, and the effective restoration of basic funds. Its model solution shows the national economy relations of nuclear power. Also discussed is the question of the use of non-balance heat from nuclear power plants. (E.S.)

  2. Operational Excellence in Manufacturing, Service and the Oil & Gas: the Sectorial Definitional Constructs and Risk Management Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazu Hassan Muazu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current global business climate has not been favorable to most firms irrespective of industry affiliation. That condition necessitated companies to adopt operational excellence as a strategy for optimising output with little resources, reducing lead time with the efficient use of assets and employees and avoiding safety and health issues to people and the environment. As a result of the need for operational excellence, many kinds of literature defined the concept based on the context of industry or sector. Industries such as manufacturing, services, oil and gas, mining and so many industries to mention a few, have their unique construct in the definition and therefore causing dilemma on which dimension to hold on to. It is against this backdrop that this paper synthesizes and integrate all the varying dimensions and fuses out similarities, differences and the antecedence of research directions taken on the few mentioned sectors. The paper thus concludes that the unique construct among all the definitions is continuous improvement, cost reduction, quality, time utilization, operational efficiency, staff involvement and output optimisation. However, they varied on risk management, staff health, safety and the concern for the environment, which is unique to oil and gas industry and that can affect the choice of research variables.

  3. Development of brown coal liquefaction. Design, construction and operation of a 50 t/d pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    As for the development of 50t/d pilot plant for the development of liquefaction plant of Victorian brown coal in Australia, outline of the results of the researches in 1984 is reported from the following 4 viewpoints; 1: design of process apparatuses, 2: manufacture of apparatuses, 3: field work of the construction, 4: preparation for operation of the plant. On the first item, the outline of ordering designed equipment from Japanese and Australian companies is described. On the second item the acceptance of purchasing goods from Japan and Australia and promotion of the inspection and quality assurance system. On the third item, contents of the continuous construction of the first stage are described. On the fourth item, the establishment and review of rules and regulations, training and education for operators, enviromental assessment, contents of safety and maintenance work and commissioning work by the promoting department for preparation of operation are described. Moreover support works of wide range for the promotion and adoption by necessary personnel, labour unions, the state of labour and activities for local discricts are described.

  4. Qualification of technical personnel for employment during construction and operation of the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.D.; Wolf, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    In the early stages of the SSC design it became apparent that construction will have a significant impact on post-secondary technical/vocational education in Texas. Present estimates are that from 2,000 to 3,000 employees will be needed in the traditional fields of civil, mechanical, electrical technology, computers as well as exotic technologies such as cryogenics and high vacuum. In this paper an on-going project is described which is directed toward assuring that graduates of Texas post-secondary technical and vocational education programs will be competitive for employment in these jobs. The project involves development of SSC pedagogical material at a level appropriate to the students, education of teachers about the SSC and development of delivery systems for education about the SSC

  5. The energy input in the construction and operation of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, G.; Niehaus, F.; Rath-Nagel, S.; Voss, A.

    1975-08-01

    The production of electric energy requires energy investments not only for direct fuel input but for the construction of power plants and for the extraction of primary energy fuels as well. When the overall energy balance of energy converting systems has to be assessed these energetic investments must be included. In the present investigation the overall energy input of different nuclear power plant types (comprising the nuclear fuel cycle) is computed and compared with a coal-fired plant. Moreover a time-dependent energy balance for the expansion of nuclear capacity according to the existing nuclear programs is calculated. Even applying only Light Water Reactors the nuclear expansion program (with an installed capacity of 50 GWsub(el) in 1985 and 170 GWsub(el) in 2000) would result in an accumulated fossil fuel saving of approximately the tenfold amount of primary energy consumed in the Federal Republic of Germany yearly today. (orig.) [de

  6. Construction and test of a box system for operations with air-sensitive and radioactive compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenstler, K.; Betzl, K.; Grosser, H.J.; Furkert, W.; Novotny, D.

    1985-06-01

    A system of mechanical components has been develoed, which can be used to design inert atmosphere boxes as well as radioactive boxes. The advantage in comparison with known designs consists in the modular construction principle which permits variable dimensions. Standard parts (flanges, bushings, air locks and so on) possess a uniform size. The system for the maintenance of a high-purity atmosphere in the box has been improved, decreasing the level of oxygen and water vapour below 10 vpm. The low impurity level in the inert atmosphere is attained by means of continuous circulation of the gases through a purification system. The usefulness of the boxes for handling air-sensitive and radioactive compounds has been tested over a period of some years. (author)

  7. Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBIE): Requirements Definition and Pilot Implementation Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Swalley U.S. Department of State, Overseas Buildings Operations Toby Wilson U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineer R&D Center Jeff Wix AEC3 The...exchanged in COBIE. To map those information exchanges to the IFC model, the Information Delivery Manual (IDM) process [ Wix 2007] was also used. The...Folksonomy. Wikimedia Foundation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folksonomy/, accessed 3 August 2007. Wix , Jeffrey. 2007. Information Delivery Manual

  8. Toward an understanding of the impact of production pressure on safety performance in construction operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sanguk; Saba, Farzaneh; Lee, Sanghyun; Mohamed, Yasser; Peña-Mora, Feniosky

    2014-07-01

    It is not unusual to observe that actual schedule and quality performances are different from planned performances (e.g., schedule delay and rework) during a construction project. Such differences often result in production pressure (e.g., being pressed to work faster). Previous studies demonstrated that such production pressure negatively affects safety performance. However, the process by which production pressure influences safety performance, and to what extent, has not been fully investigated. As a result, the impact of production pressure has not been incorporated much into safety management in practice. In an effort to address this issue, this paper examines how production pressure relates to safety performance over time by identifying their feedback processes. A conceptual causal loop diagram is created to identify the relationship between schedule and quality performances (e.g., schedule delays and rework) and the components related to a safety program (e.g., workers' perceptions of safety, safety training, safety supervision, and crew size). A case study is then experimentally undertaken to investigate this relationship with accident occurrence with the use of data collected from a construction site; the case study is used to build a System Dynamics (SD) model. The SD model, then, is validated through inequality statistics analysis. Sensitivity analysis and statistical screening techniques further permit an evaluation of the impact of the managerial components on accident occurrence. The results of the case study indicate that schedule delays and rework are the critical factors affecting accident occurrence for the monitored project. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Construction and Operational Experience with a Superconducting Octupole Used to Trap Antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)