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Sample records for reservoir characterization utilizing

  1. Reservoir resistivity characterization incorporating flow dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Arango, Santiago; Sun, Shuyu; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Katterbauer, Klemens

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for reservoir resistivity characterization are provided, in various aspects, an integrated framework for the estimation of Archie's parameters for a strongly heterogeneous reservoir utilizing the dynamics of the reservoir are provided. The framework can encompass a Bayesian estimation/inversion method for estimating the reservoir parameters, integrating production and time lapse formation conductivity data to achieve a better understanding of the subsurface rock conductivity properties and hence improve water saturation imaging.

  2. Reservoir resistivity characterization incorporating flow dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Arango, Santiago

    2016-04-07

    Systems and methods for reservoir resistivity characterization are provided, in various aspects, an integrated framework for the estimation of Archie\\'s parameters for a strongly heterogeneous reservoir utilizing the dynamics of the reservoir are provided. The framework can encompass a Bayesian estimation/inversion method for estimating the reservoir parameters, integrating production and time lapse formation conductivity data to achieve a better understanding of the subsurface rock conductivity properties and hence improve water saturation imaging.

  3. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  4. Characterization of Chemokine Receptor Utilization of Viruses in the Latent Reservoir for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Theodore; Hoffman, Trevor L.; Blankson, Joel; Finzi, Diana; Chadwick, Karen; Margolick, Joseph B.; Buck, Christopher; Siliciano, Janet D.; Doms, Robert W.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2000-01-01

    Latently infected resting CD4+ T cells provide a long-term reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and are likely to represent the major barrier to virus eradication in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy. The mechanisms by which viruses enter the latent reservoir and the nature of the chemokine receptors involved have not been determined. To evaluate the phenotype of the virus in this compartment with respect to chemokine receptor utilization, full-length HIV-1 env genes were cloned from latently infected cells and assayed functionally. We demonstrate that the majority of the viruses in the latent reservoir utilize CCR5 during entry, although utilization of several other receptors, including CXCR4, was observed. No alternative coreceptors were shown to be involved in a systematic fashion. Although R5 viruses are present in the latent reservoir, CCR5 was not expressed at high levels on resting CD4+ T cells. To understand the mechanism by which R5 viruses enter latent reservoir, the ability of an R5 virus, HIV-1 Ba-L, to infect highly purified resting CD4+ T lymphocytes from uninfected donors was evaluated. Entry of Ba-L could be observed when virus was applied at a multiplicity approaching 1. However, infection was limited to a subset of cells expressing low levels of CCR5 and markers of immunologic memory. Naive cells could not be infected by an R5 virus even when challenged with a large inoculum. Direct cell fractionation studies showed that latent virus is present predominantly in resting memory cells but also at lower levels in resting naive cells. Taken together, these findings provide support for the hypothesis that the direct infection of naive T cells is not the major mechanism by which the latent infection of resting T cells is established. PMID:10933689

  5. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  6. APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Bergeron; Tom Blasingame; Louis Doublet; Mohan Kelkar; George Freeman; Jeff Callard; David Moore; David Davies; Richard Vessell; Brian Pregger; Bill Dixon; Bryce Bezant

    2000-03-01

    Reservoir performance and characterization are vital parameters during the development phase of a project. Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to characterization does not optimize development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, especially carbonate reservoirs. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: (1) large, discontinuous pay intervals; (2) vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties; (3) low reservoir energy; (4) high residual oil saturation; and (5) low recovery efficiency. The operational problems they encounter in these types of reservoirs include: (1) poor or inadequate completions and stimulations; (2) early water breakthrough; (3) poor reservoir sweep efficiency in contacting oil throughout the reservoir as well as in the nearby well regions; (4) channeling of injected fluids due to preferential fracturing caused by excessive injection rates; and (5) limited data availability and poor data quality. Infill drilling operations only need target areas of the reservoir which will be economically successful. If the most productive areas of a reservoir can be accurately identified by combining the results of geological, petrophysical, reservoir performance, and pressure transient analyses, then this ''integrated'' approach can be used to optimize reservoir performance during secondary and tertiary recovery operations without resorting to ''blanket'' infill drilling methods. New and emerging technologies such as geostatistical modeling, rock typing, and rigorous decline type curve analysis can be used to quantify reservoir quality and the degree of interwell communication. These results can then be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The application of reservoir surveillance techniques to identify additional reservoir ''pay'' zones

  7. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern

  8. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  9. INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.O. Hitzman; A.K. Stepp; D.M. Dennis; L.R. Graumann

    2003-09-01

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions and technologies for improving oil production. The goal was to identify and utilize indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work in model sandpack cores was conducted using microbial cultures isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters using cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Increased oil recovery in multiple model sandpack systems was achieved and the technology and results were verified by successful field studies. Direct application of the research results has lead to the development of a feasible, practical, successful, and cost-effective technology which increases oil recovery. This technology is now being commercialized and applied in numerous field projects to increase oil recovery. Two field applications of the developed technology reported production increases of 21% and 24% in oil recovery.

  10. INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.O. Hitzman; S.A. Bailey

    2000-01-01

    This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery.This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery. Research has begun on the program and experimental laboratory work is underway. Polymer-producing cultures have been isolated from produced water samples and initially characterized. Concurrently, a microcosm scale sand-packed column has been designed and developed for testing cultures of interest, including polymer-producing strains. In research that is planned to begin in future work, comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents will be conducted in sand pack and cores with synthetic and natural field waters at concentrations, flooding rates, and with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs.

  11. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  12. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  13. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. K. Pande

    1998-10-29

    Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency

  14. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czirr, K.L.; Gaddis, M.P.; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    The principle objective of this project is to demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of an innovative reservoir management and carbon dioxide (CO2) flood project development approach for improving CO2 flood project economics in shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs

  15. Reservoirs operation and water resources utilization coordination in Hongshuihe basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chonghao; Chi, Kaige; Pang, Bo; Tang, Hongbin

    2018-06-01

    In the recent decade, the demand for water resources has been increasing with the economic development. The reservoirs of cascade hydropower stations in Hongshuihe basin, which are constructed with a main purpose of power generation, are facing more integrated water resources utilization problem. The conflict between power generation of cascade reservoirs and flood control, shipping, environmental protection and water supply has become increasingly prominent. This paper introduces the general situation and integrated water demand of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin, and it analyses the impact of various types of integrated water demand on power generation and supply. It establishes mathematic models, constrained by various types of integrated water demand, to guide the operation and water resources utilization management of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin. Integrated water coordination mechanism of Hongshuihe basin is also introduced. It provides a technical and management guide and demonstration for cascade reservoirs operation and integrated water management at home and abroad.

  16. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. O. Hitzman; A. K. Stepp; D. M. Dennis; L. R. Graumann

    2003-03-31

    This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work is underway. Microbial cultures have been isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Field pilot studies are underway.

  17. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

  18. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Bailey, S.A.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  19. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  20. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a heterogeneity matrix'' based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  1. Advantageous Reservoir Characterization Technology in Extra Low Permeability Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper took extra low permeability reservoirs in Dagang Liujianfang Oilfield as an example and analyzed different types of microscopic pore structures by SEM, casting thin sections fluorescence microscope, and so on. With adoption of rate-controlled mercury penetration, NMR, and some other advanced techniques, based on evaluation parameters, namely, throat radius, volume percentage of mobile fluid, start-up pressure gradient, and clay content, the classification and assessment method of extra low permeability reservoirs was improved and the parameter boundaries of the advantageous reservoirs were established. The physical properties of reservoirs with different depth are different. Clay mineral variation range is 7.0%, and throat radius variation range is 1.81 μm, and start pressure gradient range is 0.23 MPa/m, and movable fluid percentage change range is 17.4%. The class IV reservoirs account for 9.56%, class II reservoirs account for 12.16%, and class III reservoirs account for 78.29%. According to the comparison of different development methods, class II reservoir is most suitable for waterflooding development, and class IV reservoir is most suitable for gas injection development. Taking into account the gas injection in the upper section of the reservoir, the next section of water injection development will achieve the best results.

  2. Unconventional Tight Reservoirs Characterization with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, C. J. S.; Solatpour, R.; Kantzas, A.

    2017-12-01

    The increase in tight reservoir exploitation projects causes producing many papers each year on new, modern, and modified methods and techniques on estimating characteristics of these reservoirs. The most ambiguous of all basic reservoir property estimations deals with permeability. One of the logging methods that is advertised to predict permeability but is always met by skepticism is Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The ability of NMR to differentiate between bound and movable fluids and providing porosity increased the capability of NMR as a permeability prediction technique. This leads to a multitude of publications and the motivation of a review paper on this subject by Babadagli et al. (2002). The first part of this presentation is dedicated to an extensive review of the existing correlation models for NMR based estimates of tight reservoir permeability to update this topic. On the second part, the collected literature information is used to analyze new experimental data. The data are collected from tight reservoirs from Canada, the Middle East, and China. A case study is created to apply NMR measurement in the prediction of reservoir characterization parameters such as porosity, permeability, cut-offs, irreducible saturations etc. Moreover, permeability correlations are utilized to predict permeability. NMR experiments were conducted on water saturated cores. NMR T2 relaxation times were measured. NMR porosity, the geometric mean relaxation time (T2gm), Irreducible Bulk Volume (BVI), and Movable Bulk Volume (BVM) were calculated. The correlation coefficients were computed based on multiple regression analysis. Results are cross plots of NMR permeability versus the independently measured Klinkenberg corrected permeability. More complicated equations are discussed. Error analysis of models is presented and compared. This presentation is beneficial in understanding existing tight reservoir permeability models. The results can be used as a guide for choosing

  3. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Jaime Toro; Thomas H. Wilson; Emre Artun; Alejandro Sanchez; Sandeep Pyakurel

    2005-08-01

    Today, the major challenge in reservoir characterization is integrating data coming from different sources in varying scales, in order to obtain an accurate and high-resolution reservoir model. The role of seismic data in this integration is often limited to providing a structural model for the reservoir. Its relatively low resolution usually limits its further use. However, its areal coverage and availability suggest that it has the potential of providing valuable data for more detailed reservoir characterization studies through the process of seismic inversion. In this paper, a novel intelligent seismic inversion methodology is presented to achieve a desirable correlation between relatively low-frequency seismic signals, and the much higher frequency wireline-log data. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) is used as an intermediate step between the well logs and the surface seismic. A synthetic seismic model is developed by using real data and seismic interpretation. In the example presented here, the model represents the Atoka and Morrow formations, and the overlying Pennsylvanian sequence of the Buffalo Valley Field in New Mexico. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used to build two independent correlation models between; (1) Surface seismic and VSP, (2) VSP and well logs. After generating virtual VSP's from the surface seismic, well logs are predicted by using the correlation between VSP and well logs. The values of the density log, which is a surrogate for reservoir porosity, are predicted for each seismic trace through the seismic line with a classification approach having a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The same methodology is then applied to real data taken from the Buffalo Valley Field, to predict inter-well gamma ray and neutron porosity logs through the seismic line of interest. The same procedure can be applied to a complete 3D seismic block to obtain 3D distributions of reservoir properties with less uncertainty than the geostatistical

  4. Enhanced characterization of reservoir hydrocarbon components using electromagnetic data attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-12-23

    Advances in electromagnetic imaging techniques have led to the growing utilization of this technology for reservoir monitoring and exploration. These exploit the strong conductivity contrast between the hydrocarbon and water phases and have been used for mapping water front propagation in hydrocarbon reservoirs and enhancing the characterization of the reservoir formation. The conventional approach for the integration of electromagnetic data is to invert the data for saturation properties and then subsequently use the inverted properties as constraints in the history matching process. The non-uniqueness and measurement errors may however make this electromagnetic inversion problem strongly ill-posed, leading to potentially inaccurate saturation profiles. Another limitation of this approach is the uncertainty of Archie\\'s parameters in relating rock conductivity to water saturation, which may vary in the reservoir and are generally poorly known. We present an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework for efficiently integrating electromagnetic data into the history matching process and for simultaneously estimating the Archie\\'s parameters and the variance of the observation error of the electromagnetic data. We apply the proposed framework to a compositional reservoir model. We aim at assessing the relevance of EM data for estimating the different hydrocarbon components of the reservoir. The experimental results demonstrate that the individual hydrocarbon components are generally well matched, with nitrogen exhibiting the strongest improvement. The estimated observation error standard deviations are also within expected levels (between 5 and 10%), significantly contributing to the robustness of the proposed EM history matching framework. Archie\\'s parameter estimates approximate well the reference profile and assist in the accurate description of the electrical conductivity properties of the reservoir formation, hence leading to estimation accuracy improvements of around

  5. Enhanced characterization of reservoir hydrocarbon components using electromagnetic data attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens; Arango, Santiago; Sun, Shuyu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Advances in electromagnetic imaging techniques have led to the growing utilization of this technology for reservoir monitoring and exploration. These exploit the strong conductivity contrast between the hydrocarbon and water phases and have been used for mapping water front propagation in hydrocarbon reservoirs and enhancing the characterization of the reservoir formation. The conventional approach for the integration of electromagnetic data is to invert the data for saturation properties and then subsequently use the inverted properties as constraints in the history matching process. The non-uniqueness and measurement errors may however make this electromagnetic inversion problem strongly ill-posed, leading to potentially inaccurate saturation profiles. Another limitation of this approach is the uncertainty of Archie's parameters in relating rock conductivity to water saturation, which may vary in the reservoir and are generally poorly known. We present an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework for efficiently integrating electromagnetic data into the history matching process and for simultaneously estimating the Archie's parameters and the variance of the observation error of the electromagnetic data. We apply the proposed framework to a compositional reservoir model. We aim at assessing the relevance of EM data for estimating the different hydrocarbon components of the reservoir. The experimental results demonstrate that the individual hydrocarbon components are generally well matched, with nitrogen exhibiting the strongest improvement. The estimated observation error standard deviations are also within expected levels (between 5 and 10%), significantly contributing to the robustness of the proposed EM history matching framework. Archie's parameter estimates approximate well the reference profile and assist in the accurate description of the electrical conductivity properties of the reservoir formation, hence leading to estimation accuracy improvements of around 15%.

  6. A hybrid framework for reservoir characterization using fuzzy ranking and an artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baijie; Wang, Xin; Chen, Zhangxin

    2013-08-01

    Reservoir characterization refers to the process of quantitatively assigning reservoir properties using all available field data. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have recently been introduced to solve reservoir characterization problems dealing with the complex underlying relationships inherent in well log data. Despite the utility of ANNs, the current limitation is that most existing applications simply focus on directly implementing existing ANN models instead of improving/customizing them to fit the specific reservoir characterization tasks at hand. In this paper, we propose a novel intelligent framework that integrates fuzzy ranking (FR) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks for reservoir characterization. FR can automatically identify a minimum subset of well log data as neural inputs, and the MLP is trained to learn the complex correlations from the selected well log data to a target reservoir property. FR guarantees the selection of the optimal subset of representative data from the overall well log data set for the characterization of a specific reservoir property; and, this implicitly improves the modeling and predication accuracy of the MLP. In addition, a growing number of industrial agencies are implementing geographic information systems (GIS) in field data management; and, we have designed the GFAR solution (GIS-based FR ANN Reservoir characterization solution) system, which integrates the proposed framework into a GIS system that provides an efficient characterization solution. Three separate petroleum wells from southwestern Alberta, Canada, were used in the presented case study of reservoir porosity characterization. Our experiments demonstrate that our method can generate reliable results.

  7. Gypsy Field Project in Reservoir Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John P. Castagna; William J. Lamb; Carlos Moreno; Roger Young; Lynn Soreghan

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the Gypsy Project was to properly calculate seismic attributes and integrate these into a reservoir characterization project. Significant progress was made on the project in four areas. (1) Attenuation: In order for seismic inversion for rock properties or calculation of seismic attributes used to estimate rock properties to be performed validly, it is necessary to deal with seismic data that has had true amplitude and frequency content restored to account for earth filtering effects that are generally not included in seismic reservoir characterization methodologies. This requires the accurate measurement of seismic attenuation, something that is rarely achieved in practice. It is hoped that such measurements may also provide additional independent seismic attributes for use in reservoir characterization studies. In 2000, we were concerned with the ground truthing of attenuation measurements in the vicinity of wells. Our approach to the problem is one of extracting as time varying wavelet and relating temporal variations in the wavelet to an attenuation model of the earth. This method has the advantage of correcting for temporal variations in the reflectivity spectrum of the earth which confound the spectral ratio methodology which is the most commonly applied means of measuring attenuation from surface seismic data. Part I of the report describes our efforts in seismic attenuation as applied to the Gypsy data. (2) Optimal Attributes: A bewildering array of seismic attributes is available to the reservoir geoscientist to try to establish correlations to rock properties. Ultimately, the use of such a large number of degrees of freedom in the search for correlations with limited well control leads to common misapplication of statistically insignificant results which yields invalid predictions. Cross-validation against unused wells can be used to recognize such problems, but does not offer a solution to the question of which attributes should be used

  8. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Malik, M.A.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. This project involves reservoir characterization of two Late Permian slope and basin clastic reservoirs in the Delaware Basin, West Texas, followed by a field demonstration in one of the fields. The fields being investigated are Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields in Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Project objectives are divided into two major phases, reservoir characterization and implementation. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project were to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of the two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field. Reservoir characterization utilized 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once reservoir characterized was completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} at the northern end of the Ford Geraldine unit was chosen for reservoir simulation. This report summarizes the results of the second year of reservoir characterization.

  9. Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagna, John P.; Jr., O' Meara, Daniel J.

    2000-01-12

    The overall objective of this project was to use extensive Gypsy Field Laboratory and data as a focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. This report describes progress since project report DOE/BC/14970-7 and covers the period June 1997-September 1998 and represents one year of funding originally allocated for the year 1996. During the course of the work previously performed, high resolution geophysical and outcrop data revealed the importance of fractures at the Gypsy site. In addition, personnel changes and alternative funding (OCAST and oil company support of various kinds) allowed the authors to leverage DOE contributions and focus more on geophysical characterization.

  10. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2001-08-15

    Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.

  11. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  12. Spatial Stochastic Point Models for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syversveen, Anne Randi

    1997-12-31

    The main part of this thesis discusses stochastic modelling of geology in petroleum reservoirs. A marked point model is defined for objects against a background in a two-dimensional vertical cross section of the reservoir. The model handles conditioning on observations from more than one well for each object and contains interaction between objects, and the objects have the correct length distribution when penetrated by wells. The model is developed in a Bayesian setting. The model and the simulation algorithm are demonstrated by means of an example with simulated data. The thesis also deals with object recognition in image analysis, in a Bayesian framework, and with a special type of spatial Cox processes called log-Gaussian Cox processes. In these processes, the logarithm of the intensity function is a Gaussian process. The class of log-Gaussian Cox processes provides flexible models for clustering. The distribution of such a process is completely characterized by the intensity and the pair correlation function of the Cox process. 170 refs., 37 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Risk Decision Making Model for Reservoir Floodwater resources Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Floodwater resources utilization(FRU) can alleviate the shortage of water resources, but there are risks. In order to safely and efficiently utilize the floodwater resources, it is necessary to study the risk of reservoir FRU. In this paper, the risk rate of exceeding the design flood water level and the risk rate of exceeding safety discharge are estimated. Based on the principle of the minimum risk and the maximum benefit of FRU, a multi-objective risk decision making model for FRU is constructed. Probability theory and mathematical statistics method is selected to calculate the risk rate; C-D production function method and emergy analysis method is selected to calculate the risk benefit; the risk loss is related to flood inundation area and unit area loss; the multi-objective decision making problem of the model is solved by the constraint method. Taking the Shilianghe reservoir in Jiangsu Province as an example, the optimal equilibrium solution of FRU of the Shilianghe reservoir is found by using the risk decision making model, and the validity and applicability of the model are verified.

  14. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2002-09-29

    The project, "Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization," is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, inlcuding several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on "Reservoir Geophysics" for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we

  15. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Jack; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill; Bezant, Bryce

    2000-03-16

    The major purpose of this project was to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  16. Reservoir Identification: Parameter Characterization or Feature Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J.

    2017-12-01

    The ultimate goal of oil and gas exploration is to find the oil or gas reservoirs with industrial mining value. Therefore, the core task of modern oil and gas exploration is to identify oil or gas reservoirs on the seismic profiles. Traditionally, the reservoir is identify by seismic inversion of a series of physical parameters such as porosity, saturation, permeability, formation pressure, and so on. Due to the heterogeneity of the geological medium, the approximation of the inversion model and the incompleteness and noisy of the data, the inversion results are highly uncertain and must be calibrated or corrected with well data. In areas where there are few wells or no well, reservoir identification based on seismic inversion is high-risk. Reservoir identification is essentially a classification issue. In the identification process, the underground rocks are divided into reservoirs with industrial mining value and host rocks with non-industrial mining value. In addition to the traditional physical parameters classification, the classification may be achieved using one or a few comprehensive features. By introducing the concept of seismic-print, we have developed a new reservoir identification method based on seismic-print analysis. Furthermore, we explore the possibility to use deep leaning to discover the seismic-print characteristics of oil and gas reservoirs. Preliminary experiments have shown that the deep learning of seismic data could distinguish gas reservoirs from host rocks. The combination of both seismic-print analysis and seismic deep learning is expected to be a more robust reservoir identification method. The work was supported by NSFC under grant No. 41430323 and No. U1562219, and the National Key Research and Development Program under Grant No. 2016YFC0601

  17. Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs Using a Combination of Downhole Pressure and Self-Potential Transient Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yuji Nishi; Tsuneo Ishido

    2012-01-01

    In order to appraise the utility of self-potential (SP) measurements to characterize fractured reservoirs, we carried out continuous SP monitoring using multi Ag-AgCl electrodes installed within two open holes at the Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The observed ratio of SP change to pressure change associated with fluid flow showed different behaviors between intact host rock and fractured rock regions. Characteristic behavior peculiar to fractured reservoirs, which is predicted from numerical simulati...

  18. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  19. Full Waveform Inversion for Reservoir Characterization - A Synthetic Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zabihi Naeini, E.; Kamath, N.; Tsvankin, I.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Most current reservoir-characterization workflows are based on classic amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) inversion techniques. Although these methods have generally served us well over the years, here we examine full-waveform inversion (FWI

  20. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTION MODELS FOR EXPLOITING NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes

    2002-12-31

    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  2. Putting integrated reservoir characterization into practice - in house training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, F.M. Jr.; Best, D.A.; Clarke, R.T. [Mobile Exploration and Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The need for even more efficient reservoir characterization and management has forced a change in the way Mobil Oil provides technical support to its production operations. We`ve learned that to be successful, a good understanding of the reservoir is essential. This includes an understanding of the technical and business significance of reservoir heterogeneities at different stages of field development. A multi-disciplinary understanding of the business of integrated reservoir characterization is essential and to facilitate this understanding, Mobil has developed a highly successful {open_quotes}Reservoir Characterization Field Seminar{close_quotes}. Through specific team based case studies that incorporate outcrop examples and data the program provides participants the opportunity to explore historic and alternative approaches to reservoir description, characterization and management. We explore appropriate levels and timing of data gathering, technology applications, risk assessment and management practices at different stages of field development. The case studies presented throughout the course are a unique element of the program which combine real life and hypothetical problem sets that explore how different technical disciplines interact, the approaches to a problem solving they use, the assumptions and uncertainties contained in their contributions and the impact those conclusions may have on other disciplines involved in the overall reservoir management process. The team building aspect of the course was an added bonus.

  3. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, D.; Koerner, R.; Moos D.; Nguyen, J.; Phillips, C.; Tagbor, K.; Walker, S.

    1999-04-05

    This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate.

  4. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly progress report, June 13, 1995--September 12, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, P.K.

    1995-09-12

    At this stage of the reservoir characterization research, the main emphasis is on the geostatistics and reservoir simulation. Progress is reported on geological analysis, reservoir simulation, and reservoir management.

  5. Seismic reservoir characterization: how can multicomponent data help?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Yong-Gang

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the concepts of multicomponent seismology and how it can be applied to characterize hydrocarbon reservoirs, illustrated using a 3D three-component real-data example from southwest China. Hydrocarbon reservoirs formed from subtle lithological changes, such as stratigraphic traps, may be delineated from changes in P- and S-wave velocities and impedances, whilst hydrocarbon reservoirs containing aligned fractures are anisotropic. Examination of the resultant split shear waves can give us a better definition of their internal structures. Furthermore, frequency-dependent variations in seismic attributes derived from multicomponent data can provide us with vital information about fluid type and distribution. Current practice and various examples have demonstrated the undoubted potential of multicomponent seismic in reservoir characterization. Despite all this, there are still substantial challenges ahead. In particular, the improvement and interpretation of converted-wave imaging are major hurdles that need to be overcome before multicomponent seismic becomes a mainstream technology

  6. Seismic reservoir characterization: how can multicomponent data help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Yong-Gang

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the concepts of multicomponent seismology and how it can be applied to characterize hydrocarbon reservoirs, illustrated using a 3D three-component real-data example from southwest China. Hydrocarbon reservoirs formed from subtle lithological changes, such as stratigraphic traps, may be delineated from changes in P- and S-wave velocities and impedances, whilst hydrocarbon reservoirs containing aligned fractures are anisotropic. Examination of the resultant split shear waves can give us a better definition of their internal structures. Furthermore, frequency-dependent variations in seismic attributes derived from multicomponent data can provide us with vital information about fluid type and distribution. Current practice and various examples have demonstrated the undoubted potential of multicomponent seismic in reservoir characterization. Despite all this, there are still substantial challenges ahead. In particular, the improvement and interpretation of converted-wave imaging are major hurdles that need to be overcome before multicomponent seismic becomes a mainstream technology.

  7. An Effective Reservoir Parameter for Seismic Characterization of Organic Shale Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luanxiao; Qin, Xuan; Zhang, Jinqiang; Liu, Xiwu; Han, De-hua; Geng, Jianhua; Xiong, Yineng

    2017-12-01

    Sweet spots identification for unconventional shale reservoirs involves detection of organic-rich zones with abundant porosity. However, commonly used elastic attributes, such as P- and S-impedances, often show poor correlations with porosity and organic matter content separately and thus make the seismic characterization of sweet spots challenging. Based on an extensive analysis of worldwide laboratory database of core measurements, we find that P- and S-impedances exhibit much improved linear correlations with the sum of volume fraction of organic matter and porosity than the single parameter of organic matter volume fraction or porosity. Importantly, from the geological perspective, porosity in conjunction with organic matter content is also directly indicative of the total hydrocarbon content of shale resources plays. Consequently, we propose an effective reservoir parameter (ERP), the sum of volume fraction of organic matter and porosity, to bridge the gap between hydrocarbon accumulation and seismic measurements in organic shale reservoirs. ERP acts as the first-order factor in controlling the elastic properties as well as characterizing the hydrocarbon storage capacity of organic shale reservoirs. We also use rock physics modeling to demonstrate why there exists an improved linear correlation between elastic impedances and ERP. A case study in a shale gas reservoir illustrates that seismic-derived ERP can be effectively used to characterize the total gas content in place, which is also confirmed by the production well.

  8. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Len, Shawn; Minavea, Anastasia; Wood, James; Xie, Deyi

    2002-01-29

    This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along `phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines.

  9. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  10. Carbonate reservoir characterization with lithofacies clustering and porosity prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Moqbel, Abdulrahman; Wang, Yanghua

    2011-01-01

    One of the objectives in reservoir characterization is to quantitatively or semi-quantitatively map the spatial distribution of its heterogeneity and related properties. With the availability of 3D seismic data, artificial neural networks are capable of discovering the nonlinear relationship between seismic attributes and reservoir parameters. For a target carbonate reservoir, we adopt a two-stage approach to conduct characterization. First, we use an unsupervised neural network, the self-organizing map method, to classify the reservoir lithofacies. Then we apply a supervised neural network, the back-propagation algorithm, to quantitatively predict the porosity of the carbonate reservoir. Based on porosity maps at different time levels, we interpret the target reservoir vertically related to three depositional phases corresponding to, respectively, a lowstand system tract before sea water immersion, a highstand system tract when water covers organic deposits and a transition zone for the sea level falling. The highstand system is the most prospective zone, given the organic content deposited during this stage. The transition zone is also another prospective feature in the carbonate depositional system due to local build-ups

  11. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie

    2002-10-01

    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, including several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along ''phantom'' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into

  12. Exploration and reservoir characterization; Technology Target Areas; TTA2 - Exploration and reservoir characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    In future, research within exploration and reservoir characterization will play an even more important role for Norway since resources are decreasing and new challenges like deep sea, harsh environment and last but not least environmental issues have to be considered. There are two major fields which have to be addressed within exploration and reservoir characterization: First, replacement of reserves by new discoveries and ultimate field recoveries in mature basins at the Norwegian Continental shelf, e.g. at the Halten Terrace has to be addressed. A wealth of data exists in the more mature areas. Interdisciplinary integration is a key feature of reservoir characterization, where available data and specialist knowledge need to be combined into a consistent reservoir description. A systematic approach for handling both uncertainties in data sources and uncertainties in basic models is needed. Fast simulation techniques are necessary to generate models spanning the event space, covering both underground based and model-based uncertainties. Second, exploration in frontier areas like the Barents Sea region and the deeper Voering Basin has to be addressed. The scarcity of wells in these frontier areas leads to uncertainties in the geological understanding. Basin- and depositional modelling are essential for predicting where source rocks and reservoir rocks are deposited, and if, when and which hydrocarbons are generated and trapped. Predictive models and improved process understanding is therefore crucial to meet these issues. Especially the challenges related to the salt deposits e.g. sub-salt/sub-basalt reservoir definitions in the Nordkapp Basin demands up-front research and technology developments. TTA2 stresses the need to focus on the development of new talents. We also see a strong need to push cooperation as far as possible in the present competitive environment. Projects that may require a substantial financial commitment have been identified. The following

  13. SEISMIC DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY: APPLICATION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project was to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study focused on West Coalinga Field in California. The project initially attempted to build reservoir models based on different geologic and geophysical data independently using different tools, then to compare the results, and ultimately to integrate them all. We learned, however, that this strategy was impractical. The different data and tools need to be integrated from the beginning because they are all interrelated. This report describes a new approach to geostatistical modeling and presents an integration of geology and geophysics to explain the formation of the complex Coalinga reservoir.

  14. Ensemble-Based Data Assimilation in Reservoir Characterization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungpil Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of ensemble-based data assimilation for strongly nonlinear problems on the characterization of heterogeneous reservoirs with different production histories. It concentrates on ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF and ensemble smoother (ES as representative frameworks, discusses their pros and cons, and investigates recent progress to overcome their drawbacks. The typical weaknesses of ensemble-based methods are non-Gaussian parameters, improper prior ensembles and finite population size. Three categorized approaches, to mitigate these limitations, are reviewed with recent accomplishments; improvement of Kalman gains, add-on of transformation functions, and independent evaluation of observed data. The data assimilation in heterogeneous reservoirs, applying the improved ensemble methods, is discussed on predicting unknown dynamic data in reservoir characterization.

  15. Full Waveform Inversion for Reservoir Characterization - A Synthetic Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zabihi Naeini, E.

    2017-05-26

    Most current reservoir-characterization workflows are based on classic amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) inversion techniques. Although these methods have generally served us well over the years, here we examine full-waveform inversion (FWI) as an alternative tool for higher-resolution reservoir characterization. An important step in developing reservoir-oriented FWI is the implementation of facies-based rock physics constraints adapted from the classic methods. We show that such constraints can be incorporated into FWI by adding appropriately designed regularization terms to the objective function. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated on both isotropic and VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) models with pronounced lateral and vertical heterogeneity. The inversion results are explained using the theoretical radiation patterns produced by perturbations in the medium parameters.

  16. Reservoir Characterization for Unconventional Resource Potential, Pitsanulok Basin, Onshore Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyasatphan, Prat

    The Pitsanulok Basin is the largest onshore basin in Thailand. Located within the basin is the largest oil field in Thailand, the Sirikit field. As conventional oil production has plateaued and EOR is not yet underway, an unconventional play has emerged as a promising alternative to help supply the energy needs. Source rocks in the basin are from the Oligocene lacustrine shale of the Chum Saeng Formation. This study aims to quantify and characterize the potential of shale gas/oil development in the Chum Saeng Formation using advanced reservoir characterization techniques. The study starts with rock physics analysis to determine the relationship between geophysical, lithological, and geomechanical properties of rocks. Simultaneous seismic inversion is later performed. Seismic inversion provides spatial variation of geophysical properties, i.e. P-impedance, S-impedance, and density. With results from rock physics analysis and from seismic inversion, the reservoir is characterized by applying analyses from wells to the inverted seismic data. And a 3D lithofacies cube is generated. TOC is computed from inverted AI. Static moduli are calculated. A seismic derived brittleness cube is calculated from Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus. The reservoir characterization shows a spatial variation in rock facies and shale reservoir properties, including TOC, brittleness, and elastic moduli. From analysis, the most suitable location for shale gas/oil pilot exploration and development are identified. The southern area of the survey near the MD-1 well with an approximate depth around 650-850 m has the highest shale reservoir potential. The shale formation is thick, with intermediate brittleness and high TOC. These properties make it as a potential sweet spot for a future shale reservoir exploration and development.

  17. Synergizing Crosswell Seismic and Electromagnetic Techniques for Enhancing Reservoir Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-11-18

    Increasing complexity of hydrocarbon projects and the request for higher recovery rates have driven the oil-and-gas industry to look for a more-detailed understanding of the subsurface formation to optimize recovery of oil and profitability. Despite the significant successes of geophysical techniques in determining changes within the reservoir, the benefits from individually mapping the information are limited. Although seismic techniques have been the main approach for imaging the subsurface, the weak density contrast between water and oil has made electromagnetic (EM) technology an attractive complement to improve fluid distinction, especially for high-saline water. This crosswell technology assumes greater importance for obtaining higher-resolution images of the interwell regions to more accurately characterize the reservoir and track fluid-front developments. In this study, an ensemble-Kalman-based history-matching framework is proposed for directly incorporating crosswell time-lapse seismic and EM data into the history-matching process. The direct incorporation of the time-lapse seismic and EM data into the history-matching process exploits the complementarity of these data to enhance subsurface characterization, to incorporate interwell information, and to avoid biases that may be incurred from separate inversions of the geophysical data for attributes. An extensive analysis with 2D and realistic 3D reservoirs illustrates the robustness and enhanced forecastability of critical reservoir variables. The 2D reservoir provides a better understanding of the connection between fluid discrimination and enhanced history matches, and the 3D reservoir demonstrates its applicability to a realistic reservoir. History-matching enhancements (in terms of reduction in the history-matching error) when incorporating both seismic and EM data averaged approximately 50% for the 2D case, and approximately 30% for the 3D case, and permeability estimates were approximately 25

  18. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION USING SEISMIC AND WELL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... analysis of the entire pay zone is impractical. A typical seismic section of Niger Delta will reveal number of synsedimentary structures resulting from the deltaic tectonic. The structures include growth faults; which are normal faults characterization by a concave fault plane resulting from the decrease of dip at ...

  19. Gas condensate reservoir performance : part 1 : fluid characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, F.B.; Bennion, D.B. [Hycal Energy Research Laboratories Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Andersen, G. [ChevronTexaco, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Phase behaviour in gas condensate reservoirs is sensitive to changes in pressure and temperature, which can lead to significant errors in fluid characterization. The challenging task of characterizing in situ fluids in gas condensate reservoirs was discussed with reference to the errors that occur as a result of the complex coupling between phase behavior and geology. This paper presented techniques for reservoir sampling and characterization and proposed methods for minimizing errors. Errors are often made in the classification of dew point systems because engineering criteria does not accurately represent the phase behavior of the reservoir. For example, the fluid of a certain condensate yield may be categorized as a wet gas rather than a retrograde condensate fluid. It was noted that the liquid yield does not dictate whether the fluid is condensate or wet gas, but rather where the reservoir temperature is situated in the pressure temperature phase loop. In order to proceed with a viable field development plan and optimization, the reservoir fluid must be understood. Given that gas productivity decreases with liquid drop out in the near wellbore region, capillary pressure plays a significant role in retrograde reservoirs. It was noted that well understood parameters will lead to a better assessment of the amount of hydrocarbon in place, the rate at which the resource can be produced and optimization strategies as the reservoir matures. It was concluded that multi-rate sampling is the best method to use in sampling fluids since the liquid yield changes as a function of rate. Although bottom-hole sampling in gas condensate reservoirs may be problematic, it should always be performed to address any concerns for liquid-solid separation. Produced fluids typically reveal a specific signature that informs the operator of in situ properties. This paper presented examples that pertain to wet versus retrograde condensate behavior and the presence of an oil zone. The

  20. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Reservoir Characterization. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Jaime Toro; Thomas H. Wilson; Emre Artun; Alejandro Sanchez; Sandeep Pyakurel

    2005-01-01

    Today, the major challenge in reservoir characterization is integrating data coming from different sources in varying scales, in order to obtain an accurate and high-resolution reservoir model. The role of seismic data in this integration is often limited to providing a structural model for the reservoir. Its relatively low resolution usually limits its further use. However, its areal coverage and availability suggest that it has the potential of providing valuable data for more detailed reservoir characterization studies through the process of seismic inversion. In this paper, a novel intelligent seismic inversion methodology is presented to achieve a desirable correlation between relatively low-frequency seismic signals, and the much higher frequency wireline-log data. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) is used as an intermediate step between the well logs and the surface seismic. A synthetic seismic model is developed by using real data and seismic interpretation. In the example presented here, the model represents the Atoka and Morrow formations, and the overlying Pennsylvanian sequence of the Buffalo Valley Field in New Mexico. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used to build two independent correlation models between; (1) Surface seismic and VSP, (2) VSP and well logs. After generating virtual VSP's from the surface seismic, well logs are predicted by using the correlation between VSP and well logs. The values of the density log, which is a surrogate for reservoir porosity, are predicted for each seismic trace through the seismic line with a classification approach having a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The same methodology is then applied to real data taken from the Buffalo Valley Field, to predict inter-well gamma ray and neutron porosity logs through the seismic line of interest. The same procedure can be applied to a complete 3D seismic block to obtain 3D distributions of reservoir properties with less uncertainty than the geostatistical

  1. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a ``heterogeneity matrix`` based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  2. Shale gas reservoir characterization using LWD in real time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, S.Y.; Kok, J.C.L.; Tollefsen, E.M.; Baihly, J.D.; Malpani, R.; Alford, J. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Wireline logging programs are frequently used to evaluate vertical boreholes in shale gas plays. Data logged from the vertical hole are used to define reservoir profiles for the horizontal target window. The horizontal wells are then steered based on gamma ray measurements obtained using correlations against the vertical pilot wells. Logging-while-drilling tools are used in bottom hole assemblies (BHA) to ensure accurate well placement and to perform detailed reservoir characterizations across the target structure. The LWD measurements are also used to avoid hazards and enhance rates of penetration. LWD can also be used to enhance trajectory placement and provide an improved understanding of reservoirs. In this study, LWD measurements were conducted at a shale gas play in order to obtain accurate well placement, formation evaluation, and completion optimization processes. The study showed how LWD measurements can be used to optimize well completion and stimulation plans by considering well positions in relation to geological targets, reservoir property changes, hydrocarbon saturation disparity, and variations in geomechanical properties. 21 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Seismic attributes characterization for Albian reservoirs in shallow Santos Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincentelli, Maria Gabriela C.; Barbosa, Mauro [HRT Petroleum, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Santos basin southwest area is characterized by gas production, but it shows an exploratory problem due to the lack of good reservoirs facies. The main reservoirs are the Albian calcarenites, which show low porosities values (about 2%) in the northwest portion of the study area. From wire log analysis, it was interpreted that the porosity values can reach 15% at the south-west portion, both in the Caravela, Cavalo Marinho and Tubarao oil/gas fields and in the neighborhood of these fields. In order to find the best places to drill exploration wells at Shallow Santos, it is recommended to apply analyses of seismic attributes including: main average amplitude, energy, RMS, main amplitude, etc. Once the application of this methodology is restricted to 3D seismic data, in this study, a pseudo-3D seismic volume was built from 9,635 km of seismic lines, and 13 wells were used for reservoir facies control. As a result, the presence of good facies reservoirs in this area of the basin is restricted to trends with a NE-SW direction, and their presence is not only associated with the structural highs, this fact explains the dry wells over rollover structures. (author)

  4. Reservoir characterization by multiattribute analysis: The Orito field case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Luis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to characterize the Caballos formation reservoir in the Orito field in the Putumayo basin - Colombia, a multiattribute analysis was applied to a 50 km2 seismic volume along with 16 boreholes. Some properties of the reservoir were reliably estimated and very accurate when compared with well data. The porosity, permeability and volume of shale were calculated in the seismic volume by at least second order multivariate polynomial. A good correlation between porosity and acoustic impedance was observed by means of crossplot analysis performed on properties measured and estimated in cores or borehole logs as well as on properties calculated in the seismic volume. The estimated property values were well behaved according to the rocks physics analysis. With the property maps generated and the geological environments of the reservoir a new interpretation of the Caballos formation was established. High correlation coefficients and low estimated errors point out competence to calculate these three reservoir properties in places far from the influence of the wells. The multiple equation system was established through weighted hierarchical grouping of attributes and their coefficients calculated applying the inverse generalized matrix method.

  5. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Archie R.

    1996-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Cross-well bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  6. Evaluating Utility Gloves as a Potential Reservoir for Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathy L; Naber, E Donald; Halteman, William A

    2015-08-01

    This pilot study sought to determine the rate and degree to which gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus occurred on the inside of utility gloves used at University of Maine at Augusta, Dental Health Programs' dental hygiene clinic. Five steam autoclave utility gloves were randomly selected to serve as control and a convenience sample of 10 used utility gloves were selected from the sterilization area. A sample was collected from a predetermined surface area from the inside of each steam autoclave utility glove and used utility glove. Each sample was used to inoculate a Petri plate containing 2 types of culture media. Samples were incubated at 37° C for 30 to 36 hours in aerobic conditions. Colony forming units (CFU) were counted. Confidence intervals (CI) estimated the rate of contamination with gram-negative K. pneumoniae, E. coli and P. aeruginosa on the inside of steam autoclave utility gloves to be n=33 95% CL [0.000, 0.049], used utility gloves to be n=70, 95% CL [0.000, 0.0303]. Data estimated the rate of contamination with gram-positive S. aureus on the inside of steam autoclave utility gloves to be n=35, 95% CL [0.233, 0.530], used utility gloves to be n=70, 95% CL [0.2730, 0.4975]. Culture media expressed a wide range of CFU from 0 to over 200. The risk of utility glove contamination with gram-negative bacteria is likely low. The expressed growth of S. aureus from steam autoclave utility gloves controls raises questions about the effectiveness and safety of generally accepted sterilization standards for the governmentally mandated use of utility gloves. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  7. Analysis of the influence of reservoirs utilization to water quality profiles in Indonesia (Saguling - Jatiluhur) and Malaysia (Temengor - Chenderoh) with special references to cascade reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subehi, Luki; Norasikin Ismail, Siti; Ridwansyah, Iwan; Hamid, Muzzalifah Abd; Mansor, Mashhor

    2018-02-01

    Tropical reservoir is the one ecosystem which is functioning in both ecological and economical services. As the settling of water volume, it harbors many species of fish. The objective of this study is to analyze the utilization and management of reservoirs related to their water quality conditions, represent by tropical reservoirs from Indonesia and Malaysia. Survey at Jatiluhur and Saguling (Indonesia) was conducted in March 2014 and September 2015, respectively while in Temengor and Chenderoh (Malaysia), the survey was done in January 2014 and April 2017, respectively. Based on elevation, Saguling and Temengor are upstream reservoirs. On the contrary, Jatiluhur and Chenderoh are downstream reservoirs. The results of the surveys in Jatiluhur and Saguling reservoirs showed that the average depths are 32.9m and 17.9m, respectively. On the other hand, Temengor and Chenderoh reservoirs are 100m and 16.2m, respectively. All of them play multi-functional roles including as a source of power plant, fisheries and tourism, as well as water sources for irrigation. In addition, Saguling and Temengor reservoirs are relatively dendritic in shape. In Indonesia, there are three consecutive reservoirs along Citarum River, whereas in Malaysia there are four consecutive reservoirs along Perak River. The results showed the potential impact of fish cages as pollutant, especially at Indonesian reservoirs. In addition, these tropical reservoirs have become famous tourism getaway. The capabilities of economic values of these reservoirs and ecosystem should be balanced. Basic ecological information is necessary for the next study.

  8. Integrated reservoir characterization of a Posidonia Shale outcrop analogue: From serendipity to understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological

  9. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir-characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Technical progress is summarized for: geophysical characterization; reservoir characterization; outcrop characterization; and recovery technology identification and analysis.

  10. Characterization qualitative and potentialities of utilization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization qualitative and potentialities of utilization of methacomposts of poultry in the nurseries aboveground. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences.

  11. Utilization of Tidal Land of The Wonogiri Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ritohardoyo

    2004-01-01

    The study reveals that the tidal areas of the Wonogiri Dam fluctuate from 1,300 to 6,400 hectares, within 1 to 7 moths period per annum. The cultivator of the tidal area consist of the farmer inhabitants of the dam prior to the construction (81,3 percent and inhabitants of the surrounding areas of the dam and new omers from other areas (18,7 percent. These farming households are pushed to cultivate these lands due to limited control over land resources in their areas of origin ( averaged 1,057 m2. Variations in the areas of origin and motivation in utilizing of the lands do not lead to significant differences in the size of land cultivated in the tidal areas. Most of these lands are devoted to ultivate rice as staple  food (1,470 m2, rather than to cultivate cash crops (palawija (1,118 m2. Farming techniques employed in these areas are much more simple than those prior to the construction of the dam or those elsewhere at present in the district. The most important factor affecting incomes in this activity is the amount of capital cost spent. These incomes comprises some 60 percent of the farming households.

  12. Inverse Theory for Petroleum Reservoir Characterization and History Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Dean S.; Reynolds, Albert C.; Liu, Ning

    This book is a guide to the use of inverse theory for estimation and conditional simulation of flow and transport parameters in porous media. It describes the theory and practice of estimating properties of underground petroleum reservoirs from measurements of flow in wells, and it explains how to characterize the uncertainty in such estimates. Early chapters present the reader with the necessary background in inverse theory, probability and spatial statistics. The book demonstrates how to calculate sensitivity coefficients and the linearized relationship between models and production data. It also shows how to develop iterative methods for generating estimates and conditional realizations. The text is written for researchers and graduates in petroleum engineering and groundwater hydrology and can be used as a textbook for advanced courses on inverse theory in petroleum engineering. It includes many worked examples to demonstrate the methodologies and a selection of exercises.

  13. Reservoir characterization of the Mt. Simon Sandstone, Illinois Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Damico, J.; Leetaru, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    The integration of open hole well log analyses, core analyses and pressure transient analyses was used for reservoir characterization of the Mt. Simon sandstone. Characterization of the injection interval provides the basis for a geologic model to support the baseline MVA model, specify pressure design requirements of surface equipment, develop completion strategies, estimate injection rates, and project the CO2 plume distribution.The Cambrian-age Mt. Simon Sandstone overlies the Precambrian granite basement of the Illinois Basin. The Mt. Simon is relatively thick formation exceeding 800 meters in some areas of the Illinois Basin. In the deeper part of the basin where sequestration is likely to occur at depths exceeding 1000 m, horizontal core permeability ranges from less than 1 ?? 10-12 cm 2 to greater than 1 ?? 10-8 cm2. Well log and core porosity can be up to 30% in the basal Mt. Simon reservoir. For modeling purposes, reservoir characterization includes absolute horizontal and vertical permeability, effective porosity, net and gross thickness, and depth. For horizontal permeability, log porosity was correlated with core. The core porosity-permeability correlation was improved by using grain size as an indication of pore throat size. After numerous attempts to identify an appropriate log signature, the calculated cementation exponent from Archie's porosity and resistivity relationships was used to identify which porosity-permeability correlation to apply and a permeability log was made. Due to the relatively large thickness of the Mt. Simon, vertical permeability is an important attribute to understand the distribution of CO2 when the injection interval is in the lower part of the unit. Only core analyses and specifically designed pressure transient tests can yield vertical permeability. Many reservoir flow models show that 500-800 m from the injection well most of the CO2 migrates upward depending on the magnitude of the vertical permeability and CO2 injection

  14. Integrated reservoir assessment and characterization: Final report, October 1, 1985--September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honarpour, M.; Szpakiewicz, M.; Sharma, B.; Chang, Ming-Ming; Schatzinger, R.; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L.; Maerefat, N.

    1989-05-01

    This report covers the development of a generic approach to reservoir characterization, the preliminary studies leading to the selection of an appropriate depositional system for detailed study, the application of outcrop studies to quantified reservoir characterization, and the construction of a quantified geological/engineering model used to screen the effects and scales of various geological heterogeneities within a reservoir. These heterogeneities result in large production/residual oil saturation contrasts over small distances. 36 refs., 124 figs., 38 tabs.

  15. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  16. Quantum Bayesian perspective for intelligence reservoir characterization, monitoring and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada Aguilar, Miguel Ángel; Khrennikov, Andrei; Oleschko, Klaudia; de Jesús Correa, María

    2017-10-01

    The paper starts with a brief review of the literature about uncertainty in geological, geophysical and petrophysical data. In particular, we present the viewpoints of experts in geophysics on the application of Bayesian inference and subjective probability. Then we present arguments that the use of classical probability theory (CP) does not match completely the structure of geophysical data. We emphasize that such data are characterized by contextuality and non-Kolmogorovness (the impossibility to use the CP model), incompleteness as well as incompatibility of some geophysical measurements. These characteristics of geophysical data are similar to the characteristics of quantum physical data. Notwithstanding all this, contextuality can be seen as a major deviation of quantum theory from classical physics. In particular, the contextual probability viewpoint is the essence of the Växjö interpretation of quantum mechanics. We propose to use quantum probability (QP) for decision-making during the characterization, modelling, exploring and management of the intelligent hydrocarbon reservoir. Quantum Bayesianism (QBism), one of the recently developed information interpretations of quantum theory, can be used as the interpretational basis for such QP decision-making in geology, geophysics and petroleum projects design and management. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  17. Quantum Bayesian perspective for intelligence reservoir characterization, monitoring and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada Aguilar, Miguel Ángel; Khrennikov, Andrei; Oleschko, Klaudia; de Jesús Correa, María

    2017-11-13

    The paper starts with a brief review of the literature about uncertainty in geological, geophysical and petrophysical data. In particular, we present the viewpoints of experts in geophysics on the application of Bayesian inference and subjective probability. Then we present arguments that the use of classical probability theory (CP) does not match completely the structure of geophysical data. We emphasize that such data are characterized by contextuality and non-Kolmogorovness (the impossibility to use the CP model), incompleteness as well as incompatibility of some geophysical measurements. These characteristics of geophysical data are similar to the characteristics of quantum physical data. Notwithstanding all this, contextuality can be seen as a major deviation of quantum theory from classical physics. In particular, the contextual probability viewpoint is the essence of the Växjö interpretation of quantum mechanics. We propose to use quantum probability (QP) for decision-making during the characterization, modelling, exploring and management of the intelligent hydrocarbon reservoir Quantum Bayesianism (QBism), one of the recently developed information interpretations of quantum theory, can be used as the interpretational basis for such QP decision-making in geology, geophysics and petroleum projects design and management.This article is part of the themed issue 'Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Integration of rock typing methods for carbonate reservoir characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliakbardoust, E; Rahimpour-Bonab, H

    2013-01-01

    Reservoir rock typing is the most important part of all reservoir modelling. For integrated reservoir rock typing, static and dynamic properties need to be combined, but sometimes these two are incompatible. The failure is due to the misunderstanding of the crucial parameters that control the dynamic behaviour of the reservoir rock and thus selecting inappropriate methods for defining static rock types. In this study, rock types were defined by combining the SCAL data with the rock properties, particularly rock fabric and pore types. First, air-displacing-water capillary pressure curues were classified because they are representative of fluid saturation and behaviour under capillary forces. Next the most important rock properties which control the fluid flow and saturation behaviour (rock fabric and pore types) were combined with defined classes. Corresponding petrophysical properties were also attributed to reservoir rock types and eventually, defined rock types were compared with relative permeability curves. This study focused on representing the importance of the pore system, specifically pore types in fluid saturation and entrapment in the reservoir rock. The most common tests in static rock typing, such as electrofacies analysis and porosity–permeability correlation, were carried out and the results indicate that these are not appropriate approaches for reservoir rock typing in carbonate reservoirs with a complicated pore system. (paper)

  19. T-R Cycle Characterization and Imaging: Advanced Diagnostic Methodology for Petroleum Reservoir and Trap Detection and Delineation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-08-30

    Characterization of stratigraphic sequences (T-R cycles or sequences) included outcrop studies, well log analysis and seismic reflection interpretation. These studies were performed by researchers at the University of Alabama, Wichita State University and McGill University. The outcrop, well log and seismic characterization studies were used to develop a depositional sequence model, a T-R cycle (sequence) model, and a sequence stratigraphy predictive model. The sequence stratigraphy predictive model developed in this study is based primarily on the modified T-R cycle (sequence) model. The T-R cycle (sequence) model using transgressive and regressive systems tracts and aggrading, backstepping, and infilling intervals or sections was found to be the most appropriate sequence stratigraphy model for the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico to improve petroleum stratigraphic trap and specific reservoir facies imaging, detection and delineation. The known petroleum reservoirs of the Mississippi Interior and North Louisiana Salt Basins were classified using T-R cycle (sequence) terminology. The transgressive backstepping reservoirs have been the most productive of oil, and the transgressive backstepping and regressive infilling reservoirs have been the most productive of gas. Exploration strategies were formulated using the sequence stratigraphy predictive model and the classification of the known petroleum reservoirs utilizing T-R cycle (sequence) terminology. The well log signatures and seismic reflector patterns were determined to be distinctive for the aggrading, backstepping and infilling sections of the T-R cycle (sequence) and as such, well log and seismic data are useful for recognizing and defining potential reservoir facies. The use of the sequence stratigraphy predictive model, in combination with the knowledge of how the distinctive characteristics of the T-R system tracts and their subdivisions are expressed in well log patterns

  20. The influence of soluble organic matter on shale reservoir characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Shale with a maturity within the “oil window” contains a certain amount of residual soluble organic matter (SOM. This SOM have an important influence on characterization of shale reservoir. In this study, two shale samples were collected from the Upper Permian Dalong Formation in the northwestern boundary of Sichuan Basin. Their geochemistry, mineral composition, and pore structure (surface area and pore volume were investigated before and after removing the SOM by means of extraction via dichloromethane or trichloromethane. The results show that the TOC, S1, S2, and IH of the extracted samples decrease significantly, but the mineral composition has no evident change as compared with their raw samples. Thus, we can infer that the original pore structure is thought to be unaffected from the extraction. The SOM occupies pore volume and hinders pores connectivity. The extraction greatly increases the surface area and pore volume of the samples. The residual SOM in the shale samples occur mainly in the micropores and smaller mesopores, and their occupied pore size range seems being constrained by the maturity. For the lower mature shale samples, the SOM is mainly hosted in organic pores that are less than 5 nm in size. For the middle mature shale samples, the micropores and some mesopores ranging between 2 and 20 nm in size are the main storage space for the SOM.

  1. Pressurization Risk Assessment of CO2 Reservoirs Utilizing Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyant, E.; Han, W. S.; Kim, K. Y.; Park, E.; Han, K.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring of pressure buildup can provide explicit information on reservoir integrity and is an appealing tool, however pressure variation is dependent on a variety of factors causing high uncertainty in pressure predictions. This work evaluated pressurization of a reservoir system in the presence of leakage pathways as well as exploring the effects of compartmentalization of the reservoir utilizing design of experiments (Definitive Screening, Box Behnken, Central Composite, and Latin Hypercube designs) and response surface methods. Two models were developed, 1) an idealized injection scenario in order to evaluate the performance of multiple designs, and 2) a complex injection scenario implementing the best performing design to investigate pressurization of the reservoir system. A holistic evaluation of scenario 1, determined that the Central Composite design would be used for the complex injection scenario. The complex scenario evaluated 5 risk factors: reservoir, seal, leakage pathway and fault permeabilities, and horizontal position of the pathway. A total of 60 response surface models (RSM) were developed for the complex scenario with an average R2 of 0.95 and a NRMSE of 0.067. Sensitivity to the input factors was dynamic through space and time; at the earliest time (0.05 years) the reservoir permeability was dominant, and for later times (>0.5 years) the fault permeability became dominant for all locations. The RSM's were then used to conduct a Monte Carlo Analysis to further analyze pressurization risks, identifying the P10, P50, P90 values. This identified the in zone (lower) P90 values as 2.16, 1.77, and 1.53 MPa and above zone values of 1.35, 1.23, 1.09 MPa for monitoring locations 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In summary, the design of experiments and response surface methods allowed for an efficient sensitivity and uncertainty analysis to be conducted permitting a complete evaluation of the pressurization across the entire parameter space.

  2. Reservoir Characterization using geostatistical and numerical modeling in GIS with noble gas geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, D. A.; Swift, J. N.; Tan, S.; Darrah, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    The integration of precise geochemical analyses with quantitative engineering modeling into an interactive GIS system allows for a sophisticated and efficient method of reservoir engineering and characterization. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is utilized as an advanced technique for oil field reservoir analysis by combining field engineering and geological/geochemical spatial datasets with the available systematic modeling and mapping methods to integrate the information into a spatially correlated first-hand approach in defining surface and subsurface characteristics. Three key methods of analysis include: 1) Geostatistical modeling to create a static and volumetric 3-dimensional representation of the geological body, 2) Numerical modeling to develop a dynamic and interactive 2-dimensional model of fluid flow across the reservoir and 3) Noble gas geochemistry to further define the physical conditions, components and history of the geologic system. Results thus far include using engineering algorithms for interpolating electrical well log properties across the field (spontaneous potential, resistivity) yielding a highly accurate and high-resolution 3D model of rock properties. Results so far also include using numerical finite difference methods (crank-nicholson) to solve for equations describing the distribution of pressure across field yielding a 2D simulation model of fluid flow across reservoir. Ongoing noble gas geochemistry results will also include determination of the source, thermal maturity and the extent/style of fluid migration (connectivity, continuity and directionality). Future work will include developing an inverse engineering algorithm to model for permeability, porosity and water saturation.This combination of new and efficient technological and analytical capabilities is geared to provide a better understanding of the field geology and hydrocarbon dynamics system with applications to determine the presence of hydrocarbon pay zones (or

  3. Integration of Seismic and Petrophysics to Characterize Reservoirs in “ALA” Oil Field, Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Alao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on “ALA” field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained. Seismic attributes was also employed in characterizing the reservoirs. Seven hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs with thickness ranging from 9.9 to 71.6 m were delineated. Structural maps of horizons in six wells containing hydrocarbon-bearing zones with tops and bottoms at range of −2,453 to −3,950 m were generated; this portrayed the trapping mechanism to be mainly fault-assisted anticlinal closures. The identified prospective zones have good porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon saturation. The environments of deposition were identified from log shapes which indicate a transitional-to-deltaic depositional environment. In this research work, new prospects have been recommended for drilling and further research work. Geochemical and biostratigraphic studies should be done to better characterize the reservoirs and reliably interpret the depositional environments.

  4. Integration of seismic and petrophysics to characterize reservoirs in "ALA" oil field, Niger Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alao, P A; Olabode, S O; Opeloye, S A

    2013-01-01

    In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential) reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on "ALA" field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained. Seismic attributes was also employed in characterizing the reservoirs. Seven hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs with thickness ranging from 9.9 to 71.6 m were delineated. Structural maps of horizons in six wells containing hydrocarbon-bearing zones with tops and bottoms at range of -2,453 to -3,950 m were generated; this portrayed the trapping mechanism to be mainly fault-assisted anticlinal closures. The identified prospective zones have good porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon saturation. The environments of deposition were identified from log shapes which indicate a transitional-to-deltaic depositional environment. In this research work, new prospects have been recommended for drilling and further research work. Geochemical and biostratigraphic studies should be done to better characterize the reservoirs and reliably interpret the depositional environments.

  5. Advances in coalbed methane reservoirs using integrated reservoir characterization and hydraulic fracturing in Karaganda coal basin, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakhnenko, Aleksandr; Aimukhan, Adina; Kenshimova, Aida; Mullagaliyev, Fandus; Akbarov, Erlan; Mullagaliyeva, Lylia; Kabirova, Svetlana; Almukhametov, Azamat

    2017-04-01

    Coalbed methane from Karaganda coal basin is considered to be an unconventional source of energy for the Central and Eastern parts of Kazakhstan. These regions are situated far away from the main traditional sources of oil and gas related to Precaspian petroleum basin. Coalbed methane fields in Karaganda coal basin are characterized by geological and structural complexity. Majority of production zones were characterized by high methane content and extremely low coal permeability. The coal reservoirs also contained a considerable natural system of primary, secondary, and tertiary fractures that were usually capable to accommodate passing fluid during hydraulic fracturing process. However, after closing was often observed coal formation damage including the loss of fluids, migration of fines and higher pressures required to treat formation than were expected. Unusual or less expected reservoir characteristics and values of properties of the coal reservoir might be the cause of the unusual occurred patterns in obtained fracturing, such as lithological peculiarities, rock mechanical properties and previous natural fracture systems in the coals. Based on these properties we found that during the drilling and fracturing of the coal-induced fractures have great sensitivity to complex reservoir lithology and stress profiles, as well as changes of those stresses. In order to have a successful program of hydraulic fracturing and avoid unnecessary fracturing anomalies we applied integrated reservoir characterization to monitor key parameters. In addition to logging data, core sample analysis was applied for coalbed methane reservoirs to observe dependence tiny lithological variations through the magnetic susceptibility values and their relation to permeability together with expected principal stress. The values of magnetic susceptibility were measured by the core logging sensor, which is equipped with the probe that provides volume magnetic susceptibility parameters

  6. Reservoir characterization of the Smackover Formation in southwest Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Hall, D.R.; Mann, S.D.; Tew, B.H.

    1993-02-01

    The Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation is found in an arcuate belt in the subsurface from south Texas to panhandle Florida. The Smackover is the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing formation in Alabama and is an important hydrocarbon reservoir from Florida to Texas. In this report Smackover hydrocarbon reservoirs in southwest Alabama are described. Also, the nine enhanced- and improved-recovery projects that have been undertaken in the Smackover of Alabama are evaluated. The report concludes with recommendations about potential future enhanced- and improved-recovery projects in Smackover reservoirs in Alabama and an estimate of the potential volume of liquid hydrocarbons recoverable by enhanced- and improved-recovery methods from the Smackover of Alabama.

  7. Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs Using a Combination of Downhole Pressure and Self-Potential Transient Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Nishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to appraise the utility of self-potential (SP measurements to characterize fractured reservoirs, we carried out continuous SP monitoring using multi Ag-AgCl electrodes installed within two open holes at the Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The observed ratio of SP change to pressure change associated with fluid flow showed different behaviors between intact host rock and fractured rock regions. Characteristic behavior peculiar to fractured reservoirs, which is predicted from numerical simulations of electrokinetic phenomena in MINC (multiple interacting continua double-porosity media, was observed near the fractures. Semilog plots of the ratio of SP change to pressure change observed in one of the two wells show obvious transition from intermediate time increasing to late time stable trends, which indicate that the time required for pressure equilibration between the fracture and matrix regions is about 800 seconds. Fracture spacing was estimated to be a few meters assuming several micro-darcies (10-18 m2 of the matrix region permeability, which is consistent with geological and hydrological observations.

  8. Surf Zone Hydrodynamics and its Utilization in Biotechnical Stabilization of Water Reservoir Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pelikán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water reservoir banks are eroded mainly by two factors. The first one is wave action (i.e. wave abrasion affecting the bank in direction from the reservoir. The second one is the influence of water flowing downward over the bank surface in direction from land into the reservoir (e.g. rainfall. The determination of regular altitudinal emplacement of proper designed particular biotechnical stabilization elements is the most important factor on which the right functionality of whole construction depends. Surf zone hydrodynamics solves the wave and water level changes inside the region extending from the wave breaking point to the limit of wave up-rush. The paper is focused on the utilization of piece of knowledge from a part of sea coast hydrodynamics and new approach in its application in the conditions of inland water bodies when designing the biotechnical stabilization elements along the shorelines. The “reinforced grass carpets” as a type of biotechnical method of bank stabilization are presented in the paper; whether the growth of grass root system is dependent on presence or absence of geomats in the soil structure and proceeding of their establishment on the shorelines.

  9. Surface and Subsurface Geodesy Combined with Active Borehole Experimentation for the Advanced Characterization of EGS Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsworth, Derek [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Im, Kyungjae [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Guglielmi, Yves [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mattioli, Glen [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). UNAVCO

    2016-11-14

    We explore the utility of combining active downhole experimentation with borehole and surface geodesy to determine both the characteristics and evolving state of EGS reservoirs during stimulation through production. The study is divided into two parts. We demonstrate the feasibility of determining in situ reservoir characteristics of reservoir size, strain and fracture permeability and their dependence on feedbacks of stress and temperature using surface and borehole geodetic measurements (Part I). We then define the opportunity to apply the unique hydraulic pulse protocol (HPP) borehole tool to evaluate reservoir state. This can be accomplished by monitoring and co-inverting measured reservoir characteristics (from the HPP tool) with surface geodetic measurements of deformation, tilt and strain with continuous measurements of borehole-wall strain (via optical fiber and fiber Bragg gratings) and measured flow rates (Part II).

  10. Facies-constrained FWI: Toward application to reservoir characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Kamath, Nishant; Tsvankin, Ilya; Naeini, Ehsan Zabihi

    2017-01-01

    of the inverted results. Full-waveform inversion (FWI) has shown a lot of promise in obtaining high-resolution velocity models for depth imaging. We propose supplementing FWI with rock-physics constraints obtained from borehole data to invert for reservoir

  11. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  12. Facies-constrained FWI: Toward application to reservoir characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Kamath, Nishant

    2017-11-01

    The most common approach to obtaining reservoir properties from seismic data exploits the amplitude variation with offset response of reflected waves. However, structural complexity and errors in the velocity model can severely reduce the quality of the inverted results. Full-waveform inversion (FWI) has shown a lot of promise in obtaining high-resolution velocity models for depth imaging. We propose supplementing FWI with rock-physics constraints obtained from borehole data to invert for reservoir properties. The constraints are imposed by adding appropriately weighted regularization terms to the objective function. The advantages of this technique over conventional FWI algorithms are shown by conducting synthetic tests for both isotropic and VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) models. The medium parameterization for FWI is selected using radiation (scattering) patterns of perturbations in the model parameters.

  13. Bacterial diversity characterization in petroleum samples from Brazilian reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; Sette, Lara Durães; Simioni, Karen Christina Marques; dos Santos Neto, Eugênio Vaz

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating potential differences among the bacterial communities from formation water and oil samples originated from biodegraded and non-biodegraded Brazilian petroleum reservoirs by using a PCR-DGGE based approach. Environmental DNA was isolated and used in PCR reactions with bacterial primers, followed by separation of 16S rDNA fragments in the DGGE. PCR products were also cloned and sequenced, aiming at the taxonomic affiliation of the community members. The fingerprints obtained allowed the direct comparison among the bacterial communities from oil samples presenting distinct degrees of biodegradation, as well as between the communities of formation water and oil sample from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Very similar DGGE band profiles were observed for all samples, and the diversity of the predominant bacterial phylotypes was shown to be low. Cloning and sequencing results revealed major differences between formation water and oil samples from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Bacillus sp. and Halanaerobium sp. were shown to be the predominant components of the bacterial community from the formation water sample, whereas the oil sample also included Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Rhodococcus sp., Streptomyces sp. and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The PCR-DGGE technique, combined with cloning and sequencing of PCR products, revealed the presence of taxonomic groups not found previously in these samples when using cultivation-based methods and 16S rRNA gene library assembly, confirming the need of a polyphasic study in order to improve the knowledge of the extent of microbial diversity in such extreme environments. PMID:24031244

  14. Reservoir characterization based on tracer response and rank analysis of production and injection rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refunjol, B.T. [Lagoven, S.A., Pdvsa (Venezuela); Lake, L.W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Quantification of the spatial distribution of properties is important for many reservoir-engineering applications. But, before applying any reservoir-characterization technique, the type of problem to be tackled and the information available should be analyzed. This is important because difficulties arise in reservoirs where production records are the only information for analysis. This paper presents the results of a practical technique to determine preferential flow trends in a reservoir. The technique is a combination of reservoir geology, tracer data, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. The Spearman analysis, in particular, will prove to be important because it appears to be insightful and uses injection/production data that are prevalent in circumstances where other data are nonexistent. The technique is applied to the North Buck Draw field, Campbell County, Wyoming. This work provides guidelines to assess information about reservoir continuity in interwell regions from widely available measurements of production and injection rates at existing wells. The information gained from the application of this technique can contribute to both the daily reservoir management and the future design, control, and interpretation of subsequent projects in the reservoir, without the need for additional data.

  15. Reservoir Characterization of the Lower Green River Formation, Southwest Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Craig D.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; McClure, Kevin P.; Bereskin, S. Robert; Deo, Milind D.

    2002-12-02

    The objectives of the study were to increase both primary and secondary hydrocarbon recovery through improved characterization (at the regional, unit, interwell, well, and microscopic scale) of fluvial-deltaic lacustrine reservoirs, thereby preventing premature abandonment of producing wells. The study will encourage exploration and establishment of additional water-flood units throughout the southwest region of the Uinta Basin, and other areas with production from fluvial-deltaic reservoirs.

  16. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj Kumar; Keith Brown; Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.

    2000-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  17. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, T. Scott

    2003-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  18. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.

    2001-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  19. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  20. Preparation, characterization and utilization of starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Sung Soo; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2015-02-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature and is typically isolated from plants in the form of micro-scale granules. Recent studies reported that nano-scale starch particles could be readily prepared from starch granules, which have unique physical properties. Because starch is environmentally friendly, starch nanoparticles are suggested as one of the promising biomaterials for novel utilization in foods, cosmetics, medicines as well as various composites. An overview of the most up-to-date information regarding the starch nanoparticles including the preparation processes and physicochemical characterization will be presented in this review. Additionally, the prospects and outlooks for the industrial utilization of starch nanoparticles will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Len, Shawn; Minavea, Anastasia; Wood, James; Xie, Deyi

    2002-01-01

    This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines

  2. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  3. Methodologies for Reservoir Characterization Using Fluid Inclusion Gas Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilley, Lorie M. [Hattenburg Dilley & Linnell, LLC, Anchorage, AL (United States)

    2015-04-13

    The purpose of this project was to: 1) evaluate the relationship between geothermal fluid processes and the compositions of the fluid inclusion gases trapped in the reservoir rocks; and 2) develop methodologies for interpreting fluid inclusion gas data in terms of the chemical, thermal and hydrological properties of geothermal reservoirs. Phase 1 of this project was designed to conduct the following: 1) model the effects of boiling, condensation, conductive cooling and mixing on selected gaseous species; using fluid compositions obtained from geothermal wells, 2) evaluate, using quantitative analyses provided by New Mexico Tech (NMT), how these processes are recorded by fluid inclusions trapped in individual crystals; and 3) determine if the results obtained on individual crystals can be applied to the bulk fluid inclusion analyses determined by Fluid Inclusion Technology (FIT). Our initial studies however, suggested that numerical modeling of the data would be premature. We observed that the gas compositions, determined on bulk and individual samples were not the same as those discharged by the geothermal wells. Gases discharged from geothermal wells are CO2-rich and contain low concentrations of light gases (i.e. H2, He, N, Ar, CH4). In contrast many of our samples displayed enrichments in these light gases. Efforts were initiated to evaluate the reasons for the observed gas distributions. As a first step, we examined the potential importance of different reservoir processes using a variety of commonly employed gas ratios (e.g. Giggenbach plots). The second technical target was the development of interpretational methodologies. We have develop methodologies for the interpretation of fluid inclusion gas data, based on the results of Phase 1, geologic interpretation of fluid inclusion data, and integration of the data. These methodologies can be used in conjunction with the relevant geological and hydrological information on the system to

  4. Petrofacies analysis - the petrophysical tool for geologic/engineering reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watney, W.L.; Guy, W.J.; Gerlach, P.M. [Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Petrofacies analysis is defined as the characterization and classification of pore types and fluid saturations as revealed by petrophysical measures of a reservoir. The word {open_quotes}petrofacies{close_quotes} makes an explicit link between petroleum engineers concerns with pore characteristics as arbiters of production performance, and the facies paradigm of geologists as a methodology for genetic understanding and prediction. In petrofacies analysis, the porosity and resistivity axes of the classical Pickett plot are used to map water saturation, bulk volume water, and estimated permeability, as well as capillary pressure information, where it is available. When data points are connected in order of depth within a reservoir, the characteristic patterns reflect reservoir rock character and its interplay with the hydrocarbon column. A third variable can be presented at each point on the crossplot by assigning a color scale that is based on other well logs, often gamma ray or photoelectric effect, or other derived variables. Contrasts between reservoir pore types and fluid saturations will be reflected in changing patterns on the crossplot and can help discriminate and characterize reservoir heterogeneity. Many hundreds of analyses of well logs facilitated by spreadsheet and object-oriented programming have provided the means to distinguish patterns typical of certain complex pore types for sandstones and carbonate reservoirs, occurrences of irreducible water saturation, and presence of transition zones. The result has been an improved means to evaluate potential production such as bypassed pay behind pipe and in old exploration holes, or to assess zonation and continuity of the reservoir. Petrofacies analysis is applied in this example to distinguishing flow units including discrimination of pore type as assessment of reservoir conformance and continuity. The analysis is facilitated through the use of color cross sections and cluster analysis.

  5. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Annual report, November 1, 1990--October 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  6. Reservoir characterization of the Ordovician Red River Formation in southwest Williston Basin Bowman County, ND and Harding County, SD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippel, M.A.; Luff, K.D.; Hendricks, M.L.; Eby, D.E.

    1998-07-01

    This topical report is a compilation of characterizations by different disciplines of the Red River Formation in the southwest portion of the Williston Basin and the oil reservoirs which it contains in an area which straddles the state line between North Dakota and South Dakota. Goals of the report are to increase understanding of the reservoir rocks, oil-in-place, heterogeneity, and methods for improved recovery. The report is divided by discipline into five major sections: (1) geology, (2) petrography-petrophysical, (3) engineering, (4) case studies and (5) geophysical. Interwoven in these sections are results from demonstration wells which were drilled or selected for special testing to evaluate important concepts for field development and enhanced recovery. The Red River study area has been successfully explored with two-dimensional (2D) seismic. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing 3-dimensional (3D) and has been investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Targeted drilling from predictions using 3D seismic for porosity development were successful in developing significant reserves at close distances to old wells. Short-lateral and horizontal drilling technologies were tested for improved completion efficiency. Lateral completions should improve economics for both primary and secondary recovery where low permeability is a problem and higher density drilling is limited by drilling cost. Low water injectivity and widely spaced wells have restricted the application of waterflooding in the past. Water injection tests were performed in both a vertical and a horizontal well. Data from these tests were used to predict long-term injection and oil recovery.

  7. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    trends. The Lower Grandstand sand consists of two coarsening-upward shoreface sands sequences while the Upper Grandstand consists of a single coarsening-upward shoreface sand. Each of the shoreface sands shows a distinctive permeability profile with high horizontal permeability at the top getting progressively poorer towards the base of the sand. In contrast, deltaic sandstones in the overlying Ninuluk are more permeable at the base of the sands, with decreasing permeability towards the sand top. These trends impart a strong permeability anisotropy to the reservoir and are being incorporated into the reservoir model. These observations also suggest that horizontal wells should target the upper part of the major sands. Natural fractures may superimpose another permeability pattern on the Umiat reservoir that need to be accounted for in both the simulation and in drilling. Examination of legacy core from Umiat field indicate that fractures are present in the subsurface, but don't provide information on their orientation and density. Nearby surface exposures of folds in similar stratigraphy indicate there are at least three possible fracture sets: an early, N/S striking set that may predate folding and two sets possibly related to folding: an EW striking set of extension fractures that are parallel to the fold axes and a set of conjugate shear fractures oriented NE and NW. Analysis of fracture spacing suggests that these natural fractures are fairly widely spaced (25-59 cm depending upon the fracture set), but could provide improved reservoir permeability in horizontal legs drilled perpendicular to the open fracture set. The phase behavior of the Umiat fluid needed to be well understood in order for the reservoir simulation to be accurate. However, only a small amount of Umiat oil was available; this oil was collected in the 1940’s and was severely weathered. The composition of this ‘dead’ Umiat fluid was characterized by gas chromatography. This analysis was

  8. Characterizing the deformation of reservoirs using interferometry, gravity, and seismic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiek, Cara Gina

    In this dissertation, I characterize how reservoirs deform using surface and subsurface techniques. The surface technique I employ is radar interferometry, also known as InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar). The subsurface analyses I explore include gravity modeling and seismic techniques consisting of determining earthquake locations from a small-temporary seismic network of six seismometers. These techniques were used in two different projects to determine how reservoirs deform in the subsurface and how this deformation relates to its remotely sensed surface deformation. The first project uses InSAR to determine land subsidence in the Mimbres basin near Deming, NM. The land subsidence measurements are visually compared to gravity models in order to determine the influence of near surface faults on the subsidence and the physical properties of the aquifers in these basins. Elastic storage coefficients were calculated for the Mimbres basin to aid in determining the stress regime of the aquifers. In the Mimbres basin, I determine that it is experiencing elastic deformation at differing compaction rates. The west side of the Mimbres basin is deforming faster, 17 mm/yr, while the east side of the basin is compacting at a rate of 11 mm/yr. The second project focuses on San Miguel volcano, El Salvador. Here, I integrate InSAR with earthquake locations using surface deformation forward modeling to investigate the explosive volcanism in this region. This investigation determined the areas around the volcano that are undergoing deformation, and that could lead to volcanic hazards such as slope failure from a fractured volcano interior. I use the earthquake epicenters with field data to define the subsurface geometry of the deformation source, which I forward model to produce synthetic interferograms. Residuals between the synthetic and observed interferograms demonstrate that the observed deformation is a direct result of the seismic activity along the San

  9. Microstructural characterization of reservoir rocks by X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Jaquiel Salvi; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of microstructural parameters from reservoir rocks is of great importance for petroleum industries. This work presents measurements of total porosity and pore size distribution of a sandstone sample from Tumblagooda geological formation, extracted from the Kalbari National Park in Australia. X-ray microtomography technique was used for determining porosity and pore size distribution. Other techniques, such as mercury intrusion porosimetry and Archimedes method have also been applied for those determinations but since they are regarded destructive techniques, samples cannot usually be used for further analyses. X-ray microtomography, besides allowing future analyses of a sample already evaluated, also provides tridimensional images of the sample. The experimental configuration included a SkysCan 1172 from CENPES-PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The spatial resolution of this equipment is 2.9 μm. Images have been reconstructed using NRecon software and analysed with the IMAGO software developed by the Laboratory of Porous Materials and Thermophysical Properties of the Department of Mechanical Engineering / Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil

  10. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, Scott T.; Justice James L.; Taylor, Archie R.

    1999-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs

  11. Characterization of microbial community and the alkylscccinate synthase genes in petroleum reservoir fluids of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lei; Mu, Bo-Zhong [University of Science and Technology (China)], email: bzmu@ecust.edu.cn; Gu, Ji-Dong [The University of Hong Kong (China)], email: jdgu@hkucc.hku.hk

    2011-07-01

    Petroleum reservoirs represent a special ecosystem consisting of specific temperature, pressure, salt concentration, oil, gas, water, microorganisms and, enzymes among others. This paper presents the characterization of microbial community and the alkyl succinate synthase genes in petroleum reservoir fluids in China. A few samples were analyzed and the physical and chemical characteristics are given in a tabular form. A flow chart shows the methods and procedures for microbial activities. Six petroleum reservoirs were studied using an archaeal 16S rRNA gene-based approach to establish the presence of archaea and the results are given. The correlation of archaeal and bacterial communities with reservoir conditions and diversity of the arachaeal community in water-flooding petroleum reservoirs at different temperatures is also shown. From the study, it can be summarized that, among methane producers, CO2-reducing methanogens are mostly found in oil reservoir ecosystems and as more assA sequences are revealed, more comprehensive molecular probes can be designed to track the activity of anaerobic alkane-degrading organisms in the environment.

  12. Characterization of reservoir fractures using conventional geophysical logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitoon Laongsakul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In hydrocarbon exploration fractures play an important role as possible pathways for the hydrocarbon flow and bythis enhancing the overall formation’s permeability. Advanced logging methods for fracture analysis, like the boreholeacoustic televiewer and Formation Microscanner (FMS are available, but these are additional and expensive tools. However,open and with water or hydrocarbon filled fractures are also sensitive to electrical and other conventional logging methods.For this study conventional logging data (electric, seismic, etc were available plus additional fracture information from FMS.Taking into account the borehole environment the results show that the micro-spherically focused log indicates fractures byshowing low resistivity spikes opposite open fractures, and high resistivity spikes opposite sealed ones. Compressional andshear wave velocities are reduced when passing trough the fracture zone, which are assumed to be more or less perpendicularto borehole axis. The photoelectric absorption curve exhibit a very sharp peak in front of a fracture filled with bariteloaded mud cake. The density log shows low density spikes that are not seen by the neutron log, usually where fractures,large vugs, or caverns exist. Borehole breakouts can cause a similar effect on the logging response than fractures, but fracturesare often present when this occurs. The fracture index calculation by using threshold and input weight was calculatedand there was in general a good agreement with the fracture data from FMS especially in fracture zones, which mainlycontribute to the hydraulic system of the reservoir. Finally, the overall results from this study using one well are promising,however further research in the combination of different tools for fracture identification is recommended as well as the useof core for further validation.

  13. Fracture Characterization in Enhanced Geothermal Systems by Wellbore and Reservoir Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, Roland N.; Li, Kewen; Alaskar, Mohammed; Ames, Morgan; Co, Carla; Juliusson, Egill; Magnusdottir, Lilja

    2012-06-30

    This report highlights the work that was done to characterize fractured geothermal reservoirs using production data. That includes methods that were developed to infer characteristic functions from production data and models that were designed to optimize reinjection scheduling into geothermal reservoirs, based on these characteristic functions. The characterization method provides a robust way of interpreting tracer and flow rate data from fractured reservoirs. The flow-rate data are used to infer the interwell connectivity, which describes how injected fluids are divided between producers in the reservoir. The tracer data are used to find the tracer kernel for each injector-producer connection. The tracer kernel describes the volume and dispersive properties of the interwell flow path. A combination of parametric and nonparametric regression methods were developed to estimate the tracer kernels for situations where data is collected at variable flow-rate or variable injected concentration conditions. The characteristic functions can be used to calibrate thermal transport models, which can in turn be used to predict the productivity of geothermal systems. This predictive model can be used to optimize injection scheduling in a geothermal reservoir, as is illustrated in this report.

  14. High-resolution reservoir characterization by seismic inversion with geological constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetyukhina, D.

    2010-01-01

    Fluvio-deltaic sedimentary systems are of great interest for explorationists because they can form prolific hydrocarbon plays. However, they are also among the most complex and heterogeneous ones encountered in the subsurface. Reservoirs in clinoform systems are difficult to characterize because

  15. Study on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by characterization of the reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Son, Jin Dam; Oh, Jae Ho [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)] [and others

    1998-12-01

    Three year project is being carried out on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by the reservoir characterization. This report describes the results of the second year's work. This project deals with characterization of fluids, bitumen ad rock matrix in the reservoir. New equipment and analytical solutions for naturally fractured reservoir were also included in this study. Main purpose of the reservoir geochemistry is to understand the origin of fluids (gas, petroleum and water) and distribution of the bitumens within the reservoir and to use them not only for exploration but development of the petroleum. For the theme of reservoir geochemistry, methods and principles of the reservoir gas and bitumen characterization, which is applicable to the petroleum development, are studied. and case study was carried out on the gas, water and bitumen samples in the reservoir taken form Haenam area and Ulleung Basin offshore Korea. Gases taken form the two different wells indicate the different origin. Formation water analyses show the absence of barrier within the tested interval. With the sidewall core samples from a well offshore Korea, the analysis using polarizing microscope, scanning electron microscope with EDX and cathodoluminoscope was performed for the study on sandstone diagenesis. The I/S changes were examined on the cuttings samples from a well, offshore Korea to estimate burial temperature. Oxygen stable isotope is used to study geothermal history in sedimentary basin. Study in the field is rare in Korea and basic data are urgently needed especially in continental basins to determine the value of formation water. In the test analyses, three samples from marine basins indicate final temperature from 55 deg.C to 83 deg.C and one marine sample indicate the initial temperature of 36 deg.C. One sample from continental basin represented the final temperature from 53 and 80 deg.C. These temperatures will be corrected because these values were based on assumed

  16. Improved reservoir characterization from waterflood tracer movement, Northwest Fault Block, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitzberg, K.E.; Broman, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that simulation models of the Prudhoe Bay Northwest Fault Block (NWFB) waterflood project, with core-plug-derived permeabilities, predicted that injected water would slump because of gravity segregation. Detailed analysis of surveillance logs and production data for one pattern identified tritium tracer breakthrough in surrounding producers without significant slumping. To duplicate the nearly horizontal movement of injected water, a k V /k H ratio that is an order of magnitude lower than previously modeled is required. This improved reservoir characterization led to revision of the reservoir management strategy for the NWFB

  17. Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin: reservoir characterization for improved well completion and oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Morgan, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    Bluefield Field is the largest oil-producing area in the Unita basin of northern Utah. The field inclucdes over 300 wells and has produced 137 Mbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits of the Green River and Wasatch (Colton) formations. Oil and gas are produced at depths of 10 500-13 000 ft (3330-3940 m), with the most prolific reservoirs existing in over-pressured sandstones of the Colton Formation and the underlying Flagstaff Member of the lower Green River Formation. Despite a number of high-recovery wells (1-3 MMbbl), overall field recovery remains low, less than 10% original oil in place. This low recovery rate is interpreted to be at least partly a result of completion practices. Typically, 40-120 beds are perforated and stimulated with acid (no proppant) over intervals of up to 3000 ft (900 m). Little or no evaluation of individual beds is performed, preventing identification of good-quality reservoir zones, water-producing zones, and thief zones. As a result, detailed understanding of Bluebell reservoirs historically has been poor, inhibiting any improvements in recovery strategies. A recent project undertaken in Bluebell field as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Class 1 (fluvial-deltaic reservoir) Oil Demonstration program has focused considerable effort on reservoir characterization. This effort has involved interdisciplinary analysis of core, log, fracture, geostatistical, production, and other data. Much valuable new information on reservoir character has resulted, with important implications for completion techniques and recovery expectations. Such data should have excellent applicability to other producing areas in the Uinta Basin withi reservoirs in similar lacustrine and related deposits.Bluebell field is the largest oil-producing area in the Uinta basin of northern Utah. The field includes over 300 wells and has produced 137 MMbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine

  18. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    geomechanical characteristics of the producing formations. The objectives were to further improve reservoir characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, test the proficiency of the three-dimensional geologic and thermal reservoir simulation models, identify the high permeability thief zones to reduce water breakthrough and cycling, and analyze the nonuniform distribution of the remaining oil in place. This work resulted in the redevelopment of the Tar II-A and Tar V post-steamflood projects by drilling several new wells and converting idle wells to improve injection sweep efficiency and more effectively drain the remaining oil reserves. Reservoir management work included reducing water cuts, maintaining or increasing oil production, and evaluating and minimizing further thermal-related formation compaction. The BP2 project utilized all the tools and knowledge gained throughout the DOE project to maximize recovery of the oil in place.

  19. CarbonSAFE Rocky Mountain Phase I : Seismic Characterization of the Navajo Reservoir, Buzzard Bench, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haar, K. K.; Balch, R. S.; Lee, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The CarbonSAFE Rocky Mountain project team is in the initial phase of investigating the regulatory, financial and technical feasibility of commercial-scale CO2 capture and storage from two coal-fired power plants in the northwest region of the San Rafael Swell, Utah. The reservoir interval is the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone, an eolian dune deposit that at present serves as the salt water disposal reservoir for Ferron Sandstone coal-bed methane production in the Drunkards Wash field and Buzzard Bench area of central Utah. In the study area the Navajo sandstone is approximately 525 feet thick and is at an average depth of about 7000 feet below the surface. If sufficient porosity and permeability exist, reservoir depth and thickness would provide storage for up to 100,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per square mile, based on preliminary estimates. This reservoir has the potential to meet the DOE's requirement of having the ability to store at least 50 million metric tons of CO2 and fulfills the DOE's initiative to develop protocols for commercially sequestering carbon sourced from coal-fired power plants. A successful carbon storage project requires thorough structural and stratigraphic characterization of the reservoir, seal and faults, thereby allowing the creation of a comprehensive geologic model with subsequent simulations to evaluate CO2/brine migration and long-term effects. Target formation lithofacies and subfacies data gathered from outcrop mapping and laboratory analysis of core samples were developed into a geologic model. Synthetic seismic was modeled from this, allowing us to seismically characterize the lithofacies of the target formation. This seismic characterization data was then employed in the interpretation of 2D legacy lines which provided stratigraphic and structural control for more accurate model development of the northwest region of the San Rafael Swell. Developing baseline interpretations such as this are crucial toward long-term carbon storage

  20. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of C02 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Sprayberry Trend Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter

    1998-04-30

    The objective is to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding of the naturally fractured Straberry Trend Area in west Texas. Research is being conducted in the extensive characterization of the reservoirs, the experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, the analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and the experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores.

  1. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.

    1999-06-08

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  2. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Beebe

    2003-05-05

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  3. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Materials and Methods ... culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were enumerated by vapour phase ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates by boiling method according to ... obtained in this investigation are consistent with past field studies (Kostka et ... Microbial and other related changes in a Niger sediment.

  4. Micro- and macro-scale petrophysical characterization of potential reservoir units from the Northern Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruzi, Peleg; Halisch, Matthias; Katsman, Regina; Waldmann, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Lower Cretaceous sandstone serves as hydrocarbon reservoir in some places over the world, and potentially in Hatira formation in the Golan Heights, northern Israel. The purpose of the current research is to characterize the petrophysical properties of these sandstone units. The study is carried out by two alternative methods: using conventional macroscopic lab measurements, and using CT-scanning, image processing and subsequent fluid mechanics simulations at a microscale, followed by upscaling to the conventional macroscopic rock parameters (porosity and permeability). Comparison between the upscaled and measured in the lab properties will be conducted. The best way to upscale the microscopic rock characteristics will be analyzed based the models suggested in the literature. Proper characterization of the potential reservoir will provide necessary analytical parameters for the future experimenting and modeling of the macroscopic fluid flow behavior in the Lower Cretaceous sandstone.

  5. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  6. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two main phases. The original objectives of the reservoir-characterization phase of the project were (1) to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two representative fields of the Delaware Mountain Group, Geraldine Ford and Ford West, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, (2) to chose a demonstration area in one of the fields, and (3) to simulate a CO 2 flood in the demonstration area

  7. Rock-physics and seismic-inversion based reservoir characterization of the Haynesville Shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Meijuan; Spikes, Kyle T

    2016-01-01

    Seismic reservoir characterization of unconventional gas shales is challenging due to their heterogeneity and anisotropy. Rock properties of unconventional gas shales such as porosity, pore-shape distribution, and composition are important for interpreting seismic data amplitude variations in order to locate optimal drilling locations. The presented seismic reservoir characterization procedure applied a grid-search algorithm to estimate the composition, pore-shape distribution, and porosity at the seismic scale from the seismically inverted impedances and a rock-physics model, using the Haynesville Shale as a case study. All the proposed rock properties affected the seismic velocities, and the combined effects of these rock properties on the seismic amplitude were investigated simultaneously. The P- and S-impedances correlated negatively with porosity, and the V _P/V _S correlated positively with clay fraction and negatively with the pore-shape distribution and quartz fraction. The reliability of these estimated rock properties at the seismic scale was verified through comparisons between two sets of elastic properties: one coming from inverted impedances, which were obtained from simultaneous inversion of prestack seismic data, and one derived from these estimated rock properties. The differences between the two sets of elastic properties were less than a few percent, verifying the feasibility of the presented seismic reservoir characterization. (paper)

  8. Geological modeling for methane hydrate reservoir characterization in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Fujii, T.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern Nankai trough, which is located offshore of central Japan, is considered as an attractive potential resource field of methane hydrates. Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough. The depositional environment of methane hydrate-bearing sediments around the production test site is a deep submarine-fan turbidite system, and it is considered that the reservoir properties should show lateral as well as vertical heterogeneity. Since the variations in the reservoir heterogeneity have an impact on the methane hydrate dissociation and gas production performance, precise geological models describing reservoir heterogeneity would be required for the evaluation of reservoir potentials. In preparation for the production test, 3 wells; two monitoring boreholes (AT1-MC and AT1-MT1) and a coring well (AT1-C), were newly acquired in 2012. In addition to a geotechnical hole drilling survey in 2011 (AT1-GT), totally log data from 2 wells and core data from 2 wells were obtained around the production test site. In this study, we conducted well correlations between AT1 and A1 wells drilled in 2003 and then, 3D geological models were updated including AT1 well data in order to refine hydrate reservoir characterization around the production test site. The results of the well correlations show that turbidite sand layers are characterized by good lateral continuity, and give significant information for the distribution morphology of sand-rich channel fills. We also reviewed previously conducted 3D geological models which consist of facies distributions and petrophysical properties distributions constructed from integration of 3D seismic data and a well data (A1 site) adopting a geostatistical approach. In order to test the practical validity of the previously generated models, cross-validation was conducted using AT1 well data. The

  9. Characterizing gas shaly sandstone reservoirs using the magnetic resonance technology in the Anaco area, East Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fam, Maged; August, Howard [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States); Zambrano, Carlos; Rivero, Fidel [PDVSA Gas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    With demand for natural gas on the rise every day, accounting for and booking every cubic foot of gas is becoming very important to operators exploiting natural gas reservoirs. The initial estimates of gas reserves are usually established through the use of petrophysical parameters normally based on wireline and/or LWD logs. Conventional logs, such as gamma ray, density, neutron, resistivity and sonic, are traditionally used to calculate these parameters. Sometimes, however, the use of such conventional logs may not be enough to provide a high degree of accuracy in determining these petrophysical parameters, which are critical to reserve estimates. Insufficient accuracy can be due to high complexities in the rock properties and/or a formation fluid distribution within the reservoir layers that is very difficult to characterize with conventional logs alone. The high degree of heterogeneity in the shaly sandstone rock properties of the Anaco area, East Venezuela, can be characterized by clean, high porosity, high permeability sands to very shaly, highly laminated, and low porosity rock. This wide variation in the reservoir properties may pose difficulties in identifying gas bearing zones which may affect the final gas reserves estimates in the area. The application of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) logging technology in the area, combined with the application of its latest acquisition and interpretation methods, has proven to be very adequate in detecting and quantifying gas zones as well as providing more realistic petrophysical parameters for better reserve estimates. This article demonstrates the effectiveness of applying the MRI logging technology to obtain improved petrophysical parameters that will help better characterize the shaly-sands of Anaco area gas reservoirs. This article also demonstrates the value of MRI in determining fluid types, including distinguishing between bound water and free water, as well as differentiating between gas and liquid

  10. Strontium isotopic signatures of oil-field waters: Applications for reservoir characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, R.J.; Oetting, G.C.; Gao, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 87Sr/86Sr compositions of formation waters that were collected from 71 wells producing from a Pennsylvanian carbonate reservoir in New Mexico display a well-defined distribution, with radiogenic waters (up to 0.710129) at the updip western part of the reservoir, grading downdip to less radiogenic waters (as low as 0.708903 to the east. Salinity (2800-50,000 mg/L) displays a parallel trend; saline waters to the west pass downdip to brackish waters. Elemental and isotopic data indicate that the waters originated as meteoric precipitation and acquired their salinity and radiogenic 87Sr through dissolution of Upper Permian evaporites. These meteoric-derived waters descended, perhaps along deeply penetrating faults, driven by gravity and density, to depths of more than 7000 ft (2100 m). The 87 Sr/86Sr and salinity trends record influx of these waters along the western field margin and downdip flow across the field, consistent with the strong water drive, potentiometric gradient, and tilted gas-oil-water contacts. The formation water 87Sr/86Sr composition can be useful to evaluate subsurface flow and reservoir behavior, especially in immature fields with scarce pressure and production data. In mature reservoirs, Sr Sr isotopes can be used to differentiate original formation water from injected water for waterflood surveillance. Strontium isotopes thus provide a valuable tool for both static and dynamic reservoir characterization in conjunction with conventional studies using seismic, log, core, engineering, and production data. Copyright ??2004. The American Association of Petroleum Geologist. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of water quality in Bushy Park Reservoir, South Carolina, 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul A.; Journey, Celeste A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lanier, Timothy H.; Clark, Jimmy M.

    2018-04-25

    The Bushy Park Reservoir is the principal water supply for 400,000 people in the greater Charleston, South Carolina, area, which includes homes as well as businesses and industries in the Bushy Park Industrial Complex. Charleston Water System and the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a cooperative study during 2013–15 to assess the circulation of Bushy Park Reservoir and its effects on water-quality conditions, specifically, recurring taste-and-odor episodes. This report describes the water-quality data collected for the study that included a combination of discrete water-column sampling at seven locations in the reservoir and longitudinal water-quality profiling surveys of the reservoir and tributaries to characterize the temporal and spatial water-quality dynamics of Bushy Park Reservoir. Water-quality profiling surveys were conducted with an autonomous underwater vehicle equipped with a multiparameter water-quality-sonde bulkhead. Data collected by the autonomous underwater vehicle included water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, turbidity, total chlorophyll as fluorescence (estimate of algal biomass), and phycocyanin as fluorescence (estimate of cyanobacteria biomass) data.Characterization of the water-quality conditions in the reservoir included comparison to established State nutrient guidelines, identification of any spatial and seasonal variation in water-quality conditions and phytoplankton community structures, and assessment of the degree of influence of water-quality conditions related to Foster Creek and Durham Canal inflows, especially during periods of elevated taste-and-odor concentrations. Depth-profile and autonomous underwater vehicle survey data were used to identify areas within the reservoir where greater phytoplankton and cyanobacteria densities were most likely occurring.Water-quality survey results indicated that Bushy Park Reservoir tended to stratify thermally at a depth of about 20 feet from June to early October

  12. Offshore Antarctic Peninsula Gas Hydrate Reservoir Characterization by Geophysical Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Giustiniani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A gas hydrate reservoir, identified by the presence of the bottom simulating reflector, is located offshore of the Antarctic Peninsula. The analysis of geophysical dataset acquired during three geophysical cruises allowed us to characterize this reservoir. 2D velocity fields were obtained by using the output of the pre-stack depth migration iteratively. Gas hydrate amount was estimated by seismic velocity, using the modified Biot-Geerstma-Smit theory. The total volume of gas hydrate estimated, in an area of about 600 km2, is in a range of 16 × 109–20 × 109 m3. Assuming that 1 m3 of gas hydrate corresponds to 140 m3 of free gas in standard conditions, the reservoir could contain a total volume that ranges from 1.68 to 2.8 × 1012 m3 of free gas. The interpretation of the pre-stack depth migrated sections and the high resolution morpho-bathymetry image allowed us to define a structural model of the area. Two main fault systems, characterized by left transtensive and compressive movement, are recognized, which interact with a minor transtensive fault system. The regional geothermal gradient (about 37.5 °C/km, increasing close to a mud volcano likely due to fluid-upwelling, was estimated through the depth of the bottom simulating reflector by seismic data.

  13. Fluvial reservoir characterization using topological descriptors based on spectral analysis of graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viseur, Sophie; Chiaberge, Christophe; Rhomer, Jérémy; Audigane, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    Fluvial systems generate highly heterogeneous reservoir. These heterogeneities have major impact on fluid flow behaviors. However, the modelling of such reservoirs is mainly performed in under-constrained contexts as they include complex features, though only sparse and indirect data are available. Stochastic modeling is the common strategy to solve such problems. Multiple 3D models are generated from the available subsurface dataset. The generated models represent a sampling of plausible subsurface structure representations. From this model sampling, statistical analysis on targeted parameters (e.g.: reserve estimations, flow behaviors, etc.) and a posteriori uncertainties are performed to assess risks. However, on one hand, uncertainties may be huge, which requires many models to be generated for scanning the space of possibilities. On the other hand, some computations performed on the generated models are time consuming and cannot, in practice, be applied on all of them. This issue is particularly critical in: 1) geological modeling from outcrop data only, as these data types are generally sparse and mainly distributed in 2D at large scale but they may locally include high-resolution descriptions (e.g.: facies, strata local variability, etc.); 2) CO2 storage studies as many scales of investigations are required, from meter to regional ones, to estimate storage capacities and associated risks. Recent approaches propose to define distances between models to allow sophisticated multivariate statistics to be applied on the space of uncertainties so that only sub-samples, representative of initial set, are investigated for dynamic time-consuming studies. This work focuses on defining distances between models that characterize the topology of the reservoir rock network, i.e. its compactness or connectivity degree. The proposed strategy relies on the study of the reservoir rock skeleton. The skeleton of an object corresponds to its median feature. A skeleton is

  14. Sociodemographic characterization of ECT utilization in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ona, Celia M; Onoye, Jane M; Goebert, Deborah; Hishinuma, Earl; Bumanglag, R Janine; Takeshita, Junji; Carlton, Barry; Fukuda, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Minimal research has been done on sociodemographic differences in utilization of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for refractory depression, especially among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. This study examined sociodemographic and diagnostic variables using retrospective data from Hawaii, an island state with predominantly Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Retrospective data were obtained from an inpatient and outpatient database of ECT patients from 2008 to 2010 at a tertiary care community hospital on O'ahu, Hawaii. There was a significant increase in overall ECT utilization from 2008 to 2009, with utilization remaining stable from 2009 to 2010. European Americans (41%) and Japanese Americans (29%) have relatively higher rates of receiving ECT, and Filipino Americans and Native Hawaiians have relatively lower rates in comparison with their population demographics. Japanese Americans received significantly more ECT procedures than European Americans. Electroconvulsive therapy is underutilized by certain sociodemographic groups that may benefit most from the treatment. There are significant differences in ECT usage based on ethnicity. Such differences may be related to help-seeking behavior, economic differences, and/or attitudes regarding mental illness. Further research is needed to elucidate the reasons for differences in utilization.

  15. Culture-dependent and culture-independent characterization of microbial assemblages associated with high-temperature petroleum reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphan, V J; Taylor, L T; Hafenbradl, D; Delong, E F

    2000-02-01

    Recent investigations of oil reservoirs in a variety of locales have indicated that these habitats may harbor active thermophilic prokaryotic assemblages. In this study, we used both molecular and culture-based methods to characterize prokaryotic consortia associated with high-temperature, sulfur-rich oil reservoirs in California. Enrichment cultures designed for anaerobic thermophiles, both autotrophic and heterotrophic, were successful at temperatures ranging from 60 to 90 degrees C. Heterotrophic enrichments from all sites yielded sheathed rods (Thermotogales), pleomorphic rods resembling Thermoanaerobacter, and Thermococcus-like isolates. The predominant autotrophic microorganisms recovered from inorganic enrichments using H(2), acetate, and CO(2) as energy and carbon sources were methanogens, including isolates closely related to Methanobacterium, Methanococcus, and Methanoculleus species. Two 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) libraries were generated from total community DNA collected from production wellheads, using either archaeal or universal oligonucleotide primer sets. Sequence analysis of the universal library indicated that a large percentage of clones were highly similar to known bacterial and archaeal isolates recovered from similar habitats. Represented genera in rDNA clone libraries included Thermoanaerobacter, Thermococcus, Desulfothiovibrio, Aminobacterium, Acidaminococcus, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, and Desulfomicrobium. The archaeal library was dominated by methanogen-like rDNAs, with a lower percentage of clones belonging to the Thermococcales. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that sulfur-utilizing and methane-producing thermophilic microorganisms have a widespread distribution in oil reservoirs and the potential to actively participate in the biogeochemical transformation of carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur in situ.

  16. MULTI-ATTRIBUTE SEISMIC/ROCK PHYSICS APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mavko

    2000-10-01

    This project consists of three key interrelated Phases, each focusing on the central issue of imaging and quantifying fractured reservoirs, through improved integration of the principles of rock physics, geology, and seismic wave propagation. This report summarizes the results of Phase I of the project. The key to successful development of low permeability reservoirs lies in reliably characterizing fractures. Fractures play a crucial role in controlling almost all of the fluid transport in tight reservoirs. Current seismic methods to characterize fractures depend on various anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. We are pursuing an integrated study that relates to high-resolution seismic images of natural fractures to the rock parameters that control the storage and mobility of fluids. Our goal is to go beyond the current state-of-the art to develop and demonstrate next generation methodologies for detecting and quantitatively characterizing fracture zones using seismic measurements. Our study incorporates 3 key elements: (1) Theoretical rock physics studies of the anisotropic viscoelastic signatures of fractured rocks, including up scaling analysis and rock-fluid interactions to define the factors relating fractures in the lab and in the field. (2) Modeling of optimal seismic attributes, including offset and azimuth dependence of travel time, amplitude, impedance and spectral signatures of anisotropic fractured rocks. We will quantify the information content of combinations of seismic attributes, and the impact of multi-attribute analyses in reducing uncertainty in fracture interpretations. (3) Integration and interpretation of seismic, well log, and laboratory data, incorporating field geologic fracture characterization and the theoretical results of items 1 and 2 above. The focal point for this project is the demonstration of these methodologies in the Marathon Oil Company Yates Field in West Texas.

  17. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which

  18. Sweet spot identification and smart development -An integrated reservoir characterization study of a posidonia shale of a posidonia shale outcrop analogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.; Zijp, M.H.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological

  19. Deep microbial life in the Altmark natural gas reservoir: baseline characterization prior CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Daria; Shaheed, Mina; Vieth, Andrea; Krüger, Martin; Kock, Dagmar; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Within the framework of the CLEAN project (CO2 Largescale Enhanced gas recovery in the Altmark Natural gas field) technical basics with special emphasis on process monitoring are explored by injecting CO2 into a gas reservoir. Our study focuses on the investigation of the in-situ microbial community of the Rotliegend natural gas reservoir in the Altmark, located south of the city Salzwedel, Germany. In order to characterize the microbial life in the extreme habitat we aim to localize and identify microbes including their metabolism influencing the creation and dissolution of minerals. The ability of microorganisms to speed up dissolution and formation of minerals might result in changes of the local permeability and the long-term safety of CO2 storage. However, geology, structure and chemistry of the reservoir rock and the cap rock as well as interaction with saline formation water and natural gases and the injected CO2 affect the microbial community composition and activity. The reservoir located at the depth of about 3500m, is characterised by high salinity fluid and temperatures up to 127° C. It represents an extreme environment for microbial life and therefore the main focus is on hyperthermophilic, halophilic anaerobic microorganisms. In consequence of the injection of large amounts of CO2 in the course of a commercial EGR (Enhanced Gas Recovery) the environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, pressure and solubility of minerals) for the autochthonous microorganisms will change. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes are applied for detecting structural changes in the community by using PCR- SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results of the baseline survey indicate the presence of microorganisms similar to representatives from other saline, hot, anoxic, deep environments. However, due to the hypersaline and hyperthermophilic reservoir conditions, cell numbers are low, so that

  20. Integrated workflow for characterizing and modeling fracture network in unconventional reservoirs using microseismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahy Tafti, Tayeb

    We develop a new method for integrating information and data from different sources. We also construct a comprehensive workflow for characterizing and modeling a fracture network in unconventional reservoirs, using microseismic data. The methodology is based on combination of several mathematical and artificial intelligent techniques, including geostatistics, fractal analysis, fuzzy logic, and neural networks. The study contributes to scholarly knowledge base on the characterization and modeling fractured reservoirs in several ways; including a versatile workflow with a novel objective functions. Some the characteristics of the methods are listed below: 1. The new method is an effective fracture characterization procedure estimates different fracture properties. Unlike the existing methods, the new approach is not dependent on the location of events. It is able to integrate all multi-scaled and diverse fracture information from different methodologies. 2. It offers an improved procedure to create compressional and shear velocity models as a preamble for delineating anomalies and map structures of interest and to correlate velocity anomalies with fracture swarms and other reservoir properties of interest. 3. It offers an effective way to obtain the fractal dimension of microseismic events and identify the pattern complexity, connectivity, and mechanism of the created fracture network. 4. It offers an innovative method for monitoring the fracture movement in different stages of stimulation that can be used to optimize the process. 5. Our newly developed MDFN approach allows to create a discrete fracture network model using only microseismic data with potential cost reduction. It also imposes fractal dimension as a constraint on other fracture modeling approaches, which increases the visual similarity between the modeled networks and the real network over the simulated volume.

  1. Characterization of floodflows along the Arkansas River without regulation by Pueblo Reservoir, Portland to John Martin Reservoir, Southeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, John R.; Bauer, Daniel P.

    1981-01-01

    The need for a method for estimating flow characteristics of flood hydrographs between Portland, Colo., and John Martin Reservoir has been promoted with the construction of the Pueble Reservoir. To meet this need a procedure was developed for predicting floodflow peaks, traveltimes, and volumes at any point along the Arkansas River between Portland and John Martin Reservoir without considering the existing Pueble Reservoir detention effects. A streamflow-routing model was calibrated initially and then typical flood simulations were made for the 164.8-mile study reach. Simulations were completed for varying magnitudes of floods and antecedent streamflow conditions. Multiple regression techniques were then used with simulation results as input to provide predictive relationships for food peak, volume, and traveltime. Management practices that may be used to benefit water users in the area include providing methods for the distribution and allotment of the flood waters upstream of Portland to different downstream water users according to Colorado water law and also under the Arkansas River Compact. (USGS)

  2. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  3. Geological and Petrophysical Characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D Simulation of a Fluvial-Deltaic Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Jr, Thomas C.

    2001-10-31

    The objective of the Ferron Sandstone project was to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, quantitative characterization f fluvial-deltaic reservoir to allow realistic interwell and reservoir-scale models to be developed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. Quantitative geological and petrophysical information on the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in east-central Utah was collected. Both new and existing data was integrated into a three-dimensional model of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Simulation results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations.

  4. Use of ``rock-typing`` to characterize carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikwuakor, K.C.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of the project was to apply techniques of ``rock-typing`` and quantitative formation evaluation to borehole measurements in order to identify reservoir and non-reservoir rock-types and their properties within the ``C`` zone of the Ordovician Red River carbonates in the northeast Montana and northwest North Dakota areas of the Williston Basin. Rock-typing discriminates rock units according to their pore-size distribution. Formation evaluation estimates porosities and pore fluid saturation. Rock-types were discriminated using crossplots involving three rock-typing criteria: (1) linear relationship between bulk density and porosity, (2) linear relationship between acoustic interval transit-time and porosity, and (3) linear relationship between acoustic interval transit-time and bulk density. Each rock-type was quantitatively characterized by the slopes and intercepts established for different crossplots involving the above variables, as well as porosities and fluid saturations associated with the rock-types. All the existing production was confirmed through quantitative formation evaluation. Highly porous dolomites and anhydritic dolomites contribute most of the production, and constitute the best reservoir rock-types. The results of this study can be applied in field development and in-fill drilling. Potential targets would be areas of porosity pinchouts and those areas where highly porous zones are downdip from non-porous and tight dolomites. Such areas are abundant. In order to model reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations, a more localized (e.g. field scale) study, expanded to involve other rock-typing criteria, is necessary.

  5. Reservoir characterization of the Upper Jurassic geothermal target formations (Molasse Basin, Germany): role of thermofacies as exploration tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homuth, S.; Götz, A. E.; Sass, I.

    2015-06-01

    The Upper Jurassic carbonates of the southern German Molasse Basin are the target of numerous geothermal combined heat and power production projects since the year 2000. A production-orientated reservoir characterization is therefore of high economic interest. Outcrop analogue studies enable reservoir property prediction by determination and correlation of lithofacies-related thermo- and petrophysical parameters. A thermofacies classification of the carbonate formations serves to identify heterogeneities and production zones. The hydraulic conductivity is mainly controlled by tectonic structures and karstification, whilst the type and grade of karstification is facies related. The rock permeability has only a minor effect on the reservoir's sustainability. Physical parameters determined on oven-dried samples have to be corrected, applying reservoir transfer models to water-saturated reservoir conditions. To validate these calculated parameters, a Thermo-Triaxial-Cell simulating the temperature and pressure conditions of the reservoir is used and calorimetric and thermal conductivity measurements under elevated temperature conditions are performed. Additionally, core and cutting material from a 1600 m deep research drilling and a 4850 m (total vertical depth, measured depth: 6020 m) deep well is used to validate the reservoir property predictions. Under reservoir conditions a decrease in permeability of 2-3 magnitudes is observed due to the thermal expansion of the rock matrix. For tight carbonates the matrix permeability is temperature-controlled; the thermophysical matrix parameters are density-controlled. Density increases typically with depth and especially with higher dolomite content. Therefore, thermal conductivity increases; however the dominant factor temperature also decreases the thermal conductivity. Specific heat capacity typically increases with increasing depth and temperature. The lithofacies-related characterization and prediction of reservoir

  6. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2002-07-26

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This provides results of the final year of the six-year project for each of the four areas.

  7. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO{sub 2} Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1999-02-03

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the third year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO2.

  8. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  9. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  10. Statistical analysis of surface lineaments and fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Genliang; George, S.A.; Lindsey, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    Thirty-six sets of surface lineaments and fractures mapped from satellite images and/or aerial photos from parts of the Mid-continent and Colorado Plateau regions were collected, digitized, and statistically analyzed in order to obtain the probability distribution functions of natural fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs. The orientations and lengths of the surface linear features were calculated using the digitized coordinates of the two end points of each individual linear feature. The spacing data of the surface linear features within an individual set were, obtained using a new analytical sampling technique. Statistical analyses were then performed to find the best-fit probability distribution functions for the orientation, length, and spacing of each data set. Twenty-five hypothesized probability distribution functions were used to fit each data set. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to rank the significance of each fit. A distribution which provides the lowest chi-square goodness-of-fit value was considered the best-fit distribution. The orientations of surface linear features were best-fitted by triangular, normal, or logistic distributions; the lengths were best-fitted by PearsonVI, PearsonV, lognormal2, or extreme-value distributions; and the spacing data were best-fitted by lognormal2, PearsonVI, or lognormal distributions. These probability functions can be used to stochastically characterize naturally fractured reservoirs.

  11. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. Quarterly progress report, April 1 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1997-03-01

    The basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The main challenge of the proposed research is to automate the generation of detailed reservoir descriptions honoring all the available {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}hard{close_quotes} data that ranges from qualitative and semi-quantitative geological interpretations to numeric data obtained from cores, well tests, well logs and production statistics. It involves significant amount of information exchange between researchers in geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering. Computer science (and artificial intelligence) provides the means to effectively acquire, integrate and automate the key expertise in the various disciplines in a reservoir characterization expert system. Additional challenges are the verification and validation of the expert system, since much of the interpretation of the experts is based on extended experience in reservoir characterization. The overall project plan to design the system to create integrated reservoir descriptions begins by initially developing an Al-based methodology for producing large-scale reservoir descriptions generated interactively from geology and well test data. Parallel to this task is a second task that develops an Al-based methodology that uses facies-biased information to generate small-scale descriptions of reservoir properties such as permeability and porosity. The third task involves consolidation and integration of the large-scale and small-scale methodologies to produce reservoir descriptions honoring all the available data.

  12. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew G. Cole; George B. Asquith; Jose I. Guzman; Mark D. Barton; Mohammad A. Malik; Shirley P. Dutton; Sigrid J. Clift

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based enhanced oil recovery. The study focused on the Ford Geraldine unit, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). Reservoirs in this and other Delaware Mountain Group fields have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Outcrop analogs were studied to better interpret the depositional processes that formed the reservoirs at the Ford Geraldine unit and to determine the dimensions of reservoir sandstone bodies. Facies relationships and bedding architecture within a single genetic unit exposed in outcrop in Culberson County, Texas, suggest that the sandstones were deposited in a system of channels and levees with attached lobes that initially prograded basinward, aggraded, and then turned around and stepped back toward the shelf. Channel sandstones are 10 to 60 ft thick and 300 to 3,000 ft wide. The flanking levees have a wedge-shaped geometry and are composed of interbedded sandstone and siltstone; thickness varies from 3 to 20 ft and length from several hundred to several thousands of feet. The lobe sandstones are broad lens-shaped bodies; thicknesses range up to 30 ft with aspect ratios (width/thickness) of 100 to 10,000. Lobe sandstones may be interstratified with laminated siltstones.

  13. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Mendez, Daniel L.

    2001-05-08

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover oil more economically through geologically based field development. This project was focused on East Ford field, a Delaware Mountain Group field that produced from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 9160, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO2 flood was being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  14. Utilizing natural gas huff and puff to enhance production in heavy oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenlong, G.; Shuhong, W.; Jian, Z.; Xialin, Z. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[PetroChina Co. Ltd., Beijing (China); Jinzhong, L.; Xiao, M. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

    2008-10-15

    The L Block in the north structural belt of China's Tuha Basin is a super deep heavy oil reservoir. The gas to oil ratio (GOR) is 12 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3} and the initial bubble point pressure is only 4 MPa. The low production can be attributed to high oil viscosity and low flowability. Although steam injection is the most widely method for heavy oil production in China, it is not suitable for the L Block because of its depth. This paper reviewed pilot tests in which the natural gas huff and puff process was used to enhance production in the L Block. Laboratory experiments that included both conventional and unconventional PVT were conducted to determine the physical property of heavy oil saturated by natural gas. The experiments revealed that the heavy oil can entrap the gas for more than several hours because of its high viscosity. A pseudo bubble point pressure exists much lower than the bubble point pressure in manmade foamy oils, which is relative to the depressurization rate. Elastic energy could be maintained in a wider pressure scope than natural depletion without gas injection. A special experimental apparatus that can stimulate the process of gas huff and puff in the reservoir was also introduced. The foamy oil could be seen during the huff and puff experiment. Most of the oil flowed to the producer in a pseudo single phase, which is among the most important mechanisms for enhancing production. A pilot test of a single well demonstrated that the oil production increased from 1 to 2 cubic metres per day to 5 to 6 cubic metres per day via the natural gas huff and puff process. The stable production period which was 5 to 10 days prior to huff and puff, was prolonged to 91 days in the first cycle and 245 days in the second cycle. 10 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  15. Characterization and modeling of turbidity density plume induced into stratified reservoir by flood runoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S W; Lee, H S

    2009-01-01

    In monsoon climate area, turbidity flows typically induced by flood runoffs cause numerous environmental impacts such as impairment of fish habitat and river attraction, and degradation of water supply efficiency. This study was aimed to characterize the physical dynamics of turbidity plume induced into a stratified reservoir using field monitoring and numerical simulations, and to assess the effect of different withdrawal scenarios on the control of downstream water quality. Three different turbidity models (RUN1, RUN2, RUN3) were developed based on a two-dimensional laterally averaged hydrodynamic and transport model, and validated against field data. RUN1 assumed constant settling velocity of suspended sediment, while RUN2 estimated the settling velocity as a function of particle size, density, and water temperature to consider vertical stratification. RUN3 included a lumped first-order turbidity attenuation rate taking into account the effects of particles aggregation and degradable organic particles. RUN3 showed best performance in replicating the observed variations of in-reservoir and release turbidity. Numerical experiments implemented to assess the effectiveness of different withdrawal depths showed that the alterations of withdrawal depth can modify the pathway and flow regimes of the turbidity plume, but its effect on the control of release water quality could be trivial.

  16. 2D X-ray scanner and its uses in laboratory reservoir characterization measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, D.; Doggett, K.

    1997-08-01

    X-ray techniques are used in petroleum laboratories for a variety of reservoir characterization measurements. This paper describes the configuration of a 2D X-ray scanner and many of the ways in which it simplifies and improves accuracy`s of laboratory measurements. Linear X-ray scanners are most often used to provide descriptions of fluid saturations within core plugs during flow tests. We configured our linear scanner for both horizontal and vertical movement. Samples can be scanned horizontally, vertically, or according to horizontal and vertical grids. X-ray measurements are fast, allowing measurements of two- and three-phase fluid saturations during both steady- and unsteady-state flow processes. Rock samples can be scanned while they are subjected to stress, pore pressure, and temperature conditions simulating those of a petroleum reservoir. Many types of measurements are possible by selecting appropriate X-ray power settings, dopes, filters, and collimator configurations. The scanner has been used for a variety of applications besides fluid saturation measurements. It is useful for measuring porosity distributions in rocks, concentrations of X-ray dopes within flow streams during tracer tests, gap widths in fracture flow cells, fluid interface levels in PVT cells and fluid separators, and other features and phenomena.

  17. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Dave Martin and Associates, Inc., Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, limits development with conventional drilling. Combinations of vertical and horizontal wells combined with selective completions are being evaluated to optimize production performance. Based on the production response of similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Draw Pool. A detailed reservoir model of pilot area was developed, and enhanced recovery options, including waterflooding, lean gas, and carbon dioxide injection, are being evaluated.

  18. Integrated petrophysical and reservoir characterization workflow to enhance permeability and water saturation prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amri, Meshal; Mahmoud, Mohamed; Elkatatny, Salaheldin; Al-Yousef, Hasan; Al-Ghamdi, Tariq

    2017-07-01

    Accurate estimation of permeability is essential in reservoir characterization and in determining fluid flow in porous media which greatly assists optimize the production of a field. Some of the permeability prediction techniques such as Porosity-Permeability transforms and recently artificial intelligence and neural networks are encouraging but still show moderate to good match to core data. This could be due to limitation to homogenous media while the knowledge about geology and heterogeneity is indirectly related or absent. The use of geological information from core description as in Lithofacies which includes digenetic information show a link to permeability when categorized into rock types exposed to similar depositional environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a robust combined workflow integrating geology and petrophysics and wireline logs in an extremely heterogeneous carbonate reservoir to accurately predict permeability. Permeability prediction is carried out using pattern recognition algorithm called multi-resolution graph-based clustering (MRGC). We will bench mark the prediction results with hard data from core and well test analysis. As a result, we showed how much better improvements are achieved in the permeability prediction when geology is integrated within the analysis. Finally, we use the predicted permeability as an input parameter in J-function and correct for uncertainties in saturation calculation produced by wireline logs using the classical Archie equation. Eventually, high level of confidence in hydrocarbon volumes estimation is reached when robust permeability and saturation height functions are estimated in presence of important geological details that are petrophysically meaningful.

  19. Sedimentological Characterization of a Deepwater Methane Hydrate Reservoir in Green Canyon 955, Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meazell, K.; Flemings, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    Grain size is a controlling factor of hydrate saturation within a Pleistocene channel-levee system investigated by the UT-GOM2-1 expedition within the deepwater northern Gulf of Mexico. Laser diffraction and settling experiments conducted on sediments from 413-440 meters below the seafloor reveal the presence of two interbedded lithologic units, identified as a silty sand and a clayey silt, according Shepard's classification system. The sand-rich lithofacies has low density and high p-wave velocity, suggesting a high degree of hydrate saturation. Conversely, the clay and silt dominated lithofacies is characterized by a higher density and low p-wave velocity, suggesting low hydrate saturation. The sand-rich lithofacies is well-sorted and displays abundant ripple lamination, indicative of deposition within a high-energy environment. The clayey-silt is poorly-sorted and lacks sedimentary structures. The two lithofacies are interbedded throughout the reservoir unit; however, the relative abundance of the sand-rich lithofacies increases with depth, suggesting a potential decrease in flow energy or sediment flux over time, resulting in the most favorable reservoir properties near the base of the unit.

  20. Oligo-Miocene reservoir sequence characterization and structuring in the Sisseb El Alem-Kalaa Kebira regions (Northeastern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houatmia, Faten; Khomsi, Sami; Bédir, Mourad

    2015-11-01

    The Sisseb El Alem-Enfidha basin is located in the northeastern Tunisia, It is borded by Nadhour - Saouaf syncline to the north, Kairouan plain to the south, the Mediterranean Sea to the east and Tunisian Atlassic "dorsale" to the west. Oligocene and Miocene deltaic deposits present the main potential deep aquifers in this basin with high porosity (25%-30%). The interpretation of twenty seismic reflection profiles, calibrated by wire line logging data of twelve oil wells, hydraulic wells and geologic field sections highlighted the impact of tectonics on the structuring geometry of Oligo-Miocene sandstones reservoirs and their distribution in raised structures and subsurface depressions. Miocene seismostratigraphy analysis from Ain Ghrab Formation (Langhian) to the Segui Formation (Quaternary) showed five third-order seismic sequence deposits and nine extended lenticular sandy bodies reservoirs limited by toplap and downlap surfaces unconformities, Oligocene deposits presented also five third- order seismic sequences with five extended lenticular sandy bodies reservoirs. The Depth and the thickness maps of these sequence reservoir packages exhibited the structuring of this basin in sub-basins characterized by important lateral and vertical geometric and thichness variations. Petroleum wells wire line logging correlation with clay volume calculation showed an heterogeneous multilayer reservoirs of Oligocene and Miocene formed by the arrangement of fourteen sandstone bodies being able to be good reservoirs, separated by impermeable clay packages and affected by faults. Reservoirs levels correspond mainly to the lower system tract (LST) of sequences. Intensive fracturing by deep seated faults bounding the different sub-basins play a great role for water surface recharge and inter-layer circulations between affected reservoirs. The total pore volume of the Oligo-Miocene reservoir sandy bodies in the study area, is estimated to about 4 × 1012 m3 and equivalent to 4

  1. Characterization of the deep microbial life in the Altmark natural gas reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, D.; Alawi, M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Kock, D.; Krüger, M.; Wuerdemann, H.; Shaheed, M.

    2010-12-01

    Within the framework of the CLEAN project (CO2 Largescale Enhanced gas recovery in the Altmark Natural gas field) technical basics with special emphasis on process monitoring are explored by injecting CO2 into a gas reservoir. Our study focuses on the investigation of the in-situ microbial community of the Rotliegend natural gas reservoir in the Altmark, located south of the city Salzwedel, Germany. In order to characterize the microbial life in the extreme habitat we aim to localize and identify microbes including their metabolism influencing the creation and dissolution of minerals. The ability of microorganisms to speed up dissolution and formation of minerals might result in changes of the local permeability and the long-term safety of CO2 storage. However, geology, structure and chemistry of the reservoir rock and the cap rock as well as interaction with saline formation water and natural gases and the injected CO2 affect the microbial community composition and activity. The reservoir located at the depth of approximately 3500 m, is characterised by high salinity (420 g/l) and temperatures up to 127°C. It represents an extreme environment for microbial life and therefore the main focus is on hyperthermophilic, halophilic anaerobic microorganisms. In consequence of the injection of large amounts of CO2 in the course of a commercial EGR (Enhanced Gas Recovery), the environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, pressure and solubility of minerals) for the autochthonous microorganisms will change. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes are applied for detecting structural changes in the community by using PCR- SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism), DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) and 16S rRNA cloning. First results of the baseline survey indicate the presence of microorganisms similar to representatives from other deep environments. The sequence analyses revealed the presence of several H2-oxidising bacteria (Hydrogenophaga sp

  2. An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2006-12-31

    We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling partitioning interwell tracer tests in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Specifically, we utilize the unique features of streamline models to develop an efficient approach for interpretation and history matching of field tracer response. A critical aspect here is the underdetermined and highly ill-posed nature of the associated inverse problems. We have investigated the relative merits of the traditional history matching ('amplitude inversion') and a novel travel time inversion in terms of robustness of the method and convergence behavior of the solution. We show that the traditional amplitude inversion is orders of magnitude more non-linear and the solution here is likely to get trapped in local minimum, leading to inadequate history match. The proposed travel time inversion is shown to be extremely efficient and robust for practical field applications. The streamline approach is generalized to model water injection in naturally fractured reservoirs through the use of a dual media approach. The fractures and matrix are treated as separate continua that are connected through a transfer function, as in conventional finite difference simulators for modeling fractured systems. A detailed comparison with a commercial finite difference simulator shows very good agreement. Furthermore, an examination of the scaling behavior of the computation time indicates that the streamline approach is likely to result in significant savings for large-scale field applications. We also propose a novel approach to history matching finite-difference models that combines the advantage of the streamline models with the versatility of finite-difference simulation. In our approach, we utilize the streamline-derived sensitivities to facilitate history matching during finite-difference simulation. The use of finite-difference model allows us to account for detailed process physics and compressibility effects

  3. Hydraulic characterization of aquifers, reservoir rocks, and soils: A history of ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of the hydraulic properties of aquifers, petroleum reservoir rocks, and soil systems is a fundamental task in many branches of Earth sciences and engineering. The transient diffusion equation proposed by Fourier early in the 19th century for heat conduction in solids constitutes the basis for inverting hydraulic test data collected in the field to estimate the two basic parameters of interest, namely, hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic capacitance. Combining developments in fluid mechanics, heat conduction, and potential theory, the civil engineers of the 19th century, such as Darcy, Dupuit, and Forchheimer, solved many useful problems of steady state seepage of water. Interest soon shifted towards the understanding of the transient flow process. The turn of the century saw Buckingham establish the role of capillary potential in governing moisture movement in partially water-saturated soils. The 1920s saw remarkable developments in several branches of the Earth sciences; Terzaghi's analysis of deformation of watersaturated earth materials, the invention of the tensiometer by Willard Gardner, Meinzer's work on the compressibility of elastic aquifers, and the study of the mechanics of oil and gas reservoirs by Muskat and others. In the 1930s these led to a systematic analysis of pressure transients from aquifers and petroleum reservoirs through the work of Theis and Hurst. The response of a subsurface flow system to a hydraulic perturbation is governed by its geometric attributes as well as its material properties. In inverting field data to estimate hydraulic parameters, one makes the fundamental assumption that the flow geometry is known a priori. This approach has generally served us well in matters relating to resource development primarily concerned with forecasting fluid pressure declines. Over the past two decades, Earth scientists have become increasingly concerned with environmental contamination problems. The resolution of these problems

  4. Geochemical analysis of atlantic rim water, carbon county, wyoming: New applications for characterizing coalbed natural gas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, J.F.; Frost, C.D.; Sharma, Shruti

    2011-01-01

    Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production typically requires the extraction of large volumes of water from target formations, thereby influencing any associated reservoir systems. We describe isotopic tracers that provide immediate data on the presence or absence of biogenic natural gas and the identify methane-containing reservoirs are hydrologically confined. Isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon and strontium, along with water quality data, were used to characterize the CBNG reservoirs and hydrogeologic systems of Wyoming's Atlantic Rim. Water was analyzed from a stream, springs, and CBNG wells. Strontium isotopic composition and major ion geochemistry identify two groups of surface water samples. Muddy Creek and Mesaverde Group spring samples are Ca-Mg-S04-type water with higher 87Sr/86Sr, reflecting relatively young groundwater recharged from precipitation in the Sierra Madre. Groundwaters emitted from the Lewis Shale springs are Na-HCO3-type waters with lower 87Sr/86Sr, reflecting sulfate reduction and more extensive water-rock interaction. To distinguish coalbed waters, methanogenically enriched ??13CDIC wasused from other natural waters. Enriched ??13CDIC, between -3.6 and +13.3???, identified spring water that likely originates from Mesaverde coalbed reservoirs. Strongly positive ??13CDIC, between +12.6 and +22.8???, identified those coalbed reservoirs that are confined, whereas lower ??13CDIC, between +0.0 and +9.9???, identified wells within unconfined reservoir systems. Copyright ?? 2011. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-utilizing Bacteria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-utilizing Bacteria from Petroleum Sludge Samples obtained from Crude Oil Processing Facility in Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 21, No 2 (2017) > ... Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep.

  6. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria in tropical marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria present in Nembe waterside sediments, a marine habitat in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, were characterized using standard culture dependent techniques. The sediment samples were collected along the navigational route with an Eckman sediment grab (Wild Life Supply Co., NY). The samples had ...

  7. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey Jr., Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah

  8. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jr., Chidsey, Thomas C.; Allison, M. Lee

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah

  9. An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers. Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an efficient trajectory-based approach to integrate transient pressure data into high-resolution reservoir and aquifer models. The method involves alternating travel time and peak amplitude matching of pressure response using inverse modeling and is particularly well-suited for high resolution subsurface characterization using hydraulic tomography or pressure interference tests. Compared to travel time inversion only, our proposed approach results in a significantly improved match of the pressure response at the wells and also better estimates of subsurface properties. This is accomplished with very little increase in computational cost. Utilizing the concept of a ''diffusive'' time of flight derived from an asymptotic solution of the diffusivity equation, we develop analytical approaches to estimate the sensitivities for travel time and peak amplitude of pressure response to subsurface properties. The sensitivities are then used in an iterative least-squared minimization to match the pressure data. We illustrate our approach using synthetic and field examples. In the field application at a fractured limestone formation, the predominant fracture patterns emerging from the inversion are shown to be consistent with independent geophysical experiments and borehole data

  10. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morea, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: (1) Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; (2) Fracture characterization; (3) reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and (4) CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field

  11. Reservoir characterization and monitoring of cold and thermal heavy oil production using multi-transient EM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmark, F. [Petroleum Geo-Services Asia Pacific Pte Ltd., Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-10-15

    This study emphasized the importance of mapping the in situ subsurface distribution of heavy oil for evaluating the amount of oil in place. The multi-transient electromagnetic (MTEM) method was shown to be an ideal method to characterize the large scale distribution of oil, including the average saturation levels, on the scale needed to optimize oil extraction using steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam stimulation (CSS). A feasibility study for an MTEM monitoring project would simulate reservoir temperature, water saturation and salinity to determine the evolution over time expressed in resistivity and the expanding steam chamber. The 4 factors influencing the resistivity in the monitoring phase were discussed. The temperature due to steaming causes a significant drop in resistivity of the affected rock volume, while the changes in water saturation affect resistivity. The drop in salinity of the pore water due to mixing with distilled water originating in the condensation of the injected steam causes an increase in resistivity, while the mineral dissolution and overall volume expansion causes formation damage that permanently changes the rock fabric. The overall effect of steam injection is a reduction in resistivity within the main part of the chamber, with a sudden increase in resistivity in the proximity of the injection well due to salt depletion. The lowered resistivity within a halo outside the steam chamber can be attributed to the heat radiation front expanding faster than the maturing steam chamber. The author noted that reservoir simulators do not yet incorporate the dynamic changes in porosity and permeability that are observed as permanent reductions of the elastic moduli and reduced resistivity. It was concluded that in order to fully describe the evolution of the steam chamber, this so called formation damage must be better understood. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Characterization of biocenosis in the storage-reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryakhin, E.; Tryapitsina, G.; Andreyev, S.; Akleyev, A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation); Mokrov, Y.; Ivanov, I. [Mayak PA (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    A number of storage-reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' Production Association ('Mayak' PA) with different levels of radioactive contamination: reservoir R-17 ('Staroye Boloto'), reservoir R-9 (Lake Karachay), reservoirs of the Techa Cascade R-3 (Koksharov pond), R-4 (Metlinsky pond), R-10 and R-11 is located in Chelyabinsk Oblast (Russia). The operation of these reservoirs began in 1949-1964. Full-scale hydro-biological studies of these reservoirs were started in 2007. The research into the status of biocenosis of these storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' PA was performed in 2007 - 2011. The status of biocenosis was evaluated in accordance with the status of following communities: bacterio-plankton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoo-benthos, macrophytes and ichthyofauna. The status of ecosystems was determined by radioactive and chemical contamination of water bodies. The results of hydro-biological investigations showed that no changes in the status of biota in reservoir R-11 were revealed as compared to the biological parameters of the water bodies of this geographical zone. In terms of biological parameters the status of the ecosystem of the reservoir R-11 is characterized by a sufficient biological diversity, and can be considered acceptable. The ecosystem of the reservoir R-10 maintains its functional integrity, although there were registered negative effects in the zoo-benthos community associated with the decrease in the parameters of the development of pelophylic mollusks that live at the bottom of the water body throughout the entire life cycle. In reservoir R-4 the parameters of the development of phytoplankton did not differ from those in Reservoirs R-11 and R-10; however, a significant reduction in the quantity of Cladocera and Copepoda was registered in the zooplankton community, while in the zoo-benthos there were no small mollusks that live aground throughout the entire life

  13. Basic feasibility study on utilization for geopressured thermal reservoir in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations and discussions were given on a project to implement district heating, greenhouse heating, and binary power generation by utilizing geothermal resources in Hungary. Hungary has deep earth pressure type hot water areas distributed, that flow hot water of about 90 to 180 degrees C by the bed pressure. The areas that can utilize the hot water were extracted and investigated by using literatures and data. The project plans district heating of about 15,000 households using the geothermal water, heating of greenhouses equivalent to 100,000 m{sup 2}, gas engine power generation by using the flowing fluid pressure and combustion of the generated methane gas, and binary power generation by using the geothermal water. As a result of the discussions, it was revealed that the energy saving effect would save 5,008 Ktoe in 20 years as converted to crude oil, and the greenhouse effect gas reducing effect would reduce 14.2 million t-CO2 in 20 years. The total project cost would be about 16.62 billion yen. The internal profit rate of this project is 11.34%, largely exceeding the opportunity cost, and indicating the financial effect possibility. (NEDO)

  14. Sweet spot identification in underexplored shales using multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and key performance indicators : Example of the Posidonia Shale Formation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Heege, Jan; Zijp, Mart; Nelskamp, Susanne; Douma, Lisanne; Verreussel, Roel; Ten Veen, Johan; de Bruin, Geert; Peters, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Sweet spot identification in underexplored shale gas basins needs to be based on a limited amount of data on shale properties in combination with upfront geological characterization and modelling, because actual production data is usually absent. Multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and

  15. Sweet spot identification in underexplored shales using multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and key performance indicators: example of the Posidonia Shale Formation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Nelskamp, S.; Douma, L.A.N.R.; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Veen, J.H. ten; Bruin, G. de; Peters, M.C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet spot identification in underexplored shale gas basins needs to be based on a limited amount of data on shale properties in combination with upfront geological characterization and modelling, because actual production data is usually absent. Multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and

  16. Characterization of transient groundwater flow through a high arch dam foundation during reservoir impounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though a large number of large-scale arch dams with height larger than 200 m have been built in the world, the transient groundwater flow behaviors and the seepage control effects in the dam foundations under difficult geological conditions are rarely reported. This paper presents a case study on the transient groundwater flow behaviors in the rock foundation of Jinping I double-curvature arch dam, the world's highest dam of this type to date that has been completed. Taking into account the geological settings at the site, an inverse modeling technique utilizing the time series measurements of both hydraulic head and discharge was adopted to back-calculate the permeability of the foundation rocks, which effectively improves the uniqueness and reliability of the inverse modeling results. The transient seepage flow in the dam foundation during the reservoir impounding was then modeled with a parabolic variational inequality (PVI method. The distribution of pore water pressure, the amount of leakage, and the performance of the seepage control system in the dam foundation during the entire impounding process were finally illustrated with the numerical results.

  17. Characterization of dynamic change of Fan-delta reservoir properties in water-drive development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Shenghe; Xiong Qihua; Liu Yuhong [Univ. of Petroleum Changping, Beijing (China)

    1997-08-01

    Fan-delta reservoir in Huzhuangji oil field of east China, is a typical highly heterogeneous reservoir. The oil field has been developed by water-drive for 10 years, but the oil recovery is less than 12%, and water cut is over 90%, resulting from high heterogeneity and serious dynamic change of reservoir properties. This paper aims at the study of dynamic change of reservoir properties in water-drive development. Through quantitative imaging analysis and mercury injection analysis of cores from inspection wells, the dynamic change of reservoir pore structure in water-drive development was studied. The results show that the {open_quotes}large pore channels{close_quotes} develop in distributary channel sandstone and become larger in water-drive development, resulting in more serious pore heterogeneity. Through reservoir sensitivity experiments, the rock-fluid reaction in water-drive development is studied. The results show the permeability of some distal bar sandstone and deserted channel sandstone becomes lower due to swelling of I/S clay minerals in pore throats. OD the other hand, the permeability of distributary channel and mouth bar sandstone become larger because the authigenic Koalinites in pore throats are flushed away with the increase of flow rate of injection water. Well-logging analysis of flooded reservoirs are used to study the dynamic change of reservoir properties in various flow units. The distribution of remaining oil is closely related to the types and distribution of flow units.

  18. Iron speciation and mineral characterization of upper Jurassic reservoir rocks in the Minhe Basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiangxian; Zheng, Guodong, E-mail: gdzhbj@mail.iggcas.ac.cn; Xu, Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources, Gansu Province / Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics (China); Liang, Minliang [Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Institute of Geomechanics, Key Lab of Shale Oil and Gas Geological Survey (China); Fan, Qiaohui; Wu, Yingzhong; Ye, Conglin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources, Gansu Province / Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics (China); Shozugawa, Katsumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki [The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Six samples from a natural outcrop of reservoir rocks with oil seepage and two control samples from surrounding area in the Minhe Basin, northwestern China were selectively collected and analyzed for mineralogical composition as well as iron speciation using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy, respectively. Iron species revealed that: (1) the oil-bearing reservoir rocks were changed by water-rock-oil interactions; (2) even in the same site, there was a different performance between sandstone and mudstone during the oil and gas infusion to the reservoirs; and (3) this was evidence indicating the selective channels of hydrocarbon migration. In addition, these studies showed that the iron speciation by Mössbauer spectroscopy could be useful for the study of oil and gas reservoirs, especially the processes of the water-rock interactions within petroleum reservoirs.

  19. Seismic characterization of geothermal reservoirs by application of the common-reflection-surface stack method and attribute analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Pussak

    2015-01-01

    An important contribution of geosciences to the renewable energy production portfolio is the exploration and utilization of geothermal resources. For the development of a geothermal project at great depths a detailed geological and geophysical exploration program is required in the first phase. With the help of active seismic methods high-resolution images of the geothermal reservoir can be delivered. This allows potential transport routes for fluids to be identified as well as regions with h...

  20. Multi-Attribute Seismic/Rock Physics Approach to Characterizing Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mavko

    2004-11-30

    Most current seismic methods to seismically characterize fractures in tight reservoirs depend on a few anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. While seismic anisotropy can be a powerful fracture diagnostic, a number of situations can lessen its usefulness or introduce interpretation ambiguities. Fortunately, laboratory and theoretical work in rock physics indicates that a much broader spectrum of fracture seismic signatures can occur, including a decrease in P- and S-wave velocities, a change in Poisson's ratio, an increase in velocity dispersion and wave attenuation, as well as well as indirect images of structural features that can control fracture occurrence. The goal of this project was to demonstrate a practical interpretation and integration strategy for detecting and characterizing natural fractures in rocks. The approach was to exploit as many sources of information as possible, and to use the principles of rock physics as the link among seismic, geologic, and log data. Since no single seismic attribute is a reliable fracture indicator in all situations, the focus was to develop a quantitative scheme for integrating the diverse sources of information. The integrated study incorporated three key elements: The first element was establishing prior constraints on fracture occurrence, based on laboratory data, previous field observations, and geologic patterns of fracturing. The geologic aspects include analysis of the stratigraphic, structural, and tectonic environments of the field sites. Field observations and geomechanical analysis indicates that fractures tend to occur in the more brittle facies, for example, in tight sands and carbonates. In contrast, strain in shale is more likely to be accommodated by ductile flow. Hence, prior knowledge of bed thickness and facies architecture, calibrated to outcrops, are powerful constraints on the interpreted fracture distribution. Another important constraint is that

  1. Structural characterization and numerical simulations of flow properties of standard and reservoir carbonate rocks using micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Amina; Chevalier, Sylvie; Sassi, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    With advances in imaging techniques and computational power, Digital Rock Physics (DRP) is becoming an increasingly popular tool to characterize reservoir samples and determine their internal structure and flow properties. In this work, we present the details for imaging, segmentation, as well as numerical simulation of single-phase flow through a standard homogenous Silurian dolomite core plug sample as well as a heterogeneous sample from a carbonate reservoir. We develop a procedure that integrates experimental results into the segmentation step to calibrate the porosity. We also look into using two different numerical tools for the simulation; namely Avizo Fire Xlab Hydro that solves the Stokes' equations via the finite volume method and Palabos that solves the same equations using the Lattice Boltzmann Method. Representative Elementary Volume (REV) and isotropy studies are conducted on the two samples and we show how DRP can be a useful tool to characterize rock properties that are time consuming and costly to obtain experimentally.

  2. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, M. Lee; Chidsey, Thomas Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million bbl of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO-) flood 2 project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals

  3. Reservoir characterization using artificial neural network; Neural network wo mochiita choryuso tokusei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, N; Kozawa, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nishikawa, N; Tani, A [Fuji Research Institute Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Neural network is used for the prediction of porosity and permeability using logging data as reservoir characteristics, and the validity of this method is verified. For the prediction of reservoir characteristics by the use of seismic survey data, composite seismic survey records obtained by density logging and acoustic logging are used to experiment the prediction of porosity and permeability continuous along lines of wells. A 3-output back propagation network is used for analysis. There is a possibility that this technique when optimized will improve on prediction accuracy. Furthermore, in the case of characteristics mapping, 3-dimensional seismic data is applied to a carbonate rock reservoir for predicting spatial porosity and permeability. This technique facilitates the comprehensive analysis of core data, well data, and seismic survey data, enabling the derivation of a high-precision spatial distribution of reservoir characteristics. Efforts will continue for further improvement on prediction accuracy. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Study on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by characterization of the reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Tae-Jin; Kwak, Young-Hoon; Huh, Dae-Gee [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    The reservoir geochemistry is to understand the origin of these heterogeneities and distributions of the bitumens within the reservoir and to use them not only for exploration but for the development of the petroleums. Methods and principles of the reservoir geochemistry, which are applicable to the petroleum exploration and development, are reviewed in the study. In addition, a case study was carried out on the gas, condensate, water and bitumen samples in the reservoir, taken from the Haenam, Pohang areas and the Ulleung Basin offshore Korea. Mineral geothermometers were studied to estimate the thermal history in sedimentary basins and successfully applied to the Korean onshore and offshore basins. The opal silica-to-quartz transformation was investigated in the Pohang basin as a geothermometer. In Korean basins, the smectite-to-illite changes indicate that smectite and illite can act as the geothermometer to estimate the thermal history of the basins. The albitization reaction was also considered as a temperature indicator. Naturally fractured reservoir is an important source of oil and gas throughout the world. The properties of matrix and fracture are the key parameters in predicting the performances of naturally fractured reservoirs. A new laboratory equipment has been designed and constructed by pressure pulse method to determine the properties, which are (1) the porosity of matrix, (2) the permeability of matrix, (3) the effective width of the fractures, and the permeability of the fractures. (author). 97 refs.

  5. Reservoir characterization and final pre-test analysis in support of the compressed-air-energy-storage Pittsfield aquifer field test in Pike County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    The work reported is part of a field experimental program to demonstrate and evaluate compressed air energy storage in a porous media aquifer reservoir near Pittsfield, Illinois. The reservoir is described. Numerical modeling of the reservoir was performed concurrently with site development. The numerical models were applied to predict the thermohydraulic performance of the porous media reservoir. This reservoir characterization and pre-test analysis made use of evaluation of bubble development, water coning, thermal development, and near-wellbore desaturation. The work was undertaken to define the time required to develop an air storage bubble of adequate size, to assess the specification of instrumentation and above-ground equipment, and to develop and evaluate operational strategies for air cycling. A parametric analysis was performed for the field test reservoir. (LEW)

  6. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  7. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO2 gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, P.

    1998-06-01

    The objective of the Spraberry CO{sub 2} pilot project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of continuous CO{sub 2} injection in the naturally fractured reservoirs of the Spraberry Trend. In order to describe, understand, and model CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry reservoirs, characterization of the fracture system is a must. Additional reservoir characterization was based on horizontal coring in the second year of the project. In addition to characterization of natural fractures, horizontal coring has confirmed a previously developed rock model for describing the Spraberry Trend shaly sands. A better method for identifying Spraberry pay zones has been verified. The authors have completed the reservoir characterization, which includes matrix description and detection (from core-log integration) and fracture characterization. This information is found in Section 1. The authors have completed extensive imbibition experiments that strongly indicate that the weakly water-wet behavior of the reservoir rock may be responsible for poor waterflood response observed in many Spraberry fields. The authors have also made significant progress in analytical and numerical simulation of performance in Spraberry reservoirs as seen in Section 3. They have completed several suites of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry and Berea whole cores at reservoir conditions and reported in Section 4. The results of these experiments have been useful in developing a model for free-fall gravity drainage and have validated the premise that CO{sub 2} will recover oil from tight, unconfined Spraberry matrix.

  8. Characterization of PTO and Idle Behavior for Utility Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Adam W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Konan, Arnaud M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Eric S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    This report presents the results of analyses performed on utility vehicle data composed primarily of aerial lift bucket trucks sampled from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to characterize power takeoff (PTO) and idle operating behavior for utility trucks. Two major data sources were examined in this study: a 75-vehicle sample of Odyne electric PTO (ePTO)-equipped vehicles drawn from multiple fleets spread across the United States and 10 conventional PTO-equipped Pacific Gas and Electric fleet vehicles operating in California. Novel data mining approaches were developed to identify PTO and idle operating states for each of the datasets using telematics and controller area network/onboard diagnostics data channels. These methods were applied to the individual datasets and aggregated to develop utilization curves and distributions describing PTO and idle behavior in both absolute and relative operating terms. This report also includes background information on the source vehicles, development of the analysis methodology, and conclusions regarding the study's findings.

  9. Integrated reservoir characterization: Improvement in heterogeneities stochastic modelling by integration of additional external constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doligez, B.; Eschard, R. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France); Geffroy, F. [Centre de Geostatistique, Fontainebleau (France)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The classical approach to construct reservoir models is to start with a fine scale geological model which is informed with petrophysical properties. Then scaling-up techniques allow to obtain a reservoir model which is compatible with the fluid flow simulators. Geostatistical modelling techniques are widely used to build the geological models before scaling-up. These methods provide equiprobable images of the area under investigation, which honor the well data, and which variability is the same than the variability computed from the data. At an appraisal phase, when few data are available, or when the wells are insufficient to describe all the heterogeneities and the behavior of the field, additional constraints are needed to obtain a more realistic geological model. For example, seismic data or stratigraphic models can provide average reservoir information with an excellent areal coverage, but with a poor vertical resolution. New advances in modelisation techniques allow now to integrate this type of additional external information in order to constrain the simulations. In particular, 2D or 3D seismic derived information grids, or sand-shale ratios maps coming from stratigraphic models can be used as external drifts to compute the geological image of the reservoir at the fine scale. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of these new tools, their impact on the final reservoir model, and their sensitivity to some key parameters.

  10. Integrated petrophysical approach for determining reserves and reservoir characterization to optimize production of oil sands in northeastern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.; Koch, J. [Weatherford Canada Partnership, Bonneyville, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This study used logging data, borehole imaging data, dipole sonic and magnetic resonance data to study a set of 6 wells in the McMurray Formation of northeastern Alberta. The data sets were used to understand the geologic settings, fluid properties, and rock properties of the area's geology as well as to more accurately estimate its reservoir and production potential. The study also incorporated data from electric, nuclear and acoustic measurements. A shaly sand analysis was used to provide key reservoir petrophysical data. Image data in the study was used to characterize the heterogeneity and permeability of the reservoir in order to optimize production. Results of the shaly sand analysis were then combined with core data and nuclear resonance data in order to determine permeability and lithology-independent porosity. Data sets were used to iteratively refine an integrated petrophysical analysis. Results of the analysis indicated that the depositional environment in which the wells were located did not match a typical fluvial-estuarine sands environment. A further interpretation of all data indicated that the wells were located in a shoreface environment. It was concluded that the integration of petrophysical measurements can enable geoscientists to more accurately characterize sub-surface environments. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Characterization of Suspended-Sediment Loading to and from John Redmond Reservoir, East-Central Kansas, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2008-01-01

    Storage capacity in John Redmond Reservoir is being lost to sedimentation more rapidly than in other federal impoundments in Kansas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, initiated a study to characterize suspended-sediment loading to and from John Redmond Reservoir from February 21, 2007, through February 21, 2008. Turbidity sensors were installed at two U.S. Geological Survey stream gages upstream (Neosho River near Americus and the Cottonwood River near Plymouth) and one stream gage downstream (Neosho River at Burlington) from the reservoir to compute continuous, real-time (15-minute) measurements of suspended-sediment concentration and loading. About 1,120,000 tons of suspended-sediment were transported to, and 100,700 tons were transported from John Redmond Reservoir during the study period. Dependent on the bulk density of sediment stored in the reservoir, 5.0 to 1.4 percent of the storage in the John Redmond conservation pool was lost during the study period, with an average deposition of 3.4 to 1.0 inches. Nearly all (98-99 percent) of the incoming sediment load was transported during 9 storms which occurred 25 to 27 percent of the time. The largest storm during the study period (peak-flow recurrence interval of about 4.6-4.9 years) transported about 37 percent of the sediment load to the reservoir. Suspended-sediment yield from the unregulated drainage area upstream from the Neosho River near Americus was 530 tons per square mile, compared to 400 tons per square mile upstream from the Cottonwood River near Plymouth. Comparison of historical (1964-78) to current (2007) sediment loading estimates indicate statistically insignificant (99 percent) decrease in sediment loading at the Neosho River at Burlington. Ninety-percent confidence intervals of streamflow-derived estimates of total sediment load were 7 to 21 times larger than turbidity-derived estimates. Results from this study can be used by natural resource

  12. Characterization of the Qishn sandstone reservoir, Masila Basin-Yemen, using an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashin, Aref; Marta, Ebrahim Bin; Khamis, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    This study presents an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural analysis that is carried out to evaluate the reservoir properties of Qishn sandstone as well as the entrapment style of the hydrocarbons at Sharyoof field, Sayun-Masila Basin that is located at the east central of Yemen. The reservoir rocks are dominated by clean porous and permeable sandstones zones usually intercalated with some clay stone interbeds. As identified from well logs, Qishn sandstone is classified into subunits (S1A, S1B, S1C and S2) with different reservoir characteristics and hydrocarbon potentiality. A number of qualitative and quantitative well logging analyses are used to characterize the different subunits of the Qishn reservoir and identify its hydrocarbon potentiality. Dia-porosity, M-N, Pickett, Buckles plots, petrophysical analogs and lateral distribution maps are used in the analysis. Shale volume, lithology, porosity, and fluid saturation are among the most important deduced parameters. The analysis revealed that S1A and S1C are the main hydrocarbon-bearing units. More specifically, S1A unit is the best, as it attains the most prolific hydrocarbon saturations (oil saturation "SH″ up to 65) and reservoir characteristics. An average petrophysical ranges of 4-21%, 16-23%, 11-19%, 0-65%, are detected for S1A unit, regarding shale volume, total and effective porosity, and hydrocarbon saturation, respectively. Meanwhile, S1B unit exhibits less reservoir characteristics (Vsh>30%, ϕEff<15% and SH< 15%). The lateral distribution maps revealed that most of the hydrocarbons (for S1A and S1C units) are indicated at the middle of the study area as NE-SW oriented closures. The analysis and interpretation of seismic data had clarified that the structure of study area is represented by a big middle horst bounded by a group of step-like normal faults at the extreme boundaries (faulted anticlinal-structure). In conclusion, the entrapment of the encountered hydrocarbon at Sharyoof oil

  13. Hydrologic characterization of Bushy Park Reservoir, South Carolina, 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Falls, W. Fred; Lanier, Timothy H.

    2017-06-14

    The Bushy Park Reservoir is a relatively shallow impoundment in a semi-tropical climate and is the principal water supply for the 400,000 people of the city of Charleston, South Carolina, and the surrounding areas including the Bushy Park Industrial Complex. Although there is an adequate supply of freshwater in the reservoir, taste-and-odor water-quality issues are a concern. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an investigation in cooperation with the Charleston Water System to study the hydrology and hydrodynamics of the Bushy Park Reservoir to identify factors affecting water-quality conditions. Specifically, five areas for monitoring and (or) analysis were addressed: (1) hydrologic monitoring of the reservoir to establish a water budget, (2) flow monitoring in the tunnels to compute flow from Bushy Park Reservoir and at critical distribution junctions, (3) water-quality sampling, profiling, and continuous monitoring to identify the causes of taste-and-odor occurrence, (4) technical evaluation of appropriate hydrodynamic and water-quality simulation models for the reservoir, and (5) preliminary evaluation of alternative reservoir operations scenarios.This report describes the hydrodynamic and hydrologic data collected from 2013 to 2015 to support the application and calibration of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and the water-quality monitoring and analysis to gain insight into the principal causes of the Bushy Park Reservoir taste-and-odor episodes. The existing U.S. Geological Survey real-time network on the West Branch of the Cooper River was augmented with a tidal flow gage on Durham Canal Back River, and Foster Creek. The Charleston Water System intake structure was instrumented to collect water-level, water temperature (top and bottom probes), specific conductance (top and bottom probes), wind speed and direction, and photosynthetically active radiation data. In addition to the gages attached to fixed structures, four bottom-mounted velocity

  14. Reservoir characterization of the Smackover Formation in southwest Alabama. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Hall, D.R.; Mann, S.D.; Tew, B.H.

    1993-02-01

    The Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation is found in an arcuate belt in the subsurface from south Texas to panhandle Florida. The Smackover is the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing formation in Alabama and is an important hydrocarbon reservoir from Florida to Texas. In this report Smackover hydrocarbon reservoirs in southwest Alabama are described. Also, the nine enhanced- and improved-recovery projects that have been undertaken in the Smackover of Alabama are evaluated. The report concludes with recommendations about potential future enhanced- and improved-recovery projects in Smackover reservoirs in Alabama and an estimate of the potential volume of liquid hydrocarbons recoverable by enhanced- and improved-recovery methods from the Smackover of Alabama.

  15. Characterization of CDOM absorption of reservoirs with its linkage of regions and ages across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yingxin; Song, Kaishan; Wen, Zhidan; Lyu, Lili; Zhao, Ying; Fang, Chong; Zhang, Bai

    2018-03-28

    The absorption of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is an important part of light absorptions in aquatic systems. The increasing eutrophication of reservoirs and regional characteristics would affect the CDOM properties sensitively which would be important for the application of remote sensing monitoring. The highest (4.07 ± 2.31 m -1 ) and lowest (0.79 ± 0.67 m -1 ) CDOM concentrations of reservoirs were observed in the northeastern lake region (NER) and Tibetan Plateau lake region (TPR), respectively. The differences between S 275-295 among the five lake regions were significant (p CDOM (355) and DOC appeared in the NER (R 2  = 0.43), eastern lake region (EAR) (R 2  = 0.69), Mengxin lake region (MXR) (R 2  = 0.61), and YGR (R 2  = 0.79) which would be a good proxy for DOC in regional reservoirs. Most of all, the correlation between reservoir's establishing time and CDOM absorption under oligotrophic states was relatively strong in the EAR and MXR regions. It indicated that the establishing time of reservoirs affected the CDOM absorption to some extent under the oligotrophic states without much human disturbance. Our results indicate CDOM absorption varies with regions, and the relationships between CDOM and DOC are variable for different regions. Therefore, DOC estimation in reservoirs through CDOM absorption needs to be considered according to lake regions and trophic states.

  16. A Methodology to Integrate Magnetic Resonance and Acoustic Measurements for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Jorge O.; Hackert, Chris L.; Collier, Hughbert A.; Bennett, Michael

    2002-01-29

    The objective of this project was to develop an advanced imaging method, including pore scale imaging, to integrate NMR techniques and acoustic measurements to improve predictability of the pay zone in hydrocarbon reservoirs. This is accomplished by extracting the fluid property parameters using NMR laboratory measurements and the elastic parameters of the rock matrix from acoustic measurements to create poroelastic models of different parts of the reservoir. Laboratory measurement techniques and core imaging are being linked with a balanced petrographical analysis of the core and theoretical model.

  17. Small County: Development of a Virtual Environment for Instruction in Geological Characterization of Petroleum Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banz, B.; Bohling, G.; Doveton, J.

    2008-12-01

    Traditional programs of geological education continue to be focused primarily on the evaluation of surface or near-surface geology accessed at outcrops and shallow boreholes. However, most students who graduate to careers in geology work almost entirely on subsurface problems, interpreting drilling records and petrophysical logs from exploration and production wells. Thus, college graduates commonly find themselves ill-prepared when they enter the petroleum industry and require specialized training in drilling and petrophysical log interpretation. To aid in this training process, we are developing an environment for interactive instruction in the geological aspects of petroleum reservoir characterization employing a virtual subsurface closely reflecting the geology of the US mid-continent, in the fictional setting of Small County, Kansas. Stochastic simulation techniques are used to generate the subsurface characteristics, including the overall geological structure, distributions of facies, porosity, and fluid saturations, and petrophysical logs. The student then explores this subsurface by siting exploratory wells and examining drilling and petrophysical log records obtained from those wells. We are developing the application using the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, which allows for the rapid development of a platform-agnostic application while providing an immersive graphical interface. The application provides an array of views to enable relevant data display and student interaction. One such view is an interactive map of the county allowing the student to view the locations of existing well bores and select pertinent data overlays such as a contour map of the elevation of an interesting interval. Additionally, from this view a student may choose the site of a new well. Another view emulates a drilling log, complete with drilling rate plot and iconic representation of examined drill cuttings. From here, students are directed to stipulate subsurface lithology and

  18. Reservoir characterization using production data and time-lapse seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashpour, Mohsen

    2009-12-15

    The most commonly encountered, and probably the most challenging task in reservoir engineering, is to describe the reservoir accurately and efficiently. An accurate description of a reservoir is crucial to the management of production and efficiency of oil recovery. Reservoir modeling is an important step in a reservoir's future performance, which is in direct proportion to reservoir management, risk analysis and making key economic decisions. The purpose of reservoir modeling is to not only build a model that is consistent with currently available data, but to build one that gives a good prediction of its future behavior. Updating a reservoir model to behave as closely as possible to the real reservoir is called history matching, and the estimation of reservoir properties using this method is known as parameter estimation problem, which is an inversion process. Parameter estimation is a time consuming and non-unique problem with a large solution space. Saturation and pressure changes, and porosity and permeability distributions are the most common parameters to estimate in the oil industry. These parameters must be specified in every node within a petroleum reservoir simulator. These parameters will be adjusted until the model prediction data match the observation data to a sufficient degree. The solution space reduction in this project is done by adding time-lapse seismic data as a new set of dynamic data to the traditional production histories. Time-lapse (or 4D) seismic consists of two or more 3D seismic surveys shot at different calendar times. Time-lapse seismic surveys produce images at different times in a reservoir's history. The seismic response of a reservoir may change due to changes in pressure, fluid saturation and temperature. These changes in seismic images due to a variation in saturation and pressure can be used as additional observation data. Time-lapse seismic data are dynamical measurements which have a high resolution in the

  19. Structural and petrophysical characterization: from outcrop rock analogue to reservoir model of deep geothermal prospect in Eastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Lionel; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Damy, Pierre-Clément

    2017-04-01

    The Scientific Interest Group (GIS) GEODENERGIES with the REFLET project aims to develop a geological and reservoir model for fault zones that are the main targets for deep geothermal prospects in the West European Rift system. In this project, several areas are studied with an integrated methodology combining field studies, boreholes and geophysical data acquisition and 3D modelling. In this study, we present the results of reservoir rock analogues characterization of one of these prospects in the Valence Graben (Eastern France). The approach used is a structural and petrophysical characterization of the rocks outcropping at the shoulders of the rift in order to model the buried targeted fault zone. The reservoir rocks are composed of fractured granites, gneiss and schists of the Hercynian basement of the graben. The matrix porosity, permeability, P-waves velocities and thermal conductivities have been characterized on hand samples coming from fault zones at the outcrop. Furthermore, fault organization has been mapped with the aim to identify the characteristic fault orientation, spacing and width. The fractures statistics like the orientation, density, and length have been identified in the damaged zones and unfaulted blocks regarding the regional fault pattern. All theses data have been included in a reservoir model with a double porosity model. The field study shows that the fault pattern in the outcrop area can be classified in different fault orders, with first order scale, larger faults distribution controls the first order structural and lithological organization. Between theses faults, the first order blocks are divided in second and third order faults, smaller structures, with characteristic spacing and width. Third order fault zones in granitic rocks show a significant porosity development in the fault cores until 25 % in the most locally altered material, as the damaged zones develop mostly fractures permeabilities. In the gneiss and schists units, the

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2005-02-04

    Numerical modeling and field data tests are presented on the Transfer Function/Scattering Index Method for estimating fracture orientation and density in subsurface reservoirs from the ''coda'' or scattered energy in the seismic trace. Azimuthal stacks indicate that scattered energy is enhanced along the fracture strike direction. A transfer function method is used to more effectively indicate fracture orientation. The transfer function method, which involves a comparison of the seismic signature above and below a reservoir interval, effectively eliminates overburden effects and acquisition imprints in the analysis. The transfer function signature is simplified into a scattering index attribute value that gives fracture orientation and spatial variations of the fracture density within a field. The method is applied to two field data sets, a 3-D Ocean Bottom Cable (OBC) seismic data set from an offshore fractured carbonate reservoir in the Adriatic Sea and a 3-D seismic data set from an onshore fractured carbonate field in the Middle East. Scattering index values are computed in both fields at the reservoir level, and the results are compared to borehole breakout data and Formation MicroImager (FMI) logs in nearby wells. In both cases the scattering index results are in very good agreement with the well data. Field data tests and well validation will continue. In the area of technology transfer, we have made presentations of our results to industry groups at MIT technical review meetings, international technical conferences, industry workshops, and numerous exploration and production company visits.

  1. Ray-based stochastic inversion of prestack seismic data for improved reservoir characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Burg, D.; Verdel, A.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Trace inversion for reservoir parameters is affected by angle averaging of seismic data and wavelet distortion on the migration image. In an alternative approach to stochastic trace inversion, the data are inverted prestack before migration using 3D dynamic ray tracing. This choice makes it possible

  2. Characterization of the cyanobacterial biocenosis of a freshwater reservoir in Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mugnai, M. A.; Turicchia, S.; Margheri, M. C.; Sili, C.; Gugger, M.; Tedioli, G.; Komárek, Jiří; Ventura, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 109 (2003), s. 403-419 ISSN 0342-1120. [Symposium of the International Association for Cyanophyte Research /15./. Barcelona, 03.09.2001-07.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : freshwater reservoir * cyanobacterial diversity * morphology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  3. 4D seismic reservoir characterization, integrated with geo-mechanical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelov, P.V.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrocarbon production induces time-lapse changes in the seismic attributes (travel time and amplitude) both at the level of the producing reservoir and in the surrounding rock. The detected time-lapse changes in the seismic are induced from the changes in the petrophysical properties of the rock,

  4. Characterization of heterogeneous reservoirs: sentinels method and quantification of uncertainties; Caracterisation des reservoirs heterogenes: methode des sentinelles et quantification des incertitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezghani, M.

    1999-02-11

    The aim of this thesis is to propose a new inversion method to allow both an improved reservoir characterization and a management of uncertainties. In this approach, the identification of the permeability distribution is conducted using the sentinel method in order to match the pressure data. This approach, based on optimal control theory, can be seen as an alternative of least-squares method. Here, we prove the existence of exact sentinels under regularity hypothesis. From a numerical point of view, we consider regularized sentinels. We suggest a novel approach to update the penalization coefficient in order to improve numerical robustness. Moreover, the flexibility of the sentinel method enables to develop a way to treat noisy pressure data. To deal with geostatistical modelling of permeability distribution, we propose to link the pilot point method with sentinels to reach the identification of permeability. We particularly focus on the optimal location of pilot points. Finally, we present an original method, based on adjoint state computations, to quantify the dynamic data contribution to the characterisation of a calibrated geostatistical model. (author) 67 refs.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and potential utility of doped ceramics based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ritika; Yadav, Deepshikha; Singh, G. P.; Vyas, G.; Bhojak, N.

    2018-05-01

    Excessive utilization of petrol, diesel and other fossil fuels, continuous increase in their prices, and the big problem of carbon dioxide mission have encouraged scientists and technologist to find either new sources of energy or to develop technologies for the sustainable utilization of fuel. Biofuels are the only energy technologies that can resolve the problem of carbon dioxide emission in the atmosphere as well as reduce the amount of fossil fuel burned. Bio ethanol and biodiesel are the most common types of biofuel which are being used at present. Biodiesel has become more interesting for all the researchers in present scenario. Various feedstock viz. edible, nonedible oils, waste cooking oil, animal fat, algae etc, are using for the production of biodiesel worldwide according to their availability. Selection of efficient heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel preparation still needs more attention of researchers. The present investigation deals with determination of synthesis, characterization and applications of doped ceramic based materials in different medium. Two of doped ceramic based catalysts which has been potentially used for the production of biodiesel. The Engine performance of biodiesel samples, made from industrial waste oils and ceramic based catalyst, have also been investigated and found up to satisfactory levels.

  6. Cloud computing and Reservoir project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beco, S.; Maraschini, A.; Pacini, F.; Biran, O.

    2009-01-01

    The support for complex services delivery is becoming a key point in current internet technology. Current trends in internet applications are characterized by on demand delivery of ever growing amounts of content. The future internet of services will have to deliver content intensive applications to users with quality of service and security guarantees. This paper describes the Reservoir project and the challenge of a reliable and effective delivery of services as utilities in a commercial scenario. It starts by analyzing the needs of a future infrastructure provider and introducing the key concept of a service oriented architecture that combines virtualisation-aware grid with grid-aware virtualisation, while being driven by business service management. This article will then focus on the benefits and the innovations derived from the Reservoir approach. Eventually, a high level view of Reservoir general architecture is illustrated.

  7. A molecular epidemiological study of var gene diversity to characterize the reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in humans in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S Chen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito.We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1% var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences.Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population exists.

  8. Multicomponent seismic reservoir characterization of a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) heavy oil project, Athabasca oil sands, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, Kelsey Kristine

    Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is an in situ heavy oil recovery method involving the injection of steam in horizontal wells. Time-lapse seismic analysis over a SAGD project in the Athabasca oil sands deposit of Alberta reveals that the SAGD steam chamber has not developed uniformly. Core data confirm the presence of low permeability shale bodies within the reservoir. These shales can act as barriers and baffles to steam and limit production by prohibiting steam from accessing the full extent of the reservoir. Seismic data can be used to identify these shale breaks prior to siting new SAGD well pairs in order to optimize field development. To identify shale breaks in the study area, three types of seismic inversion and a probabilistic neural network prediction were performed. The predictive value of each result was evaluated by comparing the position of interpreted shales with the boundaries of the steam chamber determined through time-lapse analysis. The P-impedance result from post-stack inversion did not contain enough detail to be able to predict the vertical boundaries of the steam chamber but did show some predictive value in a spatial sense. P-impedance from pre-stack inversion exhibited some meaningful correlations with the steam chamber but was misleading in many crucial areas, particularly the lower reservoir. Density estimated through the application of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) trained using both PP and PS attributes identified shales most accurately. The interpreted shales from this result exhibit a strong relationship with the boundaries of the steam chamber, leading to the conclusion that the PNN method can be used to make predictions about steam chamber growth. In this study, reservoir characterization incorporating multicomponent seismic data demonstrated a high predictive value and could be useful in evaluating future well placement.

  9. A Molecular Epidemiological Study of var Gene Diversity to Characterize the Reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in Humans in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliwa-Sytek, Aleksandra; Smith, Terry-Ann; Peterson, Ingrid; Brown, Stuart M.; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Kortok, Moses M.; Marsh, Kevin; Daily, Johanna P.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sarr, Ousmane; Mboup, Souleymane; Day, Karen P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1%) var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences. Conclusions/Significance Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population

  10. Reservoir characterization and performance predictions for the E.N. Woods lease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aka-Milan, Francis A.

    2000-07-07

    The task of this work was to evaluate the past performance of the E.N. WOODS Unit and to forecast its future economic performance by taking into consideration the geology, petrophysics and production history of the reservoir. The Decline Curve Analysis feature of the Appraisal of Petroleum Properties including Taxation Systems (EDAPT) software along with the Production Management Systems (PMS) software were used to evaluate the original volume of hydrocarbon in place and estimate the reserve. The Black Oil Simulator (BOAST II) was then used to model the waterflooding operation and estimate the incremental oil production attributable to the water injection. BOAST II was also used to predict future performance of the reservoir.

  11. Reservoir architecture modeling: Nonstationary models for quantitative geological characterization. Final report, April 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.; Epili, D.; Kelkar, M.; Redner, R.; Reynolds, A.

    1998-12-01

    The study was comprised of four investigations: facies architecture; seismic modeling and interpretation; Markov random field and Boolean models for geologic modeling of facies distribution; and estimation of geological architecture using the Bayesian/maximum entropy approach. This report discusses results from all four investigations. Investigations were performed using data from the E and F units of the Middle Frio Formation, Stratton Field, one of the major reservoir intervals in the Gulf Coast Basin.

  12. Characterizing hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs using transient pressure tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2015-06-01

    This work presents an unconventional gas reservoir simulator and its application to quantify hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs using transient pressure data. The numerical model incorporates most known physical processes for gas production from unconventional reservoirs, including two-phase flow of liquid and gas, Klinkenberg effect, non-Darcy flow, and nonlinear adsorption. In addition, the model is able to handle various types and scales of fractures or heterogeneity using continuum, discrete or hybrid modeling approaches under different well production conditions of varying rate or pressure. Our modeling studies indicate that the most sensitive parameter of hydraulic fractures to early transient gas flow through extremely low permeability rock is actually the fracture-matrix contacting area, generated by fracturing stimulation. Based on this observation, it is possible to use transient pressure testing data to estimate the area of fractures generated from fracturing operations. We will conduct a series of modeling studies and present a methodology using typical transient pressure responses, simulated by the numerical model, to estimate fracture areas created or to quantity hydraulic fractures with traditional well testing technology. The type curves of pressure transients from this study can be used to quantify hydraulic fractures in field application.

  13. A novel methodology improves reservoir characterization models using geologic fuzzy variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, Rodolfo [DIGITOIL, Maracaibo (Venezuela); Soto O, David A. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    One of the research projects carried out in Cusiana field to explain its rapid decline during the last years was to get better permeability models. The reservoir of this field has a complex layered system that it is not easy to model using conventional methods. The new technique included the development of porosity and permeability maps from cored wells following the same trend of the sand depositions for each facie or layer according to the sedimentary facie and the depositional system models. Then, we used fuzzy logic to reproduce those maps in three dimensions as geologic fuzzy variables. After multivariate statistical and factor analyses, we found independence and a good correlation coefficient between the geologic fuzzy variables and core permeability and porosity. This means, the geologic fuzzy variable could explain the fabric, the grain size and the pore geometry of the reservoir rock trough the field. Finally, we developed a neural network permeability model using porosity, gamma ray and the geologic fuzzy variable as input variables. This model has a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.873 and average absolute error of 33% compared with the actual model with a correlation coefficient of 0.511 and absolute error greater than 250%. We tested different methodologies, but this new one showed dramatically be a promiser way to get better permeability models. The use of the models have had a high impact in the explanation of well performance and workovers, and reservoir simulation models. (author)

  14. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1997-12-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  15. Increasing Heavy Oil in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies. Annual Report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, Edith

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs

  16. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL BENZOATE- UTILIZING Serratia marcescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIUS SUWANTO

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new benzoate-utilizing strain, Serratia marcescens DS-8, isolated from the environment was characterized. The strain was enterobacilli, Gram negative, mesophilic, non ha lophilic, and aerobic bacterium that showed motile ovale-rod shaped cells. The isolate produced extracellular chitinase, protease, and prodigiosin (a red pigment pr oduced by several Serratia strains yielding bright red or pink colonies. A physiological assay using Microbact* test showed that the strain was closely related to Klebsiella ozaenae (49.85% and Serratia liquefaciens (24.42%, respectively. However, 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that the strain was closely related to S. marcescens DSM 30121 with similarity level of 98%. DS-8 strain was able to synthesize its own vitamins. Optimum growth in benzoate was obtained at pH between 7-8.5 and NaCl concentration of 1- 1.5% (w/v. The isolate could grow in benzoate-containing medium up to 10 mM. Other carbon sources that could support the growth of DS-8 were casamino acid, glutamate, glucose, acetate, potato star ch, and ethanol.

  17. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: wasoares@sp.gov.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  18. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2013-01-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  19. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Annual report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The project involves implementing thermal recovery in the southern half of the Fault Block II-A Tar zone. The existing steamflood in Fault Block II-A has been relatively inefficient due to several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery efficiency and reduce operating costs.

  20. Characterization and Prediction of the Gas Hydrate Reservoir at the Second Offshore Gas Production Test Site in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machiko Tamaki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the world’s first offshore production test that was conducted from a gas hydrate reservoir by a depressurization technique in 2013, the second offshore production test has been planned in the eastern Nankai Trough. In 2016, the drilling survey was performed ahead of the production test, and logging data that covers the reservoir interval were newly obtained from three wells around the test site: one well for geological survey, and two wells for monitoring surveys, during the production test. The formation evaluation using the well log data suggested that our target reservoir has a more significant heterogeneity in the gas hydrate saturation distribution than we expected, although lateral continuity of sand layers is relatively good. To evaluate the spatial distribution of gas hydrate, the integration analysis using well and seismic data was performed. The seismic amplitude analysis supports the lateral reservoir heterogeneity that has a significant positive correlation with the resistivity log data at the well locations. The spatial distribution of the apparent low-resistivity interval within the reservoir observed from log data was investigated by the P-velocity volume derived from seismic inversion. The integrated results were utilized for the pre-drill prediction of the reservoir quality at the producing wells. These approaches will reduce the risk of future commercial production from the gas hydrate reservoir.

  1. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, west Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual progress report, March 31, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Hovorka, S.D.; Cole, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based field development. Reservoirs in the Delaware Mountain Group have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Detailed correlations of the Ramsey sandstone reservoirs in Geraldine Ford field suggest that lateral sandstone continuity is less than interpreted by previous studies. The degree of lateral heterogeneity in the reservoir sandstones suggests that they were deposited by eolian-derived turbidites. According to the eolian-derived turbidite model, sand dunes migrated across the exposed shelf to the shelf break during sea-level lowstands and provided well sorted sand for turbidity currents or grain flows into the deep basin.

  2. Development of a X-ray micro-tomograph and its application to reservoir rocks characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira de Paiva, R.

    1995-10-01

    We describe the construction and application to studies in three dimensions of a laboratory micro-tomograph for the characterisation of heterogeneous solids at the scale of a few microns. The system is based on an electron microprobe and a two dimensional X-ray detector. The use of a low beam divergence for image acquisition allows use of simple and rapid reconstruction software whilst retaining reasonable acquisition times. Spatial resolutions of better than 3 microns in radiography and 10 microns in tomography are obtained. The applications of microtomography in the petroleum industry are illustrated by the study of fibre orientation in polymer composites, of the distribution of minerals and pore space in reservoir rocks, and of the interaction of salt water with a model porous medium. A correction for X-ray beam hardening is described and used to obtain improved discrimination of the phases present in the sample. In the case of a North Sea reservoir rock we show the possibility to distinguish quartz, feldspar and in certain zone kaolinite. The representativeness of the tomographic reconstruction is demonstrated by comparing the surface of the reconstructed specimen with corresponding images obtained in scanning electron microscopy. (author). 58 refs., 10 tabs., 71 photos

  3. Characterization of Rare Earth Element Minerals in Coal Utilization Byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montross, Scott N. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Verba, Circe A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Research Innovation Center; Collins, Keith [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Research Innovation Center

    2017-07-17

    The United States currently produces over 100 million tons of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) per year in the form of fly ash, bottom ash, slag, and flue gas (American Coal Ash Association (ACCA), 2015). But this “waste material” also contains potentially useful levels of rare earth elements (REE). Rare earth elements are crucial for many existing and emerging technologies, but the U.S. lacks a domestic, sustainable REE source. Our project explored the possibility of developing a supply of REEs for U.S. technologies by extracting REEs from CUBs. This work offers the potential to reduce our dependence on other countries for supply of these critical elements (NETL, REE 2016 Project Portfolio). Geologic and diagenetic history, industrial preparation methods, and the specific combustion process all play major roles in the composition of CUB. During combustion, inorganic mineral phases of coal particles are fluidized at temperatures higher than 1400oC, so inorganic mineral materials are oxidized, fused, disintegrated, or agglomerated into larger spherical and amorphous (non-crystalline) particles. The original mineralogy of the coal-containing rock and heating/cooling of the material significantly affects the composition and morphology of the particles in the combustion byproduct (Kutchko and Kim, 2006). Thus, different types of coal/refuse/ash must be characterized to better understand mineral evolution during the combustion process. Our research focused on developing a working model to address how REE minerals behave during the combustion process: this research should help determine the most effective engineering methods for extracting REEs from CUBs. We used multimodal imaging and image processing techniques to characterize six rock and ash samples from different coal power plants with respect to morphology, grain size, presence of mineral phases, and elemental composition. The results of these characterization activities provided thresholds for realizing the

  4. Characterizing the Water Balance of the Sooke Reservoir, British Columbia over the Last Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arelia T. Werner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure such as dams and reservoirs are critical water-supply features in several regions of the world. However, ongoing population growth, increased demand and climate variability/change necessitate the better understanding of these systems, particularly in terms of their long-term trends. The Sooke Reservoir (SR of British Columbia, Canada is one such reservoir that currently supplies water to ~300,000 people, and is subject to considerable inter and intra-annual climatic variations. The main objectives of this study are to better understand the characteristics of the SR through an in-depth assessment of the contemporary water balance when the basin was intensively monitored (1996–2005, to use standardized runoff to select the best timescale to compute the Standard Precipitation (SPI and Standard Precipitation Evaporation Indices (SPEI to estimate trends in water availability over 1919 to 2005. Estimates of runoff and evaporation were validated by comparing simulated change in storage, computed by adding inputs and subtracting outputs from the known water levels by month, to observed change in storage. Water balance closure was within ±11% of the monthly change in storage on average when excluding months with spill pre-2002. The highest evaporation, dry season (1998 and lowest precipitation, wet season (2000/2001 from the intensively monitored period were used to construct a worst-case scenario to determine the resilience of the SR to drought. Under such conditions, the SR could support Greater Victoria until the start of the third wet season. The SPEI and SPI computed on a three-month timescale had the highest correlation with the standardized runoff, R2 equaled 0.93 and 0.90, respectively. A trend toward drier conditions was shown by SPEI over 1919 to 2005, while moistening over the same period was shown by SPI, although trends were small in magnitude. This study contributes a validated application of SPI and SPEI, giving more

  5. OIL RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND CO2 INJECTION MONITORING IN THE PERMIAN BASIN WITH CROSSWELL ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Wilt

    2004-02-01

    Substantial petroleum reserves exist in US oil fields that cannot be produced economically, at current prices, unless improvements in technology are forthcoming. Recovery of these reserves is vital to US economic and security interests as it lessens our dependence on foreign sources and keeps our domestic petroleum industry vital. Several new technologies have emerged that may improve the situation. The first is a series of new flooding techniques to re-pressurize reservoirs and improve the recovery. Of these the most promising is miscible CO{sub 2} flooding, which has been used in several US petroleum basins. The second is the emergence of new monitoring technologies to track and help manage this injection. One of the major players in here is crosswell electromagnetics, which has a proven sensitivity to reservoir fluids. In this project, we are applying the crosswell EM technology to a CO{sub 2} flood in the Permian Basin oil fields of New Mexico. With our partner ChevronTexaco, we are testing the suitability of using EM for tracking the flow of injected CO{sub 2} through the San Andreas reservoir in the Vacuum field in New Mexico. The project consisted of three phases, the first of which was a preliminary field test at Vacuum, where a prototype system was tested in oil field conditions including widely spaced wells with steel casing. The results, although useful, demonstrated that the older technology was not suitable for practical deployment. In the second phase of the project, we developed a much more powerful and robust field system capable of collecting and interpreting field data through steel-cased wells. The final phase of the project involved applying this system in field tests in the US and overseas. Results for tests in steam and water floods showed remarkable capability to image between steel wells and provided images that helped understand the geology and ongoing flood and helped better manage the field. The future of this technology is indeed bright

  6. Facies analysis of an Upper Jurassic carbonate platform for geothermal reservoir characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hartmann, Hartwig; Buness, Hermann; Dussel, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The Upper Jurassic Carbonate platform in Southern Germany is an important aquifer for the production of geothermal energy. Several successful projects were realized during the last years. 3D-seismic surveying has been established as a standard method for reservoir analysis and the definition of well paths. A project funded by the federal ministry of economic affairs and energy (BMWi) started in 2015 is a milestone for an exclusively regenerative heat energy supply of Munich. A 3D-seismic survey of 170 square kilometer was acquired and a scientific program was established to analyze the facies distribution within the area (http://www.liag-hannover.de/en/fsp/ge/geoparamol.html). Targets are primarily fault zones where one expect higher flow rates than within the undisturbed carbonate sediments. However, since a dense net of geothermal plants and wells will not always find appropriate fault areas, the reservoir properties should be analyzed in more detail, e.g. changing the viewpoint to karst features and facies distribution. Actual facies interpretation concepts are based on the alternation of massif and layered carbonates. Because of successive erosion of the ancient land surfaces, the interpretation of reefs, being an important target, is often difficult. We found that seismic sequence stratigraphy can explain the distribution of seismic pattern and improves the analysis of different facies. We supported this method by applying wavelet transformation of seismic data. The splitting of the seismic signal into successive parts of different bandwidths, especially the frequency content of the seismic signal, changed by tuning or dispersion, is extracted. The combination of different frequencies reveals a partition of the platform laterally as well as vertically. A cluster analysis of the wavelet coefficients further improves this picture. The interpretation shows a division into ramp, inner platform and trough, which were shifted locally and overprinted in time by other

  7. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  8. A systematic procedure for reservoir characterization: Annual report for the period October 1, 1985-September 30, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, L.W.; Kocurek, G.A.; Miller, M.A.

    1987-12-01

    This report deals with a variety of topics all centered around the main goal of making numerical reservoir simulation results conform more closely with geologic descriptions. The first part of the report discusses results on conditional simulations of miscible displacements in randomly heterogeneous permeable media. The focus here is on local or macroscopic dispersion, the dispersion experienced at a fixed point in the medium. Macroscopic dispersivity has many of the same dependencies on reservoir properties as does megascopic dispersivity, but it seems to be less time dependent and is always smaller. We have not discovered a mathematical model to describe its behavior. A major portion of the report deals with statistical descriptions. We investigate the bias and precision of standard measures of heterogeneity, the Lorenz and Dykstra-Parsons coefficient. After this, the work explores the benefits of using a distribution type characterization parameter in exploring heterogeneity. The final major protion of the report describes our mapping efforts on the Page sandstone outcrop in northern Arizona. The mapping is to be used in generating both deterministic descriptions and in calibrating the stochastic descriptions discussed above. 128 refs., 95 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Efficient Data Assimilation Tool For Real Time CO2 Reservoir Monitoring and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. Y.; Ambikasaran, S.; Kokkinaki, A.; Darve, E. F.; Kitanidis, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoir forecasting and management are increasingly relying on a data-driven approach, which involves data assimilation to calibrate and keep up to date the complex model of multi-phase flow and transport in the geologic formation and to evaluate its uncertainty using monitoring data of different types and temporal resolution. The numbers of unknowns and measurements are usually very large, which represents a major computational challenge. Kalman filter (KF), the archetypical recursive filter, provides the framework to assimilate reservoir monitoring data into a dynamic system but the cost of implementing the original algorithm to large systems is computationally prohibitive. In our work, we have developed several Kalman-filter based approaches that reduce the computational and storage cost of standard KF from O (m2) to O (m), where m is the number of unknowns, and have the potential to be applied to field-scale problems. HiKF, a linear filter based on the hierarchical matrix approach, takes advantage of the informative high-frequency data acquired quasi-continuously and uses a random-walk model in the state forecast step when the a state evolution model is unavailable. A more general-purpose nonlinear filter CSKF achieves computational efficiency by exploiting the fact that the state covariance matrix for most dynamical systems can be approximated adequately through a low-rank matrix, and it allows using a forward simulator as a black-box for nonlinear error propagation. We will demonstrate both methods using synthetic CO2 injection cases and compare with the standard ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF).

  10. ADVANCED CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED RESERVOIRS IN CARBONATE ROCKS: THE MICHIGAN BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; William B. Harrison

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to collect and analyze existing data on the Michigan Basin for fracture patterns on scales ranging form thin section to basin. The data acquisition phase has been successfully concluded with the compilation of several large digital databases containing nearly all the existing information on formation tops, lithology and hydrocarbon production over the entire Michigan Basin. These databases represent the cumulative result of over 80 years of drilling and exploration. Plotting and examination of these data show that contrary to most depictions, the Michigan Basin is in fact extensively faulted and fractured, particularly in the central portion of the basin. This is in contrast to most of the existing work on the Michigan Basin, which tends to show relatively simple structure with few or minor faults. It also appears that these fractures and faults control the Paleozoic sediment deposition, the subsequent hydrocarbon traps and very likely the regional dolomitization patterns. Recent work has revealed that a detailed fracture pattern exists in the interior of the Central Michigan Basin, which is related to the mid-continent gravity high. The inference is that early Precambrian, ({approx}1 Ga) rifting events presumed by many to account for the gravity anomaly subsequently controlled Paleozoic sedimentation and later hydrocarbon accumulation. There is a systematic relationship between the faults and a number of gas and oil reservoirs: major hydrocarbon accumulations consistently occur in small anticlines on the upthrown side of the faults. The main tools used in this study to map the fault/fracture patterns are detailed, close-interval (CI = 10 feet) contouring of the formation top picks accompanied by a new way of visualizing the data using a special color spectrum to bring out the third dimension. In addition, recent improvements in visualization and contouring software were instrumental in the study. Dolomitization is common in the

  11. Predicting Formation Damage in Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems Utilizing a Coupled Hydraulic-Thermal-Chemical Reservoir Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel; Regenspurg, Simona; Milsch, Harald; Blöcher, Guido; Kranz, Stefan; Saadat, Ali

    2014-05-01

    In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems, large amounts of energy can be stored by injecting hot water into deep or intermediate aquifers. In a seasonal production-injection cycle, water is circulated through a system comprising the porous aquifer, a production well, a heat exchanger and an injection well. This process involves large temperature and pressure differences, which shift chemical equilibria and introduce or amplify mechanical processes. Rock-fluid interaction such as dissolution and precipitation or migration and deposition of fine particles will affect the hydraulic properties of the porous medium and may lead to irreversible formation damage. In consequence, these processes determine the long-term performance of the ATES system and need to be predicted to ensure the reliability of the system. However, high temperature and pressure gradients and dynamic feedback cycles pose challenges on predicting the influence of the relevant processes. Within this study, a reservoir model comprising a coupled hydraulic-thermal-chemical simulation was developed based on an ATES demonstration project located in the city of Berlin, Germany. The structural model was created with Petrel, based on data available from seismic cross-sections and wellbores. The reservoir simulation was realized by combining the capabilities of multiple simulation tools. For the reactive transport model, COMSOL Multiphysics (hydraulic-thermal) and PHREEQC (chemical) were combined using the novel interface COMSOL_PHREEQC, developed by Wissmeier & Barry (2011). It provides a MATLAB-based coupling interface between both programs. Compared to using COMSOL's built-in reactive transport simulator, PHREEQC additionally calculates adsorption and reaction kinetics and allows the selection of different activity coefficient models in the database. The presented simulation tool will be able to predict the most important aspects of hydraulic, thermal and chemical transport processes relevant to

  12. General Approach to Characterize Reservoir Fluids Using a Large PVT Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varzandeh, Farhad; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2016-01-01

    methods. We proposed a general approach to develop correlations for model parameters and applied it to the characterization for the PC-SAFT EoS. The approach consists in first developing the correlations based on the DIPPR database, and then adjusting the correlations based on a large PVT database......, the approach gives better PVT calculation results for the tested systems. Comparison was also made between PC-SAFT with the proposed characterization method and other EoS models. The proposed approach can be applied to other EoS models for improving their fluid characterization. Besides, the challenges...

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2004-07-19

    Expanded details and additional results are presented on two methods for estimating fracture orientation and density in subsurface reservoirs from scattered seismic wavefield signals. In the first, fracture density is estimated from the wavenumber spectra of the integrated amplitudes of the scattered waves as a function of offset in pre-stack data. Spectral peaks correctly identified the 50m, 35m, and 25m fracture spacings from numerical model data using a 40Hz source wavelet. The second method, referred to as the Transfer Function-Scattering Index Method, is based upon observations from 3D finite difference modeling that regularly spaced, discrete vertical fractures impart a ringing coda-type signature to any seismic energy that is transmitted through or reflected off of them. This coda energy is greatest when the acquisition direction is parallel to the fractures, the seismic wavelengths are tuned to the fracture spacing, and when the fractures have low stiffness. The method uses surface seismic reflection traces to derive a transfer function, which quantifies the change in an apparent source wavelet propagating through a fractured interval. The transfer function for an interval with low scattering will be more spike-like and temporally compact. The transfer function for an interval with high scattering will ring and be less temporally compact. A Scattering Index is developed based on a time lag weighting of the transfer function. When a 3D survey is acquired with a full range of azimuths, the Scattering Index allows the identification of subsurface areas with high fracturing and the orientation (or strike) of those fractures. The method was calibrated with model data and then applied to field data from a fractured reservoir giving results that agree with known field measurements. As an aid to understanding the scattered wavefield seen in finite difference models, a series of simple point scatterers was used to create synthetic seismic shot records collected over

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2002-12-31

    We have extended a three-dimensional finite difference elastic wave propagation model previously developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) for modeling and analyzing the effect of fractures on seismic waves. The code has been translated into C language and parallelized [using message passing interface (MPI)] to allow for larger models to be run on Linux PC computer clusters. We have also obtained another 3-D code from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, which we will use for verification of our ERL code results and also to run discrete fracture models. Testing of both codes is underway. We are working on a new finite difference model of borehole wave propagation for stressed formations. This code includes coordinate stretching to provide stable, variable grid sizes that will allow us to model the thin fluid annulus layers in borehole problems, especially for acoustic logging while drilling (LWD) applications. We are also extending our analysis routines for the inversion of flexural wave dispersion measurements for in situ stress estimates. Initial results on synthetic and limited field data are promising for a method to invert cross dipole data for the rotation angle and stress state simultaneously. A meeting is being scheduled between MIT and Shell Oil Company scientists to look at data from a fractured carbonate reservoir that may be made available to the project. The Focus/Disco seismic processing system from Paradigm Geophysical has been installed at ERL for field data analysis and as a platform for new analysis modules. We have begun to evaluate the flow properties of discrete fracture distributions through a simple 2D numerical model. Initial results illustrate how fluid flow pathways are very sensitive to variations in the geometry and apertures of fracture network.

  15. Static and Dynamic Reservoir Characterization Using High Resolution P-Wave Velocity Data in Delhi Field, la

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, S.; Davis, T.

    2012-12-01

    Static and dynamic reservoir characterization was done on high resolution P-wave seismic data in Delhi Field, LA to study the complex stratigraphy of the Holt-Bryant sands and to delineate the CO2 flow path. The field is undergoing CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery. The seismic data was bandwidth extended by Geotrace to decrease the tuning thickness effect. Once the authenticity of the added frequencies in the data was determined, the interpretation helped map thin Tuscaloosa and Paluxy sands. Cross-equalization was done on the baseline and monitor surveys to remove the non-repeatable noise in the data. Acoustic impedance (AI) inversion was done on the baseline and monitor surveys to map the changes in AI with CO2 injection in the field. Figure 1 shows the AI percentage change at Base Paluxy. The analysis helped identify areas that were not being swept by CO2. Figure 2 shows the CO2 flow paths in Tuscaloosa formation. The percentage change of AI with CO2 injection and pressure increase corresponded with the fluid substitution modeling results. Time-lapse interpretation helped in delineating the channels, high permeability zones and the bypassed zones in the reservoir.; Figure 1: P-impedance percentage difference map with a 2 ms window centered at the base of Paluxy with the production data from June 2010 overlain; the black dashed line is the oil-water contact; notice the negative impedance change below the OWC. The lighter yellow color shows area where Paluxy is not being swept completely. ; Figure 2: P-impedance percentage difference map at TUSC 7 top; the white triangles are TUSC 7 injectors and the white circles are TUSC 7 producers; the black polygons show the flow paths of CO2.

  16. Characterization of biocenoses in the storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of Mayak PA. Initial descriptive report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryakhin, E.A.; Mokrov, Yu.G.; Tryapitsina, G.A.; Ivanov, I.A.; Osipov, D.I.; Atamanyuk, N.I.; Deryabina, L.V.; Shaposhnikova, I.A.; Shishkina, E.A.; Obvintseva, N.A.; Egoreichenkov, E.A.; Styazhkina, E.V.; Osipova, O.F.; Mogilnikova, N.I.; Andreev, S.S.; Tarasov, O.V.; Geras'kin, S.A.; Trapeznikov, A.V.; Akleyev, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    As a result of operation of the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA), Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, an enterprise for production and separation of weapon-grade plutonium in the Soviet Union, ecosystems of a number of water bodies have been radioactively contaminated. The article presents information about the current state of ecosystems of 6 special industrial storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive waste from Mayak PA: reservoirs R-3, R-4, R-9, R-10, R-11 and R-17. At present the excess of the radionuclide content in the water of the studied reservoirs and comparison reservoirs (Shershnyovskoye and Beloyarskoye reservoirs) is 9 orders of magnitude for 90 Sr and 137 Cs, and 6 orders of magnitude for alpha-emitting radionuclides. According to the level of radioactive contamination, the reservoirs of the Mayak PA could be arranged in the ascending order as follows: R-11, R-10, R-4, R-3, R-17 and R-9. In 2007–2012 research of the status of the biocenoses of these reservoirs in terms of phytoplankton, zooplankton, bacterioplankton, zoobenthos, aquatic plants, ichthyofauna, avifauna parameters was performed. The conducted studies revealed decrease in species diversity in reservoirs with the highest levels of radioactive and chemical contamination. This article is an initial descriptive report on the status of the biocenoses of radioactively contaminated reservoirs of the Mayak PA, and is the first article in a series of publications devoted to the studies of the reaction of biocenoses of the fresh-water reservoirs of the Mayak PA to a combination of natural and man-made factors, including chronic radiation exposure. - Highlights: • The current state of storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive waste of the Mayak Production Association is presented. • Radionuclides contents in water and sediments of the reservoirs of Mayak PA are presented. • The status of the major ecological groups of hydrobionts of the given reservoirs is described.

  17. Reservoir Characterization of Bridgeport and Cypress Sandstones in Lawrence Field Illinois to Improve Petroleum Recovery by Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyler, Beverly; Grube, John; Huff, Bryan; Webb, Nathan; Damico, James; Blakley, Curt; Madhavan, Vineeth; Johanek, Philip; Frailey, Scott

    2012-12-21

    Within the Illinois Basin, most of the oilfields are mature and have been extensively waterflooded with water cuts that range up to 99% in many of the larger fields. In order to maximize production of significant remaining mobile oil from these fields, new recovery techniques need to be researched and applied. The purpose of this project was to conduct reservoir characterization studies supporting Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Floods in two distinct sandstone reservoirs in Lawrence Field, Lawrence County, Illinois. A project using alkaline-surfactantpolymer (ASP) has been established in the century old Lawrence Field in southeastern Illinois where original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at over a billion barrels and 400 million barrels have been recovered leaving more than 600 million barrels as an EOR target. Radial core flood analysis using core from the field demonstrated recoveries greater than 20% of OOIP. While the lab results are likely optimistic to actual field performance, the ASP tests indicate that substantial reserves could be recovered even if the field results are 5 to 10% of OOIP. Reservoir characterization is a key factor in the success of any EOR application. Reservoirs within the Illinois Basin are frequently characterized as being highly compartmentalized resulting in multiple flow unit configurations. The research conducted on Lawrence Field focused on characteristics that define reservoir compartmentalization in order to delineate preferred target areas so that the chemical flood can be designed and implemented for the greatest recovery potential. Along with traditional facies mapping, core analyses and petrographic analyses, conceptual geological models were constructed and used to develop 3D geocellular models, a valuable tool for visualizing reservoir architecture and also a prerequisite for reservoir simulation modeling. Cores were described and potential permeability barriers were correlated using geophysical logs. Petrographic analyses

  18. Utilization of Nkpuma-Akpatakpa clay in ceramics: characterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nkpuma – Akpatakpa clay was analysed for its ceramics suitability. Chemical, mechanical and spectral characterization of the clay was carried out to obtain more information from this clay found in commercial quantity at Ebonyi State Nigeria. The XRD analysis showed that the principal minerals in the clay are quartz, ...

  19. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO{sub 2} Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2001-11-19

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. The four areas have been completed and reported in the previous annual reports. This report provides the results of the final year of the project including two SPE papers (SPE 71605 and SPE 71635) presented in the 2001 SPE Annual Meeting in New Orleans, two simulation works, analysis of logging observation wells (LOW) and progress of CO{sub 2} injection.

  20. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Development through High-Resolution 3C3D Seismic and Horizontal Drilling: Eva South Marrow Sand Unit, Texas County, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler,David M.; Miller, William A.; Wilson, Travis C.

    2002-03-11

    The Eva South Morrow Sand Unit is located in western Texas County, Oklahoma. The field produces from an upper Morrow sandstone, termed the Eva sandstone, deposited in a transgressive valley-fill sequence. The field is defined as a combination structural stratigraphic trap; the reservoir lies in a convex up -dip bend in the valley and is truncated on the west side by the Teepee Creek fault. Although the field has been a successful waterflood since 1993, reservoir heterogeneity and compartmentalization has impeded overall sweep efficiency. A 4.25 square mile high-resolution, three component three-dimensional (3C3D) seismic survey was acquired in order to improve reservoir characterization and pinpoint the optimal location of a new horizontal producing well, the ESU 13-H.

  1. Stepper Motor Characterization Utilizing Borland Delphi 5.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoyok-Dwi-Setyo-Pambudi, Darlis

    2005-01-01

    Characterization of 12-Watt, Shinano Kensi, Japan. Stepper Motors series TEAC P.No.14769070.90 had been conducted. Knowledge obtained from this characteristic test can be exploited in motor stepper application in the field of robotics, the appliance of las automatization and also the metal clippers equipment. Test characteristic was performed by using computer program Borland Delphi version 5.0. The result showed that by using input delay time 10 ms, the quickest turn around frequency of the motor is 0.5 Hz. The longer delay time tend to make a rotation frequency became lower, it also mean the moving of motor became slower. (author)

  2. Characterization of Visceral leishmaniasis in Reservoir Host (dogs and Determination of Agent by PCR in Boyer-Ahmad District, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ansari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL is an endemic disease in some parts of Iran. Leishmania infantum is the agent of disease in studied areas. The aim of the present study was the characterization of visceral leishmaniasis in reservoir host (dogs and determination of agent by molecular method in Boyer-Ahmad district, Iran Methods: In this study 15 infected dogs with symptoms of canine visceral leishmaniasis were selected from 5 VL endemic villages of Boyer-Ahmad district in 2010. All cases were tested by DAT for evaluation of anti leishmanial antibodies. After necropsy, parasitological study was conducted by use of impression smear of liver and spleen. Nested PCR was use to detect the parasite DNA in the liver and spleen tissues. Results: From fifteen cases, fourteen dogs had antibody titer above of 1:320 while one of the cases was seronegative. Leishmania amastigotes was seen in 13 smears of liver and spleen (13 cases. The agent of disease in 14 dogs determined as Leishmania infantum by nested PCR. Conclusion: This study confirmed that Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of canine VL in Boyer-Ahmad and the diseases pattern is similar to the rest of country. 0

  3. Sedimentology, Sequence Stratigraphy and Reservoir Characterization of Samana Suk Formation Exposed in Namal Gorge Section, Salt Range, Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hayat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Samana Suk Formation of Bathonian-callovain age, exposed in Nammal Gorge Salt Range, has been studied for microfacies and sequence stratigraphic investigation. The formation is mainly composed of limestone, with minor beds of sandstone and marl. The limestone is grey, yellowish and purple in color. Limestone is fine grained, thin to medium bedded and inter-bedded with algal laminations. The sandstone is light yellowish brown, brick red in color, calcareous and quartzose. Within Samana Suk Formation one 2ndorder sequence and two 3rdorder sequences have been identified. Their regional correlation through fine-tuned dating helped to develop basin fill model and to understand facies dynamics. A facie belt comprising a wide belt of carbonate facies characterized by Peloidal Packstone microfacies represents inner ramp setting and Pelletal/ Peloidal Wackstone, Mud-Wackstone and Mudstone microfacies represent the low energy lagoonal environment. The sandstone lithofacies represents high energy beach environment which indicates aggrading to pro-grading pattern. The porosity analysis has been done on different samples of limestone and sandstone. For the porosity analysis the Image J software is used. In limestone the porosity ranges up to 6% while in sandstone the porosity ranging up to 18%. From the field and porosity analysis it is concluded that Samana Suk Formation in study area is good reservoir.

  4. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. End of budget period report, August 3, 1994--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.R.; Hinterlong, G.; Watts, G.; Justice, J.; Brown, K.; Hickman, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Oxy West Welch project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. The research and design phase primarily involves advanced reservoir characterization and accelerating the production response. The demonstration phase will implement the reservoir management plan based on an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood as designed in the initial phase. During Budget Period 1, work was completed on the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments and the hydraulic fracture design. Analysis of the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatment provided a methodology for predicting results. The hydraulic fracture treatment proved up both the fracture design approach a and the use of passive seismic for mapping the fracture wing orientation. Although the 3-D seismic interpretation is still being integrated into the geologic model and interpretation of borehole seismic is still underway, the simulator has been enhanced to the point of giving good waterflood history matches. The simulator-forecasted results for an optimal designed miscible CO{sub 2} flood in the demonstration area gave sufficient economics to justify continuation of the project into Budget Period 2.

  5. Microarray Dot Electrodes Utilizing Dielectrophoresis for Cell Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades; dielectrophoresis (DEP has become a vital tool for cell manipulation and characterization due to its non-invasiveness. It is very useful in the trend towards point-of-care systems. Currently, most efforts are focused on using DEP in biomedical applications, such as the spatial manipulation of cells, the selective separation or enrichment of target cells, high-throughput molecular screening, biosensors and immunoassays. A significant amount of research on DEP has produced a wide range of microelectrode configurations. In this paper; we describe the microarray dot electrode, a promising electrode geometry to characterize and manipulate cells via DEP. The advantages offered by this type of microelectrode are also reviewed. The protocol for fabricating planar microelectrodes using photolithography is documented to demonstrate the fast and cost-effective fabrication process. Additionally; different state-of-the-art Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC devices that have been proposed for DEP applications in the literature are reviewed. We also present our recently designed LOC device, which uses an improved microarray dot electrode configuration to address the challenges facing other devices. This type of LOC system has the capability to boost the implementation of DEP technology in practical settings such as clinical cell sorting, infection diagnosis, and enrichment of particle populations for drug development.

  6. Characterization of fracture reservoirs using static and dynamic data: From sonic and 3D seismic to permeability distribution. Annual report, March 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.O.; Collier, H.A.; Owen, T.E. [and others

    1997-06-01

    In low porosity, low permeability zones, natural fractures are the primary source of permeability which affect both production and injection of fluids. The open fractures do not contribute much to porosity, but they provide an increased drainage network to any porosity. They also may connect the borehole to remote zones of better reservoir characteristics. An important approach to characterizing the fracture orientation and fracture permeability of reservoir formations is one based on the effects of such conditions on the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in the rock. The project is a study directed toward the evaluation of acoustic logging and 3D-seismic measurement techniques as well as fluid flow and transport methods for mapping permeability anisotropy and other petrophysical parameters for the understanding of the reservoir fracture systems and associated fluid dynamics. The principal application of these measurement techniques and methods is to identify and investigate the propagation characteristics of acoustic and seismic waves in the Twin Creek hydrocarbon reservoir owned by Union Pacific Resources (UPR) and to characterize the fracture permeability distribution using production data. This site is located in the overthrust area of Utah and Wyoming. UPR drilled six horizontal wells, and presently UPR has two rigs running with many established drill hole locations. In addition, there are numerous vertical wells that exist in the area as well as 3D seismic surveys. Each horizontal well contains full FMS logs and MWD logs, gamma logs, etc.

  7. A Comparative Study of the Neural Network, Fuzzy Logic, and Nero-fuzzy Systems in Seismic Reservoir Characterization: An Example from Arab (Surmeh Reservoir as an Iranian Gas Field, Persian Gulf Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mohebian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent reservoir characterization using seismic attributes and hydraulic flow units has a vital role in the description of oil and gas traps. The predicted model allows an accurate understanding of the reservoir quality, especially at the un-cored well location. This study was conducted in two major steps. In the first step, the survey compared different intelligent techniques to discover an optimum relationship between well logs and seismic data. For this purpose, three intelligent systems, including probabilistic neural network (PNN,fuzzy logic (FL, and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFISwere usedto predict flow zone index (FZI. Well derived FZI logs from three wells were employed to estimate intelligent models in the Arab (Surmeh reservoir. The validation of the produced models was examined by another well. Optimal seismic attributes for the estimation of FZI include acoustic impedance, integrated absolute amplitude, and average frequency. The results revealed that the ANFIS method performed better than the other systems and showed a remarkable reduction in the measured errors. In the second part of the study, the FZI 3D model was created by using the ANFIS system.The integrated approach introduced in the current survey illustrated that the extracted flow units from intelligent models compromise well with well-logs. Based on the results obtained, the intelligent systems are powerful techniques to predict flow units from seismic data (seismic attributes for distant well location. Finally, it was shown that ANFIS method was efficient in highlighting high and low-quality flow units in the Arab (Surmeh reservoir, the Iranian offshore gas field.

  8. Spatial and temporal characterization of trace elements and nutrients in the Rawal Lake Reservoir, Pakistan using multivariate analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    Rawal Lake Reservoir is renowned for its ecological significance and is the sole source of drinking water of the third largest city of Pakistan. However, fish kill in recent years and anthropogenic impacts from human-related activities in its catchment area have resulted in deterioration of its surface water quality. This study aims to characterize spatial and temporal variations in surface water quality, identify contaminant sources, and compare their levels with quality guidelines. Surface water samples were collected from 10 sites and analyzed for 27 physicochemical parameters for a period of 2 years on a seasonal basis. Concentration of metals in surface water in pre-monsoon were in the order: Fe > Mg > Ca > Mn > Zn > Ni > Cr > Cu > Co > Pb, whereas in post-monsoon, the order of elemental concentrations was: Ca > Mg > Na > Fe > K > Zn > Cr > Li > Pb > Co > Ni > Cu > Mn > Cd. Metals (Ni, Fe, Zn, and Ca), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and nutrients (PO (4) (3-) , NO(3)-N, and SO (4) (2-) ) were measured higher in pre-monsoon, whereas concentration of Cu, Mn, Cr, Co, Pb, Cd, K, Na, Mg, Li, Cl(-), and NH(4)-N were recorded higher in post-monsoon. Results highlighted serious metal pollution of surface water. Mean concentration of Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, Fe, Cr, and Pb in both seasons and Mn in post-monsoon were well above the permissible level of surface water quality criteria. Results stress the dire need to reduce heavy-metal input into the lake basin and suggest that heavy-metal contamination should be considered as an integral part of future planning and management strategies for restoration of water quality of the lake reservoir.

  9. Liquid-Rich Shale Potential of Utah’s Uinta and Paradox Basins: Reservoir Characterization and Development Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanden Berg, Michael [Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Morgan, Craig [Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Chidsey, Thomas [Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); McLennan, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Energy & Geoscience Inst.; Eby, David [Eby Petrography & Consulting, Littleton, CO (United States); Machel, Hans [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Schamel, Steve [GeoX Consulting, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Birdwell, Justin [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States); Johnson, Ron [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States); Sarg, Rick [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-31

    the undiscovered oil resource in the Cane Creek shale of the Paradox Basin at 103 million barrels at a 95 percent confidence level and 198 million barrels at a 50 percent confidence level. Nonetheless, limited research was available or published to further define the play and the reservoir characteristics. The specific objectives of the enclosed research were to (1) characterize geologic, geochemical, and geomechanical rock properties of target zones in the two designated basins by compiling data and by analyzing available cores, cuttings, and well logs; (2) describe outcrop reservoir analogs of GRF plays (Cane Creek shale is not exposed) and compare them to subsurface data; (3) map major regional trends for targeted intervals and identify “sweet spots” that have the greatest oil potential; (4) reduce exploration costs and drilling risks, especially in environmentally sensitive areas; (5) improve drilling and fracturing effectiveness by determining optimal well completion design; and (6) reduce field development costs, maximize oil recovery, and increase reserves. These objectives are all addressed in a series of nine publications that resulted from this extensive research project. Each publication is included in this report as an independent appendix.

  10. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill starch for industrial utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demiate Ivo Mottin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g, lipid (5.39 g/100g, crude fiber (2.34 g/100g and ash (2.14 g/100g. Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and corn. This fraction showed more lipids and proteins than the other starches. Chestnut starch granules showed peculiar shape, smaller than the control starches and low amount of damaged units. Chemical composition concerning amylose : amylopectin ratio was intermediate to that presented by cassava and corn starch granules. Water absorption at different temperatures as well as solubility were also intermediate but closer to that presented by cassava granules. The same behavior was observed in the interaction with dimethyl-sulfoxide. Native starch granules and those submitted to enzymatic treatment with commercial alpha-amylase and also with enzymes from germinated wheat were observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Water suspensions of chestnut starch granules were heated to form pastes that were studied comparatively to those obtained with cassava and corn starches. Viscographic pattern of chestnut starch pastes showed a characteristic profile with high initial viscosity but peak absence, high resistance to mechanical stirring under hot conditions and high final viscosity. There was no way to compare it with the paste viscographic profiles obtained with the control starches. Chestnut starch pastes were stable down to pH 4 but unstable at pH 3. The water losses observed in the chestnut starch pastes after freeze-thaw cycles showed more similarity to the pattern observed in corn starch pastes as well as clarity and strength of the gel. In general the results

  11. Reservoir Engineering Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1977-12-14

    The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1998-07-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the second year of the five-year project for each of the four areas. In the first area, the author has completed the reservoir characterization, which includes matrix description and detection (from core-log integration) and fracture characterization. This information is found in Section 1. In the second area, the author has completed extensive inhibition experiments that strongly indicate that the weakly water-wet behavior of the reservoir rock may be responsible for poor waterflood response observed in many Spraberry fields. In the third area, the author has made significant progress in analytical and numerical simulation of performance in Spraberry reservoirs as seen in Section 3. In the fourth area, the author has completed several suites of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry and Berea whole cores at reservoir conditions and reported in Section 4. The results of these experiments have been useful in developing a model for free-fall gravity drainage and have validated the premise that CO{sub 2} will recover oil from tight, unconfined Spraberry matrix. The final three years of this project involves implementation of the CO{sub 2} pilot. Up to twelve new wells are planned in the pilot area; water injection wells to contain the CO{sub 2}, three production wells to monitor performance of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} injection wells including one horizontal injection well and logging observation wells to monitor CO{sub 2} flood fronts. Results of drilling

  13. Modeling a distributed environment for a petroleum reservoir engineering application with software product line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidt, Rafael de Faria; Vilain, Patrícia; Dantas, M A R

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum reservoir engineering is a complex and interesting field that requires large amount of computational facilities to achieve successful results. Usually, software environments for this field are developed without taking care out of possible interactions and extensibilities required by reservoir engineers. In this paper, we present a research work which it is characterized by the design and implementation based on a software product line model for a real distributed reservoir engineering environment. Experimental results indicate successfully the utilization of this approach for the design of distributed software architecture. In addition, all components from the proposal provided greater visibility of the organization and processes for the reservoir engineers

  14. Modeling a distributed environment for a petroleum reservoir engineering application with software product line

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria Scheidt, Rafael; Vilain, Patrícia; Dantas, M. A. R.

    2014-10-01

    Petroleum reservoir engineering is a complex and interesting field that requires large amount of computational facilities to achieve successful results. Usually, software environments for this field are developed without taking care out of possible interactions and extensibilities required by reservoir engineers. In this paper, we present a research work which it is characterized by the design and implementation based on a software product line model for a real distributed reservoir engineering environment. Experimental results indicate successfully the utilization of this approach for the design of distributed software architecture. In addition, all components from the proposal provided greater visibility of the organization and processes for the reservoir engineers.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF SANDSTONE RESERVOIRS FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY: THE PERMIAN UPPER MINNELUSA FORMATION, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Scheffler, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Upper Minnelusa sandstones form a complex group of reservoirs because of variations in regional setting, sedimentology, and diagenetic alteration. Structural lineaments separate the reservoirs into northern and southern zones. Production in the north is from a single pay sand, and in the south from multi-pay sands due to differential erosion on top of the Upper Minnelusa. The intercalation of eolian dune, interdune, and sabkha sandstones with marine sandstones, carbonates, and anhydrites results in significant reservoir heterogeneity. Diagenetic alterations further enhance heterogeneity, because the degree of cementation and dissolution is partly facies-related.

  16. Bayesian inversion of seismic and electromagnetic data for marine gas reservoir characterization using multi-chain Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Huiying; Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Bao, Jie; Swiler, Laura

    2017-12-01

    In this study we developed an efficient Bayesian inversion framework for interpreting marine seismic amplitude versus angle (AVA) and controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data for marine reservoir characterization. The framework uses a multi-chain Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler, which is a hybrid of DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) and Adaptive Metropolis (AM) samplers. The inversion framework is tested by estimating reservoir-fluid saturations and porosity based on marine seismic and CSEM data. The multi-chain MCMC is scalable in terms of the number of chains, and is useful for computationally demanding Bayesian model calibration in scientific and engineering problems. As a demonstration, the approach is used to efficiently and accurately estimate the porosity and saturations in a representative layered synthetic reservoir. The results indicate that the seismic AVA and CSEM joint inversion provides better estimation of reservoir saturations than the seismic AVA-only inversion, especially for the parameters in deep layers. The performance of the inversion approach for various levels of noise in observational data was evaluated – reasonable estimates can be obtained with noise levels up to 25%. Sampling efficiency due to the use of multiple chains was also checked and was found to have almost linear scalability.

  17. Bayesian inversion of seismic and electromagnetic data for marine gas reservoir characterization using multi-chain Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Huiying; Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Bao, Jie; Swiler, Laura

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we developed an efficient Bayesian inversion framework for interpreting marine seismic Amplitude Versus Angle and Controlled-Source Electromagnetic data for marine reservoir characterization. The framework uses a multi-chain Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampler, which is a hybrid of DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis and Adaptive Metropolis samplers. The inversion framework is tested by estimating reservoir-fluid saturations and porosity based on marine seismic and Controlled-Source Electromagnetic data. The multi-chain Markov-chain Monte Carlo is scalable in terms of the number of chains, and is useful for computationally demanding Bayesian model calibration in scientific and engineering problems. As a demonstration, the approach is used to efficiently and accurately estimate the porosity and saturations in a representative layered synthetic reservoir. The results indicate that the seismic Amplitude Versus Angle and Controlled-Source Electromagnetic joint inversion provides better estimation of reservoir saturations than the seismic Amplitude Versus Angle only inversion, especially for the parameters in deep layers. The performance of the inversion approach for various levels of noise in observational data was evaluated — reasonable estimates can be obtained with noise levels up to 25%. Sampling efficiency due to the use of multiple chains was also checked and was found to have almost linear scalability.

  18. Bayesian inversion of seismic and electromagnetic data for marine gas reservoir characterization using multi-chain Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huiying; Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Bao, Jie; Swiler, Laura

    2017-12-01

    In this study we developed an efficient Bayesian inversion framework for interpreting marine seismic Amplitude Versus Angle and Controlled-Source Electromagnetic data for marine reservoir characterization. The framework uses a multi-chain Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampler, which is a hybrid of DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis and Adaptive Metropolis samplers. The inversion framework is tested by estimating reservoir-fluid saturations and porosity based on marine seismic and Controlled-Source Electromagnetic data. The multi-chain Markov-chain Monte Carlo is scalable in terms of the number of chains, and is useful for computationally demanding Bayesian model calibration in scientific and engineering problems. As a demonstration, the approach is used to efficiently and accurately estimate the porosity and saturations in a representative layered synthetic reservoir. The results indicate that the seismic Amplitude Versus Angle and Controlled-Source Electromagnetic joint inversion provides better estimation of reservoir saturations than the seismic Amplitude Versus Angle only inversion, especially for the parameters in deep layers. The performance of the inversion approach for various levels of noise in observational data was evaluated - reasonable estimates can be obtained with noise levels up to 25%. Sampling efficiency due to the use of multiple chains was also checked and was found to have almost linear scalability.

  19. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neural reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers, geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  20. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  1. Characterization of water reservoirs affected by acid mine drainage: geochemical, mineralogical, and biological (diatoms) properties of the water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, T; Rivera, M J; Almeida, S F P; Delgado, C; Gomes, P; Grande, J A; de la Torre, M L; Santisteban, M

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a combination of geochemical, mineralogical, and biological data obtained in water reservoirs located in one of the most paradigmatic mining regions, suffering from acid mine drainage (AMD) problems: the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Four water reservoirs located in the Spanish sector of the IBP, storing water for different purposes, were selected to achieve an environmental classification based on the effects of AMD: two mining dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas), a reservoir for industrial use (Sancho), and one with water used for human supply (Andévalo). The results indicated that the four reservoirs are subject to the effect of metallic loads from polluted rivers, although with different levels: Águas Ácidas > Gossan > Sancho ≥ Andévalo. In accordance, epipsammic diatom communities have differences in the respective composition and dominant taxa. The dominant diatoms in each reservoir indicated acid water: Pinnularia acidophila and Pinnularia aljustrelica were found in the most acidic dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas, with pH <3), Pinnularia subcapitata in Sancho (pH 2.48-5.82), and Eunotia exigua in Andévalo (pH 2.34-6.15).

  2. Methods to evaluate some reservoir characterization by means of the geophysical data in the strata of limestone and marl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Seidov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As we know, the main goal of interpreting the materials of well logging, including the allocation of collectors and assessment of their saturation, are successfully achieved when the process of interpretation has a strong methodological support. This means, that it is justified by the necessary interpretational models and effective instructional techniques are used. They are based on structural and petrophysical models of reservoirs of the section investigated. The problem of studying the marl rocks with the help of the geophysical methods is not worked out properly. Many years of experience of studying limestone and marl rocks has made it possible to justify the optimal method of data interpretation of geophysical research wells in carbonate sections, which was represented by limestone and marl formations. A new method was developed to study marl rocks. It includes the following main studies: detection of reservoirs in the carbonate section according to the materials of geophysical studies of wells; determination of the geophysical parameters of each reservoir; assessment of the quality of well logging curves; introduction of amendments; selection of reference layers; the calculation of the relative double differencing parameters; the involvement of core data; identifying the lithological rock composition; the rationale for structural models of reservoirs; the definition of the block and of the total porosity; determination of argillaceous carbonate rocks; determination of the coefficient of water saturation of formations based on the type of the collector; setting a critical value for effective porosity, etc. This method was applied in the Eocene deposits of the Interfluve of the Kura and Iori, which is a promising object of hydrocarbons in Azerbaijan. The following conclusions have been made: this methodology successfully solves the problem of petrophysical characteristics of marl rocks; bad connection is observed between some of the

  3. Biogeochemical characterization of the Cointzio reservoir (Morelia, Mexico) and identification of a watershed-dependent cycling of nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Némery, J.; Alvarado, R.; Gratiot, N.; Duvert, C.; Mahé, F.; Duwig, C.; Bonnet, M.; Prat, C.; Esteves, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Cointzio reservoir (capacity 70 Mm3) is an essential component of the drinking water supply (20 %) of Morelia city (1 M inhabitants, Michoacán, Mexico). The watershed is 627 km2 and mainly forested (45 %) and cultivated (43 %) with recent increase of avocados plantations. The mean population density is 65 inh./km2 and there are no waste water treatment plants in the villages leading locally to high levels of organic and nutritive pollution. Soils are mostly volcanic and recent deforestations have led to important processes of erosion especially during the wet season (from June to October). As a result the reservoir presents a high turbidity level (Secchi turbidity renders the water potabilization processes difficult. Moreover, eutrophication and development of undesirable algae such as Cyanobacteria may even increase the water treatment cost. A weekly composite sampling was realized in 2009 at the reservoir entry and exit in order to determine nutrients mass balance. At the reservoir entrance, discharges were measured continuously. At the exit, discharges were obtained from the Comición Nacional Del Agua (CNA). The water residence time in the reservoir is lower than one year. Nutrients fluxes entering and exiting the reservoir were calculated as the product of water discharges and weekly concentrations of nutrients. Within the reservoir, the vertical distributions of temperature, oxygen, turbidity, pH (with a Hydrolab probe), nutrients (PO43-, NH4+, NO3-), Dissolved Organic Carbon, chlorophyll a (laboratory analysis with a Hach Lange spectrophotometer), phytoplankton and zooplankton (variety and abundance) were measured every month to determine its seasonal dynamics. Samples of deposited sediments were also taken to assess phosphorus (P) stock. Nutrient inputs revealed to be strongly conditioned by the watershed hydrology. During low flow period (November to May), the baseflow is much more concentrated in dissolved nutrients. On the contrary, the high flows

  4. Characterization and 3D reservoir modelling of fluvial sandstones of the Williams Fork Formation, Rulison Field, Piceance Basin, Colorado, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pranter, Matthew J; Vargas, Marielis F; Davis, Thomas L

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the stratigraphic characteristics and distribution of fluvial deposits of the Upper Cretaceous Williams Fork Formation in a portion of Rulison Field and addresses 3D geologic modelling of reservoir sand bodies and their associated connectivity. Fluvial deposits include isolated and stacked point-bar deposits, crevasse splays and overbank (floodplain) mudrock. Within the Williams Fork Formation, the distribution and connectivity of fluvial sandstones significantly impact reservoir productivity and ultimate recovery. The reservoir sandstones are primarily fluvial point-bar deposits interbedded with shales and coals. Because of the lenticular geometry and limited lateral extent of the reservoir sandstones (common apparent widths of ∼500–1000 ft; ∼150–300 m), relatively high well densities (e.g. 10 acre (660 ft; 200 m) spacing) are often required to deplete the reservoir. Heterogeneity of these fluvial deposits includes larger scale stratigraphic variability associated with vertical stacking patterns and structural heterogeneities associated with faults that exhibit lateral and reverse offsets. The discontinuous character of the fluvial sandstones and lack of distinct marker beds in the middle and upper parts of the Williams Fork Formation make correlation between wells tenuous, even at a 10 acre well spacing. Some intervals of thicker and amalgamated sandstones within the middle and upper Williams Fork Formation can be correlated across greater distances. To aid correlation and for 3D reservoir modelling, vertical lithology proportion curves were used to estimate stratigraphic trends and define the stratigraphic zonation within the reservoir interval. Object-based and indicator-based modelling methods have been applied to the same data and results from the models were compared. Results from the 3D modelling indicate that sandstone connectivity increases with net-to-gross ratio and, at lower net-to-gross ratios (<30%), differences exist in

  5. A Comparative Study between a Pseudo-Forward Equation (PFE and Intelligence Methods for the Characterization of the North Sea Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mojeddifar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study between three versions of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS algorithms and a pseudo-forward equation (PFE to characterize the North Sea reservoir (F3 block based on seismic data. According to the statistical studies, four attributes (energy, envelope, spectral decomposition and similarity are known to be useful as fundamental attributes in porosity estimation. Different ANFIS models were constructed using three clustering methods of grid partitioning (GP, subtractive clustering method (SCM and fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM. An experimental equation, called PFE and based on similarity attributes, was also proposed to estimate porosity values of the reservoir. When the validation set derived from training wells was used, the R-square coefficient between two variables (actual and predicted values was obtained as 0.7935 and 0.7404 for the ANFIS algorithm and the PFE model, respectively. But when the testing set derived from testing wells was used, the same coefficients decreased to 0.252 and 0.5133 for the ANFIS algorithm and the PFE model, respectively. According to these results, and the geological characteristics observed in the F3 block, it seems that the ANFIS algorithms cannot estimate the porosity acceptably. By contrast, in the outputs of PFE, the ability to detect geological structures such as faults (gas chimney, folds (salt dome, and bright spots, alongside the porosity estimation of sandstone reservoirs, could help in determining the drilling target locations. Finally, this work proposes that the developed PFE could be a good technique for characterizing the reservoir of the F3 block.

  6. Seismic spectral decomposition and analysis based on Wigner–Ville distribution for sandstone reservoir characterization in West Sichuan depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoyang; Liu, Tianyou

    2010-01-01

    Reflections from a hydrocarbon-saturated zone are generally expected to have a tendency to be low frequency. Previous work has shown the application of seismic spectral decomposition for low-frequency shadow detection. In this paper, we further analyse the characteristics of spectral amplitude in fractured sandstone reservoirs with different fluid saturations using the Wigner–Ville distribution (WVD)-based method. We give a description of the geometric structure of cross-terms due to the bilinear nature of WVD and eliminate cross-terms using smoothed pseudo-WVD (SPWVD) with time- and frequency-independent Gaussian kernels as smoothing windows. SPWVD is finally applied to seismic data from West Sichuan depression. We focus our study on the comparison of SPWVD spectral amplitudes resulting from different fluid contents. It shows that prolific gas reservoirs feature higher peak spectral amplitude at higher peak frequency, which attenuate faster than low-quality gas reservoirs and dry or wet reservoirs. This can be regarded as a spectral attenuation signature for future exploration in the study area

  7. High-resolution reservoir characterization by an acoustic impedance inversion of a Tertiary deltaic clinoform system in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetyukhina, D.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Luthi, S.M.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Fluvio-deltaic sedimentary systems are of great interest for explorationists because they can form prolific hydrocarbon plays. However, they are also among the most complex and heterogeneous ones encountered in the subsurface, and potential reservoir units are often close to or below seismic

  8. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum

  9. IMPROVED MISCIBLE NITROGEN FLOOD PERFORMANCE UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL LATERALS IN A CLASS I RESERVOIR - EAST BINGER (MARCHAND) UNIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinner, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Budget Period 2 of the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') DOE Project has been. Recent activities included additional data gathering and project monitoring, plus initiation of work on an SPE paper on the modeling efforts of the project. Early production performance suggests horizontal wells do not provide sufficient additional production over vertical wells to justify their incremental cost. It will take more time to evaluate the impact of the horizontal wells on sweep and ultimate recovery, but it is unlikely that an improvement in recovery will be sufficient to make the overall economic value of horizontal wells greater than the economic value of vertical wells. Monitoring of overall performance of the pilot area continues. Overall response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Injection into the pilot area has nearly doubled, while gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas have both decreased. Nitrogen recycle within the pilot area has dropped from 60% to 20%. Efforts to further disseminate knowledge gained through this project, by means of technical paper presentations to industry groups, are underway. Project monitoring and technology transfer will be focus areas of Budget Period 3

  10. Reservoir management under geological uncertainty using fast model update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanea, R.; Evensen, G.; Hustoft, L.; Ek, T.; Chitu, A.; Wilschut, F.

    2015-01-01

    Statoil is implementing "Fast Model Update (FMU)," an integrated and automated workflow for reservoir modeling and characterization. FMU connects all steps and disciplines from seismic depth conversion to prediction and reservoir management taking into account relevant reservoir uncertainty. FMU

  11. Spatiotemporal sedimentological and petrophysical characterization of El Gueria reservoir (Ypresian) in sFAX and Gulf of Gabes Basins (SE-Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadhem, Kassabi; Zahra, Njahi; Ménendez, Béatriz; Salwa, Jeddi; Jamel, Touir

    2017-06-01

    El Gueria carbonate Formation (Ypresian) in Tunisia is a proven hydrocarbon reservoir. In the Gulf of Gabes, El Gueria reservoir consists mainly of a nummulitic limestone which is developed in an inner shelf environment. In order to characterize the depositional facies evolution and the petrophysical parameters, and to understand the origin of heterogeneity of El Gueria reservoir, we firstly conducted a sedimentological and a sequence stratigraphy study of this Formation in more than 10 wells especially in P1, then we established a detailed petrophysical study of El Gueria reservoir in P1, P3c and P7d cores. Based on lithostratigraphic and gamma ray correlations of an important number of wells in the study area, a detailed sedimentological study has been established. This latter shows that: (i): The Ypresien deposits are deposited in an inner shelf (El Gueria Formation) in the south and in an outer shelf (Boudabbous Formation) in the north of the study area with the form of horsts and grabens, (ii): 3 distinct members and 7 principal facies within El Gueria Formation have been distinguished. The coupling of data logging and data of the P1 core shows that the El Gueria deposits include 10 transgressive-regressive depositional sequences, while showing from bottom to top a broad regressive tendancy from a subtidal domain during the early Ypresian to an intertidal domain during the middle Ypresian reaching the supratidal environnement during the late Ypresian-early Lutetian. The petrophysical parameters (porosity and permeability) of El Gueria reservoir vary in time and space (laterally and vertically variation) following the deposit environment variation. Particularly, the porosity variation is controlled by eustatic cycles so that high porosities are linked with transgressive phases and low porosities with regressive phases. In addition, the vertical evolution of porosity through the El Gueria reservoir varies following the (i) deposit environments, (ii) type and

  12. Characterization of coal blends for effective utilization in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh Raaj, S.; Arumugam, S.; Muthukrishnan, M.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Anantharaman, N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This work will assist utilities to decide on the choice of coals for blending. • Conventional and advanced analytical techniques were used for characterization. • Fuel ratio, burnout profile, ash chemistry and carbon burnout are key factors. • Basic properties were additive while carbon burnout was non additive for the blends. - Abstract: This paper deals with the characterization of coal blends using various conventional and advanced analytical techniques. There has been an increasing trend in utilizing imported coals for power generation in India and utilities are resorting to blended coal firing for various reasons, both financially as well as technically. Characterization studies were carried out on 2 combinations of Indian and imported coal blends. Conventional characterization such as proximate and ultimate analysis and determination of calorific value were carried out for the raw coals and blends as per ASTM standards. Following this thermal and mineral analysis of the samples were carried out using thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA), X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) and computer controlled scanning electron microscope (CCSEM). Combustion experiments were also conducted using drop tube furnace (DTF) to determine the burnout of the raw coals and blends. The selection of technically suitable coal combination for blending, based on these characterization studies, has been detailed.

  13. Fracture characterization and discrimination criteria for karst and tectonic fractures in the Ellenburger Group, West Texas: Implications for reservoir and exploration models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)]|[Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Deyhim, P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Lab. for Computational Geodynamics

    1998-12-31

    In the Ellenburger Group fractured dolomite reservoirs of West Texas, it is extremely difficult to distinguish between multiple phases of karst-related fracturing, modifications to the karst system during burial, and overprinting tectonic fractures. From the analyses of drill core, the authors developed criteria to distinguish between karst and tectonic fractures. In addition, they have applied these criteria within the context of a detailed diagenetic cement history that allows them to further refine the fracture genesis and chronology. In these analyses, the authors evaluated the relationships between fracture intensity, morphologic attributes, host lithology, fracture cement, and oil-staining. From this analysis, they have been able to characterize variations in Ellenburger tectonic fracture intensity by separating these fractures from karst-related features. In general, the majority of fracturing in the Ellenburger is caused by karst-related fracturing although a considerable percentage is caused by tectonism. These findings underscore the importance of considering the complete geologic evolution of a karst reservoir during exploration and field development programs. The authors have been able to more precisely define the spatial significance of the fracture data sets by use of oriented core from Andector Field. They have also demonstrated the importance of these results for exploration and reservoir development programs in West Texas, and the potential to extrapolate these results around the globe. Given the historic interest in the large hydrocarbon reserves in West Texas carbonate reservoirs, results of this study will have tremendous implications for exploration and production strategies targeting vuggy, fractured carbonate systems not only in West Texas, but throughout the globe.

  14. The benefits of a synergistic approach to reservoir characterization and proration Rose City Prairie Du Chien Gas field, Ogemaw County, Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinker, C.N.; Chambers, L.D.; Ritch, H.J.; McRae, C.D.; Keen, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on proration of gas fields in Michigan that is regulated by the Michigan Public Service Commission (MPSC). Unlike other states the MPSC determines allowables for the purpose of allocating reserves. Therefore, exemplary reservoir characterization is essential to ensure each party receives, as far as can be practicably determined, an equitable share. SWEPI's Central Division Management recognizes the reality of the Michigan regulatory arena as well as the principles and value of effective leadership and teamwork. Accordingly, to better understand Rose City, a multi-disciplinary team was formed to analyze the extensive database, to prorate the field appropriately and to establish and maintain maximum acceptable production rates

  15. Characterizing Microbial Diversity and Function in Natural Subsurface CO2 Reservoir Systems for Applied Use in Geologic Carbon Sequestration Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, A.; Thompson, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    The injection of CO2 into geological formations at quantities necessary to significantly reduce CO2 emissions will represent an environmental perturbation on a continental scale. The extent to which biological processes may play a role in the fate and transport of CO2 injected into geological formations has remained an open question due to the fact that at temperatures and pressures associated with reservoirs targeted for sequestration CO2 exists as a supercritical fluid (scCO2), which has generally been regarded as a sterilizing agent. Natural subsurface accumulations of CO2 serve as an excellent analogue for studying the long-term effects, implications and benefits of CO2 capture and storage (CCS). While several geologic formations bearing significant volumes of nearly pure scCO2 phases have been identified in the western United States, no study has attempted to characterize the microbial community present in these systems. Because the CO2 in the region is thought to have first accumulated millions of years ago, it is reasonable to assume that native microbial populations have undergone extensive and unique physiological and behavioral adaptations to adjust to the exceedingly high scCO2 content. Our study focuses on the microbial communities associated with the dolomite limestone McElmo Dome scCO2 Field in the Colorado Plateau region, approximately 1,000 m below the surface. Fluid samples were collected from 10 wells at an industrial CO2 production facility outside Cortez, CO. Subsamples preserved on site in 3.7% formaldehyde were treated in the lab with Syto 9 green-fluorescent nucleic acid stain, revealing 3.2E6 to 1.4E8 microbial cells per liter of produced fluid and 8.0E9 cells per liter of local pond water used in well drilling fluids. Extracted DNAs from sterivex 0.22 um filters containing 20 L of sample biomass were used as templates for PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene. 16S rRNA amplicons from these samples were cloned, sequenced and subjected to microbial

  16. Evaluating factorial kriging for seismic attributes filtering: a geostatistical filter applied to reservoir characterization; Avaliacao da krigagem fatorial na filtragem de atributos sismicos: um filtro geoestatistico aplicado a caracterizacao de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundim, Evaldo Cesario

    1999-02-01

    In this dissertation the Factorial Kriging analysis for the filtering of seismic attributes applied to reservoir characterization is considered. Factorial Kriging works in the spatial, domain in a similar way to the Spectral Analysis in the frequency domain. The incorporation of filtered attributes via External Drift Kriging and Collocated Cokriging in the estimate of reservoir characterization is discussed. Its relevance for the reservoir porous volume calculation is also evaluated based on comparative analysis of the volume risk curves derived from stochastic conditional simulations with collocated variable and stochastic conditional simulations with collocated variable and stochastic conditional simulations with external drift. results prove Factorial Kriging as an efficient technique for the filtering of seismic attributes images, of which geologic features are enhanced. The attribute filtering improves the correlation between the attributes and the well data and the estimates of the reservoir properties. The differences between the estimates obtained by External Drift Kriging and Collocated Cokriging are also reduced. (author)

  17. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. First annual technical progress report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1996-12-17

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  18. Electrofacies vs. lithofacies sandstone reservoir characterization Campanian sequence, Arshad gas/oil field, Central Sirt Basin, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burki, Milad; Darwish, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    The present study focuses on the vertically stacked sandstones of the Arshad Sandstone in Arshad gas/oil field, Central Sirt Basin, Libya, and is based on the conventional cores analysis and wireline log interpretation. Six lithofacies types (F1 to F6) were identified based on the lithology, sedimentary structures and biogenic features, and are supported by wireline log calibration. From which four types (F1-F4) represent the main Campanian sandstone reservoirs in the Arshad gas/oil field. Lithofacies F5 is the basal conglomerates at the lower part of the Arshad sandstones. The Paleozoic Gargaf Formation is represented by lithofacies F6 which is the source provenance for the above lithofacies types. Arshad sediments are interpreted to be deposited in shallow marginal and nearshore marine environment influenced by waves and storms representing interactive shelf to fluvio-marine conditions. The main seal rocks are the Campanian Sirte shale deposited in a major flooding events during sea level rise. It is contended that the syn-depositional tectonics controlled the distribution of the reservoir facies in time and space. In addition, the post-depositional changes controlled the reservoir quality and performance. Petrophysical interpretation from the porosity log values were confirmed by the conventional core measurements of the different sandstone lithofacies types. Porosity ranges from 5 to 20% and permeability is between 0 and 20 mD. Petrophysical cut-off summary of the lower part of the clastic dominated sequence (i. e. Arshad Sandstone) calculated from six wells includes net pay sand ranging from 19.5‧ to 202.05‧, average porosity from 7.7 to 15% and water saturation from 19 to 58%.

  19. Direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Oh, Jae Ho; Jeong, Tae Jin [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1995-12-01

    In order to enhance the capability of petroleum exploration and development techniques, three year project (1994 - 1997) was initiated on the research of direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development. This project consists of four sub-projects. (1) Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique: The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. (2) Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration: the test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. (3) Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs: There are two types of reservoir characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. (4) Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and full waveform inversion: Three individual sections are presented. The first one is devoted to the inversion theory in general sense. The second and the third sections deal with the frequency domain pseudo waveform inversion of seismic reflection data and refraction data respectively. (author). 180 refs., 91 figs., 60 tabs.

  20. Advancing reservoir operation description in physically based hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Giudici, Federico; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Last decades have seen significant advances in our capacity of characterizing and reproducing hydrological processes within physically based models. Yet, when the human component is considered (e.g. reservoirs, water distribution systems), the associated decisions are generally modeled with very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the actual operators' behaviour on a daily or sub-daily basis. For example, reservoir operations are usually described by a target-level rule curve, which represents the level that the reservoir should track during normal operating conditions. The associated release decision is determined by the current state of the reservoir relative to the rule curve. This modeling approach can reasonably reproduce the seasonal water volume shift due to reservoir operation. Still, it cannot capture more complex decision making processes in response, e.g., to the fluctuations of energy prices and demands, the temporal unavailability of power plants or varying amount of snow accumulated in the basin. In this work, we link a physically explicit hydrological model with detailed hydropower behavioural models describing the decision making process by the dam operator. In particular, we consider two categories of behavioural models: explicit or rule-based behavioural models, where reservoir operating rules are empirically inferred from observational data, and implicit or optimization based behavioural models, where, following a normative economic approach, the decision maker is represented as a rational agent maximising a utility function. We compare these two alternate modelling approaches on the real-world water system of Lake Como catchment in the Italian Alps. The water system is characterized by the presence of 18 artificial hydropower reservoirs generating almost 13% of the Italian hydropower production. Results show to which extent the hydrological regime in the catchment is affected by different behavioural models and reservoir

  1. Characterization of EIAV LTR variability and compartmentalization in various reservoir tissues of long-term inapparent carrier ponies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Jenner K.P.; Craigo, Jodi K.; Cook, Sheila J.; Issel, Charles J.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic genomic variation resulting in changes in envelope antigenicity has been established as a fundamental mechanism of persistence by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), as observed with other lentiviruses, including HIV-1. In addition to the reported changes in envelope sequences, however, certain studies indicate the viral LTR as a second variable EIAV gene, with the enhancer region being designated as hypervariable. These observations have lead to the suggestion that LTR variation may alter viral replication properties to optimize to the microenvironment of particular tissue reservoirs. To test this hypothesis directly, we examined the population of LTR quasispecies contained in various tissues of two inapparent carrier ponies experimentally infected with a reference EIAV biological clone for 18 months. The results of these studies demonstrated that the EIAV LTR is in fact highly conserved with respect to the infecting LTR species after 1.5 years of persistent infection and regardless of the tissue reservoir. Thus, these comprehensive analyses demonstrate for the first time that the EIAV LTR is highly conserved during long-term persistent infection and that the observed variations in viral LTR are associated more with in vitro adaptation to replication in cultured cells rather than in vivo replication in natural target cells

  2. Structural characterization of bentonite clays for utilization as nanofillers in nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carlos Ivan Ribeiro de; Rocha, Marisa Cristina Guimares; Vogas, Arthur Considera

    2014-01-01

    Clays of different composition have been used in the development of polymer nanocomposites. However, the utilization of bentonite clays has been emphasized in Brazil, mainly due to their availability.The best known and studied deposits of bentonite clays are located in the state of Paraiba. However, these deposits are becoming exhausted after decades of exploitation. In this context, the aim of this work is to proceed the physical-mineralogical characterization of bentonite clays recently discovered in Cubati, PB. In order to achieve this objective, the samples underwent a particle size classification step and were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Results of X-ray diffraction showed that the samples are composed of smectite, and kaolinite and quartz. The characterization of the samples by FTIR confirmed these results. Results of chemical analysis showed that the clays have predominantly different exchangeable cations. (author)

  3. Elastic full-waveform inversion and parameterization analysis applied to walk-away vertical seismic profile data for unconventional (heavy oil) reservoir characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenyong; Innanen, Kristopher A.; Geng, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Seismic full-waveform inversion (FWI) methods hold strong potential to recover multiple subsurface elastic properties for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. Simultaneously updating multiple physical parameters introduces the problem of interparameter tradeoff, arising from the covariance between different physical parameters, which increases nonlinearity and uncertainty of multiparameter FWI. The coupling effects of different physical parameters are significantly influenced by model parameterization and acquisition arrangement. An appropriate choice of model parameterization is critical to successful field data applications of multiparameter FWI. The objective of this paper is to examine the performance of various model parameterizations in isotropic-elastic FWI with walk-away vertical seismic profile (W-VSP) dataset for unconventional heavy oil reservoir characterization. Six model parameterizations are considered: velocity-density (α, β and ρ΄), modulus-density (κ, μ and ρ), Lamé-density (λ, μ΄ and ρ‴), impedance-density (IP, IS and ρ″), velocity-impedance-I (α΄, β΄ and I_P^'), and velocity-impedance-II (α″, β″ and I_S^'). We begin analyzing the interparameter tradeoff by making use of scattering radiation patterns, which is a common strategy for qualitative parameter resolution analysis. In this paper, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the scattering radiation patterns and recommend that interparameter tradeoffs be evaluated using interparameter contamination kernels, which provide quantitative, second-order measurements of the interparameter contaminations and can be constructed efficiently with an adjoint-state approach. Synthetic W-VSP isotropic-elastic FWI experiments in the time domain verify our conclusions about interparameter tradeoffs for various model parameterizations. Density profiles are most strongly influenced by the interparameter contaminations; depending on model parameterization, the inverted density

  4. Elastic full-waveform inversion and parametrization analysis applied to walk-away vertical seismic profile data for unconventional (heavy oil) reservoir characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenyong; Innanen, Kristopher A.; Geng, Yu

    2018-06-01

    Seismic full-waveform inversion (FWI) methods hold strong potential to recover multiple subsurface elastic properties for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. Simultaneously updating multiple physical parameters introduces the problem of interparameter trade-off, arising from the simultaneous variations of different physical parameters, which increase the nonlinearity and uncertainty of multiparameter FWI. The coupling effects of different physical parameters are significantly influenced by model parametrization and acquisition arrangement. An appropriate choice of model parametrization is important to successful field data applications of multiparameter FWI. The objective of this paper is to examine the performance of various model parametrizations in isotropic-elastic FWI with walk-away vertical seismic profile (W-VSP) data for unconventional heavy oil reservoir characterization. Six model parametrizations are considered: velocity-density (α, β and ρ΄), modulus-density (κ, μ and ρ), Lamé-density (λ, μ΄ and ρ‴), impedance-density (IP, IS and ρ″), velocity-impedance-I (α΄, β΄ and I_P^' }) and velocity-impedance-II (α″, β″ and I_S^' }). We begin analysing the interparameter trade-off by making use of scattering radiation patterns, which is a common strategy for qualitative parameter resolution analysis. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the scattering radiation patterns and recommend that interparameter trade-offs be evaluated using interparameter contamination kernels, which provide quantitative, second-order measurements of the interparameter contaminations and can be constructed efficiently with an adjoint-state approach. Synthetic W-VSP isotropic-elastic FWI experiments in the time domain verify our conclusions about interparameter trade-offs for various model parametrizations. Density profiles are most strongly influenced by the interparameter contaminations; depending on model parametrization, the inverted density

  5. Characterization of nanometer-scale porosity in reservoir carbonate rock by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Bijoyendra; Gunda, Naga Siva Kumar; Mitra, Sushanta K; Vick, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    Sedimentary carbonate rocks are one of the principal porous structures in natural reservoirs of hydrocarbons such as crude oil and natural gas. Efficient hydrocarbon recovery requires an understanding of the carbonate pore structure, but the nature of sedimentary carbonate rock formation and the toughness of the material make proper analysis difficult. In this study, a novel preparation method was used on a dolomitic carbonate sample, and selected regions were then serially sectioned and imaged by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy. The resulting series of images were used to construct detailed three-dimensional representations of the microscopic pore spaces and analyze them quantitatively. We show for the first time the presence of nanometer-scale pores (50-300 nm) inside the solid dolomite matrix. We also show the degree of connectivity of these pores with micron-scale pores (2-5 μm) that were observed to further link with bulk pores outside the matrix.

  6. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B., E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4" t" hfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia); Susilowati, E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.

  7. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" data-affiliation=" (Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" >Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Susilowati

    2015-01-01

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia

  8. Isolation and characterization of yeasts capable of efficient utilization of hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as the carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassa-Barbosa, L A; Procópio, R E L; Matos, I T S R; Filho, S A

    2015-09-28

    Few yeasts have shown the potential to efficiently utilize hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as the carbon source. In this study, microorganisms isolated from the Manaus region in Amazonas, Brazil, were characterized based on their utilization of the pentoses, xylose, and arabinose. The yeasts that showed a potential to assimilate these sugars were selected for the better utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Two hundred and thirty seven colonies of unicellular microorganisms grown on hemicellulosic hydrolyzate, xylose, arabinose, and yeast nitrogen base selective medium were analyzed. Of these, 231 colonies were subjected to sugar assimilation tests. One hundred and twenty five of these were shown to utilize hydrolyzed hemicellulose, xylose, or arabinose as the carbon source for growth. The colonies that showed the best growth (N = 57) were selected, and their internal transcribed spacer-5.8S rDNA was sequenced. The sequenced strains formed four distinct groups in the phylogenetic tree, and showed a high percentage of similarity with Meyerozyma caribbica, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans, Trichosporon loubieri, Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida lignohabitans, and Candida ethanolica. The discovery of these xylose-fermenting yeasts could attract widespread interest, as these can be used in the cost-effective production of liquid fuel from lignocellulosic materials.

  9. Applying a probabilistic seismic-petrophysical inversion and two different rock-physics models for reservoir characterization in offshore Nile Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleardi, Mattia

    2018-01-01

    We apply a two-step probabilistic seismic-petrophysical inversion for the characterization of a clastic, gas-saturated, reservoir located in offshore Nile Delta. In particular, we discuss and compare the results obtained when two different rock-physics models (RPMs) are employed in the inversion. The first RPM is an empirical, linear model directly derived from the available well log data by means of an optimization procedure. The second RPM is a theoretical, non-linear model based on the Hertz-Mindlin contact theory. The first step of the inversion procedure is a Bayesian linearized amplitude versus angle (AVA) inversion in which the elastic properties, and the associated uncertainties, are inferred from pre-stack seismic data. The estimated elastic properties constitute the input to the second step that is a probabilistic petrophysical inversion in which we account for the noise contaminating the recorded seismic data and the uncertainties affecting both the derived rock-physics models and the estimated elastic parameters. In particular, a Gaussian mixture a-priori distribution is used to properly take into account the facies-dependent behavior of petrophysical properties, related to the different fluid and rock properties of the different litho-fluid classes. In the synthetic and in the field data tests, the very minor differences between the results obtained by employing the two RPMs, and the good match between the estimated properties and well log information, confirm the applicability of the inversion approach and the suitability of the two different RPMs for reservoir characterization in the investigated area.

  10. Enrichment of reactive macerals in coal: its characterization and utilization in coke making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Debjani; Kopparthi, P.; Dash, P. S.; Saxena, V. K.; Chandra, S.

    2018-01-01

    Macerals in coal are of different types: reactive and inert. These macerals are differ in their physical and chemical properties. Column flotation method has been used to separate the reactive macerals in a non-coking coal. The enriched coal is then characterized in order to understand the changes in the coking potential by different techniques. It is then used in making of metallurgical coke by proper blending with other coals. Enriched coal enhance the properties of metallurgical coke. This shows a path of utilization of non-coking coal in metallurgical coke making.

  11. Characterization of ion beam irradiated 304 stainless steel utilizing nanoindentation and Laue microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupinacci, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, K., E-mail: kchenlbl@gmail.com [Center for Advancing Materials Performance from the Nanoscale (CAMP-Nano), State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Li, Y. [Center for Advancing Materials Performance from the Nanoscale (CAMP-Nano), State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Kunz, M. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jiao, Z.; Was, G.S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Abad, M.D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Minor, A.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hosemann, P., E-mail: Peterh@berkeley.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Characterizing irradiation damage in materials utilized in light water reactors is critical for both material development and application reliability. Here we use both nanoindentation and Laue microdiffraction to characterize both the mechanical response and microstructure evolution due to irradiation. Two different irradiation conditions were considered in 304 stainless steel: 1 dpa and 10 dpa. In addition, an annealed condition of the 10 dpa specimen for 1 h at 500 °C was evaluated. Nanoindentation revealed an increase in hardness due to irradiation and also revealed that hardness saturated in the 10 dpa case. Broadening using Laue microdiffraction peaks indicates a significant plastic deformation in the irradiated area that is in good agreement with both the SRIM calculations and the nanoindentation results.

  12. Nevada Test Site Perspective on Characterization and Loading of Legacy Transuranic Drums Utilizing the Central Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.G. Lahoud; J. F. Norton; I. L. Siddoway; L. W. Griswold

    2006-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) has successfully completed a multi-year effort to characterize and ship 1860 legacy transuranic (TRU) waste drums for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a permanent TRU disposal site. This has been a cooperative effort among the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), the U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office (DOE/CBFO), the NTS Management and Operations (M and O) contractor Bechtel Nevada (BN), and various contractors under the Central Characterization Project (CCP) umbrella. The success is due primarily to the diligence, perseverance, and hard work of each of the contractors, the DOE/CBFO, and NNSA/NSO, along with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Headquarters (DOE/HQ). This paper presents, from an NTS perspective, the challenges and successes of utilizing the CCP for obtaining a certified characterization program, sharing responsibilities for characterization, data validation, and loading of TRU waste with BN to achieve disposal at WIPP from a Small Quantity Site (SQS) such as the NTS. The challenges in this effort arose from two general sources. First, the arrangement of DOE/CBFO contractors under the CCP performing work and certifying waste at the NTS within a Hazard Category 2 (HazCat 2) non-reactor nuclear facility operated by BN, presented difficult challenges. The nuclear safety authorization basis, safety liability and responsibility, conduct of operations, allocation and scheduling of resources, and other issues were particularly demanding. The program-level and field coordination needed for the closely interrelated characterization tasks was extensive and required considerable effort by all parties. The second source of challenge was the legacy waste itself. None of the waste was generated at the NTS. The waste was generated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Lynchburg, Rocky

  13. Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    In the study of gas reservoir development, the first year topics are restricted on reservoir characterization. There are two types of reservoir characterization. One is the reservoir formation characterization and the other is the reservoir fluid characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. The results of conditional simulation has higher confidence level than the unconditional simulation because conditional simulation considers the sample location as well as distance correlation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. From the liquid volume fraction with pressure drop, the phase behavior of reservoir fluid can be estimated. The calculation results of fluid recombination, constant composition expansion, and constant volume depletion are matched very well with the experimental data. In swelling test of the reservoir fluid with lean gas, the accuracy of dew point pressure forecast depends on the component characterization. (author). 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION IN THE ANTELOPE SHALE TO ESTABLISH THE VIABILITY OF CO2 ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY IN CALIFORNIA'S MONTEREY FORMATION SILICEOUS SHALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquale R. Perri

    2003-05-15

    This report describes the evaluation, design, and implementation of a DOE funded CO{sub 2} pilot project in the Lost Hills Field, Kern County, California. The pilot consists of four inverted (injector-centered) 5-spot patterns covering approximately 10 acres, and is located in a portion of the field, which has been under waterflood since early 1992. The target reservoir for the CO{sub 2} pilot is the Belridge Diatomite. The pilot location was selected based on geologic considerations, reservoir quality and reservoir performance during the waterflood. A CO{sub 2} pilot was chosen, rather than full-field implementation, to investigate uncertainties associated with CO{sub 2} utilization rate and premature CO{sub 2} breakthrough, and overall uncertainty in the unproven CO{sub 2} flood process in the San Joaquin Valley. A summary of the design and objectives of the CO{sub 2} pilot are included along with an overview of the Lost Hills geology, discussion of pilot injection and production facilities, and discussion of new wells drilled and remedial work completed prior to commencing injection. Actual CO{sub 2} injection began on August 31, 2000 and a comprehensive pilot monitoring and surveillance program has been implemented. Since the initiation of CO{sub 2} injection, the pilot has been hampered by excessive sand production in the pilot producers due to casing damage related to subsidence and exacerbated by the injected CO{sub 2}. Therefore CO{sub 2} injection was very sporadic in 2001 and 2002 and we experienced long periods of time with no CO{sub 2} injection. As a result of the continued mechanical problems, the pilot project was terminated on January 30, 2003. This report summarizes the injection and production performance and the monitoring results through December 31, 2002 including oil geochemistry, CO{sub 2} injection tracers, crosswell electromagnetic surveys, crosswell seismic, CO{sub 2} injection profiling, cased hole resistivity, tiltmetering results, and

  15. Characterization of phosphorus leaching from phosphate waste rock in the Xiangxi River watershed, Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Guo; Liang, Bing; Xue, Qiang; Yin, Cheng-Wei

    2016-05-01

    Phosphate mining waste rocks dumped in the Xiangxi River (XXR) bay, which is the largest backwater zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), are treated as Type I industry solid wastes by the Chinese government. To evaluate the potential pollution risk of phosphorus leaching from phosphate waste rocks, the phosphorus leaching behaviors of six phosphate waste rock samples with different weathering degrees under both neutral and acidic conditions were investigated using a series of column leaching experiments, following the Method 1314 standard of the US EPA. The results indicate that the phosphorus release mechanism is solubility-controlled. Phosphorus release from waste rocks increases as pH decreases. The phosphorus leaching concentration and cumulative phosphorus released in acidic leaching conditions were found to be one order of magnitude greater than that in neutral leaching conditions. In addition, the phosphorus was released faster during the period when environmental pH turned from weak alkalinity to slight acidity, with this accelerated release period appearing when L/S was in the range of 0.5-2.0 mL/g. In both neutral and acidic conditions, the average values of Total Phosphorus (TP), including orthophosphates, polyphosphates and organic phosphate, leaching concentration exceed the availability by regulatory (0.5 mg/L) in the whole L/S range, suggesting that the phosphate waste rocks stacked within the XXR watershed should be considered as Type II industry solid wastes. Therefore, the phosphate waste rocks deposited within the study area should be considered as phosphorus point pollution sources, which could threaten the adjacent surface-water environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Satellite Data for the Characterization of Local Animal Reservoir Populations of Hantaan Virus on the Weihe Plain, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengbo Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius are the main host for the Hantaan virus (HTNV, the cause of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in central China. It has been shown that host population density is associated with pathogen dynamics and disease risk. Thus, a higher population density of A. agrarius in an area might indicate a higher risk for an HFRS outbreak. Here, we surveyed the A. agrarius population density between 2005 and 2012 on the Weihe Plain, Shaanxi Province, China, and used this monitoring data to examine the relationships between the dynamics of A. agrarius populations and environmental conditions of crop-land, represented by remote sensing based indicators. These included the normalized difference vegetation index, leaf area index, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation, net photosynthesis (PsnNet, gross primary productivity, and land surface temperature. Structural equation modeling (SEM was applied to detect the possible causal relationship between PsnNet, A. agrarius population density and HFRS risk. The results showed that A. agrarius was the most frequently captured species with a capture rate of 0.9 individuals per hundred trap-nights, during 96 months of trapping in the study area. The risk of HFRS was highly associated with the abundance of A. agrarius, with a 1–5-month lag. The breeding season of A. agrarius was also found to coincide with agricultural activity and seasons with high PsnNet. The SEM indicated that PsnNet had an indirect positive effect on HFRS incidence via rodents. In conclusion, the remote sensing-based environmental indicator, PsnNet, was highly correlated with HTNV reservoir population dynamics with a 3-month lag (r = 0.46, p < 0.01, and may serve as a predictor of potential HFRS outbreaks.

  17. Hydrodynamic characterization of an alluvial soil for the Cajueiro Reservoir in Tuparetama-PE (Brazil), by using the internal drainage method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robalinho, Aviani Maria Bezerra

    2000-10-01

    The determination of the hydraulic properties of an alluvial soil in Cajueiro reservoir has been carried out in two experimental plots of 3.5 m x 3.5 m, installed in the opposite banks of the brook in which is located the dam, (Tuparetama Country, Pernambuco). For the determination of the hydraulic conductivity as a function of the soil water volumetric content K(θ), the internal driainage method proposed by Hillel et al. (1972) has been applied. The soil-water retention curves h (θ) have been determined through the experimental data of volumetric water content and pressure obtained in field experiments. The h (θ) and K (θ) curves have been fitted to van Genuchten's closed - form equations (1980), using the Burdine's model, and Brooks and Corey's model, respectively. The volumetric water content, matric potential, and total water content estimates have been fitted to two analytical functions: one being composed by the addition of three exponentials terms the other composed and by representation the reverse of the power functions. The latter has been preferred due to its smoother representation between the fast and the slow its drainage phases. Considering the hydraulic behavior, three different layers have been identified in the soil profiles of the two experimental parcels A2 and B4 in the alluvial soil Cajueiro reservoir. The second layer of the soil profile in parcel A2 turned out the more pemeable than the other two layers. As to the soil profile in parcel B4, the first layer turned out more conductive than the other layers. However, the biggest volumetric water content variations were due to the differences found in the texture and structure of the soil profiles under study. The hydrodynamic characterization of the two soil profiles, A2 and B4, brings significant elements for the simulation of scenarios related to the soil of water transport processes. It is of particular importance the study of scenarios related to the shallow soil layers, which are

  18. APPLICATION OF WELL LOG ANALYSIS IN ASSESSMENT OF PETROPHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF WELLS IN THE “OTH” FIELD, ANAMBRA BASIN, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene URORO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the Anambra basin one of Nigeria’s inland basins has recorded significant level of hydrocarbon exploration activities. The basin has been confirmed by several authors from source rock analyses to have the potential for generating hydrocarbon. For the hydrocarbon to be exploited, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of the reservoir. Computer-assisted log analyses were employed to effectively evaluate the petrophysical parameters such as the shale volume (Vsh, total porosity (TP, effective porosity (EP, water saturation (Sw, and hydrocarbon saturation (Sh. Cross-plots of the petrophysical parameters versus depth were illustrated. Five hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs were delineated in well 1, four in well 2. The reservoirs in well 3 do not contain hydrocarbon. The estimated reservoir porosity varies from 10% to 21% while their permeability values range from 20md to 1400md. The porosity and permeability values suggest that reservoirs are good enough to store and also permit free flow of fluid. The volume of shale (0.05% to 0.35% analysis reveals that the reservoirs range from shaly sand to slightly shaly sand to clean sand reservoir. On the basis of petrophysics data, the reservoirs are interpreted a good quality reservoir rocks which has been confirmed with high effective porosity range between 20% and high hydrocarbon saturation exceeding 55% water saturation in well 1 and well 2. Water saturation 3 is nearly 100% although the reservoir properties are good.  

  19. Enhanced heavy oil recovery for carbonate reservoirs integrating cross-well seismic–a synthetic Wafra case study

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-07-14

    Heavy oil recovery has been a major focus in the oil and gas industry to counter the rapid depletion of conventional reservoirs. Various techniques for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil were developed and pilot-tested, with steam drive techniques proven in most circumstances to be successful and economically viable. The Wafra field in Saudi Arabia is at the forefront of utilizing steam recovery for carbonate heavy oil reservoirs in the Middle East. With growing injection volumes, tracking the steam evolution within the reservoir and characterizing the formation, especially in terms of its porosity and permeability heterogeneity, are key objectives for sound economic decisions and enhanced production forecasts. We have developed an integrated reservoir history matching framework using ensemble based techniques incorporating seismic data for enhancing reservoir characterization and improving history matches. Examining the performance on a synthetic field study of the Wafra field, we could demonstrate the improved characterization of the reservoir formation, determining more accurately the position of the steam chambers and obtaining more reliable forecasts of the reservoir’s recovery potential. History matching results are fairly robust even for noise levels up to 30%. The results demonstrate the potential of the integration of full-waveform seismic data for steam drive reservoir characterization and increased recovery efficiency.

  20. Design Techniques and Reservoir Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad Fereidooni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced oil recovery using nitrogen injection is a commonly applied method for pressure maintenance in conventional reservoirs. Numerical simulations can be practiced for the prediction of a reservoir performance in the course of injection process; however, a detailed simulation might take up enormous computer processing time. In such cases, a simple statistical model may be a good approach to the preliminary prediction of the process without any application of numerical simulation. In the current work, seven rock/fluid reservoir properties are considered as screening parameters and those parameters having the most considerable effect on the process are determined using the combination of experimental design techniques and reservoir simulations. Therefore, the statistical significance of the main effects and interactions of screening parameters are analyzed utilizing statistical inference approaches. Finally, the influential parameters are employed to create a simple statistical model which allows the preliminary prediction of nitrogen injection in terms of a recovery factor without resorting to numerical simulations.

  1. Characterization of the malignity of tumors in the central nervous system utilizing the correlation dimension analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, D.; Zambrano, C.; Martin L, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work it is proposed a method for the characterization of the irregularities present in the edges of malignant leisure of central nervous system over axial images generated through Nuclear magnetic Resonance by images. Through the use of techniques of digital images processing was possible to locate, extract and generate temporal series. These temporal series were utilized using the correlation dimension concept for producing a parameter which takes different values depending of the leisure type. It is demonstrated that this type of analysis suffers in a very acceptable form independently of the errors which can be generate by the fact that in the practice of temporal series obtained they are composed by a reduced number of points. (Author)

  2. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs, remote sensing, and surface geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, P.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Rofer, C.; Baldridge, S.; Ferguson, J.; Jiracek, G.; Balick, L.; Josten, N.; Carpenter, M.

    1996-01-01

    Six different techniques were used to delineate 40 year old trench boundary at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Data from historical aerial photographs, a magnetic gradient survey, airborne multispectral and thermal infra-red imagery, seismic refraction, DC resistivity, and total field magnetometry were utilized in this process. Each data set indicated a southern and northern edge for the trench. Average locations and 95% confidence limits for each edge were determined along a survey line perpendicular to the trench. Trench edge locations were fairly consistent among all six techniques. Results from a modeling effort performed with the total magnetic field data was the least consistent. However, each method provided unique and complementary information, and the integration of all this information led to a more complete characterization of the trench boundaries and contents

  3. Characterization and constructive utilization of sludge produced in clari-flocculation unit of water treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Alam, Mehtab

    2018-03-01

    All water treatment plants produce waste/residue amid the treatment of raw water. This study selectively investigates the clariflocculator sludge for its physicochemical characteristics and potential reuse options. Sieve analysis, XRF, SEM, XRD, FTIR, and TG-DTA instrumental techniques have been used to characterize the sludge sample. Results show that clariflocculator sludge contains about 78% fine sand having grain size range 150-75 μm. SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and CaO constitute the maximum percentage of chemical compounds present in the sludge and quartz is the main crystalline phase of the sludge. Recycling and reuse of this sludge, especially, as fine sand in preparing mortar, concrete mix and other civil engineering products would pave the way for constructive utilization with safe and sustainable sludge management strategies.

  4. Production and characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate from Vibrio harveyi MCCB 284 utilizing glycerol as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandas, S P; Balan, L; Lekshmi, N; Cubelio, S S; Philip, R; Bright Singh, I S

    2017-03-01

    Production and characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from moderately halophilic bacterium Vibrio harveyi MCCB 284 isolated from tunicate Phallusia nigra. Twenty-five bacterial isolates were obtained from tunicate samples and three among them exhibited an orange fluorescence in Nile red staining indicating the presence of PHB. One of the isolates, MCCB 284, which showed rapid growth and good polymer yield, was identified as V. harveyi. The optimum conditions of the isolate for the PHB production were pH 8·0, sodium chloride concentration 20 g l -1 , inoculum size 0·5% (v/v), glycerol 20 g l -1 and 72 h of incubation at 30°C. Cell dry weight (CDW) of 3·2 g l -1 , PHB content of 2·3 g l -1 and final PHB yield of 1·2 g l -1 were achieved. The extracted PHB was characterized by FTIR, NMR and DSC-TGA techniques. An isolate of V. harveyi that could effectively utilize glycerol for growth and PHB accumulation was obtained from tunicate P. nigra. PHB produced was up to 72% based on CDW. This is the first report of an isolate of V. harveyi which utilizes glycerol as the sole carbon source for PHB production with high biomass yield. This isolate could be of use as candidate species for commercial PHB production using glycerol as the feed stock or as source of genes for recombinant PHB production or for synthetic biology. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Characterization of Niobium Oxide Films Deposited by High Target Utilization Sputter Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, R; Ellis, A D; Loomis, G E; Rana, S I

    2007-01-01

    High quality, refractory metal, oxide coatings are required in a variety of applications such as laser optics, micro-electronic insulating layers, nano-device structures, electro-optic multilayers, sensors and corrosion barriers. A common oxide deposition technique is reactive sputtering because the kinetic mechanism vaporizes almost any solid material in vacuum. Also, the sputtered molecules have higher energies than those generated from thermal evaporation, and so the condensates are smoother and denser than those from thermally-evaporated films. In the typical sputtering system, target erosion is a factor that drives machine availability. In some situations such as nano-layered capacitors, where the device's performance characteristics depends on thick layers, target life becomes a limiting factor on the maximizing device functionality. The keen interest to increase target utilization in sputtering has been addressed in a variety of ways such as target geometry, rotating magnets, and/or shaped magnet arrays. Also, a recent sputtering system has been developed that generates a high density plasma, directs the plasma beam towards the target in a uniform fashion, and erodes the target in a uniform fashion. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and compare niobia films deposited by two types of high target utilization sputtering sources, a rotating magnetron and a high density plasma source. The oxide of interest in this study is niobia because of its high refractive index. The quality of the niobia films were characterized spectroscopically in optical transmission, ellipsometrically, and chemical stoichiometry with X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The refractive index, extinction coefficients, Cauchy constants were derived from the ellipsometric modeling. The mechanical properties of coating density and stress are also determined

  6. The pneumatic carrier facility in Dhruva reactor: commissioning, characterization and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.; Newton Nathaniel, T.; Nair, A.G.C.; Acharya, R.; Lahiri, D.K.; Kulkarni, U.S.; Sengupta, C.; Duraisamy, S.; Shukla, D.K.; Chakrabarty, K.; Ghosh, R.; Mondal, S.K.; Gujar, H.G.

    2007-11-01

    The 100 MWt power Dhruva research reactor, BARC is provided with pneumatic carrier facility (PCF) to carry out R and D work using short-lived (seconds to minutes) radioisotopes in the fields like neutron activation analysis (NAA) and nuclear fission. The samples are kept inside a high density polypropylene capsule (rabbit), which is pneumatically sent to the irradiation position in the core and retrieved after a preset time of irradiation. After the irradiation, radioactivity assay is carried out using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry with HPGe detector coupled to PC based MCA. The availability of high neutron flux (∼ 5 x 10 13 cm -2 s -1 at 50 MWt power) and shorter retrieval time (∼5 seconds) make it possible to measure short-lived isotopes with enhanced sensitivity. This report describes the salient features of this facility, characterization of the neutron spectrum at this irradiation position and its utilization. The PCF is being extensively utilized for analytical applications using NAA as well as nuclear fission studies. A brief description of analysis of some samples of geological, environmental and biological origin, nuclear materials as well as reference materials is included in this report. Protocol and check list for carrying out PCF irradiations and gamma spectrometric assay are also given at the end of the report. (author)

  7. Preparation and characterization of clay bonded high strength silica refractory by utilizing agriculture waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Hossain, S.K.S.; Majh, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Clay bonded silica refractory was prepared by utilizing agriculture waste called rice husk ash (RHA) and refractory grog. Various samples were prepared with different compositions based upon partial replacement of quartz by RHA. Rectangular samples were prepared by following semi dry process prior to pressing in a uniaxial hydraulic press and sintering at a temperature of 1200°C in air atmosphere. Various physical, mechanical and thermal characterizations were done like X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), apparent porosity (AP), bulk density (BD), cold crushing strength (CCS), refractoriness and thermal conductivity measurement. The sample utilizing 30% of RHA was considered most optimum composition which produced cold crushing strength of 38MPa and thermal conductivity of 2.08W/mK at 800°C with a considerable good refractoriness. Enhancement in the mechanical as well as thermal properties may be considered as attributed to the amorphous silica which has reacted more easily and efficiently with other material surrounding giving rise to the densification and produced stable crystalline phase to the refractory material. These promising characteristics suggests that the RHA may lead to be used as a potential material for the preparation of clay bonded high strength silica refractories. [es

  8. Unsaturated flow characterization utilizing water content data collected within the capillary fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Arthur; Reilly, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis is presented to determine unsaturated zone hydraulic parameters based on detailed water content profiles, which can be readily acquired during hydrological investigations. Core samples taken through the unsaturated zone allow for the acquisition of gravimetrically determined water content data as a function of elevation at 3 inch intervals. This dense spacing of data provides several measurements of the water content within the capillary fringe, which are utilized to determine capillary pressure function parameters via least-squares calibration. The water content data collected above the capillary fringe are used to calculate dimensionless flow as a function of elevation providing a snapshot characterization of flow through the unsaturated zone. The water content at a flow stagnation point provides an in situ estimate of specific yield. In situ determinations of capillary pressure function parameters utilizing this method, together with particle-size distributions, can provide a valuable supplement to data libraries of unsaturated zone hydraulic parameters. The method is illustrated using data collected from plots within an agricultural research facility in Wisconsin.

  9. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2002-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of rockfluid interactions, (2) petrophysical and engineering characterization, (3) data integration, (4) 3-D geologic modeling, (5) 3-D reservoir simulation and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 2. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions is near completion. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and

  10. Natural radionuclides from U-238 and Th-232 series and inorganic chemical characterization of soil profiles and sediment cores of the TaiaÇUpeba Reservoir, SÃO Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, J.M.; Damatto, S.R.; Surkov, A.M.; Silva, A.R.; Maduar, M.F.; Gonçalves, P.N., E-mail: jmarques@ipen.br, E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Leonardo, L. [Centro Universitário São Camilo (Campus Ipiranga), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Taiaçupeba reservoir, located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, belongs to Producer System of Alto Tietê (Sistema Produtor Alto Tietê) and it is responsible for water supply for about 3.1million of people. The water quality of a reservoir is very important, but this is reduced by the increase of environmental degradation of the soil around the reservoir and its different uses. The study of soil profiles and sediment cores is an important tool for understanding the geophysical and geochemical aspects of an aquatic ecosystem. The objective of this work was to present the natural radionuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Th,{sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K activity concentrations and also the inorganic chemical characterization of four soil profiles and four sediment cores collected in the area of influence area of Taiaçupeba reservoir. The analytical techniques, gamma spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis were used in the determination. In the soil profiles the highest activity concentrations were obtained for the radionuclides {sup 40}K and {sup 228}Th and the lowest for {sup 210}Pb; in the sediment cores the highest activity concentrations were obtained for the radionuclide {sup 210}Pb and the lowest for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra. For the inorganic chemical characterization the highest values obtained were for Na, As and Sb; in a sediment core a very high concentration was obtained for the element Zn indicating a probable accumulation of this element inside the reservoir; enrichment factor was used to evaluate a possible anthropic contamination in the soil and sediment at the margins of Taiaçupeba reservoir. (author)

  11. Natural radionuclides from U-238 and Th-232 series and inorganic chemical characterization of soil profiles and sediment cores of the TaiaÇUpeba Reservoir, SÃO Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.M.; Damatto, S.R.; Surkov, A.M.; Silva, A.R.; Maduar, M.F.; Gonçalves, P.N.; Leonardo, L.

    2017-01-01

    Taiaçupeba reservoir, located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, belongs to Producer System of Alto Tietê (Sistema Produtor Alto Tietê) and it is responsible for water supply for about 3.1million of people. The water quality of a reservoir is very important, but this is reduced by the increase of environmental degradation of the soil around the reservoir and its different uses. The study of soil profiles and sediment cores is an important tool for understanding the geophysical and geochemical aspects of an aquatic ecosystem. The objective of this work was to present the natural radionuclides 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 232 Th, 228 Th, 228 Ra and 40 K activity concentrations and also the inorganic chemical characterization of four soil profiles and four sediment cores collected in the area of influence area of Taiaçupeba reservoir. The analytical techniques, gamma spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis were used in the determination. In the soil profiles the highest activity concentrations were obtained for the radionuclides 40 K and 228 Th and the lowest for 210 Pb; in the sediment cores the highest activity concentrations were obtained for the radionuclide 210 Pb and the lowest for 226 Ra and 228 Ra. For the inorganic chemical characterization the highest values obtained were for Na, As and Sb; in a sediment core a very high concentration was obtained for the element Zn indicating a probable accumulation of this element inside the reservoir; enrichment factor was used to evaluate a possible anthropic contamination in the soil and sediment at the margins of Taiaçupeba reservoir. (author)

  12. Utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization affected by highly transient flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zachara, John M.; Tonkin, Matthew

    2012-08-01

    A tracer test using both bromide and heat tracers conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Hanford 300 Area (300A), Washington, provided an instrument for evaluating the utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization. The bromide tracer data were critical to improving the calibration of the flow model complicated by the highly dynamic nature of the flow field. However, most bromide concentrations were obtained from fully screened observation wells, lacking depth-specific resolution for vertical characterization. On the other hand, depth-specific temperature data were relatively simple and inexpensive to acquire. However, temperature-driven fluid density effects influenced heat plume movement. Moreover, the temperature data contained "noise" caused by heating during fluid injection and sampling events. Using the hydraulic conductivity distribution obtained from the calibration of the bromide transport model, the temperature depth profiles and arrival times of temperature peaks simulated by the heat transport model were in reasonable agreement with observations. This suggested that heat can be used as a cost-effective proxy for solute tracers for calibration of the hydraulic conductivity distribution, especially in the vertical direction. However, a heat tracer test must be carefully designed and executed to minimize fluid density effects and sources of noise in temperature data. A sensitivity analysis also revealed that heat transport was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and porosity, less sensitive to thermal distribution factor, and least sensitive to thermal dispersion and heat conduction. This indicated that the hydraulic conductivity remains the primary calibration parameter for heat transport.

  13. On the use of flow-storage repartitions derived from artificial tracer tests for geothermal reservoir characterization in the Malm-Molasse basin: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Dina Silvia; Osaigbovo Enomayo, Augustine; Mohsin, Rizwan; Karmakar, Shyamal; Ghergut, Julia; Sauter, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Flow-storage repartition (FSR) analysis (Shook 2003) is a versatile tool for characterizing subsurface flow and transport systems. FSR can be derived from measured signals of inter-well tracer tests, if certain requirements are met - basically, the same as required for equivalence between fluid residence time distribution (RTD) and a measured inter-well tracer signal (pre-processed and de-convolved if necessary). Nominally, a FSR is derived from a RTD as a trajectory in normalized {1st, 0th}-order statistical moment space; more intuitively, as a parametric plot of 0th-order against 1st-order statistical moments of RTD truncated at time t, with t as a parameter running from the first tracer input to the latest available tracer sampling; 0th-order moments being normalized by the total tracer recovery, and 1st-order moments by the mean RT. Fracture-dominated systems plot in the upper left (high F , low S) region of FSR diagrams; a homogeneous single-continuum with no dispersion (infinite Peclet number) displays a straight line from {F ,S}={0,0} to {F ,S}={1,1}. This analysis tool appears particularly attractive for characterizing markedly-heterogeneous, porous-fissured-fractured (partly karstified) formations like those targeted by geothermal exploration in the Malm-Molasse basin in Southern Germany, and especially for quantifying flow and transport contributions from contrasting facies types ('reef' versus 'bedded'). However, tracer tests conducted in such systems with inter-well distances of some hundreds of metres (as required by economic considerations on geothermal reservoir sizing) face the problem of very long residence times - and thus the need to deal with incomplete (truncated) signals. For the geothermal well triplet at the Sauerlach site near Munich, tracer peak arrival times exceeding 2 years have been predicted, and signal tails decreasing by less than 50% over >10 years, which puts great uncertainty on the (extrapolation-based) normalizing factors

  14. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2001-09-14

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been reservoir description and characterization. This effort has included four tasks: (1) geoscientific reservoir characterization, (2) the study of rock-fluid interactions, (3) petrophysical and engineering characterization and (4) data integration. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 1. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been initiated. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been

  15. T-R CYCLE CHARACTERIZATION AND IMAGING: ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC METHODOLOGY FOR PETROLEUM RESERVOIR AND TRAP DETECTION AND DELINEATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-09-24

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been T-R cycle characterization and modeling. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 was on outcrop study, well log analysis, seismic interpretation and data integration and for the remainder of the year the emphasis has been on T-R cycle model development. Information regarding the characteristics of T-R cycles has been assembled from the study of outcrops, from well log analyses, and from seismic reflection interpretation. From these studies, stratal boundaries separating T-R cycles have been found to be useful for the recognition and delineation of these cycles. The key stratal surfaces include subaerial unconformities, shoreface ravinement surfaces, transgressive surfaces, surfaces of maximum regression, and surfaces of maximum transgression. These surfaces can be identified and mapped in surface exposures and can be recognized in well log signatures and seismic reflection profiles as discontinuities. The findings from the study of outcrop, well log, and seismic reflection data are being integrated into a database for use in constructing a model for T-R cycle development.

  16. Use of high-resolution satellite images for characterization of geothermal reservoirs in the Tarapaca Region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Montenegro A., C.

    2010-12-01

    The use of renewable and clean sources of energy is becoming crucial for sustainable development of all countries, including Chile. Chilean Government plays special attention to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal energy, total electrical power capacity of which could reach 16.000 MW. In Chile the main geothermal fields are located in the Central Andean Volcanic Chain in the North, between the Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the Lansat satellite have been used to characterize the geothermal field in the region of the Puchuldiza geysers, Colchane, Region of Tarapaca, North of Chile, located at the altitude of 4000 m. Structure of lineaments associated to the geothermal field have been extracted from the images using the lineament detection technique developed by authors. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the field. It was found that the lineament analysis is a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields.

  17. Evaluation of Gaussian approximations for data assimilation in reservoir models

    KAUST Repository

    Iglesias, Marco A.; Law, Kody J H; Stuart, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    is fundamental for the optimal management of reservoirs. Unfortunately, due to the large-scale highly nonlinear properties of standard reservoir models, characterizing the posterior is computationally prohibitive. Instead, more affordable ad hoc techniques, based

  18. Effective utilization of distiller's grain soluble-an agro-industrial waste in the feed of cage-reared minor carp Labeo bata in a tropical reservoir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M A; Aftabuddin, Md; Meena, D K; Mishal, P; Gupta, S Das

    2016-08-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of distiller's grain soluble (brewery waste) as a prospective ingredient to substitute expensive and high demand feed component, soybean meal for farming Labeo bata in cages installed in tropical reservoir. Two isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets comprising brewery waste (49.2 % CP) as test diet and soybean meal (44.4 % CP) as reference diet were formulated and extruded to obtain 2-mm floating pellets. The efficacy of the diets was tested in terms of survival (%), live weight gain (%), SGR (%/day), FCR, PER and ANPU and recorded 65 ± 0.2, 96 ± 8.1, 1.9 ± 0.1, 2.5 ± 0.02, 1.4 ± 0.1, 20.3 ± 2.0 and 66 ± 0.6, 112 ± 9.8, 2.2 ± 0.1, 2.2 ± 0.2, 1.6 ± 0.1 and 20 ± 2.1, respectively, for soybean and brewer's waste-based formulated feed. The analyses of results revealed that survival, growth parameters and biochemical composition of whole body tissue did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) despite complete replacement of soybean meal by brewery waste. However, the cost estimate of diet revealed marked reduction of feed cost of Rs. 9.2/kg (33.8 %) in the test diet as compared to the reference diet. The study suggests that brewery waste could effectively replace soybean meal without effecting survival and growth of the fish. The finding thus may pave a productive way for reducing environmental pressure of disposal of an agro-industrial waste.

  19. Characterization of Vancomycin Reactions and Linezolid Utilization in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Samantha K; Mulieri, Kevin M; Ishmael, Faoud T

    Red man syndrome (RMS) occurs because of non-IgE-mediated histamine release. Unlike vancomycin allergy, which necessitates the use of an alternative drug (often linezolid), RMS does not typically preclude further vancomycin use. Care should be taken to differentiate these reaction types from one another to prevent unnecessary vancomycin avoidance. To characterize vancomycin reaction types in our population, and to determine whether having a reaction consistent with RMS is associated with otherwise unexplained vancomycin avoidance and linezolid use. We retrospectively reviewed charts for children with documented vancomycin reactions. We classified the in-hospital reactions via an objective analysis and estimated the prevalence of different reaction types. We then identified children who received linezolid over 3 years, and investigated reasons for linezolid use instead of vancomycin. Of the 78 in-hospital reactions we characterized, 72 (92%) were objectively consistent with RMS, 5 we could not objectively classify (2 most likely RMS, 3 more suspicious for possible IgE-mediated allergy), and 1 was a non-RMS/non-IgE reaction. Of 60 children who received linezolid, 19 had previous reactions consistent with RMS, which should not preclude further vancomycin. Nevertheless, only 7 of 19 (37%) had a clear explanation for receiving linezolid instead of vancomycin compared with 32 of 39 (82%) children without previous vancomycin reactions (P linezolid utilization. We propose that this may be related to how reactions appear in the electronic medical record. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Characterization of the Utility of Using Artificial Intelligence to Test Two Artificial Intelligence Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Straub

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An artificial intelligence system, designed for operations in a real-world environment faces a nearly infinite set of possible performance scenarios. Designers and developers, thus, face the challenge of validating proper performance across both foreseen and unforeseen conditions, particularly when the artificial intelligence is controlling a robot that will be operating in close proximity, or may represent a danger, to humans. While the manual creation of test cases allows limited testing (perhaps ensuring that a set of foreseeable conditions trigger an appropriate response, this may be insufficient to fully characterize and validate safe system performance. An approach to validating the performance of an artificial intelligence system using a simple artificial intelligence test case producer (AITCP is presented. The AITCP allows the creation and simulation of prospective operating scenarios at a rate far exceeding that possible by human testers. Four scenarios for testing an autonomous navigation control system are presented: single actor in two-dimensional space, multiple actors in two-dimensional space, single actor in three-dimensional space, and multiple actors in three-dimensional space. The utility of using the AITCP is compared to that of human testers in each of these scenarios.

  1. Utility of High Temporal Resolution Observations for Heat Health Event Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palecki, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Many heat health watch systems produce a binary on/off warning when conditions are predicted to exceed a given threshold during a day. Days with warnings and their mortality/morbidity statistics are analyzed relative to days not warned to determine the impacts of the event on human health, the effectiveness of warnings, and other statistics. The climate analyses of the heat waves or extreme temperature events are often performed with hourly or daily observations of air temperature, humidity, and other measured or derived variables, especially the maxima and minima of these data. However, since the beginning of the century, 5-minute observations are readily available for many weather and climate stations in the United States. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) has been collecting 5-minute observations from the NOAA Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) stations since 2000, and from the U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) stations since 2005. This presentation will demonstrate the efficacy of utilizing 5-minute environmental observations to characterize heat waves by counting the length of time conditions exceed extreme thresholds based on individual and multiple variables and on derived variables such as the heat index. The length and depth of recovery periods between daytime heating periods will also be examined. The length of time under extreme conditions will influence health outcomes for those directly exposed. Longer periods of dangerous conditions also could increase the chances for poor health outcomes for those only exposed intermittently through cumulative impacts.

  2. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Deliverable 2.5.4, Ferron Sandstone lithologic strip logs, Emergy & Sevier Counties, Utah: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1995-12-08

    Strip logs for 491 wells were produced from a digital subsurface database of lithologic descriptions of the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale. This subsurface database covers wells from the parts of Emery and Sevier Counties in central Utah that occur between Ferron Creek on the north and Last Chance Creek on the south. The lithologic descriptions were imported into a logging software application designed for the display of stratigraphic data. Strip logs were produced at a scale of one inch equals 20 feet. The strip logs were created as part of a study by the Utah Geological Survey to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and qualitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir using the Ferron Sandstone as a surface analogue. The study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Geoscience/Engineering Reservoir Characterization Program.

  3. Analysis and application of classification methods of complex carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiongyan; Qin, Ruibao; Ping, Haitao; Wei, Dan; Liu, Xiaomei

    2018-06-01

    There are abundant carbonate reservoirs from the Cenozoic to Mesozoic era in the Middle East. Due to variation in sedimentary environment and diagenetic process of carbonate reservoirs, several porosity types coexist in carbonate reservoirs. As a result, because of the complex lithologies and pore types as well as the impact of microfractures, the pore structure is very complicated. Therefore, it is difficult to accurately calculate the reservoir parameters. In order to accurately evaluate carbonate reservoirs, based on the pore structure evaluation of carbonate reservoirs, the classification methods of carbonate reservoirs are analyzed based on capillary pressure curves and flow units. Based on the capillary pressure curves, although the carbonate reservoirs can be classified, the relationship between porosity and permeability after classification is not ideal. On the basis of the flow units, the high-precision functional relationship between porosity and permeability after classification can be established. Therefore, the carbonate reservoirs can be quantitatively evaluated based on the classification of flow units. In the dolomite reservoirs, the average absolute error of calculated permeability decreases from 15.13 to 7.44 mD. Similarly, the average absolute error of calculated permeability of limestone reservoirs is reduced from 20.33 to 7.37 mD. Only by accurately characterizing pore structures and classifying reservoir types, reservoir parameters could be calculated accurately. Therefore, characterizing pore structures and classifying reservoir types are very important to accurate evaluation of complex carbonate reservoirs in the Middle East.

  4. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO2 enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 7, 1997--February 6, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morea, M.F.

    1998-06-01

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery project in the antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization during Phase 1 of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. During this period the following tasks have been completed: laboratory wettability; specific permeability; mercury porosimetry; acoustic anisotropy; rock mechanics analysis; core description; fracture analysis; digital image analysis; mineralogical analysis; hydraulic flow unit analysis; petrographic and confocal thin section analysis; oil geochemical fingerprinting; production logging; carbon/oxygen logging; complex lithologic log analysis; NMR T2 processing; dipole shear wave anisotropy logging; shear wave vertical seismic profile processing; structural mapping; and regional tectonic synthesis. Noteworthy technological successes for this reporting period include: (1) first (ever) high resolution, crosswell reflection images of SJV sediments; (2) first successful application of the TomoSeis acquisition system in siliceous shales; (3) first detailed reservoir characterization of SJV siliceous shales; (4) first mineral based saturation algorithm for SJV siliceous shales, and (5) first CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments for siliceous shale. Preliminary results from the CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments (2,500 psi) suggest that significant oil is being produced from the siliceous shale.

  5. Genetic characterization of the human relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in vectors and animal reservoirs of Lyme disease spirochetes in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosson, Jean-François; Michelet, Lorraine; Chotte, Julien; Le Naour, Evelyne; Cote, Martine; Devillers, Elodie; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Huet, Dominique; Galan, Maxime; Geller, Julia; Moutailler, Sara; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2014-05-20

    In France as elsewhere in Europe the most prevalent TBD in humans is Lyme borreliosis, caused by different bacterial species belonging to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex and transmitted by the most important tick species in France, Ixodes ricinus. However, the diagnosis of Lyme disease is not always confirmed and unexplained syndromes occurring after tick bites have become an important issue. Recently, B. miyamotoi belonging to the relapsing fever group and transmitted by the same Ixodes species has been involved in human disease in Russia, the USA and the Netherlands. In the present study, we investigate the presence of B. miyamotoi along with other Lyme Borreliosis spirochetes, in ticks and possible animal reservoirs collected in France. We analyzed 268 ticks (Ixodes ricinus) and 72 bank voles (Myodes glareolus) collected and trapped in France for the presence of DNA from B. miyamotoi as well as from Lyme spirochetes using q-PCR and specific primers and probes. We then compared the French genotypes with those found in other European countries. We found that 3% of ticks and 5.55% of bank voles were found infected by the same B. miyamotoi genotype, while co-infection with other Lyme spirochetes (B. garinii) was identified in 12% of B. miyamotoi infected ticks. Sequencing showed that ticks and rodents carried the same genotype as those recently characterized in a sick person in the Netherlands. The genotype of B. miyamotoi circulating in ticks and bank voles in France is identical to those already described in ticks from Western Europe and to the genotype isolated from a sick person in The Netherlands. This results suggests that even though no human cases have been reported in France, surveillance has to be improved. Moreover, we showed that ticks could simultaneously carry B. miyamotoi and Lyme disease spirochetes, increasing the problem of co-infection in humans.

  6. Understanding the True Stimulated Reservoir Volume in Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Maaruf

    2017-06-06

    Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically-induced fractures that connect the wellbore to a larger fracture surface area within the reservoir rock volume. Thus, accurate estimation of the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) becomes critical for the reservoir performance simulation and production analysis. Micro-seismic events (MS) have been commonly used as a proxy to map out the SRV geometry, which could be erroneous because not all MS events are related to hydraulic fracture propagation. The case studies discussed here utilized a fully 3-D simulation approach to estimate the SRV. The simulation approach presented in this paper takes into account the real-time changes in the reservoir\\'s geomechanics as a function of fluid pressures. It is consisted of four separate coupled modules: geomechanics, hydrodynamics, a geomechanical joint model for interfacial resolution, and an adaptive re-meshing. Reservoir stress condition, rock mechanical properties, and injected fluid pressure dictate how fracture elements could open or slide. Critical stress intensity factor was used as a fracture criterion governing the generation of new fractures or propagation of existing fractures and their directions. Our simulations were run on a Cray XC-40 HPC system. The studies outcomes proved the approach of using MS data as a proxy for SRV to be significantly flawed. Many of the observed stimulated natural fractures are stress related and very few that are closer to the injection field are connected. The situation is worsened in a highly laminated shale reservoir as the hydraulic fracture propagation is significantly hampered. High contrast in the in-situ stresses related strike-slip developed thereby shortens the extent of SRV. However, far field nature fractures that were not connected to

  7. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-01-01

    In Section 1 of this first report we will describe the work we are doing to collect and analyze rock physics data for the purpose of modeling seismic attenuation from other measurable quantities such as porosity, water saturation, clay content and net stress. This work and other empirical methods to be presented later, will form the basis for ''Q pseudo-well modeling'' that is a key part of this project. In Section 2 of this report, we will show the fundamentals of a new method to extract Q, dispersion, and attenuation from field seismic data. The method is called Gabor-Morlet time-frequency decomposition. This technique has a number of advantages including greater stability and better time resolution than spectral ratio methods.

  8. The estimation of CO2 storage potential of gas-bearing shale complex at the early stage of reservoir characterization: the case of Baltic Basin (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicki, Adam; Jarosiński, Marek

    2017-04-01

    For the stage of shale gas production, like in the USA, prediction of the CO2 storage potential in shale reservoir can be performed by dynamic modeling. We have made an attempt to estimate this potential at an early stage of shale gas exploration in the Lower Paleozoic Baltic Basin, based on data from 3,800 m deep vertical well (without hydraulic fracking stimulation), supplemented with additional information from neighboring boreholes. Such an attempt makes a sense as a first guess forecast for company that explores a new basin. In our approach, the storage capacity is build by: (1) sorption potential of organic matter, (2) open pore space and (3) potential fracture space. the sequence. our estimation is done for 120 m long shale sequence including three shale intervals enriched with organic mater. Such an interval is possible to be fracked from a single horizontal borehole as known from hydraulic fracture treatment in the other boreholes in this region. The potential for adsorbed CO2 is determined from Langmuir isotherm parameters taken from laboratory measurements in case of both CH4 and CO2 adsorption, as well as shale density and volume. CO2 has approximately three times higher sorption capacity than methane to the organic matter contained in the Baltic Basin shales. Finally, due to low permeability of shale we adopt the common assumption for the USA shale basins that the CO2 will be able to reach effectively only 10% of theoretical total sorption volume. The pore space capacity was estimated by utilizing results of laboratory measurements of dynamic capacity for pores bigger than 10 nm. It is assumed for smaller pores adsorption prevails over free gas. Similarly to solution for sorption, we have assumed that only 10 % of the tight pore space will be reached by CO2. For fracture space we have considered separately natural (tectonic-origin) and technological (potentially produced by hydraulic fracturing treatment) fractures. From fracture density profile and

  9. Preparation and characterization of clay bonded high strength silica refractory by utilizing agriculture waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Bhardwaj

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Clay bonded silica refractory was prepared by utilizing agriculture waste called rice husk ash (RHA and refractory grog. Various samples were prepared with different compositions based upon partial replacement of quartz by RHA. Rectangular samples were prepared by following semi dry process prior to pressing in a uniaxial hydraulic press and sintering at a temperature of 1200 °C in air atmosphere. Various physical, mechanical and thermal characterizations were done like X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, apparent porosity (AP, bulk density (BD, cold crushing strength (CCS, refractoriness and thermal conductivity measurement. The sample utilizing 30% of RHA was considered most optimum composition which produced cold crushing strength of 38 MPa and thermal conductivity of 2.08 W/m K at 800 °C with a considerable good refractoriness. Enhancement in the mechanical as well as thermal properties may be considered as attributed to the amorphous silica which has reacted more easily and efficiently with other material surrounding giving rise to the densification and produced stable crystalline phase to the refractory material. These promising characteristics suggests that the RHA may lead to be used as a potential material for the preparation of clay bonded high strength silica refractories. Resumen: Se preparó sílice refractaria unida a arcilla con residuos agrícolas conocidos como ceniza de cascarilla de arroz (rice husk ash [RHA] y grog refractario. Se prepararon varias muestras con diferentes composiciones basadas en la sustitución parcial de cuarzo por RHA. Las muestras rectangulares se prepararon siguiendo un proceso semiseco antes de prensarlas en una prensa hidráulica uniaxial y sinterizarlas a una temperatura de 1.200 °C en atmósfera de aire. Se realizaron diversas caracterizaciones físicas, mecánicas y térmicas, como la difracción de rayos X, el microscopio electrónico de barrido, la porosidad

  10. Development of a X-ray micro-tomograph and its application to reservoir rocks characterization; Developpement d`un microtomographe X et application a la caracterisation des roches reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira de Paiva, R.

    1995-10-01

    We describe the construction and application to studies in three dimensions of a laboratory micro-tomograph for the characterisation of heterogeneous solids at the scale of a few microns. The system is based on an electron microprobe and a two dimensional X-ray detector. The use of a low beam divergence for image acquisition allows use of simple and rapid reconstruction software whilst retaining reasonable acquisition times. Spatial resolutions of better than 3 microns in radiography and 10 microns in tomography are obtained. The applications of microtomography in the petroleum industry are illustrated by the study of fibre orientation in polymer composites, of the distribution of minerals and pore space in reservoir rocks, and of the interaction of salt water with a model porous medium. A correction for X-ray beam hardening is described and used to obtain improved discrimination of the phases present in the sample. In the case of a North Sea reservoir rock we show the possibility to distinguish quartz, feldspar and in certain zone kaolinite. The representativeness of the tomographic reconstruction is demonstrated by comparing the surface of the reconstructed specimen with corresponding images obtained in scanning electron microscopy. (author). 58 refs., 10 tabs., 71 photos.

  11. Integrated Sedimentological Approach to Assess Reservoir Quality and Architecture of Khuff Carbonates: Outcrop Analog, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mutsim; Abdullatif, Osman

    2017-04-01

    The Permian to Triassic Khuff carbonate reservoirs (and equivalents) in the Middle East are estimated to contain about 38.4% of the world's natural gas reserves. Excellent exposed outcrops in central Saudi Arabia provide good outcrop equivalents to subsurface Khuff reservoirs. This study conduct high resolution outcrop scale investigations on an analog reservoir for upper Khartam of Khuff Formation. The main objective is to reconstruct litho- and chemo- stratigraphic outcrop analog model that may serve to characterize reservoir high resolution (interwell) heterogeneity, continuity and architecture. Given the fact of the limitation of subsurface data and toolsin capturing interwell reservoir heterogeneity, which in turn increases the value of this study.The methods applied integrate sedimentological, stratigraphic petrographic, petrophysical data and chemical analyses for major, trace and rare earth elements. In addition, laser scanning survey (LIDAR) was also utilized in this study. The results of the stratigraphic investigations revealed that the lithofacies range from mudstone, wackestone, packestone and grainstone. These lithofacies represent environments ranging from supratidal, intertidal, subtidal and shoal complex. Several meter-scale and less high resolution sequences and composite sequences within 4th and 5th order cycles were also recognized in the outcrop analog. The lithofacies and architectural analysis revealed several vertically and laterally stacked sequences at the outcrop as revealed from the stratigraphic sections and the lidar scan. Chemostratigraphy is effective in identifying lithofacies and sequences within the outcrop analog. Moreover, different chemical signatures were also recognized and allowed establishing and correlating high resolution lithofacies, reservoir zones, layers and surfaces bounding reservoirs and non-reservoir zones at scale of meters or less. The results of this high resolution outcrop analog study might help to understand

  12. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Wakker, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  13. Multiattribute utility theory without expected utility foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  14. Diversity and community structure of cyanobacteria and other microbes in recycling irrigation reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ping; Richardson, Patricia; Hong, Chuanxue

    2017-01-01

    Recycling irrigation reservoirs (RIRs) are emerging aquatic environments of global significance to crop production, water conservation and environmental sustainability. This study characterized the diversity and population structure of cyanobacteria and other detected microbes in water samples from eight RIRs and one adjacent runoff-free stream at three ornamental crop nurseries in eastern (VA1 and VA3) and central (VA2) Virginia after cloning and sequencing the 16S rRNA gene targeting cyanobacteria and chloroplast of eukaryotic phytoplankton. VA1 and VA2 utilize a multi-reservoir recycling irrigation system with runoff channeled to a sedimentation reservoir which then overflows into transition and retention reservoirs where water was pumped for irrigation. VA3 has a single sedimentation reservoir which was also used for irrigation. A total of 208 operational taxonomic units (OTU) were identified from clone libraries of the water samples. Among them, 53 OTUs (358 clones) were cyanobacteria comprising at least 12 genera dominated by Synechococcus species; 59 OTUs (387 clones) were eukaryotic phytoplankton including green algae and diatoms; and 96 were other bacteria (111 clones). Overall, cyanobacteria were dominant in sedimentation reservoirs, while eukaryotic phytoplankton and other bacteria were dominant in transition/retention reservoirs and the stream, respectively. These results are direct evidence demonstrating the negative impact of nutrient-rich horticultural runoff, if not contained, on natural water resources. They also help in understanding the dynamics of water quality in RIRs and have practical implications. Although both single- and multi-reservoir recycling irrigation systems reduce the environmental footprint of horticultural production, the former is expected to have more cyanobacterial blooming, and consequently water quality issues, than the latter. Thus, a multi-reservoir recycling irrigation system should be preferred where feasible.

  15. Diagenetic effect on permeabilities of geothermal sandstone reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibel, Rikke; Olivarius, Mette; Kristensen, Lars

    The Danish subsurface contains abundant sedimentary deposits, which can be utilized for geothermal heating. The Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic continental-marine sandstones of the Gassum Formation has been utilised as a geothermal reservoir for the Thisted Geothermal Plant since 1984 extracting...... and permeability is caused by increased diagenetic changes of the sandstones due to increased burial depth and temperatures. Therefore, the highest water temperatures typically correspond with the lowest porosities and permeabilities. Especially the permeability is crucial for the performance of the geothermal......-line fractures. Continuous thin chlorite coatings results in less porosity- and permeability-reduction with burial than the general reduction with burial, unless carbonate cemented. Therefore, localities of sandstones characterized by these continuous chlorite coatings may represent fine geothermal reservoirs...

  16. Advancing biomarker research: utilizing 'Big Data' approaches for the characterization and prevention of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Roger S; Cha, Danielle S; Jerrell, Jeanette M; Swardfager, Walter; Kim, Rachael D; Costa, Leonardo G; Baskaran, Anusha; Soczynska, Joanna K; Woldeyohannes, Hanna O; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Brietzke, Elisa; Powell, Alissa M; Gallaugher, Ashley; Kudlow, Paul; Kaidanovich-Beilin, Oksana; Alsuwaidan, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    To provide a strategic framework for the prevention of bipolar disorder (BD) that incorporates a 'Big Data' approach to risk assessment for BD. Computerized databases (e.g., Pubmed, PsychInfo, and MedlinePlus) were used to access English-language articles published between 1966 and 2012 with the search terms bipolar disorder, prodrome, 'Big Data', and biomarkers cross-referenced with genomics/genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, inflammation, oxidative stress, neurotrophic factors, cytokines, cognition, neurocognition, and neuroimaging. Papers were selected from the initial search if the primary outcome(s) of interest was (were) categorized in any of the following domains: (i) 'omics' (e.g., genomics), (ii) molecular, (iii) neuroimaging, and (iv) neurocognitive. The current strategic approach to identifying individuals at risk for BD, with an emphasis on phenotypic information and family history, has insufficient predictive validity and is clinically inadequate. The heterogeneous clinical presentation of BD, as well as its pathoetiological complexity, suggests that it is unlikely that a single biomarker (or an exclusive biomarker approach) will sufficiently augment currently inadequate phenotypic-centric prediction models. We propose a 'Big Data'- bioinformatics approach that integrates vast and complex phenotypic, anamnestic, behavioral, family, and personal 'omics' profiling. Bioinformatic processing approaches, utilizing cloud- and grid-enabled computing, are now capable of analyzing data on the order of tera-, peta-, and exabytes, providing hitherto unheard of opportunities to fundamentally revolutionize how psychiatric disorders are predicted, prevented, and treated. High-throughput networks dedicated to research on, and the treatment of, BD, integrating both adult and younger populations, will be essential to sufficiently enroll adequate samples of individuals across the neurodevelopmental trajectory in studies to enable the characterization

  17. Characterization of a hot dry rock reservoir at Acoculco geothermal zone, Pue.; Caracterizacion de un yacimiento de roca seca caliente en la zona geotermica de Acoculco, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo Pulido, Cecilia; Flores Armenta, Magaly Ramirez Silva, German [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: cecilia-lorenzo@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-01-15

    Hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources, also called enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGS), have been researched for a long time. The HDR concept is simple. Most of the reservoirs are found at depths of around 5000 m and comprised of impermeable rocks at temperatures between 150 degrees Celsius and 300 degrees Celsius -lacking fluid. Rock temperature is a main economic criterion, since to generate electric energy initial temperatures above 200 degrees Celsius are required. To develop a HDR system, two wells are drilled. Cold water is introduced in one well and hot water is obtained from the other well by passing the water through the hot rock. Since June 2008, a 1.5 MWe power plant has been operating in France, part of the Soultz-sous-Foret project financed by the European Deep Geothermal Energy Programme. To characterize the HDR reservoir multi-disciplinary information was gathered regarding: (1) the heat source origin, (2) qualitative information on temperature and transfer mechanisms of natural heat, (3) natural faults and fractures, (4) local stresses, and (5) the basement rock. The information was applied to a geothermal zone in Acoculco, Pue.. The zone was explored by the Exploration Department with wells EAC-1 and EAC-2, defining the presence of a high temperature reservoir (from 220 degrees Celsius to more than 250 degrees Celsius ). The zone presents the following features: (1) heat source origin: volcano-tectonic, (2) temperature logs show values of 263.8 degrees Celsius and 307.3 degrees Celsius at depths of 1900 m and 2000 m, respectively, (3) the exploration wells are located in a graben-like structure, and the core and cutting samples show evidences of natural faults and fractures partially or completely sealed by hydrothermal minerals such as epidote, quartz and pyrite, (4) stress analyses indicate the local NW-SE and E-W systems are the main systems in the geothermal zone, and (5) the basement rock is composed of limestones with contact

  18. Characterization of nanostructures in the live cell plasma membrane utilizing advanced single molecule fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brameshuber, M.

    2009-01-01

    lipid-lipid or protein-lipid interactions, protein-protein interactions play of mayor role for the regulation of cell metabolism and function. In this thesis I further characterized the interaction between human CD4, the major co-receptor in T cell activation, and human Lck, the protein tyrosine kinase essential for early T cell signaling using an ultra-sensitive fluorescence-based method. Interaction dynamics were studied in detail by performing photobleaching experiments and single molecule brightness analysis. This enabled a combined mobility and stoichiometry analysis of Lck-molecules interacting with the captured CD4 protein. In the last part of my thesis I present a single molecule fluorescence study using a variant of an oxidized phospholipid - which is known to induce apoptosis - to probe the structure of the cellular plasmamembrane. The cells were illuminated using a recently introduced technique which utilizes a highly inclined and laminated optical sheet (HILO) to reduce background signal arising from intracellular fluorophores or from cellular autofluorescence. Our data demonstrate the relevance of plasma membrane properties for uptake of oxidized phospholipids, and indicate a novel indirect mechanism for the control of endocytosis. (author) [de

  19. Application of the Garrlic Algorithm for the Characterization of Dust and Marine Particles Utilizing the Lidar-Sunphotometer Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsekeri Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of studying the vertical distribution of aerosol plumes is prominent in regional and climate studies. The new Generalized Aerosol Retrieval from Radiometer and Lidar Combined data algorithm (GARRLiC provides this opportunity combining active and passive ground-based remote sensing from lidar and sunphotometer measurements. Here, we utilize GARRLiC capabilities for the characterization of Saharan dust and marine particles at the Eastern Mediterranean region during the Characterization of Aerosol mixtures of Dust And Marine origin Experiment (CHARADMExp. Two different case studies are presented, a dust-dominated case which we managed to characterize successfully in terms of the particle microphysical properties and their vertical distribution and a case of two separate layers of marine and dust particles for which the characterization proved to be more challenging.

  20. Interwell tracer analyses of a hydraulically fractured granitic geothermal reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tester, J.W.; Potter, R.M.; Bivins, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Field experiments using fluorescent dye and radioactive tracers (Br 82 and I 131 ) have been employed to characterize a hot, low-matrix permeability, hydraulically-fractured granitic reservoir at depths of 2440 to 2960 m (8000 to 9700 ft). Tracer profiles and residence time distributions have been used to delineate changes in the fracture system, particularly in diagnosing pathological flow patterns and in identifying new injection and production zones. The effectiveness of one- and two-dimensional theoretical dispersion models utilizing single and multiple porous, fractured zones with velocity and formation dependent effects are discussed with respect to actual field data

  1. Characterization of acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria, depending on varying acetate concentrations, in a biogas plant. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahring, B.K.

    1994-12-01

    The present report contains the results of a project concerning behaviour of acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic biogas plants, collected in 1992 - 1994 period. Labelled acetates (2-C 14 -CH 3 COOH) have been used to characterize the types of methane bacteria populations in the Danish biogas plants, the optimum acetate concentration for these bacteria and acetate metabolism in mesophilic and thermophilic biogas reactors with low acetate concentrations. 2 publications are included. (EG)

  2. SILTATION IN RESERVOIRS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: reservoir model, siltation, sediment, catchment, sediment transport. 1. Introduction. Sediment ... rendered water storage structures useless in less than 25 years. ... reservoir, thus reducing the space available for water storage and ...

  3. Reservoir fisheries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.S. De.

    1990-01-01

    At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop

  4. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  5. Structural characterization of the PTS IIA and IIB proteins associated with pneumococcal fucose utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Melanie A; Hamilton, Aileen M; Boraston, Alisdair B

    2017-05-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae harbors a significant number of transporters, including phosphotransferase (PTS) systems, allowing the bacterium to utilize a number of different carbohydrates for metabolic and other purposes. The genes encoding for one PTS transport system in particular (EII fuc ) are found within a fucose utilization operon in S. pneumoniae TIGR4. Here, we report the three-dimensional structures of IIA fuc and IIB fuc providing evidence that this PTS system belongs to the EII man family. Additionally, the predicted metabolic pathway for this distinctive fucose utilization system suggests that EII fuc transports the H-disaccharide blood group antigen, which would represent a novel PTS transporter specificity. Proteins 2017; 85:963-968. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Reservoir model for the Alameda Central waterflood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, T E

    1968-01-01

    The basic approach used in developing the model to characterize the Alameda Central Unit Waterflood assumes continuity of the reservoir mechanics with time. The past performance was analyzed to describe the reservoir and future performance was assumed to follow the established patterns. To develop a mathematical picture of the Alameda Central Unit reservoir, a two-dimensional single-phase steady-state model was used in conjunction with material balance calculations, real-time conversion methods and oil-water interface advance calculations. The model was developed to optimize water injection allocation, determine the configuration of the frontal advance and evaluate the success of the waterflood. The model also provides a basis for continuing review and revision of the basic concepts of reservoir operation. The results of the reservoir study have confirmed the apparent lack of permeability orientation in the pool and indicate that the waterflood is progressing better than originally anticipated.

  7. Structural characterization of bentonite clays for utilization as nanofillers in nanocomposites; Caracterizacao estrutural de argilas bentoniticas para utilizacao como nanocargas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Carlos Ivan Ribeiro de; Rocha, Marisa Cristina Guimares; Vogas, Arthur Considera, E-mail: carlosivanr@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico; Silva, Ana Lucia Nazareth da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano; Bertolino, Luiz Carlos [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral (CETEM/MCTI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Clays of different composition have been used in the development of polymer nanocomposites. However, the utilization of bentonite clays has been emphasized in Brazil, mainly due to their availability.The best known and studied deposits of bentonite clays are located in the state of Paraiba. However, these deposits are becoming exhausted after decades of exploitation. In this context, the aim of this work is to proceed the physical-mineralogical characterization of bentonite clays recently discovered in Cubati, PB. In order to achieve this objective, the samples underwent a particle size classification step and were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Results of X-ray diffraction showed that the samples are composed of smectite, and kaolinite and quartz. The characterization of the samples by FTIR confirmed these results. Results of chemical analysis showed that the clays have predominantly different exchangeable cations. (author)

  8. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner

    2004-04-29

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  9. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Characterizing the Response of the Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrate Reservoir to Bottom Water Warming Along the Upper Continental Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Evan A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Johnson, H. Paul [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Salmi, Marie [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Whorley, Theresa [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-11-10

    continental shelf at water depths <180 m and at the upper limit of methane hydrate stability along the Washington margin. 5) The majority of the seeps cored during the 2014 research expedition on the R/V Thompson contained abundant authigenic carbonate indicating that they are locations of long-lived seepage rather than emergent seep systems related to methane hydrate dissociation. Despite the evidence for enhanced methane seepage at the upper limit of methane hydrate stability along the Washington margin, we found no unequivocal evidence for active methane hydrate dissociation as a source of fluid and gas at the seeps surveyed. The pore fluid and bottom water chemistry shows that the seeps are fed by a variety of fluid and methane sources, but that methane hydrate dissociation, if occurring, is not widespread and is only a minor source (below the detection limit of our methods). Collectively, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding of the thermal structure of the Cascadia subduction zone and the fluid and methane sources feeding seeps along the upper continental slope of the Washington-sector of the Cascadia margin. Though we did not find unequivocal evidence for methane hydrate dissociation as a source of water and methane at the upper pressure-temperature limit of methane hydrate stability at present, continued warming of North Pacific Intermediate Water in the future has the potential to impact the methane hydrate reservoir in sediments at greater depths along the slope. Thus, this study provides a strong foundation and the necessary characterization of the background state of seepage at the upper limit of methane hydrate stability for future investigations of this important process.

  10. Reservoir Models for Gas Hydrate Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, R.

    2016-12-01

    Scientific and industrial drilling programs have now providing detailed information on gas hydrate systems that will increasingly be the subject of field experiments. The need to carefully plan these programs requires reliable prediction of reservoir response to hydrate dissociation. Currently, a major emphasis in gas hydrate modeling is the integration of thermodynamic/hydrologic phenomena with geomechanical response for both reservoir and bounding strata. However, also critical to the ultimate success of these efforts is the appropriate development of input geologic models, including several emerging issues, including (1) reservoir heterogeneity, (2) understanding of the initial petrophysical characteristics of the system (reservoirs and seals), the dynamic evolution of those characteristics during active dissociation, and the interdependency of petrophysical parameters and (3) the nature of reservoir boundaries. Heterogeneity is ubiquitous aspect of every natural reservoir, and appropriate characterization is vital. However, heterogeneity is not random. Vertical variation can be evaluated with core and well log data; however, core data often are challenged by incomplete recovery. Well logs also provide interpretation challenges, particularly where reservoirs are thinly-bedded due to limitation in vertical resolution. This imprecision will extend to any petrophysical measurements that are derived from evaluation of log data. Extrapolation of log data laterally is also complex, and should be supported by geologic mapping. Key petrophysical parameters include porosity, permeability and it many aspects, and water saturation. Field data collected to date suggest that the degree of hydrate saturation is strongly controlled by/dependant upon reservoir quality and that the ratio of free to bound water in the remaining pore space is likely also controlled by reservoir quality. Further, those parameters will also evolve during dissociation, and not necessary in a simple

  11. Coal and energy: a southern perspective. Regional characterization report for the National Coal Utilization Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boercker, F. D.; Davis, R. M.; Goff, F. G.; Olson, J. S.; Parzyck, D. C.

    1977-08-01

    This publication is the first of several reports to be produced for the National Coal Utilization Assessment, a program sponsored by the Assistant Administrator for Environment and Safety through the Division of Technology Overview of ERDA. The purpose of the report is to present the state and regional perspective on energy-related issues, especially those concerning coal production and utilization for 12 southern states. This report compiles information on the present status of: (1) state government infrastructure that deals with energy problems; (2) the balance between energy consumption and energy production; (3) the distribution of proved reserves of various mineral energy resources; (4) the major characteristics of the population; (5) the important features of the environment; and (6) the major constraints to increased coal production and utilization as perceived by the states and regional agencies. Many energy-related characteristics described vary significantly from state to state within the region. Regional and national generalizations obscure these important local variations. The report provides the state and regional perspective on energy issues so that these issues may be considered objectively and incorporated into the National Coal Utilization Assessment. This Assessment is designed to provide useful outputs for national, regional, and local energy planners.

  12. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute

  13. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs and satellite imagery: Three sites in New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Becker, N.; Wells, B.; Lewis, A.; David, N.

    1996-01-01

    The proper handling and characterization of past hazardous waste sites is becoming more and more important as world population extends into areas previously deemed undesirable. Historical photographs, past records, current aerial satellite imagery can play an important role in characterizing these sites. These data provide clear insight into defining problem areas which can be surface samples for further detail. Three such areas are discussed in this paper: (1) nuclear wastes buried in trenches at Los Alamos National Laboratory, (2) surface dumping at one site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and (3) the historical development of a municipal landfill near Las Cruces, New Mexico

  14. Isolation and characterization of autotrophic, hydrogen-utilizing, perchlorate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrout, Joshua D; Scheetz, Todd E; Casavant, Thomas L; Parkin, Gene F

    2005-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that perchlorate (ClO(4) (-)) can be degraded by some pure-culture and mixed-culture bacteria with the addition of hydrogen. This paper describes the isolation of two hydrogen-utilizing perchlorate-degrading bacteria capable of using inorganic carbon for growth. These autotrophic bacteria are within the genus Dechloromonas and are the first Dechloromonas species that are microaerophilic and incapable of growth at atmospheric oxygen concentrations. Dechloromonas sp. JDS5 and Dechloromonas sp. JDS6 are the first perchlorate-degrading autotrophs isolated from a perchlorate-contaminated site. Measured hydrogen thresholds were higher than for other environmentally significant, hydrogen-utilizing, anaerobic bacteria (e.g., halorespirers). The chlorite dismutase activity of these bacteria was greater for autotrophically grown cells than for cells grown heterotrophically on lactate. These bacteria used fumarate as an alternate electron acceptor, which is the first report of growth on an organic electron acceptor by perchlorate-reducing bacteria.

  15. Utilizing Photogrammetry and Strain Gage Measurement to Characterize Pressurization of an Inflatable Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Gerard D.; Selig, Molly; Litteken, Doug; Oliveras, Ovidio

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents the integration of a large hatch penetration into an inflatable module. This paper also documents the comparison of analytical load predictions with measured results utilizing strain measurement. Strain was measured by utilizing photogrammetric measurement and through measurement obtained from strain gages mounted to selected clevises that interface with the structural webbings. Bench testing showed good correlation between strain measurement obtained from an extensometer and photogrammetric measurement especially after the fabric has transitioned through the low load/high strain region of the curve. Test results for the full-scale torus showed mixed results in the lower load and thus lower strain regions. Overall strain, and thus load, measured by strain gages and photogrammetry tracked fairly well with analytical predictions. Methods and areas of improvements are discussed.

  16. Using Health Care Utilization and Publication Patterns to Characterize the Research Portfolio and to Plan Future Research Investments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luba Katz

    Full Text Available Government funders of biomedical research are under increasing pressure to demonstrate societal benefits of their investments. A number of published studies attempted to correlate research funding levels with the societal burden for various diseases, with mixed results. We examined whether research funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA is well aligned with current and projected veterans' health needs. The organizational structure of the VA makes it a particularly suitable setting for examining these questions.We used the publication patterns and dollar expenditures of VA-funded researchers to characterize the VA research portfolio by disease. We used health care utilization data from the VA for the same diseases to define veterans' health needs. We then measured the level of correlation between the two and identified disease groups that were under- or over-represented in the research portfolio relative to disease expenditures. Finally, we used historic health care utilization trends combined with demographic projections to identify diseases and conditions that are increasing in costs and/or patient volume and consequently represent potential targets for future research investments.We found a significant correlation between research volume/expenditures and health utilization. Some disease groups were slightly under- or over-represented, but these deviations were relatively small. Diseases and conditions with the increasing utilization trend at the VA included hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hearing loss, sleeping disorders, complications of pregnancy, and several mental disorders.Research investments at the VA are well aligned with veteran health needs. The VA can continue to meet these needs by supporting research on the diseases and conditions with a growing number of patients, costs of care, or both. Our approach can be used by other funders of disease research to characterize their portfolios and to plan research

  17. Using Health Care Utilization and Publication Patterns to Characterize the Research Portfolio and to Plan Future Research Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Luba; Fink, Rebecca V; Bozeman, Samuel R; McNeil, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Government funders of biomedical research are under increasing pressure to demonstrate societal benefits of their investments. A number of published studies attempted to correlate research funding levels with the societal burden for various diseases, with mixed results. We examined whether research funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is well aligned with current and projected veterans' health needs. The organizational structure of the VA makes it a particularly suitable setting for examining these questions. We used the publication patterns and dollar expenditures of VA-funded researchers to characterize the VA research portfolio by disease. We used health care utilization data from the VA for the same diseases to define veterans' health needs. We then measured the level of correlation between the two and identified disease groups that were under- or over-represented in the research portfolio relative to disease expenditures. Finally, we used historic health care utilization trends combined with demographic projections to identify diseases and conditions that are increasing in costs and/or patient volume and consequently represent potential targets for future research investments. We found a significant correlation between research volume/expenditures and health utilization. Some disease groups were slightly under- or over-represented, but these deviations were relatively small. Diseases and conditions with the increasing utilization trend at the VA included hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hearing loss, sleeping disorders, complications of pregnancy, and several mental disorders. Research investments at the VA are well aligned with veteran health needs. The VA can continue to meet these needs by supporting research on the diseases and conditions with a growing number of patients, costs of care, or both. Our approach can be used by other funders of disease research to characterize their portfolios and to plan research investments.

  18. Characterization and detection of a widely distributed gene cluster that predicts anaerobic choline utilization by human gut bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-del Campo, Ana; Bodea, Smaranda; Hamer, Hilary A; Marks, Jonathan A; Haiser, Henry J; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Balskus, Emily P

    2015-04-14

    Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the human gut microbiota's effects on health and disease has been complicated by difficulties in linking metabolic functions associated with the gut community as a whole to individual microorganisms and activities. Anaerobic microbial choline metabolism, a disease-associated metabolic pathway, exemplifies this challenge, as the specific human gut microorganisms responsible for this transformation have not yet been clearly identified. In this study, we established the link between a bacterial gene cluster, the choline utilization (cut) cluster, and anaerobic choline metabolism in human gut isolates by combining transcriptional, biochemical, bioinformatic, and cultivation-based approaches. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis and in vitro biochemical characterization of two cut gene products linked the entire cluster to growth on choline and supported a model for this pathway. Analyses of sequenced bacterial genomes revealed that the cut cluster is present in many human gut bacteria, is predictive of choline utilization in sequenced isolates, and is widely but discontinuously distributed across multiple bacterial phyla. Given that bacterial phylogeny is a poor marker for choline utilization, we were prompted to develop a degenerate PCR-based method for detecting the key functional gene choline TMA-lyase (cutC) in genomic and metagenomic DNA. Using this tool, we found that new choline-metabolizing gut isolates universally possessed cutC. We also demonstrated that this gene is widespread in stool metagenomic data sets. Overall, this work represents a crucial step toward understanding anaerobic choline metabolism in the human gut microbiota and underscores the importance of examining this microbial community from a function-oriented perspective. Anaerobic choline utilization is a bacterial metabolic activity that occurs in the human gut and is linked to multiple diseases. While bacterial genes responsible for

  19. The Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor II environmental radiological characterization utilizing GPS/GIS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    Time, cost, and most importantly quality of data are the three factors to measure the success of field radiological characterizations. The application of coupling radiation detection instrumentation to a GPS receiver has dramatically increased the data quality achievable compared to traditional environmental radiological survey methods. Improvements in verifying adequate spatial coverage of an area while collecting data and at,the same time reducing field time requirements can be realized. Data acquired during the recent implementation of the Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor 11 (MSCM-11) will be presented to demonstrate the advantages of this system over traditional radiological survey methods. The comparison will include time and manpower requirements. Linking the complimentary GPS, GIS and radiation detection technologies on a mobile tractor based platform has provided a tool to provide radiological characterization data faster, cheaper, and better to assist in the Environmental Restoration Mission of the Hanford Site

  20. Benefits of utilizing CellProfiler as a characterization tool for U–10Mo nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collette, R.; Douglas, J.; Patterson, L.; Bahun, G.; King, J.; Keiser, D.; Schulthess, J.

    2015-01-01

    Automated image processing techniques have the potential to aid in the performance evaluation of nuclear fuels by eliminating judgment calls that may vary from person-to-person or sample-to-sample. Analysis of in-core fuel performance is required for design and safety evaluations related to almost every aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle. This study presents a methodology for assessing the quality of uranium–molybdenum fuel images and describes image analysis routines designed for the characterization of several important microstructural properties. The analyses are performed in CellProfiler, an open-source program designed to enable biologists without training in computer vision or programming to automatically extract cellular measurements from large image sets. The quality metric scores an image based on three parameters: the illumination gradient across the image, the overall focus of the image, and the fraction of the image that contains scratches. The metric presents the user with the ability to ‘pass’ or ‘fail’ an image based on a reproducible quality score. Passable images may then be characterized through a separate CellProfiler pipeline, which enlists a variety of common image analysis techniques. The results demonstrate the ability to reliably pass or fail images based on the illumination, focus, and scratch fraction of the image, followed by automatic extraction of morphological data with respect to fission gas voids, interaction layers, and grain boundaries. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • A technique is developed to score U–10Mo FIB-SEM image quality using CellProfiler. • The pass/fail metric is based on image illumination, focus, and area scratched. • Automated image analysis is performed in pipeline fashion to characterize images. • Fission gas void, interaction layer, and grain boundary coverage data is extracted. • Preliminary characterization results demonstrate consistency of the algorithm

  1. Utilization of Neurophysiological Protocols to Characterize Soldier Response to Irritant Gases. Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-15

    DAMM7-89-C-9136 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOO«£S$<£S) Northeast Reserach Institute, Inc Suite A-100 309 Farmington Avenue...is no widely accepted methodology or protocol lor the assessment of human toxicity induced by exposure to irritant gases. Most procedures used by the...employing the appropriate analytical methodologies necessary to more precisely characterize the complex mixture of low-boiling volatilcs, aerosols, and

  2. Benefits of utilizing CellProfiler as a characterization tool for U–10Mo nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collette, R.; Douglas, J.; Patterson, L.; Bahun, G. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); King, J., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Keiser, D.; Schulthess, J. [Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Automated image processing techniques have the potential to aid in the performance evaluation of nuclear fuels by eliminating judgment calls that may vary from person-to-person or sample-to-sample. Analysis of in-core fuel performance is required for design and safety evaluations related to almost every aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle. This study presents a methodology for assessing the quality of uranium–molybdenum fuel images and describes image analysis routines designed for the characterization of several important microstructural properties. The analyses are performed in CellProfiler, an open-source program designed to enable biologists without training in computer vision or programming to automatically extract cellular measurements from large image sets. The quality metric scores an image based on three parameters: the illumination gradient across the image, the overall focus of the image, and the fraction of the image that contains scratches. The metric presents the user with the ability to ‘pass’ or ‘fail’ an image based on a reproducible quality score. Passable images may then be characterized through a separate CellProfiler pipeline, which enlists a variety of common image analysis techniques. The results demonstrate the ability to reliably pass or fail images based on the illumination, focus, and scratch fraction of the image, followed by automatic extraction of morphological data with respect to fission gas voids, interaction layers, and grain boundaries. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • A technique is developed to score U–10Mo FIB-SEM image quality using CellProfiler. • The pass/fail metric is based on image illumination, focus, and area scratched. • Automated image analysis is performed in pipeline fashion to characterize images. • Fission gas void, interaction layer, and grain boundary coverage data is extracted. • Preliminary characterization results demonstrate consistency of the algorithm.

  3. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus isolates indicates goats as reservoir for Echinococcus canadensis G6 genotype in Neuquén, Patagonia Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, S V; Pierangeli, N B; Pianciola, L; Mazzeo, M; Lazzarini, L E; Saiz, M S; Kossman, A V; Bergagna, H F J; Chartier, K; Basualdo, J A

    2010-12-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic zoonotic disease in the province of Neuquén, Patagonia Argentina, although a hydatid control programme has been carried out since 1970. Human infection due to Echinococcus canadensis (G6 genotype) is frequent in Neuquén. However, the reservoir for this species remains undetermined in a region where camels are absent. We investigated the fertility, viability and molecular epidemiology of hydatid cysts obtained from local goats, pigs and sheep in order to identify the possible reservoirs of E. canadensis (G6). We also analyzed isolates from infected dogs. A total of 67 isolates were identified by the DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Cysts from sheep (n=16), goats (n=23) and pigs (n=18) and adult worms from 10 infected dogs were analyzed. The fertility of the hydatid cysts was 78.6%; 90.4% and 94.4% for sheep, goats and pigs, respectively. We detected E. canadensis (G6) in 21 of 23 goat samples and in 1 dog isolate, E. canadensis (G7) in all the pig isolates, E. granulosus sensu stricto (G3) in 1 sheep and the G1 genotype in 15 sheep, 2 goats and 9 dog samples. The G1 haplotypes included the common sheep strain sequence and 2 microvariants of this sequence. E. granulosus sensu stricto (G3) is described for the first time in South America. We conclude that goats act as reservoir for E. canadensis (G6) in Neuquén, and that control strategies may have to be adapted to local molecular epidemiology to improve the control of parasite transmission. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pore Characterization of Shale Rock and Shale Interaction with Fluids at Reservoir Pressure-Temperature Conditions Using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, M.; Hjelm, R.; Watkins, E.; Xu, H.; Pawar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Oil/gas produced from unconventional reservoirs has become strategically important for the US domestic energy independence. In unconventional realm, hydrocarbons are generated and stored in nanopores media ranging from a few to hundreds of nanometers. Fundamental knowledge of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes that control fluid flow and propagation within nano-pore confinement is critical for maximizing unconventional oil/gas production. The size and confinement of the nanometer pores creates many complex rock-fluid interface interactions. It is imperative to promote innovative experimental studies to decipher physical and chemical processes at the nanopore scale that govern hydrocarbon generation and mass transport of hydrocarbon mixtures in tight shale and other low permeability formations at reservoir pressure-temperature conditions. We have carried out laboratory investigations exploring quantitative relationship between pore characteristics of the Wolfcamp shale from Western Texas and the shale interaction with fluids at reservoir P-T conditions using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). We have performed SANS measurements of the shale rock in single fluid (e.g., H2O and D2O) and multifluid (CH4/(30% H2O+70% D2O)) systems at various pressures up to 20000 psi and temperature up to 150 oF. Figure 1 shows our SANS data at different pressures with H2O as the pressure medium. Our data analysis using IRENA software suggests that the principal changes of pore volume in the shale occurred on smaller than 50 nm pores and pressure at 5000 psi (Figure 2). Our results also suggest that with increasing P, more water flows into pores; with decreasing P, water is retained in the pores.

  5. Smoothing-based compressed state Kalman filter for joint state-parameter estimation: Applications in reservoir characterization and CO2 storage monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. J.; Kokkinaki, Amalia; Darve, Eric F.; Kitanidis, Peter K.

    2017-08-01

    The operation of most engineered hydrogeological systems relies on simulating physical processes using numerical models with uncertain parameters and initial conditions. Predictions by such uncertain models can be greatly improved by Kalman-filter techniques that sequentially assimilate monitoring data. Each assimilation constitutes a nonlinear optimization, which is solved by linearizing an objective function about the model prediction and applying a linear correction to this prediction. However, if model parameters and initial conditions are uncertain, the optimization problem becomes strongly nonlinear and a linear correction may yield unphysical results. In this paper, we investigate the utility of one-step ahead smoothing, a variant of the traditional filtering process, to eliminate nonphysical results and reduce estimation artifacts caused by nonlinearities. We present the smoothing-based compressed state Kalman filter (sCSKF), an algorithm that combines one step ahead smoothing, in which current observations are used to correct the state and parameters one step back in time, with a nonensemble covariance compression scheme, that reduces the computational cost by efficiently exploring the high-dimensional state and parameter space. Numerical experiments show that when model parameters are uncertain and the states exhibit hyperbolic behavior with sharp fronts, as in CO2 storage applications, one-step ahead smoothing reduces overshooting errors and, by design, gives physically consistent state and parameter estimates. We compared sCSKF with commonly used data assimilation methods and showed that for the same computational cost, combining one step ahead smoothing and nonensemble compression is advantageous for real-time characterization and monitoring of large-scale hydrogeological systems with sharp moving fronts.

  6. Fortescue reservoir development and reservoir studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzell, S.T.; Hicks, G.J.; Horden, M.J.; Irrgang, H.R.; Janssen, E.J.; Kable, C.W.; Mitchell, R.A.H.; Morrell, N.W.; Palmer, I.D.; Seage, N.W.

    1985-03-01

    The Fortescue field in the Gippsland Basin, offshore southeastern Australia is being developed from two platforms (Fortescue A and Cobia A) by Esso Australia Ltd. (operator) and BHP Petroleum. The Fortescue reservoir is a stratigraphic trap at the top of the Latrobe Group of sediments. It overlies the western flank of the Halibut and Cobia fields and is separated from them by a non-net sequence of shales and coals which form a hydraulic barrier between the two systems. Development drilling into the Fortescue reservoir commenced in April 1983 with production coming onstream in May 1983. Fortescue, with booked reserves of 44 stock tank gigalitres (280 million stock tank barrels) of 43/sup 0/ API oil, is the seventh major oil reservoir to be developed in the offshore Gippsland Basin by Esso/BHP. In mid-1984, after drilling a total of 20 exploration and development wells, and after approximately one year of production, a detailed three-dimensional, two-phase reservoir simulation study was performed to examine the recovery efficiency, drainage patterns, pressure performance and production rate potential of the reservoir. The model was validated by history matching an extensive suite of Repeat Formation Test (RFT) pressure data. The results confirmed the reserves basis, and demonstrated that the ultimate oil recovery from the reservoir is not sensitive to production rate. This result is consistent with studies on other high quality Latrobe Group reservoirs in the Gippsland Basin which contain undersaturated crudes and receive very strong water drive from the Basin-wide aquifer system. With the development of the simulation model during the development phase, it has been possible to more accurately define the optimal well pattern for the remainder of the development.

  7. Cloning and characterization of a Candida albicans maltase gene involved in sucrose utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, A; Williamson, P R; Rex, J H; Sweeney, E C; Bennett, J E

    1992-01-01

    In order to isolate the structural gene involved in sucrose utilization, we screened a sucrose-induced Candida albicans cDNA library for clones expressing alpha-glucosidase activity. The C. albicans maltase structural gene (CAMAL2) was isolated. No other clones expressing alpha-glucosidase activity. were detected. A genomic CAMAL2 clone was obtained by screening a size-selected genomic library with the cDNA clone. DNA sequence analysis reveals that CAMAL2 encodes a 570-amino-acid protein which shares 50% identity with the maltase structural gene (MAL62) of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis. The substrate specificity of the recombinant protein purified from Escherichia coli identifies the enzyme as a maltase. Northern (RNA) analysis reveals that transcription of CAMAL2 is induced by maltose and sucrose and repressed by glucose. These results suggest that assimilation of sucrose in C. albicans relies on an inducible maltase enzyme. The family of genes controlling sucrose utilization in C. albicans shares similarities with the MAL gene family of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and provides a model system for studying gene regulation in this pathogenic yeast. Images PMID:1400249

  8. An overview on characterization, utilization and leachate analysis of biomedical waste incinerator ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajor, Anita; Xaxa, Monika; Mehta, Ratika; Kunal

    2012-10-15

    Solid waste management is one of the major global environmental issues, as there is continuous increase in industrial globalization and generation of waste. Solid wastes encompass the heterogeneous mass of throwaways from the urban community as well as the homogeneous accumulations of agricultural, industrial and mineral wastes. Biomedical waste pose a significant impact on health and environment. A proper waste management system should be required to dispose hazardous biomedical waste and incineration should be the best available technology to reduce the volume of this hazardous waste. The incineration process destroys pathogens and reduces the waste volume and weight but leaves a solid material called biomedical waste ash as residue which increases the levels of heavy metals, inorganic salts and organic compounds in the environment. Disposal of biomedical waste ash in landfill may cause contamination of groundwater as metals are not destroyed during incineration. The limited space and the high cost for land disposal led to the development of recycling technologies and the reuse of ash in different systems. In order to minimize leaching of its hazardous components into the environment several studies confirmed the successful utilization of biomedical waste ash in agriculture and construction sector. This paper presents the overview on the beneficial use of ash in agriculture and construction materials and its leachate characteristics. This review also stressed on the need to further evaluate the leachate studies of the ashes and slag for their proper disposal and utilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Alphabet Soup of HIV Reservoir Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Radwa R; Li, Jonathan Z

    2017-04-01

    Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy in suppressing HIV, life-long therapy is required to avoid HIV reactivation from long-lived viral reservoirs. Currently, there is intense interest in searching for therapeutic interventions that can purge the viral reservoir to achieve complete remission in HIV patients off antiretroviral therapy. The evaluation of such interventions relies on our ability to accurately and precisely measure the true size of the viral reservoir. In this review, we assess the most commonly used HIV reservoir assays, as a clear understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of each is vital for the accurate interpretation of results and for the development of improved assays. The quantification of intracellular or plasma HIV RNA or DNA levels remains the most commonly used tests for the characterization of the viral reservoir. While cost-effective and high-throughput, these assays are not able to differentiate between replication-competent or defective fractions or quantify the number of infected cells. Viral outgrowth assays provide a lower bound for the fraction of cells that can produce infectious virus, but these assays are laborious, expensive and substantially underestimate the potential reservoir of replication-competent provirus. Newer assays are now available that seek to overcome some of these problems, including full-length proviral sequencing, inducible HIV RNA assays, ultrasensitive p24 assays and murine adoptive transfer techniques. The development and evaluation of strategies for HIV remission rely upon our ability to accurately and precisely quantify the size of the remaining viral reservoir. At this time, all current HIV reservoir assays have drawbacks such that combinations of assays are generally needed to gain a more comprehensive view of the viral reservoir. The development of novel, rapid, high-throughput assays that can sensitively quantify the levels of the replication-competent HIV reservoir is still needed.

  10. Microstructure characterization of multi-phase composites and utilization of phase change materials and recycled rubbers in cementitious materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshgin, Pania

    2011-12-01

    This research focuses on two important subjects: (1) Characterization of heterogeneous microstructure of multi-phase composites and the effect of microstructural features on effective properties of the material. (2) Utilizations of phase change materials and recycled rubber particles from waste tires to improve thermal properties of insulation materials used in building envelopes. Spatial pattern of multi-phase and multidimensional internal structures of most composite materials are highly random. Quantitative description of the spatial distribution should be developed based on proper statistical models, which characterize the morphological features. For a composite material with multi-phases, the volume fraction of the phases as well as the morphological parameters of the phases have very strong influences on the effective property of the composite. These morphological parameters depend on the microstructure of each phase. This study intends to include the effect of higher order morphological details of the microstructure in the composite models. The higher order statistics, called two-point correlation functions characterize various behaviors of the composite at any two points in a stochastic field. Specifically, correlation functions of mosaic patterns are used in the study for characterizing transport properties of composite materials. One of the most effective methods to improve energy efficiency of buildings is to enhance thermal properties of insulation materials. The idea of using phase change materials and recycled rubber particles such as scrap tires in insulation materials for building envelopes has been studied.

  11. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  12. Utilizing Photogrammetry and Strain Gage Measurement to Characterize Pressurization of Inflatable Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Anil

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on integrating a large hatch penetration into inflatable modules of various constructions. This paper also compares load predictions with test measurements. The strain was measured by utilizing photogrammetric methods and strain gages mounted to select clevises that interface with the structural webbings. Bench testing showed good correlation between strain data collected from an extensometer and photogrammetric measurements, even when the material transitioned from the low load to high load strain region of the curve. The full-scale torus design module showed mixed results as well in the lower load and high strain regions. After thorough analysis of photogrammetric measurements, strain gage measurements, and predicted load, the photogrammetric measurements seem to be off by a factor of two.

  13. Characterization and utilization of the permeate and retentate obtained after “dead-end” ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Vesna M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, with the increase in bioethanol production, the increasing amounts of distillery wastewater are generated. Such wastewater (stillage is one of the most polluted waste product of the food and beverage industries. The present study evaluates the treatment of distillery wastewater by ultrafiltration (UF, in order to reduce its pollution and evaluate the composition of the permeate and retentate. Polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membrane with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO 30000 Da, was used for the experiments. The UF was carried out in dead-end mode. The results of the analyses of the permeate and retentate obtained after ultrafiltration were considered as well as different ways for their further utilization. The pollutant level in the permeate was decreased significantly in comparison to the raw stillage, and suspended solids were completely removed from the stillage. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31002

  14. Isolation and characterization of a new hydrogen-utilizing bacterium from the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu-Lesme, F; Fonty, G; Doré, J

    1995-01-01

    A new H2/CO2-utilizing acetogenic bacterium was isolated from the rumen of a mature deer. This is the first report of a spore-forming Gram-negative bacterial species from the rumen. The organism was a strictly anaerobic, motile rod and was able to grow autotrophically on hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Acetate was the major product detected. Glucose, fructose and lactate were also fermented heterotrophically. The optimum pH for growth was 7.0-7.5, and the optimum temperature was 37-42 degrees C. Yeast extract was required for growth and rumen fluid was highly stimulatory. The DNA base ratio was 52.9 +/- 0.5 mol% G+C. On the basis of these characteristics and fermentation products, the isolate was considered to be different from acetogenic bacteria described previously.

  15. Facies architecture of the Bluejacket Sandstone in the Eufaula Lake area, Oklahoma: Implications for the reservoir characterization of the Bartlesville Sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Liangmiao; Yang, Kexian [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Outcrop studies of the Bluejacket Sandstone (Middle Pennsylvanian) provide significant insights to reservoir architecture of the subsurface equivalent Bartlesville Sandstone. Quarry walls and road cuts in the Lake Eufaula area offer excellent exposures for detailed facies architectural investigations using high-precision surveying, photo mosaics. Directional minipermeameter measurements are being conducted. Subsurface studies include conventional logs, borehole image log, and core data. Reservoir architectures are reconstructed in four hierarchical levels: multi-storey sandstone, i.e. discrete genetic intervals; individual discrete genetic interval; facies within a discrete genetic interval; and lateral accretion bar deposits. In both outcrop and subsurface, the Bluejacket (Bartlesville) Sandstone comprises two distinctive architectures: a lower braided fluvial and an upper meandering fluvial. Braided fluvial deposits are typically 30 to 80 ft thick, and are laterally persistent filling an incised valley wider than the largest producing fields. The lower contact is irregular with local relief of 50 ft. The braided-fluvial deposits consist of 100-400-ft wide, 5-15-ft thick channel-fill elements. Each channel-fill interval is limited laterally by an erosional contact or overbank deposits, and is separated vertically by discontinuous mudstones or highly concentrated mudstone interclast lag conglomerates. Low-angle parallel-stratified or trough cross-stratified medium- to coarse-grained sandstones volumetrically dominate. This section has a blocky well log profile. Meandering fluvial deposits are typically 100 to 150 ft thick and comprise multiple discrete genetic intervals.

  16. Petrophysical characterization of the Dolomitic Member of the Boñar Formation (Upper Cretaceous; Duero Basin, Spain) as a potential CO2 reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Gonzalez, A.; Kovacs, C.; Herrero-Hernandez, A.; Gomez-Fernandez, F.

    2016-07-01

    Boñar Formation (Upper Cretaceous) is a mainly carbonate succession, which outcrops in the North of Duero Basin (Spain). According to the existing data, the Dolomitic Member of this formation appears to be the most suitable for geological storage of CO2. The main objective of this study is to find evidence to support, clarify and specify –at an initial level– the potential of the Dolomitic Member of the Boñar Formation as a geological reservoir. The study covers density, porosity and permeability tests on samples obtained from the outcrop of the succession near the village of Boñar (León). According to the analysis and interpretation of the mentioned petrophysical properties, the porosity of the Dolomitic Member is within the acceptable range for CO2 geological storage, but the permeability values are far too low. This minimizes the possibilities of the Dolomitic Member –and probably of the whole Boñar Formation– to become an appropriate CO2 reservoir. (Author)

  17. Reservoir Characterization and CO2 Plume Migration Modeling Based on Bottom-hole Pressure Data: An Example from the AEP Mountaineer Geological Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta; Kelley, Mark; Oruganti, YagnaDeepika; Bhattacharya, Indra; Spitznogle, Gary

    2014-05-01

    We present an integrated approach for formation permeability estimation, front tracking, reservoir model calibration, and plume migration modeling based on injection rate and down-hole pressure data from CO2 geologic sequestration projects. The data are taken from the 20 MW CO2 capture and storage project at American Electric Power's Mountaineer Plant in West Virginia, USA. The Mountaineer CO2 injection system consists of two injection wells - one in the Copper Ridge Dolomite formation and one in the Rose Run sandstone formation, and three deep observation wells that were operational between October 2009 and May 2011. Approximately 27000 MT and 10000 MT were injected into the Copper Ridge dolomite formation and Rose Run sandstone formation, respectively. A wealth of pressure and rate data from injection and observation wells is available covering a series of injection and pressure falloff events. The methodology developed and applied for interpreting and integrating the data during reservoir analysis and modeling from the Rose Run formation is the subject of this paper. For the analysis of transient pressure data at the injection and observation wells, the CO2 storage reservoir is conceptualized as a radial composite system, where the inner (invaded) zone consists of both supercritical CO2 and brine, and the outer (uninvaded) zone consists of undisturbed brine. Using established analytical solutions for analyzing fluid injection problems in the petroleum reservoir engineering literature, we show how the late-time pressure derivative response from both injection and observation wells will be identical - reflecting the permeability-thickness product of the undisturbed brine-filled formation. We also show how the expanding CO2 plume affects the "effective" compressibility that can be estimated by history matching injection-falloff data and how this can be used to develop a relationship between the plume radius and "effective" compressibility. This provides a novel non

  18. Utility of immunodeficient mouse models for characterizing the preclinical pharmacokinetics of immunogenic antibody therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myzithras, Maria; Bigwarfe, Tammy; Li, Hua; Waltz, Erica; Ahlberg, Jennifer; Giragossian, Craig; Roberts, Simon

    Prior to clinical studies, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antibody-based therapeutics are characterized in preclinical species; however, those species can elicit immunogenic responses that can lead to an inaccurate estimation of PK parameters. Immunodeficient (SCID) transgenic hFcRn and C57BL/6 mice were used to characterize the PK of three antibodies that were previously shown to be immunogenic in mice and cynomolgus monkeys. Four mouse strains, Tg32 hFcRn SCID, Tg32 hFcRn, SCID and C57BL/6, were administered adalimumab (Humira®), mAbX and mAbX-YTE at 1 mg/kg, and in SCID strains there was no incidence of immunogenicity. In non-SCID strains, drug-clearing ADAs appeared after 4-7 days, which affected the ability to accurately calculate PK parameters. Single species allometric scaling of PK data for Humira® in SCID and hFcRn SCID mice resulted in improved human PK predictions compared to C57BL/6 mice. Thus, the SCID mouse model was demonstrated to be a useful tool for assessing the preclinical PK of immunogenic therapeutics.

  19. Rapid detailed characterization of concrete shielding blocks utilizing internal natural radionuclides for calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.; Smith, A.R.; Hurley, D.L.; Norman, E.B.; Schoonover, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Following many years of productive research, the 184-inch Cyclotron, the SuperHILAC, and the BEVALAC accelerators at the Berkeley Laboratory were closed, leaving thousands of concrete shielding blocks available for reuse, recycling, or disposal. The process history of these blocks precludes free release pending radiological characterization. This paper describes a procedure whereby a high efficiency shielded germanium spectrometer is used to rapidly characterize natural and man-made activity within the blocks. The spectrometer is moved up to the block and 5 minutes of data are collected at the point on the block that registers highest on a micro-R meter. Sensitivity is better than 1 pCi/g (0.037 Bq/g) for Co-60 and Eu-152, the prominent man-made activities observed. One-time calibration of the detector system is obtained from a sample of concrete, drilled with a hammer drill, counted in our low-background facility, and compared to crushed rock with known U, Th, and K activity. A simple relationship exists between the counts/minute observed in a characteristic gamma-ray peak and the activity in the block. (author)

  20. Rapid detailed characterization of concrete shielding blocks utilizing internal natural radionuclides for calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.; Smith, A.R.; Norman, E.B.; Cowles, D.

    1995-10-01

    Following many years of productive work, the SuperHILAC and Bevalac accelerators at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory were closed, leaving thousands of concrete shielding blocks available for reuse or disposal. The process history of these blocks as shielding precludes free release pending radiological characterization. This paper presents a method for the rapid characterization of gamma-ray-emitting radioisotopes in large samples of earth-like materials: concrete shielding blocks in this case. Active regions are identified with a sensitive radiation-survey instrument and then examined in detail with a high-efficiency lead-shielded Ge spectrometer. Naturally-occurring gamma-ray emissions from the decays of uranium, thorium, and potassium are used to calibrate the spectrometer. A simple relationship exists between the observed counting rate in a characteristic gamma ray and the activity in the block. This method, taking only tens of minutes per sample at the nano-Curie/gram sensitivity level, replaces much of the expensive coring and laboratory analysis methods needed otherwise

  1. Fiscal 1999 research and verification of geothermal energy exploring technologies and the like. Development of reservoir mass and heat flow characterization (Development of fracture hydrological properties characterization technology - Summary); 1999 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho (yoyaku). Choryuso hendo tansaho kaihatsu (danretsu suiri tansaho kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Efforts are under way to develop reservoir change evaluation technologies to be effective in evaluating reservoirs at their initial stage of development, in stabilizing the output of power stations after their commencement of service operation, and in probing into reservoirs in already-developed areas. One of them concerns the characterization of the hydrological properties of fractures. The development efforts involve (1) a pressure transient test method (measurement of the response of reservoirs to changes in borehole internal pressure), (2) a tiltmeter observation method (ground surface deformation measurement), and (3) a 2-phase flow metering method (metering of spurting fluids). Under item (1), a computer-aided borehole hydrology test system is built and field-tested to isolate problems. Also, a pressure transient test system is built by way of trial by use of which compressor-aided control is performed over air pressure in the borehole. Under item (2), it is made clear that changes, several MPa in scale, in the pressure in a borehole is detected by simulation and that a sufficiently capable system is realized using a tiltmeter available on the market. Under item (3), a device is fabricated which is a combination of a laser flowmeter and a void fraction meter, and a field test is conducted to assess its feasibility and to identify problems. (NEDO)

  2. Characterization of failure modes in deep UV and deep green LEDs utilizing advanced semiconductor localization techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Miller, Mary A.; Cole, Edward Isaac, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    We present the results of a two-year early career LDRD that focused on defect localization in deep green and deep ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We describe the laser-based techniques (TIVA/LIVA) used to localize the defects and interpret data acquired. We also describe a defect screening method based on a quick electrical measurement to determine whether defects should be present in the LEDs. We then describe the stress conditions that caused the devices to fail and how the TIVA/LIVA techniques were used to monitor the defect signals as the devices degraded and failed. We also describe the correlation between the initial defects and final degraded or failed state of the devices. Finally we show characterization results of the devices in the failed conditions and present preliminary theories as to why the devices failed for both the InGaN (green) and AlGaN (UV) LEDs.

  3. A new characterization method of the microstructure by utilizing the macroscopic composition gradient in alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, T.; Koyama, T.; Kobayashi, S.

    1996-01-01

    A new experimental method to determine the phase boundary and phase equilibrium is accomplished by - means of analytical transmission electron microscopy for alloys with a macroscopic composition gradient. The various phase boundaries, i.e. the coherent binodal and spinodal lines, incoherent binodal line and order/disorder transformation line are distinctly determined for the Cu-Ti alloy and the other alloy systems. Furthermore, the equilibrium compositions at the interface of precipitate/matrix can experimentally be obtained for various particle sizes, and thus the Gibbs-Thomson's relation is verified. It is expected that the composition gradient method proposed in the present will become an important experimental method of the microstructural characterization

  4. Characterization, treatment and utilization of rice husk ash in production processes of the industrial branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stracke, Marcelo Paulo; Schmidt, Julia Isabel; Steffen, Ana Cristina; Sokolovicz, Boris; Kieckow, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    The rice husk ash (CCA) is a black powder rich in silica (contents above 90%) with many industrial applications. The ash was obtained from a rice processing industry in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. In this work the purpose is to characterize the rice husk ash and eliminate the residual carbon by methods such as acid leaching. The white ash is obtained by a chemical process followed by heating between 600 and 800 °C. The results were analyzed in DR-X, TGA and DSC. The DR-X analysis showed that the samples present high levels of silica in the crystalline form of quartz, cristobalite and tridymite. The white ash was obtained with high purity and presented a good result in the manufacture of paints. (author)

  5. Method and apparatus for surface characterization and process control utilizing radiation from desorbed particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, L.C.; Kraus, J.S.; Tolk, N.H.; Traum, M.M.; Tully, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Emission of characteristic electromagnetic radiation in the infrared, visible, or UV from excited particles, typically ions, molecules, or neutral atoms, desorbed from solid surfaces by an incident beam of low-momentum probe radiation has been observed. Disclosed is a method for characterizing solid surfaces based on the observed effect, with low-momentum probe radiation consisting of electrons or photons. Further disclosed is a method for controlling manufacturing processes that is also based on the observed effect. The latter method can, for instance, be advantageously applied in integrated circuit-, integrated optics-, and magnetic bubble device manufacture. Specific examples of applications of the method are registering of masks, control of a direct-writing processing beam, end-point detection in etching, and control of a processing beam for laser- or electron-beam annealing or ion implantation

  6. FY 1998 report on the development of technology for reservoir mass and heat flow characterization. Theme 5-2. Monitoring and modeling of reservoir mass and heat flows (Integrated reservoir modeling and simulation techniques/Modeling support technique); 1998 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa choryuso hendo tansaho kaihatsu hokokusho (yoyaku). 5-2. Choryuso hendo yosoku gijutsu (modeling shien gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This R and D are aimed at establishing technology to support the reservoir modeling work required for predicting the reservoir variation from the geological/geochemical side. The contents of the development are (1) establishment of the practical measuring system for core fracture system, and (2) establishment of new modeling support technology. In (1), as the core fraction system measuring system, the measurement of fluid inclusion homogenization temperature and melting point and laser Raman spectroscopy were applied to the Wasabizawa area to obtain the results. In (2), the R and D were conducted of a rapid age measuring method for altered rock/unaltered rock and an analytical method for fluid flow using trace chemical components of hydrothermal minerals. In the former, 3-D thermoluminescent intensity of the age-known quartz was measured. The TL age of weak altered rock of Kijiyama dacite in the Wasabizawa area was 320Ka, almost the same result as 320Ka already reported. In the latter, trace components of quartz were measured at each well, and changes in the depth direction were made clear. It was made clear that the variation of Na/K ratio is large around the lost circulation stratum. The geothermal fluid flow was made clear by the analysis of similarity of the intensity ratio. (NEDO)

  7. Hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics and enrichment laws of multi-layered reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sichuan Basin represents the earliest area where natural gas is explored, developed and comprehensively utilized in China. After over 50 years of oil and gas exploration, oil and gas reservoirs have been discovered in 24 gas-dominant layers in this basin. For the purpose of predicting natural gas exploration direction and target of each layer in the Sichuan Basin, the sedimentary characteristics of marine and continental strata in this basin were summarized and the forms of multi-cycled tectonic movement and their controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation were analyzed. Based on the analysis, the following characteristics were identified. First, the Sichuan Basin has experienced the transformation from marine sedimentation to continental sedimentation since the Sinian with the former being dominant. Second, multiple source–reservoir assemblages are formed based on multi-rhythmed deposition, and multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics are vertically presented. And third, multi-cycled tectonic movement appears in many forms and has a significant controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation. Then, oil and gas reservoir characteristics and enrichment laws were investigated. It is indicated that the Sichuan Basin is characterized by coexistence of conventional and unconventional oil and gas reservoirs, multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon supply, multiple reservoir types, multiple trap types, multi-staged hydrocarbon accumulation and multiple hydrocarbon accumulation models. Besides, its natural gas enrichment is affected by hydrocarbon source intensity, large paleo-uplift, favorable sedimentary facies belt, sedimentary–structural discontinuity plane and structural fracture development. Finally, the natural gas exploration and research targets of each layer in the Sichuan Basin were predicted according to the basic petroleum geologic conditions

  8. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-01-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI - , F - , and SO 4 = . We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements

  9. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-11-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI{sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup =}. We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements.

  10. Characterization and utilization potential of basalt rock from East-Lampung district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnugroho, K.; Hendronursito, Y.; Birawidha, D. C.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the petrography and chemical properties of basalt rock from East Lampung district, Lampung province. Petrography analysis was performed using a polarization microscope, and analysis of chemical composition using X-RF method. From the analysis of basalt rock samples, the mineral composition consists of pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, and opaque minerals. Basic mass of basalt rock samples is, composed of plagioclase and pyroxene with subhedral-anhedral shape, forming intergranular texture, and uniform distribution. Mineral plagioclase is colorless and blade shape, transformed into opaque minerals with a size of basalt rock samples, consisting of 37.76-59.64 SiO2; 10.10-20.93 Fe2O3; 11.77-14.32 Al2O3; 5.57-14.75 CaO; 5.37-9.15 MgO; 1.40-3.34 Na2O. From the calculation, obtained the value of acidity ratio (Ma) = 3.81. With these values, indicate that the basalt rock from East Lampung district has the potential to be utilized as stone wool fiber.

  11. Chemical, physical characterization and salinity distribution of the oilfield water in the Upper Sandstone Member of the Zubair reservoir at Rumaila North Oilfield, Southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Awadh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The oilfield water in the Upper Sandstone Member of the Zubair reservoir (Barriemian-Hauterivian at Rumaila North Oil Field was investigated for the interpretation of salinity and geochemical evolution of brine compositions. The interaction of the oilfield water with reservoir rock resulted in a brine water derived from the marine water origin of partial mixing with meteoric water similar to the compositional ranges of formation water from Gulf of Mexico offshore/onshore Mesozoic reservoirs. The high TDS (207350- 230100; average 215625 mg/L is consistent with the electrical conductivity (340362-372762; average 351024μs, and predominantly represented by Cl (123679 mg/L as anions and (29200 and 14674 mg/L for Na and Ca as cations respectively. The contribution of cation (epm% are as Na (70.2, Ca (18.9, Mg (8.1 and K (1.7; and anion as Cl (99.7, SO4 (0.25, HCO3 (0.07 and CO3 (0.005. sodium (57550-60500mg/L is greater than of seawater six times, calcium and magnesium three times greater, and chloride 6.5 times greater, but Sulfate is depleted to six times less due to a sulfur release from sulphates and link with different hydrocarbon species, precipices as native sulphur and link with hydrogen forming H2S. The Zubair oilfield water is characterised by acidic pH (pH=5.2- 5.77 enhanced petrophysical properties, high specific gravity (1.228 predicts a high fluid pressure (4866 psi, hydrocarbon saturation (0.43%, water saturation (0.57% and porosity (12.7. The Mineral saturation model indicates that the Zubair oilfield water is an unsaturated water with respect to all suggested minerals at 5.45, but at simulated pH, brucite being an equilibrium at pH 9.12, but brucite and portlandite being supersaturated at pH 11.9. The mineral solubility responses to the changes in temperature, pressure, pH, Eh, and ionic strength, thereby formation damage is proportionally developed.

  12. Seismic response of concrete gravity dams with finite reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumber, T.; Ghobarah, A.

    1992-01-01

    In most previous analyses of dam responses to earthquake ground motion, the upstream reservoir is assumed to be infinite in length and completely straight. The meandering nature of the river system, however, results in the creation of a finite length reservoir upstream of the dam structure. A study was carried out to examine the effects of the finite length of the reservoir on the dynamic behavior of the monolith. The effect of excitation of the far end of the boundary on the monolith's response is also of interest. The dam-foundation-reservoir system is modelled using a sub-structuring approach. The analysis is conducted in the frequency domain and utilizes the finite element technique. The water in the reservoir is assumed to be compressible, inviscid, and irrotational. The upstream reservoir is assumed to have a rectangular cross-section. It was found that the finite length reservoir assumption results in supplementary response peaks in the monolith's response. The finite reservoir length allows the reservoir to resonate both in horizontal and vertical directions. The magnitude and spacing of these supplementary response peaks are dependent on the length of the reservoir. The phase of the ground motion which affects the far end boundary of the reservoir was also found to have a significant effect on the dam monolith's response. 8 refs., 5 figs

  13. Improving the Characterization of Arctic Coastline Ecosystem Change near Utqiagvik, Alaska Utilizing Multiyear Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarzaga, S. M.; Cody, R. P.; Vargas, S. A., Jr.; Fuson, T.; Hodge, B. E.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic Ocean comprises the largest coastline on Earth and is undergoing environmental change on a level disproportionate to those in lower-latitudes. In the US Arctic, coastal erosion rates along the North Slope of Alaska show that they are among highest in the nation at an average rate of 1.4 meters per year. Despite their importance to biogeochemical cycling, Native village infrastructure and providing pristine species habitat, Arctic coastlines and near shore environments are relatively understudied due to logistical challenges of conducting fieldwork in these locations. This study expands on past efforts which showed dGPS foot surveys work well at describing planar erosion on less complex permafrost bluff types like those seen on the higher-energy coasts east of Utqiagvik, Alaska along the Beaufort Sea where the main mechanism of erosion happens by block failure caused by wave action. However, coastal bluffs along the Chukchi Sea to the west are more complex and variable in terms of form and mechanisms of erosion. Here, where wide beaches tend to buffer wave action, thermal erosion and permafrost slumping produce slower erosion rates. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) has been applied across a multitude of terrain types, including coastlines spanning various ecosystems. Additionally, this approach allows 3D modeling of fine scale geomorphological features which can facilitate modeling of erosion rates in these areas. This study utilizes a six year time series of TLS on a section of coastal permafrost bluff along the Chukchi Sea south of Utqiagvik. The aim of the work presented is to better understand spatio-temporal trends of coastal bluff face erosion, bluff top subsidence and how these landscape microtopographic changes are coupled to ecosystem changes and land cover types. Preliminary analysis suggests a high rate of stability of the bluff face over the TLS record with most of the detectable permafrost subsidence happening closer to the coastal bluff edge.

  14. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling that utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling, testing of the geologic-engineering model, and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of seismic attributes, (2) petrophysical characterization, (3) data integration, (4) the building of the geologic-engineering model, (5) the testing of the geologic-engineering model and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 3. Progress on the project is as follows: geoscientific reservoir characterization is completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been completed. Observations regarding the diagenetic

  15. Glucuronoyl Esterase Screening and Characterization Assays Utilizing Commercially Available Benzyl Glucuronic Acid Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampus Sunner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on glucuronoyl esterases (GEs has been hampered by the lack of enzyme assays based on easily obtainable substrates. While benzyl d-glucuronic acid ester (BnGlcA is a commercially available substrate that can be used for GE assays, several considerations regarding substrate instability, limited solubility and low apparent affinities should be made. In this work we discuss the factors that are important when using BnGlcA for assaying GE activity and show how these can be applied when designing BnGlcA-based GE assays for different applications: a thin-layer chromatography assay for qualitative activity detection, a coupled-enzyme spectrophotometric assay that can be used for high-throughput screening or general activity determinations and a HPLC-based detection method allowing kinetic determinations. The three-level experimental procedure not merely facilitates routine, fast and simple biochemical characterizations but it can also give rise to the discovery of different GEs through an extensive screening of heterologous Genomic and Metagenomic expression libraries.

  16. High-value utilization of eucalyptus kraft lignin: Preparation and characterization as efficient dye dispersant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yu, Boming; Zhou, Wanpeng; Liu, Xinxin; Chen, Fangeng

    2018-04-01

    The dark color of industrial lignin is the main obstacle for their high value-added use in areas such as dyestuff dispersants. A kind of light-colored lignosulfonate with favorable dispersibility and remarkable stain resistance is prepared using fractionated eucalyptus kraft lignin. The fractionated lignins named as D (insoluble part) and X (soluble part) and sulfonated lignin fractions named as SD and SX are characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, 1 H NMR spectroscopy, GPC and brightness test. The results reveal that fraction X presents a lower molecular weight but a higher hydroxyl content than that of fraction D, which lead to the differences on the SO 3 H content, dispersibility and color performance of SD and SX. The sulfonated fractions perform a similar molecular weight to that of unsulfonated lignins and show light color due to the phenolic hydroxyl blocking of 1,4-BS (1,4-butane sultone) and the postprocessing of sodium borohydride. The SX that performs the best of all exhibits obvious decrease on phenolic hydroxyl groups and increase on brightness value which is improved by 85.8% compared with control sample. The SX reaches the highest level (grade 5) in the dispersibility test and presents remarkable stain resistance on different textiles, especially on the dacron and cotton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterizing the glymphatic influx by utilizing intracisternal infusion of fluorescently conjugated cadaverine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui; Lin, Jun; Wei, Fang; Song, Jian; Chen, Wenyue; Shan, Lidong; Xue, Rong; Wang, Guoqing; Tao, Jin; Zhang, Guoxing; Xu, Guang-Yin; Wang, Linhui

    2018-05-15

    Accumulating evidence supports that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space (SAS) could reenter the brain parenchyma via the glymphatic influx. The present study was designed to characterize the detailed pathway of subarachnoid CSF influx by using a novel CSF tracer. Fluorescently conjugated cadaverine (A488-ca), for the first time, was employed to investigate CSF movement in the brain. Following intracisternal infusion of CSF tracers, mice brain was sliced and prepared for fluorescence imaging. Some brain sections were immunostained in order to observe tracer distribution and cellular uptake. A488-ca moved into the brain parenchyma rapidly, and the influx was time and region dependent. A488-ca entered the mice brain more readily and spread more widely than another commonly used CSF tracer-fluorescently conjugated ovalbumin (OA-45). Furthermore, A488-ca could enter the brain parenchyma either along the paravascular space or across the pial surface. Suppression of glymphatic transport by administration with acetazolamide strikingly reduced the influx of A488-ca. More importantly, relative to OA-45 largely remained in the extracellular space, A488-ca exhibited obvious cellular uptake by astrocytes surrounding the blood vessels and neurons in the cerebral cortex. Subarachnoid CSF could flow into the brain parenchyma via the glymphatic influx, in which the transcellular pathway was faithfully traced by intracisternal infusion with fluorescently conjugated cadaverine. These observations extend our comprehension on the glymphatic influx pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification, characterization and utilization of unigene derived microsatellite markers in tea (Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Trilochan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite great advances in genomic technology observed in several crop species, the availability of molecular tools such as microsatellite markers has been limited in tea (Camellia sinensis L.. The development of microsatellite markers will have a major impact on genetic analysis, gene mapping and marker assisted breeding. Unigene derived microsatellite (UGMS markers identified from publicly available sequence database have the advantage of assaying variation in the expressed component of the genome with unique identity and position. Therefore, they can serve as efficient and cost effective alternative markers in such species. Results Considering the multiple advantages of UGMS markers, 1,223 unigenes were predicted from 2,181 expressed sequence tags (ESTs of tea (Camellia sinensis L.. A total of 109 (8.9% unigenes containing 120 SSRs were identified. SSR abundance was one in every 3.55 kb of EST sequences. The microsatellites mainly comprised of di (50.8%, tri (30.8%, tetra (6.6%, penta (7.5% and few hexa (4.1% nucleotide repeats. Among the dinucleotide repeats, (GAn.(TCn were most abundant (83.6%. Ninety six primer pairs could be designed form 83.5% of SSR containing unigenes. Of these, 61 (63.5% primer pairs were experimentally validated and used to investigate the genetic diversity among the 34 accessions of different Camellia spp. Fifty one primer pairs (83.6% were successfully cross transferred to the related species at various levels. Functional annotation of the unigenes containing SSRs was done through gene ontology (GO characterization. Thirty six (60% of them revealed significant sequence similarity with the known/putative proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana. Polymorphism information content (PIC ranged from 0.018 to 0.972 with a mean value of 0.497. The average heterozygosity expected (HE and observed (Ho obtained was 0.654 and 0.413 respectively, thereby suggesting highly heterogeneous nature of tea. Further, test

  19. Reservoir heterogeneity in carboniferous sandstone of the Black Warrior basin. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.; Irvin, G.D.; Moore, H.E.

    1994-06-01

    Although oil production in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama is declining, additional oil may be produced through improved recovery strategies, such as waterflooding, chemical injection, strategic well placement, and infill drilling. High-quality characterization of reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin is necessary to utilize advanced technology to recover additional oil and to avoid premature abandonment of fields. This report documents controls on the distribution and producibility of oil from heterogeneous Carboniferous reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report summarizes the structural and depositional evolution of the Black Warrior basin and establishes the geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks and oil in the basin. This second part characterizes facies heterogeneity and petrologic and petrophysical properties of Carter and Millerella sandstone reservoirs. This is followed by a summary of oil production in the Black Warrior basin and an evaluation of seven improved-recovery projects in Alabama. In the final part, controls on the producibility of oil from sandstone reservoirs are discussed in terms of a scale-dependent heterogeneity classification.

  20. Reservoir heterogeneity in Carboniferous sandstone of the Black Warrior basin. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.; Irvin, G.D.; Moore, H.E.

    1994-04-01

    Although oil production in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama is declining, additional oil may be produced through improved recovery strategies, such as waterflooding, chemical injection, strategic well placement, and infill drilling. High-quality characterization of reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin is necessary to utilize advanced technology to recover additional oil and to avoid premature abandonment of fields. This report documents controls on the distribution and producibility of oil from heterogeneous Carboniferous reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report summarizes the structural and depositional evolution of the Black Warrior basin and establishes the geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks and oil in the basin. This second part characterizes facies heterogeneity and petrologic and petrophysical properties of Carter and Millerella sandstone reservoirs. This is followed by a summary of oil production in the Black Warrior basin and an evaluation of seven improved-recovery projects in Alabama. In the final part, controls on the producibility of oil from sandstone reservoirs are discussed in terms of a scale-dependent heterogeneity classification.

  1. Multi-data reservoir history matching for enhanced reservoir forecasting and uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-04-01

    Reservoir simulations and history matching are critical for fine-tuning reservoir production strategies, improving understanding of the subsurface formation, and forecasting remaining reserves. Production data have long been incorporated for adjusting reservoir parameters. However, the sparse spatial sampling of this data set has posed a significant challenge for efficiently reducing uncertainty of reservoir parameters. Seismic, electromagnetic, gravity and InSAR techniques have found widespread applications in enhancing exploration for oil and gas and monitoring reservoirs. These data have however been interpreted and analyzed mostly separately, rarely exploiting the synergy effects that could result from combining them. We present a multi-data ensemble Kalman filter-based history matching framework for the simultaneous incorporation of various reservoir data such as seismic, electromagnetics, gravimetry and InSAR for best possible characterization of the reservoir formation. We apply an ensemble-based sensitivity method to evaluate the impact of each observation on the estimated reservoir parameters. Numerical experiments for different test cases demonstrate considerable matching enhancements when integrating all data sets in the history matching process. Results from the sensitivity analysis further suggest that electromagnetic data exhibit the strongest impact on the matching enhancements due to their strong differentiation between water fronts and hydrocarbons in the test cases.

  2. Characterizing Global Flood Wave Travel Times to Optimize the Utility of Near Real-Time Satellite Remote Sensing Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. H.; David, C. H.; Andreadis, K. M.; Emery, C. M.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Earth observing satellites provide valuable near real-time (NRT) information about flood occurrence and magnitude worldwide. This NRT information can be used in early flood warning systems and other flood management applications to save lives and mitigate flood damage. However, these NRT products are only useful to early flood warning systems if they are quickly made available, with sufficient time for flood mitigation actions to be implemented. More specifically, NRT data latency, or the time period between the satellite observation and when the user has access to the information, must be less than the time it takes a flood to travel from the flood observation location to a given downstream point of interest. Yet the paradigm that "lower latency is always better" may not necessarily hold true in river systems due to tradeoffs between data latency and data quality. Further, the existence of statistical breaks in the global distribution of flood wave travel time (i.e. a jagged statistical distribution) would represent preferable latencies for river-observation NRT remote sensing products. Here we present a global analysis of flood wave velocity (i.e. flow celerity) and travel time. We apply a simple kinematic wave model to a global hydrography dataset and calculate flow wave celerity and travel time during bankfull flow conditions. Bankfull flow corresponds to the condition of maximum celerity and thus we present the "worst-case scenario" minimum flow wave travel time. We conduct a similar analysis with respect to the time it takes flood waves to reach the next downstream city, as well as the next downstream reservoir. Finally, we conduct these same analyses, but with regards to the technical capabilities of the planned Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission, which is anticipated to provide waterbody elevation and extent measurements at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. We validate these results with discharge records from paired

  3. Utility of Characterizing and Monitoring Suspected Underground Nuclear Sites with VideoSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, S. M.; Yocky, D. A.; Riley, R.; Calloway, T. M.; Wahl, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories proposed using airborne synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) collected in VideoSAR mode to characterize the Underground Nuclear Explosion Signature Experiment (UNESE) test bed site at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The SNL SAR collected airborne, Ku-band (16.8 GHz center frequency), 0.2032 meter ground resolution over NNSS in August 2014 and X-band (9.6 GHz), 0.1016 meter ground resolution fully-polarimetric SAR in April 2015. This paper reports the findings of processing and exploiting VideoSAR for creating digital elevation maps, detecting cultural artifacts and exploiting full-circle polarimetric signatures. VideoSAR collects a continuous circle of phase history data, therefore, imagery can be formed over the 360-degrees of the site. Since the Ku-band VideoSAR had two antennas suitable for interferometric digital elevation mapping (DEM), DEMs could be generated over numerous aspect angles, filling in holes created by targets with height by imaging from all sides. Also, since the X-band VideoSAR was fully-polarimetric, scattering signatures could be gleaned from all angles also. Both of these collections can be used to find man-made objects and changes in elevation that might indicate testing activities. VideoSAR provides a unique, coherent measure of ground objects allowing one to create accurate DEMS, locate man-made objects, and identify scattering signatures via polarimetric exploitation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. The authors would like to thank the National Nuclear Security Administration, Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development, for sponsoring this work. We would also like to thank the Underground Nuclear Explosion Signatures Experiment team, a multi

  4. Characterizing the utility of the TMPA real-time product for hydrologic predictions over global river basins across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H.; Zhang, S.; Nijssen, B.; Zhou, T.; Voisin, N.; Sheffield, J.; Lee, K.; Shukla, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    Despite its errors and uncertainties, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis real-time product (TMPA-RT) has been widely used for hydrological monitoring and forecasting due to its timely availability for real-time applications. To evaluate the utility of TMPA-RT in hydrologic predictions, many studies have compared modeled streamflows driven by TMPA-RT against gauge data. However, because of the limited availability of streamflow observations in data sparse regions, there is still a lack of comprehensive comparisons for TMPA-RT based hydrologic predictions at the global scale. Furthermore, it is expected that its skill is less optimal at the subbasin scale than the basin scale. In this study, we evaluate and characterize the utility of the TMPA-RT product over selected global river basins during the period of 1998 to 2015 using the TMPA research product (TMPA-RP) as a reference. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which was calibrated and validated previously, is adopted to simulate streamflows driven by TMPA-RT and TMPA-RP, respectively. The objective of this study is to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of the hydrologic predictions by answering the following questions: (1) How do the precipitation errors associated with the TMPA-RT product transform into streamflow errors with respect to geographical and climatological characteristics? (2) How do streamflow errors vary across scales within a basin?

  5. Analysis and Characterization of Damage and Failure Utilizing a Generalized Composite Material Model Suitable for Use in Impact Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; DuBois, Paul; Khaled, Bilal; Hoffarth, Canio; Rajan, Subramaniam; Blankenhorn, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    A material model which incorporates several key capabilities which have been identified by the aerospace community as lacking in state-of-the art composite impact models is under development. In particular, a next generation composite impact material model, jointly developed by the FAA and NASA, is being implemented into the commercial transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA. The material model, which incorporates plasticity, damage, and failure, utilizes experimentally based tabulated input to define the evolution of plasticity and damage and the initiation of failure as opposed to specifying discrete input parameters (such as modulus and strength). The plasticity portion of the orthotropic, three-dimensional, macroscopic composite constitutive model is based on an extension of the Tsai-Wu composite failure model into a generalized yield function with a non-associative flow rule. For the damage model, a strain equivalent formulation is utilized to allow for the uncoupling of the deformation and damage analyses. In the damage model, a semi-coupled approach is employed where the overall damage in a particular coordinate direction is assumed to be a multiplicative combination of the damage in that direction resulting from the applied loads in the various coordinate directions. Due to the fact that the plasticity and damage models are uncoupled, test procedures and methods to both characterize the damage model and to covert the material stress-strain curves from the true (damaged) stress space to the effective (undamaged) stress space have been developed. A methodology has been developed to input the experimentally determined composite failure surface in a tabulated manner. An analytical approach is then utilized to track how close the current stress state is to the failure surface.

  6. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    2005-01-01

    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  7. MIKROMITSETY- MIGRANTS IN MINGECHEVIR RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Salmanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. It is hardly possible to predict the continued stability of the watercourse ecosystems without the study of biological characteristics and composition of organisms inhabiting them. In the last 35-40 years, environmental conditions of the Mingachevir reservoir are determined by the stationary anthropogenic pressure. It was found that such components of plankton as algae, bacteria and fungi play a leading role in the transformation and migration of pollutants. The role of the three groups of organisms is very important in maintaining the water quality by elimination of pollutants. Among the organisms inhabiting the Mingachevir Reservoir, micromycetes have not yet been studied. Therefore, the study of the species composition and seasonal dynamics, peculiarities of their growth and development in the environment with the presence of some of the pollutants should be considered to date.Methods. In order to determine the role of micromycetes-migrants in the mineralization of organic substrates, as an active participant of self-purification process, we used water samples from the bottom sediments as well as decaying and skeletonized stalks of cane, reeds, algae, macrophytes, exuvia of insects and fish remains submerged in water.Findings. For the first time, we obtained the data on the quality and quantity of microscopic mycelial fungi in freshwater bodies on the example of the Mingachevir water reservoir; we also studied the possibilities for oxygenating the autochthonous organic matter of allochthonous origin with micromycetes-migrants.Conclusions. It was found that the seasonal development of micromycetes-migrants within the Mingachevir reservoir is characterized by an increase in the number of species in the summer and a gradual reduction in species diversity in the fall. 

  8. Optimising reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le

    Anvendelse af optimeringsteknik til drift af reservoirer er blevet et væsentligt element i vandressource-planlægning og -forvaltning. Traditionelt har reservoirer været styret af heuristiske procedurer for udtag af vand, suppleret i en vis udstrækning af subjektive beslutninger. Udnyttelse af...... reservoirer involverer en lang række interessenter med meget forskellige formål (f.eks. kunstig vanding, vandkraft, vandforsyning mv.), og optimeringsteknik kan langt bedre lede frem til afbalancerede løsninger af de ofte modstridende interesser. Afhandlingen foreslår en række tiltag, hvormed traditionelle...

  9. 2D seismostratigraphic inversion applied to a thin reservoir characterization; Inversao sismoestratigrafica 2D aplicada a caracterizacao de um reservatorio delgado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Antonio Carlos de Almeida

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to estimate thin reservoir properties even without counting on a good quality and a homogeneous database. Following a regional geological setting, well data such as logs, reports, cores had led to an interpretation of the depositional model in which the sandstone interval is inserted as an filling an incised valley system. This knowledge is essential to provide elements for a final work judgement. The main geological properties were then extracted from logs. The geophysical approach has counted on a 1D modeling of the main well acoustic parameters and a 2D Seismostratigraphic Inversion with a {alpha} priori acoustic impedance, which was able to enhance the frequency content of the original data. After the interpretation of the inverted data, seismic attributes were then extracted. A multivariate statistics was performed in order to establish which correlations between geological and seismic would be carried forward. An Ordinary Kriging was applied to the 2D seismic attributes. The External Drift Kriging was used to derive maps of the geological properties with the constraint of seismic variables. The final geological properties maps are similar in shape and coherent with the depositional model proposed. (author)

  10. Spatio-Temporal Variations of the Stable H-O Isotopes and Characterization of Mixing Processes between the Mainstream and Tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the runoff characteristics and interaction processes between the mainstream and its tributaries are an essential issue in watershed and water management. In this paper, hydrogen (δD and oxygen (δ18O isotope techniques were used in the mainstream and Zhuyi Bay (ZYB of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR during the wet and dry seasons in 2015. It revealed that (1 Precipitation was the main source of stream flow compared to the TGR water line with meteoric water line of the Yangtse River basin; (2 The δD and δ18O values exhibited a ‘toward lighter-heavier’ trend along mainstream due to the continuous evaporation effect in the runoff direction, and the fluctuations reflected incoming water from the nearest tributaries. The general trend of d-excess increased with increasing distance from the Three Gorges Dam, which indicated that kinetic fractionation was an important process affecting the isotopic composition. The enrichment effect of isotopes was found in the downstream of TGR; (3 Water mass from the TGR mainstream flowed backward to the confluence zone of ZYB via the middle and bottom layers in the dry season, whereas in the wet season, water reversed through the upper-middle layers due to thermal density flows. This study described and demonstrated that the water cycle of TGR was driven by natural environmental variability and operational system, which will provide valuable information for the water resource management and for controlling the algal blooms in the future.

  11. Analysis of structural heterogeneities on drilled cores: a reservoir modeling oriented methodology; Analyse des heterogeneites structurales sur carottes: une methodologie axee vers la modelisation des reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, P.; Petit, J.P. [Montpellier-2 Univ., Lab. de Geophysique, Tectonique et Sedimentologie, UMR CNRS 5573, 34 (France); Guy, L. [ELF Aquitaine Production, 64 - Pau (France); Thiry-Bastien, Ph. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 (France)

    1999-07-01

    The characterization of structural heterogeneities of reservoirs is of prime importance for hydrocarbons recovery. A methodology is presented which allows to compare the dynamic behaviour of fractured reservoirs and the observation of microstructures on drilled cores or surface reservoir analogues. (J.S.)

  12. Simulation of Reservoir Sediment Flushing of the Three Gorges Reservoir Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir sedimentation and its effect on the environment are the most serious world-wide problems in water resources development and utilization today. As one of the largest water conservancy projects, the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR has been controversial since its demonstration period, and sedimentation is the major concern. Due to the complex physical mechanisms of water and sediment transport, this study adopts the Error Back Propagation Training Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN to analyze the relationship between the sediment flushing efficiency of the TGR and its influencing factors. The factors are determined by the analysis on 1D unsteady flow and sediment mathematical model, mainly including reservoir inflow, incoming sediment concentration, reservoir water level, and reservoir release. Considering the distinguishing features of reservoir sediment delivery in different seasons, the monthly average data from 2003, when the TGR was put into operation, to 2011 are used to train, validate, and test the BP-ANN model. The results indicate that, although the sample space is quite limited, the whole sediment delivery process can be schematized by the established BP-ANN model, which can be used to help sediment flushing and thus decrease the reservoir sedimentation.

  13. Potential implementation of reservoir computing models based on magnetic skyrmions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourianoff, George; Pinna, Daniele; Sitte, Matthias; Everschor-Sitte, Karin

    2018-05-01

    Reservoir Computing is a type of recursive neural network commonly used for recognizing and predicting spatio-temporal events relying on a complex hierarchy of nested feedback loops to generate a memory functionality. The Reservoir Computing paradigm does not require any knowledge of the reservoir topology or node weights for training purposes and can therefore utilize naturally existing networks formed by a wide variety of physical processes. Most efforts to implement reservoir computing prior to this have focused on utilizing memristor techniques to implement recursive neural networks. This paper examines the potential of magnetic skyrmion fabrics and the complex current patterns which form in them as an attractive physical instantiation for Reservoir Computing. We argue that their nonlinear dynamical interplay resulting from anisotropic magnetoresistance and spin-torque effects allows for an effective and energy efficient nonlinear processing of spatial temporal events with the aim of event recognition and prediction.

  14. HIV-1 Reservoir Association with Immune Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vallejo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of EBioMedicine, Ruggiero and colleagues describe immune activation biomarkers associated with the size of the HIV reservoir in a carefully designed cross-sectional study. The cohort consists of a homogeneous sample of HIV-1-infected patients with long-term plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression under antiretroviral treatment (ART. It is crucial to explore the potential utility of biomarkers that are easier (less labor intensive, less expensive to measure than integrated HIV DNA load, in order to quickly and accurately quantify cellular reservoirs of HIV.

  15. INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Sippel; William C. Carrigan; Kenneth D. Luff; Lyn Canter

    2003-11-12

    Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). The software tools in ICS have been developed for characterization of reservoir properties and evaluation of hydrocarbon potential using a combination of inter-disciplinary data sources such as geophysical, geologic and engineering variables. The ICS tools provide a means for logical and consistent reservoir characterization and oil reserve estimates. The tools can be broadly characterized as (1) clustering tools, (2) neural solvers, (3) multiple-linear regression, (4) entrapment-potential calculator and (5) file utility tools. ICS tools are extremely flexible in their approach and use, and applicable to most geologic settings. The tools are primarily designed to correlate relationships between seismic information and engineering and geologic data obtained from wells, and to convert or translate seismic information into engineering and geologic terms or units. It is also possible to apply ICS in a simple framework that may include reservoir characterization using only engineering, seismic, or geologic data in the analysis. ICS tools were developed and tested using geophysical, geologic and engineering data obtained from an exploitation and development project involving the Red River Formation in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. Data obtained from 3D seismic surveys, and 2D seismic lines encompassing nine prospective field areas were used in the analysis. The geologic setting of the Red River Formation in Bowman and Harding counties is that of a shallow-shelf, carbonate system. Present-day depth of the Red River formation is approximately 8000 to 10,000 ft below ground surface. This report summarizes production results from well demonstration activity, results of reservoir characterization of the Red River Formation at demonstration sites, descriptions of ICS tools and strategies for their application.

  16. Climate variability and sedimentation of a hydropower reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, M.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the relicensing of a large Hydroelectric Project in the central Appalachians, large scale watershed and reservoir sedimentation models were developed to forecast potential sedimentation scenarios. The GIS based watershed model was spatially explicit and calibrated to long term observed data. Potential socio/economic development scenarios were used to construct future watershed land cover scenarios. Climatic variability and potential change analysis were used to identify future climate regimes and shifts in precipitation and temperature patterns. Permutations of these development and climate changes were forecasted over 50 years and used to develop sediment yield regimes to the project reservoir. Extensive field work and reservoir survey, including current and wave instrumentation, were used to characterize the project watershed, rivers and reservoir hydrodynamics. A fully 3 dimensional hydrodynamic reservoir sedimentation model was developed for the project and calibrated to observed data. Hydrologic and sedimentation results from watershed forecasting provided boundary conditions for reservoir inputs. The calibrated reservoir model was then used to forecast changes in reservoir sedimentation and storage capacity under different future climate scenarios. Results indicated unique zones of advancing sediment deltas and temporary storage areas. Forecasted changes in reservoir bathymetry and sedimentation patterns were also developed for the various climate change scenarios. The warmer and wetter scenario produced sedimentation impacts similar to extensive development under no climate change. The results of these analyses are being used to develop collaborative watershed and soil conservation partnerships to reduce future soil losses and reservoir sedimentation from projected development. (author)

  17. On-line Optimization-Based Simulators for Fractured and Non-fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milind D. Deo

    2005-08-31

    Oil field development is a multi-million dollar business. Reservoir simulation is often used to guide the field management and development process. Reservoir characterization and geologic modeling tools have become increasingly sophisticated. As a result the geologic models produced are complex. Most reservoirs are fractured to a certain extent. The new geologic characterization methods are making it possible to map features such as faults and fractures, field-wide. Significant progress has been made in being able to predict properties of the faults and of the fractured zones. Traditionally, finite difference methods have been employed in discretizing the domains created by geologic means. For complex geometries, finite-element methods of discretization may be more suitable. Since reservoir simulation is a mature science, some of the advances in numerical methods (linear, nonlinear solvers and parallel computing) have not been fully realized in the implementation of most of the simulators. The purpose of this project was to address some of these issues. {sm_bullet} One of the goals of this project was to develop a series of finite-element simulators to handle problems of complex geometry, including systems containing faults and fractures. {sm_bullet} The idea was to incorporate the most modern computing tools; use of modular object-oriented computer languages, the most sophisticated linear and nonlinear solvers, parallel computing methods and good visualization tools. {sm_bullet} One of the tasks of the project was also to demonstrate the construction of fractures and faults in a reservoir using the available data and to assign properties to these features. {sm_bullet} Once the reservoir model is in place, it is desirable to find the operating conditions, which would provide the best reservoir performance. This can be accomplished by utilization optimization tools and coupling them with reservoir simulation. Optimization-based reservoir simulation was one of the

  18. Technology for Increasing Geothermal Energy Productivity. Computer Models to Characterize the Chemical Interactions of Geothermal Fluids and Injectates with Reservoir Rocks, Wells, Surface Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancy Moller Weare

    2006-01-01

    This final report describes the results of a research program we carried out over a five-year (3/1999-9/2004) period with funding from a Department of Energy geothermal FDP grant (DE-FG07-99ID13745) and from other agencies. The goal of research projects in this program were to develop modeling technologies that can increase the understanding of geothermal reservoir chemistry and chemistry-related energy production processes. The ability of computer models to handle many chemical variables and complex interactions makes them an essential tool for building a fundamental understanding of a wide variety of complex geothermal resource and production chemistry. With careful choice of methodology and parameterization, research objectives were to show that chemical models can correctly simulate behavior for the ranges of fluid compositions, formation minerals, temperature and pressure associated with present and near future geothermal systems as well as for the very high PT chemistry of deep resources that is intractable with traditional experimental methods. Our research results successfully met these objectives. We demonstrated that advances in physical chemistry theory can be used to accurately describe the thermodynamics of solid-liquid-gas systems via their free energies for wide ranges of composition (X), temperature and pressure. Eight articles on this work were published in peer-reviewed journals and in conference proceedings. Four are in preparation. Our work has been presented at many workshops and conferences. We also considerably improved our interactive web site (geotherm.ucsd.edu), which was in preliminary form prior to the grant. This site, which includes several model codes treating different XPT conditions, is an effective means to transfer our technologies and is used by the geothermal community and other researchers worldwide. Our models have wide application to many energy related and other important problems (e.g., scaling prediction in petroleum

  19. Technology for Increasing Geothermal Energy Productivity. Computer Models to Characterize the Chemical Interactions of Goethermal Fluids and Injectates with Reservoir Rocks, Wells, Surface Equiptment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Moller Weare

    2006-07-25

    This final report describes the results of a research program we carried out over a five-year (3/1999-9/2004) period with funding from a Department of Energy geothermal FDP grant (DE-FG07-99ID13745) and from other agencies. The goal of research projects in this program were to develop modeling technologies that can increase the understanding of geothermal reservoir chemistry and chemistry-related energy production processes. The ability of computer models to handle many chemical variables and complex interactions makes them an essential tool for building a fundamental understanding of a wide variety of complex geothermal resource and production chemistry. With careful choice of methodology and parameterization, research objectives were to show that chemical models can correctly simulate behavior for the ranges of fluid compositions, formation minerals, temperature and pressure associated with present and near future geothermal systems as well as for the very high PT chemistry of deep resources that is intractable with traditional experimental methods. Our research results successfully met these objectives. We demonstrated that advances in physical chemistry theory can be used to accurately describe the thermodynamics of solid-liquid-gas systems via their free energies for wide ranges of composition (X), temperature and pressure. Eight articles on this work were published in peer-reviewed journals and in conference proceedings. Four are in preparation. Our work has been presented at many workshops and conferences. We also considerably improved our interactive web site (geotherm.ucsd.edu), which was in preliminary form prior to the grant. This site, which includes several model codes treating different XPT conditions, is an effective means to transfer our technologies and is used by the geothermal community and other researchers worldwide. Our models have wide application to many energy related and other important problems (e.g., scaling prediction in petroleum

  20. Multi Data Reservoir History Matching using the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-05-01

    Reservoir history matching is becoming increasingly important with the growing demand for higher quality formation characterization and forecasting and the increased complexity and expenses for modern hydrocarbon exploration projects. History matching has long been dominated by adjusting reservoir parameters based solely on well data whose spatial sparse sampling has been a challenge for characterizing the flow properties in areas away from the wells. Geophysical data are widely collected nowadays for reservoir monitoring purposes, but has not yet been fully integrated into history matching and forecasting fluid flow. In this thesis, I present a pioneering approach towards incorporating different time-lapse geophysical data together for enhancing reservoir history matching and uncertainty quantification. The thesis provides several approaches to efficiently integrate multiple geophysical data, analyze the sensitivity of the history matches to observation noise, and examine the framework’s performance in several settings, such as the Norne field in Norway. The results demonstrate the significant improvements in reservoir forecasting and characterization and the synergy effects encountered between the different geophysical data. In particular, the joint use of electromagnetic and seismic data improves the accuracy of forecasting fluid properties, and the usage of electromagnetic data has led to considerably better estimates of hydrocarbon fluid components. For volatile oil and gas reservoirs the joint integration of gravimetric and InSAR data has shown to be beneficial in detecting the influx of water and thereby improving the recovery rate. Summarizing, this thesis makes an important contribution towards integrated reservoir management and multiphysics integration for reservoir history matching.

  1. Transcriptional and functional characterization of genetic elements involved in galacto-oligosaccharide utilization by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Kinsella, Michael; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Several prebiotics, such as inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides, are widely used commercially in foods and there is convincing evidence, in particular for galacto-oligosaccharides, that prebiotics can modulate the microbiota and promote bifidobacterial growth in the intestinal tract of infants and adults. In this study we describe the identification and functional characterization of the genetic loci responsible for the transport and metabolism of purified galacto-oligosaccharides (PGOS) by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. We further demonstrate that an extracellular endogalactanase specified by several B. breve strains, including B. breve UCC2003, is essential for partial degradation of PGOS components with a high degree of polymerization. These partially hydrolysed PGOS components are presumed to be transported into the bifidobacterial cell via various ABC transport systems and sugar permeases where they are further degraded to galactose and glucose monomers that feed into the bifid shunt. This work significantly advances our molecular understanding of bifidobacterial PGOS metabolism and its associated genetic machinery to utilize this prebiotic. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  2. Transcriptional and functional characterization of genetic elements involved in galacto-oligosaccharide utilization by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Kinsella, Michael; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Sinderen, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Several prebiotics, such as inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides, are widely used commercially in foods and there is convincing evidence, in particular for galacto-oligosaccharides, that prebiotics can modulate the microbiota and promote bifidobacterial growth in the intestinal tract of infants and adults. In this study we describe the identification and functional characterization of the genetic loci responsible for the transport and metabolism of purified galacto-oligosaccharides (PGOS) by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. We further demonstrate that an extracellular endogalactanase specified by several B. breve strains, including B. breve UCC2003, is essential for partial degradation of PGOS components with a high degree of polymerization. These partially hydrolysed PGOS components are presumed to be transported into the bifidobacterial cell via various ABC transport systems and sugar permeases where they are further degraded to galactose and glucose monomers that feed into the bifid shunt. This work significantly advances our molecular understanding of bifidobacterial PGOS metabolism and its associated genetic machinery to utilize this prebiotic. PMID:23199239

  3. Production, optimization and characterization of lactic acid by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIM 2025 from utilizing agro-industrial byproduct (cane molasses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhinay Kumar; Tripathi, Abhishek Dutt; Jha, Alok; Poonia, Amrita; Sharma, Nitya

    2015-06-01

    In the present work Lactobacillus delbrueckii was used to utilize agro-industrial byproduct (cane molasses) for lactic acid production under submerged fermentation process. Screening of LAB was done by Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). Effect of different amino acids (DL-Phenylalanine, L-Lysine and DL-Aspartic acid) on the fermentation process was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to optimize the levels of three parameters viz. tween 80, amino acid and cane molasses concentration during fermentative production of lactic acid. Under optimum condition lactic acid production was enhanced from 55.89 g/L to 84.50 g/L. Further, validation showed 81.50 g/L lactic acid production. Scale up was done on 7.5 L fermentor. Productivity was found to be 3.40 g/L/h which was higher than previous studies with reduced fermentation time from 24 h to 12 h. Further characterization of lactic acid was done by FTIR.

  4. Post waterflood CO{sub 2} miscible flood in light oil, fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoir. Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bou-Mikael, S.

    1995-07-01

    Texaco Exploration and Production Inc. (TEPI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cost sharing cooperative agreement to conduct an Enhanced Oil Recovery demonstration project at Port Neches. The field is located in Orange County near Beaumont, Texas. The project will demonstrate the effectiveness of the CO{sub 2}, miscible process in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic reservoirs. It will also evaluate the use of horizontal CO{sub 2} injection wells to improve the overall sweep efficiency. A data base of FDD reservoirs for the gulf coast region will be developed by LSU, using a screening model developed by Texaco Research Center in Houston. Finally, the results and the information gained from this project will be disseminated throughout the oil industry via a series of SPE papers and industry open forums. Reservoir characterization efforts for the Marginulina sand, are in progress utilizing conventional and advanced technologies including 3-D seismic. Sidewall and conventional. cores were cut and analyzed, lab tests were conducted on reservoir fluids, reservoir BHP pressure and reservoir voidage were monitored as shown. Texaco is utilizing the above data to develop a Stratamodel to best describe and characterize the reservoir and to use it as an input for the compositional simulator. The current compositional model is being revised to integrate the new data from the 3-D seismic and field performance under CO{sub 2} injection, to ultimately develop an accurate economic model. All facilities work has been completed and placed in service including the CO{sub 2} pipeline and metering equipment, CO{sub 2} injection and production equipment, water injection equipment, well work and injection/production lines. The horizontal injection well was drilled and completed on January 15, 1994. CO{sub 2} purchases from Cardox continue at an average rate of 3600 MCFD. The CO{sub 2} is being injected at line pressure of 1350 psi.

  5. Multi Data Reservoir History Matching using the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir history matching is becoming increasingly important with the growing demand for higher quality formation characterization and forecasting and the increased complexity and expenses for modern hydrocarbon exploration projects. History

  6. Reservoir Operating Rule Optimization for California's Sacramento Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Nelson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss1art6Reservoir operating rules for water resource systems are typically developed by combining intuition, professional discussion, and simulation modeling. This paper describes a joint optimization–simulation approach to develop preliminary economically-based operating rules for major reservoirs in California’s Sacramento Valley, based on optimized results from CALVIN, a hydro-economic optimization model. We infer strategic operating rules from the optimization model results, including storage allocation rules to balance storage among multiple reservoirs, and reservoir release rules to determine monthly release for individual reservoirs. Results show the potential utility of considering previous year type on water availability and various system and sub-system storage conditions, in addition to normal consideration of local reservoir storage, season, and current inflows. We create a simple simulation to further refine and test the derived operating rules. Optimization model results show particular insights for balancing the allocation of water storage among Shasta, Trinity, and Oroville reservoirs over drawdown and refill seasons, as well as some insights for release rules at major reservoirs in the Sacramento Valley. We also discuss the applicability and limitations of developing reservoir operation rules from optimization model results.

  7. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  8. Nagylengyel: an interesting reservoir. [Yugoslovia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedinszky, J

    1971-04-01

    The Nagylengyel oil field, discovered in 1951, has oil-producing formations mostly in the Upper-Triassic dolomites, in the Norian-Ractian transition formations, in the Upper-Cretaceous limestones and shales, and in the Miocene. The formation of the reservoir space occurred in many stages. A porous, cavernous fractured reservoir is developed in the Norian principal dolomite. A cavernous fractured reservoir exists in the Cretaceous limestone and in the Cretaceous shale and porous fractured reservoir is developed in the Miocene. The derivation of the model of the reservoir, and the conservative evaluation of the volume of the reservoir made it possible to use secondary recovery.

  9. Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs Permeability Using Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gholami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Permeability is a key parameter associated with the characterization of any hydrocarbon reservoir. In fact, it is not possible to have accurate solutions to many petroleum engineering problems without having accurate permeability value. The conventional methods for permeability determination are core analysis and well test techniques. These methods are very expensive and time consuming. Therefore, attempts have usually been carried out to use artificial neural network for identification of the relationship between the well log data and core permeability. In this way, recent works on artificial intelligence techniques have led to introduce a robust machine learning methodology called support vector machine. This paper aims to utilize the SVM for predicting the permeability of three gas wells in the Southern Pars field. Obtained results of SVM showed that the correlation coefficient between core and predicted permeability is 0.97 for testing dataset. Comparing the result of SVM with that of a general regression neural network (GRNN revealed that the SVM approach is faster and more accurate than the GRNN in prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs permeability.

  10. Identification of dissolved organic matter in raw water supply from reservoirs and canals as precursors to trihalomethanes formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musikavong, Charongpun; Wattanachira, Suraphong

    2013-01-01

    The characteristic and quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as trihalomethanes precursors in water from the U-Tapao Basin, Songkhla, Thailand was investigated. The sources of water in the basin consisted of two reservoirs and the U-Tapao canal. The canal receives water discharge from reservoirs, treated and untreated wastewater from agricultural processes, communities and industries. Water downstream of the canal is utilized as a raw water supply. Water samples were collected from two reservoirs, upstream and midstream of the canal, and the raw water supply in the rainy season and summer. The DOM level in the canal water was higher than that of the reservoir water. The highest trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) was formed in the raw water supply. Fourier-transform infrared peaks of the humic acid were detected in the reservoir and canal waters. Aliphatic hydrocarbon and organic nitrogen were the major chemical classes in the reservoir and canal water characterized by a pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometer. The optimal condition of the poly aluminum chloride (PACl) coagulation was obtained at a dosage of 40 mg/L at pH 7. This condition could reduce the average UV-254 to 57%, DOC to 64%, and THMFP to 42%. In the coagulated water, peaks of O-H groups or H-bonded NH, C˭O of cyclic and acyclic compounds, ketones and quinines, aromatic C˭C, C-O of alcohols, ethers, and carbohydrates, deformation of COOH, and carboxylic acid salts were detected. The aliphatic hydrocarbon, organic nitrogen and aldehydes and ketones were the major chemical classes. These DOM could be considered as the prominent DOM for the water supply plant that utilized PACl as a coagulant.

  11. Utilization of the Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation Technique for Characterization and Verification of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Alexis Chanel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-27

    New nondestructive assay techniques are sought to better characterize spent nuclear fuel. One of the NDA instruments selected for possible deployment is differential die-away self-interrogation (DDSI). The proposed DDSI approach for spent fuel assembly assay utilizes primarily the spontaneous fission and (α, n) neutrons in the assemblies as an internal interrogating radiation source. The neutrons released in spontaneous fission or (α,n) reactions are thermalized in the surrounding water and induce fission in fissile isotopes, thereby creating a measurable signal from isotopes of interest that would be otherwise difficult to measure. The DDSI instrument employs neutron coincidence counting with 3He tubes and list-mode-based data acquisition to allow for production of Rossi-alpha distributions (RADs) in post-processing. The list-mode approach to data collection and subsequent construction of RADs has expanded the analytical possibilities, as will be demonstrated throughout this thesis. One of the primary advantages is that the measured signal in the form of a RAD can be analyzed in its entirety including determination of die-away times in different time domains. This capability led to the development of the early die-away method, a novel leakage multiplication determination method which is tested throughout the thesis on different sources in simulation space and fresh fuel experiments. The early die-away method is a robust, accurate, improved method of determining multiplication without the need for knowledge of the (α,n) source term. The DDSI technique and instrument are presented along with the many novel capabilities enabled by and discovered through RAD analysis. Among the new capabilities presented are the early die-away method, total plutonium content determination, and highly sensitive missing pin detection. Simulation of hundreds of different spent and fresh fuel assemblies were used to develop the analysis algorithms and the techniques were tested on a

  12. Utility of single-energy and dual-energy computed tomography in clot characterization: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Michalak, Gregory; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Dai, Daying; Gilvarry, Michael; Duffy, Sharon; Kallmes, David F; McCollough, Cynthia; Leng, Shuai

    2017-06-01

    Background and purpose Because computed tomography (CT) is the most commonly used imaging modality for the evaluation of acute ischemic stroke patients, developing CT-based techniques for improving clot characterization could prove useful. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to determine which single-energy or dual-energy CT techniques provided optimum discrimination between red blood cell (RBC) and fibrin-rich clots. Materials and methods Seven clot types with varying fibrin and RBC densities were made (90% RBC, 99% RBC, 63% RBC, 36% RBC, 18% RBC and 0% RBC with high and low fibrin density) and their composition was verified histologically. Ten of each clot type were created and scanned with a second generation dual source scanner using three single (80 kV, 100 kV, 120 kV) and two dual-energy protocols (80/Sn 140 kV and 100/Sn 140 kV). A region of interest (ROI) was placed over each clot and mean attenuation was measured. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated at each energy level to determine the accuracy at differentiating RBC-rich clots from fibrin-rich clots. Results Clot attenuation increased with RBC content at all energy levels. Single-energy at 80 kV and 120 kV and dual-energy 80/Sn 140 kV protocols allowed for distinguishing between all clot types, with the exception of 36% RBC and 18% RBC. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the 80/Sn 140 kV dual-energy protocol had the highest area under the curve for distinguishing between fibrin-rich and RBC-rich clots (area under the curve 0.99). Conclusions Dual-energy CT with 80/Sn 140 kV had the highest accuracy for differentiating RBC-rich and fibrin-rich in-vitro thrombi. Further studies are needed to study the utility of non-contrast dual-energy CT in thrombus characterization in acute ischemic stroke.

  13. Truck Rollover Characterization for Class-8 Tractor-Trailers Utilizing Standard Dual Tires and New-Generation Single Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capps, Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Knee, Bill [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Franzese, Oscar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Pollock, Paul [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Coleman, Daniel [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Janajreh, Ibrahim [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Haas, Steven [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Frey, Norm [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Law, Harry [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Johnson, Eric [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Lawson, Robert [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Petrolino, Joe [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Rice, Dave [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2005-07-30

    The Heavy Truck Rollover Characterization Project is a major research effort conducted by the National Transportation Research Center, Inc. (NTRCI) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Dana Corporation (Dana), Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation (Michelin) and Clemson University (Clemson), under the NTRCIs Heavy Vehicle Safety Research Center (HVSRC) for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). ORNL provided the day-to-day management of the project. The expertise mix of this team coupled with complementary research needs and interests, and a positive can-do attitude provided an extremely positive experimental research opportunity for all involved. Furthermore, this team supplied significant and valuable resources that provided a strong positive benchmark regarding the ability to conduct research within a public-private partnership. The work conducted by this team focused on initial efforts to generate data and information on heavy truck rollover not currently available in the industry. It reflects efforts within Phases 1 and 2 of a longer-term four-phase research program. A 1999 Peterbilt 379 class-8 tractor and 2004 Wabash dry freight van trailer were the test vehicles utilized in this effort. Both were instrumented with a number of sensors to capture the dynamics of the tractor and trailer as it engaged in various testing maneuvers that included: an evasive maneuver, swept sine, constant radius, and a run-off-the-road maneuver. The run-off-the-road maneuver was discontinued because the test track could not safety accommodate such a maneuver. These maneuvers were carried out utilizing both standard dual tires and new-generation dual tires in six test series. Two test series also included the use of a wider-slider suspension. Outriggers were placed on the test vehicle to assure that an actual rollover would not occur, however, the tests were designed to generate lift-off of tires during the tests. One of the main objectives

  14. A High Molecular-Mass Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 Amylopullulanase: Characterization and Its Relationship in Carbohydrate Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Mau Goh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An amylopullulanase of the thermophilic Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 (ApuASK was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Though amylopullulanases larger than 200 kDa are rare, the molecular mass of purified ApuASK appears to be approximately 225 kDa, on both SDS-PAGE analyses and native-PAGE analyses. ApuASK was stable between pH 6.0 and pH 8.0 and exhibited optimal activity at pH 7.5. The optimal temperature for ApuASK enzyme activity was 60 °C, and it retained 54% of its total activity for 240 min at 65 °C. ApuASK reacts with pullulan, starch, glycogen, and dextrin, yielding glucose, maltose, and maltotriose. Interestingly, most of the previously described amylopullulanases are unable to produce glucose and maltose from these substrates. Thus, ApuASK is a novel, high molecular-mass amylopullulanase able to produce glucose, maltose, and maltotriose from pullulan and starch. Based on whole genome sequencing data, ApuASK appeared to be the largest protein present in Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4. The α-amylase catalytic domain present in all of the amylase superfamily members is present in ApuASK, located between the cyclodextrin (CD-pullulan-degrading N-terminus and the α-amylase catalytic C-terminus (amyC domains. In addition, the existence of a S-layer homology (SLH domain indicates that ApuASK might function as a cell-anchoring enzyme and be important for carbohydrate utilization in a streaming hot spring.

  15. Exploiting BAC-end sequences for the mining, characterization and utility of new short sequences repeat (SSR) markers in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Chai, Lijun; Mayer, Christoph; Xu, Qiang; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a large set of microsatellite markers based on publicly available BAC-end sequences (BESs), and to evaluate their transferability, discriminating capacity of genotypes and mapping ability in Citrus. A set of 1,281 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from the 46,339 Citrus clementina BAC-end sequences (BES), of them 20.67% contained SSR longer than 20 bp, corresponding to roughly one perfect SSR per 2.04 kb. The most abundant motifs were di-nucleotide (16.82%) repeats. Among all repeat motifs (TA/AT)n is the most abundant (8.38%), followed by (AG/CT)n (4.51%). Most of the BES-SSR are located in the non-coding region, but 1.3% of BES-SSRs were found to be associated with transposable element (TE). A total of 400 novel SSR primer pairs were synthesized and their transferability and polymorphism tested on a set of 16 Citrus and Citrus relative's species. Among these 333 (83.25%) were successfully amplified and 260 (65.00%) showed cross-species transferability with Poncirus trifoliata and Fortunella sp. These cross-species transferable markers could be useful for cultivar identification, for genomic study of Citrus, Poncirus and Fortunella sp. Utility of the developed SSR marker was demonstrated by identifying a set of 118 markers each for construction of linkage map of Citrus reticulata and Poncirus trifoliata. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among 40 Citrus and its related species were conducted with the aid of 25 randomly selected SSR primer pairs and results revealed that citrus genomic SSRs are superior to genic SSR for genetic diversity and germplasm characterization of Citrus spp.

  16. Parallel reservoir simulator computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemanth-Kumar, K.; Young, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    The adaptation of a reservoir simulator for parallel computations is described. The simulator was originally designed for vector processors. It performs approximately 99% of its calculations in vector/parallel mode and relative to scalar calculations it achieves speedups of 65 and 81 for black oil and EOS simulations, respectively on the CRAY C-90

  17. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  18. Characterization of deep-marine clastic sediments from foreland basins: Outcrop-derived concepts for exploration, production and reservoir modelling. Doctoral thesis; Karakterizering van diep-mariene klastische sedimenten uit voorland bekkens: Aan ontsluitingen ontleende concepten voor exploratie, produktie en reservoir modellering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuppers, J D

    1995-02-20

    Deep-marine clastic sediments are the host for many prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs. The sandbodies that form these reservoirs show a wide variety in shape, spatial arrangement, and internal structure. The outcrops studied for this thesis pertain to the fill of circum-mediterranean foreland basins in Spain and Greece. The outcrops have allowed the description of the multiscale anatomy of sandbodies that cover a wide range of depositional settings. The descriptions are focused on those features that are most likely to influence the flow of fluids through analogous reservoirs of similar construction. Extensive use was made of photomosaics to outline the large-scale geometries and stacking modes of the sandbodies. The sediments studied form the basis for seven `reservoir models` that are both descriptive and conceptual.

  19. Enhanced heavy oil recovery for carbonate reservoirs integrating cross-well seismic–a synthetic Wafra case study

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens; Arango, Santiago; Sun, Shuyu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    reservoir history matching framework using ensemble based techniques incorporating seismic data for enhancing reservoir characterization and improving history matches. Examining the performance on a synthetic field study of the Wafra field, we could

  20. Design and development of bio-inspired framework for reservoir operation optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvini, M. Sakthi; Amudha, T.

    2017-12-01

    Frameworks for optimal reservoir operation play an important role in the management of water resources and delivery of economic benefits. Effective utilization and conservation of water from reservoirs helps to manage water deficit periods. The main challenge in reservoir optimization is to design operating rules that can be used to inform real-time decisions on reservoir release. We develop a bio-inspired framework for the optimization of reservoir release to satisfy the diverse needs of various stakeholders. In this work, single-objective optimization and multiobjective optimization problems are formulated using an algorithm known as "strawberry optimization" and tested with actual reservoir data. Results indicate that well planned reservoir operations lead to efficient deployment of the reservoir water with the help of optimal release patterns.

  1. Opportunities to improve oil productivity in unstructured deltaic reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains presentations presented at a technical symposium on oil production. Chapter 1 contains summaries of the presentations given at the Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored symposium and key points of the discussions that followed. Chapter 2 characterizes the light oil resource from fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). An analysis of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and advanced secondary recovery (ASR) potential for fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs based on recovery performance and economic modeling as well as the potential resource loss due to well abandonments is presented. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the general reservoir characteristics and properties within deltaic deposits. It is not exhaustive treatise, rather it is intended to provide some basic information about geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of deltaic reservoirs, and the resulting recovery problems.

  2. Simulation study to determine the feasibility of injecting hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas injection to improve gas and oil recovery oil-rim reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed El Gohary

    This study is combining two important and complicated processes; Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, from the oil rim and Enhanced Gas Recovery, EGR from the gas cap using nonhydrocarbon injection gases. EOR is proven technology that is continuously evolving to meet increased demand and oil production and desire to augment oil reserves. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industrial and urban development has generated an unprecedented power demand, particularly during summer months. The required gas supplies to meet this demand are being stretched. To free up gas supply, alternative injectants to hydrocarbon gas are being reviewed to support reservoir pressure and maximize oil and gas recovery in oil rim reservoirs. In this study, a multi layered heterogeneous gas reservoir with an oil rim was selected to identify the most optimized development plan for maximum oil and gas recovery. The integrated reservoir characterization model and the pertinent transformed reservoir simulation history matched model were quality assured and quality checked. The development scheme is identified, in which the pattern and completion of the wells are optimized to best adapt to the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Lateral and maximum block contact holes will be investigated. The non-hydrocarbon gases considered for this study are hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, utilized to investigate miscible and immiscible EOR processes. In November 2010, re-vaporization study, was completed successfully, the first in the UAE, with an ultimate objective is to examine the gas and condensate production in gas reservoir using non hydrocarbon gases. Field development options and proces schemes as well as reservoir management and long term business plans including phases of implementation will be identified and assured. The development option that maximizes the ultimate recovery factor will be evaluated and selected. The study achieved satisfactory results in integrating gas and oil

  3. Chalk as a reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    , and the best reservoir properties are typically found in mudstone intervals. Chalk mudstones vary a lot though. The best mudstones are purely calcitic, well sorted and may have been redeposited by traction currents. Other mudstones are rich in very fine grained silica, which takes up pore space and thus...... basin, so stylolite formation in the chalk is controlled by effective burial stress. The stylolites are zones of calcite dissolution and probably are the source of calcite for porefilling cementation which is typical in water zone chalk and also affect the reservoirs to different extent. The relatively...... have hardly any stylolites and can have porosity above 40% or even 50% and thus also have relatively high permeability. Such intervals have the problem though, that increasing effective stress caused by hydrocarbon production results in mechanical compaction and overall subsidence. Most other chalk...

  4. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacleto, Joaquim

    2010-01-01

    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  5. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Joaquim

    2010-05-01

    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  6. Reservoir simulation with MUFITS code: Extension for double porosity reservoirs and flows in horizontal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Andrey

    2017-04-01

    Numerical modelling of multiphase flows in porous medium is necessary in many applications concerning subsurface utilization. An incomplete list of those applications includes oil and gas fields exploration, underground carbon dioxide storage and geothermal energy production. The numerical simulations are conducted using complicated computer programs called reservoir simulators. A robust simulator should include a wide range of modelling options covering various exploration techniques, rock and fluid properties, and geological settings. In this work we present a recent development of new options in MUFITS code [1]. The first option concerns modelling of multiphase flows in double-porosity double-permeability reservoirs. We describe internal representation of reservoir models in MUFITS, which are constructed as a 3D graph of grid blocks, pipe segments, interfaces, etc. In case of double porosity reservoir, two linked nodes of the graph correspond to a grid cell. We simulate the 6th SPE comparative problem [2] and a five-spot geothermal production problem to validate the option. The second option concerns modelling of flows in porous medium coupled with flows in horizontal wells that are represented in the 3D graph as a sequence of pipe segments linked with pipe junctions. The well completions link the pipe segments with reservoir. The hydraulics in the wellbore, i.e. the frictional pressure drop, is calculated in accordance with Haaland's formula. We validate the option against the 7th SPE comparative problem [3]. We acknowledge financial support by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No RFBR-15-31-20585). References [1] Afanasyev, A. MUFITS Reservoir Simulation Software (www.mufits.imec.msu.ru). [2] Firoozabadi A. et al. Sixth SPE Comparative Solution Project: Dual-Porosity Simulators // J. Petrol. Tech. 1990. V.42. N.6. P.710-715. [3] Nghiem L., et al. Seventh SPE Comparative Solution Project: Modelling of Horizontal Wells in Reservoir Simulation

  7. Using reservoir engineering data to solve geological ambiguities : a case study of one of the Iranian carbonate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kord, S. [National Iranian South Oil Co. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    A fractured carbonate reservoir in southwest Iran was studied with reference to reserve estimation, risk analysis, material balance and recovery factor. The 40 km long and 4 km wide reservoir consists of 2 parts with crest depths of 3780 and 3749 mss respectively. The eastern part is smaller and more productive than the western part which has high water saturation and absolutely no production. Economic production from the reservoir began in 1977. By 2004, the cumulative production had reached 12.064 MMSTB. Of the 6 wells drilled, only 2 wells in the eastern part are productive. This study addressed the main uncertainty of whether the 2 parts of the reservoir are sealed or not. The reservoir is under-saturated but the current pressure is near saturation pressure. The reservoir is divided into the following 4 zones: zones 1 and 2 are productive and consist mainly of carbonate rocks; zone 3 has thin beds of sand and shale; and, zone 4 consists of layers of carbonate, shale, marn, and dolomite. Although there are no faults, mud loss suggests that the reservoir has hairline fractures. Oil in place and reserves were estimated for both parts based on calculated reservoir engineering parameters. Material balance calculations were then performed to analyze and simulate the reservoir. The communication between the 2 parts of the reservoir were examined according to core analysis, rock type, fluid characterization, pressure analysis, water-oil contacts, production history and petrophysical evaluations. The porosity was found to be the same in both parts, but the water saturation and net to gross ratios were different between the eastern and western parts. The petrophysical evaluation revealed that there is no communication between the two parts of the reservoir. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 appendices.

  8. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 12, 1996--February 11, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toronyi, R.M.

    1997-12-01

    The Buena Vista Hills field is located about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield, in Kern County, California, about two miles north of the city of Taft, and five miles south of the Elk Hills field. The Antelope Shale zone was discovered at the Buena Vista Hills field in 1952, and has since been under primary production. Little research was done to improve the completion techniques during the development phase in the 1950s, so most of the wells are completed with about 1000 ft of slotted liner. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization of the first phase of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. This is the first annual report of the project. It covers the period February 12, 1996 to February 11, 1997. During this period the Chevron Murvale 653Z-26B well was drilled in Section 26-T31S/R23E in the Buena Vista Hills field, Kern County, California. The Monterey Formation equivalent Brown and Antelope Shales were continuously cored, the zone was logged with several different kinds of wireline logs, and the well was cased to a total depth of 4907 ft. Core recovery was 99.5%. Core analyses that have been performed include Dean Stark porosity, permeability and fluid saturations, field wettability, anelastic strain recovery, spectral core gamma, profile permeametry, and photographic imaging. Wireline log analysis includes mineral-based error minimization (ELAN), NMR T2 processing, and dipole shear wave anisotropy. A shear wave vertical seismic profile was acquired after casing was set and processing is nearly complete.

  9. Effects of water-supply reservoirs on streamflow in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    reservoir simulation tool was used to simulate 35 single- and multiple-reservoir systems in Massachusetts over a 44-year period (water years 1961 to 2004) under two water-use scenarios. The no-pumping scenario assumes no water withdrawal pumping, and the pumping scenario incorporates average annual pumping rates from 2000 to 2004. By comparing the results of the two scenarios, the total streamflow alteration can be parsed into the portion of streamflow alteration caused by the presence of a reservoir and the additional streamflow alteration caused by the level of water use of the system.For each reservoir system, the following metrics were computed to characterize the frequency, duration, and magnitude of reservoir outflow volumes compared with unaltered streamflow conditions: (1) the median number of days per year in which the reservoir did not spill, (2) the median duration of the longest consecutive period of no-spill days per year, and (3) the lowest annual flow duration exceedance probability at which the outflows are significantly different from estimated unaltered streamflow at the 95-percent confidence level. Most reservoirs in the study do not spill during the summer months even under no-pumping conditions. The median number of days during which there was no spillage was less than 365 for all reservoirs in the study, indicating that, even under reported pumping conditions, the reservoirs refill to full volume and spill at least once during nondrought years, typically in the spring.Thirteen multiple-reservoir systems consisting of two or three hydrologically connected reservoirs were included in the study. Because operating rules used to manage multiple-res