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Sample records for reserves susan clayton

  1. Susan Smith

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    'n Resep om ge- trou of in ontrou na te volg, bestaan nie. Ge- lukkig nie. Susan Smith se (debuut)bundel lok ... word gesteun deur die De Jong-motto, “we pass the words along”, maar in besonder ook die motto waarmee ... de ingrif “teen die gewels en fasades van ver- ganklike strukture”. Herhaling, duur en ver- wisseling is ...

  2. Susan Flannery lahkub? / Harro Puusild

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusild, Harro

    2008-01-01

    Ameerika teleseriaali "Vaprad ja ilusad" Stephanie Forresteri osatäitja Susan Flannery (1943) on seriaalis mänginud algusest peale s.o. 21 aastat. Lisatud intervjuu näitlejatariga. Sama ka Teleleht nr. 15, lk. 8-9 : ill

  3. 75 FR 4269 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Clayton, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Heaven's Landing Airport, Clayton, GA. DATES... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 [Docket No. FAA-2009-0605; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-19] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Clayton, GA AGENCY: Federal...

  4. 78 FR 2675 - Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds of the Clayton Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds of the Clayton Act AGENCY: Federal... for interlocking directorates required by the 1990 amendment of Section 8 of the Clayton Act. Section..., (202) 326-2879. Authority: 15 U.S.C. 19(a)(5). By direction of the Commission. Richard C. Donohue...

  5. In Conversation with Susan Holtz | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-26

    Nov 26, 2010 ... Susan Holtz is a private consultant and Adjunct Professor in the Environmental Planning Department of the Nova Scotia College for Art and Design. As a consultant, Ms. Holtz specializes in energy, environment, and sustainable development policy, and works on related issues as a mediator and facilitator.

  6. 75 FR 3468 - Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds For Section 7A of the Clayton Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... amendment of Section 7A of the Clayton Act. Section 7A of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 18a, as added by the... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds For Section 7A of the Clayton Act... U.S.C. Sec. 7A. By direction of the Commission. Donald S. Clark, Secretary. [FR Doc. 2010-1039 Filed...

  7. 76 FR 4349 - Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds for Section 7a of The Clayton Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... amendment of Section 7A of the Clayton Act. Section 7A of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 18a, as added by the... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds for Section 7a of The Clayton Act... Notification Office, (202) 326-3100. Authority: 16 U.S.C. 7A. By direction of the Commission. Donald S. Clark...

  8. 12 CFR 212.9 - Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS § 212.9 Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act. The Board regards the provisions of the first three paragraphs of section 8 of the Clayton Act (15 U.S.C. 19) to have been... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act. 212.9...

  9. Harold Clayton Urey: 29 April 1893 - 5 January 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, K.P.; Runcorn, S.K.; Suess, H.E.; Thode, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    The career of Harold Clayton Urey is described in detail in three parts: (i) prewar career 1893-1940 and the award of the Nobel prize in chemistry, (ii) war years 1939-44 and the atomic bomb, (iii) post-war career 1945-81 and the solar system. His research work in atomic physics, lunar physics and astronomy is outlined. (U.K.)

  10. A polarised SUSANS facility to study magnetic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using a right-angled magnetic air prism, we have achieved a separation of ∼ 10 arcsec between ∼ 2 arcsec wide up- and down-spin peaks of 5.4 Å neutrons. The polarised neutron option has thus been introduced into the SUSANS instrument. Strongly spin-dependent SUSANS spectra have been observed over ±1.3 ...

  11. 75 FR 3469 - Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds For Section 8 of the Clayton Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds For Section 8 of the Clayton Act AGENCY... thresholds for interlocking directorates required by the 1990 amendment of Section 8 of the Clayton Act..., (202) 326-2879. Authority: 15 U.S.C. Sec. 19(a)(5)). By direction of the Commission. Donald S. Clark...

  12. 76 FR 4349 - Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds for Section 8 of the Clayton Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds for Section 8 of the Clayton Act AGENCY... thresholds for interlocking directorates required by the 1990 amendment of Section 8 of the Clayton Act..., (202) 326-2879. Authority: 15 U.S.C. 19(a)(5). By direction of the Commission. Donald S. Clark...

  13. 78 FR 29611 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Clayton-Cobb-Fulton, Georgia, Nonappropriated Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Clayton-Cobb-Fulton, Georgia, Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage System Wage Area AGENCY: U.S. Office of... Clayton County without NAF employment. Under 5 U.S.C. 5343(a)(1)(B)(i), NAF wage areas ``shall not extend... 44 U.S.C. 1510. #0; #0;The Code of Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0...

  14. Susan Sontag — A Forgotten Mother?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kludia Ziewiec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses new and republished translations of Susan Sontag’s work, recently launched by the Karakter publishing house: Regarding the Pan of Others, On Photography, and Against Interpretation and Other Essays. The article focuses on the elements of Sontag’s thought that make her a forgotten mother of feminist and gender theoreticians, as well as such influential critics as Michel Foucault and Roland Barthes. The article points out to continuations of Sontag’s thought in contemporary theoretical and social projects, and to the pertinence of her critical observations on theories based on metaphysics of presence: psychoanalysis, Marxism, or hermeneutics. The article also touches upon history of war photography and related war journalism, and upon the ambivalent quality of imaging of the misery of war. It also present historical and cultural circumstances of the development of Sontag’s thought in the intellectual milieu of New York in the 1960s. The discussion recapitulates the main statements of Sontag’s essays, relating them to a wider theoretical context, which is aimed at a reappraisal of the forgotten intelectual in the history of literature.

  15. Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Blueberries by Susan Gibb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Zalbidea Paniagua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries (2009 by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization, invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A comparative study of the consequences of trauma in the protagonist will be developed including psychoanalytic theories by Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and the feminist psychoanalysts: Melanie Klein and Bracha Ettinger. The reactions of the protagonist will be studied: loss of reality, hallucinations and Electra Complex, as well as the rise of defence mechanisms and her use of the artistic creativity as a healing therapy. The interactivity of the hypermedia, multiple paths and endings will be analyzed as a literary strategy that increases the reader’s capacity of empathizing with the speaker.

  16. Susan swan and the female grotesque Susan swan and the female grotesque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Bornéo Funck

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduced to readers as “the tallest woman freelance writer in Canada”, Susan Swan belongs to a generation of writers whose experimental, innovative fiction has proved vital in the contemporary project of de/re/constructing narrative practice. Her 1983 novel The Biggest Modern Woman of the World constitutes an excellent example of what critic Linda Hutcheon has termed “historiographic metafiction”—”fiction that is intensely, self-reflexively art, but is also grounded in historical, social, and political realities” (Canadian 13. As a conscious engagement with social and historical contexts, such fiction aims at destabilizing and subverting accepted patterns of belief by reconceptualizing and narrating possible subjectivities. By means of intertextuality, especially parody, it engages in an ideological critique in terms of both sexual and national politics. Introduced to readers as “the tallest woman freelance writer in Canada”, Susan Swan belongs to a generation of writers whose experimental, innovative fiction has proved vital in the contemporary project of de/re/constructing narrative practice. Her 1983 novel The Biggest Modern Woman of the World constitutes an excellent example of what critic Linda Hutcheon has termed “historiographic metafiction”—”fiction that is intensely, self-reflexively art, but is also grounded in historical, social, and political realities” (Canadian 13. As a conscious engagement with social and historical contexts, such fiction aims at destabilizing and subverting accepted patterns of belief by reconceptualizing and narrating possible subjectivities. By means of intertextuality, especially parody, it engages in an ideological critique in terms of both sexual and national politics.

  17. A polarised SUSANS facility to study magnetic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A polarised SUSANS facility to study magnetic systems. APOORVA G WAGH1, VEER CHAND RAKHECHA1, MARKUS STROBL2 and. WOLFGANG TREIMER2. 1Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. 2Berlin Neutron Scattering Center, Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker ...

  18. A polarised SUSANS facility to study magnetic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . The sum of convolutions of |Fu(Q)|2 and |Fd(Q)|2 with the respective fits to the instrument resolution, peaked at parameterised Q-centres, is least-square fit- ted (figure 3) to the sample SUSANS spectrum to extract ρu(r) and ρd(r). The.

  19. Astronaut Susan J. Helms Mounts a Videao Camera in Zarya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Astronaut Susan J. Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, mounts a video camera onto a bracket in the Russian Zarya or Functional Cargo Block (FGB) of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched by a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonu Cosmodrome on November 20, 1998, the Unites States-funded and Russian-built Zarya was the first element of the ISS, followed by the U.S. Unity Node.

  20. Susan Dicklitch. The Elusive Promise of NGO's | Heck | Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Susan Dicklitch. The Elusive Promise of NGO's. Simon Heck. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/uj.v46i1.23044 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  1. New aging properties of the Clayton-Oakes model based on multivariate dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Arias-Nicolás, José Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present a recent definition of Multivariate Increasing Failure Rate (MIFR) based on the concept of multivariate dispersion. This new definition is an extension of the univariate characterization of IFR distributions under dispersive ordering of the residual lifetimes. We apply this definition to the Clayton-Oakes model. In particular, we provide several conditions to order in the multivariate dispersion sense the residual lifetimes of random vectors with a dependence structure...

  2. Parallax adjustment algorithm based on Susan-Zernike moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Zhang, Kun; Shen, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Huiyun

    2018-02-01

    Precise parallax detection through definition evaluation and the adjustment of the assembly position of the objective lens or the reticle are important means of eliminating the parallax of the telescope system, so that the imaging screen and the reticle are clearly focused at the same time. An adaptive definition evaluation function based on Susan-Zernike moments is proposed. First, the image is preprocessed by the Susan operator to find the potential boundary edge. Then, the Zernike moments operator is used to determine the exact region of the reticle line with sub-pixel accuracy. The image definition is evaluated only in this related area. The evaluation function consists of the gradient difference calculated by the Zernike moments operator. By adjusting the assembly position of the objective lens, the imaging screen and the reticle will be simultaneously in the state of maximum definition, so the parallax can be eliminated. The experimental results show that the definition evaluation function proposed in this paper has the advantages of good focusing performance, strong anti-interference ability compared with the other commonly used definition evaluation functions.

  3. Practitioner Profile: An Interview with Susan Bross, AFC®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Bross

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Susan Bross is a nationally accredited financial counselor who established her private practice in 1992. She currently lives in San Rafael, California. She brings a multi-faceted background and a combination of skills to her work. As a financial counselor, she works with individuals, couples, and entrepreneurs throughout the nation to help clients develop a practical and emotionally healthy relationship with money. When asked, she will tell you that she is passionate about her work because it mirrors her own hard-won path with money. Readers of the Journal will find Ms. Bross’s approach to financial therapy inspiring. She teaches simple tools for effortless and sustainable cash flow and money management. She also guides her clients to balanced attitudes and beliefs about money and success.

  4. [The Durkheim Test. Remarks on Susan Leigh Star's Boundary Objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gießmann, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The article reconstructs Susan Leigh Star's conceptual work on the notion of 'boundary objects'. It traces the emergence of the concept, beginning with her PhD thesis and its publication as Regions of the Mind in 1989. 'Boundary objects' attempt to represent the distributed, multifold nature of scientific work and its mediations between different 'social worlds'. Being addressed to several 'communities of practice', the term responded to questions from Distributed Artificial Intelligence in Computer Science, Workplace Studies and Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), and microhistorical approaches inside the growing Science and Technology Studies. Yet the interdisciplinary character and interpretive flexibility of Star’s invention has rarely been noticed as a conceptual tool for media theory. I therefore propose to reconsider Star's 'Durkheim test' for sociotechnical media practices.

  5. Origin and Evolution of Li-rich Brines at Clayton Valley, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, L. A.; Bradley, D. C.; Hynek, S. A.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is the key component in Li-ion batteries which are the primary energy storage for electric/hybrid cars and most electronics. Lithium is also an element of major importance on a global scale because of interest in increasing reliance on alternative energy sources. Lithium brines and pegmatites are the primary and secondary sources, respectively of all produced Li. The only Li-brine in the USA that is currently in production exists in Clayton Valley, NV. The groundwater brines at Clayton Valley are located in a closed basin with an average evaporation rate of 142 cm/yr. The brines are pumped from six aquifer units that are composed of varying amounts of volcanic ash, gravel, salt, tufa, and fine-grained sediments. Samples collected include spring water, fresh groundwater, groundwater brine, and meteoric water (snow). The brines are classified as Na-Cl waters and the springs and fresh groundwater have a mixed composition and are more dilute than the brines. The Li content of the waters in Clayton Valley ranges from less than 1 μg/L (snow) up to 406.9 mg/L in the lower ash aquifer system (one of six aquifers in the basin). The cold springs surrounding Clayton Valley have Li concentrations of about 1 mg/L. A hot spring located just east of Clayton Valley contains 1.6 mg/L Li. The Li concentration of the fresh groundwater is less than 1 mg/L. Hot groundwater collected in the basin contain 30-40 mg/L Li. Water collected from a geothermal drilling north of Silver Peak, NV, had water with 4.9 mg/L Li at a depth of >1000m. The δD and δ18O isotopic signatures of fresh groundwater and brine form an evaporation path that extends from the global meteoric water line toward the brine from the salt aquifer system (the most isotopically enriched brine with ave. δD = -3.5, ave. δ18O = -67.0). This suggests that mixing of inflow water with the salt aquifer brine could have played an important role in the evolution of the brines. Along with mixing, evaporation appears to

  6. Defining Affect in Relation to Cognition: A Response to Susan McLeod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Kristie S.

    1991-01-01

    Responds to Susan McLeod's "The Affective Domain and the Writing Process: Working Definitions." Suggests and defends an alternate way to define affect, based on the interweaving of affect and cognition. Discusses the "cognitive-affective dance." (PRA)

  7. Messages for Educational Leadership: The Constance E. Clayton Lectures 1998-2007. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter-Defoe, Diana T., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Urban education is an interdisciplinary field, characterized by introducing many perspectives to research pertaining to educational policy and to the practice of educating youth whose lives unfold in densely populated urban metropolitan areas. This book celebrates Constance Clayton's eleven-year tenure as superintendent of the School District of…

  8. 76 FR 62330 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Alamo, GA; Alton, MO; Boscobel, WI; Buffalo, OK; Cove, AR; Clayton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Broadcasting Services; Alamo, GA; Alton, MO; Boscobel, WI; Buffalo, OK; Cove, AR; Clayton, LA; Daisy, AR; Ennis...) 418-2180. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This is a synopsis of the Commission's Notice of Proposed Rule... FCC's Reference Information Center at Portals II, CY-A257, 445 Twelfth Street, SW., Washington, DC...

  9. Kitybė Susan Hill novelėje ,,The Woman in Black“

    OpenAIRE

    Kučinskaitė, Martyna

    2016-01-01

    Otherness in the Novella by Susan Hill “The Woman in Black” The present BA paper considers the representation of otherness in Susan Hill’s horror novella The Woman in Black (1983). The novella’s story is set in the Victorian England where the main concerns are the ghost of Jennet Humfrye who haunts the village, Crythin Gifford, and the haunted Eel Marsh House. Whenever she is seen by someone in the village, or in the house she haunts, a child dies under mysterious circumstances. The present p...

  10. Evaluating Hydrologic Transience in Watershed Delineation, Numerical Modeling and Solute Transport in the Great Basin. Clayton Valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underdown, C. G.; Boutt, D. F.; Hynek, S. A.; Munk, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Importance of transience in managed groundwater systems is generally determined by timeframe of management decisions. Watersheds with management times shorter than the aquifer (watershed) response time, or the time it takes a watershed to recover from a change in hydrologic state, would not include the new state and are treated as steady-state. However, these watersheds will experience transient response between hydrologic states. Watershed response time is a function of length. Therefore flat, regional watersheds characteristic of the Great Basin have long response times. Defining watershed extents as the area in which the water budget is balanced means inputs equal outputs. Steady-state budgets in the Great Basin have been balanced by extending watershed boundaries to include more area for recharge; however, the length and age of requisite flow paths are poorly constrained and often unrealistic. Inclusion of stored water in hydrologic budget calculations permits water balance within smaller contributing areas. As groundwater flow path lengths, depths, and locations differ between steady-state and transient systems, so do solute transport mechanisms. To observe how transience affects response time and solute transport, a refined (transient) version of the USGS steady-state groundwater flow model of the Great Basin is evaluated. This model is used to assess transient changes in contributing area for Clayton Valley, a lithium-brine producing endorheic basin in southwestern Nevada. Model runs of various recharge, discharge and storage bounds are created from conceptual models based upon historical climate data. Comparing results of the refined model to USGS groundwater observations allows for model validation and comparison against the USGS steady-state model. The transient contributing area to Clayton Valley is 85% smaller than that calculated from the steady-state solution, however several long flow paths important to both water and solute budgets at Clayton Valley

  11. Enhancing Student Interest in the Psychology of Aging: An Interview with Susan Krauss Whitbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, Karen L.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an interview with Susan Krauss Whitbourne in which she discusses issues such as the challenge in teaching a course on the psychology of aging; types of assignments and active learning she uses in her course; resources she recommends; and how her research influences the adult development courses she has taught. (CMK)

  12. Binding in the Lazy Susan of the 1 MW TRIGA at the Centro Nuclear de Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.; Mulas, P.; Mariano, G.; Hernandez, R.

    1974-01-01

    Problems with the original Lazy Susan were reported in a previous conference, where the procedure followed for its removal was described. A new Lazy Susan was supplied by the fabricant and it was judged convenient to perform an out-of-core test of the dispositive. A rig was built to produce temperature gradients similar to the ones encountered in the operation at high power levels. After a temperature difference (estimated between 130 o C and 170 o C) between the rotating part and the outside surface was established, the Lazy Susan started to bind. This was reported to the fabricant and it was concluded that a new design was needed and since it would take at least two years before the new unit could be acquired, it was decided to install the Lazy Susan recently supplied. The unit now rotates for approximately 20 minutes when the reactor is operating at 1 MW and then binds. At lower power levels it is operative for longer periods of time. (author)

  13. Don't Take Touch for Granted: An Interview with Susan Lederman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verry, Rene

    1998-01-01

    Presents an interview with Susan Lederman that contains a fascinating and informative overview of the recent developments in neuropsychological research concerning the sense of touch. Discusses the physiological processes that support this sensory experience and reveals them to be much more flexible, intricate, and adaptive than previously…

  14. Pilot Susan L. Still chats with white room closeout crew member

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-83 Pilot Susan L. Still chats with white room closeout crew member Rene Arriens as she prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39A with assistance from closeout crew worker Bob Saulnier (behind Still).

  15. Re-Establishing Social Studies as a Core Subject: An Interview with Susan Griffin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Susan

    2014-01-01

    NCSS Executive Director Susan Griffin was chair of the Task Force of Professional Organizations that worked with the Social Studies Assessment, Curriculum, and Instruction Collaborative (SSACI) of the Council of Chief State School Officers to initiate and guide the development of the "College, Career and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social…

  16. Disruptive innovation: can health care learn from other industries? A conversation with Clayton M. Christensen. Interview by Mark D. Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Clayton M

    2007-01-01

    Clayton Christensen is one of America's most influential business thinkers and writers. A professor at Harvard Business School, Christensen is perhaps best known for his writings on disruptive innovation in such books as The Innovator's Dilemma and The Innovator's Solution. In this interview with the California HealthCare Foundation's Mark Smith, he argues that the answer for more affordable health care will come not from an injection of more funding but, rather, from innovations that aim to make more and more areas of care cheaper, simpler, and more in the hands of patients. Christensen has been an adviser to several new companies in health care.

  17. Detection algorithm of infrared small target based on improved SUSAN operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingmiao; Wang, Shicheng; Zhao, Jing

    2010-10-01

    The methods of detecting small moving targets in infrared image sequences that contain moving nuisance objects and background noise is analyzed in this paper. A novel infrared small target detection algorithm based on improved SUSAN operator is put forward. The algorithm selects double templates for the infrared small target detection: one size is greater than the small target point size and another size is equal to the small target point size. First, the algorithm uses the big template to calculate the USAN of each pixel in the image and detect the small target, the edge of the image and isolated noise pixels; Then the algorithm uses the another template to calculate the USAN of pixels detected in the first step and improves the principles of SUSAN algorithm based on the characteristics of the small target so that the algorithm can only detect small targets and don't sensitive to the edge pixels of the image and isolated noise pixels. So the interference of the edge of the image and isolate noise points are removed and the candidate target points can be identified; At last, the target is detected by utilizing the continuity and consistency of target movement. The experimental results indicate that the improved SUSAN detection algorithm can quickly and effectively detect the infrared small targets.

  18. Dewatering of the Clayton Formation during construction of the Walter F George Lock and Dam, Fort Gaines, Clay County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J.W.

    1973-01-01

    Walter F. George Lock and Dam, the largest manmade structure in the South, extends over 2llz miles across the flood plain of the Chattahoochee River at Fort Gaines, Clay County, in southwest Georgia and in Henry County, in southeast Alabama. The multipurpose dam consists of two rolled-filled earth dikes, a concrete spillway, a single-stage lock with an 88-foot lift, and a 130,000 kilowatt capacity powerhouse. The foundation of the dam at the river is constructed in the Clayton Formation, and the earth dikes are constructed on river terraces at about 150 feet above msl (mean sea level). At the damsite, the top of the Clayton Formation consists of an "earthy" limestone, which is about 35 feet thick except in the river channel, where it is 12 to 15 feet thick; a "shell" limestone, which averages about 40 feet thick; and a basal "sandy" limestone, which averages about 35 feet thick. The Providence Sand underlies the "sandy" limestone and its thickness is about 175 feet at the damsite. These formations contain water under artesian conditions. The "shell" unit of the Clayton was the principal water-bearing formation pumped during construction of the lock and dam. The large yields of the wells from concentrated areas over extended periods of time indicate that in the vicinity of the Chattahoochee River, the Clayton Formation is a productive aquifer with transmissivity ranging from 48,000 to 77,000 gpd per ft. (gallons per day per foot) and storage coefficient ranging from 2.5 x 10?3 to 2.8 x 10?5. At the spillway site, pumpage ranged from an average of 1,700 to 8,400 gpm (gallons per minute) during the period April 1957 to July 1959; at the powerhouse site, pumpage ranged from 1,600 to 5,000 gpm during the period October 1957 to September 1961; and at the lock site, pumpage ranged from 4,000 to 5,000 gpm during the period July 1960 through December 1961. The large yields represent a source of large quantities of ground water available for industrial and other uses in an

  19. "A hint of it, with initials": adultery, textuality and publicity in Jane Austen's Lady Susan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    In spite of Jane Austen's professed “eye” for an adulteress, comparatively little attention has been paid to adultery and divorce as themes and contexts of her fiction. Her unpublished epistolary novel Lady Susan has a distinctive status in Austen's oeuvre, recognized as being exemplary of her “style” and yet atypical of her later achievement. A neglected context for the novel is the extensive reporting of adultery trials in contemporary print culture and the moral panic concerning adultery in the 1780s and 1790s, focusing initially on the adulteress as the brazen woman of fashion and later as a figure of sentimentalized abjection. A particularly notorious case, that involving Lady Henrietta Grosvenor and George III's brother, the Duke of Cumberland, is directly alluded to in Lady Susan. The textual strategies of adultery trial literature, particularly its emphasis on indirection through the use of detail or “hint”, had a long-term influence on the development of Austen's fiction and her positioning of herself as a professional writer after the 1790s.

  20. A New Approach: The Feminist Musicology Studies of Susan McClary and Marcia J. Citron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Reitsma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the currently prevalent analytic approaches in academia is feminist theory and criticism. Its combination with musicology has influenced the field for the past four decades. The goal of the new approach, loosely termed “feminist musicology,” has been to discover, analyze, discuss, and promote the representation of women and the “feminine” essence in various disciplines of music. Today, feminist musicology is highly researched, published in books and journals, and presented as scholarly papers at various musicological conferences around the world. This new approach introduces the ideologies of feminism to the study of music. Susan McClary and Marcia J. Citron are two musicologists who were influenced by these ideologies and have guided the musicological world in this direction of feminist musicology. Both have made serious contributions to the emerging field of feminist musicology. Both researched the ideas of gender musical construction within musical narratives, music as a gendered discourse, and historical and social factors that affected women in music. Although they have met with considerable resistance, Susan McClary and Marcia J. Citron have significantly expanded the scope of musicology through their application of feminist theory.

  1. In the postmodern mirror: intertextuality in Angels and Insects by Antonia Susan Byatt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buda Agata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse the novel Angels and Insects by Antonia Susan Byatt in terms of intertextual references. The author’s assumptions are based on the categorisation by Ryszard Nycz, who distinguishes three major types of intertexts: text versus text, text versus literary genre and text versus mimesis. Byatt uses intertextuality mainly to comment on the role of nature in the world, as well as to enhance the importance of human relationship with nature. Moreover, the writer moves towards literary criticism, discussing poems by famous artists, such as Alfred Tennyson or John Milton. In this way, the novel by Byatt is also an example of metafiction. All the narration techniques used by the English writer make the novel a typically postmodern work of art.

  2. (REREADING INDEX CARDS: THE ARCHIVIST AS INTERPRETER IN SUSAN PUI SAN LOK'S 'NEWS'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Camacho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Looking at susan pui san lok's projects News (2005 and RoCH (2013, this paper contemplates the notions put forward by Michel-Rolph Trouillot and Jacques Derrida on the power of archivists, not solely as guardians of documents but also as their interpreters. Taking into consideration that photographic and moving image archives present unique difficulties in their cataloguing processes, I examine silences that might be generated by a thematic classification that is not impervious to archivists' biases. Moreover, I consider if the silences created by manual processes of classification and retrieval might be surpassed through digital technologies, or if it is possible that new technologies simply create different types of silencing.

  3. Intermittent large amplitude internal waves observed in Port Susan, Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. C.; Decker, L.

    2017-07-01

    A previously unreported internal tidal bore, which evolves into solitary internal wave packets, was observed in Port Susan, Puget Sound, and the timing, speed, and amplitude of the waves were measured by CTD and visual observation. Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements were attempted, but unsuccessful. The waves appear to be generated with the ebb flow along the tidal flats of the Stillaguamish River, and the speed and width of the resulting waves can be predicted from second-order KdV theory. Their eventual dissipation may contribute significantly to surface mixing locally, particularly in comparison with the local dissipation due to the tides. Visually the waves appear in fair weather as a strong foam front, which is less visible the farther they propagate.

  4. Enhancing the Instructional Program with Creative Arts: Q&A with Susan Riley, M.Ed. Educator Effectiveness Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This document provides Q&A with webinar presenter, Susan Riley. Riley's presentation looks at broad ideas of clarifying best practices in using arts integration (AI) and/or STEAM at any grade level. Questions cover topics such as: the creativity crisis in US schools, integrating art into math adult education (GED and ESL), theater arts in the…

  5. 78 FR 75676 - Mark W. Dobronski and Susan K. Dobronski-Acquisition of Control Exemption-Adrian & Blissfield...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... Ferrovia, L.L.C. (Ferrovia), also a noncarrier and a limited liability company, which, until very recently... and Susan K. Dobronski--Acquisition of Control Exemption--Adrian & Blissfield Rail Road Company, Charlotte Southern Railroad Company, Detroit Connecting Railroad Company, Lapeer Industrial Railroad Company...

  6. Psychology and Schooling: The Impact of Susan Isaacs and Jean Piaget on 1960s Science Education Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jody S.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the tensions between two psychological frameworks in the negotiation of teaching practices, curriculum, and ideas about what constitutes childhood: (1) the theories of Jean Piaget focused on behavior at different developmental stages; or (2) the Susan Isaacs research that took a general view of children's intellectual capabilities. (CMK)

  7. "I Am Not a Fairy Tale": Contextualizing Sioux Spirituality and Story Traditions in Susan Power's "The Grass Dancer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Vanessa Holford

    2009-01-01

    Standing Rock Sioux writer Susan Power's best-selling novel "The Grass Dancer" (1994) includes depictions of the supernatural and spiritual that do not conform to the Judeo-Christian or, in some cases, the atheist or rationalist worldviews of many readers. Power writes of ghost characters and haunted places, communication between the living and…

  8. 'Speaking Kleinian': Susan Isaacs as Ursula Wise and the Inter-War Popularisation of Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Michal

    2017-10-01

    How did the complex concepts of psychoanalysis become popular in early twentieth-century Britain? This article examines the contribution of educator and psychoanalyst Susan Isaacs (1885-1948) to this process, as well as her role as a female expert in the intellectual and medical history of this period. Isaacs was one of the most influential British psychologists of the inter-war era, yet historical research on her work is still limited. The article focuses on her writing as 'Ursula Wise', answering the questions of parents and nursery nurses in the popular journal Nursery World, from 1929 to 1936. Researched in depth for the first time, Isaacs' important magazine columns reveal that her writing was instrumental in disseminating the work of psychoanalyst Melanie Klein in Britain. Moreover, Isaacs' powerful rebuttals to behaviourist, disciplinarian parenting methods helped shift the focus of caregivers to the child's perspective, encouraging them to acknowledge children as independent subjects and future democratic citizens. Like other early psychoanalysts, Isaacs was not an elitist; she was in fact committed to disseminating her ideas as broadly as possible. Isaacs taught British parents and child caregivers to 'speak Kleinian', translating Klein's intellectual ideas into ordinary language and thus enabling their swift integration into popular discourse.

  9. A Journey, the Pain of Others, and Historical Experience: Susan Silas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendyka, Roma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author interprets Susan Silas' Helmbrechts walk (1998-2003, a unique series of forty-five photographs and supplementing visual and textual materials collected during the walk along the route of two hundred and twenty-five miles. The walk repeats the route which in 1945 had to undertake women prisoners from the concentration camp in Helmbrechts near Flossenbürg in their death march to Prachatice in Czech Republic. The pictures Silas takes, the people she meets, and finally the trees, the very materiality of the road become the factors of creating her own, individual memory of the event from the past. Silas selects an object from "the margins of the Holocaust" – a forgotten event that she re-presents by reacting to contemporary objects placed along the route of the event. Silas' work offers an opportunity to critically review the concept of memory landscapes (where is memory located in a landscape? and the phenomenon of dark tourism (is following in the footsteps of the prisoners a kind of pilgrimage, tourism, or therapy?. Silas problematises the question of memory, as well as examines different kinds of non-memory. Her camera is directed at locations that can be termed "the non-sites of memory."

  10. UNDERSTANDİNG SUSAN BORDO AND HER WORK; UNBEARABLE WEİGHT :FEMİNİSM, WESTERN CULTURE, BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÇAĞLAR DEMİR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history of thought, there have been many views about the women, their status in society, their struggle with patriarchy, and inequality  applied to them in all areas. There are different ways of oppression on women, such as confinement to home, inequality in wages between both sexes.  However, few scholars have written and declared their own views about how the patriarchal world and companies form women as they wish. Susan Bordo is one of  the most outstanding and distinguished feminist writers in the world who focuses on  how patriarchal capitalist understanding works on women’s body in terms of weight and weakness. According to Susan Bordo, male dominated capital world decides on women about what to wear and what to eat and women try to lose weight to be in the form men wish. State of  starving all the time leads to an illness called anorexia. The writer bases her views on the thoughts of literary critic and thinker, Foucault. The  objective of this article is to help the readers understand Susan Bordo’s views and analyse her impressive work; Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture and  the Body  and make her known in academic world.

  11. Bárbara Mujica, ed., Shakespeare and the Spanish «Comedia». Translation, Interpretation, Performance. Essays in Honor of Susan L. Fischer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro García-Reidy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de Bárbara Mujica, ed., Shakespeare and the Spanish «Comedia». Translation, Interpretation, Performance. Essays in Honor of Susan L. Fischer, Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg, 2013, 298 pp. ISBN 9781611485172.

  12. Susan Loucks-Horsley learning model in light pollution theme: based on a new taxonomy for science education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liliawati, W; Utama, J A; Fauziah, H

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum in Indonesia recommended that science teachers in the elementary and intermediate schools should have interdisciplinary ability in science. However, integrated learning still has not been implemented optimally. This research is designing and applying integrated learning with Susan Loucks-Horsley model in light pollution theme. It can be showed how the student's achievements based on new taxonomy of science education with five domains: knowing and understanding, science process skill, creativity, attitudinal and connecting and applying. This research use mixed methods with concurrent embedded design. The subject is grade 8 of junior high school students in Bandung as many as 27 students. The Instrument have been employed has 28 questions test mastery of concepts, observations sheet and moral dilemma test. The result shows that integrated learning with model Susan Loucks-Horsley is able to increase student's achievement and positive characters on light pollution theme. As the results are the average normalized gain of knowing and understanding domain reach in lower category, the average percentage of science process skill domain reach in good category, the average percentage of creativity and connecting domain reach respectively in good category and attitudinal domain the average percentage is over 75% in moral knowing and moral feeling. (paper)

  13. Susan Magoffin’s Santa Fe Days in 1846: The Value of Testimony Les journées de Santa Fé en 1846 de Susan Magoffin : la valeur du témoignage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Berthier-Foglar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Susan Magoffin, la jeune épouse d’un commerçant de la piste de Santa Fe, accompagna son mari en 1846 pour un voyage où la caravane suivait de près l’Armée de l’Ouest et pendant lequel elle tint un journal. Cet article traite des 37 jours que dura la pause de la caravane à Santa Fe et aborde plus spécifiquement la façon dont l’auteur appréhendait l’altérité dans un environnement inhabituel et parfois dangereux. Pour apprécier la valeur du témoignage, je combine une analyse du discours avec une évaluation statistique du contenu. La description, parfois naïve, de Santa Fe sous l’occupation américaine illustre les raisons de la guerre contre le Mexique. En tant qu’agent de la destinée manifeste, Susan Magoffin admirait le général Kearny en lui attribuant des qualités surhumaines et en participant à ses efforts de propagande. Alors qu’elle était enracinée dans sa classe et sa culture, elle voyait la population mexicaine et les Amérindiens avec un esprit ouvert bien que ses motifs pour apprendre l’espagnol, ainsi que le métier de commerçante, avaient une fonction plus prosaïque.

  14. Geochemical characterization of slags, other mines wastes, and their leachates from the Elizabeth and Ely mines (Vermont), the Ducktown mining district (Tennessee), and the Clayton smelter site (Idaho)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Meier, Allen L.; Briggs, Paul H.

    2003-01-01

    Waste-rock material produced at historic metal mines contains elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements. Two types of mine waste were examined in this study: sintered waste rock and slag. The samples were collected from the Elizabeth and Ely mines in the Vermont copper belt (Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits), from the Copper Basin mining district near Ducktown, Tennessee (Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits), and from the Clayton silver mine in the Bayhorse mining district, Idaho (polymetallic vein and replacement deposits). The data in this report are presented as a compilation with minimal interpretation or discussion. A detailed discussion and interpretation of the slag data are presented in a companion paper. Data collected from sintered waste rock and slag include: (1) bulk rock chemistry, (2) mineralogy, (3) and the distribution of trace elements among phases for the slag samples. In addition, the reactivity of the waste material under surficial conditions was assessed by examining secondary minerals formed on slag and by laboratory leaching tests using deionized water and a synthetic solution approximating precipitation in the eastern United States.

  15. ‘Speaking Kleinian’: Susan Isaacs as Ursula Wise and the Inter-War Popularisation of Psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Michal

    2017-01-01

    How did the complex concepts of psychoanalysis become popular in early twentieth-century Britain? This article examines the contribution of educator and psychoanalyst Susan Isaacs (1885–1948) to this process, as well as her role as a female expert in the intellectual and medical history of this period. Isaacs was one of the most influential British psychologists of the inter-war era, yet historical research on her work is still limited. The article focuses on her writing as ‘Ursula Wise’, answering the questions of parents and nursery nurses in the popular journal Nursery World, from 1929 to 1936. Researched in depth for the first time, Isaacs’ important magazine columns reveal that her writing was instrumental in disseminating the work of psychoanalyst Melanie Klein in Britain. Moreover, Isaacs’ powerful rebuttals to behaviourist, disciplinarian parenting methods helped shift the focus of caregivers to the child’s perspective, encouraging them to acknowledge children as independent subjects and future democratic citizens. Like other early psychoanalysts, Isaacs was not an elitist; she was in fact committed to disseminating her ideas as broadly as possible. Isaacs taught British parents and child caregivers to ‘speak Kleinian’, translating Klein’s intellectual ideas into ordinary language and thus enabling their swift integration into popular discourse. PMID:28901872

  16. Diasporic Reconciliations of Politics, Love and Trauma: Susan Abulhawa’s Quest for Identity in Mornings in Jenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M Abu-Shomar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Negotiating human conditions is an emblematic critical impetus of diaspora informed by multiple cultural possibilities practiced through the creation of multiple spaces that cross the realm of the ‘self’ to that of the ‘other’. It offers a locale to cross from the oppressed ‘self’ to an understanding of an oppressor ‘other’. Yet, diasporic negotiation is politically involved in the most responsible manner; it engages the contextual social realities in order to enable creative possibilities for overcoming the logic of the politics altogether. It invites a kind of political involvement that assures the ‘situatedness of the ethical’ in a framework of moral humanistic realisations. The realisation of diasporic negotiations is dialogically engaged in manners that will give birth to new possibilities for human togetherness. In this essay, I trace the signs of diasporic negotiations of politics, love and trauma in Susan Abulhawa’s Mornings in Jenin by focusing on the Diasporic identity of Amal (the central character. I consider the intersections between diaspora, dislocation of identity and the creation of negotiating spaces that qualify an 'epistemology of Diaspora' against essentialised and ethnocentric construction of realities. I argue that Abulhawa creates diasporic spaces and immense moral scenes to transcend a particular stance of politics via transcending love in opposition to suffering and tribulation. I contend that Abulhawa’s conceptualisation of Diasporic negotiations enables her to depict and gauge two extreme human sentiments: love and trauma, yet, without yielding or compromising the right of just resistance and dissent. Keywords: Diaspora, humanism, Trauma, identity, negotiating difference, and 'Otherness'

  17. Commentary on Susan Isaacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jane

    2011-01-01

    A central principle of 1970s feminism was a concern with making women visible and the historical creation of women's public voices is an important methodological premise of feminist research. When written, biographies of female actors "recovered" from the condescension of posterity, can illuminate the telling of individual and collective…

  18. "If you thought this story sour, sweeten it with your own telling" - a feminist poetics of rewriting in Susan Price's Ghost dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Lehtonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The attempts to challenge conventional gendered discourses in children's fantasy have often resulted in feminist rewritings of earlier stories. Ghost dance (1994 by the English author Susan Price is a novel that reflects a specific feminist poetics of rewriting: metafictional passages highlight the constructedness of the narrative and at the end readers are invited to tell their own versions of the story. Moreover, the rewriting freely combines and recontextualises elements from different source texts and reformulates them to create a narrative that challenges conventional discourses of gender. While this poetics has an appeal from a feminist perspective, the play with cross-cultural intertexts and gender becomes more complex when the novel is examined in a postcolonialist framework in relation to ethnicity and the issue of cultural appropriation. Ghost dance is situated in a setting that has a real-world equivalent (Russia, involves characters that are identified with names of real-world ethnic groups (Lapps (Sámi, Russian, and mixes elements from Russian wonder tales, Nordic mythology and an Ojibwe legend. The novel does not aim at historical accuracy in its representations nor is it a direct retelling of any of the pre-texts but combines motifs, themes, names, characters and settings freely from each source. In this textual melting pot, the protagonist Shingebiss is, on one level, a revision of the witch Baba Yaga, but also described as a Lappish shaman with an Ojibwe name. To rewrite gendered discourses, certain elements from the pretexts are chosen and others left out – the question is, then, what effects does this recontextualisation have on the representation of ethnicity? Or, are the feminist rewriting strategies actually a form of cultural appropriation?

  19. Cognitive reserve in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A M; Stern, Y

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.

  20. Idufirma Silicon Valleyta / Susan Adams

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adams, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Tarkvarafirma Apprenda toodab teenindusplatvormi tarkvara, mis võimaldab klientidel luua ja hoida käigus uusi mobiilseid ja pilvetehnoloogiapõhiseid rakendusi. Oma töötajatele pakub odavaid elamispindu ja madalaid makse

  1. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591

  2. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  3. Clayton 1:100000 Quad Transportation DLGs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic information. DLG's of map features are converted to digital form from maps and related...

  4. Clayton 1:100000 Quad Hydrography DLGs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic information. DLG's of map features are converted to digital form from maps and related...

  5. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  6. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  7. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  8. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  9. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.

  10. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  11. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  12. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  13. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  14. [Hypertrophy and coronary reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, W; Scheler, S

    2008-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.

  15. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  16. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  17. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  18. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear, uranium, reserves, sustainability, independence; Nucleaire, Uranium, reserves, durabilite, independance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C

    2007-06-15

    In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  20. Youth Problems on Indian Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Ruth M., Ed.

    Juvenile delinquency was identified as the major problem affecting youth on Indian reservations. Causes for delinquency which were discussed included culture conflict, expectation of failure, unemployment, failure of homes and parents, discrimination, inadequate education, off-reservation schools, and alcoholism. Needs identified by tribal leaders…

  1. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  2. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  3. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  4. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  5. Reserve Retirement Equality: Treating Reserves Fairly While Saving Taxpayer Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    rata .121 For example, a Reserve who performs the equivalent of five years of active duty, will receive one-fourth the retired pay of his active duty...4,225 per month.124 But because reserve-retirement benefits are based on pro rata years of service, this officer’s years of service for retirement...purposes are 3,146 retirement points divided by 360.125 This results in 8.74 years pro rata years of service.126 His retirement benefits thus are

  6. Entretien avec Susan Holtz | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 nov. 2010 ... Au seuil du prochain millénaire, le développement planétaire durable pose des défis complexes et d'envergure. Partout dans le monde, on cherche à relever ces défis en intégrant les politiques environnementales, sociales et économiques.

  7. Susan G. Komen for the Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma ... com About Us Corporate Partners Grants Central Komen en Español FAQs Newsroom Contact Us Message Boards Site ...

  8. Susan Isaacs and the Malting House School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Philip

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that psychoanalysis has over the years had a significant impact on the education of children with mental health problems. Its contribution to the theory and practice of mainstream education is less well documented. This paper gives an account of the five-year (1924-1929) history of the Malting House School in Cambridge. The school…

  9. Roberts, Dennis C. & Komives, Susan R.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    term study-abroad experience between the Universities of Maryland and San Diego with the Qatar Foundation's Education City in Doha in 2010. This partnership challenged the way in which higher education internalisation was viewed – in such ...

  10. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  11. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  12. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  13. Cerebral correlates of cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Staff, Roger T; Fox, Helen C; Murray, Alison D

    2016-01-30

    Cognitive reserve is a hypothetical concept introduced to explain discrepancies between severity of clinical dementia syndromes and the extent of dementia pathology. We examined cognitive reserve in a research programme that followed up a non-clinical sample born in 1921 or 1936 and IQ-tested age 11 years in 1932 or 1947. Structural MRI exams were acquired in about 50% of the sample from whom a subsample were recruited into an additional fMRI study. Here, we summarise findings from seven inter-related studies. These support an understanding of cognitive reserve as a balance between positive life course activity-driven experiences and the negative effects of brain pathologies including cerebrovascular disease and total and regional brain volume loss. Hypothesised structural equation models illustrate the relative causal effects of these positive and negative contributions. Cognitive reserve is considered in the context of choice of interventions to prevent dementia and the opposing effects of cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer like brain appearances. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  15. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  16. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  17. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  18. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    .... The commentators represented Rural Development employees who work with the Multi-Family Housing Direct... their annual over-inflated tax bills and assessments. As a result, rent income funding that could be..., as rents cannot be raised to an amount that will cover all current and future reserve expenses...

  19. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  20. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  1. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  2. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  3. Indian Reserves: Canada's Developing Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Musto, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    Indian reserves are the most visible reminder of the separation of aboriginal people from the rest of Canada and other Canadians. Illness patterns and social conditions in Native communities closely parallel those in developing nations. While they continue to have a large burden of infectious diseases, these groups also have an increased incidence of chronic and lifestyle diseases as well as environment-related conditions. Similarities can be seen in urban areas between immigrants from abroad...

  4. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  5. Brain reserve and cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Maria A.; Leavitt, Victoria M.; Riccitelli, Gianna; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, John; Filippi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We first tested the brain reserve (BR) hypothesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining whether larger maximal lifetime brain volume (MLBV; determined by genetics) protects against disease-related cognitive impairment, and then investigated whether cognitive reserve (CR) gained through life experience (intellectually enriching leisure activities) protects against cognitive decline independently of MLBV (BR). Methods: Sixty-two patients with MS (41 relapsing-remitting MS, 21 secondary progressive MS) received MRIs to estimate BR (MLBV, estimated with intracranial volume [ICV]) and disease burden (T2 lesion load; atrophy of gray matter, white matter, thalamus, and hippocampus). Early-life cognitive leisure was measured as a source of CR. We assessed cognitive status with tasks of cognitive efficiency and memory. Hierarchical regressions were used to investigate whether higher BR (ICV) protects against cognitive impairment, and whether higher CR (leisure) independently protects against cognitive impairment over and above BR. Results: Cognitive status was positively associated with ICV (R2 = 0.066, p = 0.017). An ICV × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.050, p = 0.030) revealed that larger ICV attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Controlling for BR, higher education (R2 = 0.047, p = 0.030) and leisure (R2 = 0.090, p = 0.001) predicted better cognition. A leisure × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.037, p = 0.030) showed that leisure independently attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Follow-up analyses revealed that BR protected against cognitive inefficiency, not memory deficits, whereas CR was more protective against memory deficits than cognitive inefficiency. Conclusion: We provide evidence of BR in MS, and show that CR independently protects against disease-related cognitive decline over and above BR. Lifestyle choices protect against cognitive impairment independently of genetic factors outside of one's control

  6. Z' reservation at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Montagna, G.; Piccinini, F.; Renard, F.M.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the possibility that one extra Z\\equiv Z' exists with arbitrary mass and fermion couplings that do not violate (charged) lepton universality. We show that, in such a situation, a functional relationship is generated between the \\underline{deviations} from the SM values of three leptonic observables of two-fermion production at future e^+e^- colliders that is completely independent of the values of the Z' mass and couplings. This selects a certain region in the 3-d space of the deviations that is \\underline{characteristic} of the model (Z' "reservation"). As a specific and relevant example, we show the picture that would emerge at LEP2 under realistic experimental conditions.

  7. Archaeological Investigations at Clayton Lake, Southeast Oklahoma. Phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    absolute dating from the excavations will be of utmost concern. These include the collection of radiocarbon and archaeomagnetic samples whenever...modify the nature and number of occupations at the site. 4. To obtain materials for absolute dating , both radiocarbon and archaeomagnetic , in order to...structures were recorded and partially exposed. Ten radiocarbon dates and three archaeomagnetic dates were obtained, but several inconsistencies occurred

  8. 78 FR 2406 - Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds of the Clayton Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... those thresholds annually, based on the change in gross national product, in accordance with Section 8(a... similarly indexed and, as a result, have not been adjusted for inflation in over a decade. The new...

  9. Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... [The Regulatory Plan and Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] [Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] Part XXI Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda... Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory...

  10. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...

  11. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...

  12. Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This paper reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic ev...

  13. Assessment of secondary aluminum reserves of nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maung, Kyaw Nyunt; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    A classification framework of the secondary resources was applied to evaluate the framework's applicability and to assess secondary aluminum reserves for 19 countries. Estimated amounts of secondary aluminum reserves in 2010 were 85 million tonnes in the United States, 65 million tonnes in China......, 29 million tonnes in Japan, and 413 million tonnes globally. For the United States, its secondary reserves are larger than its primary reserves, although the global primary reserves (28,000 million tonnes) are much larger than the estimated secondary reserves. Considerable amounts of secondary...

  14. Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This paper reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that a set of life exposures including higher educational and occupational attainment, and engaging in leisure activities is associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, suggesting that these life exposures may enhance cognitive reserve. This provides a basis for controlled clinical studies can test specific exposures that may enhance reserve. The concept of cognitive reserve also has important implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:23941972

  15. Clipboard: Unraveling the mystery of cognitive reserve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 40; Issue 2. Clipboard : Unraveling the mystery of cognitive reserve ... Keywords. Aging; Alzheimer's; bilingualism; cognitive reserve; dementia; Down's; education; enrichment; environment; learning; long term potentiation; LTP; memory; neuroepigenetics; plasticity ...

  16. Transforming the Reserve Component: Four Essays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binnendijk, Hans; Baranick, Michael J; Bell, Raymond E., Jr; Cordero, Gina; Duncan, Stephen M; Holshek, Christopher; Wentz, Larry

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains four essays on various aspects of the Reserve Component. We publish it at a time when Reserves are serving overseas at historically high rates and when new missions like homeland security demand their attention...

  17. 5 CFR 330.610 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.610 Section 330.610 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.610 [Reserved] ...

  18. 5 CFR 330.603 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.603 Section 330.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.603 [Reserved] ...

  19. Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana

    2017-03-01

    The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.

  20. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  1. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 572.125...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to...

  2. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602... Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an interest-bearing account to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items. (1) Part...

  3. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.745 Replacement reserve. The general requirements for the replacement reserve are provided in § 891.605. For projects funded under §§ 891.655 through 891.790, the...

  4. Reserve evaluation of minerals at NUCLEBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.; Guerra, P.A.G.; Vinha, C.A.G. da

    1980-10-01

    The method used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used worldwide, and specially at NUCLEBRAS is described. This is done through a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (conventional, statistical and geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification and evaluation of reserves. (Author) [pt

  5. John Brainerd and the First Indian Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Susanne Banta

    1979-01-01

    Describes the humanitarian founding in 1758 of the nation's first reservation--the Brotherton reservation for New Jersey's Lenni Lenape (Algonquin) Indians. The people were demoralized, sick, and decimated in numbers; and so the venture failed. In 1801 those few remaining sold the reservation and moved to join related tribes in New York. (DS)

  6. Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reserve accounts for individual differences in susceptibility to age-related brain changes or Alzheimer's disease-related pathology. There is evidence that some people can tolerate more of these changes than others and still maintain function. Epidemiologic studies suggest that lifetime exposures including educational and occupational attainment, and leisure activities in late life, can increase this reserve. For example, there is a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in individuals with higher educational or occupational attainment. It is convenient to think of two types of reserve: brain reserve, which refers to actual differences in the brain itself that may increase tolerance of pathology, and cognitive reserve. Cognitive reserve refers to individual differences in how tasks are performed that may allow some people to be more resilient than others. The concept of cognitive reserve holds out the promise of interventions that could slow cognitive aging or reduce the risk of dementia. PMID:23079557

  7. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-16

    During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

  8. Demand for International Reserves in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimaz Sinem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Having an important place in the international monetary system, international reserves held by central bank usually reflect country’s economic strength in terms of international finance and trade. There are many reasons for holding international reserves by central banks such as financing the deficit in the balance of payment, managing the monetary and exchange rate policies, minimizing the negative effects of external shocks and reducing the cost of borrowing. Continuously changing and diversifying characteristics of these reasons affect the demand for reserves depending to the economic conditions of the country. Over the last ten years, there has been a tremendous increase in international reserves held by Turkish Central Bank. From 2002 to 2012, the reserves of the bank have risen from 20 billion dollars to 96 billion dollars, showing an increase more than four times. This sudden and huge increase in the foreign reserves drove us to determine and investigate the factors which induce the Turkish Central Bank to hold high level of reserves. Thus, the purpose of this study is to estimate and analyze the demand for international reserves held by central banks using the buffer stock model in the case of Turkey. The data used in the study is monthly and cover the period of 1990:03-2012:10. The buffer stock model was econometrically estimated by using the OLS method for three different models. Our findings indicate that the opportunity cost affected reserve demand much stronger than the reserve volatility in Turkish case.

  9. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  10. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  11. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  12. A Policy Analysis of Reserve Retirement Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    adapted their manning requirements to this retention. Perhaps tasks and jobs have been designed to accommodate the reten - tion profile produced by the...a reward for a long career of service, a benefit to help transition to the civilian economy, and a means of securing the reten - tion of career...to determine their likely effect on active reten - tion, reserve affiliation after leaving an active component, reserve retention, and reserve

  13. IGT calculates world reserves of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has published the IGT World Reserves Survey, giving their latest tabulation of world reserves of fossil fuels and uranium. The report contains 120 Tables and 41 Figures. Estimates are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, and life indexes of the non-renewable energy sources of the US and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided in many cases. The data are summarized here. 2 figures, 5 tables

  14. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  15. Reserve reporting from a banker's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.O.

    1996-01-01

    A banker's perspective of oil and gas reserve reporting was presented. Topics chosen for discussion emphasized oil and gas lending, and the type of capital which is most relevant to the oil and gas industry. The concept of capital differentiation, potential worst case, and least specialization, were explained. An explanation of the reasons for the lender's different perspective on reserves was given. Methods that banks use to limit risk, and the role that reserve reports play in loan approvals were also reviewed

  16. When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source. (author)

  17. Reservation system with graphical user interface

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid

    2012-01-05

    Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with a selected interval of time and a compressed view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with one or more additional intervals of time, maintaining a visual context between the expanded view and the compressed view within the visualization object, and enabling a user to switch between the expanded view and the compressed view to facilitate use of the reservation system.

  18. 48 CFR 4.501 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 4.501 Section 4.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Electronic Commerce in Contracting 4.501 [Reserved...

  19. 7 CFR 300.1 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 300.1 Section 300.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE § 300.1 [Reserved...

  20. 7 CFR 305.4 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 305.4 Section 305.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.4 [Reserved...

  1. 50 CFR 216.42 - Photography. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Photography. [Reserved] 216.42 Section 216.42 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.42 Photography. [Reserved] ...

  2. 9 CFR 73.1a - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 73.1a Section 73.1a Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1a [Reserved] ...

  3. 12 CFR 614.4710 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 614.4710 Section 614.4710 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4710 [Reserved] ...

  4. 40 CFR 406.43 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.43 Section 406.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.43 [Reserved] ...

  5. 40 CFR 406.23 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.23 Section 406.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.23 [Reserved] ...

  6. 40 CFR 406.13 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.13 Section 406.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.13 [Reserved] ...

  7. 24 CFR 891.855 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 891.855... § 891.855 Replacement reserves. (a) The mixed-finance owner shall establish and maintain a replacement... the funds will be used to pay for capital replacement costs for the Section 202 or 811 supportive...

  8. 22 CFR 40.69 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 40.69 Section 40.69 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Illegal Entrants and Immigration Violators § 40.69 [Reserved] ...

  9. Body reserves in intra-African migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nwaogu, Chima; Cresswell, Will

    Avian migration has been shown to be a life history strategy for surviving environmental resource variability, but it requires increased body reserves for long distance flight. Fat reserves make excellent energy stores for barrier crossing, whereas proteins generate less energy for the same mass of

  10. 21 CFR 211.170 - Reserve samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserve samples. 211.170 Section 211.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL... of deterioration unless visual examination would affect the integrity of the reserve sample. Any...

  11. 8 CFR 325.1 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 325.1 Section 325.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS NATIONALS BUT NOT CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES; RESIDENCE WITHIN OUTLYING POSSESSIONS § 325.1 [Reserved] ...

  12. 30 CFR 253.44 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 253.44 Section 253.44 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Requirements for Submitting OSFR Information § 253.44 [Reserved] ...

  13. 14 CFR 33.13 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 33.13 Section 33.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.13 [Reserved] ...

  14. 14 CFR 35.13 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 35.13 Section 35.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.13 [Reserved] ...

  15. 14 CFR 35.11 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 35.11 Section 35.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.11 [Reserved] ...

  16. Reserve selection using nonlinear species distribution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Atte

    2005-06-01

    Reserve design is concerned with optimal selection of sites for new conservation areas. Spatial reserve design explicitly considers the spatial pattern of the proposed reserve network and the effects of that pattern on reserve cost and/or ability to maintain species there. The vast majority of reserve selection formulations have assumed a linear problem structure, which effectively means that the biological value of a potential reserve site does not depend on the pattern of selected cells. However, spatial population dynamics and autocorrelation cause the biological values of neighboring sites to be interdependent. Habitat degradation may have indirect negative effects on biodiversity in areas neighboring the degraded site as a result of, for example, negative edge effects or lower permeability for animal movement. In this study, I present a formulation and a spatial optimization algorithm for nonlinear reserve selection problems in grid-based landscapes that accounts for interdependent site values. The method is demonstrated using habitat maps and nonlinear habitat models for threatened birds in the Netherlands, and it is shown that near-optimal solutions are found for regions consisting of up to hundreds of thousands grid cells, a landscape size much larger than those commonly attempted even with linear reserve selection formulations.

  17. 7 CFR 1709.2 Policy. - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1709.2 Policy. Section 1709.2 Policy. Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.2 Policy. [Reserved] ...

  18. 7 CFR 1709.202 Policy. - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1709.202 Policy. Section 1709.202 Policy... AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES Bulk Fuel Revolving Fund Grant Program § 1709.202 Policy. [Reserved] ...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.65 - Reserve account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.65 Section 3560.65 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.65 Reserve account... account that meets requirements of § 3560.306. At a minimum, the borrower must agree to make monthly...

  20. 21 CFR 720.5 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 720.5 Section 720.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.5 [Reserved] ...

  1. 39 CFR 111.5 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 111.5 Section 111.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] GENERAL INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.5 [Reserved] ...

  2. 75 FR 44067 - Conservation Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... amending the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) regulations to implement provisions of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008 Farm Bill). The 2008 Farm Bill generally extends the existing... Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1410 RIN 0560-AH80 Conservation Reserve Program AGENCY: Commodity...

  3. 7 CFR 1780.8 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1780.8 Section 1780.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS General Policies and Requirements § 1780.8 [Reserved] ...

  4. 7 CFR 1779.79 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.79 Section 1779.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.79 [Reserved] ...

  5. 7 CFR 1780.5 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1780.5 Section 1780.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS General Policies and Requirements § 1780.5 [Reserved] ...

  6. 7 CFR 1779.82 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.82 Section 1779.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.82 [Reserved] ...

  7. 7 CFR 1779.74 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.74 Section 1779.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.74 [Reserved] ...

  8. 7 CFR 1780.12 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1780.12 Section 1780.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS General Policies and Requirements § 1780.12 [Reserved] ...

  9. 7 CFR 1779.26 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.26 Section 1779.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.26 [Reserved] ...

  10. 20 CFR 410.394 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 410.394 Section 410.394 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.394 [Reserved] ...

  11. 40 CFR 26.1124 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 26.1124 Section 26.1124 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical...-nursing Adults § 26.1124 [Reserved] ...

  12. 26 CFR 1.46-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true [Reserved] 1.46-10 Section 1.46-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-10 [Reserved] ...

  13. 34 CFR 97.121 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 97.121 Section 97.121 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.121 [Reserved] ...

  14. Running on Empty? The Compensatory Reserve Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and HR,31 more blood pressure oscillations,32 and greater vasoconstrictor reserve,33 compared with low-tolerant individuals. By leveraging recent... vasoconstrictor reserves. Clin Auton Res. 2012; 22:123Y130. 32. Rickards CA, Ryan KL, Cooke WH, Convertino VA. Tolerance to central hypovolemia: the

  15. 77 FR 66980 - Federal Reserve Bank Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... earn net income of $15.3 million, compared with the target of $9.1 million. While the check service and... upgrades, and increase product revenue. 4. 2013 Pricing--The following summarizes the Reserve Banks... the office closed. The Reserve Banks also will introduce incentive pricing for depository institutions...

  16. 15 CFR 2003.3 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 2003.3 Section 2003.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS OF TRADE POLICY STAFF COMMITTEE § 2003.3 [Reserved] ...

  17. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs are well-noted but not well-understood, and there is little evidence that they are decreasing in frequency or amount over time. The need to control spending has led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns, and many program control efforts are being implemented to attempt to prevent or mitigate the problem (NPR 7120). However, cost overruns have not abated, and while some direct causes of increased spending may be obvious (requirements creep, launch delays, directed changes, etc.), the underlying impetus to spend past the original budget may be more subtle. Gaining better insight into the causes of cost overruns will help NASA and its contracting organizations to avoid .them. This paper hypothesizes that one cause of NASA mission cost overruns is that the availability of reserves gives project team members an incentive to make decisions and behave in ways that increase costs. We theorize that the presence of reserves is a contributing factor to cost overruns because it causes organizations to use their funds less efficiently or to control spending less effectively. We draw a comparison to the insurance industry concept of moral hazard, the phenomenon that the presence of insurance causes insureds to have more frequent and higher insurance losses, and we attempt to apply actuarial techniques to quantifY the increase in the expected cost of a mission due to the availability of reserves. We create a theoretical model of reserve spending motivation by defining a variable ReserveSpending as a function of total reserves. This function has a positive slope; for every dollar of reserves available, there is a positive probability of spending it. Finally, the function should be concave down; the probability of spending each incremental dollar of reserves decreases progressively. We test the model against available NASA CADRe data by examining missions with reserve dollars initially available and testing whether

  18. 76 FR 64250 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification and Private Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... D; Docket No. R-1433] RIN No. 7100 AD 83 Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification and Private Sector Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System... public comment on proposed amendments to Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions...

  19. Cognitive reserve and appraisal in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Snook, Erin; Quaranto, Brian; Benedict, Ralph H B; Rapkin, Bruce D; Vollmer, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive appraisal processes underlying self-report affect the interpretation of patient-reported outcomes. These processes are relevant to resilience and adaptability, and may relate to how cognitive reserve protects against disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). To describe how passive and active indicators of cognitive reserve relate to QOL appraisal processes in MS. Cross-sectional data (n=860) were drawn from the North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) Registry, from whom additional survey data were collected. Cognitive reserve was measured using the Stern and Sole-Padulles measures. Using the quality of life appraisal profile (QOLAP), we assessed how MS patients conceptualize their experiences and how that impacts how they report their quality of life. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare groups within sets of appraisal parameters, and t-tests or chi-square tests were used to compare mean item responses within appraisal parameters for continuous or dichotomous variables, respectively. People high in passive or active reserve report different conceptualizations of QOL, different types of goals, and considering different types of experiences and standards of comparison in responding to QOL questionnaires, as compared to low-reserve individuals. Although item response patterns were slightly different between passive and active indicators, they generally reflect a tendency in high-reserve individuals to emphasize the positive, focus on aspects of their life that are more controllable, and less based in fantasy. MS patients high in cognitive reserve differ in their cognitive appraisals from their low reserve counterparts. These appraisal metrics may predict disease course and other important clinical outcomes in MS patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  1. Computerized reserves assessment improves colliery planning. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozor, L.; Wrobel, R.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe systems developed in Poland for the computerised assessment of coal reserves. The Zasoby system calculates coal reserves and evaluates selected natural properties of seams within the boundaries of an arbitrary mining property, based entirely on exploratory borehole data. The IOS-10 system is based on the Polish data bank for bituminous coal deposits. It is not suitable for use in mine design procedures, but is widely used for the statistical recording of reserves in areas currently being worked. The major part of the paper is devoted to a description of the Geo-3 system, used for the computation of reserves in prospective areas from borehole data, as well as in active mining areas or partially worked-out deposits. The computation method is explained and examples of the results obtained are given.

  2. Operational Army Reserve Implications for Organizational Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dahms, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    The Army Reserve has been in a constant state of mobilization since 1995 with the advent of the Bosnia crisis and the pace of mobilization increased exponentially after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001...

  3. Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E.; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management. PMID:20427745

  4. 48 CFR 9904.404-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.404-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-10 [Reserved] ...

  5. 48 CFR 9904.401-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.401-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-10 [Reserved] ...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.400 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.400 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.400 [Reserved] ...

  7. 48 CFR 9904.402-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.402-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-10 [Reserved] ...

  8. 48 CFR 9904.405-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.405-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-10 [Reserved] ...

  9. 48 CFR 9904.407-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.407-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-10 [Reserved] ...

  10. 48 CFR 9904.408-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.408-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.408-10 [Reserved] ...

  11. 48 CFR 9904.406-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.406-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-10 [Reserved] ...

  12. 48 CFR 9904.403-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.403-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-10 [Reserved] ...

  13. 10 CFR 51.110 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Rulemaking § 51.110 [Reserved] Public Notice of and Access to Environmental Documents ...

  14. U.S. Federal Reserve Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset is comprised of forty-five entities that are part of the United States Federal Reserve System according to the United States Department of Treasury. The...

  15. Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D

    2010-10-26

    As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management.

  16. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs have led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns as well as mitigation and prevention attempts. This paper hypothesizes that one cause is that the availability of reserves may reduce incentives to control costs. We draw a comparison to the insurance concept of moral hazard, and we use actuarial techniques to better understand the increase in mission costs due to the availability of reserves. NASA's CADRe database provided the data against which we tested our hypothesis and discovered that there is correlation between the amount of available reserves and project overruns, particularly for mission hardware cost increases. We address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects.

  17. 40 CFR 63.131 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.131 [Reserved] ...

  18. Reserves and cash flows under stochastic retirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Kamille Sofie Tågholt; Nielsen, Jeppe Woetmann

    2016-01-01

    and the guarantees provided. Stochastic retirement creates a need to rethink the construction of disability products for high ages and ways to handle this are discussed. We show how to calculate market reserves and how to use modified transition probabilities to calculate expected cash flows without significantly...... more complexity than in the traditional model. At last, we demonstrate the impact of stochastic retirement on market reserves and expected cash flow in numerical examples....

  19. Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reserve accounts for individual differences in susceptibility to age-related brain changes or Alzheimer's disease-related pathology. There is evidence that some people can tolerate more of these changes than others and still maintain function. Epidemiologic studies suggest that lifetime exposures including educational and occupational attainment, and leisure activities in late life, can increase this reserve. For example, there is a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's diseas...

  20. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-28

    utilizing WMrcha’t Marine Academy gr , ,ates and Naval Reserve Officer Training Course S’(NROTC)/Student Incentive Progrim (SIP) graduates from state...personnel gr , atly enhances the mobilization and combat readiness of the Total Force. Several new medical programs were implemented by the Reserve components...Defense Force Chief of Joint Staff, Defense Command * Mendez, Honorable Enrique Jr., M.D. Norway Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs

  1. Exploration report in mining reserve XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoturno Pioppo, J.; Lara Vigil, P.

    1991-01-01

    This report has been referred to the antecedents and works developed in the mining Reservation XIV. This Reservation, covered a 1900 km2 surface, involving the aerial photography Valentines Cerro Chato, Chileno, Rossel y Rius, Sarandi del Yi and Cuchilla del Pescado. It has been reduced this area to western part of the aerial phothograpy Pavas, releasing other areas such as Chileno, Rossel y Rius, Cuchilla del Pescado y Cerro Chato. Finally, gold, sulphures, pirite and carbonates iron oxides findings have been found.

  2. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB) system is possible and that precautionary...

  3. Natural radioactivity as indicator of petroleum reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, T.; Viloriab, L.; Sajo Bohusa, K.; Gomez, A.

    2001-01-01

    The possibilities of the measurement method of Radon emanation from the ground, using passive detectors, to identify oil-saturated beds in reserves or well-known deposit was evaluated in the North part of the Orinoco river and in some areas of Zulia Sate, Venezuela. The existence of Negative anomalies of radon emanation in regions of proven petroleum reserves was shown. The Space variability of emanated Radon concentration from the ground was measured and maps of three-dimensional contour curves applying different surface models were obtained, which allowed to locate the anomalies of radon emanation and to compare them with the location of reserves reported by other methods. In both regions it was obtained that the area having the lowest radon value is surrounded by an annular region of high radon values, being able to identify a locally decreased emanation over petroleum reserves as compared to the surroundings. The cause of such anomalies is not identified but they can provide useful information for locating the deeply buried oil reserves. Both regions showed a decrease in gamma activity and in upward flow of gases CH4 and C02 over the geologic structures which contain petroleum reserves Underneath. An applicable experimental routine was proposed to other regions. We conclude that the method of etched track detection can be useful in recognizing the subsurface oil-bearing structures and the technique is relatively simple and inexpensive

  4. Does cognitive reserve shape cognitive decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmot, Michael G; Glymour, Maria; Sabia, Séverine; Kivimäki, Mika; Dugravot, Aline

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Cognitive reserve is associated with a lower risk of dementia but the extent to which it shapes cognitive aging trajectories remains unclear. Our objective is to examine the impact of three markers of reserve from different points in the lifecourse on cognitive function and decline in late adulthood. Methods Data are from 5234 men and 2220 women, mean age 56 years (standard deviation=6) at baseline, from the Whitehall II cohort study. Memory, reasoning, vocabulary, phonemic and semantic fluency were assessed three times over 10 years. Linear mixed models were used to assess the association between markers of reserve (height, education, and occupation) and cognitive decline, using the 5 cognitive tests and a global cognitive score composed of these tests. Results All three reserve measures were associated with baseline cognitive function, with strongest associations with occupation and the weakest with height. All cognitive functions except vocabulary declined over the 10 year follow-up period. On the global cognitive test, there was greater decline in the high occupation group (−0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.28, −0.26) compared to the intermediate (−0.23; 95% CI: −0.25, −0.22) and low groups (−0.21; 95% CI: −0.24, −0.19); p=0.001. The decline in reserve groups defined by education (p=0.82) and height (p=0.55) was similar. Interpretation Cognitive performance over the adult lifecourse was remarkably higher in the high reserve groups. However, rate of cognitive decline did not differ between reserve groups except occupation where there was some evidence of greater decline in the high occupation group. PMID:21563209

  5. OPINIONS ON INTERNATIONAL RESERVES MANAGEMENT - POST CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERCEA (HANDRO PATRICIA AMALIA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent crisis demonstrated once again the importance of maintaining an adequate level of the international reserves as part of the defense of a country against the shocks internationally transmitted. Liquidity buffers aided the good functioning of financial systems, and allowed countries to cope with sudden foreign capital stops or to manage massive outflows without facing a costly crisis. This logic has been strengthened in the context of the crisis from 2008, when countries with lots of reserves, such as China or Brazil, came through better than those with lower liquid assets. Economists have argued that developing countries need reserves mainly to cover urgent imports and short-term debts. The current level of global reserves far exceeds this traditional postulate. In this context, it is necessary to rethink the adequacy of the level of constituting the reserves portfolio. The dominance of the dollar as a reserve currency, another important feature of the current reserves portfolio, makes the holders become vulnerable to the monetary policy of FED. A greater flexibility of the currency will also be needed. The often called the “trilemma” of international economics dictates: when capital is mobile, countries must choose between fixing their currencies and controlling their domestic monetary conditions. They cannot do both. The domestic currency inflexibility will ultimately lead to asset bubbles and inflation. The pressure of capital flows will depend on the prospects of rich economies, especially America’s. The increment of emerging economies availability to allow the exchange rate to move will depend on what China does - and China may remain forever linked to the dollar. The emergence of a global currency that constitute a genuine means of exchange or the use of cross-border multifaceted cash pools common to IMF members would reduce systemic risks. International regulations for countries with persistent trade surpluses could be a

  6. Foreign Exchange Reserves and the Reserve Bank’s Balance Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Vallence

    2012-01-01

    The Reserve Bank of Australia holds and manages the nation’s foreign exchange reserve assets in order to meet its policy objectives. While Australia’s foreign exchange reserves are relatively modest by international standards, they nonetheless constitute a sizeable portion of the Bank’s balance sheet, and variations in the Australian dollar value of these reserves are usually the most volatile component of the Bank’s profit and loss statement. This article discusses some of the key decisions ...

  7. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pinson, Pierre; Morais, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their re......The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase...... dayahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors....

  8. Right hemisphere role in cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Ian H

    2014-06-01

    High levels of education, occupational complexity, and/or premorbid intelligence are associated with lower levels of cognitive impairment than would be expected from a given brain pathology. This has been observed across a range of conditions including Alzheimer's disease (Roe et al., 2010), stroke (Ojala-Oksala et al., 2012), traumatic brain injury (Kesler et al., 2003), and penetrating brain injury (Grafman, 1986). This cluster of factors, which seemingly protect the brain from expressing symptoms of damage, has been termed "cognitive reserve" (Stern, 2012). The current review considers one possible neural network, which may contribute to cognitive reserve. Based on the evidence that the neurotransmitter, noradrenaline mediates cognitive reserve's protective effects (Robertson, 2013) this review identifies the neurocognitive correlates of noradrenergic (NA) activity. These involve a set of inter-related cognitive processes (arousal, sustained attention, response to novelty, and awareness) with a strongly right hemisphere, fronto-parietal localization, along with working memory, which is also strongly modulated by NA. It is proposed that this set of processes is one plausible candidate for partially mediating the protective effects of cognitive reserve. In addition to its biological effects on brain structure and function, NA function may also facilitate networks for arousal, novelty, attention, awareness, and working memory, which collectively provide for a set of additional, cognitive, mechanisms that help the brain adapt to age-related changes and disease. It is hypothesized that to the extent that the lateral surface of the right prefrontal lobe and/or the right inferior parietal lobe maintain structural (white and gray matter) and functional integrity and connectivity, cognitive reserve should benefit and behavioral expression of pathologic damage should thus be mitigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk spreading, connectivity, and optimal reserve spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowes, Shane A; Connolly, Sean R

    2012-01-01

    Two important processes determining the dynamics of spatially structured populations are dispersal and the spatial covariance of demographic fluctuations. Spatially explicit approaches to conservation, such as reserve networks, must consider the tension between these two processes and reach a balance between distances near enough to maintain connectivity, but far enough to benefit from risk spreading. Here, we model this trade-off. We show how two measures of metapopulation persistence depend on the shape of the dispersal kernel and the shape of the distance decay in demographic covariance, and we consider the implications of this trade-off for reserve spacing. The relative rates of distance decay in dispersal and demographic covariance determine whether the long-run metapopulation growth rate, and quasi-extinction risk, peak for adjacent patches or intermediately spaced patches; two local maxima in metapopulation persistence are also possible. When dispersal itself fluctuates over time, the trade-off changes. Temporal variation in mean distance that propagules are dispersed (i.e., propagule advection) decreases metapopulation persistence and decreases the likelihood that persistence will peak for adjacent patches. Conversely, variation in diffusion (the extent of random spread around mean dispersal) increases metapopulation persistence overall and causes it to peak at shorter inter-patch distances. Thus, failure to consider temporal variation in dispersal processes increases the risk that reserve spacings will fail to meet the objective of ensuring metapopulation persistence. This study identifies two phenomena that receive relatively little attention in empirical work on reserve spacing, but that can qualitatively change the effectiveness of reserve spacing strategies: (1) the functional form of the distance decay in covariance among patch-specific demographic rates and (2) temporal variation in the shape of the dispersal kernel. The sensitivity of metapopulation

  10. Estimating Quartz Reserves Using Compositional Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Taboada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine spatial distribution and volume of four commercial quartz grades, namely, silicon metal, ferrosilicon, aggregate, and kaolin (depending on content in impurities in a quartz seam. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the reserves in the seam were determined from samples collected from outcrops, blasting operations, and exploratory drilling, and compositional kriging was used to calculate the volume and distribution of the reserves. A more accurate knowledge of the deposit ensures better mine planning, leading to higher profitability and an improved relationship with the environment.

  11. Demand as Frequency-controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian Brandt; Østergaard, Jacob

    electric loads to provide frequency controlled primary reserves. The devices collected data from domestic households and industrial loads covering i.e. circulation pumps, electrical domestic heating, bottle coolers, a wastewater treatment plant etc., that have been analysed and used for the papers...

  12. 34 CFR 300.811 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 300.811 Section 300.811 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  13. 34 CFR 300.805 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 300.805 Section 300.805 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  14. Use of reserve substances by irradiated tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Tabares, Francisco; Perez Talavera, Susana

    1999-01-01

    The response of tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosun L.) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) to gamma radiation from 60 Co were investigated. The use of reserve substances by the tubers increased when the irradiation dose raise up to the level of GR10-20 and then decreased down to the values lower than the control non-irradiated tubers

  15. Diminished ovarian reserve in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Tuğrul Ayanoğlu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psoriasis is a multi-systemic chronic inflammatory skin disease. Previous data suggests that women with some chronic inflammatory diseases have diminished ovarian reserve. This study explores ovarian reserve in patients with psoriasis. Materials and methods: We prospectively analyzed 14 female patients with psoriasis and 35 healthy age and body mass index matched controls. An interview explored demographic characteristics, obstetrical history and menstrual characteristics. Psoriatic area severity index (PASI in patients was assessed. Estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, thyroid stimulating hormone and with gynecologic ultrasonography, ovarian volume and antral follicular count (AFC were measured in both study and control groups. These values were analyzed with changes of the PASI in the patient group. Results: Patients with psoriasis had significantly higher levels of FSH and FSH/LH ratio than healthy controls (p = 0.039, p = 0.005 respectively. AFC of psoriasis patients were significantly lower than healthy controls (p = 0.002.There were no significant difference among other hormone levels and ovarian volumes (p > 0.05. The hormone levels, ovarian volume and AFC were not correlated with PASI of the patients. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that patients with psoriasis may have diminished ovarian reserve. Keywords: Psoriasis, Ovarian reserve, Psoriatic area severity index, Antral follicular count, Follicle-stimulating hormone

  16. 49 CFR 236.533 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 236.533 Section 236.533 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  17. 49 CFR 236.704 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 236.704 Section 236.704 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  18. 49 CFR 236.561 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 236.561 Section 236.561 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  19. 49 CFR 236.530 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 236.530 Section 236.530 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  20. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

  1. Optimization of Marine Forces Reserve Equipment Redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    industry as an example. Bertrand and Bookbinder begin with a basic supply chain logistics model of a large warehouse supplying a number of retail...solutions, and perform fast sensitivity analysis on the competing objectives. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Optimization, Marine Forces Reserve, redistribution...reallocation, equipment supply , logistics 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 61 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY

  2. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  3. Clipboard: Unraveling the mystery of cognitive reserve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aging; Alzheimer's; bilingualism; cognitive reserve; dementia; Down's; education; enrichment; environment; learning; long term potentiation; LTP; memory; neuroepigenetics; plasticity ... Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London Alexandra House, 17-19 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, England ...

  4. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year

  5. 40 CFR 80.605 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.605 Section 80.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA...

  6. 40 CFR 80.609 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.609 Section 80.609 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA...

  7. 40 CFR 80.534 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.534 Section 80.534 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA...

  8. Study on Online Hotel Reservation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alleweldt, Frank; Tonner, Klaus; McDonald, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This study, conducted by Civic Consulting, looks at both pre-contractual and contractual matters concerning online hotel reservation systems, examines relevant Community rules, identifies gaps and, where needed, discusses possible policy options. Key conclusions The study shows that the impact of Community law on online hotel

  9. 10 CFR 51.99 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 51.99 Section 51.99 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental...

  10. 27 CFR 27.205 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 27.205 Section 27.205 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Requirements for Liquor Bottles...

  11. Your Money and the Federal Reserve System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, Minn.

    The booklet explores various roles which money has played throughout history and examines the relationship between money and the Federal Reserve System. The major objective is to increase understanding of the performance of various functions such as making money work as a medium of exchange and as a measure of value and of storing value for future…

  12. Mental Reservation and Military Testimony before Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Gordon R

    2008-01-01

    .... The cause for this apparent mental reservation on the part of military leaders can be found in their organizational bias and environmental influences, but the solution can be found in history. It is vital for the military to understand that a currency of truth is the most important contribution it can make to the civilian-military relationship.

  13. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) As projects age, the required reserve account level may be adjusted to meet anticipated “life-cycle...) Purpose. To meet the major capital expense needs of a housing project, borrowers must establish and... be deemed to contain surplus funds when the balance at the end of the housing project's fiscal year...

  14. 18 CFR 4.91 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 4.91 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT LICENSES, PERMITS, EXEMPTIONS, AND DETERMINATION OF PROJECT COSTS Exemption of Small Conduit Hydroelectric Facilities § 4.91 [Reserved] ...

  15. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB system is possible and that precautionary reserves consequently do not pose a necessary limit. We discuss various instances in which a FRFB system may expand credit without a prior increase in real savings. These facets all demonstrate why a fractional reserve banking system – even a free banking one – is inherently unstable, and incentivized to impose a stabilizing central bank. We find that at the root of our disagreements with Selgin lies a different approach to monetary theory. Selgin subscribes to the aggregative equation of exchange, which impedes him from seeing the microeconomic problems that the stabilization of “MV” by a FRFB system causes.

  16. 78 FR 66715 - Federal Reserve Bank Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... imputed costs and earn net income of $24.6 million, compared with the target of $4.2 million. Although the... initiatives, and to increase product revenue. 4.2014 Pricing--The following summarizes the Reserve Banks... Banks will discontinue the Choice Receiver program, which provides pricing incentives to those customers...

  17. 40 CFR 427.84 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 427.84 Section 427.84 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.84...

  18. 40 CFR 86.220-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.220-94 Section 86.220-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  19. 40 CFR 86.217-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.217-94 Section 86.217-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  20. 40 CFR 86.212-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.212-94 Section 86.212-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  1. 40 CFR 86.241-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.241-94 Section 86.241-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  2. 40 CFR 86.207-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.207-94 Section 86.207-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  3. 40 CFR 86.243-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.243-94 Section 86.243-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  4. 40 CFR 428.64 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 428.64 Section 428.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber...

  5. 40 CFR 86.210-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.210-94 Section 86.210-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  6. 40 CFR 86.245-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.245-94 Section 86.245-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  7. 40 CFR 86.225-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.225-94 Section 86.225-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  8. 5 CFR 330.710 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.710 Section 330.710 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Interagency Career Transition Assistance Plan for Displaced Employees § 330.710...

  9. 5 CFR 330.702 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.702 Section 330.702 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Interagency Career Transition Assistance Plan for Displaced Employees § 330.702...

  10. Planning outstanding reserves in general insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeva, E.; Pavlov, V.

    2017-10-01

    Each insurance company have to ensure its solvency through presentation of accounts for its own reserves in the start of the year. Usually the task of the actuary is to estimate the state of the company on an annual basis and the expectation of the status of the company for a future period. One of the major problem when calculating the liabilities of the incurred claims, is related to the delay of payments. Object of consideration in the present note are the outstanding claim reserves, which are set aside to cover claims, occurred before the date of the annual account, but still not paid, and related with them expenses. There may be different reasons for the delay of claims settlement. For example, continuation the process of the liquidation of the damage waiting for necessary documents or the presence of controversial cases whose permission takes time, etc. Thus the claims, which determine the outstanding reserves could be divided in the following types: claims, which are reported, but not settled (RBNS); claims, which are incurred but not reported (IBNR); claims, whose case is finished, but it is possible to be reopened. When calculating the reserves for IBNR claims, most widely used is the Chain-ladder method and its modification presented by the Bornhuetter - Ferguson method. For modeling the outstanding claims, the available data should be presented in so called run-off triangle, which underlies in the basis of such methods. The present work provides a review of the algorithm for calculating insurance outstanding claim reserves according to the Chain-ladder method. Using available data for claims related to liability of drivers, registered in Bulgaria an example is constructed to illustrate the methodology of the Chain-Ladder method. Back-testing approach is used for validating the results.

  11. Petroleum reserves in West Africa: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copinschi, Ph.; Favennec, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea region in West Africa is one in which production and reserves have increased the most during the last few years, essentially due to offshore operation. It is also there that the most spectacular discoveries have been made in recent years, particularly with deep-sea drilling. The low production costs and enthusiastic welcome for foreign investors make the region a favoured destination for large international companies, even if uncertainties and political tensions remain to make the situation delicate. In these conditions, the relationship between the host State and the foreign petrol companies are changing. Beyond the purely formal aspects of these new contacts, the whole former system of 'reserved markets' is being threatened by the increasing tendency to open the sector to competition. Eight countries are examined in detail: Nigeria, Angola, Gabon, Congo, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, the Ivory Coast and Chad. (authors)

  12. Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    of one day of basic pay for each unit training assembly ( UTA ) they attend. A UTA is generally a four-hour period of instruction, and there are usually...training assembly ( UTA ), one point for each day of annual training (AT), and one point for each day of active duty. Points can also be earned for completing... on the vitality of the reserve components, such as funding, equipment, and personnel policy. This report is designed to provide an overview of key

  13. Developing Senior Leaders for the Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    For more information on the Forces and Resources Policy Center, see http://www.rand.org/nsrd/ndri/centers/frp.html or contact the director (contact information is provided on the web page ). ...some combination of experiences, education, and personal development. Each has an extensive concept of develop- ment—how they define it, what ...policy. First, in what ways can the develop- ment of RC senior leaders be improved? Second, in what ways can reserve component leader development

  14. Bilingualism, dementia, cognitive and neural reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perani, Daniela; Abutalebi, Jubin

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the role of bilingualism as a source of cognitive reserve and we propose the putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilingualism leads to a neural reserve that delays the onset of dementia. Recent findings highlight that the use of more than one language affects the human brain in terms of anatomo-structural changes. It is noteworthy that recent evidence from different places and cultures throughout the world points to a significant delay of dementia onset in bilingual/multilingual individuals. This delay has been reported not only for Alzheimer's dementia and its prodromal mild cognitive impairment phase, but also for other dementias such as vascular and fronto-temporal dementia, and was found to be independent of literacy, education and immigrant status. Lifelong bilingualism represents a powerful cognitive reserve delaying the onset of dementia by approximately 4 years. As to the causal mechanism, because speaking more than one language heavily relies upon executive control and attention, brain systems handling these functions are more developed in bilinguals resulting in increases of gray and white matter densities that may help protect from dementia onset. These neurocognitive benefits are even more prominent when second language proficiency and exposure are kept high throughout life.

  15. World energy demands and coal reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Kovács

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the expected increase in the world’s population and taking the estimated improvement in both technology and living standards into account, the paper forecasts energy demands. In 2000, actual energy consumption was 380-400 EJ.year-1, the forecast for the year 2050 is 600-1,050 EJ.year-1, while for the year 2100 it is 900-3,600 EJ.year-1. On the basis of the expected shares of the different fuels (coal, mineral oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energies, it can be assumed that in 2050 coal demand will be between 122-200 EJ.year-1 while the total coal demand for the 45 years ahead is estimated to be 5,500-6,900 EJ.year-1. This rate of demand basically involves an approximately 2 % increase every year.On the basis of data in relevant literature, the world’s coal reserves are: the industrial coal reserve is 800-1,000 · 109 tons, the geological stock is 5-15 1012 tons and the expected stock is 8-35 1012 tons. The world’s industrial coal reserve (which is economically exploitable at the present technological level guarantees supply for 200 years while the detected geological stock guarantees supply for a round 1,000 years.

  16. Disaggregating reserve-to-production ratios: An algorithm for United States oil and gas reserve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles William

    Reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas development are utilized by oil and gas producing states to monitor oil and gas reserve and production dynamics. These ratios are used to determine production levels for the manipulation of oil and gas prices while maintaining adequate reserves for future development. These aggregate reserve-to-production ratios do not provide information concerning development cost and the best time necessary to develop newly discovered reserves. Oil and gas reserves are a semi-finished inventory because development of the reserves must take place in order to implement production. These reserves are considered semi-finished in that they are not counted unless it is economically profitable to produce them. The development of these reserves is encouraged by profit maximization economic variables which must consider the legal, political, and geological aspects of a project. This development is comprised of a myriad of incremental operational decisions, each of which influences profit maximization. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a model for characterizing a single product multi-period inventory/production optimization problem from an unconstrained quantity of raw material which was produced and stored as inventory reserve. This optimization was determined by evaluating dynamic changes in new additions to reserves and the subsequent depletion of these reserves with the maximization of production. A secondary purpose was to determine an equation for exponential depletion of proved reserves which presented a more comprehensive representation of reserve-to-production ratio values than an inadequate and frequently used aggregate historical method. The final purpose of this study was to determine the most accurate delay time for a proved reserve to achieve maximum production. This calculated time provided a measure of the discounted cost and calculation of net present value for developing new reserves. This study concluded that

  17. Changing the VP Reserve Readiness System to Match the Crew-Coordination Requirements of Reserve Aircrews

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, William

    1997-01-01

    .... The current VP readiness system promotes long-term, fixed crews with TACNUC rules. Adhering to these crew composition rules can cause considerable scheduling difficulties for reserve squadrons...

  18. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Wang, Eric; Lee, Si-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion. According to the estimation of this paper, the reserve of wind energy, up to 29.9 kWh/d/p (i.e., kWh per day per person), is the largest one among seven kinds of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 24.27 kWh/d/p of solar energy, 4.55 kWh/d/p of biomass, 4.58 kWh/d/p of ocean energy, 0.67 kWh/d/p of geothermal energy and 16.79 kWh/d/p of hydropower. If regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy into electricity, the total power of the seven kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 78.03 kWh/d/p, which is equal to 2.75 times of 28.35 kWh/d/p of national power generation in 2008. If the reserves of 54.93 kWh/d/p estimated from other four kinds of renewable energies that have not technically matured yet are also taken into account, it will result that the reserves of renewable energy in Taiwan can be quite abundant. Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four inherent

  19. Reserve Component Programs. Fiscal Year 1999 Report of the Reserve Forces Policy Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Heavy Equipment Truck UH-1 Helicopter AH-1 Attack Helicopter PVS-5 Night Vision Goggles Army Reserve Dolly Sets Yard Truck Maintenance Contact...border collie instead of a propane canon, and agri- cultural outsourcing with 4-H sheep grazing. The Marine Corps Reserve continues to increase

  20. Parasite infection rates of impala (Aepyceros melampus) in fenced game reserves in relation to reserve characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    Under certain conditions reserves can pose a threat to wildlife conservation by increasing the transmission of parasites and pathogens. In this study, I investigated associations between reserve characteristics including area, density and species richness and parasite infection rates in impala (Aepyceros melampus). Using coprological methods to measure gastrointestinal parasitism rates of impala inhabiting five fully or partially fenced game reserves in central Kenya, I found that bovid species richness was correlated with parasite taxa richness across reserves, and that prevalence rates of multi-host strongyle nematodes were higher in reserves with more species. In addition, reserve size was also implicated as a potential predictor of infection risk. Overall, these results suggest that wildlife inhabiting highly diverse and small reserves may suffer from higher than normal rates of infection. Given the potential debilitating effects increases in parasitism can have on wildlife, these results underscore the importance of considering parasite transmission dynamics in the management of small, fenced protected areas. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Are Private Reserves Effective for Jaguar Conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmina E Gutiérrez-González

    Full Text Available We present the first study of density and apparent survival for a jaguar (Panthera onca population in northern Mexico using 13 years of camera trap data from 2000 to 2012. We used the Barker robust design model which combines data from closed sampling periods and resight data between these periods to estimate apparent survival and abundance. We identified 467 jaguar pictures that corresponded to 48 jaguar individuals. We included camera type and field technician as covariates for detection probabilities. We used three covariates to evaluate the effect of reserve on jaguar apparent survival: i private reserve creation ii later reserve expansions, and iii cattle ranches' conservation activities. We found that the use of digital cameras in addition to film cameras increased detection probability by a factor of 6x compared with the use of only film cameras (p = 0.34 ± 0.05 and p = 0.05 ± 0.02 respectively in the closed period and more than three times in the open period (R = 0.91 ± 0.08 and R = 0.30 ± 0.13 mixed and film cameras respectively. Our availability estimates showed no temporary emigration and a fidelity probability of 1. Despite an increase of apparent survival probability from 0.47 ± 0.15 to 0.56 ± 0.11 after 2007, no single covariate explained the change in these point estimates. Mean jaguar density was 1.87 ± 0.47 jaguars/100 km2. We found that 13 years of jaguar population monitoring with our sampling size were not enough for detecting changes in survival or density. Our results provide a baseline for studies evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas and the inclusion of ranch owners in jaguar conservation programs and long-term population viability.

  2. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncinski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    The two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its environs and the public during 1992. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1992 data for the ORR. This volume (volume 2) includes the detailed data in formats that ensure all the environmental data are presented. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2

  3. Flexible reserve markets for wind integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alisha R.

    The increased interconnection of variable generation has motivated the use of improved forecasting to more accurately predict future production with the purpose to lower total system costs for balancing when the expected output exceeds or falls short of the actual output. Forecasts are imperfect, and the forecast errors associated with utility-scale generation from variable generators need new balancing capabilities that cannot be handled by existing ancillary services. Our work focuses on strategies for integrating large amounts of wind generation under the flex reserve market, a market that would called upon for short-term energy services during an under or oversupply of wind generation to maintain electric grid reliability. The flex reserve market would be utilized for time intervals that fall in-between the current ancillary services markets that would be longer than second-to-second energy services for maintaining system frequency and shorter than reserve capacity services that are called upon for several minutes up to an hour during an unexpected contingency on the grid. In our work, the wind operator would access the flex reserve market as an energy service to correct for unanticipated forecast errors, akin to paying the generators participating in the market to increase generation during a shortfall or paying the other generators to decrease generation during an excess of wind generation. Such a market does not currently exist in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) is the Mid-Atlantic electric grid case study that was used to examine if a flex reserve market can be utilized for integrating large capacities of wind generation in a lowcost manner for those providing, purchasing and dispatching these short-term balancing services. The following work consists of three studies. The first examines the ability of a hydroelectric facility to provide short-term forecast error balancing services via a flex

  4. Essays in the California electricity reserves markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxoglou, Konstantinos

    This dissertation examines inefficiencies in the California electricity reserves markets. In Chapter 1, I use the information released during the investigation of the state's electricity crisis of 2000 and 2001 by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to diagnose allocative inefficiencies. Building upon the work of Wolak (2000), I calculate a lower bound for the sellers' price-cost margins using the inverse elasticities of their residual demand curves. The downward bias in my estimates stems from the fact that I don't account for the hierarchical substitutability of the reserve types. The margins averaged at least 20 percent for the two highest quality types of reserves, regulation and spinning, generating millions of dollars in transfers to a handful of sellers. I provide evidence that the deviations from marginal cost pricing were due to the markets' high concentration and a principal-agent relationship that emerged from their design. In Chapter 2, I document systematic differences between the markets' day- and hour-ahead prices. I use a high-dimensional vector moving average model to estimate the premia and conduct correct inferences. To obtain exact maximum likelihood estimates of the model, I employ the EM algorithm that I develop in Chapter 3. I uncover significant day-ahead premia, which I attribute to market design characteristics too. On the demand side, the market design established a principal-agent relationship between the markets' buyers (principal) and their supervisory authority (agent). The agent had very limited incentives to shift reserve purchases to the lower priced hour-ahead markets. On the supply side, the market design raised substantial entry barriers by precluding purely speculative trading and by introducing a complicated code of conduct that induced uncertainty about which actions were subject to regulatory scrutiny. In Chapter 3, I introduce a state-space representation for vector autoregressive moving average models that enables

  5. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncinski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    The two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its environs and the public during 1992. This Volume (Volume 1) includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1992 data for the ORR. Volume 2 includes the detailed data in formats that ensure all the environmental data are represented. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2

  6. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucke, P.C.

    1992-10-01

    The first two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its surrounding environs and the public during 1991. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1991 data for the ORR. This volume, Volume 2, includes the detailed data formats that ensure all the environmental data are represented. Narratives are not included. The information in Vol. 2 is addressed and analyzed in Vol. 1

  7. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R.

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1

  8. Classification of uranium reserves/resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    Projections of future availability of uranium to meet present and future nuclear power requirements depend on the reliability of uranium resource estimates. Lack of harmony of the definition of the different classes of uranium reserves and resources between countries makes the compilation and analysis of such information difficult. The problem was accentuated in the early 1990s with the entry of uranium producing countries from the former Soviet Union, eastern Europe and China into the world uranium supply market. The need for an internationally acceptable reserve/resource classification system and terminology using market based criteria is therefore obvious. This publication was compiled from participant's contributions and findings of the Consultants Meetings on Harmonization of Uranium Resource Assessment Concepts held in Vienna from 22 to 25 June 1992, and two Consultants Meetings on the Development of a More Meaningful Classification of Uranium Resources held in Kiev, Ukraine on 24-26 April 1995 and 20-23 August 1996. This document includes 11 contributions, summary, list of participants of the Consultants Meetings. Each contribution has been indexed and provided with an abstract

  9. Extrapolating phosphorus production to estimate resource reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, David A; Strigul, Nikolay

    2011-08-01

    Various indicators of resource scarcity and methods for extrapolating resource availability are examined for phosphorus. These include resource lifetime, and trends in resource price, ore grade and discovery rates, and Hubbert curve extrapolation. Several of these indicate increasing scarcity of phosphate resources. Calculated resource lifetime is subject to a number of caveats such as unanticipated future changes in resource discovery, mining and beneficiation technology, population growth or per-capita demand. Thus it should be used only as a rough planning index or as a relative indicator of potential scarcity. This paper examines the uncertainty in one method for estimating available resources from historical production data. The confidence intervals for the parameters and predictions of the Hubbert curves are computed as they relate to the amount of information available. These show that Hubbert-type extrapolations are not robust for predicting the ultimately recoverable reserves or year of peak production of phosphate rock. Previous successes of the Hubbert curve are for cases in which there exist alternative resources, which is not the situation for phosphate. It is suggested that data other than historical production, such as population growth, identified resources and economic factors, should be included in making such forecasts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

  11. In Conversation with Susan Holtz | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada has played a leading role in the institutional development of sustainable development thinking, starting with its strong financial and moral support of the Brundtland Commission and continuing with the Canadian contribution of policy round tables for sustainable development at all levels of governance, from local to ...

  12. Rene Valner ja Mikk Suursild - lihtsa elu tegelased / Susan Lahesalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lahesalu, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Arhitekt Rene Valner ja Mikk Suursild - tandem nimega UNITe - ehitavad ökonoomseid ja ökoloogilisi looduslikest materjalidest maju. Nende koostöös on valminud ka Peipsi ääres Nina külas 3 põhumaja. Ott Kadariku, Margit Mutso ja Kuido Kartau kommentaarid

  13. Contravene, write ... About the pain of others of Susan Sontag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Belén Couso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the pain of others challenges our knowledge, challenges what is held as true. We appreciate this attitude condensed in the verb “to defy”. We analyze how Sontag develops her hypothesis and, from that point onward, which is the idea of criticism that emerges from the writing of Regarding the pain of others. Our analysis focuses on three of its topics: the reviewing of the ideas about the war that Virginia Woolf establishes on Three Guineas, the discussion of her own text On photography, and the criticism about Sebastião Salgado’s photography.

  14. Book Review Corpora in Applied Linguistics By Susan Hunston ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2002( ISBN 0 521 80171 0 (hardback) 0 521 80583 X (paperback) Southern African Linguistics and. Applied Language Studies 2003, 21(4): 345–347. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/ ...

  15. Interview with Pennsylvania PUC chairman Susan M. Shanaman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utroska, D.

    1981-01-01

    Chairman Shanaman notes that Pennsylvania law justifies the Public Utility Commission (PUC) refusal to charge ratepayers for the cost of Three Mile Island units 1 and 2, neither of which are providing service, because ratepayers are already paying the costs of replacement power. The PUC chairman points to other service territories around the country where rates are kept below national averages because the average income level is low. The Metropolitan Edison Company is seeking Federal relief as well as legislative permission to put TMI-1 back into the rate base in fairness to ratepayers, but the PUC does not see bankruptcy for the utility as an appropriate way to force Federal assistance. The Administration needs to understand the local impact of Federal policies, especially those which are incompatible with state situations. Appropriate involvement includes nuclear waste research and underwriting some of the cleanup costs of onsite accidents that are too large for a single utility to handle. Chairman Shanaman feels that ratepayers should contribute to the insurance premium for future accidents, but not retroactively to support TMI-2. Nuclear power plant construction in the US will not progress until the issues of TMI-2 are resolved

  16. From Estonian Exile to Executive Office / Susan Frith

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Frith, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi Presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese elukäigust, haridusteest, poliitilistest vaadetest. T. H. Ilves lõpetas Pennsylvania ülikooli psühholoogia alal magistrikraadiga 1978. a. Artiklis on kasutatud telefoniintervjuud presidendiga. T. H. Ilvese kohta avaldavad arvamust ülikoolikaaslane Brian Wandell ja Eesti Rahvuskomitee Ühendriikides endine president Juhan Simonson. Ülevaade artiklist ilmunud ka: Vaba Eesti Sõna, 24. jaan. 2008, lk. 7, 10: Vaga, Airi. Eesti president Toomas H. Ilves Pennsylvania ülikooli ajakirjas

  17. Entretien avec Susan Holtz | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 nov. 2010 ... La production de rapports publics est importante, car pour produire des rapports qui veulent vraiment dire quelque chose, il faut préciser clairement les ... politiques et écologiques idéalistes avec ce que les êtres humains semblent vouloir en réalité comme croissance économique, automobiles et biens ...

  18. STEM Summer Academy on the Navajo Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The US Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission, an ESA cornerstone mission to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. While the project's outreach efforts span multi-media, and a variety of age and ethnic groups, a special emphasis has been made to find a way to provide meaningful outreach to the reservation communities. Because language preservation is an issue of urgent concern to the reservation communities, and because Rosetta, uniquely among NASA missions, has been named after the notion that keys to missing understanding of elements of the ancient past were found in the language on the original Rosetta stone, the US Rosetta Project has embarked upon outreach with a focus on STEM vocabulary in ancient US languages of the Navajo, Hopi, Ojibwe, and other tribal communities as the project expands. NASA image and science are used and described in the native language, alongside lay English and scientific English curriculum elements. Additionally, science (geology/chemistry/botany/physics) elements drawn from the reservation environment, including geomorphology, geochemistry, soil physics, are included and discussed in the native language as much as possible — with their analogs in other planetary environments (such as Mars). In this paper we will report on the most recent Summer Science Academy [2012], a four week summer course for middle school children, created in collaboration with teachers and administrators in the Chinle Unified School District. The concept of the Academy was initiated in 2011, and the first Academy was conducted shortly thereafter, in June 2011 with 14 children, 3 instructors, and a NASA teacher workshop. The community requested three topics: geology, astronomy, and botany. The 2012 Academy built on the curriculum already developed with more robust field trips, addressed to specific science topics, additional quantitative measurements and activities, with more written material for the cultural components from

  19. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucke, P.C.

    1992-10-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1991 is the 21st in a series that began in 1971. The report documents the annual results of a comprehensive program to estimate the impact of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge operations upon human health and the environment. The report is organized into ten sections that address various aspects of effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, dose assessment, waste management, and quality assurance. A compliance summary gives a synopsis of the status of each facility relative to applicable state and federal regulations. Data are included for the following: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs are intended to serve as effective indicators of contaminant releases and ambient contaminant concentrations that have the potential to result in adverse impacts to human health and the environment

  20. Digital radiographic assessment of coronary flow reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A method for measuring relative changes in regional blood flow using digital radiographic enhancement of selective coronary arteriography. Coronary flow reserve is measured in individual arterial distributions using the washin ratio of contrast appearance time under baseline and hyperemic conditions. Information is quantitatively presented in functional (parametric) image format. These images, termed contrast medium appearance pictures (CMAP), depict the transit of contrast through the arterial, myocardial and early venous stages. This process can be divided into three general phases: data acquisition, CMAP formation and CMAP analysis. The technique has evolved over its development period from a cine film-based technology which required substantial processing time to a real-time digital radiographic technique

  1. Independents add gas reserves, forego romance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, D.

    1981-08-01

    Incentive pricing for low-permeability reservoirs and tax advantages for drilling them are 2 big reasons why more independents may start making a special effort to add gas reserves to their inventories. If so, it will be a change from past practices, which saw independents build up big gas positions by circumstance rather than by intention. There are always major refiners ready and willing to buy whole crude oil reservoirs from small producers, but purchasers willing to take gas fields in a single investment are few and far between. Lower-than-normal return on equity during the first 20 years, plus the heavy front-end cost of a frac necessary to produce the tight gas might dissuade independents from drilling tight gas sands, but those liabilities are offset by the higher price tight gas gets and the peculiar tax advantages of exploring for it that make a nice fit with the small operator's way of doing business.

  2. Coronary flow velocity reserve by echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Snoer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    reserve (MFR) measured by PET in overweight and obese patients. METHODS: Participants with revascularized coronary artery disease were examined by CFVR. Subgroups were examined by repeated CFVR (reproducibility) or Rubidium-82-PET (agreement). To account for time variation, results were computed for scans...... %, and reliability 0.97. Agreement with MFR of the LAD territory (n = 35) was without significant bias and overall LOA were (-1.40;1.46). Agreement was best for examinations performed within 1-week of participants without MI of the LAD-territory (n = 12); LOA = (-0.68;0.88). CONCLUSIONS: CFVR was highly feasible...... with a good reproducibility on par with other contemporary measures applied in cardiology. Agreement with MFR was acceptable, though discrepancy related to prior MI has to be considered. CFVR of LAD is a valid tool in overweight and obese patients....

  3. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, N.L.

    1989-05-01

    The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1988. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1988 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Volume 2. The tables in Volume 2 are addressed in Volume 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Volume 1

  4. Oil reserves are a dynamic quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberli, O. E.

    2006-01-01

    In this exclusive interview with Rolf Hartl, head of the Oil Association of Switzerland, questions on developments in the consumption area and on future perspectives for the oil business are dealt with. The extent of oil reserves is looked at and the opinions of various experts on the subject are discussed. The 'energy-hunger' of China and third-world countries is discussed and the question is asked as to whether the maximum of oil-extraction has already been reached. Price developments and their possible effect on consumption are discussed, as are the effects of political conflicts on price developments. Finally, perspectives for the development of new oil discoveries are looked at

  5. Macrofungi of the Zasavica special nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijanović Marko S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of biodiversity investigation of the Republic of Serbia, the investigation of the presence and the diversity of macrofungi of the Zasavica Special Nature Reserve (North Serbia has been undertaken. Relatively poor generic diversity of macrofungi was recorded with domination of ecological group of wood-decaying species. Even though being preliminary, our results point to the necessity of conservation and protection of recent fungal diversity but, in our opinion, not by making a so-called 'Red list of endangered species', which, due to the lack of information and very poor evidence on this group of organisms in our country, are extremely unreliable and therefore disputable, but rather through the very short list of a few not endangered species, conditionally called 'White list of not endangered fungal species', if such species recently exist et all.

  6. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aksu-Zhabagly nature reserve is located in West Tien Shan in Kazakhstan, on the border of three countries – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan (70°18'-57' E and 42°08'-30' N, with an area of 1281 km2; its length is 53 km from the most western to the most eastern point and 41 km from the most southern to the most northern point. It occupies the western limit of the Talasskiy Alatau ridge and its north-western spurs: Zhabaglytau mountains, Alatau, Bugultor, Aksutau and Ugam ridges. In the neighbouring Karatau ridge there is a palaeontological site with an area of 2.2 km2 with deposits of flora and fauna of the Jurassic period. The absolute heights above sea level are 1300–4200 m. The relief is alpine – deep canyons with steep slopes. The middle mountain zone (1300–2000 m is occupied by meadow-steppe formations with juniper sparse forests (Juniperus semiglobosa, J. seravschanica; subalpine meadows (2000–3000 m are alternated by creeping juniper thickets (Juniperus turkestanica and rocky outcrops; the alpine zone (higher than 3000 m is dominated by rocks and snowfields, and glaciers above 3500 m. The nature reserve's flora constitutes almost half of all West Tien Shan's flora and counts 1737 species, including: 235 species of fungi, 64 lichens, 63 species each of algae and mosses, as well as 1312 species of higher plants. Among those, 200 species are medicinal and 57 species are listed in the Red Data Books of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The vertebrates fauna includes 320 species: mammals – 52 species, birds – 247 (130 of them are nesting, reptiles and amphibians – 14, fishes – 7 species. Animals inhabiting the territory include argali (Ovis ammon karelini, mountain goat (Capra sibirica, bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus, snow leopart (Uncia uncia, Turkestan lynx (Lynx lynx isabellinus; birds – bearded vulture (Gypaёtus barbatus, Himalayan snowcock (Tetraogallus himalayensis, chukar (Alectoris chukar, blue

  7. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1989. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1989 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2. The tables in Vol. 2 are addressed in Vol. 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Vol. 1. 16 figs., 194 tabs.

  8. Radioactive waste management at the Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    During some 30 years of plutonium production, the Hanford Reservation has accumulated large quantities of low- and high-level radioactive wastes. The high-level wastes have been stored in underground tanks, and the low-level wastes have been percolated into the soil. In recent years some programs for solidification and separation of the high-level wastes have been initiated. The Hanford waste-management system was studied by a panel of the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Academy of Sciences. The panel concluded that Hanford waste-management practices were adequate at present and for the immediate future but recommended increased research and development programs related to long-term isolation of the wastes. The panel also considered some alternatives for on-site disposal of the wastes. The Hanford Reservation was originally established for the production of plutonium for military purposes. During more than 30 years of operation, large volumes of high- and low-level radioactive wastes have been accumulated and contained at the site. The Management of these wastes has been the subject of controversy and criticism. To obtain a true technical evaluation of the Hanford waste situation, the Energy Research and Development Administration (now part of the Department of Energy) issued a contract to the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Councilto conduct an independent review and evaluation of the Hanford waste-management practices and plans. A panel of the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) of the National Academy of Sciences conducted this study between the summer of 1976 and the summer of 1977. This article is a summary of the final report of that panel

  9. Assessing reserve-building pursuits and person characteristics: psychometric validation of the Reserve-Building Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Michael, Wesley; Zhang, Jie; Rapkin, Bruce D; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2018-02-01

    A growing body of research suggests that regularly engaging in stimulating activities across multiple domains-physical, cultural, intellectual, communal, and spiritual-builds resilience. This project investigated the psychometric characteristics of the DeltaQuest Reserve-Building Measure for use in prospective research. The study included Rare Patient Voice panel participants. The web-based survey included the Reserve-Building Measure with one-week re-test, measures of quality of life (QOL) and well-being (PROMIS General Health; NeuroQOL Cognitive Function and Positive Affect & Well-Being short-forms; Ryff Environmental Mastery subscale); and the Big Five Inventory-10 personality measure. Classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) analyses investigated psychometric characteristics of the Reserve-Building Measure. This North American sample (n = 592) included both patients and caregivers [mean age = 44, SD 19)]. Psychometric analyses revealed distinct subscales measuring current reserve-building activities (Active in the World, Games, Outdoors, Creative, Religious/Spiritual, Exercise, Inner Life, Shopping/Cooking, Passive Media Consumption,), past reserve-building activities (Childhood Activities, Achievement), and reserve-related person-factors (Perseverance, Current and Past Social Support, and Work Value). Test-retest stability (n = 101) was moderately high for 11 of 15 subscales (ICC range 0.78-0.99); four were below 0.59 indicating a need for further refinement. IRT analyses supported the item functioning of all subscales. Correlational analyses suggest the measure's subscales tap distinct constructs (range r = 0.11-0.46) which are not redundant with QOL, well-being, or personality (range r = 0.11-0.48). The Reserve-Building Measure provides a measure of activities and person-factors related to reserve that may potentially be useful in prospective research.

  10. Commercial helium reserves, continental rifting and volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballentine, C. J.; Barry, P. H.; Hillegonds, D.; Fontijn, K.; Bluett, J.; Abraham-James, T.; Danabalan, D.; Gluyas, J.; Brennwald, M. S.; Pluess, B.; Seneshens, D.; Sherwood Lollar, B.

    2017-12-01

    Helium has many industrial applications, but notably provides the unique cooling medium for superconducting magnets in medical MRI scanners and high energy beam lines. In 2013 the global supply chainfailed to meet demand causing significant concern - the `Liquid Helium Crisis' [1]. The 2017 closure of Quatar borders, a major helium supplier, is likely to further disrupt helium supply, and accentuates the urgent need to diversify supply. Helium is found in very few natural gas reservoirs that have focused 4He produced by the dispersed decay (a-particle) of U and Th in the crust. We show here, using the example of the Rukwa section of the Tanzanian East African Rift, how continental rifting and local volcanism provides the combination of processes required to generate helium reserves. The ancient continental crust provides the source of 4He. Rifting and associated magmatism provides the tectonic and thermal mechanism to mobilise deep fluid circulation, focusing flow to the near surface along major basement faults. Helium-rich springs in the Tanzanian Great Rift Valley were first identified in the 1950's[2]. The isotopic compositions and major element chemistry of the gases from springs and seeps are consistent with their release from the crystalline basement during rifting [3]. Within the Rukwa Rift Valley, helium seeps occur in the vicinity of trapping structures that have the potential to store significant reserves of helium [3]. Soil gas surveys over 6 prospective trapping structures (1m depth, n=1486) show helium anomalies in 5 out of the 6 at levels similar to those observed over a known helium-rich gas reservoir at 1200m depth (7% He - Harley Dome, Utah). Detailed macroseep gas compositions collected over two days (n=17) at one site allows us to distinguish shallow gas contributions and shows the deep gas to contain between 8-10% helium, significantly increasing resource estimates based on uncorrected values (1.8-4.2%)[2,3]. The remainder of the deep gas is

  11. Calculating Launch Vehicle Flight Performance Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John M.; Pinson, Robin M.; Beard, Bernard B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses different methods for determining the amount of extra propellant (flight performance reserve or FPR) that is necessary to reach orbit with a high probability of success. One approach involves assuming that the various influential parameters are independent and that the result behaves as a Gaussian. Alternatively, probabilistic models may be used to determine the vehicle and environmental models that will be available (estimated) for a launch day go/no go decision. High-fidelity closed-loop Monte Carlo simulation determines the amount of propellant used with each random combination of parameters that are still unknown at the time of launch. Using the results of the Monte Carlo simulation, several methods were used to calculate the FPR. The final chosen solution involves determining distributions for the pertinent outputs and running a separate Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a best estimate of the required FPR. This result differs from the result obtained using the other methods sufficiently that the higher fidelity is warranted.

  12. Measures of cognitive reserve in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Sobral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cognitive reserve (CR, a hypothetical construct used to obtain information about cognitive aging, describes the capacity of the adult brain to cope with the effects of neurodegenerative processes. This study evaluated CR using a CR questionnaire (CRQ and a set of variables (education, leisure activities, lifelong occupation that inform CR. It also developed a CR index, validated the CRQ, and examined the correlation between the different CR measures.METHODS: Functional and neuropsychological capacities of 75 outpatients (mean age: 80.2 years with a probable AD diagnosis were evaluated. Socio-demographic data and clinical variables were collected. Patients completed two questionnaires: the Participation in Leisure Activities throughout Life questionnaire, and the CRQ.RESULTS: Participants with a greater CR had higher scores in cognitive tests than the elderly with a lower CR. A CR index was developed. CRQ reliability was 0.795 (Cronbach's alpha. There was a close association between the CR Index and the CRQ.CONCLUSIONS: This study found an association between CR measures and education, occupation and participation in leisure activities. The CRQ seems to be a suitable instrument to measure CR in Portuguese populations.

  13. Development growth of uranium reserves during mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroux, M.

    1989-01-01

    According to the 1988 issue of the Nuclear Energy Agency report 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand' (the Red Book), total uranium resources remained constant, and compare with those given in the 1986 issue. However, the low cost category of the Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR), that is to say potentially mineable reserves under present market conditions, presents a different picture. These show a decrease of 54 000 tonnes U, or about 3.5%, from the 1 January 1985 level. It seems insignificant until compared with what was removed from the ground - only a quarter of the 71 500 tonnes U of the low cost uranium that was extracted during 1985 and 1986 was renewed by the industry. This is probably related to the low level of exploration activity since 1983. Moreover, new uranium might be not as easy to find as some past discoveries have led us to believe. While in 1988 it appears there is enough low cost uranium to supply existing reactors, the picture quickly changes. From 1991 onwards, for 30 years' supply for existing reactors, uranium will have to come from RAR in the higher cost category. (author)

  14. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.R. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the public about the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on the public and the environment. It describes the environmental surveillance and monitoring activities conducted at and around the DOE facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Preparation and publication of this report is in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1. The order specifies a publication deadline of June of the following year for each calendar year of data. The primary objective of this report is to summarize all information collected for the previous calendar year regarding effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, and estimates of radiation and chemical dose to the surrounding population. When multiple years of information are available for a program, trends are also evaluated. The first seven sections of Volume 1 of this report address this objective. The last three sections of Volume 1 provide information on solid waste management, special environmental studies, and quality assurance programs.

  15. Energy reserves. [Summary of reserve estimates and economic supply models for exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Carhart, S.C.; Marcuse, W.

    1977-03-01

    There is an increasing concern about scarcity of the world's remaining natural energy resources and, in particular, the future supply of oil and natural gas. This paper summarizes recent estimates of energy reserves and economic supply models for exhaustible resources. The basic economic theory of resource exhaustion is reviewed, and recent estimates of both discovered and undiscovered energy resources are presented and compared. Domestic and world-wide reserve estimates are presented for crude oil and natural gas liquids, natural gas, coal, and uranium. Economic models projecting supply of these energy forms, given reserve estimates and other pertinent information, are discussed. Finally, a set of recent models which project world oil prices are summarized and their published results compared. The impact of energy conservation efforts on energy supply is also briefly discussed. 53 references.

  16. Brain reserve and cognitive reserve protect against cognitive decline over 4.5 years in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Rocca, Maria A; Leavitt, Victoria M; Dackovic, Jelena; Mesaros, Sarlota; Drulovic, Jelena; DeLuca, John; Filippi, Massimo

    2014-05-20

    Based on the theories of brain reserve and cognitive reserve, we investigated whether larger maximal lifetime brain growth (MLBG) and/or greater lifetime intellectual enrichment protect against cognitive decline over time. Forty patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) underwent baseline and 4.5-year follow-up evaluations of cognitive efficiency (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task) and memory (Selective Reminding Test, Spatial Recall Test). Baseline and follow-up MRIs quantified disease progression: percentage brain volume change (cerebral atrophy), percentage change in T2 lesion volume. MLBG (brain reserve) was estimated with intracranial volume; intellectual enrichment (cognitive reserve) was estimated with vocabulary. We performed repeated-measures analyses of covariance to investigate whether larger MLBG and/or greater intellectual enrichment moderate/attenuate cognitive decline over time, controlling for disease progression. Patients with MS declined in cognitive efficiency and memory (p cognitive efficiency (p = 0.031, ηp (2) = 0.122), with larger MLBG protecting against decline. MLBG did not moderate memory decline (p = 0.234, ηp (2) = 0.039). Intellectual enrichment moderated decline in cognitive efficiency (p = 0.031, ηp (2) = 0.126) and memory (p = 0.037, ηp (2) = 0.115), with greater intellectual enrichment protecting against decline. MS disease progression was more negatively associated with change in cognitive efficiency and memory among patients with lower vs higher MLBG and intellectual enrichment. We provide longitudinal support for theories of brain reserve and cognitive reserve in MS. Larger MLBG protects against decline in cognitive efficiency, and greater intellectual enrichment protects against decline in cognitive efficiency and memory. Consideration of these protective factors should improve prediction of future cognitive decline in patients with MS. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sote, K.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleum remains the greatest jewel of inestimable value in both the local and international treasure hunts for cheap energy source and viable investment options the world over. The diverse business potentials and favourable government policies in Nigeria aimed specifically at stimulating investments in the up streams, midstream and downstream industries need to be tapped by both indigenous and foreign investors alike. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves' is therefore our modest effort to support such policies, sensitise the Nigerian petroleum industry and promote more dynamic awareness for the varied business opportunities abound in this sector of the economy. The main objective or this publication is to bring to a wider audience within and outside the oil industry a spectrum of such salient opportunities therein. The publication further presents in a lucid and consize form the hidden potentials yet to be harnessed, captures the essence of such investments, identifies the inherent problems in Nigeria peculiar circumstance and thus provides a detailed guide to address such short-coming, viz. Inadequate and poor knowledge of petroleum industry, its operation, by products and their correct applications. - Lack of understanding of the intricacies, realities and technicalities of petroleum business in general. - Poor financial resources, management style, operational and marketing strategies man power and human resources development.- Dirge of information, lack of professional advice and technical service support on the varied business opportunities for diversification. Apathy on the part of the investors themselves to seek for professional support from competent oil consultants, technocrats, institutionalised authorities on petroleum and related matters, amongst others. In summary, the book is divided into ten chapters with illustrations, graphics, drawings, sketches and incorporating figures, statistics, business reports, marketing results, feasibility studies

  18. Assessing reserve-building pursuits and person characteristics: psychometric validation of the Reserve-Building Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E.; Michael, Wesley; Zhang, Jie; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that regularly engaging in stimulating activities across multiple domains-physical, cultural, intellectual, communal, and spiritual-builds resilience. This project investigated the psychometric characteristics of the DeltaQuest Reserve-Building Measure for use in

  19. Microsporogenesis in Brachiaria bovonei (Chiov. Robyns and B. subulifolia (Mez Clayton (Poaceae Microsporogênese em Brachiaria bovonei (Chiov. Robyns e B. subulifolia (Mez Clayton (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudicéia Risso-Pascotto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Some African species of Brachiaria have been introduced into the Americas and became the most important forage for pastures in the tropics. New cultivars can be obtained either from direct selections from the natural existing variability in the germplasm collections or from interspecific hybridizations. Polyploidy is predominant in the genus Brachiaria and correlated with apomixis which complicates hybridization. The objective of cytological studies underway on the Brachiaria germplasm collection at Embrapa Beef Cattle is to determine the chromosome number and meiotic behavior of accessions. For the breeding of Brachiaria species, compatible sexual and apomictic accessions need to be identified. Microsporogenesis was evaluated in two accessions of Brachiaria bovonei (BO01 and BO05 and one accession of B. subulifolia (SU01. BO01 is pentaploid (2n = 5x = 45, BO05 is tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36, and SU01 is hexaploid (2n = 6x = 54, derived from x = 9. Meiotic abnormalities typical of polyploids, characterized by precocious chromosome migration to the poles in metaphases, laggard chromosomes in anaphases, and micronuclei in telophases and tetrads, were recorded in high frequency in all the accessions generating unbalanced gametes. Both accessions of B. bovonei presented chromosome stickiness. The results are discussed in the view of the Brachiaria breeding program objectives.Algumas espécies africanas de Brachiaria foram introduzidas nas Américas e tornaram-se importantes pastagens nos trópicos. Novas cultivares podem ser obtidas por seleção direta da variabilidade genética existente na coleção de germoplasma ou por hibridização interespecífica. Poliploidia é predominante no gênero Brachiaria e correlacionada com apomixia, o que complica a hibridização. O objetivo dos estudos citogenéticos na coleção de germoplasma de Brachiaria da Embrapa Gado de Corte é determinar o número de cromossomos e o comportamento meiótico dos acessos. A microsporogênese foi avaliada em dois acessos de Brachiaria bovonei (BO01 e BO05 e um acesso de B. subulifolia (SU01. BO01 é pentaplóide (2n = 5x = 45, BO05 é tetraplóide (2n = 4x = 36, e SU01 é hexaplóide (2n = 6x = 54, todos derivados de x = 9. Anormalidades meióticas típicas de poliplóides, caracterizadas por migração precoce de cromossomos para os pólos em metáfases, cromossomos retardatários em anáfases, e micronúcleos em telófases e tétrades foram observadas em alta freqüência em todos os acessos gerando gametas geneticamente desbalanceados. Ambos os acessos de B. bovonei apresentaram aderências cromossômicas. Os resultados são discutidos sob o ponto de vista dos objetivos do melhoramento genético.

  20. Reserves, resources and eve of bell-shaped curve peak of discovered reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragicevic, T.; Kolundzic, S.

    2005-01-01

    Through the whole 20. century modern world was marked by accelerated development, and its progress was based, among other things, on sufficient and reliable energy supply. As fossil fuels have represented a large share in total energy sources with ever growing share of oil and natural gas consumption, in the 1990s serious concerns were raised about limited availability of these fuels. In line with the oil reserves life cycle theory presented by bell-shaped curve, M. King Hubbert predicted in 1956 that the U.S.A. would reach the peak of the curve in 1970 (which really happened). Other experts predicted that global oil reserves would reach their peak in the period 1990-2000, and now the new peaks are projected for 2006, 2009, 2013, 2020 and even 2030. Despite the fact that some predictions turned to be false, and despite our inclination to take a more optimistic view, we should face the fact that even the most optimistic 2030 is not far away. The term p eak oil , denoting the period when the known reserves would reach their production peaks, has been increasingly present in the literature and in the media. It does not implicate that oil reserves will disappear in one of the predicted years. Intense oil production will continue, but total reserves will decline. According to predictions, natural gas reserves are not expected to reach their peak before the end of the 21st century. Methane hydrates reserves could protrude throughout the 22nd century. Nevertheless, the peak oil phenomenon has serious implications for the mankind and for oil companies. The changes that will affect oil companies will not be equal for super-majors or majors and medium-sized and small-sized oil companies. Different are the ways that the changes will affect the countries with strong economies and those with weaker ones. Modern economies rely on fuel consumption. Moving people and goods from one place to another is not only the matter of transport and leisure. Availability and accessibility of

  1. 77 FR 60107 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    .... The Rookery Bay Reserve takes an integrated approach to management, linking research, education... catastrophic change events. The Reserve's Environmental Learning Center provides excellent visitor education... Kachemak Bay Reserve takes an integrated approach to management by linking research, education, and...

  2. 2007 Posture Statement, Army Reserve: An Operational Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stultz, Jack C

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Army Reserve Posture Statement describes how the Army Reserve continues to transform from a strategic reserve to an operational force, meeting today's challenges as it better prepares for future uncertainties...

  3. 26 CFR 1.801-4 - Life insurance reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Life insurance reserves. 1.801-4 Section 1.801-4...) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-4 Life insurance reserves. (a) Life insurance reserves defined. For purposes of part I, subchapter L, chapter 1 of the Code, the term life insurance reserves (as...

  4. 78 FR 53732 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... including climate change, threats to reserve resources and ecological functions, watershed development, and... reserve to serve as a model site for sustainable community stewardship. Notable changes in the revised... facility development to support reserve operations. The Grand Bay Reserve takes an integrated approach to...

  5. 78 FR 26617 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... including climate change, threats to reserve resources and ecological functions, watershed development, and... reserve to serve as a model site for sustainable community stewardship. Notable changes in the revised... facility development to support reserve operations. The Grand Bay Reserve takes an integrated approach to...

  6. 7 CFR 930.57 - Secondary inventory reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall retain control over the release of any cherries from the secondary inventory reserve. No cherries... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary inventory reserve. 930.57 Section 930.57... Handling Regulations § 930.57 Secondary inventory reserve. (a) In the event the inventory reserve...

  7. Estimating cognitive reserve in healthy adults using the Cognitive Reserve Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    Full Text Available The concept of cognitive reserve emerged from observed disparities between brain pathology and clinical symptoms. It may explain better neuropsychological performance in healthy individuals. The objectives of this study were to measure reserve in healthy subjects using a new Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS, analyze the internal consistency of the CRS, and analyze validity evidence. A total of 117 healthy individuals were divided into two groups: 87 adults (aged 18-64 years and 30 elderly adults (≥65 years. All subjects completed the CRS and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The internal consistency of the scale was satisfactory (α = 0.77. No significant differences were observed between genders (t = 0.51, p = 0.611, and age was corrected by averaging the CRS score. The study of validity evidence showed that education affected the CRS (t = -2.98, p = 0.004, partial h2 = 0.07 and there was no significant relationship between the CRS and IQ (r = 0.09, p = 0.33. Occupational attainment and the CRS were not related (F2,116 = 0.11, p = 0.898. In line with previous studies on reserve, heterogeneity was observed in the analyses of relationships between the CRS and cognitive performance. There were significant relationships between CRS score and the Verbal Learning Spanish-Complutense Test last trial (r = 0.24, p = 0.009, sum (r = 0.32, p = 0.000, short-term (r = 0.29, p = 0.002 and long-term memory (r = 0.22, p = 0.018, Matrix Reasoning subtest (r = 0.20, p = 0.027 and Block Design subtest (r = 0.20, p = 0.029. No other neuropsychological variables correlated with the CRS (p>0.05. The CRS is a reliable instrument that reflects the frequency of participation in brain-stimulating activities across the lifetime. The associations between the CRS and education and neuropsychological performance support validity evidence.

  8. Estimating Cognitive Reserve in Healthy Adults Using the Cognitive Reserve Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Irene; García-García, Juan; Roldán-Tapia, Lola

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cognitive reserve emerged from observed disparities between brain pathology and clinical symptoms. It may explain better neuropsychological performance in healthy individuals. The objectives of this study were to measure reserve in healthy subjects using a new Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS), analyze the internal consistency of the CRS, and analyze validity evidence. A total of 117 healthy individuals were divided into two groups: 87 adults (aged 18–64 years) and 30 elderly adults (≥65 years). All subjects completed the CRS and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The internal consistency of the scale was satisfactory (α = 0.77). No significant differences were observed between genders (t = 0.51, p = 0.611), and age was corrected by averaging the CRS score. The study of validity evidence showed that education affected the CRS (t = −2.98, p = 0.004, partial h2 = 0.07) and there was no significant relationship between the CRS and IQ (r = 0.09, p = 0.33). Occupational attainment and the CRS were not related (F2,116 = 0.11, p = 0.898). In line with previous studies on reserve, heterogeneity was observed in the analyses of relationships between the CRS and cognitive performance. There were significant relationships between CRS score and the Verbal Learning Spanish–Complutense Test last trial (r = 0.24, p = 0.009), sum (r = 0.32, p = 0.000), short-term (r = 0.29, p = 0.002) and long-term memory (r = 0.22, p = 0.018), Matrix Reasoning subtest (r = 0.20, p = 0.027) and Block Design subtest (r = 0.20, p = 0.029). No other neuropsychological variables correlated with the CRS (p>0.05). The CRS is a reliable instrument that reflects the frequency of participation in brain-stimulating activities across the lifetime. The associations between the CRS and education and neuropsychological performance support validity evidence. PMID:25050711

  9. Establishment of nature reserves in administrative regions of mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziliang Guo

    Full Text Available Nature reserves are widely considered as one available strategy for protecting biodiversity, which is threatened by habitat fragmentation, and wildlife extinction. The Chinese government has established a goal of protecting 15% of its land area by 2015. We quantitated the characteristics and distribution of nature reserves in mainland China and evaluated the expansion process for national nature reserves. National nature reserves occupy 64.15% of the total area of nature reserves. Steppe and meadow ecosystem, ocean and seacoast ecosystem, and wild plant nature reserves represent lower percentages, particularly in national nature reserves, in which they comprised 0.76%, 0.54%, and 0.69%, respectively, of the area. Furthermore, medium and small nature reserves compose 92.32% of all nature reserves. The land area under any legal protection has reached 14.80%, although only 9.78% is strictly protected. However, if 9 super-large national nature reserves, located in Southwest and Northwest China were removed, the percentage of strictly protected area decreases to 2.66% of the land area of China. The areas contained in nature reserves in each province are not proportional to the areas of the provinces, particularly for national nature reserves, with higher protection rates in Southwest and Northwest China than in other regions. Of the 31 provinces, 22 provinces feature strict protection of less than 4% of their areas by national nature reserves; these provinces are mainly located in East, Central, South, and North China. Moreover, the unevenness indexes of the distribution of nature reserves and national nature reserves are 0.39 and 0.58, respectively. The construction of nature reserves has entered a steady development stage after a period of rapid expansion in mainland China. In recent years, the total area of national nature reserves has increased slowly, while the total area of nature reserves has not increased, although the number of nature

  10. Coal: resources, reserves and production - Panorama 2008; Charbon: ressources, reserves et production - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the French, whose last coal mine closed in 2004, the 'comeback' of coal as a political issue may seem a bit surprising. Even if coal is still used in domestic industry and to produce electricity, it is many years since it was used as the primary energy source for electricity production. This situation, specific to France and certain European countries, is not at all typical of the world situation: in the face of surging energy demand, coal - whose reserves have been estimated by the World Energy Council to cover 145 years of consumption at the current rate - seems to be an energy of the future and an alternative to oil, natural gas and nuclear power for the production of electricity.

  11. Resource Management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 28, Wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pounds, Larry [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-01

    A survey of wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted in 1990. Wetlands occurring on ORR were identified using National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps and field surveys. More than 120 sites were visited and 90 wetlands were identified. Wetland types on ORR included emergent communities in shallow embayments on reservoirs, emergent and aquatic communities in ponds, forested wetland on low ground along major creeks, and wet meadows and marshes associated with streams and seeps. Vascular plant species occurring on sites visited were inventoried, and 57 species were added to the checklist of vascular plants on ORR. Three species listed as rare in Tennessee were discovered on ORR during the wetlands survey. The survey provided an intensive ground truth of the wetlands identified by NWI and offered an indication of wetlands that the NWI remote sensing techniques did not detect.

  12. Effects of different international fiscal systems on reserves reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMichael, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of international fiscal systems on oil and gas reserves evaluation and reporting, was reviewed. The movement in reserves estimates with changing technical, political and economic conditions, was described. Difficulties associated with the evaluation and booking of reserves is largely due to the confusing duplication of terms. For example, explorationists refer to reserves as an undrilled prospect, while engineers refer to them as producing property. The financial analyst refers to reserves of a company, while governments refer to the reserves of the country. The importance of defining reserves with full knowledge of the specific regulations that govern the reporting of reserves externally, and the internal reporting requirements for business planning purposes, was stressed. 2 refs

  13. Sustaining AMEDD Professional Strength in the Reserve Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fetter, James

    2004-01-01

    ...% Army National Guard 34% Army Reserve and 47% active component. In 2000 concerns were raised about dwindling numbers of doctors dentists physician assistants and nurse anesthetist officers in Army Reserve and Army National Guard...

  14. Marine biosphere reserves - Need of the 21st century

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    remains, needs to be conserved and managed for posterity. Biosphere Reserve conserves and maintains genetic diversity of plant and animal species and helps to manage the natural resources on a sustainable basis. So far five Marine Biosphere Reserves have...

  15. Reserves Protect against Deforestation Fires in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeney, J. Marion; Christensen, Norman L.; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether...

  16. THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE OF FRACTIONAL RESERVE BANKING AND FULL RESERVE BANKING: WHERE ISLAMIC BANKING SHOULD STAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Taufik Syamlan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – this research is aimed to compare those epistemological bases to the mindset of Islamic Bank and try to drive the philosophy in practical operation whether based on the Fractional Reserve Banking Sytem (RBS or 100% RBS and analyze the challenges in deploying the 100%RBS. Methods - This research will be conducted based on an extensive literature review.Results - Based on the epistemological analysis of money and the business cycle as well as the views of Islamic scholars, 100%RBS should be the best for Islamic Bank. There are four types of 100% RBS namely Pure Commodity Money, Sovereign Money, Narrow Banking, and Limited Purpose Banking. To deploy it into the economic system, another philosophical work should be done to choose one of the types and strengthen it so that the theory of 100%RBS can be implemented for the goodness of Islamic Bank.  Conclusion - In Conclusions, Based on the epistemology defined by Islamic Scholars, FractRBS has more mafsadah if we compare to the maslahah. Therefore, 100% RBS should be better for the Islamic Bank.

  17. 49 CFR 1106.6 - Reservation of Jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reservation of Jurisdiction. 1106.6 Section 1106.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... § 1106.6 Reservation of Jurisdiction. The Board reserves the right to require a SIP in cases other than...

  18. 12 CFR 204.4 - Computation of required reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of required reserves. 204.4 Section... RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.4 Computation of required reserves... liabilities during a 14-day computation period ending every second Monday. (e) For institutions that file a...

  19. Marine ecology: reserves do have a key role in fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Callum

    2012-06-05

    A new study of the Great Barrier Reef proves a 100-year old conjecture correct: marine reserves do replenish populations in surrounding fishing grounds, while modern reserve networking theory is validated by exchange of offspring of animals among protected areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrocarbon and by-product reserves in British Columbia, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Statistical data on oil, gas and by-product reserves in British Columbia as of 31 December 2000, as estimated by the Oil and Gas Commission was presented along with a summary of year-end remaining established reserves, estimates of the reserves of oil, gas and by-products, and detailed reserve and pool parameters. British Columbia set a record in 2000 with 753 wells drilled, of which 59 were classed as oil. Most of the oil drilling took place in the Hay River area. 449 gas wells were drilled in 2000, mostly in the Fort St. John area. An additional 120 wells were cased. Raw gas reserves in 2000 increased to 294.8 10 9 m 3 , up slightly from the previous year. Remaining oil reserves at December 31, 2000 were 27,357 10 3 m 3 , an increase of about 4 per cent over 1999. This report also included a historical review of oil and raw gas reserves by geological period and unconnected gas reserves by plant area. Established hydrocarbon reserves, summaries and a project/unit cross-reference listing was included. Oil pools under waterflood or gas injection were also highlighted. Four appendices were also included, one each for reserve and pool parameter listings for crude oil reserves, gas reserves, raw gas analysis, and remaining hydrocarbon products. tabs

  1. Effects of marine reserves on the reproductive biology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We tested the effects of marine reserve status on the reproductive biology and recruitment rates of two commonly exploited (Helcion concolor, Scutellastra longicosta) and two rarely exploited (Cellana capensis, Scutellastra granularis) limpet species using two reserve and two non-reserve sites on the south coast of South ...

  2. 24 CFR 982.154 - ACC reserve account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ACC reserve account. 982.154... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.154 ACC reserve account. (a) HUD may establish and maintain an unfunded reserve account for the PHA program from available budget authority under the consolidated ACC...

  3. Management goals for wildlife reserves in grassveld and bushveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and therefore require control. A means of measuring the success of management is outlined. Keywords: condition; cover; fire; game reserves; genetic diversity; goals; management; management strategy; nature reserves; range; reserves; soil; south africa; species composition; species diversity; veld; veld condition; wildlife ...

  4. 25 CFR 91.11 - Domestic animals in village reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic animals in village reserves. 91.11 Section 91.11... VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.11 Domestic animals in village reserves. (a) No livestock shall... owner of the animal, if known, by certified mail or by posting in the village square. The notice shall...

  5. 40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy... renewable energy reserve. The Administrator will allocate 300,000 allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of the Acid Rain Data System. Allowances from this Reserve will be...

  6. 76 FR 80904 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Member Solicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... of the Secretary Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Member Solicitation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense Reserve Forces Policy Board, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Advisory... solicitation of the Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: LtCol Ken Olivo...

  7. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 347.303... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer...

  8. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section 28.52 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INTERNATIONAL BANKING... allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk reserve...

  9. Efficient Allocation of Reserve Costs in RTO Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Laurence D.; Morey, Mathew J.

    2006-10-15

    RTOs' make-whole payments for generation commitment are needed partly because of flaws in the design of reserve markets. Markets might be made more efficient with greater locational differentiation in reserve prices and incorporation of make-whole payments into reserve prices. (author)

  10. 12 CFR 209.3 - Cancellation of Reserve Bank stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cancellation of Reserve Bank stock. 209.3... ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.3 Cancellation of Reserve Bank stock. (a) Application for cancellation. Any bank that desires to withdraw from membership in...

  11. Study on the evaluation index of active power reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaorui; Liu, Jiantao; Wang, Ke; Min, Lu

    2018-01-01

    Based on the role of active reserve at different time scales, divides the evaluation dimension of active reserve. Analysis the calculation principle of traditional reliability index such as probability of system safety, lack of power shortage and electricity shortage expectancy, and studies the applicability of these indicators to evaluate the reserve capacity on different dimensions. Resolves the evaluation index of active reserve capacity from the dimensions of time dimension, spatial dimension, system state, risk degree and economy, then construct evaluation index of active reserve capacity.

  12. CIRCULATING INTER-OPERATIONAL RESERVES: LONG-TIME ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Каlinkin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that for dozens of years some researchers have presented a formula for calculating changes in circulating inter-operational reserve in the working phase of the flow production line in a wrong way as a formula for calculating a maximum change in the circulating inter-operational reserve of the working phase and the paper proposes an algorithm for calculation of circulating reserve in a boundary point of working phases of straight flow line. Having calculated a maximum change of the circulating reserve in the working phases it is possible to obtain an algebraic sum of reserve changes . After that the total algebraic sum of circulating reserve changes in boundary points from the initial phase to the final one. According to a minimum value of the algebraic sum of  the reserve changes in the phases it is possible to find a boundary point of phases where the reserve is equal to zero. A reserve in any boundary point  of  phases  is  calculated  through  finding  an  absolute value of the algebraic sum of reserve changes from boundary point of phases, where the reserve is equal to zero, to the sought one.

  13. Fundamental Drivers of the Cost and Price of Operating Reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, Marissa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kirby, Brendan [Kirby Consultant; Ma, Ookie [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Operating reserves impose a cost on the electric power system by forcing system operators to keep partially loaded spinning generators available for responding to system contingencies variable demand. In many regions of the United States, thermal power plants provide a large fraction of the operating reserve requirement. Alternative sources of operating reserves, such as demand response and energy storage, may provide more efficient sources of these reserves. However, to estimate the potential value of these services, the cost of reserve services under various grid conditions must first be established. This analysis used a commercial grid simulation tool to evaluate the cost and price of several operating reserve services, including spinning contingency reserves and upward regulation reserves. These reserve products were evaluated in a utility system in the western United States, considering different system flexibilities, renewable energy penetration, and other sensitivities. The analysis demonstrates that the price of operating reserves depend highly on many assumptions regarding the operational flexibility of the generation fleet, including ramp rates and the fraction of fleet available to provide reserves.

  14. Are deterministic methods suitable for short term reserve planning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorspools, Kris R.; D'haeseleer, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Although deterministic methods for establishing minutes reserve (such as the N-1 reserve or the percentage reserve) ignore the stochastic nature of reliability issues, they are commonly used in energy modelling as well as in practical applications. In order to check the validity of such methods, two test procedures are developed. The first checks if the N-1 reserve is a logical fixed value for minutes reserve. The second test procedure investigates whether deterministic methods can realise a stable reliability that is independent of demand. In both evaluations, the loss-of-load expectation is used as the objective stochastic criterion. The first test shows no particular reason to choose the largest unit as minutes reserve. The expected jump in reliability, resulting in low reliability for reserve margins lower than the largest unit and high reliability above, is not observed. The second test shows that both the N-1 reserve and the percentage reserve methods do not provide a stable reliability level that is independent of power demand. For the N-1 reserve, the reliability increases with decreasing maximum demand. For the percentage reserve, the reliability decreases with decreasing demand. The answer to the question raised in the title, therefore, has to be that the probability based methods are to be preferred over the deterministic methods

  15. National monetary policy by regional design: the evolving role of the Federal Reserve banks in Federal Reserve System policy

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Wheelock

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the history of Federal Reserve Bank input into Federal Reserve System monetary policymaking. From the Fed's founding in 1914 through the Great Depression, the Reserve Banks held the balance of power. Dissatisfaction with the Fed's performance, however, led to a wholesale reorganization in 1935 that greatly enhanced the authority of the Federal Reserve Board, but retained a role for the Federal Banks through the membership of their presidents on the FOMC, as well as in sett...

  16. Exploring the Neural Basis of Cognitive Reserve in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffener, Jason; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    The concept of reserve arose from the mismatch between the extent of brain changes or pathology and the clinical manifestations of these brain changes. The cognitive reserve hypothesis posits that individual differences in the flexibility and adaptability of brain networks underlying cognitive function may allow some people to cope better with brain changes than others. Although there is ample epidemiologic evidence for cognitive reserve, the neural substrate of reserve is still a topic of ongoing research. Here we review some representative studies from our group that exemplify possibilities for the neural substrate of reserve including neural reserve, neural compensation, and generalized cognitive reserve networks. We also present a schematic overview of our ongoing research in this area. PMID:21982946

  17. Conceptual and Measurement Challenges in Research on Cognitive Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard N.; Manly, Jennifer; Glymour, M. Maria; Rentz, Dorene M.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive reserve, broadly conceived, encompasses aspects of brain structure and function that optimize individual performance in the presence of injury or pathology. Reserve is defined as a feature of brain structure and/or function that modifies the relationship between injury or pathology and performance on neuropsychological tasks or clinical outcomes. Reserve is challenging to study for two reasons. The first is: reserve is a hypothetical construct, and direct measures of reserve are not available. Proxy variables and latent variable models are used to attempt to operationalize reserve. The second is: in vivo measures of neuronal pathology are not widely available. It is challenging to develop and test models involving a risk factor (injury or pathology), a moderator (reserve) and an outcome (performance or clinical status) when neither the risk factor nor the moderator are measured directly. We discuss approaches for quantifying reserve with latent variable models, with emphasis on their application in the analysis of data from observational studies. Increasingly latent variable models are used to generate composites of cognitive reserve based on multiple proxies. We review the theoretical and ontological status of latent variable modeling approaches to cognitive reserve, and suggest research strategies for advancing the field. PMID:21411036

  18. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  19. 77 FR 4323 - Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds for Section 7A of the Clayton Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... those thresholds annually, based on the change in gross national product, in accordance with Section 8(a... similarly indexed and, as a result, have not been adjusted for inflation in over a decade. The new...

  20. 78 FR 60181 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Clayton-Cobb-Fulton, Georgia, Nonappropriated Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM84 Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition.... Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM..., from the wage area definition. The name of the wage area will be Cobb, GA. These changes are necessary...

  1. The Prehistory of the Proposed Clayton Lake Area, Southeast Oklahoma. Phase I Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Other (drills, wedges, tested cobbles, bifaces, preforms, cores, etc.) .2 Biface fragment .3 Uniface ( unifaces , modified flakes, modified blocky...10 Historic material IV. Artifact number (given to all categories except unifaces ). V. Count only: Flakes (including blocky debris). ’ • i m mimt

  2. Geography and Higher Education in the 1980s: An Interview with Keith Clayton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roger; Gray, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Presents a senior British academic's perspectives on geography's major concerns, priorities, and objectives. Topics include: geography as a discipline; structure and divisions of academic labor; teaching versus research; and future transformations. (TRS)

  3. FEATURES OF PERFECT AND IMPERFECT RESERVES AND RESERVE FUNDS WITHIN THE FEDERAL BUDGET OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana P. Lomakina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past two years (2016–2017, the mass media was engaged in tense discussion about the status and flow of funds within the two reserves – the Reserve Fund of the Russian Federation and the National Welfare Fund. The Reserve Fund of the Russian Federation aroused especial worries among the experts. Its funds rapidly declined and by December 2017 they were fully used to cover the deficit of the domestic budget. In accordance with the law “On Amendments to the Budget Code of the Russian Federation in the Use of Oil and Gas Revenues of the Federal Budget,” from February 1, 2018, the Reserve Fund of the Russian Federation will cease to exist. For financial theory, this fact can serve as an illustration of the process of forming the foundations of budgetary financial security, their change over time, circumstances and options the government can take to modify them. At the same time, there are other types of financial resources within the federal budget. Their diversity necessitates their classification in order to identify groups and types with similar characteristics. However, in financial theory, many types of reserves are not described in detail, and some are not described at all. This article introduces the concepts of “perfect” and “imperfect” reserves, for their characterization as part of the federal budget. The Russian Reserve Fund and the National Welfare Fund (Sovereign Funds are the examples of perfect financial reserves. Imperfect reserves comprise a large group of reserve funds that are included in the federal budget, for example, the Reserve Fund of the President of the Russian Federation and the Reserve Fund of the Government of the Russian Federation, the Reserve Fund of the Government of the Russian Federation for the prevention and control of emergencies and impact of natural disasters. The introduction of new typological features largely clarifies the situation with increased attention to one type of reserves

  4. Geologic constraints on the upper limits of reserve growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.

    2001-01-01

    For many oil and gas fields, estimates of ultimate recovery (the sum of cumulative production plus estimated reserves) tend to increase from one year to the next, and the gain is called reserve growth. Forecasts of reserve growth by the U.S. Geological Survey rely on statistical analyses of historical records of oil and gas production and estimated reserves. The preproposal in this Open-File Report suggests that this traditional petroleum–engineering approach to reserve growth might be supplemented, or at least better understood, by using geological data from individual oil and gas fields, 3–D modeling software, and standard volumetric techniques to estimate in–place volumes of oil and gas. Such estimates, in turn, can be used to constrain the upper limits of reserve growth and ultimate recovery from those fields.

  5. »AREA« PROGRAMME FOR CALCULATION OF MINERAL RESERVES

    OpenAIRE

    Nevenka Krklec; Mario Zidar

    1989-01-01

    An accurate estimation of mineral reserves is needed for their completion of geologic project on the reserves of solid mineral raw materials. Authors have developed an original computer analyses for estimation of mineral reserves based on the method of vertical, parallel profiles. The language and the computer used are PASCAL and PARTNER, respectively. Important results in speed and accuracy of estimation have been obtained (the paper is published in Croatian).

  6. »AREA« PROGRAMME FOR CALCULATION OF MINERAL RESERVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Krklec

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available An accurate estimation of mineral reserves is needed for their completion of geologic project on the reserves of solid mineral raw materials. Authors have developed an original computer analyses for estimation of mineral reserves based on the method of vertical, parallel profiles. The language and the computer used are PASCAL and PARTNER, respectively. Important results in speed and accuracy of estimation have been obtained (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. On the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fettweis, G.

    1978-01-01

    A short discussion of the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves and the connected problem of prices evolution is presented. The need to regard fuel production under an economic aspect is emphasized. Data about known and assessed fuel reserves, world-wide and with special consideration of Austria, are reviewed. It is concluded that in view of the fuel reserves situation an energy policy which allows for a maximum of options seems adequate. (G.G.)

  8. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report Summary, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-02-28

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared and published each year to inform the public of the environmental activities that take place on the reservation and in the surrounding areas. It is written to comply with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. This document has been prepared to present the highlights of the Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report 2007 in an easy-to-read, summary format.

  9. Mineral Resources: Reserves, Peak Production and the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence D. Meinert; Gilpin R. Robinson; Nedal T. Nassar

    2016-01-01

    The adequacy of mineral resources in light of population growth and rising standards of living has been a concern since the time of Malthus (1798), but many studies erroneously forecast impending peak production or exhaustion because they confuse reserves with “all there is”. Reserves are formally defined as a subset of resources, and even current and potential resources are only a small subset of “all there is”. Peak production or exhaustion cannot be modeled accurately from reserves. Using ...

  10. Does Political Reservation Affect Voting Behavior? Empirical Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Yuko; Kurosaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of political reservation for disadvantaged groups on voting behavior. Using microdata from the National Election Study of the 2004 parliamentary elections in India, we find that in a reserved constituency, where only members of the disadvantaged castes can stand for election, voters of the disadvantaged castes are encouraged to vote. On the other hand, the system of constituency reservation does not have any impact on the turnout of voters belonging ...

  11. Water resources of the Red Lake Indian Reservation, northwestern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Red Lake Indian Reservation Tribal Council, to evaluate the water resources of the contiguous Red Lake Indian Reservation. Water resources of the contiguous Red Lake Indian Reservation meet the present (1989) needs for potable supply and other household uses. In addition, they provide ecological, recreational, and aesthetic benefits.

  12. Unemployment insurance and reservation wages : evidence from administrative data

    OpenAIRE

    Le Barbanchon, Thomas; Rathelot, Roland; Roulet, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Although the reservation wage plays a central role in job search models, empirical evidence on the determinants of reservation wages, including key policy variables such as unemployment insurance (UI), is scarce. In France, unemployed people must declare their reservation wage to the Public Employment Service when they register to claim UI benefits. We take advantage of these rich French administrative data and of a reform of UI rules to estimate the effect of the Potential Benefit Duration (...

  13. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...

  14. Structure and Functions of the Federal Reserve System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smale, Pauline

    2005-01-01

    .... The Federal Reserve formulates the nation's monetary policy, supervises and regulates banks, and provides a variety of financial services to depository financial institutions and the federal government...

  15. Reserve growth during financial volatility in a technologically challenging world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth (growth-to-known) is the addition of oil and gas quantities to reported proved or proved-plus-probable reserves in discovered fields. The amount of reserve growth fluctuates through time with prevailing economic and technological conditions. Most reserve additions are the result of investment in field operations and in development technology. These investments can be justified by higher prices of oil and gas, the desire to maintain cash flow, and by greater recovery efficiency in well established fields. The price/cost ratio affects decisions for field abandonment and (or) implementation of improved recovery methods. Although small- to medium-size fields might show higher percentages of reserve growth, a relatively few giant fields contribute most volumetric reserve growth, indicating that companies may prefer to invest in existing fields with low geologic and production risk and an established infrastructure in order to increase their price/cost relationship. Whereas many previous estimates of reserve growth were based on past trends of reported reserves, future reserve growth is expected to be greatly affected by financial volatility and fluctuating economic and technological conditions.

  16. How required reserve ratio affects distribution and velocity of money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-11-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

  17. Socioeconomic profiles of native American communities: Duckwater Shoshone Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, M. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents socioeconomic aspects of Native Americans of the Duckwater Shoshone Reservation. A survey is included concerning their views on the proposed Yucca Mountain waste repository. (CBS)

  18. 49 CFR 392.51 - Reserve fuel; materials of trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve fuel; materials of trade. 392.51 Section... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Fueling Precautions § 392.51 Reserve fuel; materials of trade. Small amounts of...) may be designated as materials of trade (see 49 CFR 171.8). (a) The aggregate gross weight of all...

  19. 16 CFR 680.4-680.20 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 680.4-680.20 Section 680.4-680.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT AFFILIATE MARKETING §§ 680.4-680.20 [Reserved] ...

  20. 7 CFR 352.16-352.28 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 352.16-352.28 Section 352.16-352.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANT QUARANTINE SAFEGUARD REGULATIONS §§ 352.16-352.28 [Reserved] ...

  1. 49 CFR 1152.15 - Reservation of jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reservation of jurisdiction. 1152.15 Section 1152.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION... RAIL TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.15 Reservation of jurisdiction. 49 U.S...

  2. 75 FR 65613 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... reserve; and the plans for future land acquisition and facility development to support reserve operations... decision makers; and added significant monitoring of emergent marsh vegetation, invasive species, water... headquarters building with a 4500 square foot structure to support research, stewardship, and the coastal...

  3. 17 CFR 248.103-248.119 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 248.103-248.119 Section 248.103-248.119 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing §§ 248.103-248.119 [Reserved] ...

  4. Optimal Location of Marine Forces Reserve Units by Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    GA Naval Air Station Atlanta, GA Robins Air Force Base/Warner Robins, GA Dobbins Army Reserve Base, GA Forest Park, GA Rome, GA a31 Marine...Island Arsenal, IL a65 Grissom Army Reserve Base/ Peru , IN Indianapolis, IN Terre Haute, IN a66 Perrysburg, OH Selfridge Army National Guard Base

  5. The Ecological Reserve: Towards a common understanding for river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The legal requirement for an Ecological Reserve established in South Africa\\'s water law is commonly regarded by stakeholders as being in direct competition with the needs of humans. This has resulted in much debate and varying interpretations of the meaning and purpose of the Ecological Reserve. However, the ...

  6. Bird checklist, Guánica Biosphere Reserve, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne J. Arendt; John Faaborg; Miguel Canals; Jerry Bauer

    2015-01-01

    This research note compiles 43 years of research and monitoring data to produce the first comprehensive checklist of the dry forest avian community found within the Guánica Biosphere Reserve. We provide an overview of the reserve along with sighting locales, a list of 185 birds with their resident status and abundance, and a list of the available bird habitats....

  7. 47 CFR 80.860 - Reserve power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve power supply. 80.860 Section 80.860 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Technical Equipment Requirements for Cargo Vessels Not Subject to Subpart W § 80.860 Reserve power supply. (a) When the...

  8. 47 CFR 80.917 - Reserve power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve power supply. 80.917 Section 80.917 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.917 Reserve power supply. (a) The requirements of...

  9. 47 CFR 80.965 - Reserve power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve power supply. 80.965 Section 80.965 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.965 Reserve power supply. (a) Each passenger...

  10. 50 CFR 17.86 - Special rules-plants. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules-plants. [Reserved] 17.86... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Experimental Populations § 17.86 Special rules—plants. [Reserved] ...

  11. 36 CFR 406.161-406.169 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 406.161-406.169 Section 406.161-406.169 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION... BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION §§ 406.161-406.169 [Reserved] ...

  12. 14 CFR 406.10-406.100 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 406.10-406.100 Section 406.10-406.100 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... and Enforcement §§ 406.10-406.100 [Reserved] ...

  13. 40 CFR 406.93-406.94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.93-406.94 Section 406.93-406.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ready-to-Eat Cereal Subcategory §§ 406.93-406.94 [Reserved] ...

  14. 36 CFR 406.131-406.139 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 406.131-406.139 Section 406.131-406.139 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION... BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION §§ 406.131-406.139 [Reserved] ...

  15. 36 CFR 406.141-406.148 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 406.141-406.148 Section 406.141-406.148 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION... BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION §§ 406.141-406.148 [Reserved] ...

  16. 36 CFR 406.112-406.129 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 406.112-406.129 Section 406.112-406.129 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION... BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION §§ 406.112-406.129 [Reserved] ...

  17. 36 CFR 406.171-406.999 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 406.171-406.999 Section 406.171-406.999 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION... BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION §§ 406.171-406.999 [Reserved] ...

  18. 36 CFR 406.104-406.109 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 406.104-406.109 Section 406.104-406.109 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION... BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION §§ 406.104-406.109 [Reserved] ...

  19. 36 CFR 406.152-406.159 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 406.152-406.159 Section 406.152-406.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION... BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION §§ 406.152-406.159 [Reserved] ...

  20. Implications of Exchange Rate Dynamics and External Reserve for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we examined the impact of exchange rate dynamics and external reserve on inflation and investment in Nigeria between the period 1970 – 2009, using a combination of ordinary least squares, augmented dickey fuller unit root test and the co- integration test. The changes in external reserve had a positive ...

  1. Notes on bat diversity at Berenty Private Reserve and Beza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys of bat diversity are rare for the southern domain of Madagascar. Mistnetting for bats took place at Berenty Private Reserve in southeastern Madagascar during a six months study in 2009 and at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar for one month in 2011. At Berenty, Hipposideros ...

  2. 12 CFR 965.3 - Liquidity reserves for deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquidity reserves for deposits. 965.3 Section 965.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK LIABILITIES SOURCE OF FUNDS § 965.3 Liquidity reserves for deposits. Each Bank shall at all times have at least an amount...

  3. Studies of the Woody Vegetation of the Welor Forest Reserve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Welor area has been classified as a forest reserve since 1935 while waiting for the outcome of studies for its appropriate exploitation based on its biological potential. Due to lack of information on this potential, the plant resources of this forest reserve have been used improperly and excessively. The present study aims ...

  4. 12 CFR 204.7 - Supplemental reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to increase the amount of reserves maintained to a level essential for the conduct of monetary policy... Bank Board, and the National Credit Union Administration Board, the Board may impose a supplemental... reserve ratios established by the Monetary Control Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-221) in effect on September 1...

  5. 47 CFR 17.23 - Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved] 17.23 Section 17.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL CONSTRUCTION, MARKING..., May 20, 1999, as amended at 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004] Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved] ...

  6. Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, M.; Hahn, K.; Mountford, E.P.; Ódor, P.; Standovár, T.; Rozenbergar, D.; Diaci, J.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meyer, P.; Winter, S.; Vrska, T.

    2005-01-01

    Data were analysed on the volume of dead wood in 86 beech forest reserves, covering most of the range of European beech forests. The mean volume was 130 m3/ha and the variation among reserves was high, ranging from almost nil to 550 m3/ha. The volume depended significantly on forest type, age since

  7. Mixed farming in a grazing reserve in Northern Nigeria | Babalobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's main pastoral development strategy is the settlement of pastoralists in grazing reserves. The goal of the strategy is to turn such nomadic pastoralists into mixed farmers who will take up crop farming to supplement livestock farming. Using the Bobi Grazing Reserve, Niger State, Nigeria as case study, the attainment ...

  8. The Ecological Reserve: Towards a common understanding for river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... tem, not only water (Box 1). The importance of the way that the resource has been redefined lies in the recognition that the water in rivers provides benefits to people without ever leaving the water course. The Reserve allocation therefore gives effect to the definition of the Reserve (Box 1) through its role of ...

  9. 30 CFR 285.311-285.314 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 285.311-285.314 Section 285.311-285.314 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE... §§ 285.311-285.314 [Reserved] Financial Requirements for ROW Grants and RUE Grants ...

  10. 25 CFR 151.11 - Off-reservation acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Off-reservation acquisitions. 151.11 Section 151.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.11 Off-reservation acquisitions. The Secretary shall consider the following requirements in evaluating tribal...

  11. 26 CFR 13.5-13.9 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 13.5-13.9 Section 13.5-13.9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1969 §§ 13.5-13.9 [Reserved] ...

  12. 26 CFR 13.0-13.3 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 13.0-13.3 Section 13.0-13.3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1969 §§ 13.0-13.3 [Reserved] ...

  13. 32 CFR 903.5 - Reserve enlistment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserve enlistment procedures. 903.5 Section 903.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND SCHOOLS AIR FORCE ACADEMY PREPARATORY SCHOOL § 903.5 Reserve enlistment procedures. (a) Civilians...

  14. 48 CFR 9904.404-61 - Interpretation. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretation. [Reserved] 9904.404-61 Section 9904.404-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-61 Interpretation. [Reserved] ...

  15. 48 CFR 9904.405-61 - Interpretation. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretation. [Reserved] 9904.405-61 Section 9904.405-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-61 Interpretation. [Reserved] ...

  16. 48 CFR 9904.403-62 - Exemption. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption. [Reserved] 9904.403-62 Section 9904.403-62 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-62 Exemption. [Reserved] ...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. [Reserved] 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery. [Reserved...

  18. 28 CFR 39.104-39.109 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 39.104-39.109 Section 39.104-39.109 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE §§ 39.104-39.109 [Reserved] ...

  19. 28 CFR 39.141-39.148 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 39.141-39.148 Section 39.141-39.148 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE §§ 39.141-39.148 [Reserved] ...

  20. 28 CFR 39.152-39.159 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 39.152-39.159 Section 39.152-39.159 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE §§ 39.152-39.159 [Reserved] ...

  1. 28 CFR 39.131-39.139 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 39.131-39.139 Section 39.131-39.139 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE §§ 39.131-39.139 [Reserved] ...

  2. 28 CFR 39.112-39.129 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 39.112-39.129 Section 39.112-39.129 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE §§ 39.112-39.129 [Reserved] ...

  3. 28 CFR 39.161-39.169 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 39.161-39.169 Section 39.161-39.169 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE §§ 39.161-39.169 [Reserved] ...

  4. 75 FR 49887 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... marsh, cobble beaches, and both hard and soft substrate submerged lands. The island is considered a... salt marsh habitat. The 128 acre Ballard Property on Prudence Island consists of forested land with... the reserve; and the plans for future land acquisition and facility development to support reserve...

  5. Computer Listing of a Reserve Collection. Occasional Papers, No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivan, B.; And Others

    The computer-aided listing system developed for the short loan or reserve collection at the University of Lancaster should be applicable to other libraries. Designed for simplicity of operation, the system performs the following functions: (1) provides a master record of all books in the reserve collection at any given time, (2) facilitates the…

  6. 2007 Organization of Reserved Book Collection and Utilization in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ezra

    1983-01-31

    Jan 31, 1983 ... Organization of Reserved Book Collection and Utilization in Olabisi Onabanjo University Library. By. A.B. Oshinaike ... The study investigates the Organization and Utilization of Reserved Book Collection (RBC) in Nigerian. University ..... Sowole, I. A. (1995) - Collection development at the University of ...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 1750 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CAPITAL Risk-Based Capital Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 1750 [Reserved] ...

  8. 7 CFR 1779.31-1779.32 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.31-1779.32 Section 1779.31-1779.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.31-1779.32 [Reserved] ...

  9. 7 CFR 1779.91-1779.93 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.91-1779.93 Section 1779.91-1779.93 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.91-1779.93 [Reserved] ...

  10. 7 CFR 1779.35-1779.36 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.35-1779.36 Section 1779.35-1779.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.35-1779.36 [Reserved] ...

  11. 7 CFR 1779.66-1779.68 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.66-1779.68 Section 1779.66-1779.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.66-1779.68 [Reserved] ...

  12. 7 CFR 1779.60-1779.62 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.60-1779.62 Section 1779.60-1779.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.60-1779.62 [Reserved] ...

  13. 7 CFR 1779.18-1779.19 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.18-1779.19 Section 1779.18-1779.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.18-1779.19 [Reserved] ...

  14. 7 CFR 1779.14-1779.16 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.14-1779.16 Section 1779.14-1779.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.14-1779.16 [Reserved] ...

  15. 7 CFR 1779.21-1779.23 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.21-1779.23 Section 1779.21-1779.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.21-1779.23 [Reserved] ...

  16. 7 CFR 1779.49-1779.51 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.49-1779.51 Section 1779.49-1779.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.49-1779.51 [Reserved] ...

  17. 7 CFR 1779.70-1779.72 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.70-1779.72 Section 1779.70-1779.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.70-1779.72 [Reserved] ...

  18. 7 CFR 1779.76-1779.77 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.76-1779.77 Section 1779.76-1779.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.76-1779.77 [Reserved] ...

  19. 7 CFR 1779.44-1779.46 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.44-1779.46 Section 1779.44-1779.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.44-1779.46 [Reserved] ...

  20. 7 CFR 1779.86-1779.87 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.86-1779.87 Section 1779.86-1779.87 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.86-1779.87 [Reserved] ...

  1. 7 CFR 1779.38-1779.41 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.38-1779.41 Section 1779.38-1779.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.38-1779.41 [Reserved] ...

  2. 7 CFR 1779.97-1779.99 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.97-1779.99 Section 1779.97-1779.99 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.97-1779.99 [Reserved] ...

  3. 7 CFR 1779.10-1779.11 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.10-1779.11 Section 1779.10-1779.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.10-1779.11 [Reserved] ...

  4. 7 CFR 1779.5-1779.7 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.5-1779.7 Section 1779.5-1779.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.5-1779.7 [Reserved] ...

  5. 7 CFR 1779.54-1779.58 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.54-1779.58 Section 1779.54-1779.58 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.54-1779.58 [Reserved] ...

  6. 47 CFR 10.310 - Federal alert gateway. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal alert gateway. [Reserved] 10.310 Section 10.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.310 Federal alert gateway. [Reserved] ...

  7. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site environmental report summary for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document presents a summary of the information collected for the Oak Ridge Reservation 1994 site environmental report. Topics discussed include: Oak Ridge Reservation mission; ecology; environmental laws; community participation; environmental restoration; waste management; radiation effects; chemical effects; risk to public; environmental monitoring; and radionuclide migration

  8. Does bilingualism contribute to cognitive reserve? Cognitive and neural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive reserve refers to how individuals actively utilize neural resources to cope with neuropathology to maintain cognitive functioning. The present review aims to critically examine the literature addressing the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive reserve to elucidate whether bilingualism delays the onset of cognitive and behavioral manifestations of dementia. Potential neural mechanisms behind this relationship are discussed. PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched (through January 2014) for original research articles in English or Spanish languages. The following search strings were used as keywords for study retrieval: "bilingual AND reserve," "reserve AND neural mechanisms," and "reserve AND multilingualism." Growing scientific evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve and delays the onset of Alzheimer's disease symptoms, allowing bilingual individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease to live an independent and richer life for a longer time than their monolingual counterparts. Lifelong bilingualism is related to more efficient use of brain resources that help individuals maintain cognitive functioning in the presence of neuropathology. We propose multiple putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilinguals cope with neuropathology. The roles of immigration status, education, age of onset, proficiency, and frequency of language use on the relationship between cognitive reserve and bilingualism are considered. Implications of these results for preventive practices and future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. 26 CFR 1.806-1 - Adjustment for certain reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment for certain reserves. 1.806-1 Section 1.806-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Investment Income § 1.806-1 Adjustment for certain reserves. (a) For taxable years...

  10. 22 CFR 97.6-97.7 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 97.6-97.7 Section 97.6-97.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ISSUANCE OF ADOPTION CERTIFICATES AND CUSTODY DECLARATIONS IN HAGUE CONVENTION ADOPTION CASES §§ 97.6-97.7 [Reserved] ...

  11. 47 CFR 97.515-97.517 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 97.515-97.517 Section 97.515-97.517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems §§ 97.515-97.517 [Reserved] ...

  12. 34 CFR 97.104-97.106 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 97.104-97.106 Section 97.104-97.106... the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) §§ 97.104-97.106 [Reserved] ...

  13. CALCULATED EVALUATION OF MI-2 DRIVE SHAVT STRENGTH RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Semenikhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A strength reserve coefficient evaluation of Mi-2 drive shaft with critical resource (4500 hours is given in this paper. This coefficient is compared to the strength reserve coefficient evaluation of Mi-2 drive shaft with operating time of zero hours.

  14. CALCULATED EVALUATION OF MI-2 DRIVE SHAVT STRENGTH RESERVE

    OpenAIRE

    R. L. Semenikhin

    2014-01-01

    A strength reserve coefficient evaluation of Mi-2 drive shaft with critical resource (4500 hours) is given in this paper. This coefficient is compared to the strength reserve coefficient evaluation of Mi-2 drive shaft with operating time of zero hours.

  15. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site environmental report summary for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document presents a summary of the information collected for the Oak Ridge Reservation 1994 site environmental report. Topics discussed include: Oak Ridge Reservation mission; ecology; environmental laws; community participation; environmental restoration; waste management; radiation effects; chemical effects; risk to public; environmental monitoring; and radionuclide migration.

  16. 25 CFR 141.5 - Reservation business license required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reservation business license required. 141.5 Section 141.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Licensing Requirements and Procedures § 141.5...

  17. 25 CFR 141.10 - License fees for reservation businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License fees for reservation businesses. 141.10 Section 141.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Licensing Requirements and Procedures § 141.10 License...

  18. 25 CFR 141.8 - License period for reservation businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License period for reservation businesses. 141.8 Section 141.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Licensing Requirements and Procedures § 141.8 License...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 41 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] D Appendix D to Part 41 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Appendix D to Part 41[Reserved] ...

  20. 12 CFR Appendixes A-B to Part 41 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] A Appendixes A-B to Part 41 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Appendixes A-B to Part 41 [Reserved] ...

  1. 12 CFR Appendices F-I to Part 41 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] F Appendices F-I to Part 41 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Appendices F-I to Part 41[Reserved] ...

  2. The birds of Gongoni Forest Reserve, South Coast, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The birds of Gongoni Forest Reserve,. South Coast, Kenya. Maurice O. Ogoma, Broder Breckling, Hauke Reuter,. Muchai Muchane and Mwangi Githiru. Summary. Between November 2007 and February 2008, bird species composition, richness and abundance were assessed at Gongoni Forest Reserve (classified.

  3. evaluation of the contributions of ikere forest reserve to sustainable

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    maintained that forests play an important role in contributing to carbon sequestration and other global ecological services. Forest reserves are portions of state lands under reservation where commercial harvesting of wood products is controlled in order to capture elements of biodiversity. They allow people to experience ...

  4. Amphibian diversity in Shimba Hills National Reserve, Kenya: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present the first annotated amphibian checklist of Shimba Hills National Reserve (SHNR). The list comprises of 30 currently known amphibians (28 anurans and two caecilians), which includes 11 families and 15 genera. In addition, individual records per species, distribution in the reserve and brief remarks about the ...

  5. 26 CFR 1.998-1.1000 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 1.998-1.1000 Section 1.998-1.1000 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations §§ 1.998-1.1000 [Reserved] ...

  6. 40 CFR 86.238-94-86.239-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.238-94-86.239-94 Section 86.238-94-86.239-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures §§ 86.238-94—86.239-94 [Reserved] ...

  7. 40 CFR 86.233-94-86.234-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.233-94-86.234-94 Section 86.233-94-86.234-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures §§ 86.233-94—86.234-94 [Reserved] ...

  8. Heat Transfer in the LCCM Thermal Reserve Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    CEDEX ALLEE SAINTE HELENE 18021 FRANCE 4 EAGLE PICHER TECHNOLOGIES, LLC ATTN C LAMB ATTN J FERRARO ATTN M STEELE ATTN R...Heat Transfer in the LCCM Thermal Reserve Battery by Frank C. Krieger and Michael Ding ARL-TR-4843 September 2009...Transfer in the LCCM Thermal Reserve Battery Frank C. Krieger and Michael Ding Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL

  9. amphibian diversity in shimba hills national reserve, kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L.A

    preclude the possibility that new discoveries will not be made in the future. The following species were expected from the reserve given that they have been recorded very close to the reserve or their IUCN red list presumed range includes SHNR: Phrynobatrachus mababiensis FitzSimons, 1932; Phrynomantis bifasciatus ...

  10. 32 CFR 728.23 - Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... observation, including participation in service-sponsored sports, recreational, and training activities. (ii... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). 728.23... Components, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, Navy and Marine Corps Officer Candidate Programs, and National...

  11. 28 CFR 46.104-46.106 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 46.104-46.106 Section 46.104-46.106 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS §§ 46.104-46.106 [Reserved] ...

  12. Key for the classification of reserves/resources - United Nations International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources (UNFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-08-22

    Since the introduction of the United Nations International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources (UNFC) - Solid Fuels and Mineral Commodities in 1977 by UNECE, recommended for application worldwide in 1998 by the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), some of those using the system who do not deal daily with the classification of reserves/resources are not certain how they should apply this reserves/resources classification system. The classification key described here provides the user with an easy to use tool for classifying reserves/resources according to the UN Framework Classification. This document is submitted by the Government of Germany. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs., 1 append.

  13. Naval Reserve Force: Cost and Benefit Analysis of Reducing the Number of Naval Surface Reserve Force Operating Budget Holders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Eric

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis examines one of Commander Naval Surface Reserve Force's initiatives for reducing the current number of Operating Budget holder's Comptroller Departments without sacrificing efficiency...

  14. Efficiency, capacity, compensation, maintenance, plasticity: emerging concepts in cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barulli, Daniel; Stern, Yaakov

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) is a concept meant to account for the frequent discrepancy between an individual's measured level of brain pathology and her expected cognitive performance. It is particularly important within the context of aging and dementia, but has wider applicability to all forms of brain damage. As such, it has intimate links to related compensatory and neuroprotective concepts, as well as to the related notion of brain reserve. In this article, we introduce the concept of cognitive reserve and explicate its potential cognitive and neural implementation. We conclude that cognitive reserve is compatible and complementary with many related concepts, but that each much draw sharper conceptual boundaries in order to truly explain preserved cognitive function in the face of aging or brain damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Empirical analysis of optimal strategic petroleum reserve in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yi-Ming; Wu, Gang; Liu, Lan-Cui; Fan, Ying

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese government began to prepare for the establishment of strategic petroleum reserve in March 2004. Therefore, answering the question of what level of strategic petroleum reserve would be suitable for China's future economic development becomes essential. Using a decision tree model based on a cost function, this paper quantifies China's optimal strategic petroleum reserve for the period 2005-2020. This approach provides a methodology reference for further quantified discussion on China's SPR. Our results show that: for economic development and security of the energy supply, the strategic petroleum reserve should be the equivalent of 30-60 days of net oil import for an optimal solution, when the oil price is $ 50/bbl; with a reserve of an equivalent of 60-90 days of net oil import to have an optimal solution when oil price is $20-35/bbl. (author)

  16. The role of new technologies in expanding useful coal reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sligar, J. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    The range of new high efficiency coal utilisation technologies for power generation will have a marked effect in increasing marketable coal reserves from world sources as the technologies are integrated into new and retrofitted power stations. These technologies are substantially more efficient than pulverised coal technology; so if marketable coal reserves are viewed as energy reserves there will be an increase of at least 28% due to this factor alone. In addition, the new technologies use coals with different sets of properties to present internationally traded coals. In many cases reserves of these coals exist but are not presently included in reserves for power generation but which will need to be included in the future. These changes, which require a reassessment of marketable resources for the reliable generation of cheap and environmentally friendly energy and generally extend coal resources by a conservative 33%.

  17. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON DYNAMICS OF CREDIT GROWTH AND FOREIGN RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrugan Sinah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a model for looking into the nature of change in foreign reserve from movements in domestic credit. This model is relevant to foreign reserve targeting, small and open economies. The model denotes that measures undertaken by central banks to constraint domestic credit growth with the view of controlling capital outflows will also be detrimental to foreign reserves level. The empirical studies with application of Fourier Transformation technique have been used to build a model, which shows that growth in domestic credit is more biased towards positive swings in foreign reserves, rather than being unfavorable. The small and open economies, particularly, the Pacific Island nations, have the right set up for application of this model to safeguard foreign reserves level.

  18. Rapid effects of marine reserves via larval dispersal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cudney-Bueno

    Full Text Available Marine reserves have been advocated worldwide as conservation and fishery management tools. It is argued that they can protect ecosystems and also benefit fisheries via density-dependent spillover of adults and enhanced larval dispersal into fishing areas. However, while evidence has shown that marine reserves can meet conservation targets, their effects on fisheries are less understood. In particular, the basic question of if and over what temporal and spatial scales reserves can benefit fished populations via larval dispersal remains unanswered. We tested predictions of a larval transport model for a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico, via field oceanography and repeated density counts of recently settled juvenile commercial mollusks before and after reserve establishment. We show that local retention of larvae within a reserve network can take place with enhanced, but spatially-explicit, recruitment to local fisheries. Enhancement occurred rapidly (2 yrs, with up to a three-fold increase in density of juveniles found in fished areas at the downstream edge of the reserve network, but other fishing areas within the network were unaffected. These findings were consistent with our model predictions. Our findings underscore the potential benefits of protecting larval sources and show that enhancement in recruitment can be manifested rapidly. However, benefits can be markedly variable within a local seascape. Hence, effects of marine reserve networks, positive or negative, may be overlooked when only focusing on overall responses and not considering finer spatially-explicit responses within a reserve network and its adjacent fishing grounds. Our results therefore call for future research on marine reserves that addresses this variability in order to help frame appropriate scenarios for the spatial management scales of interest.

  19. Cognitive reserve and patient-reported outcomes in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Snook, Erin; Quaranto, Brian; Benedict, Ralph H B; Vollmer, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation and compensation in the face of changing pathology may be better understood by considering the concept of cognitive reserve, which may protect against disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). The present work investigates the relationship between cognitive reserve and demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Cross-sectional data (n=1142) were drawn from the North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) Registry, from whom additional survey data were collected. Cognitive reserve was measured using the Stern and Sole-Padulles measures, the O*NET occupational classification system, and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. PROs were assessed using generic (SF -12v2, Perceived Deficits Questionnaire, Ryff Psychological Well-Being, Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale) and disease-specific (Patient-Determined Disease Steps, Performance Scales) measures. Psychometric analysis created unidimensional cognitive reserve subscales. Regression models examined relationships between cognitive reserve, demographic characteristics, and PROs. The cognitive reserve measures assessed distinct but related constructs. Individuals with high cognitive reserve were more likely to report lower levels of perceived disability and perceived cognitive deficits, and higher levels of physical health, mental health, and well-being. Both active and passive reserve are associated with better outcomes, independent of demographic factors, and these associations apply to both generic and disease-specific outcomes. This expanded measurement of cognitive reserve captures both the passive and active aspects of the construct, and there is a consistent and substantial relationship with PROs. Individuals with high passive and/or active reserve are healthier and experience higher levels of well-being.

  20. Reserve reporting in the United States coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubert, Emily

    2012-01-01

    United States energy policymaking can be better supported with accurate and consistent data on coal reserves, both in the public and private sectors. In particular, reserve data for coal and other energy resources should be directly comparable so that decision-makers can easily understand the relationship among available resources. Long-term policy and investment choices regarding energy security, the environment, and resource allocation depend on accurate information, but existing and easily available data on the magnitude of geologically, environmentally, economically, socially, and legally accessible coal reserves are of insufficient quality to guide such decisions. Even still, these data are often presented for use in policy and energy analysis. Currently, coal reserves are overstated relative to competitor energy resource reserves, in part because coal reporting standards have historically been more liberal and vague than standards for resources like natural gas. Overstating the marketable coal resource could lead to inefficient allocation of limited capital investment that can be difficult to reverse. US government bodies like the Energy Information Administration, United States Geological Survey, Securities and Exchange Commission, and Bureau of Land Management can help correct deficiencies by clarifying standards and collecting data that are relevant for decision-makers, such as energy-based reserve information. - Highlights: ► US Coal reserves are important to public and private policy and investment decisions. ► Poor quality data and coal reserve overreporting misrepresent reality. ► Choices made based on bad information can lead to long-term capital misallocation. ► Numerous government agencies are tasked with providing public data on coal reserves. ► Clearer, more restrictive reserves reporting standards can aid decision-makers.

  1. Reserve growth in oil fields of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Gautier, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of petroleum resources of the North Sea, as well as other areas of the world, requires a viable means to forecast the amount of growth of reserve estimates (reserve growth) for discovered fields and to predict the potential fully developed sizes of undiscovered fields. This study investigates the utility of North Sea oil field data to construct reserve-growth models. Oil fields of the North Sea provide an excellent dataset in which to examine the mechanisms, characteristics, rates and quantities of reserve growth because of the high level of capital investments, implementation of sophisticated technologies and careful data collection. Additionally, these field data are well reported and available publicly. Increases in successive annual estimat es of recoverable crude oil volumes indicate that oil fields in the North Sea, collectively and in each country, experience reserve growth. Specific patterns of reserve growth are observed among countries and primary producing reservoir-rock types. Since 1985, Norwegian oil fields had the greatest volume increase; Danish oil fields increased by the greatest percentage relative to 1985 estimates; and British oil fields experienced an increase in recoverable oil estimates for the first ten years since 1985, followed by a slight reduction. Fields producing primarily from clastic reservoirs account for the majority of the estimated recoverable oil and, therefore, these fields had the largest volumetric increase. Fields producing primarily from chalk (limestone) reservoirs increased by a greater percentage relative to 1985 estimates than did fields producing primarily from clastic reservoirs. Additionally, the largest oil fields had the greatest volumetric increases. Although different reserve-growth patterns are observed among oil fields located in different countries, the small number of fields in Denmark precludes construction of reserve-growth models for that country. However, differences in reserve

  2. Reviewing Biosphere Reserves globally: effective conservation action or bureaucratic label?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Kaera L; Witkowski, Edward T F; Erasmus, Barend F N

    2014-02-01

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) model of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme reflects a shift towards more accountable conservation. Biosphere Reserves attempt to reconcile environmental protection with sustainable development; they explicitly acknowledge humans, and human interests in the conservation landscape while still maintaining the ecological values of existing protected areas. Conceptually, this model is attractive, with 610 sites currently designated globally. Yet the practical reality of implementing dual 'conservation' and 'development' goals is challenging, with few examples successfully conforming to the model's full criteria. Here, we review the history of Biosphere Reserves from first inception in 1974 to the current status quo, and examine the suitability of the designation as an effective conservation model. We track the spatial expansion of Biosphere Reserves globally, assessing the influence of the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves and Seville strategy in 1995, when the BR concept refocused its core objectives on sustainable development. We use a comprehensive range of case studies to discuss conformity to the Programme, the social and ecological consequences associated with implementation of the designation, and challenges in aligning conservation and development. Given that the 'Biosphere Reserve' label is a relatively unknown designation in the public arena, this review also provides details on popularising the Biosphere Reserve brand, as well as prospects for further research, currently unexploited, but implicit in the designation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  3. Microclimates of the arid lands ecology reserve, 1968--1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorp, J. M.; Hinds, W. T.

    1977-04-01

    The climatology of the Hanford Reservation Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve does not end, of course, with this report. As this goes to press the arid lands of eastern Washington are experiencing the driest winter in 65 years of record. Even without including this winter's (1976-77) data in our summaries here, we have been fortunate to have had a very dry winter (1972-73) and a very wet winter (1973-74) occur within our first 8 years of climatological measurements on the Reserve. Our primary purpose with this report has been to analyze the first 8 years of climatological measurements from the ALE Reserve and to identify persistent spatial variations between stations or groups of stations. From these variations we have been able to recognize several distinct, but related microclimates occurring within the Reserve. Secondly, we have shown that significant correlations exist between each microclimate on the Reserve and that of the Hanford Meteorological Station nearby. These correlations, coupled with the 30-year weather record at the HMS and possibly with the 32-year (1912-1944) record at the Hanford townsite, allow ALE Reserve temperature and precipitation estimates to be made for years prior to the ALE climatology program.

  4. Impact of ground control on mining reserve estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, G. [AMC Resource Consultants Pty Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2001-07-01

    The estimation of coal resources and reserves is an important and often critical component of the assessment of a mining operation or project. An accurate estimation of reserves in particular is essential for many stages of a mining project - from initial evaluation of the project potential, commitment to a mine development, approval of capital expenditure and/or project finance, through to mine valuation for sale or public listing. Accurate estimation of reserves is also a compulsory reporting requirement for public listed companies as set out in the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX), listing rules. Under these rules, resources and reserves are reported under the JOC Code that incorporates the 'Australian Code for Reporting Identified Coal Resources and Reserves'. These rules are now also used more frequently for non public listed companies. A number of geotechnical parameters play an important role in the process of converting insitu resources to economically recoverable reserves. Whilst these parameters play a role in opencut mining, this paper covers a number of key geotechnical issues that influence the estimation of underground reserves. 11 figs.

  5. Determination of oil and gas reserves. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, R.; MacKay, V.

    2004-01-01

    This book was prepared by more than 40 contributing authors with expertise in a wide range of topics related to oil and gas reserves. It represents a collaborative effort to find definitions and guidelines for the classification of reserves that is acceptable to the oil industry, evaluators, oil and gas companies, financial agencies, securities commissions and government departments. This second edition is an update of the original work that was published in 1994 which compares estimates of reserves and their classification. The new edition includes changes that have occurred in the past 10 years and expands on the processes that are used to estimate reserves. New techniques for assessing risk were also included. The book is divided into four parts entitled: (1) definitions and guidelines for estimating and classifying oil and gas resources and reserves, (2) determination of in-place resources, (3) estimation of recovery factors and forecasting of recoverable hydrocarbons, and (4) prices, economics and markets. The second edition includes new sections dealing with geostatistics, natural gas balance calculations, reserves estimates in naturally fractured reservoirs, and new developments in estimating recovery factors through enhanced recovery methods such as horizontal drilling. The objective was to develop a reference that is of great value to geologists, engineers and technical persons involved in estimating reserves. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Role of nature reserves in giant panda protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwei; Li, Junqing

    2018-02-01

    Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a flagship species in nature conservation of the world; to protect this species, 67 nature reserves have been established in China. To evaluate the protection effect of giant panda nature reserves, we analyzed the variation of giant panda number and habitat area of 23 giant panda nature reserves of Sichuan province based on the national survey data released by State Forestry Administration and Sichuan Forestry Department. Results showed that from the third national survey to the fourth, giant panda number and habitat area of 23 giant panda nature reserves of Sichuan province failed to realize the significant increase. Furthermore, we found that the total population growth rate of 23 nature reserves in the last 12 years was lower than those of the province total of Sichuan and the national total of China, and the total habitat area of the 23 nature reserves was decreasing in the last 12 years, but the province total and national total were all increasing. We propose that giant panda protection should pay more attention to how to improve the protective effects of nature reserves.

  7. Resources transfer and centralization in Brazilian electrical sector: the reversion global reserve (RGR) and the guarantee global reserve (GGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Amaral Filho, J.B. de.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation makes the analysis of resources transfer and centralization in Brazilian electrical sector, through reversion global reserve (RGR) and guarantee global reserve (GGR). RGR and GGR are funds. RGR finances sectorial investments in electric power and GGR aims the supply of deficient concessionaires. Governmental investments and the results of this application are showing. (M.V.M.). 55 refs, 2 figs, 61 tabs

  8. Designing connected marine reserves in the face of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Munguía-Vega, Adrián; Beger, Maria; Del Mar Mancha-Cisneros, Maria; Suárez-Castillo, Alvin N; Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Gerber, Leah R; Morzaria-Luna, Hem Nalini; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor; Adams, Vanessa M; Kolb, Melanie; Graham, Erin M; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Castillo-López, Alejandro; Hinojosa-Arango, Gustavo; Petatán-Ramírez, David; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Torre, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Marine reserves are widely used to protect species important for conservation and fisheries and to help maintain ecological processes that sustain their populations, including recruitment and dispersal. Achieving these goals requires well-connected networks of marine reserves that maximize larval connectivity, thus allowing exchanges between populations and recolonization after local disturbances. However, global warming can disrupt connectivity by shortening potential dispersal pathways through changes in larval physiology. These changes can compromise the performance of marine reserve networks, thus requiring adjusting their design to account for ocean warming. To date, empirical approaches to marine prioritization have not considered larval connectivity as affected by global warming. Here, we develop a framework for designing marine reserve networks that integrates graph theory and changes in larval connectivity due to potential reductions in planktonic larval duration (PLD) associated with ocean warming, given current socioeconomic constraints. Using the Gulf of California as case study, we assess the benefits and costs of adjusting networks to account for connectivity, with and without ocean warming. We compare reserve networks designed to achieve representation of species and ecosystems with networks designed to also maximize connectivity under current and future ocean-warming scenarios. Our results indicate that current larval connectivity could be reduced significantly under ocean warming because of shortened PLDs. Given the potential changes in connectivity, we show that our graph-theoretical approach based on centrality (eigenvector and distance-weighted fragmentation) of habitat patches can help design better-connected marine reserve networks for the future with equivalent costs. We found that maintaining dispersal connectivity incidentally through representation-only reserve design is unlikely, particularly in regions with strong asymmetric patterns of

  9. Reactive Power Compensation Method Considering Minimum Effective Reactive Power Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yiyu; Zhang, Kai; Pu, Zhang; Li, Xuenan; Zuo, Xianghong; Zhen, Jiao; Sudan, Teng

    2017-05-01

    According to the calculation model of minimum generator reactive power reserve of power system voltage stability under the premise of the guarantee, the reactive power management system with reactive power compensation combined generator, the formation of a multi-objective optimization problem, propose a reactive power reserve is considered the minimum generator reactive power compensation optimization method. This method through the improvement of the objective function and constraint conditions, when the system load growth, relying solely on reactive power generation system can not meet the requirement of safe operation, increase the reactive power reserve to solve the problem of minimum generator reactive power compensation in the case of load node.

  10. Pharmaceutical Residues Affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike Wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björklund, Erland; Svahn, Ola; Bak, Søren Alex

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the pharmaceutical burden from point sources affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden. The investigated Biosphere Reserve is a >1000 km(2) wetland system with inflows from lakes, rivers, leachate from landfill, and wastewater....../L). A small risk assessment showed that adverse single-substance toxicity on aquatic organisms within the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve is unlikely. However, the effects of combinations of a large number of known and unknown pharmaceuticals, metals, and nutrients are still unknown....

  11. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...

  12. Survey of flora in the virgin reserve "Lom"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucalo Vojin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin Reserve "Lom" is one of the three protected areas of this rank in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the most conserved part of the forest of beech fir and spruce ass. Piceo-Abieti-Fagetum in the wider area. Previous research of flora in the Reserve was partial, within the more widely formulated themes. During the research in 2005 and 2006, in the area of the Reserve (298 ha the authors identified the biodiversity of 81 species fungi, 6 lichens 50 mosses, 17 ferns and 233 flowering plants.

  13. New approaches to e-reserve linking, sharing and streaming

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Ophelia; Patrick, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Aimed at academic library practitioners, this book describes how e-reserve services can evolve and adapt to the changing virtual learning environment of higher education. New approaches discussed include: the integration of subscribed, free, and copyrighted resources within course management systems; innovative employment of open URL link resolvers to connect e-reserve with library e-resources and services; video streaming within course documents; and the creative use of bibliographic software to produce customized reading lists. New Approaches to E-Reserve includes detailed descriptions and e

  14. IS IT POSSIBLE TO REDUCE THE STOCK OF FOREIGN RESERVES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Spanò

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This work determines the optimal reserves to short term debt ratio of an exporting economy indebted in foreign currency and suggests possible remedies to reduce it. Theoretical results and numerical simulations establish that the ratios recently observed reflect the increasing weight assigned to the risk of firms going bankrupt. They also establish that neither a lower risk premium charged by international lenders nor a lower exchange rate volatility reduce the stock of reserves significantly. Full elimination of the need to hold reserves to prevent financial crises should rely either on limiting foreign capital inflow or on reforming the international monetary system.

  15. 2000 SURVEY OF RESERVE COMPONENT PERSONNEL: ADMINISTRATION, DATASETS, AND CODEBOOK

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simmons, Robert

    2002-01-01

    ..., satisfaction with aspects of Guard and Reserve life, and other quality of life issues. Together with the 1999 Active Duty Surveys of Members and Spouses, the RCS provide a comprehensive picture of the Total Force...

  16. Auditory Reserve and the Legacy of Auditory Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Skoe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Musical training during childhood has been linked to more robust encoding of sound later in life. We take this as evidence for an auditory reserve: a mechanism by which individuals capitalize on earlier life experiences to promote auditory processing. We assert that early auditory experiences guide how the reserve develops and is maintained over the lifetime. Experiences that occur after childhood, or which are limited in nature, are theorized to affect the reserve, although their influence on sensory processing may be less long-lasting and may potentially fade over time if not repeated. This auditory reserve may help to explain individual differences in how individuals cope with auditory impoverishment or loss of sensorineural function.

  17. Wildlife reserves, populations and hunting outcome with smart wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2014-01-01

    There is a very small natural resource economic literature on natural reserves and hunting that consider potential stress effects of hunting on the game population and its migration in and out of hunting and reserve areas. In this literature private optimal solution with and without stress effects...... reach ambiguous results when comparing a situation with and without stress effects. A pure stress effect implies that the population level in a wildlife reserve increase and the population level in the hunting area decrease in optimum. However, this change in optimal population levels increase migration...... from the wildlife reserve to the hunting area in the social optimum. The total effect is, therefore, ambiguous. For the private optimum open-access is assumed and exactly the same results arise as in the social optimum when comparing a situation with and without stress effects....

  18. 7 CFR 985.57 - Reserve pool requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE... commercial trade practices. The Committee shall designate a Committee employee as reserve pool manager. (b...

  19. Mining reservation X IV. Present state of geological research s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.; Tabo, F.

    1991-01-01

    The mining reservation includes the aerial photo of Cerro Chato, Valentines, Chileno and Rossell y Rius. The main objective of this work is the regional metals characterization in special basic metals such as gold.

  20. Air Force Organizational Transformation: Merging the Active and Reserve Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    .... These include the active associate, reserve associate, and blended unit concepts. Finally, it provides a recommendation as to which concept will best meet the future warfighting needs of the Air Force.

  1. Biosphere reserves – learning sites of sustainable development?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Bartoš, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2008), s. 221-234 ISSN 1211-7420 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : nature protection * learning sites * biosphere reserves * sustainable development Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation

  2. Auditory Reserve and the Legacy of Auditory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Musical training during childhood has been linked to more robust encoding of sound later in life. We take this as evidence for an auditory reserve: a mechanism by which individuals capitalize on earlier life experiences to promote auditory processing. We assert that early auditory experiences guide how the reserve develops and is maintained over the lifetime. Experiences that occur after childhood, or which are limited in nature, are theorized to affect the reserve, although their influence on sensory processing may be less long-lasting and may potentially fade over time if not repeated. This auditory reserve may help to explain individual differences in how individuals cope with auditory impoverishment or loss of sensorineural function. PMID:25405381

  3. Cognitive reserve during neuropsychological performance in HIV intravenous drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Justo, Enrique; Blanco, Adolfo Piñón; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza; Gestoso, Carlos Guillén; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders are frequently observed in people with HIV. We aimed to evaluate the influence of cognitive reserve on the neuropsychological performance of seropositive drug users. We carried out a neuropsychological assessment and compared the performance of seropositive drug users (n = 75) with that of a group of seronegative drug users (n = 48). The results showed that a low cognitive reserve makes the seropositive patients neuropsychologically vulnerable. Likewise, we found that a high cognitive reserve has a protective effect in the presence of neuropsychological impairment associated with HIV. In the seronegative group, differences in a small number of tests were found between participants with low and high cognitive reserve. Overall, these data suggest that seropositivity is not sufficient to explain the neuropsychological alterations of seropositive drug users; rather, these alterations are multifactorial.

  4. Wildlife reserves, populations, and hunting outcome with smart wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Strange, Niels

    2014-01-01

    We consider a hunting area and a wildlife reserve and answer the question: How does clever migration decision affect the social optimal and the private optimal hunting levels and population stocks? We analyze this in a model allowing for two-way migration between hunting and reserve areas, where...... the populations’ migration decisions depend on both hunting pressure and relative population densities. In the social optimum a pure stress effect on the behavior of smart wildlife exists. This implies that the population level in the wildlife reserve tends to increase and the population level in the hunting area...... and hunting levels tend to decrease. On the other hand, the effect on stock tends to reduce the population in the wildlife reserve and increase the population in the hunting area and thereby also increase hunting. In the case of the private optimum, open-access is assumed and we find that the same qualitative...

  5. Indian reservation safety improvement program : a methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Improving roadway safety on Indian reservations requires a comprehensive approach. Limited : resources, lack of crash data, and few cross-jurisdictions coordination has made it difficult for : Native American communities to address their roadway safe...

  6. 40 CFR 80.562-80.569 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Other Hardship Provisions §§ 80.562-80.569 [Reserved] Labeling...

  7. 40 CFR 80.537-80.539 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Temporary Compliance Option §§ 80.537-80.539 [Reserved] Geographic Phase...

  8. 40 CFR 80.575-80.579 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Labeling Requirements §§ 80.575-80.579 [Reserved] Sampling and Testing ...

  9. 40 CFR 80.556-80.559 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Small Refiner Hardship Provisions §§ 80.556-80.559 [Reserved] Other...

  10. 40 CFR 80.541-80.549 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Geographic Phase-in Provisions §§ 80.541-80.549 [Reserved] Small Refiner...

  11. 40 CFR 80.514-80.519 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information §§ 80.514-80.519 [Reserved] Motor Vehicle Diesel...

  12. 40 CFR 80.587-80.589 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Sampling and Testing §§ 80.587-80.589 [Reserved] Recordkeeping and...

  13. 40 CFR 80.503-80.509 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information §§ 80.503-80.509 [Reserved] ...

  14. Where to with reserve selection and conservation planning in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    minimal set' approach to designing an optimal reserve network tor vertebrate species is offered. Strengths are the rational and efficient manner in which full species representation is achieved, and the planning benefits that can be gained through its ...

  15. Report of exploration in the mining reserve N XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoturno, J.; Lara, P.

    1991-01-01

    This report is about the geological exploration in the mining reserve N X IV. There were recognized basically three units : 1) granitic basement neisico migma tic. 2) lithologic group a md 3) a unit of quartz feldspar granitoid rocks.

  16. Effects of auxins on in vitro reserve compounds of Phalaenopsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orchidaceae). Sandra Sayuri Ori, Edison Paulo Chu, Armando Reis Tavares. Abstract. The effects of auxin and the endogenous levels of reserve compounds of Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume (Orchidaceae) were analyzed in vitro. Rootless plants ...

  17. 14 CFR 415.204-415.400 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Environmental Review §§ 415.204—415.400 [Reserved] Pt... Subsystem Design Information 10.4Flight Safety System Analyses 10.5Flight Termination System Environmental...

  18. Seminar 1. Joint Military Operations. Application of the Operational Reserve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Copp, A

    1997-01-01

    .... As a means of achieving decisive effect at the operational level of war, the operational reserve should be considered an operational function and should be addressed as both a planning element...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.336-1910.360 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Electrical Safety-Related Work Practices §§ 1910.336-1910.360 [Reserved] Safety-Related Maintenance Requirements ...

  20. Maximum currents in the Northeast Corridor Reserve during November 2013.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2D numerical model, CMS-Flow, was implemented for the Northeast Corridor Reserve (NECR) using a telescoping grid. Tide and wind forcing was provided to the model...