WorldWideScience

Sample records for reserved steppe area

  1. Mapping of Vegetation with the Geoinformation System and Determining of Carrying Capacity of the Pre-Urals Steppe area for a Newly Establishing Population of the Przewalski Horse Equus ferus przewalskii at the Orenburg State Nature Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, N. I.; Mikhailenko, O. I.; Zharkikh, T. L.; Bakirova, R. T.

    2018-01-01

    Mapping of the vegetation (1:25000) of the Pre-Urals Steppe area at the Orenburg State Nature Reserve was completed in 2016. A map created with the geoinformation system contains 1931 simple and complex polygons for 25 types of vegetation. In a drought year, the average stock of palatable vegetation of the whole area is estimated at 8380 tons dry weight. The estimation is based on the size of areas covered by different types of vegetation, their grass production, the correction coefficients for decreasing of pasture forage stocks in winter and decreasing of production of grass communities in dry years. Based on pasture forage stocks the area could tolerate the maximum population size of 1769 individuals of the Przewalski horse, their average density could be 0.11 horse per ha. Yet, as watering places for animals are limited in Pre-Urals Steppe, grazing pressures on the vegetation next to the water sources may increase in dry years. That is why the above-mentioned calculated maximum population size and density must be reduced at least by half until some additional watering places are established and monitoring of the grazing effect on the vegetation next to the places is carried out regularly. Thus, the maximum size of the population is estimated at 800 to 900 individuals, which is almost 1.5 times more than necessary to establish a self-sustained population of the Przewalski horse.

  2. Ecological restoration of peatlands in steppe and forest-steppe areas

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    Minayeva, Tatiana; Sirin, Andrey; Dugarjav, Chultem

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands in the arid and semi-arid regions of steppe and forest steppe belt of Eurasia have some specific features. That demands the special approach to their management and restoration. The distribution of peatlands under conditions of dry climate is very limited and they are extremely vulnerable. Peatlands in those regions are found in the highlands where temperate conditions still present, in floodplains where they can get water from floods and springs, or in karst areas. Peatlands on watersheds present mainly remains from the more humid climate periods. Water and carbon storage as well as maintenance of the specific biodiversity are the key ecosystem natural functions of peatlands in the steppe and forest steppe. The performance of those functions has strong implications for people wellness and livelihood. Anyhow, peatlands are usually overlooked and poorly represented in the systems of natural protected areas. Land management plans, mitigation and restoration measures for ecosystems under use do not usually include special measures for peatlands. Peatlands'use depends on the traditional practices. Peat extraction is rather limited in subhumid regions but still act as one of the threats to peatlands. The most of peatlands are used as pastures and grasslands. In densely populated areas large part of peatlands are transformed to the arable lands. In many cases peatlands of piedmonts and highlands are affected by industrial developments: road construction, mining of subsoil resources (gold, etc.). Until now, the most of peatlands of steppe and forest steppe region are irreversibly lost, what also effects water regime, lands productivity, biodiversity status. To prevent further dramatic changes the ecological restoration approach should be introduced in the subhumid regions. The feasibility study to assess the potential for introducing ecological restoration techniques for peatlands in the arid and semi-arid conditions had been undertaken in steppe and forest

  3. Dynamic contents of energy and organic nutrient in steppe growths of the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve

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    Pavel Veselý

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the dynamics in the content of organic nutrients, ash and energy in dry matter of growths within the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve (NPR, and to document their initial nutritive value before the intended grazing. Plant samples in 1995 and 1996 during the growing season in 14-days intervals from the area of 3 × 1 m2. Amounts of dry matter, fibre, nitrogen substances, fat and ashes were determined in growths according to the ANONYM (2001. Nitrogen-free extract substances (BNLV were determined by final calculating; BE, ME, NEL, NEV, PDIN and PDIE were calculated using the regression equations (VESELÝ and ZEMAN, 1995, 1997. Combining ratio (SP was calculated according to the relation: SP = PDIN (g/NEL (MJ. The dynamics of the contents of dry matter, organic nutrients, ashes and energy were assessed in the growth during the vegetation period and the dynamics was compared with standardized requirements of sheep (no pregnant ewe. Regression and correlation relations for nutrition value of the growths during vegetation period were calculated by use of mathematical-statistical analysis. Only statistically significantly (P<0.05 different parameters form the zero are presented in the paper. The content of dry matter in the growths culminated in summer months (places D8, E13, B17 and it was accompanied by depression in autumn months. After the highest content of crude protein, PDIN and PDIE recorded in spring months summer depression (August followed, this depression was partly balanced by autumn growth of vegetation. The content of ash in steppe growths increased during evaluated period. Similar tendency was registered for fat. Also the contents of fibre and BNLV linearly increased. The contents of nitrogen nutrients and energy corresponded with standardized requirements for sheep during whole vegetation period. Conversely the content of fibre highly exceeded the requirement except in spring

  4. Evaluation of the fodder stocks for the Przewalski horse Equus ferus przewalskii on the «Pre-Ural steppe» plot of the Orenburg State Nature Reserve

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    Tatjana L. Zharkikh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 the Federal Government Funded Institution «Orenburg Reserves» started the Programme of Establishing of a Semi-Free Population of the Przewalski Horse at the Orenburg Reserve on the territory of the steppe area «Pre-Ural Steppe». In 2014–2015 a pilot research was carried out to select the location for construction of the Centre of the re-introduction of the Przewalski horse. To evaluate the fodder stocks in the selected area we developed criteria for evaluating the vegetation condition under the influence of grazing. The results have shown that within the boundaries of the «Pre-Ural Steppe» plot it is most rational to place the Centre of the re-introduction of the Przewalski horse at the natural landmark Kursay. In 2015, the fodder stocks here ranged from 14 dt/ha (decitonne per hectare in April to 30 dt/ha in September. Moreover, the grass cover vegetation here mostly consisted of species, well-grazed by Przewalski horse, particularly grasses, a significant number of legumes and well-grazed forbs. In the future, this area requires constant monitoring of the vegetation condition under the influence of the Przewalski horse grazing, with the following evaluation criteria: 1 the overall productivity of the plant mass; 2 the combination of well-grazed and ungrazed plant species in dynamics.

  5. Sarmatian Monuments in the Forest-Steppe Interfluve Area Between the Don and the Volga Rivers (Zoning Experience

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    Berestnev Roman Sergeevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the zoning of Sarmatian antiquities in the forest-steppe interfluve area between the Don and the Volga rivers. On the basis of the analysis, the authors allocate four areas of burial monuments in the Northern periphery of the Asian Sarmatia (the river in Voronezh, the Middle Don, the Upper Don, the area between the Khoper and the Volga rivers. The stages of the forest-steppe area development by the Sarmatians in the Don River, the Khoper river and the right bank of the Volga river were also studied. The first stage is characterized by the general description of Sarmatian monuments located in the forest-steppe area between the Volga and the Khoper. The authors carry out the detailed review of the distinctive features of the funeral rites and some peculiar details: stratigraphy, structures beneath barrows, forms of burial pits, postures of the deceased, orientation, use of fire, imported and domestic utensils, weapons and ornaments. Archaeological materials are compared with the data of ancient sources (Claudius Ptolemy. The result of the study consists in the comparative analysis of the binding of specific ethnic groups in the allocated areas. The authors attribute the Sarmatians on the Voronezh river with the Gippofagi ancient authors; the Aseyes and the Sakata – with the area of monuments in the forest between the Volga and the Khoper.

  6. Soil macrofauna (invertebrates of Kazakhstanian Stipa lessingiana dry steppe

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    Bragina Tatyana М.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stipa lessingiana steppes used to be prevalent on the dry Trans-Ural denudation plains, particularly, on the Sub-Ural and the Turgay Plateau. But, most of them have been lost because they were plowed up during the Virgin Land campaign in the second part of 20th century. This paper presents a detailed study of the faunistic composition and the structure of soil-dwelling invertebrate communities (macrofauna of a temperate-dry bunch feather grass steppe in the Turgai Plateau (Northern-Turgai physical-geographical province of steppe Kazakhstan, Kostanay Oblast. The study site is located in the territory of the Naurzum State Nature Reserve, a part of the UNESCO World Heritage site “Saryarka Steppe and Lakes of Northern Kazakhstan”, where remnants of Virgin S. lessingiana steppes have been preserved to the present day. This region is the driest and most continental in climate of all the dry steppes of Kazakhstan. The total abundance and biomass of soil invertebrate communities in the investigated site were lower than in the northern and western steppe areas. Soil invertebrates are among the major components that determine the functioning of terrestrial natural ecosystems.

  7. Myxomycete diversity of the Patagonian Steppe and bordering areas in Argentina

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    Lado, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity surveys for myxomycetes (Amoebozoa were carried out in three consecutive years (2009 to 2011 in the cold arid Patagonian Steppe, Argentina. The surveys, the first to cover such an extensive area in South America, form part of the Myxotropic project funded by the Spanish Government. Specimens were collected in 174 localities in four different provinces (Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut and Santa Cruz, between 36° and 52° S latitudes. The most common types of substrate investigated were the dominant shrubs and grasses of the Patagonian steppe, and the Nothofagus forests, characteristic of the transition areas, but other plants such as small cacti and cushion plants were also included in the survey. A total of 133 different species and 5 varieties of myxomycetes representing 31 genera were identified in the 1134 specimens collected either in the field, or from moist chamber cultures prepared with samples of plant material obtained from the same collecting sites. The results include one species new to science, Perichaena nigra, and 17 species and two varieties that were previously unknown for either the Neotropics or South America, Badhamia armillata, Dianema mongolicum, Didymium annulisporum, D. leptotrychum, D. orthonemata, D. sturgisii, Echinostelium coelocephalum, Licea deplanata, L. nannengae, Macbrideola argentea, M. oblonga, Oligonema aurantium, Perichaena luteola, P. madagascariensis, Physarum luteolum, Protophysarum phloiogenum, Trichia contorta var. attenuata, T. contorta var. iowensis, T. erecta. An additional 19 species are new records for Argentina. These additions make Argentina the country in South America, at present, with the greatest number of myxomycetes catalogued having more than 50% of the species cited from the whole Neotropics. Diversity and biogeographic distribution of these organisms are discussed, and taxonomic comments on rare or unusual species are included and illustrated with photographs by LM and SEM. The

  8. Predicting foundation bunchgrass species abundances: Model-assisted decision-making in protected-area sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Sheley, Roger L.; Smith, Brenda S.; Hoh, Shirley; Esposito, Daniel M.; Mata-Gonzalez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Foundation species are structurally dominant members of ecological communities that can stabilize ecological processes and influence resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasion. Being common, they are often overlooked for conservation but are increasingly threatened from land use change, biological invasions, and over-exploitation. The pattern of foundation species abundances over space and time may be used to guide decision-making, particularly in protected areas for which they are iconic. We used ordinal logistic regression to identify the important environmental influences on the abundance patterns of bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), Thurber's needlegrass (Achnatherum thurberianum), and Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda) in protected-area sagebrush steppe. We then predicted bunchgrass abundances along gradients of topography, disturbance, and invasive annual grass abundance. We used model predictions to prioritize the landscape for implementation of a management and restoration decision-support tool. Models were fit to categorical estimates of grass cover obtained from an extensive ground-based monitoring dataset. We found that remnant stands of abundant wheatgrass and bluegrass were associated with steep north-facing slopes in higher and more remote portions of the landscape outside of recently burned areas where invasive annual grasses were less abundant. These areas represented only 25% of the landscape and were prioritized for protection efforts. Needlegrass was associated with south-facing slopes, but in low abundance and in association with invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Abundances of all three species were strongly negatively correlated with occurrence of another invasive annual grass, medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae). The rarity of priority bunchgrass stands underscored the extent of degradation and the need for prioritization. We found no evidence that insularity reduced invasibility; annual grass invasion represents

  9. The Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Steppe Fires in Lake Elton’s Area Based on RSD

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    Shinkarenko Stanislav Sergeevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the satellite imagery for the period of 1985-2014 in order to identify the causes of wildfires in Lake Elton’s surroundings. It was found that in the early 21st century fires have the greatest impact on the landscape, which is caused by the decrease in the number of livestock grazing and reduced steppe loads in the late 1990s. The map of the fire frequency in the researched area, and t he map of areas recovering from fires in different years were developed on the basis of remote sensing data (RSD. The investigation of Landsat space imagery found that 54 % of the territory since 2004 has been subject to a prairie fire at least once. The maximum frequency of occurrence is marked for the southern area of Buluhta-Lake where eight fires were registered for the last decad. Most fires are caused by human factors: deliberate or spontaneous arson, military trials. The factors limiting the fires are: degraded pastures, roads, landforms and the elements of the hydrological network. The resulting materials allow to effectively organize further ground survey of these areas for a complete description and assessment of revegetation and their relation to the duration of pyrogenic successions.

  10. Thermophilous fringe communities as an indicator of vegetation changes: a case study of the “Murawy Dobromierskie” steppe reserve (Poland

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    Szygendowski Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, changes of the non-forest xerothermic vegetation of the “Murawy Dobromierskie” steppe reserve which occurred in the period 1993-2012 are examined. The material comprises 50 relevés, of which 43 date from 2012 and the other 7 - from 1993. Reléves were arranged in 5 analytic tables. A synoptic table was also compiled, and for each syntaxonomical species group distinguished, values of the cover coefficient (C, the collective group share index (G, and the systematic group value (D were estimated and compared. On the basis of the obtained results, a significant decline in abundancy and/or constancy was observed within the following groups: Ch. Artemisietea vulgaris, Ch. Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati, Ch. Festuco-Brometea, Ch. Geranion sanguinei, Ch. Koelerio-Corynephoretea, and Ch. Origanetalia and Trifolio-Geranietea sanguinei, whereas for the taxa of the Rhamno-Prunetea, a notable increase in the share of the reserve vegetation was recorded. A sizeable expansion of the moss layer was also observed in this period. The results are discussed with special regard to differences in the methodical background of both field studies.

  11. Response of carbon dioxide exchange to grazing intensity over typical steppes in a semi-arid area of Inner Mongolia

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    Wang, Lei; Liu, Huizhi; Bernhofer, Christian

    2017-05-01

    The eddy covariance technique was used to measure the CO2 flux over four differently grazed Leymus chinensis steppe ecosystems (ungrazed since 1979 (UG79), winter grazed (WG), continuously grazed (CG), and heavily grazed (HG) sites) during four growing seasons (May to September) from 2005 to 2008, to investigate the response of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over grassland ecosystems to meteorological factors and grazing intensity. At UG79, the optimal air temperature for the half-hourly NEE occurred between 17 and 20 °C, which was relatively low for semi-arid grasslands. The saturated NEE (NEEsat) and temperature sensitivity coefficient ( Q 10) of ecosystem respiration (RE) exhibited clear seasonal and interannual variations, which increased with canopy development and the soil water content (SWC, at 5 cm). The total NEE values for the growing seasons from 2005 to 2008 were -32.0, -41.5, -66.1, and -89.8 g C m-2, respectively. Both the amounts and distribution of precipitation during the growing season affected the NEE. The effects of grazing on the CO2 flux increased with the grazing intensity. During the peak growth stage, heavy grazing and winter grazing decreased NEEsat and gross primary production (45 % for HG and 34 % for WG) due to leaf area removal. Both RE and Q 10 were clearly reduced by heavy grazing. Heavy grazing changed the ecosystem from a CO2 sink into a CO2 source, and winter grazing reduced the total CO2 uptake by 79 %. In the early growing season, there was no difference in the NEE between CG and UG79. In addition to the grazing intensity, the effects of grazing on the CO2 flux also varied with the vegetation growth stages and SWC.

  12. Spatial-temporal variability of soil CO2 emissions within urban areas in forest-steppe zone of Central Russia

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    Sarzhanov, Dmitrii; Vasenev, Viacheslav; Sotnikova, Julia; Tembo, Allan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    Global climate change is of the most important environmental problems. It is widely assumed that increasing concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) is one of the main reasons of global warming. Carbon dioxide (CO2) plays a key role in climate change because of considerable natural and anthropogenic fluxes. In comparison to all the other GHG CO2 makes the most considerable contribution to global warming (more than 60%). Land-use change and following alteration of carbon cycle is one the main reasons of global warming. Land use and management is the key factor distinguishing carbon stocks and fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems. Urbanization is one the most rapid current land-use change trends. Urbanization results in fundamental transformations in matter and energy fluxes, vegetation and soil cover. Urban soil is the key element in urban ecosystems. They are principally different from natural ones in respect of physical, chemical and biological features and fluxes. Urban soils can play a considerable role in carbon budget. Carbon stocks of urban soil can be considerable, although soil respiration is also high because of intensive mineralization of turf-sand substrates, used for urban soils' construction. Urbanization effect on soil carbon stocks and fluxes varies between bioclimatic zones. Central Chernozemic region in general and Kursk city in particular provide a promising study, because natural regional soil cover represented by grey forest soils and chernozems. Relative carbon stocks in chernozems and grey forest soils are among the highest in the world, although soil respiration in these soils is also very intensive. The current study aims to study the main factors behind spatial and temporal variability of CO2 emission from urban soil in forest-steppe conditions of Central Chernozemic region. We monitored CO2 fluxes on the three different functional zones in Kursk city: recreational, residential and industrial (15 replicas per each zone). Monitoring plots were

  13. The Importance of Preservation of Autochthonous Biotope of Pannonian Plane in the Area of Special Nature Reserve “Pašnjaci Velike Droplje“ for Education and Ecotourism Development

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    Milana Pasic

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past the region of Vojvodina was dominated by vast steppes, saline areas, marshes and flooded terrains. Wet terrains were converted into steppes during the Holocene climate changes, but the land under cultivation is gradually taking their place, too. Autochthonous biotope is preserved in some regions of Vojvodina. These regions are under state protection. Special nature reserve “Pašnjaci velike droplje“consists of saline areas and vast steppes and it is the only habitat of Great Bustard in Serbia. Reserve is located in north Banat. Development of ecotourism is based upon endangered ornithology species, heterogeneous fauna as well as upon up the educational purpose of the reserve. There are also possibilities for organizing of photo safaris and nature schools in the reserve. In order to protect autochthonous biotope, legal regulations on protection should be obeyed, fields should be revitalized i.e. they should be transformed into former state of natural mosaic of vast steppes and saline areas.

  14. Aquatic Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, Dr. Michael J. [Catawba College

    2011-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of the natural area value of eight Aquatic Natural Areas (ANAs) and seven Aquatic Reference Areas (ARAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Anderson and Roane Counties in east Tennessee. It follows a previous study in 2009 that analyzed and evaluated terrestrial natural areas on the Reservation. The purpose of both studies was to evaluate and rank those specially designated areas on the Reservation that contain sensitive species, special habitats, and natural area value. Natural areas receive special protections through established statutes, regulations, and policies. The ORR contains 33,542 acres (13,574 ha) administered by the Department of Energy. The surface waters of the Reservation range from 1st-order to 5th-order streams, but the majority of the streams recognized as ANAs and ARAs are 1st- and 2nd-order streams. East Fork Poplar Creek is a 4th-order stream and the largest watershed that drains Reservation lands. All the waters of the Reservation eventually reach the Clinch River on the southern and western boundaries of the ORR. All available information was collected, synthesized, and evaluated. Field observations were made to support and supplement the available information. Geographic information system mapping techniques were used to develop several quantitative attributes about the study areas. Narrative descriptions of each ANA and ARA and tables of numerical data were prepared. Criteria for assessment and evaluation were developed, and eight categories of factors were devised to produce a ranking system. The evaluation factors used in the ranking system were: (A) size of area, (B) percentage of watershed protected, (C) taxa present with protected status, (D) overall biotic diversity, (E) stream features, (F) water quality and use support ratings, (G) disturbance regime, and (H) other factors. Each factor was evaluated on a 5-point ranking scale (0-4), and each area received a composite score, where 32 was the

  15. Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, Micahel J [self

    2009-11-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Oak Ridge Reservation, encompassing 33,639 acres in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of East Tennessee, has long been known for its unfragmented forests and high biodiversity. Many areas on the Reservation have been recognized as important natural areas, but no comprehensive treatment has been performed to evaluate the relative significance and importance of these areas compared to each other. The present study was conducted to develop a set of guidelines for evaluating the natural value of specific areas, to evaluate all the terrestrial areas that are currently delineated, and to rank all areas according to their relative biodiversity importance. All available data, reports and site-specific information relevant to Reservation lands, including Tennessee Division of Natural Areas database information, were evaluated and field work was conducted. Methodologies and criteria for assessment and evaluation of areas were developed; categories of criteria were devised; and a ranking system for evaluation of natural areas was produced. There were 70 areas evaluated during the study. The system is flexible, dynamic and easily revised to reflect updated and new information and interpretations. Eight categories of evaluation factors were established and used to characterize each site. These were the following: size of area, number or status taxa present, number of Endangered and Threatened taxa present, rarity of the Endangered and Threatened taxa on the Reservation, community diversity, site integrity and quality, disturbance and threat levels, and other significant features and factors. Each category generally consisted of a 5-point ranking scale from 0-4, allowing for a possible composite score of 32, with higher ranked, more important, sites attaining higher scores. Highly ranked sites are representative of regional natural diversity; contain outstanding natural features, communities or geology and/or very rare taxa or other elements; are

  16. 25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16... area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business or other activity (except boating concessions...-fourths of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam, Arizona. ...

  17. Steppe Eagle in the Karaganda Region, Kazakhstan

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    Igor V. Karyakin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Between June 22 and July 18, 2017, fieldworks were carried out to study the population structure and demographic characteristics of the Steppe Eagle breeding groups (Aquila nipalensis in the central part of the Karaganda region of Kazakhstan. In the course of the work 808 birds we found, 280 Steppe Eagle breeding territories were localized. Within 10 registration areas 277 Steppe Eagle breeding territories (96.18 % were examined, including 70 successful nests with 102 nestlings. The occupation of breeding territories was 87.73 %, while the percentage of active nests in the occupied breeding territories was 69.14 %. Successful were 42.26 % of nests from the number of active nests and 25.63 % from the number of identified breeding territories. The number of nestlings in broods ranged from 1 to 3, averaging (n=71 1.45±0.56 nestlings per successful nest and (n=168 0.61±0.80 nestlings per occupied nest. With a very high percentage of nests with unsuccessful breeding (54.46 % of the number of active ones, high percentage of nests with dead clutch was recorded – 34.55 % of the number of nests with unsuccessful breeding. Distribution density of Steppe Eagle active nests averaged 7.67/100 km2, varying in different areas from 4.11 to 12.90/100 km2. The distribution density of Steppe Eagle successful nests on the areas varied from 0 to 4.81/100 km2 averaged 3.24/100 km2. For the area of habitats suitable for breeding across the Karaganda region (142,549.9 km2, the abundance of the Steppe Eagle in nesting was 4,794–5,814, at average 5,275 pairs and 2,183–2,647, at average 2,402 successful pairs.

  18. Are Species Coexistence Areas a Good Option for Conservation Management? Applications from Fine Scale Modelling in Two Steppe Birds

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    Tarjuelo, Rocío; Morales, Manuel B.; Traba, Juan; Delgado, M. Paula

    2014-01-01

    Biotic interactions and land uses have been proposed as factors that determine the distribution of the species at local scale. The presence of heterospecifics may modify the habitat selection pattern of the individuals and this may have important implications for the design of effective conservation strategies. However, conservation proposals are often focused on a single flagship or umbrella species taken as representative of an entire assemblage requirements. Our aim is to identify and evaluate the role of coexistence areas at local scale as conservation tools, by using distribution data of two endangered birds, the Little Bustard and the Great Bustard. Presence-only based suitability models for each species were built with MaxEnt using variables of substrate type and topography. Probability maps of habitat suitability for each species were combined to generate a map in which coexistence and exclusive use areas were delimitated. Probabilities of suitable habitat for each species inside coexistence and exclusive areas were compared. As expected, habitat requirements of Little and Great Bustards differed. Coexistence areas presented lower probabilities of habitat suitability than exclusive use ones. We conclude that differences in species' habitat preferences can hinder the efficiency of protected areas with multi-species conservation purposes. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the role of biotic interactions when designing conservation measurements. PMID:24498210

  19. Book Review: Ecology of the Shortgrass Steppe

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    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the shortgrass steppe, the warmest, driest, and least productive region of the North American central grasslands. Encompassing an area from the Colorado-Wyoming border on the north to western Texas and southeastern New Mexico on the south; and from the ...

  20. DEER BELIEF AND DEER SACRIFICE AROUND STEPPE CULTURE

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    Aslı KAHRAMAN ÇINAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Turkish people have spreaded on a large area historically. They have left a mark on all the places they reach. The history of Turks begun in Central Asian Steppes. In reaction to the steppe culture, the human communities of Turks are hunter-nomad communities. The hunter-nomad comminuties make a living from stockfarming and apiculture. The deer is one of the essential animals for t he hunter-nomad communities in the daily life. In the steppe, the deer is seen in all area of social life. Further, the deer motives are commonly used in political, military, financial, the most religious areas. The hunter-nomad comminuties benefit by the meat, milk, leather, horns, nails, etc of the deer. In this study, we dwell on the deer with regard to its intended purposes and usage areas according to steppe culture. The references of this study are references are inscriptions, mythologic stories and archeological datas.

  1. Simultaneously Optimizing Storage Location Assignment at Forward Area and Reserve Area - a Decomposition Based Heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Søren; Christiansen, Christian Holk

    versa. This, however, is often neglected in the existing literature. We solve the TSLAP simultaneously for the reserve area and the forward area. Based on randomly generated test instances we show that the solutions of TSLAP compare favorably to solutions found by other algorithms proposed...

  2. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Steven T. Knick; Richard F. Miller; Jeffrey L. Beck; Paul S. Doescher; Eugene W. Schupp; Bruce A. Roundy; Mark Brunson; James D. McIver

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus...

  3. Highball: A high speed, reserved-access, wide area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, David L.; Boncelet, Charles G.; Elias, John G.; Schragger, Paul A.; Jackson, Alden W.

    1990-01-01

    A network architecture called Highball and a preliminary design for a prototype, wide-area data network designed to operate at speeds of 1 Gbps and beyond are described. It is intended for applications requiring high speed burst transmissions where some latency between requesting a transmission and granting the request can be anticipated and tolerated. Examples include real-time video and disk-disk transfers, national filestore access, remote sensing, and similar applications. The network nodes include an intelligent crossbar switch, but have no buffering capabilities; thus, data must be queued at the end nodes. There are no restrictions on the network topology, link speeds, or end-end protocols. The end system, nodes, and links can operate at any speed up to the limits imposed by the physical facilities. An overview of an initial design approach is presented and is intended as a benchmark upon which a detailed design can be developed. It describes the network architecture and proposed access protocols, as well as functional descriptions of the hardware and software components that could be used in a prototype implementation. It concludes with a discussion of additional issues to be resolved in continuing stages of this project.

  4. The Effects of Grazing Systems on Plant Communities in Steppe Lands—A Case Study from Mongolia’s Pastoralists and Inner Mongolian Settlement Areas

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    Yintai Na

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of different grazing systems in two neighboring regions with similar biotic and abiotic factors, Nalan Soum in Mongolia and Naren Soum in Inner Mongolia, China. We employed the quadrat sampling method and remote sensing to set three perpendicular lines that dissect the boundary between the two countries, and seven lines parallel to the boundary to form a rectangular shape as a means to compare plant community response to different grazing systems under natural conditions. NDVI data is included in discussing the causes of Mongolian grassland degradation. The results of quadrat sampling and NDVI analysis show that rotational grazing has greater values for the quadrat’s average height, total coverage, total individual density, and total aboveground biomass (p < 0.05, but has lower species richness than continuous grazing (p > 0.05. The NVDI values of rotational grazing in 1989, 2005, 2011, and 2016 were higher those of continuous grazing, and significant difference was shown in 2011 and 2016; the NDVI value of continuous grazing in 1993 was higher than that of rotational grazing, but did not show a significant difference. This indicates that different grazing approaches affect steppe ecological systems in different ways, despite their similar biotic and abiotic factors, as well as grazing intensity. Nonetheless, we find rotational grazing to be better for ecosystem vitality than continuous grazing, to some degree.

  5. Sustainable Development of the Algerian Steppe | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sustainable Development of the Algerian Steppe. The Algerian steppe covers more than 30 million ha of land and constitutes a buffer zone between the Sahara Desert and the green belt in the North. The diversity and relative abundance of fodder plants has allowed the steppe to provide livelihoods for 15% of the ...

  6. Current ecosystem processes in steppe near Lake Baikal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanteeva, Julia

    2015-04-01

    The steppes and forest steppes complexes of Priol'khonie at the Lake Baikal (southern Siberia, Russia) were studied in this research. Recreational activity has a significant impact on the Priol'khonie region. During soviet time this area was actively used for agriculture. Nowadays, this territory is the part of Pribaikalskyi National Park and special protection is needed. As the landscapes satisfy different human demands there are many land-management conflicts. The specific climate and soil conditions and human activity lead to erosion processes on study area. Sediment loads are transferred into the Lake Baikal and cause water pollution. Consequently, vegetation cover and phytomass play an important role for regulating hydrological processes in the ecosystems. The process of phytomass formation and its proactive role playing on sedimentation and mitigate silt detaching by rill and inter-rill erosion are considered in the research as important indicators of the ecosystem functions for steppe landscapes. These indicators were studied for the different land cover types identified on the area because the study area has a large variety of steppe and forest steppe complexes, differing in the form of relief, soil types, vegetation species composition and degree of land degradation. The fieldwork was conducted in the study area in the July and August of 2013. Thirty-two experimental sites (10 x 10 m) which characterized different types of ecosystem were established. The level of landscape degradation was estimated. The method of clipping was used for the valuation of above-ground herbaceous phytomass. The phytomass of tree stands was calculated using the volume-conversion rates for forest-steppe complexes. For the quantification of transferred silt by inter-rill erosion in different conditions (vegetation, slope, soil type, anthropogenic load) a portable rainfall simulator was created with taking into account the characteristics of the study area. The aboveground

  7. Joint energy and reserve dispatch in a multi-area competitive market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... multi-product, multi-area market dispatch problem with physical and operational constraints. The proposed approach effectively handles the complex constraints like reserve requirements, zonal power balance constraints, area spinning reserve constraints, tie-line constraints and reserve and capacity coupling constraints.

  8. The woodlouse (Isopoda: Oniscidea fauna of steppe habitats in the Kostanay region of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bragina Tatyana М.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents first materials on the fauna and distribution of the terrestrial isopods - woodlice (Oniscidea inhabiting the central and southern parts of Kostanay Region (Kazakhstan, Northern and Southern Turgai, located in the steppe zone. Most of the specimens of woodlice were collected in the territory of the National Nature Reserve “Altyn Dala”, a new protected area (established in 2012 and in the area of the Naurzum National Nature Reserve (established in 1931, World Heritage Site of UNESCO, on the Stipa lessingiana dry steppe. The list of woodlice includes six species (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea, belonging to five genera and three families in the study area. Four species are recorded for the first time in Kazakhstan - Desertoniscus subterraneus Verhoeff, 1930, Parcylisticus dentifrons (Budde-Lund 1885, Porcellio scaber Latreille, 1804, and Protracheoniscus major (Dollfus 1903. Distribution characteristics are provided for all of those species recorded in the study area. For the territory of Kazakhstan, according to a literature data, currently 16 species of terrestrial isopods have been recorded.

  9. Acoustic surveys of Hawaiian Hoary Bats in Kahikinui Forest Reserve and Nakula Natural Area Reserve on the Island of Maui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Christopher M.; Pinzari, Corinna A.; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Kahikinui Forest Reserve and the adjoining Nakula Natural Area Reserve (KFR-NNAR) was established in 2011 as a conservation area on the leeward slope of Haleakalā Volcano on the island of Maui to protect unique natural features and endangered species including the Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus. We recorded bat vocalizations from July 2012 to November 2014 using automated echolocation detectors at 14 point locations in the KFRNNAR. Our study area included remnants of recovering mesic montane forest with interspersed grasses (1,250‒1,850 m elevation, hereafter called “forest”) and xeric subalpine shrubland plant communities (1,860‒2,800 m, hereafter called “shrubland”). Monthly detections of Hawaiian hoary bats, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, within the KFR-NNAR identified areas of high and low detection probability as well as foraging activity. Sixty per cent of all detector-nights had confirmed bat vocalizations and included detections in every month of the study. Monthly detection probability values were highest from July to November 2012; these values were significantly greater than values measured in any month thereafter. Pooled values of detection probabilities, mean pulses/night, percentage of nights with feeding activity, and acoustic detections all were greater in the recovering forest zone than corresponding values from the shrublands. Our data provide baseline levels of hoary bat echolocation activity that may be compared with future studies in the KFR-NNAR relative to success criteria for Hawaiian hoary bat habitat restoration.

  10. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat - Part 3: Site level restoration decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Richard F. Miller; Jeffrey L. Beck; Paul S. Doescher; Bruce A. Roundy; Eugene W. Schupp; Steven T. Knick; Mark Brunson; James D. McIver

    2017-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently (2016) occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus...

  11. Joint energy and reserve dispatch in a multi-area competitive market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Joint energy and reserve dispatch (JERD), Multi-area competitive electricity market, Reserve cost, Energy cost, Total market cost, Time-varying Differential ... In the competitive electricity market, one of the major concerns of the system operator is to achieve the economic efficiency while maintaining the system ...

  12. Determining reserve requirements in DK1 area of Nord Pool using a probabilistic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez Gallego, Javier; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    area of Nord Pool, where reserves are scheduled prior to the closure of the day-ahead market. The risk of the solution under the resulting reserve schedule is controlled by two measures: the LOLP (Loss-of-Load Probability) and the CVaR (Conditional Value at Risk). Results show that during the case...

  13. New developments in Orinoco oil belt projects reflect a positive effect on the areas reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroel, T. [PDVSA, La Campina, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    The Orinoco oil belt is located in the eastern Venezuela basin, parallel to the Orinoco River. The area is divided into four zones which include four projects that convert crude oil to synthetic crudes. Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) believes that the extra heavy oil reserve scenario of this area is extremely promising. This paper discussed several positive effects that recent developments have had on the reserve numbers within the area. Reserve numbers of the five joint venture projects currently operating in the area were presented. The paper discussed the location of the Orinoco oil belt and presented the general geology of the region. Basic reservoir properties and ongoing projects in the Orinoco heavy oil belt were described. Production methods for extra heavy oils were also explained. It was concluded that huge investment opportunities existed in the area, especially for those interested in participating in mixed enterprises with the Venezuelan government. 6 refs., 16 figs.

  14. Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddack, M.J.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Population structure (density and size distribution) of 10 species of epibenthic kelp forest fishes was compared between three marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas in central California. We also contrasted substrate relief, algal turf cover, and kelp population density among these areas. Densities of fishes were 12-35% greater within the reserves, but this difference was not statistically) significant. Habitat features explained only 4% of the variation in fish density and did not vary consistently between reserves and nonreserves. The average length of rockfish (genus Sebastes) was significantly greater in two of the three reserve sites, as was the proportion of larger fish. Population density and size differences combined to produce substantially greater biomass and, therefore, greater reproductive potential per unit of area within the reserves. The magnitude of these effects seems to be influenced by the reserve's age. Our findings demonstrate that current levels of fishing pressure influence kelp forest rockfish populations and suggest that this effect is widespread in central California. Existing marine reserves in central California kelp forests may help sustain exploited populations both through adult emigration and larval pool augmentation. The magnitude of these effects remains uncertain, however, because the spatial scale of both larval and adult dispersal relative to the size of existing reserves is unknown.

  15. Alkalization of irrigated soils suitable for orchard growing in steppe Crimea and prospects for their use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, O. E.

    2016-10-01

    Data of large-scale soil surveys performed by the Ukrgiprosad Institute (Ukrainian Institute for Orchard Growing) in 1997-2013 on irrigated soils of steppe Crimea reserved for orchards on the area of about 3000 ha are discussed. It is shown that all the studied soils are subjected to alkalization with the presence of soda and with an increase in concentrations of sodium and magnesium bicarbonates up to the values toxic for fruit crops. The concentrations and occurrence frequencies of alkaline salts depend on the soil type, the presence of solonetzic features, the amount of carbonates, the particular depth in the soil profile, the subsoiling, and other factors. Within the studied area, some soils are unsuitable or partly suitable for orchard growing. To improve the soil conditions for orchard growing in the areas subjected to alkalization, alkaline salts should be neutralized to nontoxic level, and the soil alkalinity should be reduced using chemical reclamation methods.

  16. Trends and patterns of anthropogenic evolution of chernozems in lands of agricultural afforestation within the territory of forest-steppe in the center of eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anthropogenic evolution of chernozems as a result of plowing and the creation of forest shelterbelts on three meadow-steppe areas of forest-steppe were studied. It was established, that in all areas there are similar patterns, caused by the transformation of virgin soils into arable soils and vi...

  17. Management of protected areas and objects of natural reserve fund under socio-ecological economic convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Bogoslavska, Alina; Semenchuk, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the problems of the current state of protected areas and objects of natural reserve fund. The author substantiates the way of development process improvement of the sustainable development of the NRF through the development of economics and “green” economic growth management, which integrates a model of sustainable development in the long-term strategy.

  18. Relation between modern pollen rain, vegetation and climate in northern China: Implications for quantitative vegetation reconstruction in a steppe environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yawen; Li, Yuecong; Bunting, M Jane; Li, Bing; Li, Zetao; Wang, Junting

    2017-05-15

    Vegetation reconstructions from palaeoecological records depend on adequate understanding of relationships between modern pollen, vegetation and climate. A key parameter for quantitative vegetation reconstructions is the Relative Pollen Productivity (RPP). Differences in both environmental and methodological factors are known to alter the RPP estimated significantly, making it difficult to determine whether the underlying pollen productivity does actually vary, and if so, why. In this paper, we present the results of a replication study for the Bashang steppe region, a typical steppe area in northern China, carried out in 2013 and 2014. In each year, 30 surface samples were collected for pollen analysis, with accompanying vegetation survey using the "Crackles Bequest Project" methodology. Sampling designs differed slightly between the two years: in 2013, sites were located completely randomly, whilst in 2014 sampling locations were constrained to be within a few km of roads. There is a strong inter-annual variability in both the pollen and the vegetation spectra therefore in RPPs, and annual precipitation may be a key influence on these variations. The pollen assemblages in both years are dominated by herbaceous taxa such as Artemisia, Amaranthaceae, Poaceae, Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Fabaceae and Allium. Artemisia and Amaranthaceae pollen are significantly over-represented for their vegetation abundance. Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Fabaceae seem to have under-represented pollen for vegetation with correspondingly lower RPPs. Asteraceae seems to be well-represented, with moderate RPPs and less annual variation. Estimated Relevant Source Area of Pollen (RSAP) ranges from 2000 to 3000m. Different sampling designs have an effect both on RSAP and RPPs and random sample selection may be the best strategy for obtaining robust estimates. Our results have implications for further pollen-vegetation relationship and quantitative vegetation reconstruction research in typical steppe

  19. Entangling the complexity of protected area management: the case of Wolong Biosphere Reserve, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bojie; Wang, Kelin; Lu, Yihe; Liu, Shiliang; Keming, Ma; Chen, Liding; Liu, Guohua

    2004-06-01

    Protected Area (PA) management is a complex issue that requires the consideration of many factors and relationships. A conceptual framework for the analysis of biodiversity change, local human communities, and PA management was put forward, accordingly. Under the framework, we investigated the economic status, livelihood activities, biodiversity use and perceptions of local communities, and the land use history in Wolong Biosphere Reserve, southwestern China through household survey and document review in order to gain a better understanding of the complexity of PA management. According to the land use history, the preservation of agro-biodiversity, and the raising of productivity, ecological rehabilitation and the regulation of the human pressures are indispensable in the management of the reserve. Livelihood activities and the perceptions of local communities were largely determined by the socioeconomic background, which has important implications in solving the conflicts or incompatibilities in the reserve. In Wolong Biosphere Reserve, it is beneficial to support local farmers in solving their socioeconomic problems such as the overabundance of labor force and the lack of livelihood alternatives. Without this, there will be scarcely any effective biodiversity conservation and successful reserve management in the long term.

  20. Geology and ground water of the Red Lake area, Navajo Indian Reservation, Arizona and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, J.P.; McClymonds, N.E.; Harshbarger, John William

    1962-01-01

    The Red Lake area in the Navajo Indian Reservation, Arizona and New Mexico, was studied by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine if 1 mgd (mil- lion gallons per day) of water could be obtained for the requirements of a proposed sawmill. Geologic mapping and stratigraphic studies indicated three favorable areas where ground water may be developed. Test holes were drilled under contract in the areas, and pumping tests indicate that 500,000 gpd (gal- lons per day) is available from alluvium along Tohdildonih Wash near Frog Rock, 100,000 gpd is available from the Shinarump member of the Chinle forma- tion and the De Chelly sandstone near Red Lake, and 800,000 gpd is available from alluvium and cinder beds in lapiUi tuff in Buell Park, an eroded diatreme. The diatreme at Buell Park is about 2% miles in diameter. It was formed by several explosions in which lapilli tuff and cinders were erupted. These materials, together with later basaltic intrusive and extrusive rock, now fill the diatreme. The tuff and cinders are water bearing, 'and they receive re- charge from rainwater and snowmelt moving through overlying alluvium and from storage in the De Chelly sandstone which encloses the east half of the diatreme. The quality of water from all areas is suitable for domestic use. However, special treatment may be necessary to make the water suitable for pulp processing.

  1. Hiking trails and tourism impact assessment in protected area: Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Ge, Xiaodong; Liu, Chunyan

    2005-09-01

    More and more visitors are attracted to protected areas nowadays, which not only bring about economic increase but also seriously adverse impacts on the ecological environment. In protected areas, trails are linkage between visitors and natural ecosystem, so they concentrate most of the adverse impacts caused by visitors. The trampling problems on the trails have been received attentions in the tremendous researches. However, few of them have correlated the environmental impacts to trail spatial patterns. In this project, the trails were selected as assessment objective, the trampling problems trail widening, multiple trail, and root exposure were taken as assessment indicators to assess ecological impacts in the case study area Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, and two spatial index, connectivity and circularity, were taken to indicate the trail network spatial patterns. The research results showed that the appearing frequency of the trampling problems had inverse correlation with the circularity and connectivity of the trail network, while the problem extent had no correlation with the spatial pattern. Comparing with the pristine trails, the artificial maintenance for the trails such as wooden trails and flagstone trails could prohibit vegetation root from exposure effectively. The research finds will be useful for the future trail design and tourism management.

  2. Neophytes In Protected Areas. Case Study: The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiu Paulina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Danube Delta is a relatively young territory, formed about 14,000 years ago. It has quadruple status: Biosphere Reserve, Ramsar site, UNESCO World Heritage site, Natura 2000 site. Water and human activities are the most important factors influencing the flora of this area, including the penetration and spread of alien plants. The main goal of our research in this area was to inventory the alien plants and to identify those species which are invasive and potentially invasive in the natural and semi-natural ecosystems in order to propose measures for their prevention and mitigation. An inventory of these plants, conducted between 2009 and 2012 and based on bibliography and field research, comprises over 160 taxa. About half of them originated from America and less than a quarter of them from Asia. A relatively high number of species have unknown status in the Danube Delta; they were reported only from one or two localities and we did not record them during our extensive field work. In this category we also included some taxa of Xanthium without a very clear taxonomy. The taxa recorded as casual are usually ornamental plants escaped from cultivation; however among them there are some species which are known as invasive in other areas of Romania, as well as in Europe. There are 26 naturalised species, two of which established here over one hundred years ago. 37 invasive species were identified, many of them recorded in natural or seminatural places. In order to prevent and mitigate the spread of plants recognised as invasive, we propose the implementation of some measures such as providing relevant information to local communities and raising awareness about the damages caused by the alien species, and promoting further research on alien plant species in this protected area.

  3. Biodiversity conservation should focus on no-take Marine Reserves: 94% of Marine Protected Areas allow fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark J; Ballantine, Bill

    2015-09-01

    Conservation needs places where nature is left wild; but only a quarter of coastal countries have no-take Marine Reserves. 'Marine Protected Areas' (MPAs) have been used to indicate conservation progress but we found that 94% allow fishing and thus cannot protect all aspects of biodiversity. Biodiversity conservation should focus on Marine Reserves, not MPAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Grazing intensity on vegetation dynamics of a typical steppe in Northeast Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetation features radiating from residential areas in response to livestock grazing were quantified for an arid steppe rangeland in the Keshiketeng Banner, Chifeng Prefecture in northeastern Inner Mongolia in 2004 and 2006. The aim of this study was to estimate grazing impacts on the vegetation dy...

  5. Satellite tracking of a young Steppe Eagle from the United Arab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following recovery and successful rehabilitation, a young Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis was tagged with a 45 g GPS satellite transmitter to track its migration and identify potential wintering and summering areas of the species passing through the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study is part of a larger study on ...

  6. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR.

  7. Local people's perceptions as decision support for protected area management in Wolong Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianying; Chen, Liding; Lu, Yihe; Fu, Bojie

    2006-03-01

    This paper examines local people's knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards Wolong Biosphere Reserve (WBR) and its management policies. Pertinent data were collected through a questionnaire survey and group discussions. This study revealed that local people's perceptions were affected by many factors, including education, gender, residence location, household size and acreage of land owned. Although most respondents had limited knowledge about WBR because of their absence in WBR management, they held a positive attitude towards WBR. An in-depth analysis of their attitudes and perceptions showed that two potential conflicts might affect biodiversity conservation and protected area management. One of them was the imbalance between the limited cropland holding and the oversupply of the labor force, and the other one was the increase in electricity price versus the decrease in economic incentives for the Natural Forest Protection Project. The study also revealed that relocation was considered unacceptable to most respondents. However, those residing far from the main road were willing to relocate more than those near the main road. Based on our studies, some recommendations are given for improvement of WBR management.

  8. 36 CFR 294.2 - Navigation of aircraft within airspace reservation over the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation of aircraft within airspace reservation over the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Superior National Forest, Minnesota... Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Superior National Forest, Minnesota. (a) Description of areas...

  9. The costs of living with elephants in the areas adjacent to Marsabit National Park and Reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, S.M.; Omondi, P.

    2008-01-01

    Crop raiding by elephants is a serious management problem around protected areas in Kenya. This is because of changes in the land use systems in these areas, with crop farming occurring in areas where it did not previously. Crop raiding by elephants was monitored in the area adjacent to Marsabit

  10. Community Structure and Productivity in Western Mongolian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyokazu Kawada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The people of the Mongolian steppe have maintained a sustainable, nomadic lifestyle. However, several ecological processes are threatening their way of life. Ecological changan be detected through the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data. It is therefore, imperative to develop a sustainable rangeland management system aimed at combating desertifi cation. In this study we quantitatively and qualitatively describe several western Mongolian steppe plant communities by examining species composition, plant volume and community structure. Study sites were located in the Uvs and Khovd provinces and had all been affected by livestock grazing. A total of 48 species were found. Stipa krylovii , S . gobica , Cleistogenes songorica , Koeleria cristata and Ajania achilleoides were dominant. There was a signifi cant relationship between biomass and plant volume at all sites. Study sites were classifi ed into four groups using cluster analysis, based on the presence or absence of several species. More than 90% of plant volumes at all groups were perennial grasses and perennial forbs. The ratio of C 3 to C 4 plants at site 3 was reversed in comparison to the other sites. Species highly palatable to livestock were dominant at all sites. To ensure the sustainable use of biological resources in these arid areas, these fi ndings should be taken into account in designing land-use plans.

  11. Establishment of nature reserves in administrative regions of mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziliang Guo

    Full Text Available Nature reserves are widely considered as one available strategy for protecting biodiversity, which is threatened by habitat fragmentation, and wildlife extinction. The Chinese government has established a goal of protecting 15% of its land area by 2015. We quantitated the characteristics and distribution of nature reserves in mainland China and evaluated the expansion process for national nature reserves. National nature reserves occupy 64.15% of the total area of nature reserves. Steppe and meadow ecosystem, ocean and seacoast ecosystem, and wild plant nature reserves represent lower percentages, particularly in national nature reserves, in which they comprised 0.76%, 0.54%, and 0.69%, respectively, of the area. Furthermore, medium and small nature reserves compose 92.32% of all nature reserves. The land area under any legal protection has reached 14.80%, although only 9.78% is strictly protected. However, if 9 super-large national nature reserves, located in Southwest and Northwest China were removed, the percentage of strictly protected area decreases to 2.66% of the land area of China. The areas contained in nature reserves in each province are not proportional to the areas of the provinces, particularly for national nature reserves, with higher protection rates in Southwest and Northwest China than in other regions. Of the 31 provinces, 22 provinces feature strict protection of less than 4% of their areas by national nature reserves; these provinces are mainly located in East, Central, South, and North China. Moreover, the unevenness indexes of the distribution of nature reserves and national nature reserves are 0.39 and 0.58, respectively. The construction of nature reserves has entered a steady development stage after a period of rapid expansion in mainland China. In recent years, the total area of national nature reserves has increased slowly, while the total area of nature reserves has not increased, although the number of nature

  12. Identifying Treatment Effect Heterogeneity in Clinical Trials Using Subpopulations of Events: STEPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Ann A.; Bonetti, Marco; Cole, Bernard F.; Yip, Wai-ki; Gelber, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Investigators conducting randomized clinical trials (RCTs) often explore treatment effect heterogeneity to assess whether treatment efficacy varies according to patient characteristics. Identifying heterogeneity is central to making informed personalized health care decisions. Treatment effect heterogeneity can be investigated using subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot (STEPP), a non-parametric graphical approach that constructs overlapping patient subpopulations with varying values of a characteristic. Procedures for statistical testing using STEPP when the endpoint of interest is survival remain an area of active investigation. Motivating Data A STEPP analysis was used to explore patterns of absolute and relative treatment effects for varying levels of a breast cancer biomarker, Ki-67, in the phase III BIG (Breast International Group) 1-98 RCT, comparing letrozole to tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Absolute treatment effects were measured by differences in 4-year cumulative incidence of breast cancer recurrence, while relative effects were measured by the subdistribution hazard ratio in the presence of competing risks using O − E (observed-minus-expected) methodology, an intuitive non-parametric method. While estimation of hazard ratio values based on O − E methodology has been shown, a similar development for the subdistribution hazard ratio has not. Furthermore, we observed that the STEPP analysis, may not produce results, even with 100 patients within each subpopulation. After further investigation through simulation studies, we observed inflation of the type I error rate of the traditional test statistic and sometimes singular variance-covariance matrix estimates that may lead to results not being produced. This is due to the lack of a sufficient number of events within the subpopulations, which we refer to as instability of a STEPP analysis. Methods We introduce

  13. Groundwater in steppe environments: "El Hito" Lagoon wetland as a case of study (Cuenca; Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Merlín, A.; Martínez-Pérez, S.; Molina-Navarro, E.

    2012-04-01

    El Hito Lagoon wetland, located in the interfluve of the upper basins of the Cigüela and Záncara rivers (Guadiana Basin, central Spain), configures an important element of geo-environmental heritage of Castilla-LaMancha (Natural Reserve), as well as being an area recognized as Ramsar Site and integrated in the Natura 2000 Network. It has an extension around 290 ha in the periods of maximum flooding and it is embedded in an endorheic basin of 42 Km2. The area that includes it has an arid appearance in a landscape dominated by extensive agriculture, being catalogued as "without aquifers" under its unfavorable geo-hydrological substrate. Thereby, the manifestation of the wetland has been attributed to the simple accumulation of precipitation water in the rainy periods. However, studies to date show the contribution of groundwater to the dynamics of this geo-system, showing how the lake basin behaves itself like a diffuse discharge area of groundwater flow to the endorheic in which it is located. This paper shows the most relevant data to understand the functioning of this wetland of great scientific and environmental importance, as it support interesting halophytic plant communities as well as large number of waterflow and steppe birds.

  14. Surface Runoff and Snowmelt Infiltration into the Soil on Plowlands in the Forest-Steppe and Steppe Zones of the East European Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabanov, A. T.; Dolgov, S. V.; Koronkevich, N. I.; Panov, V. I.; Petel'ko, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    Long-term series of observations over the spring water balance elements on fields with hydrologically contrasting agricultural backgrounds―a loose soil after fall moldboard plowing and a plowland compacted by 12-16% compared to the former soil (perennial grasses, winter crops, stubble)―have been analyzed. The values of surface runoff and water infiltration into the soil in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of European Russia have been calculated for the spring (flooding) period and the entire cold season. The hydrological role of fall plowing has been shown, and water balance elements for the current (1981-2016) and preceding (1957-1980) periods have been compared. A significant decrease in runoff and an increase of water reserve in the soil have been revealed on all plowland types. Consequences of changes in the spring water balance on plowland have been analyzed.

  15. Agrogenic degradation of soils in Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpedt, A. A.; Trubnikov, Yu. N.; Zharinova, N. Yu.

    2017-10-01

    Agrogenic degradation of soils in Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe was investigated. Paleocryogenic microtopography of microlows and microhighs in this area predetermined the formation of paragenetic soil series and variegated soil cover. Specific paleogeographic conditions, thin humus horizons and soil profiles, and long-term agricultural use of the land resulted in the formation of soils unstable to degradation processes and subjected to active wind and water erosion. Intensive mechanical soil disturbances during tillage and long-term incorporation of the underlying Late Pleistocene (Sartan) calcareous silty and clay loams into the upper soil horizons during tillage adversely affected the soil properties. We determined the contents of total and labile humus and easily decomposable organic matter and evaluated the degree of soil exhaustion. It was concluded that in the case of ignorance of the norms of land use and soil conservation practices, intense soil degradation would continue leading to complete destruction of the soil cover within large areas.

  16. Current stage of the restoration of Chernozems in rangeland ecosystems of the steppe zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanov, A. M.

    2015-06-01

    The results of two rounds of soil and geobotanic surveys of rangeland ecosystems in the steppe zone are presented. The same sites with southern chernozems (Calcic Chernozems) under steppe plant communities at different stages of pasture degradation were investigated at the end of the 1980s, when they suffered maximum anthropogenic loads, and in 2011-2013, after a long period of relative rest. In the 1980s, degradation of soil physical properties in rangeland ecosystems under the impact of long-term unsustainable management was noted. At the same time, it was found that the major qualitative and quantitative properties of humus in the chernozems were preserved independently from the level of pasture degradation. The following period of moderate grazing pressure had a favorable effect on the soil properties. Owing to the good characteristics of the soil humus, the restoration of the physical properties of chernozems-including their structural state, water permeability, and bulk density-took place in a relatively short period. It is argued that the soil bulk density is a natural regulator of the species composition of steppe vegetation, because true grasses (Poaceae)-typical representatives of the steppe flora-have a fibrous root system requiring the soils with low density values. The improvement of the properties of chernozems is related to the development of secondary ecosystems with a higher portion of grasses in place of damaged rangelands and to the increase in the area of nominal virgin phytocenoses.

  17. Evaluating the Quality of Protected Areas for Species: A Case Study in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Murdoch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Species’ distributions refl ect the quality of landscape conditions, and represent an important component of protected area management. However, distributions are diffi cult to estimate, and consequently, often determined through a combination of limited fi eld data and expert opinion, which may lead to biases. We demonstrate the use of occupancy models to map distributions and estimate landscape quality. We used occupancy models for two species, the red fox and toad-headed agama, to map their distributions in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve located in southeastern Mongolia. We then used occupancy probability as a measure of quality and tested whether differences existed in quality between three areas: 1 inside the reserve, 2 inside the reserve’s core protected area, and 3 outside the reserve, using 30 sample sites in each. Occupancy probability varied from 0.084 to 0.997 for red foxes and 0.022 to 0.949 for agamas in maps. Landscape quality was highest in the core area and lowest outside the reserve for red foxes, and highest outside the reserve and lowest in the core area for agamas. Our results provide visual depictions of distributions across the Ikh Nart landscape and a means of assessing the quality of the Ikh Nart protected area that may inform management activities.

  18. Role of the protected area concept in protecting the world’s largest natural reserve : Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; van Hengel, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Should the entire Antarctic continent and the surrounding islands be recognised as a ‘protected area’ or as a continent where certain areas, just like anywhere else, may be designated as protected areas? To find an answer to this question, this paper first discusses the most important agreements and

  19. A network of the steppe and forest steppe along the Prut and Lower Danube rivers during the 6th millennium BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Reingruber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition from a (predominantly mobile way of life relying on hunting, fishing and gathering to a (predominantly sedentary life-style based on farming and animal husbandry is considered in the western Pontic archaeological tradition almost exclusively from a southern, AegeanAnatolian perspective. Contacts between the steppe and forest steppe of the north-eastern Balkans and the north-western Pontic were seen as linear and unidirectional; ‘cultures’ were defined almost exclusively on the basis of pottery styles. Not only such traditional viewpoints, but also the political conditions of the 20th century further biased prehistoric research. However, the outer Carpathian region should not be treated as a periphery of the inner Carpathian Cris culture, but as a region of multidirectional exchange networks. Moreover, certain traditions are obviously rooted in the Mesolithic of that area.

  20. Areas of rural reservation in Bolivar's South: a proposal of rural territorial reordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Lopez, Luis

    2005-01-01

    The article describes by means of a methodological process and inside an analysis mark that picks up aspects tried from the perspective of agrarian economy and the human geography, the effects of the public politics of the rural reservations in Bolivar's south, as well as its advances and challenges in the territorial reorganization of the territory. In this context, the document evidences the process of the new territorial configurations, in Bolivar's south, result of a social construction exercised by its own rural communities. In a same way the document presents a brief analysis of the agrarian structure of the rural reservations, and it illustrates the new underlying classification, product of the territorial control that develop the illegal armed groups at the moment. The advances, difficulties and challenges of the rural reservations, are the central axis of the present text, since the figure is presents as an interesting project of public politics, not alone of colonization and of agrarian reformation, but of territorial rural ordination, stiller, when in the country it has not been possible to approve an organic law of territorial classification that involves in an integral way the territorial aspects with the agrarian ones, going outside of the conception of the agrarian things of the strictly agricultural thing

  1. Mapping permanent preservation areas and natural forest fragments as subsidy to the registration of legal reserve areas in rural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Paulo Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this work was to identify and quantify forest fragments suitable to be used as private protected land in rural properties located in the São Bartolomeu creek watershed, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodological procedures included: mapping of 78 forest fragments through the visual interpretation of an Ikonos II satellite image; delineation of Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs from a hydrographically conditioned digital elevation model and mapping of 292 rural properties through interviews with owners, with the aid of a printed Ikonos II image. The generated maps were overlapped (crossed, allowing the identification of forest fragments that could be used as private protected land in rural property. The result indicated that, from the total of properties evaluated, only 41 (14.04% have more than 20% of forest cover, and therefore, are in condition to attend the environmental law for private protected land.

  2. Using basal area to estimate aboveground carbon stocks in forests: La Primavera Biosphere's Reserve, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, Arturo; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of woody plants for greenhouse gas mitigation has led to demand for rapid, cost-effective estimation of forest carbon stocks. Bole diameter is readily measured and basal area can be correlated to biomass and carbon through application of allometric equations. We explore different

  3. THE DANUBE DELTA BIOSPHERE RESERVE - REGIONAL CLUSTERS IN PROTECTING AND PROMOTING THE LOCAL AREA AND LOCAL FISHERIES PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Berceanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of fishery activity through the intervention of regional clusters can have a positive impact at the local level – social impact (reducing unemployment, environment impact (reducing pollution effects and protecting the species within the biosphere reserve, tourism impact (increase the number of tourists and improve the “public image” of the region, market impact (increase the potential clients for local fishery products and improve the products quality. This paper will focus on fishery activity within the local area of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve from Romania, through the perspective of regional clusters’ actions in protecting and promoting the local area and local fishery products.

  4. Utility of surface pollen assemblages to delimit Eastern Eurasian steppe types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qin

    Full Text Available Modern pollen records have been used to successfully distinguish between specific prairie types in North America. Whether the pollen records can be used to detect the occurrence of Eurasian steppe, or even to further delimit various steppe types was until now unclear. Here we characterized modern pollen assemblages of meadow steppe, typical steppe and desert steppe from eastern Eurasia along an ecological humidity gradient. The multivariate ordination of the pollen data indicated that Eurasian steppe types could be clearly differentiated. The different steppe types could be distinguished primarily by xerophilous elements in the pollen assemblages. Redundancy analysis indicated that the relative abundances of Ephedra, Tamarix, Nitraria and Zygophyllaceae were positively correlated with aridity. The relative abundances of Ephedra increased from meadow steppe to typical steppe and desert steppe. Tamarix and Zygophyllaceae were found in both typical steppe and desert steppe, but not in meadow steppe. Nitraria was only found in desert steppe. The relative abundances of xerophilous elements were greater in desert steppe than in typical steppe. These findings indicate that Eurasian steppe types can be differentiated based on recent pollen rain.

  5. Natural recovery of steppe vegetation on vehicle tracks in central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steppe desertification due to vehicle travel is a severe environmental issue in Mongolia. We studied natural vegetation recovery on abandoned vehicle tracks in the central Mongolia steppe through vegetation surveys and stable isotopic techniques. The following issues were addressed: invasion of pioneering plant species, ...

  6. Grazing Intensity Does Not Affect Plant Diversity in Shortgrass Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Responses of livestock gain and forage production to grazing intensity in shortgrass steppe are well-established, but effects on basal cover and plant diversity are less so. A long-term grazing intensity study was initiated on shortgrass steppe at the Central Plains Experimental Range (USDA-Agricult...

  7. Sustainable Development of the Algerian Steppe | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Algerian steppe covers more than 30 million ha of land and constitutes a buffer zone between the Sahara Desert and the green belt in the North. The diversity and relative abundance of fodder plants has allowed the steppe to provide livelihoods for 15% of the population and the main source of red meat for the ...

  8. DYNAMICS OF ALGAE NUMBER AND BIOMASS OF STEPPE BIOGEOCOENOSES AND AGROCOENOSES IN KHERSON REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbina V.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of daily dynamics of seaweeds abundance and biomass were determined for steppe biogeocoenosis and agrocoenosis of Biosphere reserve “Askaniya-Nova” in spring of 2011. Fluctuation ranges in seaweeds abundance and biomass have been registered.Analyzing the indices of total number and algae biomass in studied biogeocoenoses it should be noted that the maximal values of alga number in virgin soil steppe exceeded minimal in 3,3 times; biomasses - in 2,1. For virgin soil steppe of post-fire-induced development the relation between maximum and minimal value of total number of algae was up to 2,1; biomass - 2,4. For agrocoenosis we noted the largest ranges in variation of number and biomass. In conditions of dry-land arable land the maximum values of total number of alga exceeded minimal in 21,9 times; biomasses - in 8,7; for irrigated arable land - in 12,5 and 5,6 respectively.In soil samples, selected within the limits of virgin soil biogeocoenoses of biosphere reserve “Askania-Nova” and agrocoenosis of dry-land and irrigated arable land in biosphere reserve by direct count, the algae species of Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Xanthophyta and Eustigmatophyta have been found. The largest contribution to number and biomass of algae belonged to Bacillariophyta. The number and biomass of agrocoenosis algae is more dynamic feature, than for algae of virgin soil biogeocoenoses.

  9. Diversity and Distribution of Culturable Microbial Communities of Semiarid Desert Steppe and Cultivated Land in Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yan-lin CHEN Ji-xiang

    2016-05-01

    microbial diversities of the desert steppe and cultivated land were abundant and different. The microbial numbers and community distributions changed at different depths in the same area. The culturable microbial communities of the cultivated land were more abundant than those of the desert steppe soils.

  10. Conservation state of populations of rare plant species in highly transformed meadow steppes of Southern Opillya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Dmytrash-Vatseba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of natural habitats causes rapid extinction of rare plant populations. The diversity of rare plant species in the meadow steppes of Southern Opillya (Western Ukraine depends strongly on patch area, pasture digression of vegetation and a variety of eco-coenotical conditions. The main threats for the rare components of the meadow steppe flora are reduction of habitat and overgrazing. Spatial connections between sites are unable to support a constant rare plant population. The analysis of the composition of rare plant meadow-steppe species indicated that habitats with similar rare species composition usually have similar parameters of area, stages of pasture digression and eco-coenotical conditions. Spatial connectivity of patches does not ensure species similarity of rare components of the flora. Rare plant species were grouped according to their preferences for habitat , area and condition. In small patches subject to any stage of pasture digression grow populations of Adonis vernalis L., Pulsatilla patens (L. Mill., P. grandis Wender., Stipa capillata L., S. рennata L., Chamaecytisus blockianus (Pawł. Klásková etc. On the contrary, populations of other species (Carlina onopordifolia Besser. ex Szafer., Kuecz. et Pawł., Adenophora liliifolia (L. Ledeb. ex A. DC., Crambe tataria Sebeók, Euphorbia volhynica Besser ex Racib., Stipa tirsa Stev. etc. prefer large habitats, not changed by pasture digression. Prevention of reduction of rare species diversity requires preservation (also extension of patch area and regulation of grazing intensity.

  11. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounds, L.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US); Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

  12. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE ANTHROPIC IMPACT IN THE AREA OF THE ORNITHOLOGIC RESERVATION “THE SWAMPS FROM SATCHINEZ” (TIMIŞ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Török-Oance

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of the anthropic impact within the Ornithologic Reservation Swamps from Satchinez is based on the field notes in the period 2003-2005, the air photos taken in 2004 and the reconstitution of past situations (1963-1973 using the photoplans from that period. Within the reservation and the buffer area a series of anthropic activities are taking place, allowed or not, which have a negative impact on the protected area: agricultural works (including agro-chemical treatments, grazing, mowing, hydrotechnical arrangements, illegal tree felling, cutting and burning the reed, poaching, hunting and fishing, collecting biological material, transport, tourism and petrol exploitation. All these lead to the deterioration of the habitat, affect the life of the birds, the water, the clogging of the swamp and cause the disappearance of the clean water spots thus endangering the reservation itself.

  13. Doubtful records of reptile species in some areas of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÖRÖK Zsolt Csaba

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper there are provided details on the doubtful data on the occurrence of some reptile species in various parts of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. Testudo graeca was indicated by mistake at Sfântu Gheorghe (probably the authors saw the species in some places from the continental plateau nearby of Sfântu Gheorghe branch, not inside the Danube Delta. Lacerta viridis was mentioned in the so-called “maritime Delta” and at the ruins of Histria fortress (due to confusion with specimens of Lacerta agilis. Also, Podarcis muralis was “recorded” at the ruins of Histria fortress (due to misidentification of specimens belonging to species P. taurica. A corps of snake found at Letea forest was considered by mistake as belonging to species Eryx jaculus. In several official reports (grey literature the species Elaphe longissima (Zamenis longissimus was mentioned by mistake as occurring at Letea forest. Elaphe (quatuorlineata sauromates was “recorded” at the ruins of Histria fortress and at Sfântu Gheorghe due to confusion with specimens belonging to other snake species. Specimens of Vipera urisnii from the Danube Delta were considered as belonging to the species Vipera berus. Also, Vipera ursinii was metioned by mistake at Caraorman marine levee and at Chituc marine levee, based only on the idea that if the species occurs on other marine levees, it has to be present on these two marine levees, too.

  14. Semi-arid savanna of the Potlake Nature Reserve and surrounding areas in Sekhukhuneland, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Siebert

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical classification, description, and ecological and floristic interpretations are presented on the vegetation types of the semi-arid northern savanna of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plant Endemism. Relevés were compiled in 47 stratified random plots. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed eight plant communities, classified as four associations, one of which is subdivided into five sub-associations. For each plant community, the floristic richness, endemism and conservation status was determined. Much of the plant community distribution can be ascribed to environmental factors and anthropogenic disturbance. An ordination (DECORANA, based on floristic data, showed environmental gradients that possibly exist between plant communities and associated habitats. The floristic information, proposed classification, general description and vegetation key, can be used for the identification and monitoring of protected areas, land-use planning, and further conservation research.

  15. Conservation Potential of Abandoned Military Areas Matches That of Established Reserves: Plants and Butterflies in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Oldrich; Vrba, Pavel; Benes, Jiri; Hrazsky, Zaboj; Koptik, Jiri; Kucera, Tomas; Marhoul, Pavel; Zamecnik, Jaroslav; Konvicka, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Military training generates frequent and irregular disturbance followed by succession, resulting in fine-scaled mosaics of ecological conditions in military training areas (MTAs). The awareness that MTAs may represent important biodiversity sanctuaries is increasing recently. Concurrently, changes in military doctrine are leading to abandonment of many MTAs, which are being brought under civilian administration and opened for development. We surveyed vascular plants in 43 and butterflies in 41 MTAs in the Czech Republic and compared the records with plants and butterfly records from 301 and 125 nature reserves, respectively. After controlling for effects of area, geography, and climate, we found that plant species richness was equal in the two land use categories; butterfly richness was higher in MTAs; reserves hosted more endangered plants and more endangered butterflies. Ordination analyses, again controlled for potential nuisance effects, showed that MTAs and reserves differed also in species composition. While specialist species of nationally rarest habitat types inclined towards the reserves, MTAs hosted a high representation of endangered species depending on either disturbed ground, or successionaly transient conditions. These patterns reflect the history of the national nature reserves network, and the disturbance-succession dynamics within MTAs. The conservation value of formerly army-used lands is increasingly threatened by abandonment, and conservationists should support either alternative uses mimicking army activities, or sustainable management regimes. PMID:23326388

  16. Is there any support for the humped-back model in some steppe and semi steppe regions of Iran?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashouri, Parvaneh; Jalili, Adel; Danehkar, Afshin; Chahouki, Mohammad Ali Zare; Hamzeh'ee, Behnam

    2016-05-01

    One of the famous theories in ecology is the humped-back model (HBM) which explains that habitats with intermediate productivity and disturbance support the most species. Most studies on HBM patterns have been conducted for herbaceous species. Knowledge about this theory in arid and semi-arid communities is still weak, especially with severe environments and disturbances containing woody plants. In this study, an analysis is presented on species richness-productivity relationship along a gradient of disturbance and stress in some steppe and semi steppe rangelands in Iran. A nonlinear curve-fitting approach was used that fitted a three-parameter Gaussian curve between species richness and productivity across 180 plots (1 m2). Mitchell-Olds and Shaw 's test (MOS) was used to assess the significance of the humped-back curve. Data were collected from six rangelands, including all life forms of species (grasses, forbs and small shrubs) with litter. Fitted Gaussian curve showed a positive trend between productivity and species richness across a decreasing gradient of disturbance in which species richness was increased. Maximum values for species richness correspond to values of plant productivity in undisturbed sites with a moderate stress. The MOS test showed a significant positive trend in the curve which means that the observed shape in the species richness-productivity relationship covers the mechanisms located in low to medium productivity in the left-hand side of the humped-back model. In other words, this research did not detect a full unimodal curve. This is because of less productivity in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems with abiotic stress. However, there was a partial support for the humped-back model in this study. Hence, more studies to test the existence of a humped-back model in such areas, would be required to reveal all aspects of this relationship.

  17. The Catacomb cultures of the North-West Caspian steppe : C-14 chronology, reservoir effect, and paleodiet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishlina, N. I.; van der Plicht, J.; Hedges, R. E. M.; Zazovskaya, E. P.; Sevastyanov, V. S.; Chichagova, O. A.

    2007-01-01

    For the Bronze Age Catacomb cultures of the North-West Caspian steppe area in Russia, there is a conflict between the traditional relative archaeological chronology and the chronology based on radiocarbon dates. We show that this conflict can be explained largely by the fact that most dates have

  18. Breeding ecology of the endemic Black Lark Melanocorypha yeltoniensis on natural steppe and abandoned croplands in post-Soviet Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameris, T.K.; Fijen, Thijs P.M.; Urazaliev, Ruslan; Pulikova, Genrietta; Donald, Paul F.; Kamp, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the abundance and distribution of many central Asian steppe birds have been affected by changes in agricultural land management, such as the abandonment of large areas of cropland and changing grazing patterns. However, the underlying population

  19. Retreating or standing: Responses of forest species and steppe species to climate change in arid eastern central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Xiang Zhang; Ming-Li Zhang; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2013-01-01

    The temperature in arid Eastern Central Asia is projected to increase in the future, accompanied by increased variability of precipitation. To investigate the impacts of climate change on plant species in this area, we selected two widespread species as candidates, Clematis sibirica and C. songorica, from montane coniferous forest and arid steppe habitats respectively...

  20. Impact of the invasive species Elaeagnus Angustifolia L. on vegetation in Pontic desert steppe zone (Southern Ukraine)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudnik-Wojcikowska, B.; Moysiyenko, I.; Slim, P.A.; Moraczewski, I.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Irano-Turanian species – Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) – is one of most commonly planted tree in the shelterbelts in southern Ukraine. The consequences of introduction of the species from windbreaks, into areas of different land use in west and central Pontic desert steppe zone are

  1. The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP): a test of state-and-transition theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. McIver; Mark Brunson; Steve C. Bunting; Jeanne Chambers; Nora Devoe; Paul Doescher; James Grace; Dale Johnson; Steve Knick; Richard Miller; Mike Pellant; Fred Pierson; David Pyke; Kim Rollins; Bruce Roundy; Eugene Schupp; Robin Tausch; David Turner

    2010-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is a comprehensive, integrated, long-term study that evaluates the ecological effects of fire and fire surrogate treatments designed to reduce fuel and to restore sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities of the Great Basin and surrounding areas. SageSTEP has several features that make it ideal for testing...

  2. Developing of a network of nature reserves in the Lublin Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanicka, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    The nature reserves are one of the oldest forms of nature conservation. Legal basis for their establishment in Poland gave the Nature Conservation Act of 1934, but much earlier, it originated on private land or in state forests. The natural environment of the Lublin Region was poorly understood. Only after the emergence of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin in 1944, there started intensive research, mainly in Roztocze and Polesie Lubelskie. The development of the natural science enhanced learning activities for the protection of natural objects. The author presents the history of the creation of nature reserves in the Lublin Region from 1933 to 2008. The first reserves - Jata and Topór were approved in 1933 in the Łuków Forests. In 1934 the famous reserve Bukowa Góra in Roztocze, in Zamoyski Ordination, was approved. In the period 1933-2008, 103 nature reserves were established in the Lublin Region, of which 11 were included in the Roztoczański and 5 in the Poleski National Park. The area of 87 existing nature reserves in the Lublin Region is 6.8% of the reserves in Poland. The reserves represent 8 from 9 types distinguished in Poland - 35 forest reserves, 16 peat, 12 faunal, 8 steppe, 6 landscape, 6 floral, 3 inanimate nature, and 1 water reserve. Against the background of Poland, the Lublin province takes the first place (!) in terms of reserves in the steppe area (30.3% of steppe reserves in the country) and peat (19% of the peat reserves in the country), and the third in terms of the area of forest reserves (9.7% of forest reserves in the country). A large area of forest reserves in the region of low forest cover (22.5% and 14th place in the country) shows the value of natural forests and note that is attached to their protection in the Lublin Region. The annex contains a list of 103 reserves established in the Lublin Region after World War II.

  3. Optimal generation and reserve dispatch in a multi-area competitive market using a hybrid direct search method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun Lung Chen

    2005-01-01

    With restructuring of the power industry, competitive bidding for energy and ancillary services are increasingly recognized as an important part of electricity markets. It is desirable to optimize not only the generator's bid prices for energy and for providing minimized ancillary services but also the transmission congestion costs. In this paper, a hybrid approach of combining sequential dispatch with a direct search method is developed to deal with the multi-product and multi-area electricity market dispatch problem. The hybrid direct search method (HDSM) incorporates sequential dispatch into the direct search method to facilitate economic sharing of generation and reserve across areas and to minimize the total market cost in a multi-area competitive electricity market. The effects of tie line congestion and area spinning reserve requirement are also consistently reflected in the marginal price in each area. Numerical experiments are included to understand the various constraints in the market cost analysis and to provide valuable information for market participants in a pool oriented electricity market. (author)

  4. Optimal generation and reserve dispatch in a multi-area competitive market using a hybrid direct search method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-L.

    2005-01-01

    With restructuring of the power industry, competitive bidding for energy and ancillary services are increasingly recognized as an important part of electricity markets. It is desirable to optimize not only the generator's bid prices for energy and for providing minimized ancillary services but also the transmission congestion costs. In this paper, a hybrid approach of combining sequential dispatch with a direct search method is developed to deal with the multi-product and multi-area electricity market dispatch problem. The hybrid direct search method (HDSM) incorporates sequential dispatch into the direct search method to facilitate economic sharing of generation and reserve across areas and to minimize the total market cost in a multi-area competitive electricity market. The effects of tie line congestion and area spinning reserve requirement are also consistently reflected in the marginal price in each area. Numerical experiments are included to understand the various constraints in the market cost analysis and to provide valuable information for market participants in a pool oriented electricity market

  5. Phenotypic variability of plant leaves of Acer genus, introduced into steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zaitseva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with studying of the patterns of ecological adaptation of wood species of Acer L. genus during their introduction into steppe zone of Ukraine. Hydrothermal conditions of the growing season in steppe zone of Ukraine are particularly unfavorable for tree and shrubbery plantings, comprising both native and introduced species. In the course of plants’ introduction, adaptive changes occur; such changes represent the spectrum of phenotypic implementation of the definite genotype under the influence of new environmental conditions. Stress environment of the region of introduction leads to occurrence of a great variety of phenotypic forms, as the different variants of genotype implementation. Studying of phenotypic variability gives an opportunity to determine the capacity to adaptation of introduced species and ways of adaptive reactions in new conditions of living. Therefore, objective of the work consists in studying of the processes of differentiation of morphological characters in species of Acer genus introduced in the regions of steppe zone with varying intensity of hydrothermal factors. Studies were carried out in the central and south-eastern steppe regions, as well as in the south of steppe zone in the coastal and continental areas. Subjects of research were 9 species of maples, differing by their botanic and geographic origin and by the degree of drought resistance in the steppe zone of Ukraine. Patterns of variability of morphostructural characters of leaves were determined by the indicator of specific weight of leaves which was calculated as a ratio of weight of dry laminas to their area (mg/cm2. Following the results of study, it was found that adaptation of maples to xerothermic factors of the environment is connected with changing of the ratio of groups of character variation and their contribution into total sample. Direct relationship is established between the probability density of expression (phenotypic

  6. TeamSTEPPS Improves Operating Room Efficiency and Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weld, Lancaster R; Stringer, Matthew T; Ebertowski, James S; Baumgartner, Timothy S; Kasprenski, Matthew C; Kelley, Jeremy C; Cho, Doug S; Tieva, Erwin A; Novak, Thomas E

    2016-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of TeamSTEPPS on operating room efficiency and patient safety. TeamSTEPPS consisted of briefings attended by all health care personnel assigned to the specific operating room to discuss issues unique to each case scheduled for that day. The operative times, on-time start rates, and turnover times of all cases performed by the urology service during the initial year with TeamSTEPPS were compared to the prior year. Patient safety issues identified during postoperative briefings were analyzed. The mean case time was 12.7 minutes less with TeamSTEPPS (P safety issues declined from an initial rate of 16% to 6% at midyear and remained stable (P operating room efficiency and diminished patient safety issues in the operating room. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Energy reserves of Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in two areas with different degrees of conservation in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BES Melo

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation associated with the expansion of human development is a phenomenon that occurs worldwide. Studies reveal that there have been both a decline in species diversity and a decrease in Neotropical bat population size because of habitat loss. The aim of this study was to investigate whether human action has been affecting the food availability to wildlife species, which could impact the storage of body energy reserves. For this purpose, fruit-eating bats (Artibeus lituratus were collected in two areas in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The concentrations of plasma glucose, as well as glycogen, lipids and protein in liver in muscles were performed, in addition to adipose tissue weight and carcass fatty acids. Our results indicate that fat reserves were significantly lower in most tested tissues (muscle of the hindlimbs, breast muscles, adipose tissue and carcass in animals collected in the region with a higher degree of human disturbance. The other parameters showed no significant differences in the groups collected at different locations. In conclusion, we suggest that human action on the environment may be affecting the storage of body fat energy reserves of this species during the autumn, particularly in metropolitan region areas of Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil, requiring special attention to the species conservation.

  8. Energy reserves of Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in two areas with different degrees of conservation in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, B E S; Barros, M S; Carvalho, T F; Amaral, T S; Freitas, M B

    2012-02-01

    Forest fragmentation associated with the expansion of human development is a phenomenon that occurs worldwide. Studies reveal that there have been both a decline in species diversity and a decrease in Neotropical bat population size because of habitat loss. The aim of this study was to investigate whether human action has been affecting the food availability to wildlife species, which could impact the storage of body energy reserves. For this purpose, fruit-eating bats (Artibeus lituratus) were collected in two areas in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The concentrations of plasma glucose, as well as glycogen, lipids and protein in liver in muscles were performed, in addition to adipose tissue weight and carcass fatty acids. Our results indicate that fat reserves were significantly lower in most tested tissues (muscle of the hindlimbs, breast muscles, adipose tissue and carcass) in animals collected in the region with a higher degree of human disturbance. The other parameters showed no significant differences in the groups collected at different locations. In conclusion, we suggest that human action on the environment may be affecting the storage of body fat energy reserves of this species during the autumn, particularly in metropolitan region areas of Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil, requiring special attention to the species conservation.

  9. A six-year grazing exclusion changed plant species diversity of aStipa brevifloradesert steppe community, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Yang, Xinguo; Wang, Lei; Chen, Lin; Song, Naiping; Gu, Junlong; Xue, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Excluding grazers is one of most efficient ways to restore degraded grasslands in desert-steppe communities, but may negatively affect the recovery of plant species diversity. However, diversity differences between grazed and fenced grasslands in desert-steppe are poorly known. In a Stipa breviflora desert steppe community in Northern China, we established six plots to examine spatial patterns of plant species diversity under grazed and fenced conditions, respectively. We addressed three aspects of species diversity: (1) The logistic, exponential and power models were used to describe the species-area curve (SAR). Species richness, abundance and Shannon diversity values change differently with increasing sampling areas inside and outside of the fence. The best fitted model for SAR was the logistic model. Excluding grazers had a significant impact on the shape of SAR. (2) Variograms was applied to examine the spatial characteristics of plant species diversity. We found strong spatial autocorrelations in the diversity variables both inside and outside the fence. After grazing exclusion, the spatial heterogeneity decreased in species richness, increased in abundance and did not change in Shannon diversity. (3) We used variance partitioning to determine the relative contributions of spatial and environmental factors to plant species diversity patterns. Environmental factors explained the largest proportion of variation in species diversity, while spatial factors contributed little. Our results suggest that grazing enclosures decreased species diversity patterns and the spatial pattern of the S. breviflora desert steppe community was predictable.

  10. Variation in responses of fishes across multiple reserves within a network of marine protected areas in temperate waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Starr

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses of field studies have shown that biomass, density, species richness, and size of organisms protected by no-take marine reserves generally increase over time. The magnitude and timing of changes in these response variables, however, vary greatly and depend upon the taxonomic groups protected, size and type of reserve, oceanographic regime, and time since the reserve was implemented. We conducted collaborative, fishery-independent surveys of fishes for seven years in and near newly created marine protected areas (MPAs in central California, USA. Results showed that initially most MPAs contained more and larger fishes than associated reference sites, likely due to differences in habitat quality. The differences between MPAs and reference sites did not greatly change over the seven years of our study, indicating that reserve benefits will be slow to accumulate in California's temperate eastern boundary current. Fishes in an older reserve that has been closed to fishing since 1973, however, were significantly more abundant and larger than those in associated reference sites. This indicates that reserve benefits are likely to accrue in the California Current ecosystem, but that 20 years or more may be needed to detect significant changes in response variables that are due to MPA implementation. Because of the high spatial and temporal variability of fish recruitment patterns, long-term monitoring is needed to identify positive responses of fishes to protection in the diverse set of habitats in a dynamic eastern boundary current. Qualitative estimates of response variables, such as would be obtained from an expert opinion process, are unlikely to provide an accurate description of MPA performance. Similarly, using one species or one MPA as an indicator is unlikely to provide sufficient resolution to accurately describe the performance of multiple MPAs.

  11. Soil nitrogen availability in the open steppe with Stipa tenacissima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosadova, Irena; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose; Záhora, Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    Open steppes dominated by Stipa tenacissima L. constitute one of the most representative ecosystems of the semi-arid zones of Iberian Peninsula and show a higher degree of variability in composition and structure (Maestre et al., 2007). Vegetation patchiness, which are seen as mosaics including vegetated and non-vegetated components, is a common feature of such open steppes (Valentin et al., 1999). Ecosystem functioning is strongly related to the spatial pattern of grass tussocks. Soils beneath S. tenacissima grass show higher fertility and improved microclimatic conditions, favouring the formation of "resource islands" (Maestre et al., 2007). First, soil moisture is greater beneath the clumps, due to water harvesting through rainfall interception, uptake by roots from adjacent unvegetated areas and water redistribution from gaps to clumps (Bergkamp et al., 1999; Puigdefá bregas et al., 1999). Second, the canopy diminishes the intense solar radiation (Maestre et al., 2001) avoiding the sun-baking effect, which is an important factor for soil temperature change and physical disruption (Magid et al., 1999). Plant clumps either functioned as microbial hotspots where enhanced microbially driven ecosystem processes took place or as microbial banks capable of undergoing a burst of activity under favourable climatic conditions (Goberna et al., 2007). The competition for water and resources between plants and microorganisms is strong and mediated trough an enormous variety of exudates and resource depletion intended to regulate soil microbial communities in the rhizosphere, control herbivory, encourage beneficial symbioses, and change chemical and physical properties in soil (Pugnaire et Armas, 2008). On the other hand there exists experimental evidence of a non-patchy distribution of certain soil microbial properties in semi-arid Mediterranean patchy ecosystems (Goberna et al., 2007). The microbial nutrient release processes have a fundamental role in ecosystem

  12. Demographic history, genetic structure and gene flow in a steppe-associated raptor species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Environmental preferences and past climatic changes may determine the length of time during which a species range has contracted or expanded from refugia, thereby influencing levels of genetic diversification. Connectivity among populations of steppe-associated taxa might have been maximal during the long glacial periods, and interrupted only during the shorter interglacial phases, potentially resulting in low levels of genetic differentiation among populations. We investigated this hypothesis by exploring patterns of genetic diversity, past demography and gene flow in a raptor species characteristic of steppes, the Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), using mitochondrial DNA data from 13 breeding populations and two wintering populations. Results Consistent with our hypothesis, Montagu's harrier has relatively low genetic variation at the mitochondrial DNA. The highest levels of genetic diversity were found in coastal Spain, France and central Asia. These areas, which were open landscapes during the Holocene, may have acted as refugia when most of the European continent was covered by forests. We found significant genetic differentiation between two population groups, at the SW and NE parts of the species' range. Two events of past population growth were detected, and occurred ca. 7500-5500 and ca. 3500-1000 years BP in the SW and NE part of the range respectively. These events were likely associated with vegetation shifts caused by climate and human-induced changes during the Holocene. Conclusions The relative genetic homogeneity observed across populations of this steppe raptor may be explained by a short isolation time, relatively recent population expansions and a relaxed philopatry. We highlight the importance of considering the consequence of isolation and colonization processes in order to better understand the evolutionary history of steppe species. PMID:22093489

  13. Demographic history, genetic structure and gene flow in a steppe-associated raptor species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Jesus T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental preferences and past climatic changes may determine the length of time during which a species range has contracted or expanded from refugia, thereby influencing levels of genetic diversification. Connectivity among populations of steppe-associated taxa might have been maximal during the long glacial periods, and interrupted only during the shorter interglacial phases, potentially resulting in low levels of genetic differentiation among populations. We investigated this hypothesis by exploring patterns of genetic diversity, past demography and gene flow in a raptor species characteristic of steppes, the Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus, using mitochondrial DNA data from 13 breeding populations and two wintering populations. Results Consistent with our hypothesis, Montagu's harrier has relatively low genetic variation at the mitochondrial DNA. The highest levels of genetic diversity were found in coastal Spain, France and central Asia. These areas, which were open landscapes during the Holocene, may have acted as refugia when most of the European continent was covered by forests. We found significant genetic differentiation between two population groups, at the SW and NE parts of the species' range. Two events of past population growth were detected, and occurred ca. 7500-5500 and ca. 3500-1000 years BP in the SW and NE part of the range respectively. These events were likely associated with vegetation shifts caused by climate and human-induced changes during the Holocene. Conclusions The relative genetic homogeneity observed across populations of this steppe raptor may be explained by a short isolation time, relatively recent population expansions and a relaxed philopatry. We highlight the importance of considering the consequence of isolation and colonization processes in order to better understand the evolutionary history of steppe species.

  14. Demographic history, genetic structure and gene flow in a steppe-associated raptor species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jesus T; Alda, Fernando; Terraube, Julien; Mougeot, François; Sternalski, Audrey; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Arroyo, Beatriz

    2011-11-17

    Environmental preferences and past climatic changes may determine the length of time during which a species range has contracted or expanded from refugia, thereby influencing levels of genetic diversification. Connectivity among populations of steppe-associated taxa might have been maximal during the long glacial periods, and interrupted only during the shorter interglacial phases, potentially resulting in low levels of genetic differentiation among populations. We investigated this hypothesis by exploring patterns of genetic diversity, past demography and gene flow in a raptor species characteristic of steppes, the Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), using mitochondrial DNA data from 13 breeding populations and two wintering populations. Consistent with our hypothesis, Montagu's harrier has relatively low genetic variation at the mitochondrial DNA. The highest levels of genetic diversity were found in coastal Spain, France and central Asia. These areas, which were open landscapes during the Holocene, may have acted as refugia when most of the European continent was covered by forests. We found significant genetic differentiation between two population groups, at the SW and NE parts of the species' range. Two events of past population growth were detected, and occurred ca. 7500-5500 and ca. 3500-1000 years BP in the SW and NE part of the range respectively. These events were likely associated with vegetation shifts caused by climate and human-induced changes during the Holocene. The relative genetic homogeneity observed across populations of this steppe raptor may be explained by a short isolation time, relatively recent population expansions and a relaxed philopatry. We highlight the importance of considering the consequence of isolation and colonization processes in order to better understand the evolutionary history of steppe species.

  15. Ore Reserve Estimation of Saprolite Nickel Using Inverse Distance Method in PIT Block 3A Banggai Area Central Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaidir Noor, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    Reserve estimation is one of important work in evaluating a mining project. It is estimation of the quality and quantity of the presence of minerals have economic value. Reserve calculation method plays an important role in determining the efficiency in commercial exploration of a deposit. This study was intended to calculate ore reserves contained in the study area especially Pit Block 3A. Nickel ore reserve was estimated by using detailed exploration data, processing by using Surpac 6.2 by Inverse Distance Weight: Squared Power estimation method. Ore estimation result obtained from 30 drilling data was 76453.5 ton of Saprolite with density of 1.5 ton/m3 and COG (Cut Off Grade) Ni ≥ 1.6 %, while overburden data was 112,570.8 tons with waste rock density of 1.2 ton/m3 . Striping Ratio (SR) was 1.47 : 1 smaller than Stripping Ratio ( SR ) were set of 1.60 : 1.

  16. Crystalline Repository Project: Review and comment of the Leech Lake Reservation Business Committee: Draft area recommendation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The Leech Lake Reservation Business Committee (LLRBC) has reviewed five documents related to the US Department of Energy's Crystalline Repository Project (CRP). They are the ''National Survey of Crystalline Rocks,'' ''General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories;' Final Siting Guidelines (10 CFR Part 960),'' ''Regional Characterization Reports for the North Central Region,'' the ''Region to Area Screening Methodology Document'' (SMD) and the ''Draft Area Recommendation Report'' (DARR). The comments and discussions of issues contained in this review will be considered in the preparation of the Final Area Recommendation Report, which will formally identify potentially acceptable sites for a second national repository for the permanent disposal of high level nuclear waste. Following a review of the above referenced documents, the LLRBC has concluded that the identification of potentially acceptable sites in the Draft Area Recommendation Report is based upon inferior and incomplete technical information being applied to a flawed screening process which, among other deficiencies, pays little attention to the importance of hydrological factors in the siting process. Although the DOE prefers that comments from states and tribes be directed at the Draft Area Recommendation Report alone, the Leech Lake Reservation Business Committee is extremely concerned about inadequacies in the ''National Survey of Crystalline Rocks'' (ORCD-1), which serves as the foundation for all siting work done to date. The national survey was conducted utilizing little of the time or staffing required for this important phase of the Crystalline Repository Program. As a result, the national survey is based upon out-of-date scientific literature, exaggerates certain screening variables that favor the selection of regions in the eastern US and arbitrarily eliminated the few western crystalline rock bodies that passed the questionable screening process utilized

  17. Data on abiotic (nutrients and biotic (phytoplankton quality elements in Fortuna ecologically reconstructed area (Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve - Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÖRÖK Liliana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of inorganic nutrient enrichment on reophillic ecosystems has been observed and intensively studied in many rivers. Due to the scarcity of information on ecological conditions in the channel-network of the Danube Delta it is very important to have reliable information on the trend of the abiotic and biotic quality elements in the Danube River and channel system – in order to fulfill the Water Framework Directive objectives and to implement the rehabilitation projects in area affected by nutrient pollution. The purpose of this paper is to present, analyze and discuss the results of evaluation of nutrient variation and phytoplankton quantification obtained in Fortuna area - one of the seven reconstructed areas of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. In order to improve the quality of data on phytoplankton biomass distribution from Fortuna area, in the summer of 2008 there has been used a submersible spectrofluorometer with automatic algae class determination and chlorophyll analysis (bbe Fluoro Probe. According to the results of analyses on relation between phytoplankton communities and water-column, the phytoplankton development in the channel network of the Fortuna reconstructed area seems to be influenced mainly by nitrogen concentration than by phosphorus concentration, as in case of phytoplankton development in Danube Delta’s lakes

  18. Environmental dynamics of the Baraba forest-steppe (Siberia) over the last 8000 years and their impact on the types of economic life of the population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilich, Snezhana; Rudaya, Natalia; Krivonogov, Sergei; Nazarova, Larisa; Pozdnyakov, Dmitry

    2017-05-01

    This article offers a reconstruction of the vegetation and climate of the south-western Siberian Baraba forest-steppe area during the last ca. 8000 years. The analysis of palynological data from the sediment core of Lake Bolshie Toroki using quantitative methods has made it possible to reconstruct changes of the dominant types of vegetation and mean July air temperatures. Coniferous forests grew in the vicinity of the lake, and mean July air temperatures were similar to present-day ones between 7.9 and 7.0 kyr BP. The warmest and driest climate occurred at 7.0-5.0 kyr BP. At that time, the region had open steppe landscapes; birch groves began to spread. A cooling trend is seen after 5.5 kyr BP, when forest-steppe began to emerge. Steppe communities started to dominate again after 1.5 kyr BP. Mean July air temperatures lower than now are reconstructed for the period of 1.9-1 kyr BP, and then the temperatures became similar to present-day ones. Comparing the archaeological data on the types of economy of the population which inhabited the Baraba forest-steppe with the data on changes in the natural environment revealed a connection between the gradual transition from hunting and fishing to livestock breeding and the development of forest-steppe landscapes with a decrease in the area covered by forests. The development of the forest-steppe as an ecotonic landscape starting around 5 kyr BP might have contributed to the coexistence of several archaeological cultures with different types of economy on the same territory.

  19. Growing season methane budget of an Inner Mongolian steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyan; Holst, Jirko; Yao, Zhisheng; Brüggemann, Nicolas; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Han, Shenghui; Han, Xingguo; Tas, Bart; Susenbeth, Andreas; Zheng, Xunhua

    We present a methane (CH 4) budget for the area of the Baiyinxile Livestock Farm, which comprises approximately 1/3 of the Xilin river catchment in central Inner Mongolia, P.R. China. The budget calculations comprise the contributions of natural sources and sinks as well as sources related to the main land-use in this region (non-nomadic pastoralism) during the growing season (May-September). We identified as important CH 4 sources floodplains (mean 1.55 ± 0.97 mg CH 4-C m -2 h -1) and domestic ruminants, which are mainly sheep in this area. Within the floodplain significant differences between investigated positions were detected, whereby only positions close-by the river or bayous emitted large amounts of CH 4 (mean up to 6.21 ± 1.83 mg CH 4-C m -2 h -1). Further CH 4 sources were sheepfolds (0.08-0.91 mg CH 4-C m -2 h -1) and pasture faeces (1.34 ± 0.22 mg CH 4-C g -1 faeces dry weight), but they did not play a significant role for the CH 4 budget. In contrast, dung heaps were not a net source of CH 4 (0.0 ± 0.2 for an old and 0.0 ± 0.3 μg CH 4-C kg -1 h -1 for a new dung heap). Trace gas measurements along two landscape transects (volcano, hill slope) revealed expectedly a mean CH 4 uptake (volcano: 76.5 ± 4.3; hill: 28.3 ± 5.3 μg CH 4-C m -2 h -1), which is typical for the aerobic soils in this and other steppe ecosystems. The observed fluxes were rarely influenced by topography. The CH 4 emissions from the floodplain and the sheep were not compensated by the CH 4 oxidation of aerobic steppe soils and thus, this managed semi-arid grassland did not serve as a terrestrial sink, but as a source for this globally important greenhouse gas. The source strength amounted to 1.5-3.6 kg CH 4-C ha -1 during the growing season, corresponding to 3.5-8.7 kg C ha -1 yr -1.

  20. Contribution to the lichen biota of the Stawy Milickie nature reserve and its adjacent area (Lower Silesia, southwestern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kaźmierska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of lichenological investigations conducted in the eastern part of the Stawy Milickie nature reserve and its buffer zone (Barycz Valley, southwestern Poland. The study area is a famous waterfowl refuge, consisting of several fishpond complexes, together with adjacent forests, meadows, and villages. In total 72 lichen taxa were recorded, growing on bark and branches of trees and shrubs, stumps, wood, soil, and anthropogenic rock substrates (mortar, concrete, bricks, etc.. Six species, namely Evernia prunastri, Flavoparmelia caperata, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Parmelina tiliacea, Physconia distorta, and Pleurosticta acetabulum, are threatened in Poland. As represented by single young thalli, they indicate the recent improvement of environmental conditions. The lichen biota of the study area is typical for the lowland regions of western and southwestern Poland.

  1. Survey of Revegetated Areas on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve: Status and Initial Monitoring Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, Janelle L.; Link, Steven O.; Rozeboom, Latricia L.; Durham, Robin E.; Cruz, Rico O.; Mckee, Sadie A.

    2011-09-01

    During 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office removed a number of facilities and debris from the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM). Revegetation of disturbed sites is necessary to stabilize the soil, reduce invasion of these areas by exotic weeds, and to accelerate re-establishment of native plant communities. Seven revegetation units were identified on ALE based on soils and potential native plant communities at the site. Native seed mixes and plant material were identified for each area based on the desired plant community. Revegetation of locations affected by decommissioning of buildings and debris removal was undertaken during the winter and early spring of 2010 and 2011, respectively. This report describes both the details of planting and seeding for each of the units, describes the sampling design for monitoring, and summarizes the data collected during the first year of monitoring. In general, the revegetation efforts were successful in establishing native bunchgrasses and shrubs on most of the sites within the 7 revegetation units. Invasion of the revegetation areas by exotic annual species was minimal for most sites, but was above initial criteria in 3 areas: the Hodges Well subunit of Unit 2, and Units 6 and 7.

  2. “Chlorophyll ideology” and Protected Areas. The Social Discourses on the Reserve Area “Tancat de la Pipa” in the Albufera Natural Park (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Requena i Mora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the last century, the empirical evidence that the natural limits to growth were being overstepped (García, 2004 supposed an increase in environmental awareness and led to a search for answers of different kinds. Most of these answers are part of the neoliberal politics that reconcile economic development with environmental sustainability. One of these solutions is the creation of protected areas. In this paper we analyse, firstly, the growth of protected areas in Europe and how we should perceive that growth. Then, we pay special attention to the theoretical implications of the concept of a “Natural Park”, one of the most common kinds of protected area in Spain. Subsequently, based on our research in the Albufera Natural Park (Spain and one of the reserve areas, “El Tancat de la Pipa”, we present the limitations and possibilities of these spaces. The analysis of the discourses, produced through interviews and discussion groups, contextualizes the social representations of this habitat according to their connection with the different social sectors and unravels the meaning given to this area. For the traditional sectors, “El Tancat de la Pipa” is perceived as an expropriation of their land. For environmental technicians, the area represents an object of environmental, educational and scientific consumption. For the ecology movements, it is a “renaturalized” area that is in keeping with developmentalism. And finally, for modernization consumers, this zone means a place for consumption that should receive “more marketing” and be transformed into a “theme park” for family leisure.

  3. Planning, architecture, seismic, construction and energy-related criteria for sustainable spatial development in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Meiţă

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve represents a complex of ecosystems embedding a biome that had been included on UNESCO World Heritage list due to its global environmental importance. The outstanding natural diversity, including ecosystems, habitats and species situated at the top of European and International conservation lists, is mixed with an equally rich and important cultural (ethnic and religious diversity of the human communities inhabiting the area. According to the guidelines of the Man and the Biosphere Programme of UNESCO, the biosphere reserves including human settlements should be managed such that they could constitute an example for what sustainable development means. Starting from the spatial dimension added to the traditional socioeconomic, ecological and cultural pillars of sustainable development, the paper examines planning, architecture, seismic, construction and energy-related criteria that could substantiate a sustainable development model applicable to the Danube Delta, and counter the effects of clime change in the area. The results suggest that the traditional practices of the inhabitants could offer sustainable solutions and help preserving the natural and cultural diversity of the region.

  4. Socio-Economic Effects on The Forest Villagers of Ecotourism Potential (Case of Artvin-Camili Biosphere Reserve Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnci Zeynep Aydın

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rapid changes occurring in the world who live urban people from a resort in the selection of natural areas and start to choose to travel; forest villagers because rural poverty, forest and forest resource have been destroyed. Since people change their expectations from tourism, natural areas began to gain importance. Until ın today’s conditions for citizens to the problems of migration and employment and ensure the sustainability of forest resources with ecotourism activities on the agenda of the approach began to take its place. The case study area, Camili Biosphere Reserve in Artvin; eco-tourism activities on the forest villagers demographic, social, cultural, economic, etc. with eco-tourısm activities and the sustainability of forest resources and forest planning and management aimed at the development stage of the villagers how it ought to be investigated. Forest villagers are selected according to full-count method. Data will be analyzed through descriptives, Chi-Square, paired T tests and Wilcoxon analyses.

  5. Protected area coverage of threatened vertebrates and ecoregions in Peru: Comparison of communal, private and state reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanee, Sam; Shanee, Noga; Monteferri, Bruno; Allgas, Nestor; Alarcon Pardo, Alejandro; Horwich, Robert H

    2017-11-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are a conservation mainstay and arguably the most effective conservation strategy for species protection. As a 'megadiverse' country, Peru is a priority for conservation actions. Peruvian legislation allows for the creation of state PAs and private/communal PAs. Using publicly available species distribution and protected area data sets we evaluated the coverage of Threatened terrestrial vertebrate species distributions and ecoregions provided by both kinds of PA in Peru. Peru's state PA system covers 217,879 km 2 and private/communal PAs cover 16,588 km 2 . Of the 462 species of Threatened and Data Deficient species we evaluated, 75% had distributions that overlapped with at least one PA but only 53% had ≥10% of their distributions within PAs, with inclusion much reduced at higher coverage targets. Of the species we evaluated, 118 species are only found in national PAs and 29 species only found in private/communal PAs. Of the 17 terrestrial ecoregions found in Peru all are represented in PAs; the national PA system included coverage of 16 and private/communal PAs protect 13. One ecoregion is only protected in private/communal PAs, whereas four are only covered in national PAs. Our results show the important role private/communal PAs can play in the protection of ecological diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary survey of ants at a reserve area of Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla Province, Southern Thailand

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    Niranee Binnima

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prince of Songkla University is the first university established in the southern part of Thailand. A reserve area is planned at Ko Hong Hill near the university. The flora of this area has been previously explored but a few fauna species have been studied. Although ants are one of dominant groups in this forest, there is no record of their diversity. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the ant diversity in terms of species composition. Three sampling methods, pitfall trap (PF, hand collecting (HC and leaf litter sifting (LL were applied to collection of ants along 3 line transects each of 90 meter in length and 500 meter apart during April 2001. Six subfamilies (Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Dorylinae, Ponerinae, Dolichoderinae and Pseudomyrmecinae of ants, comprising 44 species, were found. The results also showed that HC was the most sufficient method resulting in the highest number of ant species, while the combination of two methods (HC and LL yielded the highest number of ant species.

  7. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholster, P.J. [CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: anna.oberholster@up.ac.za; Botha, A.-M. [Department of Genetics, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa); Cloete, T.E. [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa)

    2008-11-15

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources.

  8. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberholster, P.J.; Botha, A.-M.; Cloete, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources

  9. Climatically driven loss of calcium in steppe soil as a sink for atmospheric carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.G. Lapenis; G.B. Lawrence; S.W. Bailey; B.F. Aparin; A.I. Shiklomanov; N.A. Speranskaya; M.S. Torn; M. Calef

    2008-01-01

    During the last several thousand years the semi-arid, cold climate of the Russian steppe formed highly fertile soils rich in organic carbon and calcium (classified as Chernozems in the Russian system). Analysis of archived soil samples collected in Kemannaya Steppe Preserve in 1920, 1947, 1970, and fresh samples collected in 1998 indicated that the native steppe...

  10. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat—Part 1. Concepts for understanding and applying restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pellant, Mike; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard F.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Doescher, Paul S.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Brunson, Mark; McIver, James D.

    2015-10-26

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a landscape-dependent bird that requires intact habitat and combinations of sagebrush and perennial grasses to exist. In addition, other sagebrush-obligate animals also have similar requirements and restoration of landscapes for greater sage-grouse also will benefit these animals. Once sagebrush lands are degraded, they may require restoration actions to make those lands viable habitat for supporting sagebrushobligate animals. This restoration handbook is the first in a three-part series on restoration of sagebrush ecosystems. In Part 1, we discuss concepts surrounding landscape and restoration ecology of sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse that habitat managers and restoration practitioners need to know to make informed decisions regarding where and how to restore specific areas. We will describe the plant dynamics of sagebrush steppe ecosystems and their responses to major disturbances, fire, and defoliation. We will introduce the concepts of ecosystem resilience to disturbances and resistance to invasions of annual grasses within sagebrush steppe. An introduction to soils and ecological site information will provide insights into the specific plants that can be restored in a location. Soil temperature and moisture regimes are described as a tool for determining resilience and resistance and the potential for various restoration actions. Greater sage-grouse are considered landscape birds that require large areas of intact sagebrush steppe; therefore, we describe concepts of landscape ecology that aid our decisions regarding habitat restoration. We provide a brief overview of

  11. Geohydrology and effects of water use in the Black Mesa area, Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eychaner, James H.

    1983-01-01

    The N aquifer is the main source of water in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area in the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations in northeastern Arizona. The N aquifer consists of the Navajo Sandstone and parts of the underlying Kayenta Formation and Wingate Sandstone of Jurassic and Triassic age. Maximum saturated thickness of the aquifer is about 1,050 feet in the northwestern part of the area, and the aquifer thins to extinction to the southeast. Water is under confined conditions in the central 3,300 square miles of the area. To the east, north, and west of Black Mesa, the aquifer is exposed at the surface, and water is unconfined. The aquifer was in equilibrium before about 1965. Recharge of about 13,000 acre-feet per year was balanced primarily by discharge near Moenkopi Wash and Laguna Creek and by evapotranspiration. At least 180 million acre-feet of water was in storage. The estimated average hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is 0.65 foot per day. The confined storage coefficient is estimated to be about 0.0004 where the aquifer is thickest, and the estimated unconfined storage coefficient ranges from 0.10 to 0.15. Ground-water withdrawals that averaged 5,300 acre-feet per year from 1976 to 1979 have caused water levels to decline in wells in the confined part of the aquifer. Withdrawals include an average of 3,700 acre-feet per year to supply a coal-slurry pipeline from a coal mine on Black Mesa. Six observation wells equipped with water-level recorders have been used to monitor aquifer response. The water level in one well 32 miles south of the mine declined 17 feet from 1972 through 1979 and 3.5 feet during 1979. A mathematical model of the N aquifer was developed and calibrated for equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. The model was used in part to improve estimates of aquifer characteristics and the water budget, and it successfully reproduced the observed response of the aquifer through 1979. The model results indicate that about 95 percent of

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in national parks, nature reserves and protected areas worldwide: a strategic perspective for their in situ conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, Alessandra; Giovannetti, Manuela

    2012-02-01

    Soil fungi play a crucial role in producing fundamental ecosystem services such as soil fertility, formation and maintenance, nutrient cycling and plant community dynamics. However, they have received little attention in the field of conservation biology. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are beneficial soil symbionts fulfilling a key function in the complex networks of belowground/aboveground biotic interactions as they live in association with the roots of most (80%) land plant families and influence not only soil fertility but also plant nutrition, diversity and productivity. The diversity of AMF communities can decline due to habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbance, especially in agro-ecosystems, and many valuable ecotypes could become extinct before they are even discovered. Consequently, long-term strategies are urgently needed to ensure their conservation in habitats where they naturally occur and have evolved. Protected areas, where living organisms are under the care of national and international authorities, represent an appropriate place for the in situ conservation of AMF, providing them with adapted situations together with established complex networks of interactions with different components within each specific ecosystem. Here, we review data available about the main present-day threats to AMF and the current state of knowledge about their occurrence in protected sites worldwide, providing a checklist of national parks and nature reserves where they have been reported. The aim was to offer a strategic perspective to increase awareness of the importance of conserving these beneficial plant symbionts and of preserving their biodiversity in the years to come.

  13. Quantitative assessment of pedodiversity and soil erosion within a karst sinkhole in the dry steppe subzone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, M. A.; Gennadiev, A. N.

    2017-08-01

    A detailed study of the soil cover of a sinkhole (300 m2) in the dry steppe landscape of the Bogdinsk-Baskunchak Natural Reserve in Astrakhan oblast has been performed, and the factors of its differentiation have been analyzed. The indices of pedodiversity have been calculated and compared for karst sinkholes in the dry steppe and northern taiga landscapes. Quantitative parameters of the lateral migration of solid soil substances on the slopes of the sinkhole have been determined. The rate of soil erosion decreases from the slope of southern aspect to the slopes of western, northern, and eastern aspects. On the average, it is estimated at 0.4 mm/yr. The average rate of accumulation of solid substances on the lower parts of the slopes and in the bottom of the sinkhole reaches 0.74 mm/yr. A comparative analysis of the soil properties attests to their dependence on the particular position of a given soil within the sinkhole. Downward the slopes of the sinkhole, full-profile brown arid soils (Cambic Calcisols) are replaced by sierozem-like soils (Haplic Calcisols), light-humus poorly developed soils (Luvisols), lithozems (Leptosols), and stratified soils (stratozems, or Colluvic Regosols). The soils within the upper ring-shape soil microzone are more diverse and contrasting with respect to their morphological, physical, chemical, and physicochemical properties. The degree of soil contrasts decreases down the slopes of the sinkhole towards its bottom. The studied sinkhole is characterized by considerable pedodiversity. Quantitative parameters of pedodiversity for the sinkhole in the dry steppe zone are higher than those form the sinkholes in the northern taiga zone.

  14. Extending research on parenting in mothers diagnosed with BPD: commentary on Stepp et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J

    2012-01-01

    Comments on an article Children of mothers with borderline personality disorder: Identifying parenting behaviors as potential targets for intervention by Stepp, Whalen, Pilkonis, Hipwell, and Levine (see record 2011-05873-001). With this review, Stepp and colleagues have advanced our understanding of parenting and child development within the context of maternal borderline personality disorder (BPD). It is commendable that these authors have initiated the first theoretical description of how a diagnosis of BPD may affect the quality of parenting. At the same time, this article highlights the disheartening lack of research in this area. Given the paucity of prior theoretical and empirical work exploring parenting in mothers diagnosed with BPD, advances in this area could be buttressed by current conceptualizations of parenting and empirical evidence from related parenting research. In this commentary, we highlight two main concerns and provide suggestions for moving the research in this area forward. First, we raise questions about how some of the identified parenting deficits thought to be specific to mothers with BPD will be operationalized in future basic research. Second, we suggest that the use of a behavioral approach to examining parenting in this population will facilitate both basic research and future intervention work.

  15. A Contribution to Insect Studies in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia: Vespid Wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batchuluun Buyanjargal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ikh Nart Nature Reserve remains poorly studied for invertebrates, especially for vespid wasps. A total of 14 vespid species belonging to seven genera of the subfamily Eumeninae were recorded from diff erent habitats (rocky outcrops, springs, tall vegetation habitats, shrub-lands and short grass steppes in the nature reserve during three-year studies (2015-2017. These species represent 27 percent of the vespid fauna of the desert-steppe zone of Mongolia. We found the highest species richness in areas where water was available (near springs and wells, and the lowest richness in habitats with tall vegetation. Among the diff erent habitat types, vespid species composition was most similar (91% shared species between rocky outcrops and spring habitats. Six vespid species range from Kazakhstan to Mongolian, and one species is sub-endemic to Mongolia. Availability of water sources and nesting sites were possibly the main factors infl uencing the distribution of vespid wasps. It is necessary to conduct comprehensive research into the insect community of Ikh Nart Nature Reserve.

  16. Natural recovery of steppe vegetation on vehicle tracks in central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    With rapid economic and social transformation in. Mangolia starting from the early 1990s, the ... Steppe desertification due to vehicle travel is a severe environmental issue in Mongolia. We studied natural vegeta- tion recovery ..... increases the risk of water erosion under summer rain storms (Bainbridge 1993). Bareness of ...

  17. The impact of herbivores in a Mongolian forest steppe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staalduinen, M.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Herbivores play a key role in the sustainability of steppe grasslands through their influence on the structural and functional properties of the ecosystem. Their grazing often leads to changes in vegetation structure, species composition and abundance, plant productivity and plant nitrogen cycling.

  18. Results of the monitoring of the Steppe Eagle population in Trans-Baikal Territory (Zabaikalsky Kray in 2015, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Barashkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ornithological survey was carried out in July–August 2015 in steppe areas of Russian part of Dauria (Trans-Baikal Territory, or Zabaikalsky Krai in the frames of monitoring the population of the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis. Research was conducted at 13 study sites in 10 administrative districts of the region, including 11 study sites which were surveyed repeatedly (after first survey in 2010. A total of 57 nesting territories with 95 nest structures were identified in 2010 and 2015 together. Additionally adult birds were recorded in 24 points but nests were not found. In 2015 we checked 35 of 40 nesting territories that were identified in 2010 while other 35 nesting territories (including 17 ones with nest structures are localized for the first time. A total of 27 nestlings and fledglings (1.4±0.5 nestlings and fledglings produced per successful nest in 19 nests were recorded during the 2015 survey. In 2010, the status of Steppe Eagle in Dauria was assessed as extremely unfavorable. The main population characteristics had not essentially changed to 2015. Actual average nesting density slightly increased but still is close to 1 pair per 100 km2. An average distance between neighbor active nests in Dauria is unexpectedly long as comparing with such figures in other regions of the Steppe Eagle nesting. More than a half of potentially available nesting territories remain unoccupied, and the share of unoccupied nesting territories almost did not change. The productivity of successful nests (average brood size remains low – on average 1.4±0.5 fledglings and nestlings per successful nest in 2015. The negative factors such as power lines that are dangerous for birds and steppe wild fires are still acting. More than 40 % of all the nesting territories were affected by fires in 2015; the nest structures were completely burnt at 17% of the known nesting territories visited in 2015. Meanwhile the following positive trends can be noted: the

  19. Carpathian Biosphere Reserve (Ukraine): Towards Participatory Management. eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 1 No. 2|

    OpenAIRE

    Hamor, Fedir D.; Geyer, Juliane; Ibisch, Pierre L.

    2009-01-01

    The Carpathian Biosphere Reserve (CBR) in Ukrainian Transcarpathia, formally recognized by UNESCO in 1992, is one of the most important protected areas in Europe. In 2007, the beech forests of Uholka were included into the UNESCO World Heritage Site Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians because of their uniqueness. In the course of the reserve’s spatial development and the potential integration of populated areas, participatory management arises as a crucial challenge. A first study of lo...

  20. Effects of Applied Land Use Strategies on Farmland Soils in the Southwestern Siberian Kulunda-Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Lars-Christian; Illiger, Patrick; Stephan, Eckart; Frühauf, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    The Kulunda steppe in southwestern Siberia is one of the most intensely used agricultural regions in the world. The study area of the KULUNDA project is the Kulunda steppe, which is a part of the conversion region created during the so called "virgin land campaign" in the soviet era. Nowadays it is characterized by widespread soil degradation. Despite the fact that agriculture is the basis of existence, land use practice is maladjusted to the local conditions. The widespread soil degradation and accordingly the decreased soil humus content have negative effects on crop yields in this region. With respect to climate change, the current study analyses the cause effect relationship between land use practice and soil properties. In particular, different methods of soil cultivation will be tested and for each of the cases the soil humus content, soil water, soil solute balance will be measured and compared. In addition, the possibilities of soil carbon sequestration capacity will be analyzed. Furthermore, the study aims to achieve properly adapted sustainable cropping systems to stabilize the yields and to increase the productivity of plant production per spatial unit in this high vulnerable dry farming region. In 2012 the long term field trials started at three test farms in different steppe biomes, containing different soil types from chernozems to kastanozems. Each of them is characterized by a negative water balance. Successfully running cropping models, such as crop rotation, tilling intensity, plant protection and nutrition strategies from south Canadian steppe regions were adapted to regional agronomic needs. The traditional Russian cultivation system will be compared with two modern systems, including no-tillage methods on specially randomized test plots. Additionally, these plots are equipped with soil moisture monitoring systems to analyze the soil water content in different depths under the different cropping methods. The expected results will not only deepen

  1. Climate Compatible Development in the Mongolia Steppe: analysis of vulnerability and adaptation response to global changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Togtokh, C.; Galvin, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: Climate change and variability, market and policy changes are shaping pastoral communities' decisions on what pathways their future livelihoods will take and how the steppe landscapes and river basins, are managed. Recent droughts and damaging winter storms (zuds) of the past two decades have exacerbated the situation and undermined the natural capital on which the pastoral livelihoods depend upon. River basins are critical natural resources well-being of social-ecological systems in Mongolia. River basins provide the ecosystem services which support pastoral communities and industrial and urban development. Green development strategies are strongly dependent on water resources. Consequently, integrated planning of river basin management is needed to maintain these critical ecosystem services to meet the multiple needs of livelihoods of communities in these basins and to support sustainable development activities within the basins. For this study our team worked in nine sums (i.e., county level administrative areas) in three river basins in two provinces (aimags) to collect household data from 144 households. We also collected census data from the aimags and national level to understand trends at the level of ecosystems and river basins. We have selected 3 sums in each river basis, representing forest steppe, steppe and desert steppe regions for comparison across river basins and ecological zones. FINDINGS: Integrated planning efforts would be enhanced through, one, use of a social-ecological framework and, two, the development of a cross-ministerial working group to address natural resource considerations. Across the three basins agriculture, pastoral, industrial, and urban needs vie for similar ecosystem services. The natural capital and ecosystem services of these basins need to be assessed to understand the vulnerability and capacity of the resources. The most frequently listed "best coping strategy" across all ecosystem types was for herders to

  2. Cleat development in coals of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation, Pilot Butte area, Wind River Reservation, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.C.; Clark, A.C.; Szmajter, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The cleat system developed in low-rank (mean viltrinite reflectance of 0.43 to 0.5 percent) coal beds in the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation was studied in outcrop and in coreholes drilled for coalbed methane evaluation near Pilot Butte in the central part of the Wind River Reservation. Cleats are the principal permeability pathway for fluids in coal beds. As a result, coalbed gas cannot be economically produced without significant cleat development. Two drillholes about 800 ft (244 m) apart encountered Mesaverde coal beds at depths ranging from 307 to 818 ft (93.6 to 249.3 m). One of the coal beds penetrated while drilling, the lowest coal in the Mesaverde coaly interval, is well exposed about a mile south of the two drillholes and the cleat development in this coal bed on outcrop was compared with that of the same coal in the drillholes.The 3 in (7.62 cm) diameter core is less than ideal for this study because cleat spacing in low-rank coals such as these typically averages greater than 7.62 cm. Nonetheless, face cleats at spacing of from 0.25 to 2.5 cm was observed in many of the coal beds. Cleats were less well-developed in other coal beds and no cleats were observed in a few beds. As expected, butt cleats were somewhat less well-developed than the face cleats. Attempts to relate cleat spacing to gas content, bed thickness, and ash content were not successful. A 3.0 m by 1.8 m area of the upper surface of the coal bed exposed a mile south of the drillsites was cleaned off and studied in detail. Cleat development in this limited study area varied from well-developed face and butt cleats in some places to few or no cleats in others. Face cleats trended roughly perpendicular to the fold axis of the nearby Pilot Butte anticline. Cleats did not penetrate a 2.5 cm thick carbonaceous shale bed about 20 cm above the base of the coal bed indicating that thin carbonaceous shale beds will act a permeability barriers. Two types of face cleats were observed on outcrop

  3. The role of the protected area concept in protecting the world’s largest natural reserve: Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Bastmeijer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Should the entire Antarctic continent and the surrounding islands be recognised as a ‘protected area’ or as a continent where certain areas, just like anywhere else, may be designated as protected areas? To find an answer to this question, this paper first discusses the most important agreements and declarations on environmental protection in Antarctica. Next, these instruments are compared with the components of IUCN’s ‘protected area’ definition (2008. In the light of this overall protection of Antarctica, the instrument of designating areas as Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs is discussed on the basis of a quick scan of 42 management plans for existing ASPAs. It is concluded that Antarctica could indeed be considered as a protected area and that the ASPA instrument is so shaped to provide specific areas with ‘extra protection’ by regulating human activities in those areas with a high level of detail. However, the continuous increase in human activities in Antarctica raises concerns with respect to the scope and completeness of the existing legal instruments. These concerns regarding the overall protection of Antarctica could become an argument for applying the ASPA instrument in respect of larger areas to ensure the comprehensive protection of at least certain parts of Antarctica. This would make the ASPA system more comparable with protected area systems in other parts of the world; however, strengthening the overall protection of Antarctica – parallel to the further development of the ‘specially’ protected area system - would be more consistent with Antarctica’s protected status as has developed since the Antarctic Treaty was signed 50 years ago.

  4. [Perceptions and adaptation strategies of herders in desert steppe of Inner Mongolia to climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Hou, Xiang-yang

    2011-04-01

    Desert steppe is very vulnerable to climate change. The herders caring for their livestock in such a natural environment have to face the challenges of rapid climate change. In this paper, a household-level questionnaire was conducted in the Suniteyou District of Inner Mongolia, China, aimed to analyze the herders' perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change, extreme climate events in particular. In this Steppe where precipitation is rare and meteorological disasters are frequent, drought is the main extreme climate event with the broadest affecting area, the highest affecting degree, and the greatest frequency. The sensitivity of the herders to drought is far higher than that to other extreme climate events, and also, the perceptions to drought induce the herders having deep perceptions to the extreme climate events such as strong wing, dust storm, and heavy snow. Relative to the perceptions to long-term climate change, the perceptions to short-term climate change are more deep and precise. The herders can estimate the long-term climate change trend according to their perceptions to the latest 10 years climate change. They attribute the poor livestock health and the reduced forage yield greatly to climate change. Yet, the herders are inexperienced in implementing efficient adaptation strategies. Generally, their adaptation measures are quite simplex and rather passive.

  5. Effect of summer fire on cursorial spider (Aranei and beetle (Coleoptera assemblages in meadow steppes of Central European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polchaninova Nina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire is an important structuring force for grassland ecosystems. Despite increased incidents of fire in European steppes, their impact on arthropod communities is still poorly studied. We assessed short-term changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages after a summer fire in the meadow steppe in Central European Russia. The responses of spider and beetle assemblages to the fire event were different. In the first post-fire year, the same beetle species dominated burnt and unburnt plots, the alpha-diversity of beetle assemblages was similar, and there were no pronounced changes in the proportions of trophic groups. Beetle species richness and activity density increased in the second post-fire year, while that of the spiders decreased. The spider alpha-diversity was lowest in the first post-fire year, and the main dominants were pioneer species. In the second year, the differences in spider species composition and activity density diminished. The main conclusion of our study is that the large-scale intensive summer fire caused no profound changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages of this steppe plot. Mitigation of the fire effect is explained by the small plot area, its location at the edge of the fire site and the presence of adjacent undisturbed habitats with herbaceous vegetation.

  6. Identification of Reservoir Thickness and Estimation of Hydrocarbon Reservation used the Pre-Stack Depth Migration (PSDM in Cikung Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudra Irawan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Information from the geological data shows that the Cikung field has the complex structure which is characterized by carbonate reef. Therefore, it is required in the domain depth migration (PSDM using interval velocity model is sensitive to variations in vertical and horizontal velocity to identify the thickness of the reservoir and estimation of hydrocarbon reserves. Stages include making the depth structure maps, map making the thickness of the reservoir, and the calculation of hydrocarbon reserves. The results showed that the thickness of the reservoir in Cikung Field, estimated to range from 71 meters to 175 meters with the prospect reservoir is at a depth of 1216 meters to 1247 meters from the surface. Hydrocarbon deposits (oil is estimated at 1,134 × 106 or 1,311 × 108 kilo litre by the porosity of 22.6% and 70.7% water saturation.

  7. Changing Climate and Overgrazing Are Decimating Mongolian Steppes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yi Y.

    2013-02-25

    Satellite observations identify the Mongolian steppes as a hotspot of global biomass reduction, the extent of which is comparable with tropical rainforest deforestation. To conserve or restore these grasslands, the relative contributions of climate and human activities to degradation need to be understood. Here we use a recently developed 21-year (1988-2008) record of satellite based vegetation optical depth (VOD, a proxy for vegetation water content and aboveground biomass), to show that nearly all steppe grasslands in Mongolia experienced significant decreases in VOD. Approximately 60% of the VOD declines can be directly explained by variations in rainfall and surface temperature. After removing these climate induced influences, a significant decreasing trend still persists in the VOD residuals across regions of Mongolia. Correlations in spatial patterns and temporal trends suggest that a marked increase in goat density with associated grazing pressures and wild fires are the most likely non-climatic factors behind grassland degradation. © 2013 Liu et al.

  8. Changing climate and overgrazing are decimating Mongolian steppes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi Y; Evans, Jason P; McCabe, Matthew F; de Jeu, Richard A M; van Dijk, Albert I J M; Dolman, Albertus J; Saizen, Izuru

    2013-01-01

    Satellite observations identify the Mongolian steppes as a hotspot of global biomass reduction, the extent of which is comparable with tropical rainforest deforestation. To conserve or restore these grasslands, the relative contributions of climate and human activities to degradation need to be understood. Here we use a recently developed 21-year (1988-2008) record of satellite based vegetation optical depth (VOD, a proxy for vegetation water content and aboveground biomass), to show that nearly all steppe grasslands in Mongolia experienced significant decreases in VOD. Approximately 60% of the VOD declines can be directly explained by variations in rainfall and surface temperature. After removing these climate induced influences, a significant decreasing trend still persists in the VOD residuals across regions of Mongolia. Correlations in spatial patterns and temporal trends suggest that a marked increase in goat density with associated grazing pressures and wild fires are the most likely non-climatic factors behind grassland degradation.

  9. Ecosystem responses to warming and watering in typical and desert steppes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenzhu Xu; Yanhui Hou; Lihua Zhang; Tao Liu; Guangsheng Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is projected to continue, leading to intense fluctuations in precipitation and heat waves and thereby affecting the productivity and the relevant biological processes of grassland ecosystems. Here, we determined the functional responses to warming and altered precipitation in both typical and desert steppes. The results showed that watering markedly increased the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a typical steppe during a drier year and in a desert steppe over two ...

  10. Delivering Formal Outdoor Learning in Protected Areas: A Case Study of Scottish Natural Heritage National Nature Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    In most countries, protected area management agencies provide formal outdoor learning opportunities for a wide range of educational groups. For high-quality formal outdoor learning programmes that provide a range of experiences to be effectively delivered, specific resources and infrastructure are needed. Using the case study of Scottish Natural…

  11. Persistent and novel threats to the biodiversity of Kazakhstan’s steppes and semi-deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Johannes; Koshkin, Maxim A; Bragina, Tatyana M; Katzner, Todd E.; Milner-Gulland, E J; Schreiber, Dagmar; Sheldon, Robert; Shmalenko, Alyona; Smelansky, Ilya; Terraube, Julien; Urazaliev, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    Temperate grasslands have suffered disproportionally from conversion to cropland, degradation and fragmentation. A large proportion of the world’s remaining near-natural grassland is situated in Kazakhstan. We aimed to assess current and emerging threats to steppe and semi-desert biodiversity in Kazakhstan and evaluate conservation research priorities. We conducted a horizon-scanning exercise among conservationists from academia and practice. We first compiled a list of 45 potential threats. These were then ranked by the survey participants according to their perceived severity, the need for research on them, and their novelty. The highest-ranked threats were related to changes in land use (leading to habitat loss and deterioration), direct persecution of wildlife, and rapid infrastructure development due to economic and population growth. Research needs were identified largely in the same areas, and the mean scores of threat severity and research need were highly correlated. Novel threats comprised habitat loss by photovoltaic and wind power stations, climate change and changes in agriculture such as the introduction of biofuels. However, novelty was not correlated with threat severity or research priority, suggesting that the most severe threats are the established ones. Important goals towards more effective steppe and semi-desert conservation in Kazakhstan include more cross-sector collaboration (e.g. by involving stakeholders in conservation and agriculture), greater allocation of funds to under-staffed areas (e.g. protected area management), better representativeness and complementarity in the protected area system and enhanced data collection for wildlife monitoring and threat assessments (including the use of citizen-science databases).

  12. Conservation potential of abandoned military areas matches that of established reserves: Plants and butterflies in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, O.; Vrba, Pavel; Beneš, Jiří; Hrázský, Z.; Koptík, J.; Kučera, T.; Marhoul, P.; Zámečník, J.; Konvička, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013), e53124 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167 Grant - others:MŽP(CZ) SP/2D3/153/08; MŽP(CZ) VaV620/2/03; GA JčU(CZ) 144/2010/100 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : butterflies * millitary areas * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  13. The dynamic of urban and protected areas at Balai Raja Wildlife Reserve, Riau, Indonesia: a social ecology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwondo; Darmadi; Yunus, M.

    2018-01-01

    The development process has resulted in deforestation. A comprehensive study is needed to obtain an objective solution by integrating the ecological dimension and human dimension. This study was conducted within Balai Raja Wildlife Reserve (BRWR), Bengkalis Regency, Riau Province, Indonesia. We used the social-ecological systems (SES) approach based on local characteristics, categorized into ecological status, social status and actors. Each factoris ranked using Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS).BRWR sustainability levels are in moderate condition. The ecological dimension is in a less sustainable state, with leverage: (1) forest conversion; (2) local ecological knowledge; (3) high conservation value. The social dimension is in a less sustainable state, with leverage: (1) community empowerment; (2) social conflict; (3) participation in landscape management. Dimensions actors are on a fairly sustainable status, with leverage: (1) institutional interaction; (2) stakeholder’s commitment; (3) law enforcement. We recommend strengthening community empowerment, local ecological knowledge, interaction, and stakeholder commitment

  14. Changes in Biomass and Quality of Alpine Steppe in Response to N & P Fertilization in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Junfu; Cui, Xiaoyong; Wang, Shuping; Wang, Fang; Pang, Zhe; Xu, Ning; Zhao, Guoqiang; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    In the alpine steppe zone on the Central Tibetan Plateau, a large amount of area has been degraded due to natural and artificial factors. N & P fertilization is widely accepted to recover degraded pastures in other regions all over the world. However, it is not clear how alpine steppe communities respond to N & P fertilization, and what is the optimal application rate, in the perspective of forage production. To attempt to explore these questions, in July 2013, two fencing sites were designed in Baingoin County with 12 treatments of different levels of nitrogen (N0: 0; N1: 7.5 g m-2 yr-1; N2: 15 g m-2 yr-1) & phosphate (P0: 0; P1: 7.5 gP2O5 m-2 yr-1; P2: 15 gP2O5 m-2 yr-1; P3: 30 gP2O5 m-2 yr-1). The results indicated N&P addition was capable to ameliorate the quality of the two sites in the Tibetan Plateau steppe. Increasing N application level resulted in significant increment in Gramineae and total biomass in the two sites. P addition significantly improved the quantity of Compositae, total biomass and the biomasss of other species in site II, while it only significantly improved the total biomass in site I. Gramineae was much more sensitive to N-induced changes than P-induced changes, and this indicated N addition was better to ameliorate the quality of plateau steppe than P-induced changes. No strong evidence was found for critical threshold within 15 g N m-2 yr-1, and there was decreasing tendency when P addition rate was above 15 g m-2 yr-1. N&P has the potential to accelerate soil acidification, which improved the content of available K, likely as a result of nonsignificant correlation between biomass and soil moisture. This work highlights the the tradeoffs that exist in N and P addition in recovering degraded steppe. PMID:27223104

  15. Estimating urban trees and carbon stock potentials for mitigating climate change in Lagos: Case of Ikeja Government Reserved Area (GRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, P. O.; Faderin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Urban trees are a component of the urban infrastructure which offers diverse services including environmental, aesthetic and economic. The accumulation of carbon in the atmosphere resulting from the indiscriminate distribution of human populations and urban activities with the unsustainable consumption of natural resources contributes to global environmental change especially in coastal cities like Lagos. Carbon stocks and sequestration by urban trees are increasingly recognized to play significant roles for mitigating climate change. This paper focuses on the estimation of carbon stock and sequestration through biomass estimation and quantification in Ikeja GRA, Lagos. Ikeja possesses a characteristic feature as a microcosm of Lagos due to the wide range of land uses. A canopy assessment of tree population was carried out using itree canopy software. A GPS survey was used to collect an inventory of all trees showing their location, spatial distribution and other attributes. The analysis of the carbon storage and sequestration potential of both actual and potential tree planting sites involved biomass estimations from tree allometry equations. Trees were identified at species level and measurements of their dendrometric values were recorded and integrated into the GIS database to estimate biomass of trees and carbon storage. The trees in the study area were estimated to have a biomass of 441.9 mg and carbon storage of 221.395 kg/tree. By considering the potential tree planting sites the estimated carbon stored increased to 11,352.73 kg. Carbon sequestration value in the study area was found to be 1.6790 tonnes for the existing trees and 40.707 tonnes for the potential tree planting sites (PTPS). The estimation of carbon storage and sequestration values of trees are important incentives for carbon accounting/footprints and monitoring of climate change mitigation which has implications for evaluation and monitoring of urban ecosystem.

  16. Disparities in Alcohol, Drug Use, and Mental Health Condition Prevalence and Access to Care in Rural, Isolated, and Reservation Areas: Findings From the South Dakota Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda M; Spurlock, Margaret; Dulacki, Kristen; Meath, Thomas; Li, Hsin-Fang Grace; McCarty, Dennis; Warne, Donald; Wright, Bill; McConnell, K John

    2016-06-01

    Research on urban/rural disparities in alcohol, drug use, and mental health (ADM) conditions is inconsistent. This study describes ADM condition prevalence and access to care across diverse geographies in a predominantly rural state. Multimodal cross-sectional survey in South Dakota from November 2013 to October 2014, with oversampling in rural areas and American Indian reservations. Measures assessed demographic characteristics, ADM condition prevalence using clinical screenings and participant self-report, perceived need for treatment, health service usage, and barriers to obtaining care. We tested for differences among urban, rural, isolated, and reservation geographic areas, controlling for participant age and gender. We analyzed 7,675 surveys (48% response rate). Generally, ADM condition prevalence rates were not significantly different across geographies. However, respondents in isolated and reservation areas were significantly less likely to have access to primary care. Knowledge of treatment options was significantly lower in isolated regions and individuals in reservation areas had significantly lower odds of reporting receipt of all needed care. Across the sample there was substantial discordance between ADM clinical screenings and participant self-reported need; 98.1% of respondents who screened positive for alcohol or drug misuse and 63.8% of respondents who screened positive for a mental health condition did not perceive a need for care. In a predominantly rural state, geographic disparities in ADM conditions are related to differences in access as opposed to prevalence, particularly for individuals in isolated and reservation areas. Educational interventions about ADM condition characteristics may be as important as improving access to care. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  17. Revision and partial analysis of the information of Forestall Reserves, Districts of Integrated Handling of renewable natural resources and special handling areas, declared in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Martinez, Ingrid Vanesa

    2002-01-01

    A revision and a partial analysis is made of the information of Forestall Reserves, Districts of Integrated Handling of renewable natural resources and Areas of Special Handling in Colombia whose main purpose is the conservation and the sustainable handling of the natural resources for the maintenance of the goods and services, derived of the forest, however, these areas are under constant intervention that which has caused the subtraction of considerable regions of the forestall reserves. With this revision and analysis it is looked for to support to the General Address of Ecosystems of the Environment Ministry, with the purpose of impelling the process of consolidation of an upgraded of information system that it guides the classification, handling and administration of these Areas

  18. Conservation status of Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis bengalensis (Gmelin, 1789 (Gruiformes: Otididae in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and adjoining areas, eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Sagar Baral

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis is one of the most critically threatened birds of the world. The species has restricted distribution within the Indian subcontinent extending southeast to parts of Cambodia and Vietnam. The population of the species is being monitored in Nepal since 1982. The most recent study on the species shows a precipitous decline in its population, even for a species mainly confined to protected areas. Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and adjoining areas had been omitted in previous surveys mainly because the area was considered not to hold any significant number of the species. Opportunistic surveys in April and May 2011 indicated that there is a comeback of this species in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and the adjoining riverine grasslands. As many as 12 pairs were estimated. Further systematic surveys are recommended to find out the total population of the species.

  19. Response of gross ecosystem productivity, light use efficiency, and water use efficiency of Mongolian steppe to seasonal variations in soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Gong; Eugster, Werner; Asanuma, Jun; Kotani, Ayumi; Davaa, Gombo; Oyunbaatar, Dambaravjaa; Sugita, Michiaki

    2008-03-01

    The examination of vegetation productivity and use of light and water resources is important for understanding the carbon and water cycles in semiarid and arid environments. We made continuous measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes over an arid steppe ecosystem in Mongolia by using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. These measurements allow an examination of EC-estimated gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), light use efficiency (LUE), and water use efficiency (WUE) of the steppe. Daily variations of GEP, LUE, and WUE were associated with daily variations of incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), ambient temperature (Ta), and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). The magnitudes of these variations were also dependent on canopy development. On the daily basis, GEP linearly correlated with evapotranspiration rate and PAR. LUE correlated positively with leaf area index, Ta, and soil moisture availability but negatively with the surface reflectivity for short-wave solar radiation. Throughout the growing season, both GEP and LUE responded strongly to precipitation-fed soil moisture in the top 20 cm of the soil. An examination of the responses of LUE and WUE to PAR under different soil moisture conditions shows that when soil water availability exceeded VPD, the steppe was most efficient in light use, whereas it was less efficient in water use. The multivariate analysis of variance also suggests that soil moisture availability, especially water status in the upper 20-cm soil layer with dense distribution of grass roots, is the most significant factor that governs GEP, WUE, and LUE. This study provides a preliminary assessment of the use of available water and light by the Mongolian arid steppe ecosystems under seasonally varying soil moisture conditions. A better understanding of these functional responses is required to predict how climate change may affect arid steppe ecosystems.

  20. Geohydrology and water resources of the Papago Farms--Great Plain area, Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona, and the upper Rio Sonoyta area, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollett, Kenneth J.

    1985-01-01

    The Papago Farms-Great Plain and upper Rio Sonoyta study area includes about 490 square miles in south-central Arizona and north-central Sonora, Mexico. The area is characterized by a broad, deep, sediment-filled basin bounded by low, jagged fault-block mountains. The climate is arid to semiarid. The climate and abundant ground water provide favorable conditions for irrigated agriculture. Annual precipitation averages 5 to 8 inches per year on the desert floor. Runoff, which occurs as intermittent streamflow and sheetflow, is too short lived and too laden with suspended sediment to be a reliable source for irrigation or public supply. Nearly all the water used to irrigate more than 5,000 cultivated acres in the study area is withdrawn from the unconsolidated to partly consolidated basin fill. The ground water occurs in the deposits under unconfined (water-table) conditions with a saturated thickness that ranges from zero along the mountain fronts to more than 8,000 feet in the center of the basin. The amount of recoverable ground water in storage to a depth of 400 feet below the 1978-80 water table is estimated to be about 10 million acre-feet. Depths to water range from about 500 feet near the southern boundary of the study area to about 150 feet in the center of the study area. Ground water enters the area principally as underflow beneath the San Simon and Chukut Kuk Washes and as recharge along the mountain fronts. On the basis of model results, annual inflow to the ground-water system is estimated to be about 4,390 acre-feet. Ground water moves through the study area along paths that encircle a virtually impermeable unit in the basin center, termed 'the lakebed-clay deposits,' and moves westward to an outflow point beneath the Rio Sonoyta south of Cerro La Nariz. Rates of water movement range from less than I foot per year in clays to about 160 feet per year in well-sorted, coarse stream-channel deposits. Transmissivities along the basin margins range from 10

  1. Experimental warming does not enhance soil respiration in a semiarid temperate forest-steppe ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lellei-Kovacs, E.; Kovacs-Lang, E.; Kalapos, T.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of simulated climate change on soil respiration was studied in a field experiment on 4 m x 5 m plots in the semiarid temperate Pannonian sand forest-steppe. This ecosystem type has low productivity and soil organic matter content, and covers large areas, yet data on soil carbon fluxes...... are still limited. Soil respiration rate-measured monthly between April and November from 2003 to 2006-remained very low (0.09 - 1.53 mu mol CO2 m(-2) s(-1))in accordance with the moderate biological activity and low humus content of the nutrient poor, coarse sandy soil. Specific soil respiration rate...... ( calculated for unit soil organic matter content), however, was relatively high (0.36 - 7.92 mu mol CO g(-1) C(org)h(-1)) suggesting substrate limitation for soil biological activity. During the day, soil respiration rate was significantly lower at dawn than at midday, while seasonally clear temperature...

  2. Characterisation of seven Inocybe ectomycorrhizal morphotypes from a semiarid woody steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seress, Diána; Dima, Bálint; Kovács, Gábor M

    2016-04-01

    Ectomycorrhizas (ECM) of Inocybe species (Inocybaceae, Basidiomycota) formed by three host plant species (Populus alba, Salix rosmarinifolia and Pinus nigra) in a semiarid woody steppe of Hungary were studied. To identify the fungal partners, we performed phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequences for the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear DNA (nrDNA ITS) together with sequences gained from public databases. Seven Inocybe ectomycorrhiza morphotypes were morpho-anatomically characterised. Five morphotypes were identified (I. phaeoleuca, I. psammophila, I. semifulva, I. splendens and I. subporospora), whereas two morphotypes represented unidentified Inocybe species. Differences were discernible among the morphotypes, and they showed general anatomical characteristics of Inocybe ECM, such as the slightly organised plectenchymatic mantle (types A, B and E and the gelatinous C). The ECM of I. subporospora and I. phaeoleuca were detected from the introduced Pinus nigra. These two fungi are probably native to the area but capable of forming a novel ectomycorrhizal association with the invasive host.

  3. The steppe species of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants, with a focus on Marshallagia: climate as a key determinant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meradi, S.; Bentounsi, B.; Zouyed, I.; Cabaret, J.

    2011-01-01

    We intended to relate the geographic distribution of ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes in relation to steppe climate (and vegetation). Data are either from literature or from newly acquired/ available results. Simple or more sophisticated meteorological indices were used to characterize the climate. Regression analyses were used to correlate climatic factors and presence of endoparasites from steppe areas. The distribution of one (Marshallagia) out of five endoparasite genera was concentrated mostly in steppic areas whereas other species were found also in other areas. In wild hosts the distribution of Marshallagia was much larger from Sptizberg to New World (northern territories in Canada or extreme south of America). In domestic small ruminants the presence of Marshallagia was identified more frequently and constantly in the area of original domestication and its early diffusion (from Northern Africa to Kashmir, Caucasia). The distribution of this parasite was correlated to low rainfalls which were not the case for all other endoparasites. After host switch (reindeer or south America camelids), it has expanded in other climatic areas, either colder or dryer. PMID:21894268

  4. The steppe species of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants, with a focus on Marshallagia: climate as a key determinant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meradi S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We intended to relate the geographic distribution of ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes in relation to steppe climate (and vegetation. Data are either from literature or from newly acquired/ available results. Simple or more sophisticated meteorological indices were used to characterize the climate. Regression analyses were used to correlate climatic factors and presence of endoparasites from steppe areas. The distribution of one (Marshallagia out of five endoparasite genera was concentrated mostly in steppic areas whereas other species were found also in other areas. In wild hosts the distribution of Marshallagia was much larger from Sptizberg to New World (northern territories in Canada or extreme south of America. In domestic small ruminants the presence of Marshallagia was identified more frequently and constantly in the area of original domestication and its early diffusion (from Northern Africa to Kashmir, Caucasia. The distribution of this parasite was correlated to low rainfalls which were not the case for all other endoparasites. After host switch (reindeer or south America camelids, it has expanded in other climatic areas, either colder or dryer.

  5. Influence of shrubs on soil chemical properties in Alxa desert steppe, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua Fu; Shifang Pei; Yaming Chen; Changgui Wan

    2007-01-01

    Alxa desert steppe is one of severely the degraded rangelands in the Northwest China. Shrubs, as the dominant life form in the desert steppe, play an important role in protecting this region from further desertification. Chemical properties of three soil layers (0 to 10, 10 to 20 and 20 to 30 cm) at three locations (the clump center [A], in the periphery of shrub...

  6. Modeling of the evolution of steppe chernozems and development of the method of pedogenetic chronology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisetskii, F.N.; Stolba, Vladimir; Goleusov, P.V.

    2016-01-01

    Geoarchaeological methods were used to study chronosequences of surface soils in the steppe zone and to trace soil evolution during the Late Holocene in northwestern Crimea. It was found that the morphological and functional “maturity” of the humus horizons in steppe chernozems of the Late Holocene...

  7. Implications of longer term rest from grazing in the sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Davies; M. Vavra; B. Schultz; N. Rimbey

    2014-01-01

    Longer term grazing rest has occurred or been proposed in large portions of the sagebrush steppe based on the assumption that it will improve ecosystem properties. However, information regarding the influence of longer term rest from grazing is limited and has not been summarized. We synthesized the scientific literature on long-term rest in the sagebrush steppe to...

  8. N dynamics of Inner Mongolia typical steppe as affected by grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, M.; Gao, Y. Z.; Brueck, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2012-04-01

    For large areas of Inner Mongolian semi-arid grasslands, as for many regions of the Eurasian steppe belt, substantial land degradation was reported as a consequence of excessive overgrazing during the last decades. Nitrogen is considered as a key element for ecosystem functions and therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the system's N balance and cycle as affected by land-use change is of fundamental importance to maintain, improve or restore ecosystem services such as forage production, carbon sequestration and diversity conservation. In this comprehensive case study of a Chinese typical steppe, we present an in-depth analysis of N dynamics including the balance of N gains and losses, and N cycling. N pools and fluxes were simultaneously quantified on three grassland sites of contrasting grazing intensity. Our N balances indicated the ungrazed site as N sink with annual net N input of up to 3 g N m-2, mainly due to N input by dust deposition, whereas the heavily grazed site must be considered as N source with net losses of up to 1.7 g m-2. Mayor N losses occurred via dust emissions and excrement export from grazing sites, the latter as a consequence of the common practice of keeping sheep in paddocks overnight. Compared to these fluxes, gaseous N losses, export of animal products (live weight and wool) and biological N2 fixation were of minor relevance. Heavy grazing reduced pool sizes of both topsoil organic N, and above- and belowground biomass N. Furthermore, grazing reduced N fluxes with regard to N uptake, decomposition, gross microbial N turnover, and immobilization. Most N-related processes were more intensive in seasons of higher water availability indicating complex interactions between land-use intensity and climate variability. The projected increase of annual atmospheric N wet deposition and changes in rainfall pattern will likely affect the N sink-source pathways and N flux dynamics, indicating high potential impact of future N enrichment and climate

  9. Archaeological research in the Eurasian steppes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parzinger, Hermann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the activities of the 'Eurasien-Abteilung' of the German Archaeological Institute in different countries of former USSR. Many of these projects have just begun; consequently the paper does not discuss the results of these investigations, but details their scientific purposes. The investigations cover an area which extends from the Black Sea to northeastern China. The principal objects of these investigations include: the transition from the Late Bronze to the Early Iron Age in the Pontic area north of the Black Sea and the Greek colonization of that area; the activities of the Scythians and the Sassanians in Transcaucasia, urbanism and metallurgy in the Bronze Age of Central Asia; and, finally, cultural developments from the Early Bronze Age to the periods of the Scythians and the Huns period in southern Siberia.

    Este artículo presenta las actividades de la 'Eurasien-Abteilung', del Instituto Arqueológico Alemán, en los distintos países de la ex-URSS. Como muchos de estos proyectos han empezado hace poco tiempo, no pretendemos adelantar resultados, sino planteamientos científicos. El área que abarcan se extiende desde el Mar Negro hasta el Noreste de China. Sus principales temas de investigación son: el cambio del Bronce Final a la primera Edad del Hierro en el norte del Mar Negro, la colonización griega en esta zona, las actividades de los Escitas y de los Sasánidas en Transcaucasia, el urbanismo y la metalurgia de la Edad del Bronce en Asia Central y, finalmente, el desarrollo cultural desde el Bronce Antiguo hasta la época de los Escitas y Hunos en el sur de Siberia.

  10. Utilization of non-merchantable wood in Steppe regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrovol' skil, E.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    A description, with diagram, is given of the design of a small mobile retort developed in the USSR for pyrolysis of unmerchantable wood in the steppe regions. The type of wood considered is the tree and shrub material in shelterbelts, e.g. Cornus sanguinea, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Ribes aureum, Cotinus coggygria (Rhus continus) and Caragana arborescens. Yields of charcoal, settled tar, alcohols, and volatile acids from each of these species are given in % of oven-dry wood for pyrolysis at 320/sup 0/C for 2 h. Comparative data are given for dry distillation of wood of birch, spruce, and pine (400/sup 0/C, 8 h).

  11. Application of geographic information systems in evaluating the development of gully erosion in the steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Tsvetkova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On the territory of the steppe zone of Ukraine using GPS and leveling set the coordinates of the vertices, the configuration of borders, height, length, width 400 of cutbanks, gullies and ravines are established. Content of iron in the layer of 0–50 cm is determined. Obtained data is imported into QuantumGis and plotted on the map of the tilled soil of Ukraine. The centers of the clusters of studied objects are detected in the Central and Eastern parts of the steppe. Analysis of the causes revealed a complex of factors. For the year of observations it was revealed that the area of each ravine grew on average by5 m², height by8 cm, length by24 cm, width by21 cm, and concentration of Fe decreased by 20 mg/kg. The main reasons are significant precipitation and sustainable grass cover. Size of the gullies increased by1 m², height – by4 cm, length by14 cm, width by9 cm, concentration of Fe remained unchanged. Due to the fact that woody plants hinder the development of erosion and enrich the soil minerals, ravines feature the decrease in height by1 cmand the concentration of Fe increase at 24 mg/kg, with the values of other indicators unchanged. In the environment of QuantumGis the maps of electronic density and the prevalence of cutbanks, gullies and ravines in the steppe zone of Ukraine were developed. With their help, we determined the dependence between the processes and natural conditions under study, the limiting angles of rotation, the area of gully erosion. Database of the project has been created with regard to the content of trace elements and features of their migration across the ravine profile for the purpose of conducting research and further use in the process of developing appropriate measures to combat erosion.

  12. Geologic framework of pre-Cretaceous rocks in the Southern Ute Indian Reservation and adjacent areas, southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Steven M.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a discussion and summary of Jurassic and older rocks in the Southern Ute Indian Reservation and adjacent areas, southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico, and is based on analysis of geophysical logs and observations of outcrops. The Reservation, which is located in the northern San Juan Basin, has been the site of deposition of sediments for much of the Phanerozoic. Geologic times represented on the Reservation are the Precambrian, Cambrian, Devonian, Mississippian, Pennsylvanian, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary. Rocks of Ordovician and Silurian age have not been reported in this region. Thicknesses of pre-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks range from about 750 feet (229 meters) on the Archuleta arch, east of the Reservation, to more than 8,300 feet (2,530 meters) just northwest of the Reservation. About 5,500 feet (1,676 meters) of pre-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks occur in the central part of the Reservation, near Ignacio. At Ignacio the top of the Jurassic lies at a depth of 7,600 feet (2,316 meters) below the surface, which is composed of Tertiary rocks. As much as 2,500 feet (762 meters) of Tertiary rocks occur in the area. More than 10,000 feet (3,048 meters) of Cretaceous and younger rocks, and 15,600 feet (4,755 meters) of all Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks occur in the vicinity of the Reservation. In the early Paleozoic the area that includes the Southern Ute Reservation was on the stable western shelf of the craton. During this time sediments that compose the following shallow-marine clastic and carbonate rocks were deposited: the Upper Cambrian Ignacio Quartzite (0-150 feet; 0-46 meters), Upper Devonian Elbert Formation (50-200 feet; 15-61 meters), Upper Devonian Ouray Limestone (10-75 feet; 3-23 meters), and Mississippian Leadville Limestone (0-250 feet; 0-76 meters). Mixed carbonate and clastic deposition, which was punctuated by a unique episode of deposition of evaporite sediments, continued through

  13. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosytstems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2005-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  14. Shrub-Steppe Early Succession Following Juniper Cutting and Prescribed Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jonathan D.; Davies, Kirk W.; Sharp, Robert N.

    2011-03-01

    Pinus- Juniperus L. (Piñon-juniper) woodlands of the western United States have expanded in area nearly 10-fold since the late 1800's. Juniperus occidentalis ssp. occidentalis Hook. (western juniper) dominance in sagebrush steppe has several negative consequences, including reductions in herbaceous production and diversity, decreased wildlife habitat, and higher erosion and runoff potentials. Prescribed fire and mechanical tree removal are the main methods used to control J. occidentalis and restore sagebrush steppe. However, mature woodlands become difficult to prescribe burn because of the lack of understory fuels. We evaluated partial cutting of the woodlands (cutting 25-50% of the trees) to increase surface fuels, followed by prescribed fire treatments in late successional J. occidentalis woodlands of southwest Idaho to assess understory recovery. The study was conducted in two different plant associations and evaluated what percentage of the woodland required preparatory cutting to eliminate remaining J. occidentalis by prescribed fire, determined the impacts of fire to understory species, and examined early post-fire successional dynamics. The study demonstrated that late successional J. occidentalis woodlands can be burned after pre-cutting only a portion of the trees. Early succession in the cut-and-burn treatments were dominated by native annual and perennial forbs, in part due to high mortality of perennial bunchgrasses. By the third year after fire the number of establishing perennial grass seedlings indicated that both associations would achieve full herbaceous recovery. Cutting-prescribed fire combinations are an effective means for controlling encroaching late successional J. occidentalis and restoring herbaceous plant communities. However, land managers should recognize that there are potential problems associated with cutting-prescribed fire applications when invasive weeds are present.

  15. Injuries to Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in British Columbia, Canada: Incidence and trends, 1986-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in British Columbia (BC are well established. Information regarding the influence of residence on disparities is scarce. We sought to fill these gaps by examining hospitalization rates for all injuries, unintentional injuries and intentional injuries across 24 years among i Aboriginal and total populations; ii populations living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas; and iii Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve. Methods We used data spanning 1986 through 2010 from BC’s universal health care insurance plan, linked to vital statistics databases. Aboriginal people were identified by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations, and their residence was determined by postal code. “On-reserve” residence was established by postal code areas associated with an Indian reserve or settlement. Health Service Delivery Areas (HSDAs were classified as “metropolitan” if they contained a population of at least 100,000 with a density of 400 or more people per square kilometre. We calculated the crude hospitalization incidence rate and the Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization due to injury standardizing by gender, 5-year age group, and HSDA. We assessed cumulative change in SRR over time as the relative change between the first and last years of the observation period. Results Aboriginal metropolitan populations living off-reserve had the lowest SRR of injury (2.0, but this was 2.3 times greater than the general British Columbia metropolitan population (0.86. For intentional injuries, Aboriginal populations living on-reserve in non-metropolitan areas were at 5.9 times greater risk than the total BC population. In general, the largest injury disparities were evident for Aboriginal non-metropolitan populations living on-reserve (SRR 3.0; 2.5 times greater than the general BC non-metropolitan population (1

  16. Ecology and Conservation of Steppes and Semi-Natural Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valkó Orsolya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Palaearctic grasslands encompass a diverse variety of habitats, many of high nature value and vulnerability. The main challenges are climate-change, land-use change, agricultural intensification and abandonment. Many measures are in place to address these challenges, through restoration and appropriate management, though more work is necessary. We present eight studies from China/Germany, Greece, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine. The papers cover a wide range of grassland and steppe habitats and cover vegetation ecology, syntaxonomy and zoology. We also conducted a systematic search on steppe and grassland diversity. The greatest number of studies was from China, followed by Germany and England. We conclude that the amount of research being carried out on Eurasian grasslands is inadequate considering their high levels of biodiversity and vulnerability. We hope to encourage readers to address current major challenges, such as how to manage grasslands for the benefit of diverse taxa, to ensure that conservation initiatives concentrate on sites where there is good potential for success and for the generation of realistic and viable conservation strategies.

  17. An integrated environmental risk assessment and management framework for enhancing the sustainability of marine protected areas: the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve case study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Elvis G B; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Morton, Brian; Lee, Joseph H W

    2015-02-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs), such as marine parks and reserves, contain natural resources of immense value to the environment and mankind. Since MPAs may be situated in close proximity to urbanized areas and influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g. continuous discharges of contaminated waters), the marine organisms contained in such waters are probably at risk. This study aimed at developing an integrated environmental risk assessment and management (IERAM) framework for enhancing the sustainability of such MPAs. The IERAM framework integrates conventional environmental risk assessment methods with a multi-layer-DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) conceptual approach, which can simplify the complex issues embraced by environmental management strategies and provide logical and concise management information. The IERAM process can generate a useful database, offer timely update on the status of MPAs, and assist in the prioritization of management options. We use the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve in Hong Kong as an example to illustrate the IERAM framework. A comprehensive set of indicators were selected, aggregated and analyzed using this framework. Effects of management practices and programs were also assessed by comparing the temporal distributions of these indicators over a certain timeframe. Based on the obtained results, we have identified the most significant components for safeguarding the integrity of the marine reserve, and indicated the existing information gaps concerned with the management of the reserve. Apart from assessing the MPA's present condition, a successful implementation of the IERAM framework as evocated here would also facilitate better-informed decision-making and, hence, indirectly enhance the protection and conservation of the MPA's marine biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biotope of Corsac Fox and Red Fox in Ikh Nart Natur e Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Murdoch

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Corsac foxes ( Vu lpes corsac and red foxes ( V. vulpes range widely across northern and central Asia, occupying a variety of arid biotopes. In Mongolia, both species live sympatrically throughout most of the country, but few details of their habitat associations exist. We examined the biotope of corsac and red foxes in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in Dornogobi Aimag, Mongolia, which lies at the confl ue nce of steppe and semi-desert vegetation zones. We evaluated the extent to which both species occur in these two zones and the habitats within them based on locations of scats ( n = 1 ,967, opportunistic sightings ( n = 2 19, and captures ( n = 3 5 collected from August 2004 to August 2007. Corsac and red foxes occurred in both steppe and semi-desert zones and all habitat types in the reserve. However, corsacs occurred more frequently than expected in steppe zone and red foxes occurred more than expected in semi-desert zone. Corsac locations associated positively with steppe habitats, including grass, shrub, and semi-shrub plains, whereas red fox locations fell mainly in drier, more rugged semi-desert habitats, suggesting ecological separation exists between species. As corsac and red foxes appear to be declining in Mongolia, our results suggest that protection efforts in Ikh Nart should focus on steppe habitats for corsacs and semi-desert habitats for red foxes.

  19. Mercury distribution in two Sierran forest and one desert sagebrush steppe ecosystems and the effects of fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engle, Mark A.; Sexauer Gustin, Mae; Johnson, Dale W.; Murphy, James F.; Miller, Wally W.; Walker, Roger F.; Wright, Joan; Markee, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentration, reservoir mass, and Hg reservoir size were determined for vegetation components, litter, and mineral soil for two Sierran forest sites and one desert sagebrush steppe site. Mercury was found to be held primarily in the mineral soil (maximum depth of 60 to 100 cm), which contained more than 90% of the total ecosystem reservoir. However, Hg in foliage, bark, and litter plays a more dominant role in Hg cycling than the mineral soil. Mercury partitioning into ecosystem components at the Sierran forest sites was similar to that observed for other US forest sites. Vegetation and litter Hg reservoirs were significantly smaller in the sagebrush steppe system because of lower biomass. Data collected from these ecosystems after wildfire and prescribed burns showed a significant decrease in the Hg pool from certain reservoirs. No loss from mineral soil was observed for the study areas but data from fire severity points suggested that Hg in the upper few millimeters of surface soil may be volatilized due to exposure to elevated temperatures. Comparison of data from burned and unburned plots suggested that the only significant source of atmospheric Hg from the prescribed burn was combustion of litter. Differences in unburned versus burned Hg reservoirs at the forest wildfire site demonstrated that drastic reduction in the litter and above ground live biomass Hg reservoirs after burning had occurred. Sagebrush and litter were absent in the burned plots after a wildfire suggesting that both reservoirs were released during the fire. Mercury emissions due to fire from the forest prescribed burn, forest wildfire, and sagebrush steppe wildfire sites were roughly estimated at 2.0 to 5.1, 2.2 to 4.9, and 0.36 ± 0.13 g ha -1 , respectively, with litter and vegetation being the most important sources

  20. Relationships between persistent organic chemicals residues and biochemical constituents in fish from a protected area: the French National Nature Reserve of Camargue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Hélène; Buet, Astrid; Ramade, François

    2002-11-01

    The Reserve of Biosphere of Camargue [French National Nature Reserve of Camargue (NNRC)] is a protected area frequently exposed to natural and anthropogenic environmental alterations. To evaluate potential contamination of fish with lipophilic chemicals-organochlorines (OCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-a biological monitoring survey was carried out. Metabolic reserve levels were evaluated to select appropriate biological indicators able to be significant biomarkers. In addition, the incorporation of xenobiotic molecules in the lipid compartments was investigated. The contents of glycogen, total lipids, proteins and lipidic phosphorus were analyzed in liver and skeletal muscles of three teleostean: the European eel (Anguilla anguilla); the crucian carp (Carassius auratus); and the catfish (Ictalurus melas). The atmospheric origin of the PAH detected in any season in the biomass and the OCs compounds contamination by derive from agricultural treatments are established. In contradiction with some laboratory acute intoxication studies, we observe a positive correlation between tissue concentrations of contaminants and the muscular glycogen amount, a sensitive energy reserve marker. Moreover, it seems likely that the incorporation of these xenobiotics is located preferentially in the membrane structures.

  1. The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belik, Anton; Devyatova, Tatiana; Bozhko, Svetlana; Gorbunova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region The Central Chernozemic region of Russia has been a region with a strong agricultural industry and determines the food security of the state by most part. The soil cover of the region is represented mainly by chernozems and is favorable for the cultivation of major crops and produce high crop yields. However, the high development of agriculture in the territory of Central Chernozemic region are led to the development of agrogenic degradation processes which impacts on the growth of the soil cover complexity and contrast, and as a consequence a significant infield variety of soil fertility and yields of major crops. In this regard, very promising direction in CChR is the development and practical application technologies of precision agriculture, which implies the spatial variety of soil fertility analysis within specific fields and work areas, especially the content of available forms of nutrients. The aim of our research was a study of the agro-ecological characteristics of the spatial variety of the content by available forms to plants of major nutrients in representative areas of sloping agricultural landscapes with forest-steppe chernozems in the western part of Central Chernozemic region of Russia. The research of infield variety by content of available forms of major nutrients are carried in the fields of Russian Research Institute of Agriculture and Protect the Soil from Erosion experimental and industrial farm in Medvensky district of Kursk region. The area characterized by a complex organization of relief. The soil cover is represented by full-profile typical (conventional and carbonate), leached chernozems. The growth of contrast of the soil cover are largely determined by the appearance of eroded soils of these analogues, as well as zoogenic dug and accumulative soils All of the studied areas with the forest-steppe chernozems were characterized by

  2. Structural state of migrational-mycelial (typical) agrochernozems of the Kamennaya Steppe on plowed fields of different ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, I. I.; Cheverdin, Yu. I.; Titova, T. V.; Grebennikov, A. M.; Markina, L. G.

    2017-02-01

    Changes in the structural state of migrational-mycelial (typical) chernozems (Haplic Chernozems (Clayic, Aric, Pachic)) as dependent on the duration of their cultivation (from 20 to 120 years) are considered. Field studies were performed in 2013 on the fields of the Dokuchaev Research Institute of Agriculture in the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia (the Kamennaya Steppe area) used for growing cereals and row crops in rotation. The study showed that the most intensive degradation of the structure of chernozems takes place during the first two decades of their agricultural use. The maximum transformation of the soil structure is observed in the upper 10 cm, as this layer is subjected to the most frequent and intense mechanical impacts. The rate of structural degradation decreases with time until the equilibrium between disaggregation and aggregation processes is reached. The time required for this largely depends on the applied crop rotation systems and agrotechnologies. In this context, flexible assessment scales for the structural state of agrochernozems under conditions of different farming systems should be developed in order to perform monitoring of the physical properties of cultivated chernozems for their long-term efficient and ecologically sustainable use. Despite general disintegration and destruction of granular aggregates, the structural state of agrochernozems in the Kamennaya Steppe area remains sufficiently good even on the old-cultivated (120 yrs.) fields.

  3. The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve Qualitative Reasoning Model - Education and Decision Support tool for Active Behaviour in Sustainable Development of this area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIOACA Eugenia

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the three main steps necessary in preparing a new model based on Qualitative Reasoning (QR concept, for Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (DDBR environmental system. These are: theDDBR system Concept map, the Global causal model, and the Structural model. The DDBR QR model is focused on describing the behaviour of this system related to those causes and their effects which hamper the system sustainable development, especially this system aquatic ecosystem behaviour governed by the water pollution process positive rate and its negative effect on biodiversity and human being health, for peolple living in oraround this area.

  4. Assessment of impacts and evaluation of restoration methods on areas affected by a well blowout, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrick, G.D.; Kato, T.T.; Phillips, M.V. [and others

    1996-12-01

    In June 1994, an oil well on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 blew-out and crude oil was deposited downwind. After the well was capped, information was collected to characterize the release and to assess effects to wildlife and plants. Oil residue was found up to 13.7 km from the well site, but deposition was relatively light and the oil quickly dried to form a thin crust on the soil surface. Elevated levels of hydrocarbons were found in livers collected from Heermann`s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni) from the oiled area but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (known carcinogens or mutagens) were not detected in the livers. Restoration techniques (surface modification and bioremediation) and natural recovery were evaluated within three portions of the oiled area. Herbaceous cover and production, and survival and vigor of desert saltbush (Atriplex polycarpa) were also monitored within each trapping grid.

  5. Assessment of the Threats to the Biodiversity and Habitats in "Stara Reka" Reserve (Bulgaria and Its Adjacent Subalpine and Alpine Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Yocheva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the threats in the “Stara Reka” reserve and its adjacent subalpine and alpine areas is important since it makes it possible the appropriate conservation measures to be taken in order to prevent or reduce the negative effects on the biodiversity and habitats. The assessment was based on systematic studies and visits in the “Stara Reka” Reserve, located within National Park “Central Balkan” (Bulgaria, during spring, summer and autumn seasons of 2010-2011. A number of threats were recorded, where those by anthropogenic origin were predominating. Tourists have negatively influenced the wild plants such as Allium ursinum, Inula helenium and Primula frondosa by picking them up. Damages were registered on the information system and signs. Waste disposal, fires, poaching and illegal fishing were also some of the recorded threats. Many natural succession changes quite dynamically vary the habitats in the reserve, but the most dangerous for the biodiversity and degradation of habitats remain fires, erosion and introduction of alien species.

  6. Shrub-Steppe Seasons A Natural History of the Mid-Columbia Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LE Rogers

    1995-08-01

    This book collects and updates a series of articles about the natural history of the Mid-Columbia region. The articles first appeared as a monthly column titled ''Natural History'' in the Tri-City Herald, beginning in May 1991. My approach has been to condense the best of what is known about the ecology of the region to a manageable length with little in the way of technical language and terms. Admittedly, there is a bias toward those topics and species on which I have either been personally involved or observed as part of the ecology research programs conducted on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve. The ALE Reserve is situated on the northeast-facing flank of the Rattlesnake Hills. Rattlesnake Mountain with a crest of over 3,600 feet is visible throughout much of the Mid-Columbia. Shrub-steppe grasslands once covered a large part of the western United States but most have been converted to other uses. The ALE site is the only remaining sizeable acreage (120 square miles) that is in near pristine condition and provides the only clear indication as to what the early trappers, traders, pioneers, and tribal members may have encountered in their day-to-day activities. In this respect, ALE provides a visible touchstone linking the past with the present for all of us.

  7. Correlative characteristic of cadmium in soils of steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Tsvetkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Much attention is paid to searching for methods of establishing environmental standards for objective assessment of admissibility of anthropogenic load on the biosphere. The main pollutants of the environment are xenobiotics; heavy metals such as cadmium occupy hold a special place among them. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous environmental toxic agents, belonging to the 1stclass of hazard. Due to insufficient and fragmented information available on the distribution of cadmium in the city edaphotopes, it’s necessary to conduct additional research, taking into account the properties of soils and the biological characteristics of every element. The paper shows the ratio of cadmium in soils and soil-forming rocks of steppe Dnieper region. Environmental assessment of cadmium content in Dniprodzerzhinsk city soilsis made, and the problem of topsoil contamination of the city as a territory of high anthropogenic load is considered. It is found that the content of cadmium down the profile in natural soil increases. Enrichment of the topsoil with cadmium occurs due to contamination. The value of movable forms content, expressed as a percentage of the total content, varies from 12% to 70%, providing the evidence of the technogenic origin of cadmium in Dniprodzerzhinsk city topsoil. General and proximate correlation analyses of interrelation of soil cadmium and specifically selected characteristics of soil (pH, humus, sulfate ions, dry solid, chloride ions, total alkalinity, hygroscopic moisture were made. It is established that cadmium concentration in the movable forms of natural soils of the steppe Dnieper region depends primarily on pH value. With the increase in pH value, concentration of movable cadmium in soil increases.

  8. Insect community responses to climate and weather across elevation gradients in the Sagebrush Steppe, eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Rohde, Ashley T.

    2016-11-17

    Executive SummaryIn this study, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of insects as bioindicators of climate change in sagebrush steppe shrublands and grasslands in the Upper Columbia Basin. The research was conducted in the Stinkingwater and Pueblo mountain ranges in eastern Oregon on lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management.We used a “space-for-time” sampling design that related insect communities to climate and weather along elevation gradients. We analyzed our insect dataset at three levels of organization: (1) whole-community, (2) feeding guilds (detritivores, herbivores, nectarivores, parasites, and predators), and (3) orders within nectarivores (i.e., pollinators). We captured 59,517 insects from 176 families and 10 orders at the Pueblo Mountains study area and 112,305 insects from 185 families and 11 orders at the Stinkingwater Mountains study area in 2012 and 2013. Of all the individuals captured at the Stinkingwater Mountains study area, 77,688 were from the family Cecidomyiidae (Diptera, gall gnats).We found that the composition of insect communities was associated with variability in long-term (30-yr) temperature and interannual fluctuations in temperature. We found that captures of certain fly, bee, moth, and butterfly pollinators were more strongly associated with some climate and vegetation variables than others. We found that timing of emergence, as measured by first detection of families, was associated with elevation. When analyzed by feeding guilds, we found that all guilds emerged later at high elevations except for detritivores, which emerged earlier at high elevations. The abundance of most taxa varied through time, mostly in response to temperature and precipitation. Of the pollinators, bees (particularly, Halictidae and Megachilidae) peaked in abundance in late June and early July, whereas butterflies and moths peaked in August. Flies peaked in abundance in July.Overall, our interpretation of these patterns is that

  9. Study of the Topic "The Classification of Flowering Plants" in Schools in the Steppe Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manekina, N. M.

    1976-01-01

    To acquaint students with principal taxonomic terms, local plants from natural surroundings of the school that exhibit attributes of each group are used in the steppe region of the Soviet Union. (Author/ND)

  10. Management Approaches to Accomplish Contemporary Livestock Production-Conservation Objectives in Shortgrass Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional rangeland management in the shortgrass steppe has emphasized livestock production with moderate stocking rates, but alternative approaches will be needed to meet production objectives under increasing demands for conservation-oriented management. We investigated the utility of very inten...

  11. Water area variations in seasonal lagoons from the Biosphere Reserve of "La Mancha Húmeda" (Spain) determined by remote sensing classification methods and data mining techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dona, Carolina; Niclòs, Raquel; Chang, Ni-Bin; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Camacho, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    La Mancha Húmeda is a wetland-rich area located in central Spain that was designated as a Biosphere reserve in 1980. This area includes several dozens of temporal lagoons, mostly saline, whose water level fluctuates and usually become dry during the warmest season. Water inflows into these lagoons come from both runoff of very small catchment and, in some cases, from groundwater although some of them also receive wastewater from nearby towns. Most lack surface outlets and they behave as endorheic systems, with the main water withdrawal due to evaporation causing salt accumulation in the lake beds. Under several law protection coverage additional to that of Biosphere Reserve, including Ramsar and Natura 2000 sites, management plans are being developed in order to accomplish the goals enforced by the European Water Framework Directive and the Habitats Directive, which establish that all EU countries have to achieve a good ecological status and a favorable conservation status of these sites, and especially of their water bodies. A core task to carry out the management plans is the understanding of the hydrological trend of these lagoons with a sound monitoring scheme. To do so, an estimation of the temporal evolution of the flooded area for each lagoon, and its relationship with meteorological patterns, which can be achieved using remote sensing technologies, is a key procedure. The current study aims to develop a remote sensing methodology capable of estimating the changing water coverage areas in each lagoon with satellite remote sensing images and ground truth data sets. ETM+ images onboard Landsat-7 were used to fulfill this goal. These images are useful to monitor small-to-medium size water bodies due to its 30-m spatial resolution. In this work several methods were applied to estimate the wet and dry pixels, such as water and vegetation indexes, single bands, supervised classification methods and genetic programming. All of the results were compared with ground

  12. Revegetation Plan for Areas of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve Affected by Decommissioning of Buildings and Infrastructure and Debris Clean-up Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, Janelle L.; Durham, Robin E.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office is working to remove a number of facilities on the Fitzner Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Decommissioning and removal of buildings and debris on ALE will leave bare soils and excavated areas that need to be revegetated to prevent erosion and weed invasion. Four main areas within ALE are affected by these activities (DOE 2009;DOE/EA-1660F): 1) facilities along the ridgeline of Rattlesnake Mountain, 2) the former Nike missile base and ALE HQ laboratory buildings, 3) the aquatic research laboratory at Rattlesnake Springs area, and 4) a number of small sites across ALE where various types of debris remain from previous uses. This revegetation plan addresses the revegetation and restoration of those land areas disturbed by decommissioning and removal of buildings, facilities and associated infrastructure or debris removal. The primary objective of the revegetation efforts on ALE is to establish native vegetation at each of the sites that will enhance and accelerate the recovery of the native plant community that naturally persists at that location. Revegetation is intended to meet the direction specified by the Environmental Assessment (DOE 2009; DOE/EA-1660F) and by Stipulation C.7 of the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the Rattlesnake Mountain Combined Community Communication Facility and InfrastructureCleanup on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Hanford Site, Richland Washington(DOE 2009; Appendix B). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CPRC) and in consultation with the tribes and DOE-RL developed a site-specific strategy for each of the revegetation units identified within this document. The strategy and implementation approach for each revegetation unit identifies an appropriate native species mix and outlines the necessary site preparation activities

  13. Practice and quality improvement: successful implementation of TeamSTEPPS tools into an academic interventional ultrasound practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajan T; Sexton, J Bryan; Milne, Judy; Frush, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to implement an evidence-based teamwork system to improve communication and teamwork skills among health care professionals (TeamSTEPPS) into an academic interventional ultrasound program and to assess safety and team-work climate across team members both before and after implementation. Members of a change team (including master trainers) selected specific tools available within TeamSTEPPS to implement into an academic interventional ultrasound service. Tools selected were based on preimplementation survey data obtained from team members (n = 64: 11 attending faculty physicians, 12 clinical abdominal imaging fellows or residents, 17 sonographers, 19 nurses, and five technologist aides or administrative personnel). The survey included teamwork climate and safety climate domains from the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Four months after implementation, respondents were resurveyed and post-implementation data were collected. Teamwork climate scores improved from a mean of 67.9 (SD, 12.8) before implementation to a mean of 87.8 (SD, 14.1) after implementation (t = -7.6; p ultrasound practice. The most notable improvements were seen in communication among team members and role clarification. We think that this model, which has been successfully implemented in many nonradiologic areas in medical care, is also applicable in imaging practice.

  14. Développement durable dans la steppe algérienne | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La steppe algérienne s'étend sur plus de 30 millions d'hectares et constitue une zone tampon entre le désert du Sahara et la " ceinture verte " du nord du pays. La diversité et l'abondance relative des plantes fourragères de la steppe ont permis de procurer un moyen de subsistance à 15 % de la population et d'offrir une ...

  15. Développement durable dans la steppe algérienne | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet vise à favoriser une meilleure gouvernance de la steppe algérienne et à améliorer les conditions socioéconomiques des familles dont le gagne-pain dépend de cette ressource. Les chercheurs tenteront de tirer des leçons des interventions antérieures de l'État dans la gestion de la steppe, notamment de ...

  16. MULTICOMPONENT SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND CALIBRATION TO IMPROVE RECOVERY FROM ALGAL MOUNDS: APPLICATION TO THE ROADRUNNER/TOWAOC AREA OF THE PARADOX BASIN, UTE MOUNTAIN UTE RESERVATION, COLORADO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul La Pointe; Claudia Rebne; Steve Dobbs

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-02NT15451, ''Multicomponent Seismic Analysis and Calibration to Improve Recovery from Algal Mounds: Application to the Roadrunner/Towaoc Area of the Paradox Basin, Ute Mountain Ute Reservation, Colorado'', for the Second Biennial Report covering the time period May 1, 2003 through October 31, 2003. During this period, the project achieved two significant objectives: completion of the acquisition and processing design and specifications 3D9C seismic acquisition and the 3D VSP log; and completion of the permitting process involving State, Tribal and Federal authorities. Successful completion of these two major milestones pave the way for field acquisition as soon as weather permits in the Spring of 2004. This report primarily describes the design and specifications for the VSP and 3D9C surveys

  17. Investigations of the Anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae fauna from three areas belonging to the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in order to evaluate the risk of malaria re-emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FALCUTA Elena

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The survey focused on the comparative analyses of the anopheline fauna belonging to the maculipennis group between three areas of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, two of them situated near theRazim-Sinoe lagoonal complex and one belonging to the fluvial delta. The study that was carried out during 2006 and 2007 intended to establish the composition of the anopheline fauna as well as the longevity of the various species in order to evaluate the risk of malaria re-emergence. A number of 2437 mosquitoes, belonging to Anopheles maculipennis group were collected. The presence of the former vector species was pointed up: Anopheles atroparvus, Anophelesmesseae and Anopheles maculipennis sensu stricto. The investigations of the number of egg batches laid by a female have shown the physiological age of the respective female and namely if the female could infect or not the humans.

  18. Ground-water/surface-water interaction in nearshore areas of Three Lakes on the Grand Portage Reservation, northeastern Minnesota, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Grand Portage Band of Chippewa Indians, applied three techniques to assess ground-water/surface-water interaction in nearshore areas of three lakes (North, Teal, and Taylor) on the Grand Portage Reservation in northeastern Minnesota. At each lake, analyses of existing aerial photographs, in-situ temperature measurements of shoreline lake sediment, and chemical analyses of surface water and pore water were conducted. Surface-water and pore-water samples were analyzed for major constituents, nutrients, and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen. Bulk precipitation samples were collected and analyzed (1) for nutrient concentrations to determine nutrient input to the lakes through atmospheric deposition and (2) for stable isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen to determine a meteoric waterline that was needed for the stable isotope analyses of surface-water and pore-water samples.

  19. Effects of cattle grazing on small mammal communities in the Hulunber meadow steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chan; Shuai, Ling-Ying; Xin, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Tao; Song, Yan-Ling; Zeng, Zhi-Gao

    2016-01-01

    Small mammals play important roles in many ecosystems, and understanding their response to disturbances such as cattle grazing is fundamental for developing sustainable land use strategies. However, how small mammals respond to cattle grazing remains controversial. A potential cause is that most of previous studies adopt rather simple experimental designs based solely on the presence/absence of grazing, and are thus unable to detect any complex relationships between diversity and grazing intensity. In this study, we conducted manipulated experiments in the Hulunber meadow steppe to survey small mammal community structures under four levels of grazing intensities. We found dramatic changes in species composition in native small mammal communities when grazing intensity reached intermediate levels (0.46 animal unit/ha). As grazing intensity increased, Spermophilus dauricus gradually became the single dominant species. Species richness and diversity of small mammals in ungrazed and lightly grazed (0.23 animal unit/ha) area were much higher than in intermediately and heavily grazed area. We did not detect a humped relationship between small mammal diversity and disturbance levels predicted by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH). Our study highlighted the necessity of conducting manipulated experiments under multiple grazing intensities.

  20. Phytodiversity of the scenic reserve Boguslavsky (Pavlograd district of the Dnipropetrovsk oblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Baranovsky

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the vegetation and flora biodiversity of the scenic reserve Boguslavsky is presented. There are 500 species including 25 of rare and threatened species in different ecotopes of the flood-plain. Two species of plants, which are rare for Steppe zone of Ukraine, were found. These species are new for a flora of the Dnipropetrovsk oblast.

  1. Interactive effects of multiple climate change factors on ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers in a temperate steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-Jing; Shen, Ju-Pei; Sun, Yi-Fei; Wang, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Li-Mei; Yang, Zhong-Ling; Han, Hong-Yan; Wan, Shi-Qiang; He, Ji-Zheng

    2017-04-01

    Global climate change could have profound effects on belowground microbial communities and subsequently affect soil biogeochemical processes. The interactive effects of multiple co-occurring climate change factors on microbially mediated processes are not well understood. A four-factorial field experiment with elevated CO2, watering, nitrogen (N) addition and night warming was conducted in a temperate steppe of northern China. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, combined with clone library techniques, were applied to examine the effects of those climate change factors on N-related microbial abundance and community composition. Only the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria significantly increased by nitrogen addition and decreased by watering. The interactions of watering × warming on the bacterial amoA community and warming × nitrogen addition on the nosZ community were found. Redundancy analysis indicated that the ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community was affected by total N and total carbon, while the community of bacterial amoA and nosZ were significantly affected by soil pH. According to a structural equation modeling analysis, climate change influenced net primary production indirectly by altering microbial abundance and activities. These results indicated that microbial responses to the combination of chronic global change tend to be smaller than expected from single-factor global change manipulations. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Higher climate warming sensitivity of Siberian larch in small than large forest islands in the fragmented Mongolian forest steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansaritoreh, Elmira; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Klinge, Michael; Ariunbaatar, Tumurbaatar; Bat-Enerel, Banzragch; Batsaikhan, Ganbaatar; Ganbaatar, Kherlenchimeg; Saindovdon, Davaadorj; Yeruult, Yolk; Tsogtbaatar, Jamsran; Tuya, Daramragchaa; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Forest fragmentation has been found to affect biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in multiple ways. We asked whether forest size and isolation in fragmented woodlands influences the climate warming sensitivity of tree growth in the southern boreal forest of the Mongolian Larix sibirica forest steppe, a naturally fragmented woodland embedded in grassland, which is highly affected by warming, drought, and increasing anthropogenic forest destruction in recent time. We examined the influence of stand size and stand isolation on the growth performance of larch in forests of four different size classes located in a woodland-dominated forest-steppe area and small forest patches in a grassland-dominated area. We found increasing climate sensitivity and decreasing first-order autocorrelation of annual stemwood increment with decreasing stand size. Stemwood increment increased with previous year's June and August precipitation in the three smallest forest size classes, but not in the largest forests. In the grassland-dominated area, the tree growth dependence on summer rainfall was highest. Missing ring frequency has strongly increased since the 1970s in small, but not in large forests. In the grassland-dominated area, the increase was much greater than in the forest-dominated landscape. Forest regeneration decreased with decreasing stand size and was scarce or absent in the smallest forests. Our results suggest that the larch trees in small and isolated forest patches are far more susceptible to climate warming than in large continuous forests pointing to a grim future for the forests in this strongly warming region of the boreal forest that is also under high land use pressure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Silage preparation and fermentation quality of natural grasses treated with lactic acid bacteria and cellulase in meadow steppe and typical steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling Hou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective In order to improve fermentation quality of natural grasses, their silage preparation and fermentation quality in meadow steppe (MS and typical steppe (TS were studied. Methods The small-scale silages and round bale silages of mixed natural grasses in both steppes were prepared using the commercial lactic acid bacteria (LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum and cellulase enzyme (AC, Acremonium cellulase as additives. Results MS and TS contained 33 and 9 species of natural grasses, respectively. Stipa baicalensis in MS and Stipa grandi in TS were the dominant grasses with the highest dry matter (DM yield. The crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber and water-soluble carbohydrate of the mixed natural grasses in both steppes were 8.02% to 9.03%, 66.75% to 69.47%, and 2.02% to 2.20% on a DM basis, respectively. All silages treated with LAB and cellulase were well preserved with lower pH, butyric acid and ammonia-N content, and higher lactic acid and CP content than those of control in four kinds of silages. Compared with CH- or AC-treated silages, the CH+ AC-treated silages had higher lactic acid content. Conclusion The results confirmed that combination with LAB and cellulase may result in beneficial effects by improving the natural grass silage fermentation in both grasslands.

  4. Land use and habitat conditions across the southwestern Wyoming sagebrush steppe: development impacts, management effectiveness and the distribution of invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, Daniel J.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick; Chong, Geneva; Homer, Collin G.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Schell, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    For the past several years, USGS has taken a multi-faceted approach to investigating the condition and trends in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This recent effort builds upon decades of work in semi-arid ecosystems providing a specific, applied focus on the cumulative impacts of expanding human activities across these landscapes. Here, we discuss several on-going projects contributing to these efforts: (1) mapping and monitoring the distribution and condition of shrub steppe communities with local detail at a regional scale, (2) assessing the relationships between specific, land-use features (for example, roads, transmission lines, industrial pads) and invasive plants, including their potential (environmentally defined) distribution across the region, and (3) monitoring the effects of habitat treatments on the ecosystem, including wildlife use and invasive plant abundance. This research is focused on the northern sagebrush steppe, primarily in Wyoming, but also extending into Montana, Colorado, Utah and Idaho. The study area includes a range of sagebrush types (including, Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata, Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis, Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia nova) and other semi-arid shrubland types (for example, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, Atriplex confertifolia, Atriplex gardneri), impacted by extensive interface between steppe ecosystems and industrial energy activities resulting in a revealing multiple-variable analysis. We use a combination of remote sensing (AWiFS (1 Any reference to platforms, data sources, equipment, software, patented or trade-marked methods is for information purposes only. It does not represent endorsement of the U.S.D.I., U.S.G.S. or the authors), Landsat and Quickbird platforms), Geographic Information System (GIS) design and data management, and field-based, replicated sampling to generate multiple scales of data representing the distribution of shrub communities for the habitat inventory. Invasive plant

  5. Assessing teamwork attitudes in healthcare: development of the TeamSTEPPS teamwork attitudes questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David P; Amodeo, Andrea M; Krokos, Kelley J; Slonim, Anthony; Herrera, Heidi

    2010-12-01

    The report, To Err is Human, indicated that a large number of deaths are caused by medical error. A central tenet of this report was that patient safety was not only a function of sophisticated healthcare technology and treatments, but also the degree to which healthcare professionals could perform effectively as teams. Research suggests that teamwork comprises four core skills: Leadership, Situation Monitoring, Mutual Support and Communication. In healthcare, team training programmes, such as TeamSTEPPS®, are designed to improve participant knowledge of, attitudes towards, and skills in these core areas. If such training programmes are effective, changes in knowledge, attitudes and skills should be observed. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire (T-TAQ), a measure designed to assess attitudes towards the core components of teamwork in healthcare. A pilot test version of the survey was developed and administered to 495 respondents from various healthcare organisations. Classical item statistics were used to select the final T-TAQ items. Based on this analysis, 30 of the original 110 items were selected for inclusion in the final instrument. Scale reliabilities exceed 0.7, and scales were found to be moderately correlated. The T-TAQ provides a useful, reliable and valid tool for assessing individual attitudes related to the role of teamwork in the delivery of healthcare. Issues related to its use and interpretation are discussed.

  6. Productivity and CO2 exchange of Great Plains ecoregions. I. Shortgrass steppe: Flux tower estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Morgan, Jack A.; Hanan, Niall P.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rajan, Nithya; Smith, David P.; Howard, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    The shortgrass steppe (SGS) occupies the southwestern part of the Great Plains. Half of the land is cultivated, but significant areas remain under natural vegetation. Despite previous studies of the SGS carbon cycle, not all aspects have been completely addressed, including gross productivity, ecosystem respiration, and ecophysiological parameters. Our analysis of 1998 − 2007 flux tower measurements at five Bowen ratio–energy balance (BREB) and three eddy covariance (EC) sites characterized seasonal and interannual variability of gross photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration. Identification of the nonrectangular hyperbolic equation for the diurnal CO2 exchange, with vapor pressure deficit (VPD) limitation and exponential temperature response, quantified quantum yield α, photosynthetic capacity Amax, and respiration rate rd with variation ranges (19 \\lower respiration, and higher net production at the BREB than EC sites. However, the difference was not related only to methodologies, as the normalized difference vegetation index at the BREB sites was higher than at the EC sites. Overall magnitudes and seasonal patterns at the BREB and the EC sites during the 3-yr period were similar, with trajectories within the ± 1.5 standard deviation around the mean of the four sites and mostly reflecting the effects of meteorology.

  7. Vegetation of the Sileza Nature Reserve and neighbouring areas, South Africa, and its importance in conserving the woody grasslands of the Maputaland Centre of Endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Matthews

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the plant communities of the Sileza Nature Reserve and surrounding areas (± 4 124 ha is presented. The study area falls within the Maputaland Centre o f Endemism, which is part ot the Maputaland-Pondoland Region, a centre of plant diversity rich in endemic plants and animals. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed 12 distinct, mainly grassland plant communities. A hierarchical classification, description and ecological interpretation ot these communities are presented. The level o f the water table, either directly, or indirectly through its role in soil formation, is the deciding factor in defining plant communities on the geologically young sandy substrate. Fire is an essential factor, particularly in maintaining the woody grasslands, a rare vegetation type rich in geoxylic suffrutices. and unique to the Maputaland Centre. A comparison between the endemic complement in the subtropical coastal grasslands of Maputaland and the high-altitude Afromontane grasslands of the Wolkberg Centre of Endemism shows marked differences in grow th form and vegetation type partitioning between the two centres. This can probably be ascribed to the relative youth (Quaternary of the Maputaland coastal plain and its associated plant communities. Notable for their richness in Maputaland Centre endemic/near-endemic taxa. the conservation of sand forest and woody grasslands should receive high priority. Afforestation with alien trees is the most serious threat to the biodiversity of the Maputaland coastal grasslands, not only because of habitat destruction, but also through its expected negative effect on the hydrology of the region

  8. Contributions to the assessment of Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823 stocks from the Razim-Sinoie lagoonary area (Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, Romania

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    TÖRÖK Zsolt Csaba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In August 24th- August 30th, 2012 period there was performed a pilot study to assess the Slender clawded or Turkish crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823 populations from Golovița Lake and the southern part of the Razim Lake (both of them located in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve - DDBR. There were used 10 sets of traps (each set with 10 traps and after 147 – 149 hours of functioning there were captured 45 specimens of A. leptodactylus, the total biomass of the crayfish being 1,768 g, which is a very low if compared with the official crayfish-quotas issued for various other regions of the DDBR. The scarcity in Astacus leptodactylus of the Razim- Sinoie lagoonary area is probably due to the habitat-requirement of this species (although other stressing factors – as plagues affecting the crayfish– could also be considered to explain the phenomenon. In order to harvest the minimum quantity (100 kg of crayfish issued as official quota in case of various other regions of the DDBR, the method involving 10 sets with 10 traps should be continuously used for about 370 days – the costs of activities for such long period (combined with the fact that in case of the exploited crayfish quantities there have to be paid various taxes for the environmental protection authorities makes economically unprofitable the crayfish stock-harvesting (based on the method used in the present study in the Razim and Golovița lakes .

  9. Thermal conditions of the grape growing season within the North-Eastern steppe land of Ukraine (on the example of Kharkiv region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Борис Шуліка

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the results of the thermal conditions observations within the North-Eastern steppe land of Ukraine as one of the most important factors for successful cultivation of grapes, thus providing crop productivity. Considering the effect of thermal factors, it can be noted that the intensity and speed of life processes of plants are well- defined under temperature conditions only in the circumstances where other environmental factors are not limited. The thermal regime was initially taken into account in practice in XVII century. In XIX century the agro-climatic areas to grow grapes were determined in North-Eastern steppe land of Ukraine. Detailed studies of agro-climatic conditions of specific areas can more thoroughly to make conclusions and recommendations for the cultivation of grapes as a whole in the territory, and specifically in those areas were given. In studying the thermal balance of the territory the average and extreme temperature should be paid attention to. Characteristic features of the thermal regime are given in this paper based on the study of atmospheric phenomena, geomorphology and territories with radiation influence and water flow regime. Thermal treatment is subjected to anthropogenic influence, and in cultivating tenants can use appropriate agricultural practices (conceal bushes, warm soil and air, and even crops in protective ground, in greenhouses. Characteristically, technology of greenhouses growers is even used in Kherson region. These data can be used in neighborhood and the adjacent areas, especially they are useful for the practice of growing grapes. The possibility of successful cultivation of dozens of grape varieties in the North-Eastern steppe land of Ukraine has been well-grounded.

  10. Systematic Environmental Impact Assessment for Non-natural Reserve Areas: A Case Study of the Chaishitan Water Conservancy Project on Land Use and Plant Diversity in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xin Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment (EIA before and after the establishment of a Water Conservancy Project (WCP is of great theoretical and practical importance for assessing the effectiveness of ecological restoration efforts. WCPs rehabilitate flood-damaged areas or other regions hit by disasters by controlling and redistributing surface water and groundwater. Using Geographic Information System (GIS and Composite Evaluation Index (CEI in predictive modeling, we studied the degree to which a WCP could change land use, plant communities, and species diversity in Yunnan, China. Via modeling, we quantified likely landscape pattern changes and linked them to naturality (i.e., the percentage of secondary vegetation types, diversity, and stability together with the human interferences (e.g., conservation or restoration project of an ecosystem. The value of each index was determined by the evaluation system, and the weight percentage was decided through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. We found that minor land-use changes would occur after the Chaishitan WCP was theoretically established. The greatest decline was farmland (0.079%, followed by forest (0.066%, with the least decline in water bodies (0.020%. We found 1,076 vascular plant species (including subspecies, varieties and form belonging to 165 families and 647 genera in Chaishitan irrigation area before the water conservancy establishment. The naturality and diversity decreased 11.18 and 10.16% respectively. The CEI was 0.92, which indicated that Chaishitan WCP will enhance local landscape heterogeneity, and it will not deteriorate local ecological quality. Our study proposes a comprehensive ecological evaluation system for this WCP and further suggests the importance of including the ecological and environmental consequences of the WCP, along with the well-established socioeconomic evaluation systems for non-natural reserve areas. We conclude that the Chaishitan WCP will have minor

  11. Modern Status of the Steppe Eagle Population in the Orenburg region, Russia

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    Igor V. Karyakin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis monitoring in the Orenburg region in 2010–2015. For 2010–2015 the population of Steppe Eagle in Orenburg region decreased by 20.6% and is 266–349, at average 293 breeding pairs. In 2015 the average density of occupied breeding territories on the main part of the Steppe Eagle breeding population (Trans Ural – Western part of the region in the Orenburg region was about 8.6 per 100 km2, in the other habitats of the low and middle density of species – 1.3 (0.67–2.7/100 km2. Observed breeding success in 2013 is 0.55±1.04, in 2015 is 0.40±0.78 nestlings per occupied breeding territory. Substantial increase in the proportion of young birds in the breeding pairs from 21.7% in 2012 to 44.4% in 2015 was noticed. The main threats to the Steppe Eagle in the Orenburg region are steppe fires and death on power lines. It is likely that the decline of eagles’ population is due to increasing of negative factors on the migration routes and wintering grounds

  12. Retreating or standing: responses of forest species and steppe species to climate change in arid Eastern Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Ming-Li; Sanderson, Stewart C

    2013-01-01

    The temperature in arid Eastern Central Asia is projected to increase in the future, accompanied by increased variability of precipitation. To investigate the impacts of climate change on plant species in this area, we selected two widespread species as candidates, Clematis sibirica and C. songorica, from montane coniferous forest and arid steppe habitats respectively. We employed a combined approach of molecular phylogeography and species distribution modelling (SDM) to predict the future responses of these two species to climate change, utilizing evidence of responses from the past. Genetic data for C. sibirica shows a significant phylogeographical signal (N ST > F ST, PCentral Asia, indicating that increased attention should be paid to montane forest species, due to their high sensitivity to disturbance.

  13. Magnitude, geomorphologic response and climate links of lake level oscillations at Laguna Potrok Aike, Patagonian steppe (Argentina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliem, P.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Hahn, A.

    2013-01-01

    Laguna Potrok Aike is a large maar lake located in the semiarid steppe of southern Patagonia known for its Lateglacial and Holocene lake level fluctuations. Based on sedimentary, seismic and geomorphological evidences, the lake level curve is updated and extended into the Last Glacial period...... and the geomorphological development of the lake basin and its catchment area is interpreted.Abrasion and lake level oscillations since at least ∼50 ka caused concentric erosion of the surrounding soft rocks of the Miocene Santa Cruz Formation and expanded the basin diameter by approximately 1 km. A high lake level...... groundwater table. Frequent lake level oscillations caused deflation of emerged terraces only along the eastern shoreline due to prevailing westerly winds. Preservation of eolian deposits might be linked to relatively moist climate conditions during the past 2.5 ka.Precisely dated lake level reconstructions...

  14. Simulated groundwater flow in the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers, Rosebud Indian Reservation area, South Dakota - Revisions with data through water year 2008 and simulations of potential future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew J.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2010-01-01

    The Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers are important water resources in the Rosebud Indian Reservation area and are used extensively for irrigation, municipal, and domestic water supplies. Drought or increased withdrawals from the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers in the Rosebud Indian Reservation area have the potential to affect water levels in these aquifers. This report documents revisions and recalibration of a previously published three-dimensional, numerical groundwater-flow model for this area. Data for a 30-year period (water years 1979 through 2008) were used in steady-state and transient numerical simulations of groundwater flow. In the revised model, revisions include (1) extension of the transient calibration period by 10 years, (2) the use of inverse modeling for steady-state calibration, (3) model calibration to base flow for an additional four surface-water drainage basins, (4) improved estimation of transient aquifer recharge, (5) improved delineation of vegetation types, and (6) reduced cell size near large capacity water-supply wells. In addition, potential future scenarios were simulated to assess the potential effects of drought and increased groundwater withdrawals.The model comprised two layers: the upper layer represented the Ogallala aquifer and the lower layer represented the Arikaree aquifer. The model’s grid had 168 rows and 202 columns, most of which were 1,640 feet (500 meters) wide, with narrower rows and columns near large water-supply wells. Recharge to the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers occurs from precipitation on the outcrop areas. The average recharge rates used for the steady-state simulation were 2.91 and 1.45 inches per year for the Ogallala aquifer and Arikaree aquifer, respectively, for a total rate of 255.4 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Discharge from the aquifers occurs through evapotranspiration, discharge to streams as base flow and spring flow, and well withdrawals. Discharge rates for the steady-state simulation were 171

  15. The role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in nitrogen availability, competition and plant invasion into the sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin M. Goergen

    2009-01-01

    In the semi-arid sagebrush steppe of the Northeastern Sierra Nevada, resources are both spatially and temporally variable, arguably making resource availability a primary factor determining invasion success. N fixing plant species, primarily native legumes, are often relatively abundant in sagebrush steppe and can contribute to ecosystem nitrogen budgets. ...

  16. Effects of Spring Drought on Carbon Sequestration, Evapotranspiration and Water Use Efficiency in the Songnen Meadow Steppe in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang Dong; Jixun Guo; Jiquan Chen; Ge Sun; Song Gao; et al

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change projections suggest an increasing frequency of droughts and extreme rain events in the steppes of the Eurasian region. Using the eddy covariance method, we measured carbon and water balances of a meadow steppe ecosystem in Northeast China during 2 years which had contrasting precipitation patterns in spring seasons in 2007 and 2008. The meadow...

  17. Environmental Studies in the Boreal Forest Zone: Summer IPY Institute at Central Boreal Forest Reserve, Fedorovskoe, Tver area, Russia (14-28 August, 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Kurbatova, Y.; Groisman, P.; Alexeev, V.

    2007-12-01

    The Summer Institute was organized by the International Arctic Research Center (IARC) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in collaboration with the A.N. Severtsov Institute for Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Russia, and the Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve in Fedorovskoe, Russia. The Institute was arranged as a part of the education/outreach activities of the International Polar Year (IPY) at the University of Alaska and the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) and was held in Russia. The Institute provided a unique opportunity for participants to learn about the climate and environment of Northern Eurasia from leading scientists and educators, in a wide spectrum of polar and Earth system science disciplines from meteorology, biology, chemistry, and earth system modeling. Additionally, the Institute attendees observed and participated in the biospheric research activities under the guidance of experienced scientists. During a two-week-interval, the School attendees heard 40 lectures, attended several field trips and participated in three brainstorming Round Table Workshop Sessions devoted to perspectives of the boreal forest zone research and major unresolved problems that it faces. Thirty professors and experts in different areas of climate and biosphere research from Russia, the United States, Germany, Finland, and Japan, shared their expertise in lectures and in round table discussions with the Institute participants. Among the Institute participants there were 31 graduate students/early career scientists from six countries (China, Russia, Estonia, Finland, UK, and the United States) and eight K-12 teachers from Russia. The two groups joined together for several workshop sessions and for the field work components of the Institute. The field work was focused on land-atmosphere interactions and wetland studies in the boreal forest zone. Several field trips in and outside the Forest

  18. Geostatistical Approach to Estimating the Gold Ore Characteristics and Gold Reserves: A Case Study Daksa Area, Quang Nam Province, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan Truong, Xuan; Luong Le, Van; Quang Truong, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Daksa gold deposit is the biggest gold deposits in Vietnam. The Daksa geological structure complicated, distributed mainly metamorphosed sedimentary NuiVu formation (PR3-?1nv2). The sulfide gold ore bodies distributed in quartz schist, quartz - biotite related to faut and distribution wing anticline. The gold ore bodies form circuits, network circuits, circuits lenses; fill the cup surface layer of the developing northeast - southwest; is the less than or west longitude north - SE. The results show that, Au and accompanying elements (Ag, Pb and Zn) have correlated pretty closely. All of its consistent with the logarithmic distribution standard, in accordance with the law of distribution of content mineral rare. The structure functions have nugget effect and spherical models with show that Au and accompanying elements special variation are changes. Au contents shown local anisotropy, no clearly anisotropy (K=1,17) and weakly anisotropy (K=1,4). Intensity mineralization of the ore bodies are quite high with demand spherical conversion coefficient ranging from 0.49 to 0.75 and from 0.66 to 0.97 (for other body). With nugget effects, ore bodies shown that it is consistent with mineralization in the ore bodies study, ore erasable, micro vein, infilling fractures in quartz vein. All of variogram presents local anisotropy, indicated gold mineralization at study area has least two-mineralization stages, consistent with the analysis of mineralography samples. By the results of the structure function study, the authors present the system optimization for exploration deposit and used to evaluate gold reserves by Ordinary Kriging. High accuracy of Kriging estimation results are expressed in the minimum Kriging variance, by compare the results calculated by some other methods (such as distance inverse weighting method, ..) and specially compare to the results of a some blocks have been exploited. Key words: Geostat and gold deposits VN. Daksa and gold mineralization. Geostat

  19. The Role of Microorganisms in Biogenic Elements Cycling in the Dry Steppe Ecosystems of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov’ B. Buyantueva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The following primary variables were studied in order to understand which part microbial decomposers play in biogenic elements cycle in the steppe ecosystems of Central Asia: species composition and productivity of plant communities; chemical composition of dead plant material; fungal abundance and abundance of various ecological trophic groups of bacteria (saprophytic, proteolytic, cellulolytic; degradation rate of model substrates and plant litter (protein and cellulose. The total stock of chemical elements (N, P, Ca, Mg and K involved in the biological cycles in the steppe of Buryatia (Russia amounted from 6.478 to 10.130 kg/ha, and from 8.826 to 31.802 kg/ha in the Mongolian steppe. The chemistry of elements’ cycles in the ecosystems under study is of a nitrogen type.

  20. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterländer, Martina; Palstra, Friso; Lazaridis, Iosif; Pilipenko, Aleksandr; Hofmanová, Zuzana; Groß, Melanie; Sell, Christian; Blöcher, Jens; Kirsanow, Karola; Rohland, Nadin; Rieger, Benjamin; Kaiser, Elke; Schier, Wolfram; Pozdniakov, Dimitri; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Georges, Myriam; Wilde, Sandra; Powell, Adam; Heyer, Evelyne; Currat, Mathias; Reich, David; Samashev, Zainolla; Parzinger, Hermann; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Burger, Joachim

    2017-03-01

    During the 1st millennium before the Common Era (BCE), nomadic tribes associated with the Iron Age Scythian culture spread over the Eurasian Steppe, covering a territory of more than 3,500 km in breadth. To understand the demographic processes behind the spread of the Scythian culture, we analysed genomic data from eight individuals and a mitochondrial dataset of 96 individuals originating in eastern and western parts of the Eurasian Steppe. Genomic inference reveals that Scythians in the east and the west of the steppe zone can best be described as a mixture of Yamnaya-related ancestry and an East Asian component. Demographic modelling suggests independent origins for eastern and western groups with ongoing gene-flow between them, plausibly explaining the striking uniformity of their material culture. We also find evidence that significant gene-flow from east to west Eurasia must have occurred early during the Iron Age.

  1. On the issue of taxonomical status of steppe viper (Vipera renardi in Right-bank Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Baybuz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on morphologic variability of the steppe viper in the Kirovograd region (Right-bank Ukraine are given firstly. Tentative estimation of the similaritylevel of the local population and the populations from the Left-bank Ukraine and the Crimea was carried out using methods of the multivariate statistics. Morphological data in line with the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis show that the population in the Kirovograd region belongs to widespread Eurasian species Vipera renardiand morphologically most close to the original populations of the lowland Crimea, Sivash and Forest-Steppe of the Left-bank Ukraine. This could indicate the complicated history of the Right-bank Ukraine colonization by the steppe viper and possible influence of environmental conditions on the vipers’ morphology

  2. Possibility of Morphometrical Determining of Sex of Steppe Eagle Nestlings from Western and Eastern Populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism among nestlings of the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis is poorly manifested. Thus, determining of sex by morphometric methods encountered many difficulties and could be completed only by the most experienced ornithologists who knows the species very well. This article presents a morphometric method for determining sex of nestlings of the Steppe Eagles from different breeding populations that belongs to different size classes. The method is based on classification formula obtained via linear discriminant analysis conducted for the data set of measurements of Steppe Eagle’s nestlings from Central Kazakhstan and Altai Republic in 2017. To control the sex determination of nestlings a molecular-genetics method was used.

  3. Biological recovery the steppe of Hammada scoparia after enclosure in the region of Naama (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucherit Hafidha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was being carried out in the steppe of remth (Hammada scoparia in Oranian part of the Saharan Atlas (Tiout - south of Naama. The H. scoparia of Saharan group occupies the foothills south of the Saharan Atlas and glazes and hamadas of the northern part of the Sahara where it seems to find its optimum development. The objective of the study is the floristic and ecological characterisation of the steppe vegetation groups of H. scoparia after 4 years of enclosure grazing (Eg. For the past three decades, steppe of H. scoparia were completely overwhelmed, both in their structure and their operation by increasing the herd and the continued use of natural pastures using animal load significantly higher than the production potential of course, which is reflected by the reduction of their capacity for natural regeneration.

  4. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russian steppe soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hammes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC, from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m−2, or about 7–10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182–541 years, much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  5. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammes, K.; Torn, M.S.; Lapenas, A.G.; Schmidt, M.W.I.

    2008-09-15

    Black carbon (BC), from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m{sup -2}, or about 7-10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182-541 years), much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene poly carboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable) BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant) BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  6. Isotopic tracking of large carnivore palaeoecology in the mammoth steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocherens, Hervé

    2015-06-01

    Isotopic tracking of carnivore palaeoecology is a relatively new approach that yielded important results for the study of the non-analogue mammoth steppe biome. After describing the prerequisite to apply this approach and the possible complications, the main achievements will be described for extinct carnivore species such as scimitar-tooth cat Homotherium serum, cave lion Panthera spelaea, giant short-faced bear Arctodus simus, cave bear Ursus spelaeus s.l., as well as for ancient representatives of extant species such as brown bear Ursus arctos and wolf Canis lupus. Isotopic tracking showed that scimitar-tooth cats in Alaska were not specialist proboscidean predators but rather generalist consumers of other large herbivores. The majority of cave lions analysed so far were focused on reindeer, some individuals were specialized on cave bears, especially in contexts of competition with cave hyenas. Giant short-faced bears in Alaska were not pure herbivores and consumed meat from reindeer, muskoxen and possibly other predators, but may have still incorporated plant resources in their menu. In contrast, all cave bear populations studied so far for which a clear dietary reconstruction could be done were virtually pure herbivores, only a few cases are still unclear. Interestingly, brown bears used the opposite extreme of the dietary spectrum when competing with other large bears such as cave bears and giant short-faced bears, i.e. were more carnivorous in Europe and more herbivorous in Alaska. Finally wolves seem to have been outcompeted by hyenas but became dominant predators during the Lateglacial in Europe to the expense of the last cave lions. The results obtained through this approach are also relevant for improving conservation strategies of endangered extant large carnivores.

  7. TeamSTEPPS implementation in community hospitals: adherence to recommended training approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Marcia M; Zhu, Xi; Lampman, Michelle; Stewart, Greg L

    2015-01-01

    Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS) is being widely promoted in healthcare settings to train staff in evidence-based approaches that promote patient safety. It involves a comprehensive curriculum that spells out key principles and actionable tools for a culture change toward patient-safety-focussed teamwork. Activities begin with selected personnel attending TeamSTEPPS Master Trainer Training (MTT) and then organizing and providing TeamSTEPPS training for staff in their organization. The authors conducted interviews with respondents at community hospitals conducting TeamSTEPPS staff training. To structure the interviews, the authors used 11 key questions identified by Weaver et al. in their in-depth team training literature review. The purpose of this paper is to examine approaches taken by community hospital personnel and compare those to the best practices recommended by Weaver et al. The authors interviewed 57 staff and administrators at 22 community hospitals sending teams to TeamSTEPPS MTT. The authors find that training implementation in community hospitals differs significantly from the established, research-based principles for effective team training described in the research literature, which is largely based in academic medical centers. The current findings suggest that several TeamSTEPPS training features could be enhanced in community hospitals including: choosing staff who have the skills to be effective trainers in this train-the-trainer model; emphasizing active learning; and sustaining lessons through on-the-job application, practice and feedback. These principles apply to many training approaches employed in small healthcare organizations.

  8. Light use efficiency over two temperate steppes in inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Vegetation light use efficiency (LUE is a key parameter of Production Efficiency Models (PEMs for simulating gross primary production (GPP of vegetation, from regional to global scales. Previous studies suggest that grasslands have the largest inter-site variation of LUE and controlling factors of grassland LUE differ from those of other biomes, since grasslands are usually water-limited ecosystems. Combining eddy covariance flux data with the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plant canopy from MODIS, we report LUE on a typical steppe and a desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, northern China. Results show that both annual average LUE and maximum LUE were higher on the desert steppe (0.51 and 1.13 g C MJ(-1 than on the typical steppe (0.34 and 0.88 g C MJ(-1, despite the higher GPP of the latter. Water availability was the primary limiting factor of LUE at both sites. Evaporative fraction (EF or the ratio of actual evapotranspiration to potential evapotranspiration (AET/PET can explain 50-70% of seasonal LUE variations at both sites. However, the slope of linear regression between LUE and EF (or AET/PET differed significantly between the two sites. LUE increased with the diffuse radiation ratio on the typical steppe; however, such a trend was not found for the desert steppe. Our results suggest that a biome-dependent LUE(max is inappropriate, because of the large inter-site difference of LUE(max within the biome. EF could be a promising down-regulator on grassland LUE for PEMs, but there may be a site-specific relationship between LUE and EF.

  9. Changes in Herbaceous Species Composition in the Absence of Disturbance in a Cenchrus biflorus Roxb. Invaded Area in Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimane W. Makhabu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A-nine year study was carried out to investigate changes in herbaceous species composition in an area invaded by Cenchrus biflorus Roxb, an exotic invader grass species. The study ensued termination of livestock and human activities in the area when residents of the area were relocated to another area. Vegetation characteristics from the disturbed sites (previous occupied areas and undisturbed sites (previously unoccupied areas were determined. The results show that C. biflorus has high tolerance to disturbance. It comprised the larger proportion of grasses in disturbed sites at the inception of the study. However, it decreased in abundance with time in disturbed areas and was absent in the undisturbed areas, suggesting that its ability to invade undisturbed sites is limited. Perennial species successfully reestablished on the third year after termination of disturbance. The study reveals that C. biflorus invasion in the Kalahari ecosystem can be controlled by termination of disturbances.

  10. Eurasian perspectives on the role of kurgans in the conservation and restoration of steppe vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, Balázs; Valkó, Orsolya; Török, Péter; Sudnik-Wójcikowska, Barbara; Moysiyenko, Ivan; Bragina, Tatyana; Apostolova, Iva; Dembicz, Iwona; Bykov, Nikolai; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2017-04-01

    Steppe is among the most endangered biomes of the world, especially in Europe, where more than 90% of original steppes have been destroyed due to conversion into croplands, afforestation and other human activities. Because of the socio-economic changes of the past centuries, steppe vegetation is now often restricted to places inadequate for ploughing, such as ancient burial mounds called kurgans. Thus, beside that kurgans are millennia-old iconic historical monuments of the steppic landscape, they are vital in preserving both our cultural and natural heritage. We collected and synthesised existing knowledge on kurgans by a review of research papers and grey literature and provided recommendations for elaborating the involvement of kurgans into agri-environmental schemes. We found that the proportions of kurgans covered by steppe vegetation increase from west to east and from lowlands to uplands. Despite their small size, kurgans act as biodiversity hotspots and harbour many red-listed plant species. High biodiversity is maintained by a pronounced fine-scale environmental heterogeneity provided by the special micro-topography of the kurgans. We found that landscape-level land use changes such as intensified agriculture and construction works are the major threatening factors for biodiversity of kurgans. Despite the vital role of kurgans in sustaining steppe vegetation, we identified serious knowledge gaps on their distribution, vegetation, flora and fauna and their potential role in steppe restoration. We conclude that these sacral places play a crucial role in preserving steppe vegetation, especially in intensively used agricultural landscapes in the western part of the steppe zone. They maintain ecosystem functions at the landscape-level by providing refugia for rare grassland specialist species and ensuring habitat connectivity in anthropogenic landscapes. Based on our results we suggest improving existing agri-environmental schemes which only focus on the

  11. An assessment of arthropod prey resources at Nakula Natural Area Reserve, a potential site of reintroduction for Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui `Alauahio (Parareomyza montana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Cappadonna, Justin; Steele, Claire; Leonard, David L.; Mounce, Hanna L.; Becker, Dusti; Swinnerton, Kirsty

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds have declined dramatically since humans arrived in the archipelago. Birds from all foraging guilds have been affected but insectivorous species are currently at greatest risk of extinction. On the island of Maui, populations and ranges of the insectivorous kiwikiu (Maui parrotbill; Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui ‘alauahio (Maui creeper; Paroreomyza montana) have declined significantly from historic levels primarily due to habitat loss, predation,disease, and food web disruption, leading to federal listings of endangered species and species of concern, respectively. Recovery plans for these birds include reestablishment of populations in parts of their former range. Nakula Natural Area Reserve on the leeward side of HaleakalāVolcano has been targeted for release of wild-caught or captive-bred individuals. The mesic, montane koa-‘ōhi‘a (Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha) forest at Nakula has been heavily impacted through grazing by feral ungulates, but recent management actions to exclude these animals are promoting forest recovery. The objective of this study was to assess the arthropod prey base at Nakula in preparation for reintroductions of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio. To accomplish that goal, we compared arthropod abundances at Nakula to those at Hanawi Natural Area Reserve and Waikamoi Preserve, areas where kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio are currently found. We also identified diets of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio from fecal samples to better understand and evaluate the prey base at Nakula. Assessment methods included clipping branch tips to sample arthropods within the foliage of koa and ‘ōhi‘a, using traps to quantify arthropods on koa and ‘ōhi‘a bark surfaces, counting exit holes to quantify abundances of beetles (Coleoptera) within dead branches of koa, and measuring the density of arthropods within the stems of ‘ākala (Rubus hawaiiensis). The diet of kiwikiu was dominated by caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae

  12. A Cultural Resource Inventory of High- and Medium Site Sensitivity Areas, Fort Carson Military Reservation: El Paso, Fremont, and Pueblo Counties, Colorado, 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles, Mona

    2000-01-01

    .... The areas inventoried include portions of three counties: El Paso, Fremont, and Pueblo. Four thousand and thirty-six acres of high-site sensitivity areas and 3,200 acres of medium-site sensitivity areas were inventoried, totaling 7,236 acres...

  13. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover and Identify Biotic Resources in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems: Preliminary Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2006-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  14. Herbivory and Competition of Tibetan Steppe Vegetation in Winter Pasture: Effects of Livestock Exclosure and Plateau Pika Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Richard B; Wenying, Wang; Badinqiuying; Smith, Andrew T; Bedunah, Donald J

    2015-01-01

    Rangeland degradation has been identified as a serious concern in alpine regions of western China on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP). Numerous government-sponsored programs have been initiated, including many that feature long-term grazing prohibitions and some that call for eliminating pastoralism altogether. As well, government programs have long favored eliminating plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae), assumed to contribute to degraded conditions. However, vegetation on the QTP evolved in the presence of herbivory, suggesting that deleterious effects from grazing are, to some extent, compensated for by reduced plant-plant competition. We examined the dynamics of common steppe ecosystem species as well as physical indicators of rangeland stress by excluding livestock and reducing pika abundance on experimental plots, and following responses for 4 years. We established 12 fenced livestock exclosures within pastures grazed during winter by local pastoralists, and removed pikas on half of these. We established paired, permanent vegetation plots within and outside exclosures and measured indices of erosion and biomass of common plant species. We observed modest restoration of physical site conditions (reduced bare soil, erosion, greater vegetation cover) with both livestock exclusion and pika reduction. As expected in areas protected from grazing, we observed a reduction in annual productivity of plant species avoided by livestock and assumed to compete poorly when protected from grazing. Contrary to expectation, we observed similar reductions in annual productivity among palatable, perennial graminoids under livestock exclusion. The dominant grass, Stipa purpurea, displayed evidence of density-dependent growth, suggesting that intra-specific competition exerted a regulatory effect on annual production in the absence of grazing. Complete grazing bans on winter pastures in steppe habitats on the QTP may assist in the recovery of highly eroded pastures, but may not

  15. Assessment and prediction of the invasiveness of some alien plants in conditions of climate change in the steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Lykholat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The flora of the steppe Dnieper region is characterized by an abundance of naturalized alien species, some of which colonised over the last decade. Climate change, associated primarily with increasing temperature, became clearly manifested in this period. We tested the hypothesis that there is an association between climate change and the initiation of invasiveness of some alien plant species in the steppe Dnieper region. For this purpose, comparative studies of the distribution boundaries of naturalized alien trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants were conducted. Along the research route numerous 5–10-year-old broadleaf linden trees (Tilia platyphyllos Scop. were found in the man-made plantation communities of Dnipro city in areas with moist soil; seeded undergrowth was located at a significant distance from the adult linden plants. Numerous groups of young 7–10-year-old plants of the smoke trees (Cotinus coggygria Scop., which had a seed origin, were found in the shelterbelt and urban recreational plantations. Young 10–12-year-old virginal and generative plants of the black cherry (Padus serotina Ehrh. were found in large numbers in both the semi-natural and artificial plant communities at great distances from the adult trees. The alien plant species common hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L. showed the ability to form fairly sparse seminal seedlings, which was presented by the plants at the age of 4–7 years in both the natural and urban plant communities. The perennial herbaceous plant common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L. was found in the course of the research in ruderal habitats, urban plant communities, and also in the agrocoenoses. The common milkweed reached its greatest abundance in fields of winter crops, where the spread of this species was accompanied by a sharp decrease in the number of other species of segetal plants. Our study results confirm that the extension of the distribution boundaries of alien species over the last

  16. Ecosystem functional response across precipitation extremes in a sagebrush steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Tredennick

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Precipitation is predicted to become more variable in the western United States, meaning years of above and below average precipitation will become more common. Periods of extreme precipitation are major drivers of interannual variability in ecosystem functioning in water limited communities, but how ecosystems respond to these extremes over the long-term may shift with precipitation means and variances. Long-term changes in ecosystem functional response could reflect compensatory changes in species composition or species reaching physiological thresholds at extreme precipitation levels. Methods We conducted a five year precipitation manipulation experiment in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem in Idaho, United States. We used drought and irrigation treatments (approximately 50% decrease/increase to investigate whether ecosystem functional response remains consistent under sustained high or low precipitation. We recorded data on aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP, species abundance, and soil moisture. We fit a generalized linear mixed effects model to determine if the relationship between ANPP and soil moisture differed among treatments. We used nonmetric multidimensional scaling to quantify community composition over the five years. Results Ecosystem functional response, defined as the relationship between soil moisture and ANPP, was similar among irrigation and control treatments, but the drought treatment had a greater slope than the control treatment. However, all estimates for the effect of soil moisture on ANPP overlapped zero, indicating the relationship is weak and uncertain regardless of treatment. There was also large spatial variation in ANPP within-years, which contributes to the uncertainty of the soil moisture effect. Plant community composition was remarkably stable over the course of the experiment and did not differ among treatments. Discussion Despite some evidence that ecosystem functional response became more

  17. The Peoples of the Steppe Frontier in Early Chinese Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin G. Pulleyblank

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Nascent Chinese civilization once shared the north China plain and the surrounding uplands with various non-Chinese “barbarians”. The Chinese language itself is related to the Tibeto-Burman language family. Some of the “barbarians” to the west belonged to this group, especially the Qiang. Of the major non-Chinese groups, the Yi, along the eastern seaboard, probably spoke an Austroasiatic language. They can be identified with a series of coastal Neolithic cultures, elements of which contributed much to the formation of Chinese civilization in the Central Plain. It has often been assumed that the non-Chinese in the north uplands, the Di and Xiongnu – in Han times nomadic rulers of the steppes of Mongolia – spoke Altaic languages. Although there is good reason to think that the Hu did speak Altaic (i.e. Mongolic, the Xiongnu, first seen in the Ordos and linked to the earlier Yiqu, were linguistically quite different. Their language may have been Yeniseian or an aberrant form of Tibeto-Burman, or without living relatives. In Han times, when hu had become a general term for horse-riding nomads, applied especially to the Xiongnu, the original Hu became known as the Eastern Hu. They were differentiated in Han sources into the Xianbei (*Särbi, ancestors of the historical Mongols, and the Wuhuan (*Awar, a name recognizable as that of the Avars who invaded Europe in the sixth century. The earliest Turkic-speaking peoples that can be identified in Chinese sources are the Dingling, Gekun or Jiankun, and Xinli, located in South Siberia. The nomadic power immediately to the west of the Xiongnu in Han times were the Yuezhi. When the Xiongnu defeated them, their main body moved west, eventually to the Amu Darya, extinguishing the Greek kingdom in Bactria and later establishing the Kushan empire. It is argued that they were Indo-Europeans, speaking a Tocharian language of the type attested in later documents from the oasis states of the Tarim basin

  18. Close-out report Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve remedial action, Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve consists of 312 km 2 (120 mi 2 ) of shrub-steppe land on the western edge of the Hanford Site. It is located south of Highway 240 and east of the point where the Yakima River borders the site. The land was set aside as a natural research area in 1967 by the Atomic Energy Commission. Historically tribal land, the area was homesteaded by pioneers before it was taken by the federal government in 1943 as a security buffer to protect the Hanford Site defense production facilities. One antiaircraft artillery battery (latter converted to a Nike missile site) was located on this land; plutonium production plants or storage facilities were never built there. A more complete account can be found in the Preliminary Assessment Screening (PAS) Report for the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Hanford. With the recent change in mission at the Hanford Site from plutonium production to environmental cleanup, much attention has been given to releasing clean tracts of land for other uses. The ALE Reserve is one such tract of land. The existing areas of contamination in the ALE Reserve were considered to be small. In March 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed and Agreement in Principle in which they agreed to expedite cleanup of the ALE Reserve. Cleanup activities and a draft close-out report were to be completed by October 1994. Additionally, DOE proposed to mitigate hazards that may pose a physical threat to wildlife or humans

  19. MULTICOMPONENT SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND CALIBRATION TO IMPROVE RECOVERY FROM ALGAL MOUNDS: APPLICATION TO THE ROADRUNNER/TOWAOC AREA OF THE PARADOX BASIN, UTE MOUNTAIN UTE RESERVATION, COLORADO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul La Pointe; Claudia Rebne; Steve Dobbs

    2003-07-10

    This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-02NT15451, ''Multicomponent Seismic Analysis and Calibration to Improve Recovery from Algal Mounds: Application to the Roadrunner/Towaoc Area of the Paradox Basin, Ute Mountain Ute Reservation, Colorado''. Optimizing development of highly heterogeneous reservoirs where porosity and permeability vary in unpredictable ways due to facies variations can be challenging. An important example of this is in the algal mounds of the Lower and Upper Ismay reservoirs of the Paradox Basin in Utah and Colorado. It is nearly impossible to develop a forward predictive model to delineate regions of better reservoir development, and so enhanced recovery processes must be selected and designed based upon data that can quantitatively or qualitatively distinguish regions of good or bad reservoir permeability and porosity between existing well control. Recent advances in seismic acquisition and processing offer new ways to see smaller features with more confidence, and to characterize the internal structure of reservoirs such as algal mounds. However, these methods have not been tested. This project will acquire cutting edge, three-dimensional, nine-component (3D9C) seismic data and utilize recently-developed processing algorithms, including the mapping of azimuthal velocity changes in amplitude variation with offset, to extract attributes that relate to variations in reservoir permeability and porosity. In order to apply advanced seismic methods a detailed reservoir study is needed to calibrate the seismic data to reservoir permeability, porosity and lithofacies. This will be done by developing a petrological and geological characterization of the mounds from well data; acquiring and processing the 3D9C data; and comparing the two using advanced pattern recognition tools such as neural nets. In addition, should the correlation prove successful, the resulting data will be evaluated from the

  20. MULTICOMPONENT SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND CALIBRATION TO IMPROVE RECOVERY FROM ALGAL MOUNDS: APPLICATION TO THE ROADRUNNER/TOWAOC AREA OF THE PARADOX BASIN, UTE MOUNTAIN UTE RESERVATION, COLORADO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul La Pointe; Claudia Rebne; Steve Dobbs

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-02NT15451, ''Multicomponent Seismic Analysis and Calibration to Improve Recovery from Algal Mounds: Application to the Roadrunner/Towaoc Area of the Paradox Basin, Ute Mountain Ute Reservation, Colorado''. Optimizing development of highly heterogeneous reservoirs where porosity and permeability vary in unpredictable ways due to facies variations can be challenging. An important example of this is in the algal mounds of the Lower and Upper Ismay reservoirs of the Paradox Basin in Utah and Colorado. It is nearly impossible to develop a forward predictive model to delineate regions of better reservoir development, and so enhanced recovery processes must be selected and designed based upon data that can quantitatively or qualitatively distinguish regions of good or bad reservoir permeability and porosity between existing well control. Recent advances in seismic acquisition and processing offer new ways to see smaller features with more confidence, and to characterize the internal structure of reservoirs such as algal mounds. However, these methods have not been tested. This project will acquire cutting edge, three-dimensional, nine-component (3D9C) seismic data and utilize recently-developed processing algorithms, including the mapping of azimuthal velocity changes in amplitude variation with offset, to extract attributes that relate to variations in reservoir permeability and porosity. In order to apply advanced seismic methods a detailed reservoir study is needed to calibrate the seismic data to reservoir permeability, porosity and lithofacies. This will be done by developing a petrological and geological characterization of the mounds from well data; acquiring and processing the 3D9C data; and comparing the two using advanced pattern recognition tools such as neural nets. In addition, should the correlation prove successful, the resulting data will be evaluated from the perspective of

  1. Quantitative assessments of water-use efficiency in Temperate Eurasian Steppe along an aridity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhao; Li, Jianlong; Ju, Weimin; Ruan, Honghua; Qin, Zhihao; Huang, Yiye; Jeelani, Nasreen; Padarian, José; Propastin, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Water-use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of net primary productivity (NPP) to evapotranspiration (ET), is an important indicator to represent the trade-off pattern between vegetation productivity and water consumption. Its dynamics under climate change are important to ecohydrology and ecosystem management, especially in the drylands. In this study, we modified and used a late version of Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), to quantify the WUE in the typical dryland ecosystems, Temperate Eurasian Steppe (TES). The Aridity Index (AI) was used to specify the terrestrial water availability condition. The regional results showed that during the period of 1999-2008, the WUE has a clear decreasing trend in the spatial distribution from arid to humid areas. The highest annual average WUE was in dry and semi-humid sub-region (DSH) with 0.88 gC mm-1 and the lowest was in arid sub-region (AR) with 0.22 gC mm-1. A two-stage pattern of WUE was found in TES. That is, WUE would enhance with lower aridity stress, but decline under the humid environment. Over 65% of the region exhibited increasing WUE. This enhancement, however, could not indicate that the grasslands were getting better because the NPP even slightly decreased. It was mainly attributed to the reduction of ET over 70% of the region, which is closely related to the rainfall decrease. The results also suggested a similar negative spatial correlation between the WUE and the mean annual precipitation (MAP) at the driest and the most humid ends. This regional pattern reflected the different roles of water in regulating the terrestrial ecosystems under different aridity levels. This study could facilitate the understanding of the interactions between terrestrial carbon and water cycles, and thus contribute to a sustainable management of nature resources in the dryland ecosystems.

  2. Quantitative assessments of water-use efficiency in Temperate Eurasian Steppe along an aridity gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhao Chen

    Full Text Available Water-use efficiency (WUE, defined as the ratio of net primary productivity (NPP to evapotranspiration (ET, is an important indicator to represent the trade-off pattern between vegetation productivity and water consumption. Its dynamics under climate change are important to ecohydrology and ecosystem management, especially in the drylands. In this study, we modified and used a late version of Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS, to quantify the WUE in the typical dryland ecosystems, Temperate Eurasian Steppe (TES. The Aridity Index (AI was used to specify the terrestrial water availability condition. The regional results showed that during the period of 1999-2008, the WUE has a clear decreasing trend in the spatial distribution from arid to humid areas. The highest annual average WUE was in dry and semi-humid sub-region (DSH with 0.88 gC mm-1 and the lowest was in arid sub-region (AR with 0.22 gC mm-1. A two-stage pattern of WUE was found in TES. That is, WUE would enhance with lower aridity stress, but decline under the humid environment. Over 65% of the region exhibited increasing WUE. This enhancement, however, could not indicate that the grasslands were getting better because the NPP even slightly decreased. It was mainly attributed to the reduction of ET over 70% of the region, which is closely related to the rainfall decrease. The results also suggested a similar negative spatial correlation between the WUE and the mean annual precipitation (MAP at the driest and the most humid ends. This regional pattern reflected the different roles of water in regulating the terrestrial ecosystems under different aridity levels. This study could facilitate the understanding of the interactions between terrestrial carbon and water cycles, and thus contribute to a sustainable management of nature resources in the dryland ecosystems.

  3. The availability of mineral nitrogen in Mediterranean open steppe dominated by Stipa tenacissima L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Novosádová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of interest is located in the Sierra de los Filabres in semi-arid steppe of the province of Almeria in Spain. The amount of water in the soil is a limiting factor and its availability affects the structure and species composition of ecosystem. On the other hand, the type of vegetation affects the water loss via evapotranspiration and thus the soil microclimate. It has a great influence on the growth and activity of soil microbial communities and hence the dynamics of decomposition of organic matter and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to assess the intensity of microbial transformations of soil organic nitrogen and describe changes in the content of nitrogen mineral forms at different depths in the semi-arid climate soil in the Mediterranean region. Availability and movement of nitrogen was monitored by capturing the mineral nitrogen into the structures of ion exchange resin applied to the soil in three different variants (control variant, a variant with the addition of cellulose, and the variant with the addition of raw silk. Ion exchange resins have been installed into soil profile in 2008, 2009, and 2010. After the in situ exposure the ion exchange resins were removed from the soil profile and the quantity of captured mineral N was determined by distillation titration method. The availability of ammonia-nitrogen was significantly affected by the addition of different substrates mainly by the additions of the raw silk, where the availability was regularly the highest. However, the availability of ammonia-nitrogen form was generally higher than the availability of nitrate form.

  4. Mapping Natura 2000 Habitat Conservation Status in a Pannonic Salt Steppe with Airborne Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Zlinszky

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Natura 2000 Habitat Conservation Status is currently evaluated based on fieldwork. However, this is proving to be unfeasible over large areas. The use of remote sensing is increasingly encouraged but covering the full range of ecological variables by such datasets and ensuring compatibility with the traditional assessment methodology has not been achieved yet. We aimed to test Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS as a source for mapping all variables required by the local official conservation status assessment scheme and to develop an automated method that calculates Natura 2000 conservation status at 0.5 m raster resolution for 24 km2 of Pannonic Salt Steppe habitat (code 1530. We used multi-temporal (summer and winter ALS point clouds with full-waveform recording and a density of 10 pt/m2. Some required variables were derived from ALS product rasters; others involved vegetation classification layers calculated by machine learning and fuzzy categorization. Thresholds separating favorable and unfavorable values of each variable required by the national assessment scheme were manually calibrated from 10 plots where field-based assessment was carried out. Rasters representing positive and negative scores for each input variable were integrated in a ruleset that exactly follows the Hungarian Natura 2000 assessment scheme for grasslands. Accuracy of each parameter and the final conservation status score and category was evaluated by 10 independent assessment plots. We conclude that ALS is a suitable data source for Natura 2000 assessments in grasslands, and that the national grassland assessment scheme can successfully be used as a GIS processing model for conservation status, ensuring that the output is directly comparable with traditional field based assessments.

  5. Productivity and CO2 exchange of Great Plains ecoregions. I. Shortgrass steppe: Flux tower estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Morgan, Jack A.; Hanan, Niall P.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rajan, Nithya; Smith, David P.; Howard, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    The shortgrass steppe (SGS) occupies the southwestern part of the Great Plains. Half of the land is cultivated, but significant areas remain under natural vegetation. Despite previous studies of the SGS carbon cycle, not all aspects have been completely addressed, including gross productivity, ecosystem respiration, and ecophysiological parameters. Our analysis of 1998 − 2007 flux tower measurements at five Bowen ratio–energy balance (BREB) and three eddy covariance (EC) sites characterized seasonal and interannual variability of gross photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration. Identification of the nonrectangular hyperbolic equation for the diurnal CO2 exchange, with vapor pressure deficit (VPD) limitation and exponential temperature response, quantified quantum yield α, photosynthetic capacity Amax, and respiration rate rd with variation ranges (19 \\production from − 900 to + 700 g CO2 m− 2 yr− 1, indicating that SGS may switch from a sink to a source depending on weather. Comparison of the 2004 − 2006 measurements at two BREB and two parallel EC flux towers located at comparable SGS sites showed moderately higher photosynthesis, lower respiration, and higher net production at the BREB than EC sites. However, the difference was not related only to methodologies, as the normalized difference vegetation index at the BREB sites was higher than at the EC sites. Overall magnitudes and seasonal patterns at the BREB and the EC sites during the 3-yr period were similar, with trajectories within the ± 1.5 standard deviation around the mean of the four sites and mostly reflecting the effects of meteorology.

  6. Seasonal variation of tsetse fly species abundance and prevalence of trypanosomes in the Maasai Steppe, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnko, Happiness J; Ngonyoka, Anibariki; Salekwa, Linda; Estes, Anna B; Hudson, Peter J; Gwakisa, Paul S; Cattadori, Isabella M

    2017-06-01

    Tsetse flies, the vectors of trypanosomiasis, represent a threat to public health and economy in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite these concerns, information on temporal and spatial dynamics of tsetse and trypanosomes remain limited and may be a reason that control strategies are less effective. The current study assessed the temporal variation of the relative abundance of tsetse fly species and trypanosome prevalence in relation to climate in the Maasai Steppe of Tanzania in 2014-2015. Tsetse flies were captured using odor-baited Epsilon traps deployed in ten sites selected through random subsampling of the major vegetation types in the area. Fly species were identified morphologically and trypanosome species classified using PCR. The climate dataset was acquired from the African Flood and Drought Monitor repository. Three species of tsetse flies were identified: G. swynnertoni (70.8%), G. m. morsitans (23.4%), and G.pallidipes (5.8%). All species showed monthly changes in abundance with most of the flies collected in July. The relative abundance of G. m. morsitans and G. swynnertoni was negatively correlated with maximum and minimum temperature, respectively. Three trypanosome species were recorded: T. vivax (82.1%), T. brucei (8.93%), and T. congolense (3.57%). The peak of trypanosome infections in the flies was found in October and was three months after the tsetse abundance peak; prevalence was negatively correlated with tsetse abundance. A strong positive relationship was found between trypanosome prevalence and temperature. In conclusion, we find that trypanosome prevalence is dependent on fly availability, and temperature drives both tsetse fly relative abundance and trypanosome prevalence. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  7. RESERVOIR EFFECT OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SAMPLES FROM STEPPE BRONZE AGE CULTURES IN SOUTHERN RUSSIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishlina, N.; Sevastyanov, V.; Zazovskaya, E.; van der Plicht, J.

    2014-01-01

    Human and animal bone collagen from different Steppe Bronze Age cultures, including the Yamnaya, East Manych Catacomb, and Lola cultures, show large variations in delta C-13 and delta N-15 values. More positive values of delta C-13 and delta N-15 are caused by change in diet and/or a more arid

  8. ISOTOPES, PLANTS, AND RESERVOIR EFFECTS : CASE STUDY FROM THE CASPIAN STEPPE BRONZE AGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishlina, N.; Zazovskaya, E.; van der Plicht, J.; Sevastyanov, V.; Boaretto, E.; Rebollo Franco, N.R.

    2012-01-01

    Bronze Age human and animal bone collagen from several steppe Bronze Age cultures (i.e. Early Catacomb, East and West Manych Catacomb, and Lola cultures) shows large variations in delta C-13 and delta N-15 values. In general, we observed that the older the sample, the lower the delta C-13 and delta

  9. Dating simple flakes: Early Bronze Age flake production technology on the Middle Euphrates Steppe, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Nishiaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aceramic flint scatters, comprising very crude cores or flakes and no formalised tools, are frequently found on the Middle Euphrates steppe of northern Syria. Previous studies suggest that many of them are residues of short-term activities by the nomads or shepherds of the Early Bronze Age. In order to verify this interpretation, a more precise chronological framework needs to be established for the Early Bronze Age lithic industry. This paper analyses stratified flake assemblages of the Early Bronze Age at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, a securely radiocarbon-dated settlement on the Middle Euphrates, and examines which occupation level yields assemblages most similar to those of the steppe. Results demonstrate that the lithic industry of this period underwent significant diachronic changes in terms of core reduction technology. Based on the chronological framework developed at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, the steppe assemblages in question can be assigned to different phases of the Early Bronze Age. This finding will help identify processes at the beginning of the extensive exploitation of the steppe, which is regarded as one of the most important socioeconomic changes that occurred among Early Bronze Age communities of the Middle Euphrates.

  10. Population status, habitat associations, and distribution of the steppe polecat Mustela eversmanii in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Spassov, N.; Anděra, M.; Enzinger, K.; Ottlecz, B.; Hegyeli, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2013), s. 233-244 ISSN 0001-7051 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Steppe polecat * Mustela eversmanii * Distribution * Habitat associations * Population status * Europe Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.161, year: 2013

  11. Soil microbial community and endemic earthworm Allolobophora hrabei in soils of steppe fragments of central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elhottová, Dana; Jirout, Jiří; Pižl, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, April (2016), EGU2016-11562 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016. 17.04.2016-22.04.2016, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil microorganisms * endemic earthworm Allolobophora hrabei * steppe fragments * central Europe Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  12. Radiocarbon dating of the bronze age bone pins from Eurasian steppe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishlina, Natalia I.; Van der Plicht, Johan; Zazovskaya, Elya P.

    Bone catapult and hammer-headed pins played one of very specific roles in funerary offerings in the Bronze Age graves uncovered in the Eurasian Steppes and the North Caucasus. Scholars used different types of pins as key grave offerings for numerous chronological models. For the first time eight

  13. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community structure on two sagebrush steppe sites in southern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Cook; Sara M. Birch; Frank W. Merickel; Carrie Caselton Lowe; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Although sagebrush, Artemisia spp., does not require an insect pollinator, there are several native species of bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), that are present in sagebrush steppe ecosystems where they act as pollinators for various forbs and shrubs. These native pollinators contribute to plant productivity and reproduction. We captured 12 species of...

  14. STEPPE: Supporting collaborative research and education on Earth's deep-time sedimentary crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    STEPPE—Sedimentary geology, Time, Environment, Paleontology, Paleoclimate, and Energy—is a National Science Foundation supported consortium whose mission is to promote multidisciplinary research and education on Earth's deep-time sedimentary crust. Deep-time sedimentary crust research includes many specialty areas—biology, geography, ecology, paleontology, sedimentary geology, stratigraphy, geochronology, paleoclimatology, sedimentary geochemistry, and more. In fact, the diversity of disciplines and size of the community (roughly one-third of Earth-science faculty in US universities) itself has been a barrier to the formation of collaborative, multidisciplinary teams in the past. STEPPE has been working to support new research synergies and the development of infrastructure that will encourage the community to think about the big problems that need to be solved and facilitate the formation of collaborative research teams to tackle these problems. Toward this end, STEPPE is providing opportunities for workshops, working groups and professional development training sessions, web-hosting and database services and an online collaboration platform that facilitates interaction among participants, the sharing of documentation and workflows and an ability to push news and reports to group participants and beyond using social media tools. As such, STEPPE is working to provide an interactive space that will serve as both a gathering place and clearinghouse for information, allowing for broader integration of research and education across all STEPPE-related sub disciplines.

  15. Patterns and drivers of phytodiversity in steppe grasslands of Central Podolia (Ukraine)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzemko, Anna; Steinbauer, Manuel; Becker, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    nested-plot series ranging from 0.0001 to 100 m2 and additional 10-m2 plots, covering different vegetation types and management regimes in steppes and semi-natural dry grasslands of Central Podolia (Ukraine). We recorded all terricolous taxa and used topographic, soil, land-use and climatic variables...

  16. Impacts of feral horse use on riparian vegetation within the sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feral horses inhabit rangeland ecosystems around the world, but their impacts on riparian ecosystems are poorly understood. We characterized impacts of a free-ranging horse population on the structure and composition of riparian plant communities in the sagebrush steppe ecosystem in the western US....

  17. Dynamics of sugar content in vegetative organs of Syringa Genus representatives introduced into Steppe Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Dolgova

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative and qualitative contents of sugars in phases of growth and development in overground organs of species of Syringa L. genus were determined. It is shown a cryoprotective role of sugars in plants. Conclusions on resistance of plants under conditions of a steppe zone are made.

  18. Lethal Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype III infection in Steppe lemmings (Lagurus lagurus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmannová, L.; Sak, Bohumil; Jekl, V.; Mináriková, A.; Škorič, M.; Kváč, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 205, 1-2 (2014), s. 357-360 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1163 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype III * Steppe lemmings * Lethal infection * PCR * Histology Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.460, year: 2014

  19. Community structure affects annual grass weed invasion during restoration of a shrub-steppe ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil S. Allen; Susan E. Meyer

    2014-01-01

    Ecological restoration of shrub-steppe communities in the western United States is often hampered by invasion of exotic annual grasses during the process. An important question is how to create restored communities that can better resist reinvasion by these weeds. One hypothesis is that communities comprised of species that are functionally similar to the invader will...

  20. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aksu-Zhabagly nature reserve is located in West Tien Shan in Kazakhstan, on the border of three countries – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan (70°18'-57' E and 42°08'-30' N, with an area of 1281 km2; its length is 53 km from the most western to the most eastern point and 41 km from the most southern to the most northern point. It occupies the western limit of the Talasskiy Alatau ridge and its north-western spurs: Zhabaglytau mountains, Alatau, Bugultor, Aksutau and Ugam ridges. In the neighbouring Karatau ridge there is a palaeontological site with an area of 2.2 km2 with deposits of flora and fauna of the Jurassic period. The absolute heights above sea level are 1300–4200 m. The relief is alpine – deep canyons with steep slopes. The middle mountain zone (1300–2000 m is occupied by meadow-steppe formations with juniper sparse forests (Juniperus semiglobosa, J. seravschanica; subalpine meadows (2000–3000 m are alternated by creeping juniper thickets (Juniperus turkestanica and rocky outcrops; the alpine zone (higher than 3000 m is dominated by rocks and snowfields, and glaciers above 3500 m. The nature reserve's flora constitutes almost half of all West Tien Shan's flora and counts 1737 species, including: 235 species of fungi, 64 lichens, 63 species each of algae and mosses, as well as 1312 species of higher plants. Among those, 200 species are medicinal and 57 species are listed in the Red Data Books of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The vertebrates fauna includes 320 species: mammals – 52 species, birds – 247 (130 of them are nesting, reptiles and amphibians – 14, fishes – 7 species. Animals inhabiting the territory include argali (Ovis ammon karelini, mountain goat (Capra sibirica, bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus, snow leopart (Uncia uncia, Turkestan lynx (Lynx lynx isabellinus; birds – bearded vulture (Gypaёtus barbatus, Himalayan snowcock (Tetraogallus himalayensis, chukar (Alectoris chukar, blue

  1. Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS): program efficacy and personality features as predictors of drop-out -- an Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesiani, Roberta; Boccalon, Silvia; Giarolli, Laura; Blum, Nancee; Fossati, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    In this study we present a clinical application of the STEPPS model in an Italian sample of severely affected patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) or personality disorder (PD) with prominent borderline features in comorbidity with a mood disorder. The aims of this work are: 1) to confirm our preliminary results in a larger sample and at a 12-month follow-up, and 2) to identify predictors of drop-out vs completion of STEPPS in order to understand which characteristics of patients make them suitable or not for this treatment. The sample is composed of 32 subjects recruited from a population of inpatients of the Mood Disorders Center, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Hospital San Raffaele-Turro, Milan. To confirm STEPPS efficacy at 12-month follow-up, we selected the following outcome criteria: reduction in the number of hospitalizations related to self-harm acts; reduction in the number of suicidal attempts; reduction of perceived emotional intensity levels; changes in cognitive filter scores; changes in the scores on self-report questionnaires. To identify predictors of drop-out vs completion, we analysed the following variables: demographic features (sex, marital status, school level achieved, and job status); Axis-I diagnosis; Axis-II categorical and dimensional diagnosis; and personality features. Seventeen (53%) subjects completed the treatment successfully. The drop-out rate was 47%. Patients who completed the program show a significant decrease in the number of hospitalizations, both at the end of the treatment and at 12-month follow-up. Friedman ANOVA test shows a significant decrease in suicidal attempts during and after STEPPS, and at 12-month follow-up. Analysis of drop-outs showed no significant differences with regard to sex, marital status, school level and job status between the two groups. Axis-I and Axis-II categorical diagnoses did not discriminate between the two groups. Those patients who dropped differ significantly from

  2. A New ′Conservation Space′? Protected Areas, Environmental Economic Activities and Discourses in Two Yucatán Biosphere Reserves in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Doyon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines some of the local socioeconomic repercussions of two biosphere reserves on the Yucatán Peninsula-Ría Celestún and Ría Lagartos. We analyse aspects of the relationship that the residents of the six villages located within the two reserves have with their environment, by examining both the ′environmental economic activities′ residents are involved in and their discourses on, and interpretations of, the notion of environment and the conservation precepts put forward by the biosphere reserves. Our research explores how the objectives of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization′s Man and Biosphere Programme, disseminated by biosphere reserves, are put into practice on the ground. In particular, we look at how environmental economic activities are experienced and practised without necessarily being accompanied by the integration, acceptance, and internalisation of conservation principles-and how these activities contribute, or fail to contribute, to the crystallisation of a new ′conservation space′.

  3. Pleistocene Park: the restoration of steppes as a tool to mitigate climate change through albedo effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimov, N.; Loranty, M. M.; Edgar, C.; Kropp, H.; Zimov, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the late Pleistocene, the world largest ecosystem was the mammoth steppe. It stretched from the Iberian Peninsula to Canada and from the New Siberian Islands to China. It was a highly productive steppe ecosystem with numerous predators and herbivores that maintained the dominance of grasslands. With the end of the Pleistocene, the climate warmed and humans entered Siberia and the Americas. The introduction of humans as predators in these regions led to the extinction of most large animals, and the further degradation of the steppes. Mosses, shrubs and larch forest soon replaced grasses and herbs. Pleistocene Park is an experiment conducted in the far north of Siberia; its main goal is to revive the extinct steppe ecosystem in the Arctic. This would increase the richness of the northern ecosystems and, bioproductivity, and through a series of ecological mechanisms help to mitigate climate change. To conduct the experiment, was fenced 2000 hectares of land, and continue the ongoing process of introducing animals that either lived on this territory in the past or that can adapt to the modern northern environment. Through grazing, animals slowly transform the vegetation, replacing mosses, shrubs, and trees with grasses and herbs. Here we present the effects grazing animals have on the albedo of the landscape. Several years of year-round measurement of albedo and incoming and reflected radiation conducted in the grasslands in the park indicate substantially higher albedo compared with most modern ecosystems like larch forest and shrublands. Since grasses are lighter than forest, they reflect a higher portion of energy back to space. Results indicate the most dramatic difference in reflected solar radiation is in April and early May. Grasslands covered with snow reflect most of the sun's energy, while dark stems of forests and shrubs absorb that energy and promote warming. We argue that large-scale promotion of highly productive steppes in the Arctic will

  4. Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Some Other Invertebrates from the Managed Nature Reserves "Dolna Topchiya" and "Balabana" (Lower Valley of the River of Tundzha, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora M. Teofilova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate fauna of the "Balabana" and "Dolna Topchiya" managed nature reserves is studied, with particular consideration to the ground beetles. The area of study is interesting from a biological point of view, as the Tundzha River constitutes a corridor of penetration of southern and thermophilic elements. On the other hand, the specifics of the territory predetermine the presence of many typically forest and some mountain species, as well as a lot of inhabitants of open biotopes, in particular – steppe forms. During the study, altogether 2041 specimens of carabid beetles belonging to 88 species are captured, as well as 76 other invertebrate species, some of which are with a conservation significance – new, endemic, rare, protected or endangered. Forty-six carabid species are reported for the first time for the Sakar-Tundzha region. Ground beetles are characterized and classified according to their zoogeographical belonging and the life forms they refer to.

  5. Distribution of sandflies (Diptera:Psychodidae) on tree-trunks in a non-flooded area of the Ducke Forest Reserve, Manaus, AM, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, M R; Castellón, E G

    1999-01-01

    Sandflies were collected in the base of tree-trunks in the seasons of high and least rainfall in the Ducke Forest Reserve, near Manaus in the State of Amazonas. Lutzomyia umbratilis was the most abundant sandfly species. Caryocar villosum, Chrysophyllum amazonicum, Dinizia excelsa, Eschweilera atropetiolata and Parkia multijuga were the tree species on which most sandflies were collected and relative abundance were related to trunk characteristics. Seasonal patterns of sandfly distribution in the forest were observed.

  6. Distribution of Sandflies (Diptera:Psychodidae on Tree-trunks in a Non-flooded Area of the Ducke Forest Reserve, Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabanillas MRS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandflies were collected in the base of tree-trunks in the seasons of high and least rainfall in the Ducke Forest Reserve, near Manaus in the State of Amazonas. Lutzomyia umbratilis was the most abundant sandfly species. Caryocar villosum, Chrysophyllum amazonicum, Dinizia excelsa, Eschweilera atropetiolata and Parkia multijuga were the tree species on which most sandflies were collected and relative abundance were related to trunk characteristics. Seasonal patterns of sandfly distribution in the forest were observed.

  7. Grasshopper populations inhabiting the B-C Cribs and REDOX Pond Sites, 200 Area Plateau, United States Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, J.K.; Rogers, L.E.

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the taxonomic composition, abundance, and food habits of grasshopper populations inhabiting the 200 Area plateau. Two sites were selected for detailed study, one near the B-C Cribs control zone and the other near the former REDOX Pond. A total of 14 grasshopper species were collected from the B-C Cribs study area and 16 species from the REDOX Pond area. Thirteen of these species occurred at both locations. Population density was low throughout most of the spring, increased in late May, and reached a peak of about 4 grasshoppers per square meter in early July. A dietary analysis showed that 7 of the 28 species of vascular plants recorded from the area were major components in grasshopper diets. These included needle-and-thread grass (Stipa comata), turpentine cymopterus (Cymopterus terebinthinus), Carey's balsamroot (Balsamorhiza careyana), western tansymustard (Descurainia pinnata), Jim Hill mustard (Sisymbrium altissimum), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and green rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus). The plant most heavily utilized was big sagebrush, followed by turpentine cymopterus, green rabbitbrush, and Carey's balsamroot. Other species were less frequently eaten. Several plants were present in the diet at a much higher frequency than they occurred in the environment, indicating that they were preferred food items.

  8. Assessing Actual and Potential Organic Carbon Pools in Southern Taiga and Forest-Steppe Ecosystems of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, Olga; Ryzhova, Irina; Podvezennaya, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Recent debates on climate changes showed the importance of maintaining natural cycles of nutrients and preserving extensive areas of natural ecosystems to ensure sustainability of the biosphere. The size and distribution of nutrient pools within ecosystems are the key characteristics of the biological cycle reflecting changes in the functioning of natural systems. Carbon pools assessed in similar land-use types by different researchers are often poorly comparable due to various calculation algorithms, sampling techniques and sets of field data used. Model-based assessments often yield results that significantly depart from calculations based on actual field data. We estimated the actual and potential natural carbon pools using potential natural vegetation maps, soil maps, up-to-date statistics and results of regional studies. Organic carbon pools in biomass, forest litter, peat and soil were calculated for most typical natural (ecosystems, which experienced the least effect of historic land use) and modern ecosystems for two administrative regions of Russia: 1. Kursk region characterized by high productive natural steppe vegetation with predominance of chernozems - the country's most fertile soils, which were extensively transformed by agricultural activity; 2. Kostroma region, sparsely populated area with still abundant southern taiga forests. The average characteristics of vegetation productivity for natural and some human-modified ecosystems such as coniferous (pine, spruce) and noble broadleaf (oak, linden) forests, swamps, bogs, steppes, bottomland meadows, secondary forests, hayfields, pastures were calculated using the Database on the Productivity of Ecosystems in North Eurasia. The biological productivity of present-day forests and carbon pools in biomass were calculated using the program for assessing forest carbon budget (ROBUL model). Similar characteristics were used for agricultural areas. They were averaged according to crop rotations and recalculated

  9. Neuroprotective effect of seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal area (Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve): Cholinesterase inhibitory effect of Hypnea valentiae and Ulva reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthy, N; Karutha Pandian, S; Pandima Devi, K

    2010-01-14

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is one of the four leading causes of death in developed nations. Until date the only symptomatic treatment for this disease is based on the "cholinergic hypothesis" where the drugs enhance acetylcholine levels in the brain by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In the course for screening cholinesterase inhibitors about eight seaweeds, with wide pharmaceutical applications, were collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar, Marine Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India. Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of the seaweeds was studied in vitro by incubating various concentration of the extract with AChE or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) and assessing their activities by Ellman's colorimetric method. Kinetic parameters like IC(50), K(i) and V(max) were also analyzed. The results showed that of the eight seaweeds screened Hypnea valentiae, Padina gymnospora, Ulva reticulata and Gracilaria edulis exhibited inhibitory activity to AChE with IC(50) value of 2.6, 3.5, 10 and 3mg/ml respectively, while H. valentiae, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Dictyota dichotoma and U. reticulata showed 50% inhibition to BuChE at concentration 3.9, 7, 6.5 and 10mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory activities of the seaweed extracts were comparable to the standard drug donepezil. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed that algal extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition (partial noncompetitive inhibition). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon pool densities and a first estimate of the total carbon pool in the Mongolian forest-steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Klinge, Michael; Degener, Jan; Khishigjargal, Mookhor; Chenlemuge, Tselmeg; Bat-Enerel, Banzragch; Yeruult, Yolk; Saindovdon, Davaadorj; Ganbaatar, Kherlenchimeg; Tsogtbaatar, Jamsran; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2016-02-01

    The boreal forest biome represents one of the most important terrestrial carbon stores, which gave reason to intensive research on carbon stock densities. However, such an analysis does not yet exist for the southernmost Eurosiberian boreal forests in Inner Asia. Most of these forests are located in the Mongolian forest-steppe, which is largely dominated by Larix sibirica. We quantified the carbon stock density and total carbon pool of Mongolia's boreal forests and adjacent grasslands and draw conclusions on possible future change. Mean aboveground carbon stock density in the interior of L. sibirica forests was 66 Mg C ha(-1) , which is in the upper range of values reported from boreal forests and probably due to the comparably long growing season. The density of soil organic carbon (SOC, 108 Mg C ha(-1) ) and total belowground carbon density (149 Mg C ha(-1) ) are at the lower end of the range known from boreal forests, which might be the result of higher soil temperatures and a thinner permafrost layer than in the central and northern boreal forest belt. Land use effects are especially relevant at forest edges, where mean carbon stock density was 188 Mg C ha(-1) , compared with 215 Mg C ha(-1) in the forest interior. Carbon stock density in grasslands was 144 Mg C ha(-1) . Analysis of satellite imagery of the highly fragmented forest area in the forest-steppe zone showed that Mongolia's total boreal forest area is currently 73 818 km(2) , and 22% of this area refers to forest edges (defined as the first 30 m from the edge). The total forest carbon pool of Mongolia was estimated at ~ 1.5-1.7 Pg C, a value which is likely to decrease in future with increasing deforestation and fire frequency, and global warming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The biodiversity and biotic integration in the oak-wood of middle Russian partially wooded steppe districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Reutskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article there are givin the problems of biotic integration in the oak-wood of partially wooded steppe destrikts. There was studying the vitality dependens of oaks from their composition diversity.

  12. Mid-Holocene bottleneck for central European dry grasslands: Did steppe survive the forest optimum in northern Bohemia, Czech Republic?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, P.; Chytrý, M.; Juřičková, L.; Sádlo, Jiří; Novák, J.; Ložek, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2015), s. 716-726 ISSN 0959-6836 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : MId-Holocene * forest-steppe * pollen analysis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.135, year: 2015

  13. Soil characteristic comparison of fenced and grazed riparian floodplain wetlands in the typical steppe region of the Inner Mongolian Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Liu, Huamin; Liu, Yuhong; Li, Jianwei; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Wei; Liang, Cunzhu

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, degradation of ecosystem in the steppe region of the Inner Mongolia Plateau, especially in riparian floodplain wetlands, has become a significant ecological crisis. Not uncommonly, with the increasing of livestock in the Inner Mongolian steppe region, a riparian floodplain wetland is becoming a hotspot area of grazing for local herdsmen. Hence, it is essential to understand degradation mechanisms of riparian floodplain wetland ecosystems caused by extensive grazing. In this study, the spatial distribution of soil compaction, salinity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic carbon, and microbial biomass C and N were investigated. The results showed that grazing led to an increase in soil compaction and soil surface salinity, which significantly lowered levels of total N, P, and TOC in the soil surface. Grazing decreased soil microbial biomass C and N concentration in the lower riparian floodplain wetland, whereas it significantly increased soil microbial biomass C and N concentration in the higher riparian floodplain wetland. Elevation differences in the riparian floodplain wetland increased spatial heterogeneity in the soil and thus resulted in different influence of grazing on wetland soils and ecosystem. Therefore, elevation differences and grazing intensity were the main factors controlling soil characteristics in the riparian floodplain wetland of this region.

  14. Multicomponent Seismic Analysis and Calibration to Improve Recovery from Algal Mounds: Application to the Roadrunner/Towaoc area of the Paradox Basin, UTE Mountain UTE Reservation, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Hachey

    2007-09-30

    The goals of this project were: (1) To enhance recovery of oil contained within algal mounds on the Ute Mountain Ute tribal lands. (2) To promote the use of advanced technology and expand the technical capability of the Native American Oil production corporations by direct assistance in the current project and dissemination of technology to other Tribes. (3) To develop an understanding of multicomponent seismic data as it relates to the variations in permeability and porosity of algal mounds, as well as lateral facies variations, for use in both reservoir development and exploration. (4) To identify any undiscovered algal mounds for field-extension within the area of seismic coverage. (5) To evaluate the potential for applying CO{sub 2} floods, steam floods, water floods or other secondary or tertiary recovery processes to increase production. The technical work scope was carried out by: (1) Acquiring multicomponent seismic data over the project area; (2) Processing and reprocessing the multicomponent data to extract as much geological and engineering data as possible within the budget and time-frame of the project; (3) Preparing maps and data volumes of geological and engineering data based on the multicomponent seismic and well data; (4) Selecting drilling targets if warranted by the seismic interpretation; (5) Constructing a static reservoir model of the project area; and (6) Constructing a dynamic history-matched simulation model from the static model. The original project scope covered a 6 mi{sup 2} (15.6 km{sup 2}) area encompassing two algal mound fields (Towaoc and Roadrunner). 3D3C seismic data was to acquired over this area to delineate mound complexes and image internal reservoir properties such as porosity and fluid saturations. After the project began, the Red Willow Production Company, a project partner and fully-owned company of the Southern Ute Tribe, contributed additional money to upgrade the survey to a nine-component (3D9C) survey. The purpose

  15. Indicators of success for smart law enforcement in protected areas: A case study for Russian Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hötte, Michiel H H; Kolodin, Igor A; Bereznuk, Sergei L; Slaght, Jonathan C; Kerley, Linda L; Soutyrina, Svetlana V; Salkina, Galina P; Zaumyslova, Olga Y; Stokes, Emma J; Miquelle, Dale G

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable conservation resources have been committed to develop and use law enforcement monitoring and management tools such as SMART, measures of success are ill-defined and, to date, few reports detail results post-implementation. Here, we present 4 case studies from protected areas with Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in Russia, in which indicators of success were defined and evaluated at each. The ultimate goal was an increase in tiger numbers to 1 individual/100 km(2) at each site. We predicted that improvements in law enforcement effectiveness would be followed by increases in prey numbers and, subsequently, tiger numbers. We used short-term and long-term indicators of success, including: (i) patrol team effort and effectiveness; (ii) catch per unit effort indicators (to measure reductions in threats); and (iii) changes in target species numbers. In addition to implementing a monitoring system, we focused on improving law enforcement management using an adaptive management process. Over 4 years, we noted clear increases in patrol effort and a partial reduction in threats. Although we did not detect clear trends in ungulate numbers, tiger populations remained stable or increased, suggesting that poaching of tigers may be more limiting than prey depletion. Increased effectiveness is needed before a clear reduction in threats can be noted, and more time is needed before detecting responses in target populations. Nonetheless, delineation of concrete goals and indicators of success provide a means of evaluating progress and weaknesses. Such monitoring should be a central component of law enforcement strategies for protected areas. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Impacts of day versus night warming on soil microclimate: results from a semiarid temperate steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianyang; Chen, Shiping; Wan, Shiqiang

    2010-06-15

    One feature of climate warming is that increases in daily minimum temperature are greater than those in daily maximum temperature. Changes in soil microclimate in response to the asymmetrically diurnal warming scenarios can help to explain responses of ecosystem processes. In the present study, we examined the impacts of day, night, and continuous warming on soil microclimate in a temperate steppe in northern China. Our results showed that day, night, and continuous warming (approximately 13Wm(-2) with constant power mode) significantly increased daily mean soil temperature at 10cm depth by 0.71, 0.78, and 1.71 degrees C, respectively. Night warming caused greater increases in nighttime mean and daily minimum soil temperatures (0.74 and 0.99 degrees C) than day warming did (0.60 and 0.66 degrees C). However, there were no differences in the increases in daytime mean and daily maximum soil temperature between day (0.81 and 1.13 degrees C) and night (0.81 and 1.10 degrees C) warming. The differential effects of day and night warming on soil temperature varied with environmental factors, including photosynthetic active radiation, vapor-pressure deficit, and wind speed. When compared with the effect of continuous warming on soil temperature, the summed effects of day and night warming were lower during daytime, but greater at night, thus leading to equality at daily scale. Mean volumetric soil moisture at the depth of 0-40cm significantly decreased under continuous warming in both 2006 (1.44 V/V%) and 2007 (0.76 V/V%). Day warming significantly reduced volumetric soil moisture only in 2006, whereas night warming had no effect on volumetric soil moisture in both 2006 and 2007. Given the different diurnal warming patterns and variability of environmental factors among ecosystems, these results highlight the importance of incorporating the differential impacts of day and night warming on soil microclimate into the predictions of terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate

  17. Warming Effects on Pinus sylvestris in the Cold–Dry Siberian Forest–Steppe: Positive or Negative Balance of Trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Shestakova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding climate change impacts on drought-prone forests is a critical issue. We investigated ring-width and stable isotopes (Δ13C and δ18O in two Pinus sylvestris stands of the cold–dry Siberian forest–steppe growing under contrasting climatic trends over the last 75 years. Despite regional warming, there was increasing precipitation during the growing period at the southern site (MIN but increasing water deficit (WD at the northern site (BER. Intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi increased similarly (ca. 22% in response to warming and rising atmospheric CO2. However, the steady increase in WUEi was accompanied by divergent growth patterns since 1980: increasing basal area increment (BAI in MIN (slope = 0.102 cm2 year−2 and decreasing BAI in BER (slope = −0.129 cm2 year−2. This suggests that increased precipitation, mediated by CO2 effects, promoted growth in MIN, whereas intensified drought stress led to decreased carbon gain and productivity in BER. When compared to warm–dry stands of eastern Spain, the WUEi dependence on WD was three-fold greater in Siberia. Conversely, BAI was more affected by the relative impact of water stress within each region. These results indicate contrasting future trajectories of P. sylvestris forests, which challenge forecasting growth and carbon sequestration in cold–dry areas.

  18. Modelling the dynamics of total precipitation and aboveground net primary production of fescue-feather grass steppe at Askania Nova according to global climate change scenariosModelling the dynamics of total precipitation and aboveground net primary production of fescue-feather grass steppe at Askania Nova according to global climate change scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Belyakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses modelling of Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP of steppe (arid grassland ecosystems plant species in relation to changes in total precipitation over the previous year at the “Stara” study site, Biosphere Reserve “Askania-Nova”, Khersonregion (Ukraine. To investigate linkages between precipitation and Aboveground Net Primary Production, correlation analysis was chosen and a time series regression analysis was based on the data set for the period 1988–2012. The NPP dependence on quantity of precipitation was found to be more significant for the previous autumn-winter-spring period (AWSP than for the previous 12 month period. A regression model of ANPP’s dependence on AWSP is proposed. This model was further validated by the authors’ samples of ANPP, collected at the “Stara” study site in 2013–2016. The regression model showed a non-linear (quadratic dependence of net primary production of zonal and intrazonal plant coenoses and total precipitation for the autumn-winter-spring period for arid grasslands with a coefficient of determination equal to 0.54 and significance level less than 0.05. The non-linear equation for these relations, visualized by a parabola curve, was calculated using the Nonlinear Least-Squares Regression Method. The data set, based on calculated predicted values, using the calculated equation, had a similar dynamic to the historical data on ANPP, but the model could not predict critical values. For this reason, additional studies are required for critical precipitation events. Non-linear response, investigated according to regression analysis, reveals optimal zones of plant growth, depending on the total precipitation level before the vegetation peak. For research areas where the dominant species are the turf grasses Stipa ucrainica P. Smirn., S. capillata L., S. lessingiana Trin. & Rupr., Festuca valesiaca Gaudin, Koeleria cristata (L. Pers. the optimal precipitation rates

  19. Improving Interdisciplinary Relationships in Primary Care with the Implementation of TeamSTEPPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Siddons

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in healthcare is lack of interdisciplinary collaboration (O’Daniel & Rosenstein, 2008. The Institute of Medicine report, To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System (1999, shows that errors often occur due to lapses in partnership and communication. This article describes the implementation of TeamSTEPPS, an evidence-based tool for optimizing staff relationships and partnership, in a clinic in which a change in the care model had affected interprofessional collaboration and teamwork, threatening healthcare outcomes and staff engagement. The implementation of TeamSTEPPS, customized using elements of IDEO’s (2015 Human-Centered Design, shifted the culture of the clinic towards partnership, resulting in improved staff perceptions of teamwork and statistically significant improvements in the quality of patient care.

  20. Steppe Eagle in the Kharkiv Region From Ukraine: Registration, Possible Causes of the Observed Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav G. Viter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis is a very rare vagrant in Ukraine. It bred here in 1970s, and adults were recorded in summer on their nesting sites up until 1981. In the Kharkiv region (Eastern and N–E. Ukraine the species was noted as breeding in the second half of 19 century. Our survey was carried out in 2003–2016. For this period, we have known about the 5 registrations of Steppe Eagles in 5 districts. Two of these registrations were made at the breeding season (second half of May – mid-July, one – at the period of post-nesting movements (the second half of July - the first half of August and 2 – at the period of migration (March – middle of May, middle August – October.

  1. Knowledge and prevalence of Human African Trypanosomiasis among residents of Kachia grazing reserve, Kachia local government area, Kaduna state, Nigeria, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, Belinda Vernyuy; Aliyu, Ahmad; Abubakar, Aisha; Uba, Sabo Ado; Gidado, Saheed; Edukugho, Aboyowa; Anagbogu, Ifeoma; Kalejaiye, John; Nguku, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a vector borne parasitic disease transmitted to humans by infected tse-tse flies cause morbidity including delayed child mental development. Reports of nuisance and bites from tse-tse flies by residents of Kachia grazing led to the study to determine the knowledge, practices and prevalence of HAT among residents of the grazing reserve. We conducted active case search in a cross-sectional study using multi-stage sampling with probability proportionate to size. We administered structured questionnaire on Knowledge, practices relating to HAT prevention and screened for HAT using card agglutination test for Trypanosomiasis (CATT). Knowledge of HAT was scored 0-5 and categorized good (3-5) and poor (0-2) based on score, predisposition to risk of HAT as exposure to ≥two risk factors and, a case of HAT as any respondent that tested positive on CATT. We analysed data using Epi-info and MS-excel. Of the 300 respondents, mean age 39(±17years) interviewed, 56.3% were males, 12.0% had good knowledge of HAT and 76.3% were exposed to HAT risk factors. Prevention practices included clearing of overgrown bushes around houses (99%), use of insecticidal treated nets (75.7%) and protective clothing (41.0%). Males {Odds Ratio [OR] 5.0; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.8 - 13.6}, age above 40 years {OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.1 - 24.4} and family history of HAT {OR 8.7; 95% CI 2.4 - 32.1} were significantly associated with HAT knowledge. None tested positive on CATT. Despite poor knowledge of HAT, residents practiced HAT preventive measures and zero HAT prevalence was recorded.

  2. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  3. Geology of the Early Arikareean sharps formation on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and surrounding areas of South Dakota and Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Thomas H; Dibenedetto, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    Based on geologic mapping, measured sections, and lithologic correlations, the local features of the upper and lower type areas of the Early Arikareean (30.8-20.6 million years ago) Sharps Formation are revised and correlated. The Sharps Formation above the basal Rockyford Member is divided into two members of distinct lithotypes. The upper 233 feet of massive siltstones and sandy siltstones is named the Gooseneck Road Member. The middle member, 161 feet of eolian volcaniclastic siltstones with fluvially reworked volcaniclastic lenses and sandy siltstone sheets, is named the Wolff Camp Member. An ashey zone at the base of the Sharps Formation is described and defined as the Rockyford Ash Zone (RAZ) in the same stratigraphic position as the Nonpareil Ash Zone (NPAZ) in Nebraska. Widespread marker beds of fresh water limestones at 130 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation and a widespread reddish-brown clayey siltstone at 165 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation are described. The Brown Siltstone Beds of Nebraska are shown to be a southern correlative of the Wolff Camp Member and the Rockyford Member of the Sharps Formation. Early attempts to correlate strata in the Great Plains were slow in developing. Recognition of the implications of the paleomagnetic and lithologic correlations of this paper will provide an added datum assisting researchers in future biostratigraphic studies. Based on similar lithologies, the Sharps Formation, currently assigned to the Arikaree Group, should be reassigned to the White River Group.

  4. Grazing weakens temporal stabilizing effects of diversity in the Eurasian steppe

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Haiyan; Taube, Friedhelm; Stein, Claudia; Zhang, Yingjun; Bai, Yongfei; Hu, Shuijin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Many biodiversity experiments have demonstrated that plant diversity can stabilize productivity in experimental grasslands. However, less is known about how diversity–stability relationships are mediated by grazing. Grazing is known for causing species losses, but its effects on plant functional groups (PFGs) composition and species asynchrony, which are closely correlated with ecosystem stability, remain unclear. We conducted a six‐year grazing experiment in a semi‐arid steppe, usin...

  5. Democracy - A Tree Without Roots on the Steppes of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Corruption in the public sector refers to the abuse of public office for private gain. High levels of corruption have been endemic in Central Asia ...WITHOUT ROOTS ON THE STEPPES OF CENTRAL ASIA by Brian G. Quillen December 2006 Thesis Advisor: Mikhail Tsypkin Second Reader: Anne...Central Asia 6. AUTHOR(S) Brian G. Quillen 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey

  6. [Allelopathic effects of Artemisia sacrorum population in typical steppe based on niche theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Xie, Yong-Sheng; Cheng, Ji-Min; She, Xiao-Yan

    2012-03-01

    By using modified Levins niche width index and Pianka niche overlap index, this paper analyzed the ecological competition between constructive and dominant species in a typical steppe. The stem- and leaf extracts from the constructive species (Artemisia sacrorum) were utilized to study their allelopathic potential on the seed germination and plant growth of the dominant species (Stipa bungeana, Thymus mongolicus, S. grandis, and Leymus secalinus), and the ecological position of A. sacrorum in the steppe succession. In the steppe, S. bungeana had the widest niche width (0.99), followed by T. mongolicus (0.94), A. sacrorum (0.82), S. grandis (0.76), and L. secalinus (0.73). The niche overlap value between A. sacrorum and S. bungeana, S. bungeana and T. mongolicus, T. mongolicus and S. grandis, and A. sacrorum and T. mongolicus was 0.90, 0.95, 0.94, and 0.86, respectively. The allelopathic effects of A. sacrorum extracts varied with their concentration. For the seed germination, root growth, and shoot growth of the dominant species, A. sacrorum extracts showed a trend of promoting at low concentrations and inhibiting at high concentrations. The extracts of A. sacrorum had a stronger promotion effect on the root growth of S. bungeana than on that of T. mongolicus, but a stronger inhibition effect on the shoot growth of T. mongolicus than on that of S. bungeana. Methanol extracts had stronger allelopathic effects than aqueous extracts. The high niche overlap between A. sacrorum and S. bungeana, and T. mongolicus and S. grandis indicated that the steppe community would continue succession to S. bungeana, while A. sacrorum population was only an important transitional stage during the succession. The allelopathic effect of A. sacrorum played a driving role in the succession process.

  7. Magnetic Soils Profiles in the Volga-Kama Forest-Steppe Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Fattakhova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic properties of virgin forest-steppe soils developed on the originally vertically uniform unconsolidated parent material have been investigated. The profile samples of virgin dark-grey forest light-clayey soil derived from a siltstone of the Kazan layer of the Upper Permian and virgin leached medium-thick fertile light-clayey chernozem derived from a Quaternary heavy deluvial loam have been considered. Both soils are characterized by the accumulative type of magnetic susceptibility and F-factor values distribution patterns with depth. In the humus part of the soil profile, magnetics are present pre-dominantly in the < 2.5 µm fraction. The coercivity spectra allowed to determine the contribution of dia-/paramagnetic and ferromagnetic components to magnetic susceptibility. It has been found that magnetic susceptibility enhancement in the organogenic horizons of virgin forest-steppe soils occurs due to the contribution of ferromagnetic components. The results indicate a strong positive linear correlation between the magnetic susceptibility and oxalate-extractable Fe, as well as between the magnetic susceptibility and Schwertmann’s criterion values. Using the method of thermomagnetic analysis of the < 2.5 µm fraction, it has been found that the magnetic susceptibility enhancement in the profiles of forest-steppe soils took place due to the formation of maghemite-magnetite associations. The predominantly ferromagnetic fraction consists of small single-domain grains.

  8. Transitions and coexistence along a grazing gradient in the Eurasian steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haiyan; Taube, Friedelm; Zhang, Yingjun; Bai, Yongfei; Hu, Shuijin

    2017-04-01

    Ecological resilience theory has often been applied to explain species coexistence and range condition assessment of various community states and to explicate the dynamics of ecosystems. Grazing is a primary disturbance that can alter rangeland resilience by causing hard-to-reverse transitions in grasslands. Yet, how grazing affects the coexistence of plant functional group (PFG) and transition remains unclear. We conducted a six-year grazing experiment in a typical steppe of Inner Mongolia, using seven grazing intensities (0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5 and 9.0 sheep/ hectare) and two grazing systems (i.e. a continuous annual grazing as in the traditional grazing system, and a mixed grazing system combining grazing and haymaking), to examine grazing effects on plant functional group shifts and species coexistence in the semi-arid grassland system. Our results indicate that the relative richness of dominant bunchgrasses and forbs had a compensatory coexistence at all grazing intensities, and the richness of rhizomatous grasses fluctuated but was persistent. The relative productivity of dominant bunchgrasses and rhizomatous grasses had compensatory interactions with grazing intensity and grazing system. Dominant bunchgrasses and rhizomatous grasses resist grazing effects by using their dominant species functional traits: high specific leaf area and low leaf nitrogen content. Our results suggest that: 1. Stabilizing mechanisms beyond grazing management are more important in determining plant functional group coexistence and ecological resilience. 2. Plant functional group composition is more important in influencing ecosystem functioning than diversity. 3. Ecosystem resilience at a given level is related to the biomass of dominant PFG, which is determined by a balanced shift between dominant species biomass. The relatively even ecosystem resilience along the grazing gradient is attributed to the compensatory interactions of dominant species in their biomass variations

  9. Indicators of ecosystem function identify alternate states in the sagebrush steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachergis, Emily; Rocca, Monique E; Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E

    2011-10-01

    Models of ecosystem change that incorporate nonlinear dynamics and thresholds, such as state-and-transition models (STMs), are increasingly popular tools for land management decision-making. However, few models are based on systematic collection and documentation of ecological data, and of these, most rely solely on structural indicators (species composition) to identify states and transitions. As STMs are adopted as an assessment framework throughout the United States, finding effective and efficient ways to create data-driven models that integrate ecosystem function and structure is vital. This study aims to (1) evaluate the utility of functional indicators (indicators of rangeland health, IRH) as proxies for more difficult ecosystem function measurements and (2) create a data-driven STM for the sagebrush steppe of Colorado, USA, that incorporates both ecosystem structure and function. We sampled soils, plant communities, and IRH at 41 plots with similar clayey soils but different site histories to identify potential states and infer the effects of management practices and disturbances on transitions. We found that many IRH were correlated with quantitative measures of functional indicators, suggesting that the IRH can be used to approximate ecosystem function. In addition to a reference state that functions as expected for this soil type, we identified four biotically and functionally distinct potential states, consistent with the theoretical concept of alternate states. Three potential states were related to management practices (chemical and mechanical shrub treatments and seeding history) while one was related only to ecosystem processes (erosion). IRH and potential states were also related to environmental variation (slope, soil texture), suggesting that there are environmental factors within areas with similar soils that affect ecosystem dynamics and should be noted within STMs. Our approach generated an objective, data-driven model of ecosystem dynamics

  10. CEREALS ASSESSMENT TOWARDS CONTAMINATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN FOREST-STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Yekimova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The usage of high-quality seed, not affected by pathogens and fungi promote the high and stable yields. The condition of seeds determines their germination, seedling damage and adult plants, which ultimately affects the yield and on their quality. The significant risk of seed infection was registered in years with high humidity in the pre-harvest and harvest period. Therefore, along with the traditional seed control it is necessary to conduct phytopahtology expertise, allowing to identify the species composition of the microflora of seeds and the degree of infection with different pathogens. Smut disease - a solid and loose smut of wheat, hard and loose smut of barley - cause crop losses are clear - in the form of the destruction of the ear, and hidden - in the form of a reduction in seed germination, reduce winter hardiness, plant growth inhibition. Pathogens root rot causing blight, Fusarium and Helminthosporium that insignificantly demand on environmental conditions and extremely plastic. They have large set of enzymes that can exist on a variety of substrates, and therefore are widely distributed in nature and cause considerable damage to crops. Especially significant losses occur if the humidity during the ripening grain observed for several seasons, which leads to accumulation of the infection naturally. The aim of research was to assess the contamination of grain of spring wheat and barley phytopathogenic fungi in one of the main grain regions of Ukraine - the southern forest. The research conducted during the summer 2014 and compared with the results of previous years. Samples were taken from different plots. Seed contamination of samples by various phytopathogenic fungi was determined by the number of infected kernels per 100 seed sample. Frequency of registered species was recorded. For every studied sample we set the percentage of species. Analysis of the grain on the fungal infection and avdelenie in pure culture was performed according to the procedures used a method of washing and centrifugation, seeds, embryos analysis method, biological method based on the stimulation of development and growth of pathogens in the infected seeds during seed germination in nutrient media. We analyzed 200 samples of wheat and barley grain with 8 games on the definition of the infestation and root rot spores solid and smut. In all the samples studied was dominated latent form of infection grains (outwardly healthy, germinating, well executed seeds had normal luster, patina fungus was absent; but sometimes observed apparent lesion (plaque formation, a different degree of deformation of grains. When the microscope isolated fungi was established dominance of species such as fungi of the genera Alternaria, Helmintosporium, Fusarium, smut fungi. The research of cereal seeds showed that all the tested party for the harvest in 2014 were infected with different pathogens in different degrees. On the basis of literature data and our own observations, comparing infection rates average cereal seeds complex fungal diseases, it may be noted that in 2014 the percentage of infestation was higher than in previous years, there is a trend of growth in incidence. The results showed that the overall percentage of infected root rots seeds of spring wheat in 2014 was 55.5 %, the infestation of spring barley was 64.7 %. Compared to previous years the trend increase in the prevalence of fungal diseases on cereals: wheat infestation grew by 12.8 %, barley - 2.13 %. Smut infected - 11.2 % wheat, barley - 37.4 %. Infection bunt was 4.6 %, including 3.3 % of wheat; Barley 17.6 %. The growth and development of root rot during the growing season depended on the presence of soil infection. Infection of grain crops by smut diseases depend on the quality of seed sown. Reducing the prevalence of smut disease is possible at early winter and late spring sowing to prevent the spore germination at low temperature. Keywords: seeds, disease, infection, agents of fungal diseases, spores.

  11. CEREALS ASSESSMENT TOWARDS CONTAMINATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN FOREST-STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekimova V. B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The usage of high-quality seed, not affected by pathogens and fungi promote the high and stable yields. The condition of seeds determines their germination, seedling damage and adult plants, which ultimately affects the yield and on their quality. The significant risk of seed infection was registered in years with high humidity in the pre-harvest and harvest period. Therefore, along with the traditional seed control it is necessary to conduct phytopahtology expertise, allowing to identify the species composition of the microflora of seeds and the degree of infection with different pathogens. Smut disease - a solid and loose smut of wheat, hard and loose smut of barley - cause crop losses are clear - in the form of the destruction of the ear, and hidden - in the form of a reduction in seed germination, reduce winter hardiness, plant growth inhibition. Pathogens root rot causing blight, Fusarium and Helminthosporium that insignificantly demand on environmental conditions and extremely plastic. They have large set of enzymes that can exist on a variety of substrates, and therefore are widely distributed in nature and cause considerable damage to crops. Especially significant losses occur if the humidity during the ripening grain observed for several seasons, which leads to accumulation of the infection naturally. The aim of research was to assess the contamination of grain of spring wheat and barley phytopathogenic fungi in one of the main grain regions of Ukraine - the southern forest. The research conducted during the summer 2014 and compared with the results of previous years. Samples were taken from different plots. Seed contamination of samples by various phytopathogenic fungi was determined by the number of infected kernels per 100 seed sample. Frequency of registered species was recorded. For every studied sample we set the percentage of species. Analysis of the grain on the fungal infection and avdelenie in pure culture was performed according to the procedures used a method of washing and centrifugation, seeds, embryos analysis method, biological method based on the stimulation of development and growth of pathogens in the infected seeds during seed germination in nutrient media. We analyzed 200 samples of wheat and barley grain with 8 games on the definition of the infestation and root rot spores solid and smut. In all the samples studied was dominated latent form of infection grains (outwardly healthy, germinating, well executed seeds had normal luster, patina fungus was absent; but sometimes observed apparent lesion (plaque formation, a different degree of deformation of grains. When the microscope isolated fungi was established dominance of species such as fungi of the genera Alternaria, Helmintosporium, Fusarium, smut fungi. The research of cereal seeds showed that all the tested party for the harvest in 2014 were infected with different pathogens in different degrees. On the basis of literature data and our own observations, comparing infection rates average cereal seeds complex fungal diseases, it may be noted that in 2014 the percentage of infestation was higher than in previous years, there is a trend of growth in incidence. The results showed that the overall percentage of infected root rots seeds of spring wheat in 2014 was 55.5 %, the infestation of spring barley was 64.7 %. Compared to previous years the trend increase in the prevalence of fungal diseases on cereals: wheat infestation grew by 12.8 %, barley - 2.13 %. Smut infected - 11.2 % wheat, barley - 37.4 %. Infection bunt was 4.6 %, including 3.3 % of wheat; Barley 17.6 %. The growth and development of root rot during the growing season depended on the presence of soil infection. Infection of grain crops by smut diseases depend on the quality of seed sown. Reducing the prevalence of smut disease is possible at early winter and late spring sowing to prevent the spore germination at low temperature.

  12. Yield of tannin willows on ravine areas in the Central Forest Steppe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    A note on the performance of 12 species of willow grown in a plantation on leached chernozem soils, to provide bark rich in tannins. The plantation was established by cuttings (25 cm long) at a spacing of 2.5 x 0.5 metres for the tree willows and 2.5 x 0.75 metres for the bush willows. Bark yields were determined at 7-8 years. The greatest yields were obtained from Salix smithiana, S. stipularis and S. acuminata: 12.0, 10.8 and 10.2 t/hectare respectively. Data on tannin yields are tabulated. Fellings for bark harvesting can be made every 5 years in plantations of bush willows and every 7 years in plantations of tree willows. The plantations can be used for 30 year with bush willows and for 50 years with tree willows.

  13. Pathologies in the extinct Pleistocene Eurasian steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea ()-Results of fights with hyenas, bears and lions and other ecological stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Bruce M; Diedrich, Cajus G

    2012-12-01

    Late Pleistocene Eurasian steppe lions Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) frequently (3 of 13) have skull damage attributable to bites. Such evidence is found only in lions from hyena or cave bear dens. Wounds on frontal and parietal bones appear to be the result of battles during cave bear hunts, by antagonistic conflicts with hyenas, and less often from fights with conspecifics. Skull bite damage is extremely rare in modern lions, suggesting that this Eurasian lion pathology is the result of inter-specific (with cave bears) rather than intra-specific conflicts. The sex specificity of maxillary porosity (found only in lions among modern felidae) is also documented in its close genetic relation, P. l. spelaea. The pattern of skeletal exostotic reaction reveals them to have been pursuit rather than ambush predators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An Inventory of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates and Calculation of Selected Biotic Indices for the U.S. Army Atterbury Reserve Forces Training Area near Edinburgh, Indiana, September 2000 - August 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Bret A.

    2004-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to establish an inventory of aquatic macroinvertebrates in the streams at the U.S. Army Atterbury Reserve Forces Training Area near Edinburgh, Indiana. The data used to develop this inventory were collected during two sampling efforts in September 2000 and July and August 2002. The inventory identified 173 distinct taxa within the study-area streams. Although no rare or endangered species were found, one identified species, Cordulegaster maculata Selys (a twin-spotted spiketail dragonfly), is recognized by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources as being rare enough to warrant special concern.

  15. [Team Care for Patient Safety, TeamSTEPPS to Improve Nontechnical Skills and Teamwork--Actions to Become an HRO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaito, Ken

    2015-07-01

    It is important to develop safer medical systems and follow manuals of medical procedures for patient safety. However, these approaches do not always result in satisfactory results because of many human factors. It is known that defects of nontechnical skills are more important than those of technical skills regarding medical accidents and incidents. So, it is necessary to improve personal nontechnical skills and compensate for each other's defects based on a team approach. For such purposes, we have implemented TeamSTEPPS to enhance performance and patient safety in our hospital. TeamSTEPPS (team strategies and tools to enhance performance and patient safety) is a useful method to improve the nontechnical skills of each member and the team. In TeamSTEPPS, leadership to share mental models among the team, continuous monitoring and awareness for team activities, mutual support for workload and knowledge, and approaches to complete communication are summarized to enhance teamwork and patient safety. Other than improving nontechnical skills and teamwork, TeamSTEPPS is also very important as a High Reliability Organization (HRO). TeamSTEPPS is worth implementing in every hospital to decrease medical errors and improve patient outcomes and satisfaction.

  16. Carbon storage in permafrost and soils of the mammoth tundra-steppe biome: Role in the global carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimov, N. S.; Zimov, S. A.; Zimova, A. E.; Zimova, G. M.; Chuprynin, V. I.; Chapin, F. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), atmospheric CO2 concentration was 80-100 ppmv lower than in pre-industrial times. At that time steppe-tundra was the most extensive biome on Earth. Some authors assume that C storage in that biome was very small, similar to today's deserts, and that the terrestrial carbon (C) reservoir increased at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (PHT) by 400-1300 Gt. To estimate C storage in the entire steppe-tundra biome we used data of C storage in soils of this biome that persisted in permafrost of Siberia and Alaska and developed a model that describes C accumulation in soils and in permafrost. The model shows a slow but consistent C increase in soil when permafrost appears. At the PHT, C-rich frozen loess of Europe and South of Siberia thawed and lost most of its carbon. Soil carbon decreases as tundra-steppe changes to forest, steppes and tundra. As a result, over 1000 Gt C was released to the atmosphere, oceans, and other terrestrial ecosystems. The model results also show that restoring the tundra-steppe ecosystem would enhance soil C storage, while providing other important ecosystem services.

  17. Assessing the Influence of the Automobile Traffic on the Amphibians and Reptiles in the Buffer Zone of Biosphere Reserve “Srebarna” (NE Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelin A. Mollov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently the problem of the effects of the road network and traffic on the amphibians and reptiles in Bulgaria is poorly studied. During the period March 2002 - March 2004 in the Buffer Zone of Biosphere Reserve "Srebarna" (NE Bulgaria were built two anti-fire roads from the eastern and western side of the lake in area of grasslands of semi-steppe type, typical for north-eastern Bulgaria. The aim of the constructed roads is to provide access for fire vehicles to areas in and around the reserve. The current study aims to provide data on the impact of road traffic and the newly constructed road network and another previously existing road on the amphibians and reptiles inhabiting the buffer zone of the biosphere reserve "Srebarna". For the entire period of study in the three studied road sections a total of 15 dead specimens of amphibians belonging to 4 species (Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis and 70 dead specimens of reptiles belonging to 8 species (Emys orbicularis, Ablepharus kitaibelii, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis tauricus, Podarcis muralis, Natrix natrix, Coronella austriaca and Dolichophis caspius were recorded. Several “hot spots”, where most cadavers were recorded are well described and possible conservation measures are discussed.

  18. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat—Part 3. Site level restoration decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pellant, Mike; Miller, Richard F.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Doescher, Paul S.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Knick, Steven T.; Brunson, Mark; McIver, James D.

    2017-02-14

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently (2016) occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) depends on large landscapes of intact habitat of sagebrush and perennial grasses for their existence. In addition, other sagebrush-obligate animals have similar requirements and restoration of landscapes for greater sage-grouse also will benefit these animals. Once sagebrush lands are degraded, they may require restoration actions to make those lands viable habitat for supporting sagebrush-obligate animals, livestock, and wild horses, and to provide ecosystem services for humans now and for future generations.When a decision is made on where restoration treatments should be applied, there are a number of site-specific decisions managers face before selecting the appropriate type of restoration. This site-level decision tool for restoration of sagebrush steppe ecosystems is organized in nine steps.Step 1 describes the process of defining site-level restoration objectives.Step 2 describes the ecological site characteristics of the restoration site. This covers soil chemistry and texture, soil moisture and temperature regimes, and the vegetation communities the site is capable of supporting.Step 3 compares the current vegetation to the plant communities associated with the site State and Transition models.Step 4 takes the manager through the process of current land uses and past disturbances that may influence restoration success.Step 5 is a brief discussion of how weather before and after treatments may impact restoration success.Step 6 addresses restoration treatment types and their potential positive and negative impacts on the ecosystem and on habitats, especially for greater sage

  19. A Proposal on the Restoration of Nostoc flagelliforme for Sustainable Improvement in the Ecology of Arid Steppes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nostoc flagelliforme, a filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, is widely distributed in arid steppes of the west and northwestern parts of China. However, as a food delicacy this species has been overexploited from 1970 to 2000. Moreover, overgrazing, land reclamation and the removal of medicinal herbs have caused severely reduced vegetation coverage there. In this communication, a badly damaged but slowly rehabilitating N. flagelliforme-inhibiting steppe is described, and the rehabilitation of desertified steppes by the renewed growth of N. flagelliforme is proposed. The restoration of this dominant nitrogen supplier would be an ecologically sustainable solution for supplementing current measures already taken in the desertified regions. In addition, a goal of 50%–60% vegetation coverage is proposed by the N. flagelliforme restoration.

  20. Economic efficiency of different systems of cultivation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. under rainfed conditions in Right-Bank of Forest- Steppe zone in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. С. Виродов

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is determined that crop cultivation systems (continuous culture and its interruption by crop rotation links with different fertilizer backgrounds influence the productivity and economic efficiency    of tomato and cucumber cultivation under rainfed   conditions in Right-Bank of Forest-Steppe zone in  Ukraine. Reported calculations show the increased level of profitability of the continuous crop growing in case  of interruption by annual crop rotation link against the background of mineral nutrition, but additional organic fertilizers allow to get more profit per unit area.

  1. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Wolfgang; Lazaridis, Iosif; Patterson, Nick; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Llamas, Bastien; Brandt, Guido; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Harney, Eadaoin; Stewardson, Kristin; Fu, Qiaomei; Mittnik, Alissa; Bánffy, Eszter; Economou, Christos; Francken, Michael; Friederich, Susanne; Pena, Rafael Garrido; Hallgren, Fredrik; Khartanovich, Valery; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Kunst, Michael; Kuznetsov, Pavel; Meller, Harald; Mochalov, Oleg; Moiseyev, Vayacheslav; Nicklisch, Nicole; Pichler, Sandra L.; Risch, Roberto; Rojo Guerra, Manuel A.; Roth, Christina; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Wahl, Joachim; Meyer, Matthias; Krause, Johannes; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Cooper, Alan; Alt, Kurt Werner; Reich, David

    2016-01-01

    We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000–3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost 400,000 polymorphisms. Enrichment of these positions decreases the sequencing required for genome-wide ancient DNA analysis by a median of around 250-fold, allowing us to study an order of magnitude more individuals than previous studies1–8 and to obtain new insights about the past. We show that the populations of Western and Far Eastern Europe followed opposite trajectories between 8,000–5,000 years ago. At the beginning of the Neolithic period in Europe, 8,000–7,000 years ago, closely related groups of early farmers appeared in Germany, Hungary and Spain, different from indigenous hunter-gatherers, whereas Russia was inhabited by a distinctive population of hunter-gatherers with high affinity to a 24,000-year-old Siberian6. By 6,000–5,000 years ago, farmers throughout much of Europe had more hunter-gatherer ancestry than their predecessors, but in Russia, the Yamnaya steppe herders of this time were descended not only from the preceding eastern European hunter-gatherers, but also from a population of Near Eastern ancestry. Western and Eastern Europe came into contact 4,500 years ago, as the Late Neolithic Corded Ware people from Germany traced 75% of their ancestry to the Yamnaya, documenting a massive migration into the heartland of Europe from its eastern periphery. This steppe ancestry persisted in all sampled central Europeans until at least 3,000 years ago, and is ubiquitous in present-day Europeans. These results provide support for a steppe origin9 of at least some of the Indo-European languages of Europe. PMID:25731166

  2. Holocene carbon dynamics at the forest-steppe ecotone of southern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Anson William; Seddon, Alistair W R; Leng, Melanie J; Heumann, Georg; Morley, David W; Piotrowska, Natalia; Rioual, Patrick; Roberts, Sarah; Swann, George E A

    2017-05-01

    The forest-steppe ecotone in southern Siberia is highly sensitive to climate change; global warming is expected to push the ecotone northwards, at the same time resulting in degradation of the underlying permafrost. To gain a deeper understanding of long-term forest-steppe carbon dynamics, we use a highly resolved, multiproxy, palaeolimnological approach, based on sediment records from Lake Baikal. We reconstruct proxies that are relevant to understanding carbon dynamics including carbon mass accumulation rates (CMAR; g C m -2  yr -1 ) and isotope composition of organic matter (δ 13 C TOC ). Forest-steppe dynamics were reconstructed using pollen, and diatom records provided measures of primary production from near- and off-shore communities. We used a generalized additive model (GAM) to identify significant change points in temporal series, and by applying generalized linear least-squares regression modelling to components of the multiproxy data, we address (1) What factors influence carbon dynamics during early Holocene warming and late Holocene cooling? (2) How did carbon dynamics respond to abrupt sub-Milankovitch scale events? and (3) What is the Holocene carbon storage budget for Lake Baikal. CMAR values range between 2.8 and 12.5 g C m -2  yr -1 . Peak burial rates (and greatest variability) occurred during the early Holocene, associated with melting permafrost and retreating glaciers, while lowest burial rates occurred during the neoglacial. Significant shifts in carbon dynamics at 10.3, 4.1 and 2.8 kyr bp provide compelling evidence for the sensitivity of the region to sub-Milankovitch drivers of climate change. We estimate that 1.03 Pg C was buried in Lake Baikal sediments during the Holocene, almost one-quarter of which was buried during the early Holocene alone. Combined, our results highlight the importance of understanding the close linkages between carbon cycling and hydrological processes, not just temperatures, in southern Siberian environments

  3. THE STEPPE RIVERS OF KUBAN, STATE OF THEIR BIOTA AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Belyuchenko I. S.

    2015-01-01

    The steppe rivers of Kuban, which form their landscapes in the space between the basins of the rivers Don and Kuban, are divided into two subtypes: the rivers of internal flow which flow into the small ponds (Panura, Kirpili et al.), and the rivers of external flow which flow into the Sea of Azov (Eja, Beysug, Chelbas); direction of flow of these rivers is defined slightly downward from the high right bank of the Kuban (up to 50m) and the eastern slopes (altitude up to 50-170m) of Stavropol U...

  4. Bread winter wheat breeding (Triticum aestivum L. using spring varieties genepool in forest-steppe Environments of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. С. Кочмарський

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is concluded by investigations that wheat crossing of various development types between themselves cause increase of formbuilding process in hybrid progeny, promoting the selection of practically valuable recombinats. The genotypes which present the practical valuable by complex of adaptive traits and properties have been selected by phenotype stability in the breeding process. The new bread winter wheat variety Pamyati Remesla developed with participation of spring wheat variety Hja 22139 (Finland has been proposed for including it into the Register of Plant varieties of Ukraine adapted for use in Steppe, Forest- Steppe and Woodland of Ukraine since 2010.

  5. HYGROTOPE AND TROPHOTOPE OF THE STEPPE PRIDNIPROVIE BIOGEOCEONOSIS AS DETERMINANTS OF THE EARTHWORMS (LUMBRICIDAE COMMUNITIES β-DIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhukov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the hygrotope and trophotope of the steppe Pridniprovie biogeoceonosis has been discussed in present article as being determinants of the β-diversity of earthworms (Lumbricidae communities. Material has been colected to the period 1997-2015. 180 sample polygons have been studied which located in various types of biogeoceonosis. Biogeoceonotic characteristic of the sample polygons have been made on the basis of professor A.L. Belgard forest typology of a steppe zone of Ukraine. Earthworm communities of the steppe Pridniprovie have been established to be presented by 16 species. Hygrotopes, trophotopes and bitope ceonosis features have been shown to be able to explain 72.4 % of a communities’ abundance variation and 73.7 of their % α-diversity by means of second order model. Earthworm communities’ abundance reache their maximum values at a combination of conditions of humidity from hygromesophilous to hygrophilous and conditions of edaphotope trophicity from Dc (linden oakwood to Dn (elm-ashen oakwood and alder forests. The maximum diversity of earthworm communities has been stated to be characteristic for a combination of mesohygrophilous conditions and a trophicity mode Dc, that there corresponds to forest type a linden oakwood with aegopodium. The coenomorphic structure of the biogeocoenosis is statistically significant predictors of both abundance and α-diversity of earthworm communities. Earthworm communities of marsh monocoenosis, meadow-steppe amphicoenosis and steppe monocoenosis have been found as being characterised by minimum abundance and diversity. Moderate level abundance and diversity are characteristic for meadow-forest amphicoenosis, forest pseudomonocoenosis with elements of transformation to steppe and forest-steppe amphicoenosis. High levels of these indexes are typical for forest monocoenosis. Given other conditions of humidity and edaphotope trophicity being equal in forest monocoenosis abundance and

  6. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  7. Seasonal Distribution and Diversity of Ground Arthropods in Microhabitats Following a Shrub Plantation Age Sequence in Desertified Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rentao; Zhu, Fan; Song, Naiping; Yang, Xinguo; Chai, Yongqing

    2013-01-01

    In desertified regions, shrub-dominated patches are important microhabitats for ground arthropod assemblages. As shrub age increases, soil, vegetation and microbiological properties can change remarkably and spontaneously across seasons. However, relatively few studies have analyzed how ground arthropods respond to the microhabitats created by shrubs of different plantation ages across seasons. Using 6, 15, 24 and 36 year-old plantations of re-vegetated shrubs (Caragana koushinskii) in the desert steppe of northwestern China as a model system, we sampled ground arthropod communities using a pitfall trapping method in the microhabitats under shrubs and in the open areas between shrubs, during the spring, summer and autumn. The total ground arthropod assemblage was dominated by Carabidae, Melolonthidae, Curculionidae, Tenebrionidae and Formicidae that were affected by plantation age, seasonal changes, or the interaction between these factors, with the later two groups also influenced by microhabitat. Overall, a facilitative effect was observed, with more arthropods and a greater diversity found under shrubs as compared to open areas, but this was markedly affected by seasonal changes. There was a high degree of similarity in arthropod assemblages and diversity between microhabitats in summer and autumn. Shrub plantation age significantly influenced the distribution of the most abundant groups, and also the diversity indices of the ground arthropods. However, there was not an overall positive relationship between shrub age and arthropod abundance, richness or diversity index. The influence of plantation age on arthropod communities was also affected by seasonal changes. From spring through summer to autumn, community indices of ground arthropods tended to decline, and a high degree of similarity in these indices (with fluctuation) was observed among different ages of shrub plantation in autumn. Altogether the recovery of arthropod communities was markedly affected by

  8. Establishment of Ulmus pumila seedlings on steppe slopes of the northern Mongolian mountain taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hauck, Markus; Nyambayar, Suran; Osokhjargal, Dalaikhuu; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-09-01

    The potential of Siberian elm ( Ulmus pumila) to regenerate from seeds was experimentally studied on south-facing slopes in the northern Mongolian mountain taiga. These slopes are covered with a vegetation mosaic of different steppe communities and small, savanna-like, U. pumila open woodlands. The hypothesis is tested that the xeric microclimate and high herbivore densities limit the success of seedling establishment in U. pumila and thereby prevent elm from complete encroachment of the grassland-dominated slopes. Seeds were sown and 2-yr-old seedlings were planted prior to the growing season. The water supply was manipulated by irrigation, as was the feeding pressure by caterpillars with an insecticide. Large herbivores were excluded by fencing. Seeds germinated throughout the summer, but the emerged seedlings did not survive for more than 2 or 3 weeks. Germination rates increased with increasing soil water content and decreasing soil temperatures. Many seeds were consumed by granivores. Most planted 2-yr-old seedlings survived the two growing seasons covered by the study. However, the seedlings suffered from feeding damage by insects (gypsy moth, grasshoppers) and small mammals, from nitrogen deficiency and, to a lesser degree, from drought. The results suggest that high susceptibility of newly emerged seedlings to environmental stresses is a serious bottle neck for U. pumila that prevents them from the formation of closed forests on northern Mongolia's steppe slopes, whereas the probability for seedling survival after this early stage is high.

  9. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in a Meadow Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Yang, Zhiming; Sun, Wei; Wang, Deli

    2015-01-01

    A changing precipitation regime and increasing nitrogen deposition are likely to have profound impacts on arid and semiarid ecosystem C cycling, which is often constrained by the timing and availability of water and nitrogen. However, little is known about the effects of altered precipitation and nitrogen addition on grassland ecosystem C exchange. We conducted a 3-year field experiment to assess the responses of vegetation composition, ecosystem productivity, and ecosystem C exchange to manipulative water and nitrogen addition in a meadow steppe. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated aboveground biomass and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), which suggests that nitrogen availability is a primary limiting factor for ecosystem C cycling in the meadow steppe. Water addition had no significant impacts on either ecosystem C exchange or plant biomass, but ecosystem C fluxes showed a strong correlation with early growing season precipitation, rather than whole growing season precipitation, across the 3 experimental years. After we incorporated water addition into the calculation of precipitation regimes, we found that monthly average ecosystem C fluxes correlated more strongly with precipitation frequency than with precipitation amount. These results highlight the importance of precipitation distribution in regulating ecosystem C cycling. Overall, ecosystem C fluxes in the studied ecosystem are highly sensitive to nitrogen deposition, but less sensitive to increased precipitation. PMID:26010888

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi regulate soil respiration and its response to precipitation change in a semiarid steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingwei; Li, Shan; Chen, Shiping; Ren, Tingting; Yang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Hanlin; Liang, Yu; Han, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are critical links in plant-soil continuum and play a critical role in soil carbon cycles. Soil respiration, one of the largest carbon fluxes in global carbon cycle, is sensitive to precipitation change in semiarid ecosystems. In this study, a field experiment with fungicide application and water addition was conducted during 2010-2013 in a semiarid steppe in Inner Mongolia, China, and soil respiration was continuously measured to investigate the influences of AMF on soil respiration under different precipitation regimes. Results showed that soil respiration was promoted by water addition treatment especially during drought seasons, which induced a nonlinear response of soil respiration to precipitation change. Fungicide application suppressed AMF root colonization without impacts on soil microbes. AMF suppression treatment accelerated soil respiration with 2.7, 28.5 and 37.6 g C m-2 across three seasons, which were mainly caused by the enhanced heterotrophic component. A steeper response of soil respiration rate to precipitation was found under fungicide application treatments, suggesting a greater dampening effect of AMF on soil carbon release as water availability increased. Our study highlighted the importance of AMF on soil carbon stabilization and sequestration in semiarid steppe ecosystems especially during wet seasons.

  11. Effect of grazing on methane uptake from Eurasian steppe of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shiming; Zhang, Yujuan; Zhai, Xiajie; Wilkes, Andreas; Wang, Chengjie; Wang, Kun

    2018-03-20

    The effects of grazing on soil methane (CH 4 ) uptake in steppe ecosystems are important for understanding carbon sequestration and cycling because the role of grassland soil for CH 4 uptake can have major impacts at the global level. Here, a meta-analysis of 27 individual studies was carried out to assess the response patterns of soil CH 4 uptake to grazing in steppe ecosystems of China. The weighted log response ratio was used to assess the effect size. We found that heavy grazing significantly depressed soil CH 4 uptake by 36.47%, but light and moderate grazing had no significant effects in grassland ecosystem. The response of grassland soil CH 4 uptake to grazing also was found to depend upon grazing intensity, grazing duration and climatic types. The increase in soil temperature and reduced aboveground biomass and soil moisture induced by heavy grazing may be the major regulators of the soil CH 4 uptake. These findings imply that grazing effects on soil CH 4 uptake are highly context-specific and that grazing in different grasslands might be managed differently to help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. The impact of climate change on the structure of Pleistocene food webs across the mammoth steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakel, Justin D; Guimarães, Paulo R; Bocherens, Hervé; Koch, Paul L

    2013-07-07

    Species interactions form food webs, impacting community structure and, potentially, ecological dynamics. It is likely that global climatic perturbations that occur over long periods of time have a significant influence on species interaction patterns. Here, we integrate stable isotope analysis and network theory to reconstruct patterns of trophic interactions for six independent mammalian communities that inhabited mammoth steppe environments spanning western Europe to eastern Alaska (Beringia) during the Late Pleistocene. We use a Bayesian mixing model to quantify the contribution of prey to the diets of local predators, and assess how the structure of trophic interactions changed across space and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), a global climatic event that severely impacted mammoth steppe communities. We find that large felids had diets that were more constrained than those of co-occurring predators, and largely influenced by an increase in Rangifer abundance after the LGM. Moreover, the structural organization of Beringian and European communities strongly differed: compared with Europe, species interactions in Beringian communities before--and possibly after--the LGM were highly modular. We suggest that this difference in modularity may have been driven by the geographical insularity of Beringian communities.

  13. TeamSTEPPS Virtual Teams: Interactive Virtual Team Training and Practice for Health Professional Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoren, Rachel A; Poore, Julie A; Sweigart, Linda; Rybas, Natalia; Gossett, Evalyn; Johnson, Miles; Allen, Martina; Scott, Patricia J; Truman, Barbara; Das, Rohit

    2017-08-01

    Medical errors because of communication failure are common in health care settings. Teamwork training, such as Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS), improves team performance and patient outcomes. Academic institutions seek high-quality, low-cost curricula for interprofessional education (IPE) to prepare learners for clinical experiences before and after graduation; however, most IPE curricula involve lectures, simple tabletop exercises, and in-person simulations and are not readily accessible to geographically distributed and asynchronously engaged learners. To address this need, interprofessional faculty from multiple institutions and specialties created a series of eight screen-based interactive virtual simulation cases featuring typical clinical situations, with the goal of preparing learners to provide safe and effective care in clinical teams. Virtual simulations permit flexible, asynchronous learning on the learner's schedule and allow educators an opportunity to identify gaps in knowledge and/or attitudes that can be addressed during class or forum discussions. In 2016, 1,128 unique users accessed the scenarios. As a result of such virtual activities, learner selection of the appropriate TeamSTEPPS tool increased with progression through the scenarios.

  14. Steppe bison paleobiology through the scope of stable isotopes and zooarchaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Marie-Anne; Dorothée, Drucker; Hervé, Bocherens; Ariane, Burke; Marylène, Patou-Mathis; Alexandra, Krotova

    2010-05-01

    Bison are one of the most abundant and widely distributed species of large mammal during the Late Pleistocene. In the southern steppes of Eastern Europe, steppe bison (Bison priscus) is ubiquitous in zooarchaeological assemblages, particularly during the Upper Palaeolithic when a model of economic "specialization" is proposed. Specialization, in this context, implies the deliberate selection of a preferred species, which becomes the key food resource. The applicability of a specialised hunting model for the Upper Palaeolithic of Europe has recently been challenged, however (Grayson & Delpech 2002). In this research, therefore we re-examine bison acquisition strategies during the Upper Palaeolithic in the Ukrainian steppes in the light of biogeochemical and zooarchaeological data. The acquisition strategies used to procure a prey species are directly related to its social and spatial behaviour. A synthesis of ethological information for contemporary bison (Julien 2009) demonstrates the behavioural diversity of this taxa, linked mainly to local environmental variability, climatic conditions and population density. It is therefore necessary to propose a paleoethological model for the steppe bison before attempting to identify the acquisition strategies used by prehistoric hunters. In this research, we reconstruct the behaviour of the steppe bison using a combination of zooarchaeological tools, stable isotope analysis (intra-tooth isotope variation of carbon, oxygen and strontium ratios) and traditional paleobiological approaches. The advantages of using a combined approach are demonstrated through the examination of a case study: the site of Amvrosievka (Ukraine). Amvrosievka is a complex of Epigravettian sites composed of a camp and kill site, where more than 500 bison are represented (Krotova & Belan 1993). Twenty-five permanent lower teeth (M3) representing twenty-five individual bison were selected from the kill and camp site for isotopic analysis. Intra- and

  15. Virtual TeamSTEPPS(®) Simulations Produce Teamwork Attitude Changes Among Health Professions Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Linda I; Umoren, Rachel A; Scott, Patrician J; Carlton, Kay Hodson; Jones, James A; Truman, Barbara; Gossett, Evalyn J

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the estimated 400,000 or more patient deaths per year in the United States are from preventable medical errors due to poor communication. Team training programs have been established to teach teamwork skills to health professions students. However, it is often challenging to provide this training at a physical site. A brief intervention using a virtual learning environment with TeamSTEPPS(®)-based scenarios is described. Using a pretest-posttest design, the effects on teamwork attitudes in 109 health professional students from two institutions and multiple disciplines were measured using the TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes questionnaire. Participants showed significant attitude changes in the categories of leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication (p ⩽ .05), with significance in four of the six indicator attitudes in the communication section at the p ⩽ .001 level. These findings indicate the potential impact that virtual learning experiences may have on teamwork attitudes in learners across professions on multiple campuses. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Bioremediation of arsenic (As from mine effluent by a horizontal flow constructed wetland: A case study in largest borax reserve area in over the world, Kırka, Eskişehir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Can Türker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a horizontal flow constructed wetland (HFCW planted with Typha angustifolia, was tested to bioremediation potential for arsenic from mine effluent under the natural climatic conditions in largest boron mine reserve area over the world, Kırka (Eskişehir. Briefly, the objective of the present experiment was to investigate arsenic bioremediation capability of wetland system and asses the phytoremediation efficiency of T. angustifolia, selected as a donor plant in this study, with different initial arsenic concentrations. Our results indicated that HFCW has capability to decreased arsenic in mine effluent from 49 µg L-1 to 21.8 µg L-1 in a period of 84 days, suggesting that HFCW could be a reasonable bio-filter option to control arsenic pollution directly from mining effluent in largest borax reserve over the world. Furthermore, we found that arsenic concentration in outflow samples was stably below 10 µg L-1 (drinking water safety limit with an inflow range from 42.3 to 42.1 arsenic µg L-1 during the first 28 days. Our results also indicated that belowground parts of T.angustifolia accumulate more arsenic from mine effluent compared to aboveground parts during experiment period. Therefore, we suggested that belowground parts of the plants in HFCW play an important role for arsenic bioremediation from mine effluent which origin of Kırka Borax reserve area. In this respect, bioconcentration factor (BCF for the plants which grown in HFCW was found higher than those of control group. Moreover, results of the present experiment also showed that relatively high level of arsenic retained in the filtration media of HFCW during the experiment period, indicating that filtration media which was used in HFCW has potential to filter arsenic from mine effluent. Consequently, the scientific insight of the present study is to present an innovative, cost effective, and easy operating method for arsenic remediation from mine effluent.

  17. Effectiveness of Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) for borderline personality problems in a 'real-world' sample: moderation by diagnosis or severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Elisabeth H; van Wel, E Bas; Appelo, Martin T; Verbraak, Marc J P M

    2011-01-01

    Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a group treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Two prior randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown the efficacy of this training. In both RCTs, patients with borderline features who did not meet the DSM-IV criteria for BPD were excluded, which were many. We investigated the effectiveness of STEPPS in a sample representative of routine clinical practice and examined whether DSM-IV diagnosis and/or baseline severity were related to differential effectiveness. Patients whom their practicing clinician diagnosed with BPD were randomized to STEPPS plus adjunctive individual therapy (STEPPS, n = 84) or to treatment as usual (TAU, n = 84). STEPPS recipients showed more improvement on measures of general and BPD-specific psychopathology as well as quality of life than TAU recipients, both at the end of treatment and at a 6-month follow-up. Presence of DSM-IV-diagnosed BPD was not related to differential treatment effectiveness, but dimensional measures of symptom severity were; STEPPS was superior to TAU particularly in patients with higher baseline severity scores. The findings show the effectiveness of STEPPS in a 'real-world' sample, and underscore the importance of dimensional versus categorical measures of personality disturbance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Effects of increased nitrogen deposition and precipitation on seed and seedling production of Potentilla tanacetifolia in a temperate steppe ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The responses of plant seeds and seedlings to changing atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition and precipitation regimes determine plant population dynamics and community composition under global change. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a temperate steppe in northern China, seeds of P. tanacetifolia were collected from a field-based experiment with N addition and increased precipitation to measure changes in their traits (production, mass, germination. Seedlings germinated from those seeds were grown in a greenhouse to examine the effects of improved N and water availability in maternal and offspring environments on seedling growth. Maternal N-addition stimulated seed production, but it suppressed seed mass, germination rate and seedling biomass of P. tanacetifolia. Maternal N-addition also enhanced responses of seedlings to N and water addition in the offspring environment. Maternal increased-precipitation stimulated seed production, but it had no effect on seed mass and germination rate. Maternal increased-precipitation enhanced seedling growth when grown under similar conditions, whereas seedling responses to offspring N- and water-addition were suppressed by maternal increased-precipitation. Both offspring N-addition and increased-precipitation stimulated growth of seedlings germinated from seeds collected from the maternal control environment without either N or water addition. Our observations indicate that both maternal and offspring environments can influence seedling growth of P. tanacetifolia with consequent impacts on the future population dynamics of this species in the study area. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings highlight the importance of the maternal effects on seed and seedling production as well as responses of offspring to changing environmental drivers in mechanistic understanding and projecting of plant population dynamics under global change.

  19. Deep roots delay flowering and relax the impact of floral traits and associated pollinators in steppe plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrached, Rachda; Kadik, Leila; Ait Mouheb, Hocine; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Strong seasonality in abiotic harshness and pollinator availability shape the reproductive success of plants. Plant species can avoid or can tolerate harsh abiotic conditions and can attract different pollinators, but it remains unknown (i) which of these capacities is most important for flowering phenology, (ii) whether tolerance/avoidance of abiotic harshness reinforces or relaxes the phenological differentiation of species attracting different pollinators. We assembled possibly the first functional trait database for a North African steppe covering 104 species. We inferred avoidance of harshness (drought) from dormancy, i.e. annual life-span and seed size. We inferred tolerance or resistance to harshness from small specific leaf area, small stature, deep roots and high dry matter content. We inferred the type of pollinators attracted from floral colour, shape and depth. We found that avoidance traits did not affect flowering phenology, and among tolerance traits only deep roots had an effect by delaying flowering. Flower colour (red or purple), and occasionally flower depth, delayed flowering. Dish, gullet and flag shape accelerated flowering. Interactive effects however were at least as important, inversing the mentioned relationship between floral characters and flowering phenology. Specifically, among drought-tolerant deep-rooted species, flowering phenologies converged among floral types attracting different pollinators, without becoming less variable overall. Direct and interactive effects of root depth and floral traits explained at least 45% of the variance in flowering phenology. Also, conclusions on interactive effects were highly consistent with and without including information on family identity or outliers. Overall, roots and floral syndromes strongly control flowering phenology, while many other traits do not. Surprisingly, floral syndromes and the related pollinators appear to constrain phenology mainly in shallow-rooted, abiotically little

  20. Gender-related traits in the dioecious shrub Empetrum rubrum in two plant communities in the Magellanic steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barradas, Mari Cruz; Zunzunegui, María; Collantes, Marta; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor; García Novo, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Following the theory on costs of reproduction, sexually dimorphic plants may exhibit several trade-offs in energy and resources that can determine gender dimorphism in morphological or physiological traits, especially during the reproductive period. In this study we assess whether the sexes of the dioecious species Empetrum rubrum differ in morphological and ecophysiological traits related to water economy and photochemical efficiency and whether these differences change in nearby populations with contrasting plant communities. We conducted physiological, morphological, sex ratio, and cover measurements in E. rubrum plants in the Magellanic steppe, North-Eastern part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), from two types of heathlands with differing community composition. We found differences between sites in soil pH and wind speed at the canopy level. E. rubrum plants exhibited lower photosynthetic height and higher LAI (leaf area index), lower RWC (relative water content) and higher water-use efficiency (lower Δ13C) in the heathland with harsher environmental conditions. Gender dimorphism in the physiological response was patent for photochemical efficiency and water use (RWC and Δ13C discrimination), with males showing a more conservative strategy in relation to females. Accordingly, male-biased sex ratio in the stress-prone community suggested a better performance of male plants under stressful environmental conditions. The integrated analysis of all variables (photochemical efficiency, RWC, leaf dry matter content (LDMC), pigments, and Δ13C) indicated an interaction between gender and heathland community effects in the physiological response. We suggest that female plants may exhibit compensatory mechanisms to face their higher reproductive costs.

  1. A resource-based modelling framework to assess habitat suitability for steppe birds in semiarid Mediterranean agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, Laura; De Cáceres, Miquel; Bota, Gerard; Giralt, David; Casas, Fabián; Arroyo, Beatriz; Mougeot, François; Cantero-Martínez, Carlos; Moncunill, Judit; Butler, Simon J; Brotons, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    European agriculture is undergoing widespread changes that are likely to have profound impacts on farmland biodiversity. The development of tools that allow an assessment of the potential biodiversity effects of different land-use alternatives before changes occur is fundamental to guiding management decisions. In this study, we develop a resource-based model framework to estimate habitat suitability for target species, according to simple information on species' key resource requirements (diet, foraging habitat and nesting site), and examine whether it can be used to link land-use and local species' distribution. We take as a study case four steppe bird species in a lowland area of the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula. We also compare the performance of our resource-based approach to that obtained through habitat-based models relating species' occurrence and land-cover variables. Further, we use our resource-based approach to predict the effects that change in farming systems can have on farmland bird habitat suitability and compare these predictions with those obtained using the habitat-based models. Habitat suitability estimates generated by our resource-based models performed similarly (and better for one study species) than habitat based-models when predicting current species distribution. Moderate prediction success was achieved for three out of four species considered by resource-based models and for two of four by habitat-based models. Although, there is potential for improving the performance of resource-based models, they provide a structure for using available knowledge of the functional links between agricultural practices, provision of key resources and the response of organisms to predict potential effects of changing land-uses in a variety of context or the impacts of changes such as altered management practices that are not easily incorporated into habitat-based models.

  2. Annual grass invasion in sagebrush-steppe: The relative importance of climate, soil properties and biotic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sheel; Sheley, Roger L.

    2016-01-01

    The invasion by winter-annual grasses (AGs) such as Bromus tectorum into sagebrush steppe throughout the western USA is a classic example of a biological invasion with multiple, interacting climate, soil and biotic factors driving the invasion, although few studies have examined all components together. Across a 6000-km2 area of the northern Great Basin, we conducted a field assessment of 100 climate, soil, and biotic (functional group abundances, diversity) factors at each of 90 sites that spanned an invasion gradient ranging from 0 to 100 % AG cover. We first determined which biotic and abiotic factors had the strongest correlative relationships with AGs and each resident functional group. We then used regression and structural equation modeling to explore how multiple ecological factors interact to influence AG abundance. Among biotic interactions, we observed negative relationships between AGs and biodiversity, perennial grass cover, resident species richness, biological soil crust cover and shrub density, whereas perennial and annual forb cover, tree cover and soil microbial biomass had no direct linkage to AG. Among abiotic factors, AG cover was strongly related to climate (increasing cover with increasing temperature and aridity), but had weak relationships with soil factors. Our structural equation model showed negative effects of perennial grasses and biodiversity on AG cover while integrating the negative effects of warmer climate and positive influence of belowground processes on resident functional groups. Our findings illustrate the relative importance of biotic interactions and climate on invasive abundance, while soil properties appear to have stronger relationships with resident biota than with invasives.

  3. A resource-based modelling framework to assess habitat suitability for steppe birds in semiarid Mediterranean agricultural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cardador

    Full Text Available European agriculture is undergoing widespread changes that are likely to have profound impacts on farmland biodiversity. The development of tools that allow an assessment of the potential biodiversity effects of different land-use alternatives before changes occur is fundamental to guiding management decisions. In this study, we develop a resource-based model framework to estimate habitat suitability for target species, according to simple information on species' key resource requirements (diet, foraging habitat and nesting site, and examine whether it can be used to link land-use and local species' distribution. We take as a study case four steppe bird species in a lowland area of the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula. We also compare the performance of our resource-based approach to that obtained through habitat-based models relating species' occurrence and land-cover variables. Further, we use our resource-based approach to predict the effects that change in farming systems can have on farmland bird habitat suitability and compare these predictions with those obtained using the habitat-based models. Habitat suitability estimates generated by our resource-based models performed similarly (and better for one study species than habitat based-models when predicting current species distribution. Moderate prediction success was achieved for three out of four species considered by resource-based models and for two of four by habitat-based models. Although, there is potential for improving the performance of resource-based models, they provide a structure for using available knowledge of the functional links between agricultural practices, provision of key resources and the response of organisms to predict potential effects of changing land-uses in a variety of context or the impacts of changes such as altered management practices that are not easily incorporated into habitat-based models.

  4. Patterns of tsetse abundance and trypanosome infection rates among habitats of surveyed villages in Maasai steppe of northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngonyoka, Anibariki; Gwakisa, Paul S; Estes, Anna B; Salekwa, Linda P; Nnko, Happiness J; Hudson, Peter J; Cattadori, Isabella M

    2017-09-04

    Changes of land cover modify the characteristics of habitat, host-vector interaction and consequently infection rates of disease causing agents. In this paper, we report variations in tsetse distribution patterns, abundance and infection rates in relation to habitat types and age in the Maasai Steppe of northern Tanzania. In Africa, Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis negatively impacted human life where about 40 million people are at risk of contracting the disease with dramatic socio-economical consequences, for instance, loss of livestock, animal productivity, and manpower. We trapped tsetse flies in dry and wet seasons between October 2014 and May 2015 in selected habitats across four villages: Emboreet, Loiborsireet, Kimotorok and Oltukai adjacent to protected areas. Data collected include number and species of tsetse flies caught in baited traps, PCR identification of trypanosome species and extraction of monitored Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). Our findings demonstrate the variation of tsetse fly species abundance and infection rates among habitats in surveyed villages in relation to NDVI and host abundance. Results have shown higher tsetse fly abundance in Acacia-swampy ecotone and riverine habitats for Emboreet and other villages, respectively. Tsetse abundance was inconsistent among habitats in different villages. Emboreet was highly infested with Glossina swynnertoni (68%) in ecotone and swampy habitats followed by G. morsitans (28%) and G. pallidipes (4%) in riverine habitat. In the remaining villages, the dominant tsetse fly species by 95% was G. pallidipes in all habitats. Trypanosoma vivax was the most prevalent species in all infected flies (95%) with few observations of co-infections (with T. congolense or T. brucei). The findings of this study provide a framework to mapping hotspots of tsetse infestation and trypanosomiasis infection and enhance the communities to plan for

  5. Carbon storage in permafrost and soils of the mammoth tundra-steppe biome: role in the global carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.S. Zimov; S.A. Zimov; A.E. Zimova; G.M. Zimova; V.I. Chuprynin; F.S. Chapin

    2009-01-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), atmospheric CO2 concentration was 80-100 ppmv lower than in preindustrial times. At that time steppe-tundra was the most extensive biome on Earth. Some authors assume that C storage in that biome was very small, similar to today's deserts, and that the terrestrial carbon (C) reservoir increased at the...

  6. A method to determine warm and cool steppe biomes from pollen data; application to the Mediterranean and Kazakhstan regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarasov, PE; Cheddadi, R; Guiot, J; Bottema, S; Peyron, O; Belmonte, J; Ruiz-Sanchez, [No Value; Saadi, F; Brewer, S

    1998-01-01

    An objective method for the assignment of pollen spectra to appropriate biomes has been published recently. The aim of this paper is to improve the distinction between warm and cool steppes, thus refining vegetation and climate reconstruction, particularly during the Last Glacial Maximum. A set of

  7. The effect of herbaceous species removal, fire and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) on soil water availability in sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison Whittaker; Bruce Roundy; Jeanne Chambers; Susan Meyer; Robert Blank; Stanley Kitchen; John Korfmacher

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several decades, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has been continually expanding in the sagebrush steppe ecosystem. There has been very little research that examines why cheatgrass is able to invade these communities. To determine the effects of herbaceous vegetation removal and fire on available water for cheatgrass invasion, as well as...

  8. Do people with borderline personality disorder complicated by antisocial personality disorder benefit from the STEPPS treatment program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Simsek-Duran, Fatma; Blum, Nancee; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a group treatment for persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We describe results from two data sets on outcome in persons who participated in STEPPS with BPD alone or BPD plus antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). In Study 1, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 65 persons with BPD who participated in a randomized controlled trial at an academic medical centre. In Study 2, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 64 offenders with BPD who participated in STEPPS in correctional settings. All subjects were assessed for the presence of BPD and ASPD. In Study 1, subjects with ASPD experienced greater improvement in BPD symptoms, impulsiveness and global symptoms. In Study 2, offenders with ASPD experienced greater improvement in positive and negative behaviours and positive affectivity. We conclude that persons with BPD plus ASPD benefit from STEPPS in community and correctional settings. The findings suggest that persons with BPD plus ASPD show greater improvement in some domains than persons with BPD only. People with ASPD should not be automatically excluded from participation in the program. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Vegetation monitoring to detect and predict vegetation change: Connecting historical and future shrub/steppe data in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva Chong; David Barnett; Benjamin Chemel; Roy Renkin; Pamela Sikkink

    2011-01-01

    A 2002 National Research Council (NRC) evaluation of ungulate management practices in Yellowstone specifically concluded that previous (1957 to present) vegetation monitoring efforts were insufficient to determine whether climate or ungulates were more influential on shrub/steppe dynamics on the northern ungulate winter range. The NRC further recommended that the...

  10. Colony density and activity times of the ant Camponotus semitestaceus (Hymenoptera: formicidae) in a shrub steppe community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gano, K.A.; Rogers, L.E.

    1983-11-01

    Colony densities and above-ground activity periods were determined for Camponotus semitestaceus colonies within a shrub-steppe community. Colony densities (anti-x +/- SD) averaged 0.088 +/- 0.032 per m/sup 2/ and 0.048 +/- 0.028 per m/sup 2/ on two sagebrush-bunchgrass sites an

  11. Comparison of Ecosystem Respiration Components and Carbon Use Efficiency among Different land Use Patterns of Temperate Steppe in the Northern China Pastoral- farming Ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzhe, L.

    2015-12-01

    he rangeland use/management pattern changes such as cultivation and grazing exclusion, can lead to significant influence on vegetation and soil characteristics, which, in turn, brings changes to the microclimate of community. As a consequences, the carbon budget balance between the grassland ecosystem and the atmosphere may altered. Our research indicated that the GEP of cultivated steppe was enhanced significantly, in comparison with adjacent grazed steppes. However, with a significant rise of the respiration of the crops (Ra) and of heterotrophic respiration of the cultivated ecosystem (Rh), the NEP of the steppes cultivated to cropland is significantly lower than that of the grazed or grazing excluded steppes. The respiration of the aboveground part of ecosystem (Rab) and of the underground part (Rb) both contributes to the dramatic increase of the ecosystem respiration (Re) in cultivated steppe. The steppes under three different management types show a significant difference on the underground root biomass, but the difference on the root respiration (Rr) is not significant. This phenomenon is due to the negative exponential relationship between the root-top ratio and the root respiration activity. The communities on the grazed and grazing excluded steppes have a significantly higher carbon fixation efficiency than the steppes cultivated to cropland (wheat fields). The heterotrophic respiration (Rh) of the ecosystem explains to the maximum extent the carbon use efficiency (CUE) of the vegetation (95%). Long term grazing exclusion or cultivation reduces the net photosynthesis ,NEE and CUE of the steppe ecosystem and weakens the carbon sink function of the vegetation, while enhancing the soil respiration CO2 release with different respiration sources composition.

  12. Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) for outpatients with borderline personality disorder: a randomized controlled trial and 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Nancee; St John, Don; Pfohl, Bruce; Stuart, Scott; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff; Arndt, Stephan; Black, Donald W

    2008-04-01

    Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a 20-week manual-based group treatment program for outpatients with borderline personality disorder that combines cognitive behavioral elements and skills training with a systems component. The authors compared STEPPS plus treatment as usual with treatment as usual alone in a randomized controlled trial. Subjects with borderline personality disorder were randomly assigned to STEPPS plus treatment as usual or treatment as usual alone. Total score on the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included measures of global functioning, depression, impulsivity, and social functioning; suicide attempts and self-harm acts; and crisis utilization. Subjects were followed 1 year posttreatment. A linear mixed-effects model was used in the analysis. Data pertaining to 124 subjects (STEPPS plus treatment as usual [N=65]; treatment as usual alone [N=59]) were analyzed. Subjects assigned to STEPPS plus treatment as usual experienced greater improvement in the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder total score and subscales assessing affective, cognitive, interpersonal, and impulsive domains. STEPPS plus treatment as usual also led to greater improvements in impulsivity, negative affectivity, mood, and global functioning. These differences yielded moderate to large effect sizes. There were no differences between groups for suicide attempts, self-harm acts, or hospitalizations. Most gains attributed to STEPPS were maintained during follow-up. Fewer STEPPS plus treatment as usual subjects had emergency department visits during treatment and follow-up. The discontinuation rate was high in both groups. STEPPS, an adjunctive group treatment, can deliver clinically meaningful improvements in borderline personality disorder-related symptoms and behaviors, enhance global functioning, and relieve depression.

  13. [Responses of ecosystem carbon budget to increasing nitrogen deposition in differently degraded Leymus chinensis steppes in Inner Mongolia, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yu-Chun; Peng, Qin; Dong, Yun-She; Xiao, Sheng-Sheng; Jia, Jun-Qiang; Quo, Shu-Fang; He, Yun-Long; Yan, Zhong-Qing; Wang, Li-Qin

    2015-02-01

    Based on a field manipulative nitrogen (N) addition experiment, the effects of atmospheric N deposition level change on the plant biomass and net primary productivity (NPP), soil respiration (Rs) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were investigated respectively in 2009 and 2010 in two differently degraded Leymus chinensis steppes in Inner Mongolia of China, and the difference in the response of NEE to equal amount of N addition [10 g x (M2 x a)(-1), MN] between the two steppes was also discussed. The results indicated that for the light degraded Leymus chinensis steppe (site A) , the average plant aboveground biomass (AGB) in MN treatment were 21.5% and 46.8% higher than those of CK in these two years. But for the moderate degraded Leymus chinensis steppe (site B), the N addition decreased the plant AGB and ANPP in 2009, while showed positive effects in 2010. N addition increased the belowground biomass (BGB) of the both sites and belowground NPP (BNPP) of site B in both years, but decreased the BNPP of site A in 2010. The increase of N input in the two steppes did not change the seasonal variation of Rs. The cumulative annual soil C emissions in MN treatment in site A showed an increase of about 14.6% and 25.7% of those in the CK respectively for these two years, while were decreased by about 10.4% and 11.3%, respectively in site B. The NEE of MN treatments, expressed by C, for the two steppes were 59.22 g x (m2 x a)(1) and 166.68 g x (m2 x a)(-1), as well as 83.27 g x (m2 x a)(-1) and 117.47 g x (m2 x a)(-1), respectively in these two years. The increments in NEE originated from N addition for these two years were 15.79 g x (M2 x a)(-1) and 82.94 g x (M2 x a)(-1) in site A and 74.54 g x (M2 x a)(-1) and 101.23 g x (M2 x a)(-1) in site B. The N input per unit could obtain greater C sink effect in the steppe with lower initial N level.

  14. The Neolithization of Northern Black Sea area in the context of climate changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Kotova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The neolithisation of the Pontic steppe was a long process, with four stages which were associated with climate changes. It began c. 7500 calBC, with early animal husbandry in the western Azov Sea area. The beginning of the second stage was connected with an arid climate (7000–6900 calBC and the origin of the Rakushechny Yar culture in the Lower Don region. The third stage (6500–6300 calBC occurred during a humid period. Besides animal husbandry, the steppe population borrowed the first pottery from the Rakushechny Yar culture. The fourth phase (6300–6000 calBC was connected with extreme aridity and the neolithisation of the modern forest-steppe and forest zones of Ukraine and Russia.

  15. The Conservation Status of Grassland Habitats Belonging to Protected Areas from Oltenia ‘Natura 2000’ Site, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel RĂDUŢOIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, are rendered the results of the research referring to the conservation status of the grasslands from two sites ‘Natura 2000’ located in Oltenia region, in South-Western part of Romania: ROSCI0202 Oltenia Forest Steppe and ROSCI0039 Ciuperceni - Desa. Within these sites, there are five habitats: 62C0* Ponto-Sarmatic steppes, 6260* Pannonic sand steppes, 6440 Alluvial meadows of river valleys of the Cnidion dubii, 6510 Lowland hay meadows (Alopecurus pratensis, Sanguisorba officinalis and 1530* Pannonic salt steppes and salt marshes. The investigation of the conservation status of these habitats was carried out by assessing their conservation status at EU level, namely by assigning them to one of the four categories – “favourable”, “unfavourable-inadequate”, “unfavourable-bad”, and “unknown” – according to the stated attributes for each habitat, to the threats of destruction and to the dangers that may lead to their destruction or disappearance. By applying the evaluation matrix of the conservation state of the five habitats from the two sites Natura 2000, only three of the five studied habitats have a good conservation status: 62C0* Ponto-Sarmatic steppes, 6260* Pannonic sand steppes, 6440 alluvial meadows of river valleys of the Cnidion dubii. The habitat 1530* Pannonic salt steppes and salt marshes have a good-moderate status while 6510 Lowland hay meadows (Alopecurus pratensis, Sanguisorba officinalis has amoderate-poor status. Referring to the characteristic structure and functions to the type of habitat, the research revealed that in numerous areas occupied by the five habitats good conservation conditions are not good.

  16. [Microarthropods from the altiplanic andean steppe, with focus on oribatid species (Oribatida: Acarina)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Rene

    2009-01-01

    In soils under seven types of high altitude, native vegetation and one plantation in the northernmost Chilean Altiplanic region, 20 microarthropod orders or suborders were found, including 21 oribatid mite species. Seven of these species are first mentioned for Chile. No oribatid mites were found in soils far from vegetation. Data are given as average densities (n masculine ind./1000 ml), accounting for plant preference, geographical distribution and updated taxonomic status for each species. Ten oribatid species form a group of Andean altiplanic steppe fauna also found in Peru and Bolivia. Other three species have been also found in different austral ecosystems in Argentina, and a group of eight species seems to be cosmopolitan.

  17. Chemical composition and trophic state of shallow saline steppe lakes in central Asia (North Kazakhstan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Emil; Jurecska, Laura; Tatár, Enikő; Vörös, Lajos; Kolpakova, Marina

    2017-10-09

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevailing chemical composition and trophic state of the shallow saline steppe lakes of North Kazakhstan along a wide size range (SO 4 and Na-Cl (n = 16; 64%); the Ca, Mg, HCO 3 , and SO 4 ions precipitate with increasing salinity (2-322 g L -1 ); and ion composition shifts from Na>Mg-Cl>SO 4 to Na-Cl. The most of the chemical variables positively, but chlorophyll a negatively, correlated with total dissolved solids, and the total phosphorus had no significant correlation with any variables. The trophic state of these lakes in most cases exceeded the hypertrophic level. The increase in salinity causes change in chemical composition and effects on the phytoplankton development independently from the size of water surface, and the human disturbances had negligible effect on the trophic state of shallow saline lakes in this region of Kazakhstan.

  18. War and Peace in the Pontic Steppes (1300–1302 »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Uzelac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses events in the Pontic steppes after the death of Noghai and efforts of khan Tokhta aimed at the reorganization of the right wing of the Ulus of Juchi. The political instability, bloody conflicts among Noghai’s sons, as well as conspiracies and revolts in which the khan’s closest relatives also participated had grave demographic and economic consequences in the region lying between the Dnieper and Danube rivers. More than two years passed before Tokhta finally managed to establish the presence of central authority, while dealing with another important task at the same time – assertion of the Tatar supremacy in the lands bordering the Golden Horde.

  19. Remediation of degraded arable steppe soils in Moldova using vetch as green manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeier, M.; Lungu, M.; Hübner, R.; Cerbari, V.

    2015-05-01

    In the Republic of Moldova, non-sustainable arable farming led to severe degradation and erosion of fertile steppe soils (Chernozems). As a result, the Chernozems lost about 40% of their initial amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC). The aim of this study was to remediate degraded arable soils and promote carbon sequestration by implementation of cover cropping and green manuring in Moldova. Thereby, the suitability of the legume hairy vetch (Vicia sativa) as cover crop under the dry continental climate of Moldova was examined. At two experimental sites, the effect of cover cropping on chemical and physical soil properties as well as on yields of subsequent main crops was determined. The results showed a significant increase of SOC after incorporation of hairy vetch mainly due to increases of aggregate-occluded and mineral-associated OC. This was related to a high above- and belowground biomass production of hairy vetch associated with a high input of carbon and nitrogen into arable soils. A calculation of SOC stocks based on equivalent soil masses revealed a sequestration of around 3 t C ha-1yr-1 as a result of hairy vetch cover cropping. The buildup of SOC was associated with an improvement of the soil structure as indicated by a distinct decrease of bulk density and a relative increase of macroaggregates at the expense of microaggregates and clods. As a result, yields of subsequent main crops increased by around 20%. Our results indicated that hairy vetch is a promising cover crop to remediate degraded steppe soils, control soil erosion and sequester substantial amounts of atmospheric C in arable soils of Moldova.

  20. Soil microbial community and endemic earthworm Allolobophora hrabei in soils of steppe fragments of central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhottová, Dana; Jirout, Jiří; Pižl, Václav

    2016-04-01

    The earthworm activity is generally recognized as an important factor changing the intrinsic heterogeneity of soil environment including the microbial constituents. In central Europe, about 40% of earthworm species are endemic to this region, some of them dominating forest and grassland ecosystems and playing a keystone role in the soil food-web. However, current knowledge about the effects of earthworms on soil microorganisms derives from studies on a few peregrine species only. Our study brought a view on the microbial component of the steppe soil affected by the activity of Allolobophora hrabei, an endemic earthworm fragmentary distributed in the border regions of the Czech Republic, Austria, Slovakia and Hungary. The study was carried out in three steppe fragments, where A. hrabei represented a key earthworm species. Comprehensive approach based on bio-indicating quantitative and qualitative options of extended phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFA) of bulk soil, drilosphere sensu lato and casts was used on data from two-years monitoring. In situ observation was completed by detailed observation of the casts-microbiota succession under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results showed that A. hrabei significantly affected soil microorganisms mainly via its extremely high casting activity. The doubled biomass, new qualitative composition, better growth and nutritional status of microbial community together with significantly higher availability of phosphorus and organic carbon in casts in contrast to bulk soil confirmed beneficial impact of A. hrabei on the soil environment. A. hrabei has burrowed up to more than one metre depths and produced more than 3 kg . m-2 of casts per year.

  1. Hydrological Effects of Vegetation Cover Degradation and Environmental Implications in a Semiarid Temperate Steppe, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying the impact of vegetation dynamics on hydrological processes is essential for environmental management to reduce ecological environment risk and develop sustainable water management strategies under global warming. This case study simulated the responses of streamflow to vegetation cover degradation under climate variations in the Xilin River Basin in a semi-arid steppe of northern China. The snowmelt and river ice melting processes in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT were improved to estimate the changes in streamflow under multiple scenarios. Results showed that the improved SWAT simulations matched well to the measured monthly streamflow for both calibration (determination coefficient R2 = 0.75 and Nash–Sutcliffe ENS = 0.67 and validation periods (R2 = 0.74 and ENS = 0.68. Simulations of vegetation change revealed that obvious changes occurred in streamflow through conversion between high and low vegetation covers. The reductions in vegetation cover can elevate streamflow in both rainfall and snowmelt season, but the effects are most pronounced during the rainfall seasons (i.e., the growing seasons and in drier years. These findings highlight the importance of vegetation degradation on modifying the hydrological partitioning in a semi-arid steppe basin. We conclude that in a particular climate zone, vegetation cover change is one of the important contributing factors to streamflow variations. Increases in streamflow in water-limited regions will likely reduce the effective water content of soil, which in turn leads to further degradation risk in vegetation. Therefore, vegetation cover management is one of the most effective and sustainable methods of improving water resources in water-constrained regions.

  2. Framework for a National Testing and Evaluation Program Based Upon the National Stormwater Testing and Evaluation for Products and Practices (STEPP) Initiative (WERF Report INFR2R14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract:The National STEPP Program seeks to improve water quality by accelerating the effective implementation and adoption of innovative stormwater management technologies. Itwill attempt to accomplish this by establishing practices through highly reliable, and cost-effective S...

  3. Recycling of Badger/Fox Burrows in Late Pleistocene Loess by Hyenas at the Den Site Bad Wildungen-Biedensteg (NW, Germany: Woolly Rhinoceros Killers and Scavengers in a Mammoth Steppe Environment of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cajus Diedrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Late Pleistocene (MIS 5c-d Ice Age spotted hyena open air den and bone accumulation site Bad Wildungen-Biedensteg (Hesse, NW, Germany represents the first open air loess fox/badger den site in Europe, which must have been recycled by Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823 as a birthing den. Badger and fox remains, plus remains of their prey (mainly hare, have been found within the loess. Hyena remains from that site include parts of cub skeletons which represent 10% of the megafauna bones. Also a commuting den area existed, which was well marked by hyena faecal pellets. Most of the hyena prey bones expose crack, bite, and nibbling marks, especially the most common bones, the woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis (NISP  =  32%. The large amount of woolly rhinoceros bones indicate hunting/scavenging specializing on this large prey by hyenas. Other important mammoth steppe hyena prey remains are from Mammuthus primigenius, Equus caballus przewalskii, Bison/Bos, Megaloceros giganteus, Cervus elaphus, and Rangifer tarandus. The few damaged bone remains of a scavenged cave bear Ursus spelaeus subsp. are unique for an open air situation. Abundant micromammal, frog, and some fish remains were concentrated in “pellets” that contain mainly mammoth steppe micromammals and also frog and fish remains that seem to originate from the nearby river/lake.

  4. Ring Recoveries from Steppe Eagles and Eastern Imperial Eagles from the Russian and Kazakhstan Breeding Populations and a Review of Major Threats to Eagles in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Omar F. Al-Sheikhly; Ali N. Al-Barazangi; Mukhtar K. Haba; Nadheer A. Fazaa; Husham K. Abdulzahra; Mufid Kassim Abou Turab; Ahmad J. Al-Azawi

    2018-01-01

    The article summarizes ring recoveries from 2 Steppe Eagles (Aquila nipalensis) and 2 Eastern Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca) from Iraq that were ringed in Russia and Kazakhstan, as well as ring recoveries from 2 Steppe Eagles and 3 Eastern Imperial Eagles from the border regions of Iraq (Iran, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia) that were ringed in Russia. Threats for eagles in Iraq are discussed in this article.

  5. Ring Recoveries from Steppe Eagles and Eastern Imperial Eagles from the Russian and Kazakhstan Breeding Populations and a Review of Major Threats to Eagles in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F. Al-Sheikhly

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes ring recoveries from 2 Steppe Eagles (Aquila nipalensis and 2 Eastern Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca from Iraq that were ringed in Russia and Kazakhstan, as well as ring recoveries from 2 Steppe Eagles and 3 Eastern Imperial Eagles from the border regions of Iraq (Iran, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia that were ringed in Russia. Threats for eagles in Iraq are discussed in this article.

  6. Predicting Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease in Infants and Young Children at Diagnosis of Posterior Urethral Valves: Initial Ultrasound Kidney Characteristics and Validation of Parenchymal Area as Forecasters of Renal Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Rakan; Noone, Damien; Bowlin, Paul R; Braga, Luis H P; Lorenzo, Armando J

    2016-09-01

    There is paucity of validated objective early imaging markers to help predict future renal deterioration in infants with posterior urethral valves. We evaluated the prognostic value of total renal parenchymal area, renal echogenicity and corticomedullary differentiation regarding future development of chronic kidney disease. We analyzed initial postnatal ultrasonographic images from serial posterior urethral valve cases seen at a single tertiary referral center using National Institutes of Health sponsored image processing software. Echogenicity and corticomedullary differentiation were objectively measured as ratios relative to the adjacent liver or spleen and between cortex and medulla. The primary study outcome, renal function at last followup, was dichotomized based on glomerular filtration rate and/or need for renal replacement therapy (dialysis or renal transplantation, stage 5 chronic kidney disease). A total of 75 patients were evaluated, of whom 16 had progression to stage 5 chronic kidney disease after a mean ± SD followup of 64.2 ± 38.9 months. Mean renal parenchymal area was 21.41 cm(2) in patients without and 16 cm(2) in patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (p kidneys were significantly associated with development of stage 5 chronic kidney disease (p = 0.004). The performance of corticomedullary differentiation in predicting stage 5 chronic kidney disease was statistically significant (AUROC 0.881, 95% CI 0.776-0.987, p chronic kidney disease in patients with posterior urethral valves. These data are promising for developing tools to risk stratify patients, counsel parents and customize monitoring protocols. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Variation of below-ground carbon sequestration under long term cultivation and grazing in the typical steppe of Nei Monggol in North China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Chun; Tang, Hai-Ping; Chang, Rui-Ying; Liu, Liang

    2008-05-01

    Human activities have changed the earth surface mostly, which caused many environment issues now. We aimed to detect the process that human activities exert on ecosystem by investigating and analyzing the changes of plant community, especially underground soil and root carbon sequestration under long-term cultivation and grazing in typical steppe area of Nei Monggol, North China. The carbon sequestration on the root and soil in three plots of typical steppe area: 26-year exclosure grassland (E26), continuous grazing grassland (LG) and 35-year cultivated tillage (LC) were measured. The carbon storage in the layer of 0-40 cm showed a trend that E26 (7 307.59 g x m(-2) and 950.32 g x m(-2)) approximately LG (7834.01 g x m(-2) and 843.43 g x m(-2)) > LC (4537.04 g x m(-2) and 277.35 g x m(-2)), occupied 88.49%, 90.28% and 94.24% of total soil-root carbon respectively. The original composition structure of plant-soil system was completely destroyed by human cultivation, and it also led to sever soil erosion as well. The sand content in soil of LC at layers 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm were increasing by 81% and 39% compared to E26. On the other hand, the root biomass of LG at 0-40 cm decreased by 71%. Cultivation resulted in significant decrease of the carbon storages in soil and root. Therefore, the present cultivation should be ceased and the optimum measurements should be taken to make the tillage restore to natural grassland condition. Continuous grazing led to the significantly changes of the above-ground vegetation characteristics such as community height, coverage and biomass. While the changes of soil organic content and root biomass was not remarkable under grazing. However, the bulk density of surface soil (0-10 cm) exhibited significant increase in LG compared to E26, which indicated that the present grazing pressure have been reaching the threshold of grassland capacity. Therefore, the present grazing pressure should be decreased properly in order to avoid more serious

  8. Palaeoecological caracterisation of the mammoth steppe at Final Pleistocene in Central Ukraine from zooarchaeology, stable isotope analyses and direct radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péan, Stéphane; Drucker, Dorothée.; Bocherens, Hervé; Haesaerts, Paul; Valladas, Hélène; Stupak, Dmytro; Nuzhnyi, Dmytro

    2010-05-01

    In the Central Ukraine area of the Middle Dnipro Basin, including the Desna river valley, there are exceptional Upper Palaeolithic open air sites with mammoth bone dwelling structures. Mezhyrich is one of these settlements, which are attributed to the Epigravettian cultural facies and occurred in a periglacial environment, during Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 2. Mammoth bone buildings are surrounded by pits, which are filled with archaeological material (tools, hunting weapons, ivory and bone ornaments) and bones of mammoth and other large mammals such as hare, fox, wolf, horse. A new site Buzhanka 2 has yielded a pit which could be related to an expected dwelling structure. These Final Pleistocene sites are particularly appropriate to shed new light upon the relation between man and environment at the time of the mammoth steppe disappearance. Multidisciplinar studies have been carried on, to cross results from zooarchaeology of the pit contents, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope (13C and 15N) analyses of bone collagen, direct 14C dates on mammal bones and microstratigraphic analyses of the loessic sediment. With almost twenty 14C dates available, from mammoth and wolf bones and from charcoals, Mezhyrich is the best dated Epigravettian mammoth bone dwelling site: around 14 500 years BP. Mammoth treatment is zooarchaeologically evidenced in Buzhanka 2, but limited excavated areas do not allow to interpret their procurement yet. In Mezhyrich, consumption of mammoth meat is evidenced from the pit contents, coming from a few juveniles and young adults, probably hunted. The bones used in the dwelling structure no. 4, which are attributed to at least 37 individuals, have two different origins: mostly isolated elements gathered from other deposits, natural accumulations or previous kill sites; a few skeletal portions in anatomical position taken from at least one quite freshly dead mammoth body, for instance a hunted individual. From the stable isotope analyses, it appears

  9. Specific Features of Profile Distribution and Crystallochemistry of Phyllosilicates in Soils of the Cisbaikal Forest-Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhikova, N. P.; Gamzikov, G. P.; Chechetko, E. S.

    2018-01-01

    The mineralogical composition of agrogray, dark gray, and agro-dark gray soils (Luvic Greyzemic Retic Phaeozems); agro-dark gray residual-calcareous soils (Calcaric Cambic Phaeozems); clay-illuvial agrochernozems (Luvic Chernic Phaeozems); and agrochernozems with migrational-mycelial carbonates (Haplic Chernozems) developed in the forest-steppe of Central Siberia within the Irkutsk Depression has been studied. The clay (parent material of agrochernozems has a layered character: the upper horizons are generally depleted of clay, and the middle-profile and lower horizons are characterized by the considerable kaolinite content. In general, the clay material of soils of the Tulun-Irkutsk forest-steppe differs considerably from the clay material of foreststeppe soils developed from loesslike and mantle loams in the European part of Russia. In particular, this difference is seen in the proportions between major mineral phases and between biotitic and muscovitic components, as well as in the degree of crystallinity and behavior of kaolinite and chlorite.

  10. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  11. [Life cycles of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from the mountain taiga and mountain forest-steppe in the Eastern Sayan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khobrakova, L Ts; Sharova, I Kh

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics and demographic structure was studied in 15 dominant ground beetle species in the mountain taiga and mountain forest-steppe belts of the Eastern Sayan (Okinskoe Plateau). Life cycles of the dominant ground beetle species were classified by developmental time, seasonal dynamics, and intrapopulation groups with different reproduction timing. The strategies of carabid life cycles adapted to severe mountain conditions of the Eastern Sayan were revealed.

  12. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  13. Characteristics of modern pollen rain and the relationship to vegetation in sagebrush-steppe environments of Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briles, C.; Bryant, V.

    2010-12-01

    Variations in pollen production and dispersal characteristics among plant species complicate our ability to determine direct relationships between deposited pollen and actual vegetation. In order to better understand modern pollen-vegetation relationships, we analyzed pollen from 61 samples taken from sagebrush-steppe environments across Montana and compared them with the actual vegetation composition at each site. We also determined to what degree sagebrush-steppe communities can be geographically distinguished from one another based on their pollen signature. Pollen preservation was good, especially in wetter environments, with pollen degradataion ranging from 4-15%. Diploxylon Pinus was the primary contributor to the pollen rain, even in plots where pine trees did not occur or were several kilometers from the plot. Artemisia and grass pollen are underrepresented in the soils samples, while Chenopodiaceae and Juniperus pollen are overrepresented when compared to actual vegetation composition. Insect-pollinated species are present only in very minor amounts in the soil samples, even though some (e.g., Brassica) are abundant in the plots. In general, pollen spectra show significant differences between regions, however, within each region the individual spectra are not statistically significant from one another. An understanding of modern pollen-vegetation relationships and the palynological “fingerprint” of sagebrush-steppe communities aid in climatic and ecological interpretations of fossil pollen assemblages. The data also provide important control samples for forensics studies that use pollen to geolocate an object or person to a crime scene.

  14. Cognitive reserve in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A M; Stern, Y

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.

  15. A reconstruction of vegetation and paleohydrologycal changes from peatland in Kansk forest-steppe, Yenisei Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands are an important natural archive for past climatic changes. Climatic changes throughout the Holocene have been reconstructed from peat using a wide array of biological and other proxies. Many different proxy indicators can be derived from peat cores allowing for a multi-proxy approach to climatic reconstructions. Peat-based climatic and environmental reconstructions are currently available from many sites in Yenisei Siberia, mainly for its northern territories. The purpose of this paper is to study some features of peatland development and environmental reconstructions from the Holocene period in the south part of Yenisei Siberia (Kansk forest-steppe zone). The main method used in this research is macrofossil analysis. It can be used to reconstruct the development of local vegetation and surface wetness on peatlands. The macrofossil analysis in the peat resulted from the study of the vegetation in a particular place over a period of time, and it allowed the reconstruction of environmental changes that have occurred since the Late Glacial. Then we used ecological scales of moisture and reconstructed surface wetness for the entire period of the bog formation. Radiocarbon dating was carried out at Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk . Peatland "Pinchinskoye" was selected for investigation in Kansk forest-steppe. It is located on the right bank of the Yenisei River in the floodplain of Esaulovka River. Peat cores of 350 cm were selected in the southern part of the peatbog, including 225 cm of peat (with loam layers in the range of 90 to 135 cm), 75 cm of organic and mineral sapropel with the inclusion of fossil shells of mollusks and different plant macrofossils and 50 cm of the loam below. The process of peat accumulation dated back 8400 ± 140 years, which is the oldest date for the forest-steppe zone of Yenisei Siberia. The climate of Boreal period of the Holocene was chilly. Under these conditions, in the

  16. Nonmotorized recreation and motorized recreation in shrub-steppe habitats affects behavior and reproduction of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaul, Robert J; Heath, Julie A

    2016-11-01

    Different forms of outdoor recreation have different spatiotemporal activity patterns that may have interactive or cumulative effects on wildlife through human disturbance, physical habitat change, or both. In western North America, shrub-steppe habitats near urban areas are popular sites for motorized recreation and nonmotorized recreation and can provide important habitat for protected species, including golden eagles. Our objective was to determine whether recreation use (i.e., number of recreationists) or recreation features (e.g., trails or campsites) predicted golden eagle territory occupancy, egg-laying, or the probability a breeding attempt resulted in ≥1 offspring (nest survival). We monitored egg-laying, hatching and fledging success, eagle behavior, and recreation activity within 23 eagle territories near Boise, Idaho, USA. Territories with more off-road vehicle (ORV) use were less likely to be occupied than territories with less ORV use (β = -1.6, 85% CI: -2.8 to -0.8). At occupied territories, early season pedestrian use (β = -1.6, 85% CI: -3.8 to -0.2) and other nonmotorized use (β = -3.6, 85% CI: -10.7 to -0.3) reduced the probability of egg-laying. At territories where eagles laid eggs, short, interval-specific peaks in ORV use were associated with decreased nest survival (β = -0.5, 85% CI: -0.8 to -0.2). Pedestrians, who often arrived near eagle nests via motorized vehicles, were associated with reduced nest attendance (β = -11.9, 85% CI: -19.2 to -4.5), an important predictor of nest survival. Multiple forms of recreation may have cumulative effects on local populations by reducing occupancy at otherwise suitable territories, decreasing breeding attempts, and causing nesting failure. Seasonal no-stopping zones for motorized vehicles may be an alternative to trail closures for managing disturbance. This study demonstrates the importance of considering human disturbance across different parts of the annual cycle, particularly where

  17. HUMIDIFICATION AS A FACTOR OF STRUCTURIAL ORGANIZATION OF BIRD POPULATIONS IN THE WOOD STANDS OF THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE ASKANIA NOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listopadsky M. A.

    2014-04-01

    the spatial structure of bird communities. In relation to the stands for dryish soil compaction observed populations of species that nest there. The fort stands on fresh soil tend to be the emergence of new species for nesting communities. Despite the small area and the uneven spatial arrangement of belts that are caused the effect of irrigation, there are some places of nesting of small belts for species that occur there only because of the increased level of humidity and the presence of open temporary ponds used by waterbirds. These belts have a ‘hunchback’ profile, caused by the constant flooding, and as a result - a tall and dense stands in the center adjustment of reserve stands caused by the age and condition of vegetation diversity management techniques, moreover the "island" effect becomes characteristic is fewer birds – like dendrophilous. Under present conditions, it does not describe the dendrophilous features for the bird communities in general. Only a few species possess the most biocenotical selectively retain the characteristics inherent to the "island”type populations. The biosphere reserve "Askania Nova" represents the diversity loam with varying degrees of moisture and salinity. The most common are dark chestnut soils in the north of the reserve bordering the southern black soils. Most belts representing tree plantation reserve, located in dark chestnut soils with low humus content in loess loam. Also, the composition of the physical and chemical properties of soil contributes to some zoogenic factors. In relation to the spatial distribution of birds in the reserve, one of the leading factors of the spectrum is the nature of hydration. Directly or through the woody vegetation it determines the nature of the spatial distribution of bird dendrophilous complexes. Relatively high diversity was registered due to the variety of types of moisturizing various irrigation methods for soils. Protected steppe area, which is an indigenous prairie

  18. Organic matter dynamics along a salinity gradient in Siberian steppe soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Norbert; Mikutta, Robert; Shibistova, Olga; Dohrmann, Reiner; Herdtle, Daniel; Gerhard, Lukas; Fritzsche, Franziska; Puzanov, Alexander; Silanteva, Marina; Grebennikova, Anna; Guggenberger, Georg

    2018-01-01

    Salt-affected soils will become more frequent in the next decades as arid and semiarid ecosystems are predicted to expand as a result of climate change. Nevertheless, little is known about organic matter (OM) dynamics in these soils, though OM is crucial for soil fertility and represents an important carbon sink. We aimed at investigating OM dynamics along a salinity and sodicity gradient in the soils of the southwestern Siberian Kulunda steppe (Kastanozem, non-sodic Solonchak, Sodic Solonchak) by assessing the organic carbon (OC) stocks, the quantity and quality of particulate and mineral-associated OM in terms of non-cellulosic neutral sugar contents and carbon isotopes (δ13C, 14C activity), and the microbial community composition based on phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) patterns. Aboveground biomass was measured as a proxy for plant growth and soil OC inputs. Our hypotheses were that (i) soil OC stocks decrease along the salinity gradient, (ii) the proportion and stability of particulate OM is larger in salt-affected Solonchaks compared to non-salt-affected Kastanozems, (iii) sodicity reduces the proportion and stability of mineral-associated OM, and (iv) the fungi : bacteria ratio is negatively correlated with salinity. Against our first hypothesis, OC stocks increased along the salinity gradient with the most pronounced differences between topsoils. In contrast to our second hypothesis, the proportion of particulate OM was unaffected by salinity, thereby accounting for only 90 %. Isotopic data (δ13C, 14C activity) and neutral sugars in the OM fractions indicated a comparable degree of OM transformation along the salinity gradient and that particulate OM was not more persistent under saline conditions. Our third hypothesis was also rejected, as Sodic Solonchaks contained more than twice as much mineral-bound OC than the Kastanozems, which we ascribe to the flocculation of OM and mineral components under higher ionic strength conditions. Contrary to the fourth

  19. Cenoses of phototrophic algae of ultrasaline lakes in the Kulunda steppe (Altai krai, Russian Federation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, Ph. V.; Kalinina, O. Yu.; Nikitin, M. A.; Samylina, O. S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, expeditions of the Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, delivered samples of algo-bacterial mats from Kulunda steppe alkaline lakes (Petukhovskoe alkaline lake, Tanatar VI, and Gorchina III). The filamentous alga Ctenocladus circinnatus (Chlorophyta) acted as an edificator of the mats. The composition of cenoses algocomponents also included chlorophytes Dunaliella viridis and Picocystis salinarum as well as diatoms Anomeoneis sphaerophora, Brachysira brebissonii, B. zellensis, Mastogloia pusilla var. subcapitata, Nitzschia amphibia, N. cf. communis, and Nitzschia sp. 1. The composition and structure of phototrophic algae cenoses (including diatom taxocenes) were described for the investigated lakes for the first time. For the period from 2011 to 2012, the total mineralization significantly increased in lakes. This involved sensible alterations of cenoses. B. zellensis was the most permanent component of diatom taxocenes in both seasons. In the summer of 2011, it was often accompanied by A. sphaerophora and B. brebissonii. In the summer of 2012, A. sphaerophora was found only singularly in Lake Gorchina III, and some biotopes of Lake Tanatar VI were massively inhabited by N. cf. communis, including colonies that had not been previously described for the species. The genetic analysis of three diatoms, which are markedly different from each other in their appearance and were sampled from different lakes but were all determined as Nitzschia cf. communis, showed their complete similarity to each other with the 18S rRNA gene fragment and the highest similarity of all the three diatoms with the species Nitzschia communis.

  20. Methane uptake and emissions in a typical steppe grazing system during the grazing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoya; Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaoqing

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of livestock grazing on CH4 emissions by testing six grazing conditions at Guyuan State Key Monitoring and Research Station of Grassland Ecosystem (China) in 2011 and 2012. Under all grazing systems, steppe soils were measured to be CH4 sinks. The uptake of CH4 by grassland was primarily determined by topsoil (7 cm) temperature and soil (0-7 cm) moisture in grassland at short-term grazing and non-grazing. The cumulative uptake of CH4 during the grazing period for all conditions was 0.88-3.23 kg hm-2 CH4, and the highest level was observed in the continuously moderate grazing condition. Reducing grazing stocking in the short-term did not significantly change the uptake of CH4 when compared with continuously heavy grazing condition. Enteric CH4 emissions were not significantly affected by the grazing period or conditions. The uptake of CH4 by grassland soil offset 3.1-8.6% of the CH4 emissions from the grazing sheep and was most effective at the continuously moderate grazing condition. These findings imply that continuously moderate grazing is the best approach considered here for optimizing the soil as a sink for atmospheric CH4.

  1. Temporal variability of foliar nutrients: responses to nitrogen deposition and prescribed fire in a temperate steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Reed, Sasha C.; Hou, Shuang-Li; Hu, Yan-Yu; Wei, Hai-Wei; Lü, Fu-Mei; Cui, Qiang; Han, Xing Guo

    2017-01-01

    Plant nutrient concentrations and stoichiometry drive fundamental ecosystem processes, with important implications for primary production, diversity, and ecosystem sustainability. While a range of evidence exists regarding how plant nutrients vary across spatial scales, our understanding of their temporal variation remains less well understood. Nevertheless, we know nutrients regulate plant function across time, and that important temporal controls could strongly interact with environmental change. Here, we report results from a 3-year assessment of inter-annual changes of foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and stoichiometry in three dominant grasses in response to N deposition and prescribed fire in a temperate steppe of northern China. Foliar N and P concentrations and their ratios varied greatly among years, with this temporal variation strongly related to inter-annual variation in precipitation. Nitrogen deposition significantly increased foliar N concentrations and N:P ratios in all species, while fire significantly altered foliar N and P concentrations but had no significant impacts on N:P ratios. Generally, N addition enhanced the temporal stability of foliar N and decreased that of foliar P and of N:P ratios. Our results indicate that plant nutrient status and response to environmental change are temporally dynamic and that there are differential effects on the interactions between environmental change drivers and timing for different nutrients. These responses have important implications for consideration of global change effects on plant community structure and function, management strategies, and the modeling of biogeochemical cycles under global change scenarios.

  2. Yield and grain quality of winter wheat under Southern Steppe of Ukraine growing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Корхова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three years study of the effect of sowing time and seed application rates on yield and grain quality of different varieties of winter wheat under the conditions of South Steppe of Ukraine were presented. It was found that winter wheat provides optimal combination of high yield and grain quality in case of sowing in October 10 with seed application rate of 5,0 million seeds/ha. The highest yield – 4,59 t/ha on average in 2011–2013 was obtained for the variety of Natalka when sowing in October 10 with seed application rate  of 5 million germinable seeds. With increasing seed application rate from 3 to 5 million seeds/ha, protein content in winter wheat was decreased by 0,3%, gluten – by 0,6%. The variety Natalka  formed the highest quality grains when sowing in October 20 with seed application rate of 3 million seeds/ha, in this case protein content was 15,8%, gluten – 32,9%. It is proved that early sowing time  – September 10 leads to yields reduction and grain   quality deterioration for all winter wheat varieties.

  3. STEPP: A Grounded Model to Assure the Quality of Instructional Activities in e-Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy AHMED ABDELAZIZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present theoretical paper aims to develop a grounded model for designing instructional activities appropriate to e-learning and online learning environments. The suggested model is guided by learning principles of cognitivism, constructivism, and connectivism learning principles to help online learners constructing meaningful experiences and moving from knowledge acquisition to knowledge creation process. The proposed model consists of five dynamic and grounded domains that assure the quality of designing and using e-learning activities: Ø Social Domain; Ø Technological Domain; Ø Epistemological Domain; Ø Psychological domain; and Ø Pedagogical Domain. Each of these domains needs four types of presences to reflect the design and the application process of e-learning activities. These four presences are: Ø cognitive presence, Ø human presence, Ø psychological presence and Ø mental presence. Applying the proposed model (STEPP throughout all online and adaptive e-learning environments may improve the process of designing and developing e-learning activities to be used as mindtools for current and future learners.

  4. Soil bacterial communities respond to climate changes in a temperate steppe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximei Zhang

    Full Text Available Climate warming and shifting precipitation regimes are affecting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Most studies have focused on the influence of warming and altered precipitation on macro-organisms, whereas the responses of soil microbial communities have been neglected. We studied the changes in the abundance, richness, and composition of the entire bacterial kingdom and 16 dominant bacterial phyla/classes in response to increased precipitation, warming, and their combination, by conducting a 5-year experiment in a steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, China. Watering had a greater effect than warming on almost all the bacterial groups as indicated by changes in all the three attributes (abundance, richness, and composition. The 16 phyla/classes responded differentially to the experimental treatments, with Acidobacteria and Gamma-proteobacteria being the most sensitive. Stepwise regression analyses further revealed that climate changes altered the abundance and richness of bacterial groups primarily through direct routes (e.g., increasing soil water content, and changed the community composition through both direct and indirect routes (e.g., reducing soil total nitrogen content and increasing soil pH. The diverse responses of various bacterial groups could imply some potential shift in their ecosystem functions under climate changes; meanwhile, the indirect routes that are important in altering bacterial composition suggest that specific strategies (e.g., adding NH4NO3 to maintain soil nitrogen content and pH could be adopted to maintain soil microbial composition under climate changes.

  5. Net erosion on a sagebrush steppe landscape as determined by cesium-137 distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppinger, K.D.; Reiners, W.A.; Burke, I.C.; Olson, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    Soil erosion plays a major role in structuring landscapes of semiarid regions. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns and assess transport mechanisms of soil erosion and deposition in a native sagebrush steppe landscape in south central Wyoming using 137 Cs. Six landscape units were identified using a cluster analysis based on four landscape variables. Cesium-137 values varied little among landscape units, suggesting that intermediate-scale (approximately 100 m) fluvial and eolian soil transport is unimportant in this system during the time since bomb-test 137 Cs deposition occurred. In contrast, analysis of variance showed that, on windswept landscape positions, 137 Cs was significantly higher under shrubs than between them. These differences suggest that wind-driven redistribution has occurred at a small scale (0.5-10 m). Even though 137 Cs data indicate that intermediate-scale transport is not occurring, analysis of the soil fine fraction across the landscape shows net transport of fines downslope, suggesting that, in this sagebrush ecosystem, soil distribution by fluvial erosion occurs too slowly to be determined by 137 Cs

  6. [Effect of grazing on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration in Hulunber meadow steppe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Yan, Rui-Rui; Deng, Yu; Yan, Yu-Chun; Xin, Xiao-Ping

    2014-05-01

    Grazing is one of the major human activities which lead to disturbance on grassland ecosystem. Quantifying the effect of grazing on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration ( Q10 ) is essential for accurate assessment of carbon budget in grassland ecosystem. This study was conducted on the grazing gradients experiment platform in Hulunber meadow steppe. Soil respiration was measured by a dynamic closed chamber method (equipped with Li 6400-09, Lincoln, NE, USA) during the growing season in 2011. The results showed that soil respiration had significant seasonal variation and the maximum occurred in July, which was mainly dominated by temperature. The order of average soil respiration during the period from May to September in different treatments was G1 > GO > G2 > G3 > G4 > G5. Comparing with non-grazing treatment, Q10 under heavy grazing conditions (0. 92 Au hm-2) was reduced by about 10% , and was increased a little under light grazing conditions (0. 23 Au hm-2). There was a significant negative correlation between Q15 and grazing intensities (r = 0. 944, P temperature sensitivity of soil respiration to different degrees. The Q10 under different grazing gradients had positive linear regression relationships with aboveground biomass, belowground biomass, soil organic carbon and soil moisture. They could explain 71.0%-85.2% variations of Q10. It was suggested that the variation of Q10 was mainly determined by the change of biotic and environmental factors due to grazing.

  7. Biogeochemical conversion of sulfur species in saline lakes of Steppe Altai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzenko, Svetlana V.; Kolpakova, Marina N.; Shvartsev, Stepan L.; Isupov, Vitaly P.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present research is to identify the main mechanisms of sulfur behavior in saline lakes in the course of time and followed transformations in their chemical composition. The influence of water on chemical composition of biochemical processes involved in decomposition of organic matter was determined by the study of behavior of reduced forms of sulfur in lakes. The determination of reduced forms of sulfur was carried out by successive transfer of each form of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide followed by photometric measurements. The other chemical components were determined by standard methods (atomic absorption, potentiometric method, titration method and others). The salt lakes of the Altai steppe were studied in summer season 2013-2015. Analysis of the chemical composition of the saline lakes of Altai Krai has shown that carbonate-, hydrocarbonate- and chloride ions dominate among anions; sodium is main cation; sulfates are found in subordinate amounts. Reduced forms of sulfur occur everywhere: hydrogen and hydrosulfide sulfur S2- prevail in the bottom sediments; its derivative—elemental S0—prevails in the lakes water. The second important species in water of soda lakes is hydrosulfide sulfur S2-, and in chloride lakes is thiosulfate sulfur S2O3 2- . The lag in the accumulation of sulfates in soda lakes in comparison to chloride lakes can be explained by their bacterial reduction, followed by the formation and deposition of iron sulfides in sediments. In chloride lakes gypsum is a predominantly barrier for sulfates.

  8. Foliage biomass qualitative indices of selected forest forming tree species in Ukrainian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sytnyk Svitlana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study objective was research on the assimilation component of aboveground biomass of trees and its correlation with mensurational indices of trees (age, diameter and height in stands of the main forest forming species in the Ukrainian Northern Steppe zone - Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine and Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Black locust. The research was carried out in forest stands subordinated to the State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine. We used experimental data collected on sample plots established during years 2014-2016. The main research results prove that the foliage share in the tree greenery biomass structure had a wide range of values. For both investigated species, a positive correlation was found between the dry matter content in the tree foliage and the tree age, height and diameter. The foliage share in tree greenery biomass decreased with increasing mensurational index values. Correlation analysis revealed linear relationships between the mensurational indices and the discussed aboveground live biomass parameters. The closest correlation was observed between the stand age, mean stand diameter, mean stand height and dry matter content in the foliage.

  9. Invasive species in the flora of the Starobilsk grass-meadow steppe (Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucher Oksana O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation of the invasive species in the flora of the Starobilsk grass-meadow steppe are presented. Check-list of alien plant has over 386 species of vascular plants of which 28 species are invasive. We have identified 6 transformer species from the invasive plants. We aggregate data on the entry, distribution history, ecology, occurrence in different plant communities, degree of their naturalization and the habitats where they occur. The leading families of invasive species are: Asteraceae. The basis for this group is presented by origin from the North America and the Mediterranean. With respect to the time of immigration, most of them are kenophytes. By the method of introduction, ksenophytes are dominated; according to the degree of naturalization epoecophytes and agriophytes dominate in this group. With regard to the characteristics of life forms, half of invasive species are terophytes. The vast majority of plants are heliophytes and xeromesophytes. Most species are found in biotopes group I: Cultivated agricultural biotopes; least of all species found in biotopes group F: Biotopes dominated by chamephytes and nanophanerophytes. Only 3 species found in biotopes group F: Biotopes dominated by chamephytesand nanophanerophytes. The maps of distribution of 28 invasive species are provided. Most of the species marked dispersed in more than 30 squares.

  10. Nonlinear responses of soil respiration to precipitation changes in a semiarid temperate steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yuan; Han, Hongyan; Du, Yue; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Lin; Hui, Dafeng; Wan, Shiqiang

    2017-03-31

    Extreme precipitation events are predicted to occur more frequently and will have significant influences on terrestrial ecosystem carbon (C) cycling in the future. However, response patterns of soil respiration to precipitation changes remain uncertain in terrestrial ecosystems. A field experiment with seven precipitation treatments (i.e. from -60% to +60% of ambient precipitation to form a drought to wet precipitation gradient) was conducted over three growing seasons (2010-2012) in a semiarid temperate steppe of Northern China. Results showed a nonlinear response pattern of soil respiration along the experimental precipitation gradient, with soil respiration suppressed by decreased precipitation and enhanced by increased precipitation. Over the three growing seasons, soil respiration was reduced more under the three drought treatments (by 45.8, 32.8, and 15.9% under the -60, -40, and -20% treatments, respectively) than stimulated under the three wet treatments (by 8.9, 14.3, and 18.5% under the +20, +40, and +60% treatments, respectively). Our results indicate that soil respiration was more sensitive to decreased than increased precipitation treatments. The nonlinear and asymmetric responses of soil respiration to precipitation changes should be built into ecosystem models to project ecosystem C cycling associated with climate change.

  11. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    Cave bears hibernated in caves all over Eurasia (e.g. Rabeder et al., 2000) including alpine regions using mainly larger caves for this purpose. Late Quaternary spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea instead occupied mainly areas close to the cave entrances as their dens (Diedrich and Žák 2006, Diedrich 2010). The largest predator, the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea was only a sporadic cave dweller (Diedrich 2007b, 2009b). His presence and its remains from caves all over Europe can be recently explained best as result of imported carcasses after killing by their largest antagonists, the Late Quaternary spotted hyenas. In some cases the kill might have happened in the hyena den cave itself during the theft of prey remains by lions (Diedrich 2009a). Another reason of their remains in caves of Europe is the hunting onto the herbivorous cave bears, especially during hibernation times, when megafauna prey was less available in the open environments (Diedrich 2009c). These lion remains from caves of Europe, nearly all of which were from adult animals, provide evidence of active predation by lions onto cave bears even in medium high alpine regions (Diedrich 2009b, in review). Lion skeletons in European cave bear dens were therefore often found amongst originally articulated cave bear skeletons or scattered cave bear remains and even close to their hibernation nests (Diedrich et al. 2009c, in review). Not only lions fed on cave bears documented mainly by the large quantities of chewed, punctured and crushed cave bear long-bones; even damaged skulls reveal that hyenas scavenged primarily on cave bear carcasses which were mainly responsible for the destruction of their carcasses and bones (Diedrich 2005, 2009d). Predation and scavenging on cave bears by the two largest Late Quaternary predators C. c. spelaea and P. l. spelaea explains well the large quantity of fragmented cave bear bones over all European caves in low to medium high mountainous elevations, whereas in

  12. Land use influence on 3-D distribution of soil microbiological activity in forest-steppe zone of Central Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Viacheslav; Tembo, Alan; Sarzhanov, Dmirty; Sotnikova, Julia; Ryzhkov, Oleg; Lakeev, Pavel; Valentini, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    Land use is the principal factor influencing soil environmental functions and quality. Quite a few studies on soil quality mainly focus on natural and agroecosystems. Much less is known about urban ecosystems, although the urbanization effect on soil quality can be considerable. Parameters of soil microbiological activity are very sensitive to land-use change. Microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), basal respiration (BR) and microbial metabolic coefficient (qCO2) are among most widely used parameters of soil microbiological activity. They are directly associated with such soil functions as fertility, microorganisms' habitat and participation in carbon cycle. So far, most of the studies focus on the effect of land-use change on the topsoil (0-10 cm) microbiological activity, averaged for different land-use types. Much less is known about changes in spatial variability and profile distribution of Cmic, BR and qCO2 in response to different land-use. Land-use influence on spatial and profile distribution of soil microbiological activity may differ between bioclimatic zones. Very fertile and rich in carbon Chernozemic soils (depth of the A horizon up to 1 m, carbon concentration up to 7-9%), dominating in forest-steppe zone are among the most sensitive to land-use change. This study aims to improve understanding of land-use influence on 3-D distribution of Cmic, BR and qCO2 in Central Chernozemic region of Russia. We observed three land-use types (fallow land, natural pasture and meadow) located in Kursk region and three contrast urban functional zone (industrial, residential and recreational) in Kursk city. Soil samples were collected by auguring in five replicas per land-use type, four layers each sampling point (0-10, 10-50, 50-100 and 100-150 cm). Cmic, BR and qCO2 as well as Corg, N and pHKCl were analyzed in all the samples. Cmic (µg C g-1 soil) was analyzed based on the substrate induced respiration (SIR) approach. qCO2 (μg CO2-C mg-1 Cmic h-1) was calculated as the

  13. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591

  14. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  15. Building a collaborative culture in cardiothoracic operating rooms: pre and postintervention study protocol for evaluation of the implementation of teamSTEPPS training and the impact on perceived psychological safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Aaron Benjamin; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Maniar, Hersh; Avidan, Michael Simon; Bollini, Mara L; Patterson, George Alexander; Steinberg, Aaron; Scaggs, Katie; Dribin, Brenda V; Ridley, Clare H

    2017-09-27

    The importance of effective communication, a key component of teamwork, is well recognised in the healthcare setting. Establishing a culture that encourages and empowers team members to speak openly in the cardiothoracic (CT) operating room (OR) is necessary to improve patient safety in this high-risk environment. This study will take place at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, an academic hospital in affiliation with Washington University School of Medicine located in the USA. All team members participating in cardiac and thoracic OR cases during this 17-month study period will be identified by the primary surgical staff attending on the OR schedule.TeamSTEPPS (Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety) training course will be taught to all CT OR staff. Before TeamSTEPPS training, staff will respond to a 39-item questionnaire that includes constructs from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, Edmondson's 'Measure of psychological safety' questionnaire, and questionnaires on turnover intentions, job satisfaction and 'burnout'. The questionnaires will be readministered at 6 and 12 months.The primary outcomes to be assessed include the perceived psychological safety of CT OR team members, the overall effect of TeamSTEPPS on burnout and job satisfaction, and observed turnover rate among the OR nurses. As secondary outcomes, we will be assessing self-reported rates of medical error and near misses in the ORs with a questionnaire at the end of each case. Ethics approval is not indicated as this project does not meet the federal definitions of research requiring the oversight of the Institutional Review Board (IRB). Patient health information (PHI) will not be generated during the implementation of this project. Results of the trial will be made accessible to the public when published in a peer-reviewed journal following the completion of the study. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  16. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  17. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  18. Indian Reserves: Canada's Developing Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Musto, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    Indian reserves are the most visible reminder of the separation of aboriginal people from the rest of Canada and other Canadians. Illness patterns and social conditions in Native communities closely parallel those in developing nations. While they continue to have a large burden of infectious diseases, these groups also have an increased incidence of chronic and lifestyle diseases as well as environment-related conditions. Similarities can be seen in urban areas between immigrants from abroad...

  19. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  20. Quantitative assessment of carbon sequestration reduction induced by disturbances in temperate Eurasian steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhao; Ju, Weimin; Groisman, Pavel; Li, Jianlong; Propastin, Pavel; Xu, Xia; Zhou, Wei; Ruan, Honghua

    2017-11-01

    The temperate Eurasian steppe (TES) is a region where various environmental, social, and economic stresses converge. Multiple types of disturbance exist widely across the landscape, and heavily influence carbon cycling in this region. However, a current quantitative assessment of the impact of disturbances on carbon sequestration is largely lacking. In this study, we combined the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS), the Shiyomi grazing model, and the global fire model (Glob-FIRM) to investigate the impact of the two major types of disturbance in the TES (i.e. domestic grazing and fire) on regional carbon sequestration. Model performance was validated using satellite data and field observations. Model outputs indicate that disturbance has a significant impact on carbon sequestration at a regional scale. The annual total carbon lost due to disturbances was 7.8 TgC yr-1, accounting for 14.2% of the total net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Domestic grazing plays the dominant role in terrestrial carbon consumption, accounting for 95% of the total carbon lost from the two disturbances. Carbon losses from both disturbances significantly increased from 1999 to 2008 (R 2 = 0.82, P < 0.001 for grazing, R 2 = 0.51, P < 0.05 for fire). Heavy domestic grazing in relatively barren grasslands substantially reduced carbon sequestration, particularly in the grasslands of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and the far southwest of Inner Mongolia. This spatially-explicit information has potential implications for sustainable management of carbon sequestration in the vast grassland ecosystems.

  1. Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis). A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuangyan [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Huang, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Yang, Xiaohan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Gongshe [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing

    2013-07-04

    BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  2. Phenotypic plasticity as an index of drought tolerance in three Patagonian steppe grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couso, L L; Fernández, R J

    2012-09-01

    Despite general agreement regarding the adaptive importance of plasticity, evidence for the role of environmental resource availability in plants is scarce. In arid and semi-arid environments, the persistence and dominance of perennial species depends on their capacity to tolerate drought: tolerance could be given on one extreme by fixed traits and, on the other, by plastic traits. To understand drought tolerance of species it is necessary to know the plasticity of their water economy-related traits, i.e. the position in the fixed-plastic continuum. Three conspicuous co-existing perennial grasses from a Patagonian steppe were grown under controlled conditions with four levels of steady-state water availability. Evaluated traits were divided into two groups. The first was associated with potential plant performance and correlated with fitness, and included above-ground biomass, total biomass, tillering and tiller density at harvest. The second group consisted of traits associated with mechanisms of plant adjustment to environmental changes and included root biomass, shoot/root ratio, tiller biomass, length of total elongated leaf, length of yellow tissue divided by time and final length divided by the time taken to reach final length. The most plastic species along this drought gradient was the most sensitive to drought, whereas the least plastic and slowest growing was the most tolerant. This negative relationship between tolerance and plasticity was true for fitness-related traits but was trait-dependent for underlying traits. Remarkably, the most tolerant species had the highest positive plasticity (i.e. opposite to the default response to stress) in an underlying trait, directly explaining its drought resistance: it increased absolute root biomass. The niche differentiation axis that allows the coexistence of species in this group of perennial dryland grasses, all limited by soil surface moisture, would be a functional one of fixed versus plastic responses.

  3. Morphological features of Persica species and varieties in the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. М. Голубкова

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine morphological and morphometric features of vegetative and generative organs of Persica species and varieties under the conditions of the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine for further use in breeding. Methods. Biological (morphological analysis and statistical (processing of morphometric parameters ones. Results. It was found that except ternate multiple buds, in peach hybrid ‘Suputnyk’collateral buds were prevalent which was not common to other tested varieties and species. Buds of each species and variety have a certain number of scales. The most scales were observed in ‘Suputnyk’. Pubescence of abaxial side of the leaf in P. davіdiana and ‘Suputnyk’ plants was not revealed. Species of P. vulgaris (‘Pecherskyi’, ‘Antotsianovyi’, ‘Poleskyi’ was characterized by increase in size of leaf blades, flowers and fruits. The distinctive features of P. davidiana and ‘Suputnyk’ are that stamens were accumulated in their flowers while in P. vulgaris they are branched. Raphe of a P. vulgaris stone protrudes above the edges of the bordering creases and consists of a number of narrow plates. Conclusions. For the breeding purposes, plants have an advantage for some basic criteria: the most flower buds that is common to interspecies hybrid ‘Suputnyk’; increase in photosynthetic productivity of the leaf apparatus to be typical for the variety ‘Pecherskyi’; large fruits that ‘Pecherskyi’ variety is noted for; intense red color of fruits that is inherent feature of ‘Antocianovyi’ variety.

  4. Projecting the Dependence of Sage-steppe Vegetation on Redistributed Snow in a Warming Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, B.; Kavanagh, K.; Link, T. E.; Seyfried, M. S.; Strand, E. K.

    2015-12-01

    In mountainous regions, the redistribution of snow by wind can increase the effective precipitation available to vegetation. Moisture subsidies caused by drifting snow may be critical to plant productivity in semi-arid ecosystems. However, with increasing temperatures, the distribution of precipitation is becoming more uniform as rain replaces drifting snow. Understanding the ecohydrological interactions between sagebrush steppe vegetation communities and the heterogeneous distribution of soil moisture is essential for predicting and mitigating future losses in ecosystem diversity and productivity in regions characterized by snow dominated precipitation regimes. To address the dependence of vegetation productivity on redistributed snow, we simulated the net primary production (NPP) of aspen, sagebrush, and C3 grass plant functional types spanning a precipitation phase (rain:snow) gradient in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed and Critical Zone Observatory (RCEW-CZO). The biogeochemical process model Biome-BGC was used to simulate NPP at three sites located directly below snowdrifts that provide melt water late into the spring. To assess climate change impacts on future plant productivity, mid-century (2046-2065) NPP was simulated using the average temperature increase from the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) data set under the RCP 8.5 emission scenario. At the driest site, mid-century projections of decreased snow cover and increased growing season evaporative demand resulted in limiting soil moisture up to 30 and 40 days earlier for aspen and sage respectively. While spring green up for aspen occurred an average of 13 days earlier under climate change scenarios, NPP remained negative up to 40 days longer during the growing season. These results indicate that the loss of the soil moisture subsidy stemming from prolonged redistributed snow water resources can directly influence ecosystem productivity in the rain:snow transition zone.

  5. Community responses of arthropods to a range of traditional and manipulated grazing in shortgrass steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, T A Scott; Stapp, Paul; Levensailor, Katherine E; Derner, Justin D; Lauenroth, William K

    2014-06-01

    Responses of plants to grazing are better understood, and more predictable, than those of consumers in North American grasslands. In 2003, we began a large-scale, replicated experiment that examined the effects of grazing on three important arthropod groups-beetles, spiders, and grasshoppers-in shortgrass steppe of north-central Colorado. We investigated whether modifications of the intensity and seasonality of livestock grazing alter the structure and diversity of macroarthropod communities compared with traditional grazing practices. Treatments represented a gradient of grazing intensity by cattle and native herbivores: long-term grazing exclosures; moderate summer grazing (the traditional regime); intensive spring grazing; intensive summer grazing; and moderately summer-grazed pastures also inhabited by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus Ord). Beetles and spiders were the most common groups captured, comprising 60% and 21%, respectively, of 4,378 total pitfall captures. Grasshopper counts were generally low, with 3,799 individuals observed and densities grazing treatments, responding not only to long-term grazing conditions, but also to the short-term, more-intensive grazing manipulations. In response, arthropods were, in general, relatively insensitive to these grazing-induced structural changes. However, species-level analyses of one group (Tenebrionidae) revealed both positive and negative effects of grazing treatments on beetle richness and activity-density. Importantly, these responses to grazing were more pronounced in a year when spring-summer rainfall was low, suggesting that both grazing and precipitation-which together may create the greatest heterogeneity in vegetation structure-are drivers of consumer responses in this system.

  6. Managed grassland alters soil N dynamics and N2O emissions in temperate steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Xu, Xingliang; Tang, Xuejuan; Xin, Xiaoping; Ye, Liming; Yang, Guixia; Tang, Huajun; Lv, Shijie; Xu, Dawei; Zhang, Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Reclamation of degraded grasslands as managed grasslands has been increasingly accelerated in recent years in China. Land use change affects soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions. However, it remains unclear how large-scale grassland reclamation will impact the grassland ecosystem as a whole. Here, we investigated the effects of the conversion from native to managed grasslands on soil N dynamics and N2O emissions by field experiments in Hulunber in northern China. Soil (0-10cm), nitrate (NO 3 - ), ammonium (NH 4 + ), and microbial N were measured in plots in a temperate steppe (Leymus chinensis grassland) and two managed grasslands (Medicago sativa and Bromus inermis grasslands) in 2011 and 2012. The results showed conversion of L. chinensis grassland to M. sativa or B. inermis grasslands decreased concentrations of NO 3 - -N, but did not change NH 4 + -N. Soil microbial N was slightly decreased by the conversion of L. chinensis grassland to M. sativa, but increased by the conversion to B. inermis. The conversion of L. chinensis grassland to M. sativa (i.e., a legume grass) increased N 2 O emissions by 26.2%, while the conversion to the B. inermis (i.e., a non-legume grass) reduced N 2 O emissions by 33.1%. The conversion from native to managed grasslands caused large created variations in soil NO 3 - -N and NH 4 + -N concentrations. Net N mineralization rates did not change significantly in growing season or vegetation type, but to net nitrification rate. These results provide evidence on how reclamation may impact the grassland ecosystem in terms of N dynamics and N 2 O emissions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Transcriptome analysis in sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis: a dominant perennial grass of the Eurasian Steppe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangyan Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin. Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6% of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  8. Grazing weakens temporal stabilizing effects of diversity in the Eurasian steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haiyan; Taube, Friedhelm; Stein, Claudia; Zhang, Yingjun; Bai, Yongfei; Hu, Shuijin

    2018-01-01

    Many biodiversity experiments have demonstrated that plant diversity can stabilize productivity in experimental grasslands. However, less is known about how diversity-stability relationships are mediated by grazing. Grazing is known for causing species losses, but its effects on plant functional groups (PFGs) composition and species asynchrony, which are closely correlated with ecosystem stability, remain unclear. We conducted a six-year grazing experiment in a semi-arid steppe, using seven levels of grazing intensity (0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 sheep per hectare) and two grazing systems (i.e., a traditional, continuous grazing system during the growing period (TGS), and a mixed one rotating grazing and mowing annually (MGS)), to examine the effects of grazing system and grazing intensity on the abundance and composition of PFGs and diversity-stability relationships. Ecosystem stability was similar between mixed and continuous grazing treatments. However, within the two grazing systems, stability was maintained through different pathways, that is, along with grazing intensity, persistence biomass variations in MGS, and compensatory interactions of PFGs in their biomass variations in TGS. Ecosystem temporal stability was not decreased by species loss but rather remain unchanged by the strong compensatory effects between PFGs, or a higher grazing-induced decrease in species asynchrony at higher diversity, and a higher grazing-induced increase in the temporal variation of productivity in diverse communities. Ecosystem stability of aboveground net primary production was not related to species richness in both grazing systems. High grazing intensity weakened the temporal stabilizing effects of diversity in this semi-arid grassland. Our results demonstrate that the productivity of dominant PFGs is more important than species richness for maximizing stability in this system. This study distinguishes grazing intensity and grazing system from diversity effects on

  9. Mountain plover nest survival in relation to prairie dog and fire dynamics in shortgrass steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, David J.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Disturbed xeric grasslands with short, sparse vegetation provide breeding habitat for mountain plovers (Charadrius montanus) across the western Great Plains. Maintaining local disturbance regimes through prairie dog conservation and prescribed fire may contribute to the sustainability of recently declining mountain plover populations, but these management approaches can be controversial. We estimated habitat-specific mountain plover densities and nest survival rates on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies and burns in the shortgrass steppe of northeastern Colorado. Mountain plover densities were similar on prairie dog colonies (5.9 birds/km2; 95% CI = 4.7–7.4) and sites burned during the preceding dormant season (6.7 birds/km2; 95% CI = 4.6–9.6), whereas the 29-day nest survival rate was greater on prairie dog colonies (0.81 in 2011 and 0.39 in 2012) compared to the burned sites (0.64 in 2011 and 0.17 in 2012). Reduced nest survival in 2012 compared to 2011 was associated with higher maximum daily temperatures in 2012, consistent with a previous weather-based model of mountain plover nest survival in the southern Great Plains. Measurements of mountain plover density relative to time since disturbance showed that removal of prairie dog disturbance by sylvatic plague reduced mountain plover density by 70% relative to active prairie dog colonies after 1 year. Plover densities declined at a similar rate (by 78%) at burned sites between the first and second post-burn growing season. Results indicate that black-tailed prairie dog colonies are a particularly important nesting habitat for mountain plovers in the southern Great Plains. In addition, findings suggest that prescribed burning can be a valuable means to create nesting habitat in landscapes where other types of disturbances (such as prairie dog colonies) are limited in distribution and size. 

  10. [Estimation of soil carbon sequestration potential in typical steppe of Inner Mongolia and associated uncertainty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Jian-Guo; Han, Xing-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Based on the measurements in the enclosure and uncontrolled grazing plots in the typical steppe of Xilinguole, Inner Mongolia, this paper studied the soil carbon storage and carbon sequestration in the grasslands dominated by Leymus chinensis, Stipa grandis, and Stipa krylovii, respectively, and estimated the regional scale soil carbon sequestration potential in the heavily degraded grassland after restoration. At local scale, the annual soil carbon sequestration in the three grasslands all decreased with increasing year of enclosure. The soil organic carbon storage was significantly higher in the grasslands dominated by L. chinensis and Stipa grandis than in that dominated by Stipa krylovii, but the latter had much higher soil carbon sequestration potential, because of the greater loss of soil organic carbon during the degradation process due to overgrazing. At regional scale, the soil carbon sequestration potential at the depth of 0-20 cm varied from -0.03 x 10(4) to 3.71 x 10(4) kg C x a(-1), and the total carbon sequestration potential was 12.1 x 10(8) kg C x a(-1). Uncertainty analysis indicated that soil gravel content had less effect on the estimated carbon sequestration potential, but the estimation errors resulted from the spatial interpolation of climate data could be about +/- 4.7 x 10(9) kg C x a(-1). In the future, if the growth season precipitation in this region had an average variation of -3.2 mm x (10 a)(-1), the soil carbon sequestration potential would be de- creased by 1.07 x 10(8) kg C x (10 a)(-1).

  11. GEOGRAPHICAL RELATIONS OF DARKLING BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE OF THE PALAEARCTIC TETHYS DESERT-STEPPE REGION WITH THE HISTORICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2016-01-01

    area of faunogenesis of darkling beetles, which is historically related with epicontinental Paleogene Tethys Ocean. Two super-regions (with western Tethys and eastern Tethys complexis of taxa are allocated. These two regions are divided on several subregions which differ by high level of taxonomic diversity. The division is based on the analyses of species and generic abudance and level of an endemism. Claster analyses of common to the region genera, Tethys genera, common to the region species and the genus Blaps shows similarity of Anatolia and the Balkan region faunas; the Caucasus is similar to Iran. Two early allocated super-regions are more or less clearly revealed on all dendrograms. The Arabian Peninsula and North Africa have ancient relations with both super-regions based on the analyses of Tethys genera, and the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East have ancient relations with both super-regions using analyses of all tenebrionid species of the Tethys region. Conclusion. The faunogenesis of several subregions of the Tethys region was formed as island type. Analysis of the distribution and taxonomic diversity of darkling indicates a long-time development of the tenebrionid fauna in coastal and island ecosystems of the Tethys Ocean, and later an independent prime of this fauna in different areas of the Tethys desert-steppe region with the retreat of ocean water, aridity and orogeny. At the same time, faunistic elements of relic type of Paleogene origin are preserved and evoluted in the mountain island forests in Anatolia, the Middle East and the Atlas with the Late Tertiary relict flora.

  12. Dynamic changes of CH4 and CO2 emission from grazing sheep urine and dung patches in typical steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoya; Huang, Ding; Zhang, Yingjun; Chen, Wenqing; Wang, Chengjie; Yang, Xinming; Luo, Wei

    2013-11-01

    The contribution of livestock excreta to greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions by sheep grazing in a typical steppe system in Guyuan county, Hebei province of the People's Republic of China was evaluated. Changes of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from urine and dung patches excreted by sheep on grassland were measured for the first 144 h during July, August, September and October in 2011. CH4 fluxes from dung patches significantly increased (P sheep grazing in summer was estimated at 15.07 ± 4.90 mg.

  13. Hiérarchisation de l'espace et intervention de l'Etat : Sbiba, hautes steppes tunisiennes

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Mung, Emmanuel

    1983-01-01

    [Extrait] Lorsque l'on vient de Tunis et qu'ayant traversé le Haut-Tell, on laisse derrière soi Maktar, on aborde une large ouverture transversale à la Dorsale tunisienne : c'est le fossé tectonique de Sbiba qui est parcouru en son fond par l'Oued el Hatab. Une ligne noire, droite passe par Rohia, rejoint Sbiba puis descend vers le Sud à droite du Mghila, c'est la route Tunis-Sbeitla. Nous voici dans les Hautes steppes. C'est le printemps mais au souk de Sbiba les hommes portent encore le bur...

  14. Effects of grazing intensity on soil labile organic carbon fractions in a desert steppe area in Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jixin; Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Xiangyang; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Grazing can cause changes in soil carbon (C) level. This study aimed to elucidate the response of soil labile organic carbon (SLOC) under four different grazing intensities: non grazing (NG), 0 sheep·ha(-1); light grazing (LG), 0.91 sheep·ha(-1); moderate grazing (MG), 1.82 sheep·ha(-1), and heavy grazing (HG), 2.73 sheep·ha(-1). Results showed that there was no significant difference in total soil organic carbon (TOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) content from three soil depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-45 cm) under different grazing intensities. However, the SLOC including particulate organic carbon (POC), light fraction organic carbon (LFOC), and readily oxidizable carbon (ROC) content at a depth of 0-15 cm decreased with the increasing grazing intensity among LG, MG and HG. The SLOC content at depths of 15-30 cm under the NG and LG were significantly higher than that under the MG and the HG. The TOC and SLOC content decreased with increasing depths of soil horizons, but SIC content increased. The variation trend of the density of different soil carbon fractions and the ratio of individual SLOC fractions to TOC were similar to that of the soil carbon content of corresponding fractions. These results indicated that MG and HG treatments caused C loss at 0-30 cm; and SLOC was more sensitive than TOC in response to different grazing intensities.

  15. Efficiency of a protected-area network in a Mediterranean region: a multispecies assessment with raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, María D; Martínez, José E; Palazón, José A; Esteve, Miguel A; Calvo, José F

    2011-05-01

    Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km²), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.

  16. Efficiency of a Protected-Area Network in a Mediterranean Region: A Multispecies Assessment with Raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, María D.; Martínez, José E.; Palazón, José A.; Esteve, Miguel Á.; Calvo, José F.

    2011-05-01

    Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km2), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel ( Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.

  17. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  18. An Archaeological Survey of the Galisteo Dam and Reservoir Area Santa Fe County, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    aboriginal use of the area was heaviest during Late Archaic and early Puebla IV (Glaze A) times. Historic re- mains from the Hispanic period were scarce; the...6 CLIMATE, VEGETATION, AND FAUNA - A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE------------------------------------------ 7 1k ~ PRESENT CLIMATE AND FLORA ...Haynes 1968). PRESENT CLIMATE AND FLORA In the general area, the dominant plant communities are Grama-Galleta (Bouteloua-Hilaria) Steppe and Juniper

  19. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.

  20. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  1. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  2. Comparison of fatty acid contents and composition in major lipid classes of larvae and adults of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from a steppe region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Yurchenko, Yuri A; Gladyshev, Michail I; Belevich, Olga E; Kalachova, Galina S; Kolmakova, Angelika A

    2013-10-01

    Emerging aquatic insects, including mosquitoes, are known to transfer to terrestrial ecosystems specific essential biochemicals, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We studied fatty acid (FA) composition and contents of dominant mosquito populations (Diptera: Culicidae), that is, Anopheles messeae, Ochlerotatus caspius, Oc. flavescens, Oc. euedes, Oc. subdiversus, Oc. cataphylla, and Aedes cinereus, inhabited a steppe wetland of a temperate climate zone to fill up the gap in their lipid knowledge. The polar lipid and triacylglycerol fractions of larvae and adults were compared. In most studied mosquito species, we first found and identified a number of short-chain PUFA, for example, prominent 14:2n-6 and 14:3n-3, which were not earlier documented in living organisms. These PUFA, although occurred in low levels in adult mosquitoes, can be potentially used as markers of mosquito biomass in terrestrial food webs. We hypothesize that these acids might be synthesized (or retroconverted) by the mosquitoes. Using FA trophic markers accumulated in triacylglycerols, trophic relations of the mosquitoes were accessed. The larval diet comprised green algae, cryptophytes, and dinoflagellates and provided the mosquitoes with essential n-3 PUFA, linolenic, and eicosapentaenoic acids. As a result, both larvae and adults of the studied mosquitoes had comparatively high content of the essential PUFA. Comparison of FA proportions in polar lipids versus storage lipids shown that during mosquito metamorphosis transfer of essential eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids from the reserve in storage lipids of larvae to functional polar lipids in adults occurred. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Age and activation of microbial communities in soils under burial mounds and in recent surface soils of steppe zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkina, E. V.; Stretovich, I. V.; El-Registan, G. I.; Demkin, V. A.

    2008-12-01

    Chestnut paleosols buried under steppe kurgans about 4800, 4000, and 2000 years ago and their background analogues were studied in the dry steppe zone on the Volga-Don interfluve. Morphological, chemical, microbiological, biochemical, and radiocarbon studies were performed. Paleoclimatic conditions in the region were reconstructed on the basis of paleosol data. The ages of microbial fractions isolated from the buried and surface soils were determined using the method of 14C atomic mass-spectrometry. It reached 2100 years in the A1 horizon of the buried paleosol, which corresponded to the archaeological age of the kurgan (1st century AD). The ages of microbial biomass isolated from the B2 horizons of the buried paleosol and the background surface soil comprised 3680 ± 35 and 3300 ± 30 years, respectively. The obtained data confirmed our assumption about preservation of microorganisms of the past epochs in the paleosols buried under archaeological monuments. It is ensured by various mechanisms of adaptation of soil microbial communities to unfavorable environmental conditions (anabiosis, transformation of bacteria into nanoforms, etc.). The possibility to stimulate germination of the ancient dormant microbial pool isolated from the buried paleosols by 2-3 orders of magnitude with the use of β-indolyl-3-acetic acid as a signal substance was demonstrated.

  4. [Effects of cutting and reseeding on the ground-dwelling arthropod community in Caragana intermedia forest in desert steppe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren-Tao; Chai, Yong-Qing; Yang, Xin-Guo; Song, Nai-Ping; Wang, Xin-Yun; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Taking a 25-year-old Caragana intermedia forest in desert steppe as test object, an investigation was conducted on the ground-dwelling arthropod community in cutting and no-cutting stands with and without reseeding, aimed to understand the effects of cutting, reseeding and their interaction on the individual number and group richness of ground-dwelling arthropod in C. intermedia forest. There were significantly lower number and richness of ground-dwelling arthropod in the open spaces than under the shrubs in the no-cutting and no-reseeding stands. Cutting, reseeding and both of them could significantly increase the number and richness of ground-dwelling arthropod in the open spaces, but not under the shrubs, compared with no cutting or reseeding. Consequently, there were no significant differences in the distribution of ground-dwelling arthropod in the open spaces and under the shrubs in the cutting, reseeding, or cutting and reseeding stands. Further, there was a similar buffer effect between cutting and reseeding on the ground-dwelling arthropod. No significant differences were observed in the ground-dwelling arthropod distribution, between cutting stand and reseeding stand, between cutting stand and cutting and reseeding stand, and between reseeding stand and cutting and reseeding stand. It was suggested that cutting, reseeding, or both of them could significantly improve the ground-dwelling arthropod diversity especially in the open spaces, being beneficial for the restoration of degraded grassland ecosystem and the rational management on artificial C. intermedia forest in desert steppe.

  5. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  6. [Hypertrophy and coronary reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, W; Scheler, S

    2008-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.

  7. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  8. Adaptive technology of environmentally - friendly production of legumes in the dry steppe zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Popov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern agronomic technologies must include environmentally- friendly technologies in crop growing. In Kazakhstan, despite its significant potential, environmentallyfriendly farming is underdeveloped with little scientific backing. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop and suggest an adaptive technology for cultivation of legumes taking into account existing methodologies for environmentallyfriendly production in the dry steppe zone of Akmola region, Northern Kazakhstan. In order to achieve the objectives, the study focused on determination of a complex impact of combination of agroecological conditions (incl. agro- climatic, content of selected heavy metals such as Cu and Zn in soil, weed pressure, etc., contrasting soil cultivation technology (i.e. traditional vs zero- tillage, nutrient inputs (fertilizers, legume stimulators and pesticides on growth and productivity of selected legume crops (peas and chickpeas. The overall agroecological and growing conditions were suitable for producing economically- important legume crops (i.e. pea and chickpea, despite the temperature fluctiations and soil moisture shortage. Despite the very low content of N and P in the upper soil layer, the Cu and Zn content was within the Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL for Kazakhstan, with a low anticipated negative effect on target legume growth. The least number of weeds was recorded by the variant with application of biological preparation Respecta. The targeted legumes were better developed during the growing season under the traditional technology compared to zero- tillage technology, i.e. germination and seed viability, which might be attributed to better utilisation of soil air and improved soil porosity of the soil layer of 0- 20 cm when using traditional technology. Combinations of mineral fertilizer CaSO4 + 2H2O5 with the innoculation promoter Rizotorfin, and Izagry Phosphorus with Rizotorfin may be recommended to farmers. The application of

  9. Impacts of day versus night warming on soil microclimate: Results from a semiarid temperate steppe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Jianyang [State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuquanlu, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Shiping [State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Wan, Shiqiang, E-mail: swan@ibcas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Key Laboratory of Plant Stress Biology, College of Life Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China)

    2010-06-15

    One feature of climate warming is that increases in daily minimum temperature are greater than those in daily maximum temperature. Changes in soil microclimate in response to the asymmetrically diurnal warming scenarios can help to explain responses of ecosystem processes. In the present study, we examined the impacts of day, night, and continuous warming on soil microclimate in a temperate steppe in northern China. Our results showed that day, night, and continuous warming (approximately 13 W m{sup -2} with constant power mode) significantly increased daily mean soil temperature at 10 cm depth by 0.71, 0.78, and 1.71 {sup o}C, respectively. Night warming caused greater increases in nighttime mean and daily minimum soil temperatures (0.74 and 0.99 {sup o}C) than day warming did (0.60 and 0.66 {sup o}C). However, there were no differences in the increases in daytime mean and daily maximum soil temperature between day (0.81 and 1.13 {sup o}C) and night (0.81 and 1.10 {sup o}C) warming. The differential effects of day and night warming on soil temperature varied with environmental factors, including photosynthetic active radiation, vapor-pressure deficit, and wind speed. When compared with the effect of continuous warming on soil temperature, the summed effects of day and night warming were lower during daytime, but greater at night, thus leading to equality at daily scale. Mean volumetric soil moisture at the depth of 0-40 cm significantly decreased under continuous warming in both 2006 (1.44 V/V%) and 2007 (0.76 V/V%). Day warming significantly reduced volumetric soil moisture only in 2006, whereas night warming had no effect on volumetric soil moisture in both 2006 and 2007. Given the different diurnal warming patterns and variability of environmental factors among ecosystems, these results highlight the importance of incorporating the differential impacts of day and night warming on soil microclimate into the predictions of terrestrial ecosystem responses to

  10. Land surface model evaluation using a new soil moisture dataset from Kamennaya Steppe, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, T.; Robock, A.; Speranskaya, N.

    2004-12-01

    The land surface affects the atmosphere through the transfer of energy and moisture and serves as the lower boundary in numerical weather prediction and climate models. To obtain good forecasts, these models must therefore accurately portray the land surface. Actual in situ measurements are vital for testing and developing these models. It is with this in mind that we have obtained a dataset of soil moisture, soil temperature and meteorological measurements from Kamennaya Steppe, Russia. The meteorological dataset spans the time period 1965-1991, while the soil moisture dataset runs from 1956-1991. The soil moisture dataset contains gravimetric volumetric total soil moisture measurements for 10 layers taken from forest, agricultural and grassland soils. The meteorological dataset contains 3-hourly measurements of precipitation, temperature, wind speed, pressure and relative humidity. We obtained longwave and shortwave radiation data from standard formulae. The data will be made available to the public via the Rutgers University Center for Environmental Prediction Global Soil Moisture Data Bank. Soil temperature is important in determining the timing, duration and intensity of runoff and snowmelt, particularly at the beginning and end of the winter when the ground is only partially frozen. Soil temperature can in turn be affected by the vertical distribution of roots. The soil temperature data are for 1969-1991. The data are daily averaged for every 20 cm to 1.2 meters in depth. These data are used to investigate the natural sensitivity of soil temperature to vegetation type and root distribution. We also use the temperature data, as well as water balance and snowfall data to test the sensitivity of the Noah land surface model (LSM) soil temperature to vertical root distribution, and what effect that has on the hydrology of the site. In addition to soil temperature data, we also have soil moisture data for several vegetation types. We compare the soil moisture time

  11. The role of plant litter on nutrient mineralization and vegetation dynamics in three sage-steppe communities with differing levels of annual grass invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant litter is an integral part of ecosystem nutrient cycling, which directly impacts vegetation dynamics. The net effects of litter are largely determined by the quantity and source material of the litter. Invasion of sage-steppe communities by annual grasses (e.g., Bromus tectorum) has caused dra...

  12. Chronology of soil evolution and climatic changes in the dry steppe zone of the Northern Caucasus, Russia, during the 3rd millennium BC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandrovskiy, AL; van der Plicht, J; Belinskiy, AB; Khokhlova, OS

    2001-01-01

    Chrono-sequences of paleosols buried under different mounds of the large Ipatovo Kurgan, constructed during the Bronze Age, have been studied to reconstruct climatic changes in the dry steppe zone of the Northern Caucasus, Russia. Abrupt climatic and environmental changes in the third millennium BC

  13. Plant litter effects on soil nutrient availability and vegetation dynamics: changes that occur when annual grasses invade shrub-steppe communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Roger L. Sheley; Bob Blank; Edward A. Vasquez

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the quantity and quality of plant litter occur in many ecosystems as they are invaded by exotic species, which impact soil nutrient cycling and plant community composition. Such changes in sagebrush-steppe communities are occurring with invasion of annual grasses (AG) into a perennial grass (PG) dominated system. We conducted a 5-year litter manipulation...

  14. Opposing Effects of Nitrogen and Water addition on Soil Bacterial and Fungal Communities in the Inner Mongolia steppe: a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, H.; Bai, Guang-ying; Sun, Yang; Kostenko, O.; Zhu, Xiang; Lin, Shan; Ruan, Wei-Bin.; Zhao, Nian-xi; Bezemer, T. Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Grasslands are important ecosystems and make up 40% of the terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. The Inner Mongolia steppe is the main grassland region of China, and nitrogen (N) and water availability are two important factors that limit the productivity of these grasslands. We tested how N and water

  15. Effectiveness of Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) for Borderline Personality Problems in a ‘Real-World’ Sample: Moderation by Diagnosis or Severity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, E.H.; Wel, B.E. van; Appelo, M.T.; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a group treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Two prior randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown the efficacy of this training. In both RCTs, patients with borderline features who did not

  16. Effectiveness of Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) for Borderline Personality Problems in a 'Real-World' Sample : Moderation by Diagnosis or Severity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Elisabeth H.; van Wel, E. Bas; Appelo, Martin T.; Verbraak, Marc J. P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a group treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Two prior randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown the efficacy of this training. In both RCTs, patients with borderline features who did not

  17. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  18. Effects of Fire on Soil Splash Erosion in Semi-steppe Rangelandof Karsanak Region,Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baharlooi

    2016-02-01

    . Detachment rate is strongly influenced by soil properties, including soil texture and thickness of the water layer at the soil surface (De Ploey and Savat, 1968; Moss and Green, 1983; Sharma et al., 1991; Kinnell, 1991, Jomaa et al., 2010, soil strength, bulk density, cohesion, soil organic matter content, moisture content, infiltration capacity (Nearing et al., 1988; Owoputi, 1994; Morgan et al., 1998, Planchon et al., 2000, Ghahramani et al., 2011, soil initial water content, surface compaction and roughness (Planchon et al., 2000, the nature of soil aggregates and crust, porosity, capacity of ionic interchange, and clay content (Poesen and Torri, 1988. Several studies have shown that splash detachment rate is mainly related to surface rock fragments in soils with sparse vegetation cover (Jomaa et al., 2012. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of fire on splash erosion and some erosion depended properties in semi-steppe rangeland of Karsanak region in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province which affected by man-made fire during 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were obtained on 2012 from the mentioned regions (8 samplesfrom the burned area and 8 samples as a control (unburned in the adjacent burned area from 0-7 cm depth. Splash erosion under simulated rainfall intensity of 2 mm per minute was measured using multivariate splash cup apparatus considering the slope of 5 and 25 degree. Soil pH, soil electrical conductivity, equivalent calcium carbonate, soil organic matter, sand size fraction particulate organic matter (SSF POM, mean weight diameter and, geometric mean diameter of aggregates, percent of macro and micro-aggregates, percent of clay, silt, sand, water dispersible clay and soil bulk density were measured. Statistical data analysis was performed by t-test at 5% level. Results Discussion: The results showed that soil splashing increased significantly in treatment 1 year after the fire in both slope 5 and 25 degree and

  19. Exploration report in mining reserve XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoturno Pioppo, J.; Lara Vigil, P.

    1991-01-01

    This report has been referred to the antecedents and works developed in the mining Reservation XIV. This Reservation, covered a 1900 km2 surface, involving the aerial photography Valentines Cerro Chato, Chileno, Rossel y Rius, Sarandi del Yi and Cuchilla del Pescado. It has been reduced this area to western part of the aerial phothograpy Pavas, releasing other areas such as Chileno, Rossel y Rius, Cuchilla del Pescado y Cerro Chato. Finally, gold, sulphures, pirite and carbonates iron oxides findings have been found.

  20. Modeling and analysis of horizontal structure of a mixed tree stands (on example of sample plots in the «Bastak» nature reserve in the Middle Amur river area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kolobov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the research model and real data spatial distribution of trees in single-species, ages and mixed stands are studied. Modeling of the horizontal structure of the stand was based on a computer simulation model. Investigation of the horizontal structure of the stand allows drawing of conclusions about the processes of intraspecific and interspecific competition. It is shown that the model used to generate spatial data model reflects the basic mechanisms of stacked-mosaic structure of the stand, which is observed in natural communities. It allows future use of this model to study the characteristics of the formation of the spatial structure of mixed forest communities, developing under the influence of internal (competition and external (logging, windfalls, herbivores, etc. factors. Statistical analysis of the tree spatial distribution for shade-tolerant and light-loving species relative to each other showed that, on average, around an arbitrarily chosen shade-tolerant tree species, there is an area within which the opportunity to meet the tree light-loving species is less than it would be under their random placement. Around an arbitrarily chosen «large» tree of shade-tolerant species there is an area within which the opportunity to meet the «small» or «medium» light-loving tree species is less than would have been at their random placement. It is shown that the mutual arrangement of «large» light-loving trees and «small», «medium» shade-tolerant trees is no different from a random allocation. As a result of competitive processes of spatial arrangement for light-loving tree species is determined by the placement of shade-tolerant trees. Location of light-loving trees does not affect the location of shade-tolerant trees. The relative placement of different types of shade-tolerant trees, especially spruce, fir and pine, are independent of each other.

  1. Sensitivity of temperate desert steppe carbon exchange to seasonal droughts and precipitation variations in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fulin; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2013-01-01

    Arid grassland ecosystems have significant interannual variation in carbon exchange; however, it is unclear how environmental factors influence carbon exchange in different hydrological years. In this study, the eddy covariance technique was used to investigate the seasonal and interannual variability of CO₂ flux over a temperate desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, China from 2008 to 2010. The amounts and times of precipitation varied significantly throughout the study period. The precipitation in 2009 (186.4 mm) was close to the long-term average (183.9±47.6 mm), while the precipitation in 2008 (136.3 mm) and 2010 (141.3 mm) was approximately a quarter below the long-term average. The temperate desert steppe showed carbon neutrality for atmospheric CO₂ throughout the study period, with a net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE) of -7.2, -22.9, and 26.0 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, not significantly different from zero. The ecosystem gained more carbon in 2009 compared to other two relatively dry years, while there was significant difference in carbon uptake between 2008 and 2010, although both years recorded similar annual precipitation. The results suggest that summer precipitation is a key factor determining annual NEE. The apparent quantum yield and saturation value of NEE (NEE(sat)) and the temperature sensitivity coefficient of ecosystem respiration (R(eco)) exhibited significant variations. The values of NEE(sat) were -2.6, -2.9, and -1.4 µmol CO₂ m⁻² s⁻¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Drought suppressed both the gross primary production (GPP) and R(eco), and the drought sensitivity of GPP was greater than that of R(eco). The soil water content sensitivity of GPP was high during the dry year of 2008 with limited soil moisture availability. Our results suggest the carbon balance of this temperate desert steppe was not only sensitive to total annual precipitation, but also to its seasonal distribution.

  2. Sensitivity of temperate desert steppe carbon exchange to seasonal droughts and precipitation variations in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulin Yang

    Full Text Available Arid grassland ecosystems have significant interannual variation in carbon exchange; however, it is unclear how environmental factors influence carbon exchange in different hydrological years. In this study, the eddy covariance technique was used to investigate the seasonal and interannual variability of CO₂ flux over a temperate desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, China from 2008 to 2010. The amounts and times of precipitation varied significantly throughout the study period. The precipitation in 2009 (186.4 mm was close to the long-term average (183.9±47.6 mm, while the precipitation in 2008 (136.3 mm and 2010 (141.3 mm was approximately a quarter below the long-term average. The temperate desert steppe showed carbon neutrality for atmospheric CO₂ throughout the study period, with a net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE of -7.2, -22.9, and 26.0 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, not significantly different from zero. The ecosystem gained more carbon in 2009 compared to other two relatively dry years, while there was significant difference in carbon uptake between 2008 and 2010, although both years recorded similar annual precipitation. The results suggest that summer precipitation is a key factor determining annual NEE. The apparent quantum yield and saturation value of NEE (NEE(sat and the temperature sensitivity coefficient of ecosystem respiration (R(eco exhibited significant variations. The values of NEE(sat were -2.6, -2.9, and -1.4 µmol CO₂ m⁻² s⁻¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Drought suppressed both the gross primary production (GPP and R(eco, and the drought sensitivity of GPP was greater than that of R(eco. The soil water content sensitivity of GPP was high during the dry year of 2008 with limited soil moisture availability. Our results suggest the carbon balance of this temperate desert steppe was not only sensitive to total annual precipitation, but also to its seasonal distribution.

  3. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  4. Symptoms of main Callistephus chinensis L. Nees. diseases under Ukrainian urban ecosystem conditions of the forest-steppe zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenko Alla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathological monitoring of C. chinensis (L. Nees. has proven withering and root rot to be the dominating diseases in agrobiocenoses under Ukrainian urban ecosystem conditions of the forest-steppe zone. Their spread was 5,1 and 4 times more than one of spotting. The complex of plant pathogenic overground and underground microflora consists of 24 causative agents. B. cinerea, F. oxysporum, V. albo-atrum have been found on all the vegetative and reproductive parts of Callistephus chinensis (L. Nees., , Ph. cactorum – on plant overground and underground parts, Rh. solani – on underground parts and seeds, A. zinniae – on overground parts and seeds. The main C. chinensis (L. Nees. disease symptoms have been diagnosed (leaf spots, powdery mildew, verticillium wilt, rust, ramularia spot, septoria spots, botrytis blight, grey mold rot, late blight, fusarium blight, black stem.

  5. Interactive effects of warming and increased precipitation on community structure and composition in an annual forb dominated desert steppe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Hou

    Full Text Available To better understand how warming, increased precipitation and their interactions influence community structure and composition, a field experiment simulating hydrothermal interactions was conducted at an annual forb dominated desert steppe in northern China over 2 years. Increased precipitation increased species richness while warming significantly decreased species richness, and their effects were additive rather than interactive. Although interannual variations in weather conditions may have a major affect on plant community composition on short term experiments, warming and precipitation treatments affected individual species and functional group composition. Warming caused C4 grasses such as Cleistogenes squarrosa to increase while increased precipitation caused the proportions of non-perennial C3 plants like Artemisia capillaris to decrease and perennial C4 plants to increase.

  6. New dates about the graves of Scythian archaic in the Dnieper’s Right-Bank Forest-Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Nazarov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new complexes of the early Scythian time from the Dnieper’s Right-Bank Forest-Steppe are published. Burial in the burrow near village Pochapinci, probably, belonged to the representative of the local agricultural population. Pintaderae, which was found in this complex, may got in the region along with migrants from the Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasia after the end of the Front-Asian campaigns of the nomads.The warrior burial with dagger, axe and spear in the frame near village Voronovka belonged to the representative of the nomads, which came from the southeast and brought the early Scythian material complex.These complexes complement the source base for studying complex processes, which occurred in the east of Eastern Europe in the early Scythian time.

  7. Water content differences have stronger effects than plant functional groups on soil bacteria in a steppe ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximei Zhang

    Full Text Available Many investigations across natural and artificial plant diversity gradients have reported that both soil physicochemical factors and plant community composition affect soil microbial communities. To test the effect of plant diversity loss on soil bacterial communities, we conducted a five-year plant functional group removal experiment in a steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia (China. We found that the number and composition type of plant functional groups had no effect on bacterial diversity and community composition, or on the relative abundance of major taxa. In contrast, bacterial community patterns were significantly structured by soil water content differences among plots. Our results support researches that suggest that water availability is the key factor structuring soil bacterial communities in this semi-arid ecosystem.

  8. Computerized reserves assessment improves colliery planning. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozor, L.; Wrobel, R.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe systems developed in Poland for the computerised assessment of coal reserves. The Zasoby system calculates coal reserves and evaluates selected natural properties of seams within the boundaries of an arbitrary mining property, based entirely on exploratory borehole data. The IOS-10 system is based on the Polish data bank for bituminous coal deposits. It is not suitable for use in mine design procedures, but is widely used for the statistical recording of reserves in areas currently being worked. The major part of the paper is devoted to a description of the Geo-3 system, used for the computation of reserves in prospective areas from borehole data, as well as in active mining areas or partially worked-out deposits. The computation method is explained and examples of the results obtained are given.

  9. Impacts of Grazing Intensity and Plant Community Composition on Soil Bacterial Community Diversity in a Steppe Grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Tong-Bao; Du, Wei-Chao; Yuan, Xia; Yang, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Dong-Bo; Wang, De-Li; Yu, Li-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Soil bacteria play a key role in the ecological and evolutionary responses of agricultural ecosystems. Domestic herbivore grazing is known to influence soil bacterial community. However, the effects of grazing and its major driving factors on soil bacterial community remain unknown for different plant community compositions under increasing grazing intensity. Thus, to investigate soil bacterial community diversity under five plant community compositions (Grass; Leymus chinensis; Forb; L. chinensis & Forb; and Legume), we performed a four-year field experiment with different grazing intensity treatments (no grazing; light grazing, 4 sheep·ha-1; and heavy grazing, 6 sheep·ha-1) in a grassland in China. Total DNA was obtained from soil samples collected from the plots in August, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting were used to investigate soil bacterial community. The results showed that light grazing significantly increased indices of soil bacterial community diversity for the Forb and Legume groups but not the Grass and L. chinensis groups. Heavy grazing significantly reduced these soil bacterial diversity indices, except for the Pielou evenness index in the Legume group. Further analyses revealed that the soil N/P ratio, electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and pH were the major environmental factors affecting the soil bacterial community. Our study suggests that the soil bacterial community diversity was influenced by grazing intensity and plant community composition in a meadow steppe. The present study provides a baseline assessment of the soil bacterial community diversity in a temperate meadow steppe.

  10. Effects of grazing intensity and environmental factors on species composition and diversity in typical steppe of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haiyan; Schönbach, Philipp; Wan, Hongwei; Gierus, Martin; Taube, Friedhelm

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we aim to analyze the effect of grazing, precipitation and temperature on plant species dynamics in the typical steppe of Inner Mongolia, P.R. China. By uncoupling biotic and abiotic factors, we provide essential information on the main drivers determining species composition and species diversity. Effects of grazing by sheep were studied in a controlled experiment along a gradient of seven grazing intensities (from ungrazed to very heavily grazed) during six consecutive years (2005-2010). The results show that plant species composition and diversity varied among years but were little affected by grazing intensity, since the experimental years were much dryer than the long term average, the abiotic constraints may have overridden any grazing effect. Among-year differences were predominantly determined by the abiotic factors of precipitation and temperature. Most of the variation in species dynamics and coexistence between C3 and C4 species was explained by seasonal weather conditions, i.e. precipitation and temperature regime during the early-season (March-June) were most important in determining vegetation dynamics. The dominant C3 species Stipa grandis was highly competitive in March-June, when the temperature levels were low and rainfall level was high. In contrast, the most common C4 species Cleistogenes squarrosa benefited from high early-season temperature levels and low early-season rainfall. However, biomass of Stipa grandis was positively correlated with temperature in March, when effective mean temperature ranges from 0 to 5°C and thus promotes vernalization and vegetative sprouting. Our results suggest that, over a six-year term, it is temporal variability in precipitation and temperature rather than grazing that determines vegetation dynamics and species co-existence of grazed steppe ecosystems. Furthermore, our data support that the variability in the biomass of dominant species, rather than diversity, determine ecosystem

  11. The Genesis of the Urban Culture of the Steppe of the Volga Region and Sociocultural Development of the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda V. Dulina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of the genesis of socio-historical processes of urban culture of the steppe of the Volga region, is based on historical documents, materials of scientific expeditions conducted in the lower Volga region encyclopedic scientists from the second half of the XVIII century, and the results of archaeological research here settlement sites. Based on the fact that the whole history of mankind is the history of the reference person of its economy, the authors believe that the analysis of the spaces of the modern city must be waged simultaneously in multiple coordinate systems – involving knowledge of scientific disciplines such as history and archeology, sociology, Economics etc. Attention is focused on the events in the Volga steppes of socio-economic and cultural-historical transformation, reflected in the distinctive dynamics of sociocultural development of the medieval (Khazar, the Golden Horde, Russian and modern cities in the region. The authors come to the following conclusions: the city created (and covered by most throughout the centuries (and even millennia by many generations, carry a spatial-temporal characteristics and the variety of creative ideas that make them diverse, aesthetically balanced. The growth of these cities, like all living things, inevitably threatens the time, which naturally destroys some of their historical (and in fact – "root" part to "make room" for new construction. To the relentless dynamism of our era was not able to destroy formed for many generations the idea that is subordinated to the formation and development of each particular city, you should each time from a separate historical parts of the city (or temporal-spatial "fragments" to try to reproduce it in its entirety, as the unity and integrity, while maintaining its inherent identity.

  12. Responses of Soil CO2 Fluxes to Short-Term Experimental Warming in Alpine Steppe Ecosystem, Northern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuyang; Fan, Jihui; Yan, Yan; Wang, Xiaodan

    2013-01-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is one of the largest fluxes in the global carbon cycle. Therefore small changes in the size of this flux can have a large effect on atmospheric CO2 concentrations and potentially constitute a powerful positive feedback to the climate system. Soil CO2 fluxes in the alpine steppe ecosystem of Northern Tibet and their responses to short-term experimental warming were investigated during the growing season in 2011. The results showed that the total soil CO2 emission fluxes during the entire growing season were 55.82 and 104.31 g C m-2 for the control and warming plots, respectively. Thus, the soil CO2 emission fluxes increased 86.86% with the air temperature increasing 3.74°C. Moreover, the temperature sensitivity coefficient (Q 10) of the control and warming plots were 2.10 and 1.41, respectively. The soil temperature and soil moisture could partially explain the temporal variations of soil CO2 fluxes. The relationship between the temporal variation of soil CO2 fluxes and the soil temperature can be described by exponential equation. These results suggest that warming significantly promoted soil CO2 emission in the alpine steppe ecosystem of Northern Tibet and indicate that this alpine ecosystem is very vulnerable to climate change. In addition, soil temperature and soil moisture are the key factors that controls soil organic matter decomposition and soil CO2 emission, but temperature sensitivity significantly decreases due to the rise in temperature. PMID:23536854

  13. The First Record of Case of the Imperial Eagle and the Steppe Eagle Successful Breeding in the Mixed Pair in Western Kazakhstan and Records of Probable Hybrids of These Species in Russia and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Facts mentioned in paper give evidence of the possibility of forming the mixed pairs between Steppe and Imperial Eagles, breeding success and fertility of hybrids. All the observed mixed pairs were found in the contact zone of the two species on the periphery of the Steppe Eagle breeding range under conditions of either decrease in numbers of one species (Steppe Eagle and the growth of another (in Western Kazakhstan, or decline in numbers of both species and the lack of birds of their own species (in Dauria. Considering the fact that the number of Steppe Eagles continues to decline, the hybridization process may amplify and this phenomenon requires a more thorough examination.

  14. Reserve selection using nonlinear species distribution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Atte

    2005-06-01

    Reserve design is concerned with optimal selection of sites for new conservation areas. Spatial reserve design explicitly considers the spatial pattern of the proposed reserve network and the effects of that pattern on reserve cost and/or ability to maintain species there. The vast majority of reserve selection formulations have assumed a linear problem structure, which effectively means that the biological value of a potential reserve site does not depend on the pattern of selected cells. However, spatial population dynamics and autocorrelation cause the biological values of neighboring sites to be interdependent. Habitat degradation may have indirect negative effects on biodiversity in areas neighboring the degraded site as a result of, for example, negative edge effects or lower permeability for animal movement. In this study, I present a formulation and a spatial optimization algorithm for nonlinear reserve selection problems in grid-based landscapes that accounts for interdependent site values. The method is demonstrated using habitat maps and nonlinear habitat models for threatened birds in the Netherlands, and it is shown that near-optimal solutions are found for regions consisting of up to hundreds of thousands grid cells, a landscape size much larger than those commonly attempted even with linear reserve selection formulations.

  15. Paleoecological crisis in the steppes of the Lower Volga region in the Middle of the Bronze Age (III-II centuries BC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkina, T. S.; Borisov, A. V.; Demkin, V. A.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kuznetsova, T. V.; El'tsov, M. V.; Udal'tsov, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    Diagnostic features of a catastrophic aridization of climate, desertification, and paleoecological crisis in steppes of the Lower Volga region have been identified on the basis of data on the morphological, chemical, and microbiological properties of paleosols under archeological monuments (burial mounds) of the Middle Bronze Age. These processes resulted in a certain convergence of the soil cover with transformation of zonal chestnut (Kastanozems) paleosols and paleosolonetzes (Solonetz Humic) into specific chestnut-like eroded saline calcareous paleosols analogous to the modern brown desert-steppe soils (Calcisols Haplic) that predominated in this region 4300-3800 years ago.1 In the second millennium BC, humidization of the climate led to the divergence of the soil cover with secondary formation of the complexes of chestnut soils and solonetzes. This paleoecological crisis had a significant effect on the economy of the tribes in the Late Catacomb and Post-Catacomb time stipulating their higher mobility and transition to the nomadic cattle breeding.

  16. [Forage availability to saigas (Saiga tatarica) and their state on steppe pastures with a different ratio of graminoid plants and forbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaturov, B D; Dzapova, R R

    2015-01-01

    An interfaced analysis of change of forage vegetation, nutrition of saigas (Saiga tatarica), and their state in tne steppe regions of Russia is performed. It is noted that the percent of graminoids has increased considerably and the proportion of forbs has decreased in the vegetation of current pastures, which has had a negative impact on the nutrition and state of saigas. It is shown that the lower nutritional value of graminoids has caused a decrease in the digestibility of forage used by saigas and does not provide the physiological requirements of the animals. It is established that modern steppe pastures, where gramineous communities prevail, are of little use or absolutely unsuitable for the stable existence of saiga populations. Only separate dwelling places with an abundance of forbs continue to provide adequate nutrition for saigas and well-being for their local groupings.

  17. The Dnieper-Don forest-steppe as an ethno-contact zone: Russia, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Crimean Khanate

    OpenAIRE

    Papkov, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the process of Russian territorial expansion to the south in the sixteenth century. It analyzes the conflict between Russia, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Crimean Khanate in the struggle for domination of the Dnieper-Don forest-steppe. The author concludes that this competition resulted not only in the annexation of certain territories by these countries, but also in their gaining valuable experience in interacting with interstate and borderland populatio...

  18. Study of nomadic antiquities of the 9th − 14th centuries of the steppe zone Dnipro and Azov regions of Ukraine in the pre-revolutionary period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubrienko, P. S.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of the study of nomadic antiquities of the 9th – 16th centuries steppe zone Dnipro and Azov region of Ukraine. The author analyzed the features of the first excavations of archaeological monuments of late nomads in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The initial stage of the archeology of the nomads of the 9th – 16th centuries on the Ukrainian lands is considered.

  19. Simulated carbon sink response of shortgrass steppe, tallgrass prairie and forest ecosystems to rising [CO2], temperature and nitrogen input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, D. A.; Del Grosso, S. J.; McMurtrie, R. E.; Parton, W. J.

    2005-03-01

    The response of plant ecosystems to environmental change will determine whether the terrestrial biosphere will remain a substantial carbon sink or become a source during the next century. We use two ecosystem models, the Generic Decomposition And Yield model (G'DAY) and the daily time step version of the Century model (DAYCENT), to simulate net ecosystem productivity (NEP) for three contrasting ecosystems (shortgrass steppe in Colorado, tallgrass prairie in Kansas, and Norway spruce in Sweden) with varying degrees of water, temperature, and nutrient limitation, to determine responses to gradual increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]), temperature, and nitrogen input over 100 years. Using G'DAY, under rising [CO2], there is evidence of C sink "saturation," defined here as positive NEP reaching an upper limit and then declining toward zero, at all three sites (due largely to increased N immobilization in soil organic matter) but a positive C sink is sustained throughout the 100 years. DAYCENT also predicts a sustained C sink at all three sites under rising [CO2], with evidence of C sink saturation for the Colorado grassland and the C sink levels off after 80 years for the Kansas grassland. Warming reduces soil C and the C sink in both grassland ecosystems but increases the C sink in the forest. Warming increases decomposition and soil N mineralization, which stimulates net primary productivity (NPP) at all sites except when inducing water limitation. At the forest site some of the enhanced N release is allocated to a woody biomass pool with a low N:C ratio so that warming enhances NEP without increased N input at the forest site, but not at the grassland sites. Responses to combinations of treatments are generally additive for DAYCENT but more interactive for G'DAY, especially under combined rising [CO2] and warming at the strongly water- and N-limited shortgrass steppe. Increasing N input alleviates C sink saturation and enhances NEP, NPP, and soil C at

  20. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  1. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  2. Natural radioactivity as indicator of petroleum reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, T.; Viloriab, L.; Sajo Bohusa, K.; Gomez, A.

    2001-01-01

    The possibilities of the measurement method of Radon emanation from the ground, using passive detectors, to identify oil-saturated beds in reserves or well-known deposit was evaluated in the North part of the Orinoco river and in some areas of Zulia Sate, Venezuela. The existence of Negative anomalies of radon emanation in regions of proven petroleum reserves was shown. The Space variability of emanated Radon concentration from the ground was measured and maps of three-dimensional contour curves applying different surface models were obtained, which allowed to locate the anomalies of radon emanation and to compare them with the location of reserves reported by other methods. In both regions it was obtained that the area having the lowest radon value is surrounded by an annular region of high radon values, being able to identify a locally decreased emanation over petroleum reserves as compared to the surroundings. The cause of such anomalies is not identified but they can provide useful information for locating the deeply buried oil reserves. Both regions showed a decrease in gamma activity and in upward flow of gases CH4 and C02 over the geologic structures which contain petroleum reserves Underneath. An applicable experimental routine was proposed to other regions. We conclude that the method of etched track detection can be useful in recognizing the subsurface oil-bearing structures and the technique is relatively simple and inexpensive

  3. Effect of Restricted Grazing Time on the Foraging Behavior and Movement of Tan Sheep Grazed on Desert Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of restricted grazing time on behavior of Tan sheep on desert steppe, forty 4-months old male Tan sheep with an original body weight (BW of 15.62±0.33 kg were randomly allocated to 4 grazing groups which corresponded to 4 different restricted grazing time treatments of 2 h/d (G2, 4 h/d (G4, 8 h/d (G8 and 12 h/d (G12 access to pasture. The restricted grazing times had a significant impact on intake time, resting time, ruminating time, bite rate and movement. As the grazing time decreased, the proportion of time spent on intake, bite rate and grazing velocity significantly (p<0.05 increased, but resting and ruminating time clearly (p<0.05 decreased. The grazing months mainly depicted effect on intake time and grazing velocity. In conclusion, by varying their foraging behavior, Tan sheep could improve grazing efficiency to adapt well to the time-limited grazing circumstance.

  4. Acclimation of foliar respiration and photosynthesis in response to experimental warming in a temperate steppe in northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Chi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thermal acclimation of foliar respiration and photosynthesis is critical for projection of changes in carbon exchange of terrestrial ecosystems under global warming. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A field manipulative experiment was conducted to elevate foliar temperature (Tleaf by 2.07°C in a temperate steppe in northern China. Rd/Tleaf curves (responses of dark respiration to Tleaf, An/Tleaf curves (responses of light-saturated net CO2 assimilation rates to Tleaf, responses of biochemical limitations and diffusion limitations in gross CO2 assimilation rates (Ag to Tleaf, and foliar nitrogen (N concentration in Stipa krylovii Roshev. were measured in 2010 (a dry year and 2011 (a wet year. Significant thermal acclimation of Rd to 6-year experimental warming was found. However, An had a limited ability to acclimate to a warmer climate regime. Thermal acclimation of Rd was associated with not only the direct effects of warming, but also the changes in foliar N concentration induced by warming. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Warming decreased the temperature sensitivity (Q10 of the response of Rd/Ag ratio to Tleaf. Our findings may have important implications for improving ecosystem models in simulating carbon cycles and advancing understanding on the interactions between climate change and ecosystem functions.

  5. Small mammals of the Mongolian mountain steppe region near Erdensant: insights from live-trapping and bird pellet remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. Isaac

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known of the distribution, abundance and ecology of small mammals in Mongolia and as a result there is scant knowledge of the effects of environmental and anthropogenic factors on small mammal populations. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of small mammals in mountain steppe habitat from live-trapping and analysis of mammal remains from raptor pellets and below nests. During live-trapping, root voles ( Microtus oeconemus were the most commonly caught species accounting for 47.5 % of captures, striped hamsters ( Cricetulus barabensis and pika ( Ochotona hyperborea accounted for 30 % and 22.5 % of captures respectively. Temperature influenced trapping success, with small mammals appearing to avoid being active at temperatures over 20 ̊C. The three species caught on the trapping grid appeared to avoid competition for resources through both temporal and spatial differences in the use of available habitat. Mammals identified from raptor pellets and other remains included the grey hamster ( Cricatulus migratorius , Siberian marmot ( Marmota sibirica , red fox ( Vulpes vulpes , long-tailed souslik ( Citellus undulatus and the Daurian mole ( Myospalax aspalax. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to the conservation of mammals in Mongolia and their co-existence with livestock and humans.

  6. Effects of Plant Functional Group Loss on Soil Microbial Community and Litter Decomposition in a Steppe Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunwang Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, many terrestrial ecosystems are experiencing a rapid loss of biodiversity. Continued improvements in our understanding of interrelationships between plant diversity and soil microbes are critical to address the concern over the consequences of the decline in biodiversity on ecosystem functioning and services. By removing forbs, or grasses, or, to an extreme scenario, both forbs and grasses in a steppe vegetation in Inner Mongolia, we studied how plant functional group (PFG loss affects soil microbial community composition using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA and litter decomposition using a litter-bag method. PFG loss significantly decreased above- and below-ground plant biomass, soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC and nitrogen (SMBN, but had no effect on the ratio of SMBC to SMBN. Although the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs remained unaffected, PFG loss significantly reduced the amount of bacterial, fungal, and total PLFAs. PFG loss decreased litter monthly mass loss and decay constant, and such decrease was significant when both forbs and grasses were removed. Our results provide robust evidence that PFG loss in grassland ecosystem can lead to a rapid response of soil microbial activity which may affect litter decomposition and soil nutrient cycling, suggesting that the assessment of plant–microbe interactions in soils is an integral component of ecosystem response to biodiversity loss.

  7. Seasonal dynamics of the microbiome of chernozems of the long-term agrochemical experiment in Kamennaya Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, T. I.; Tkhakakhova, A. K.; Ivanova, E. A.; Kutovaya, O. V.; Turusov, V. I.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal variability (spring-summer-autumn) of the taxonomic structure of prokaryotic microbiomes in chernozems of Kamennaya Steppe was studied using sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The samples were collected from the topsoil (0-20 cm) horizons of a long-term fallow and croplands differing in the rates of application of mineral fertilizers (NPK). The seasonal dynamics of the prokaryotic community in the soils of the fallow and croplands were similar: the summer samples significantly differed from the spring ones; in autumn, the microbiome structure approached that in spring; these changes were probably related to corresponding changes in the temperature and moisture conditions of the growing season. For all the plots, significant seasonal changes in the proportions of Thaumarchaeota (Cranarchaeota), Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and V errucomicrobia phylogenetic groups were observed. The significant changes in the structure of the microbiomes (especially in the number of representatives of the Firmicutes, Cemmatiomonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia phyla) were revealed in the arable and fallow soils irrespectively of the season. The phylogenetic diversity estimated by the Shannon index, the number of the operating taxonomic units found, and the Chao1 index differed little in the soils of the studies plots. The long-term application of mineral fertilizers at different rates had little effect on the taxonomic structure and diversity of prokaryotic communities in the agrochernozems.

  8. Climate effects on inter- and intra-annual larch stemwood anomalies in the Mongolian forest-steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khishigjargal, Mookhor; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Leuschner, Hanns Hubert; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Climate response of tree-ring width and intra-annual wood anomalies were studied in stands of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) on Mt. Bogd Uul in the forest-steppe ecotone of Mongolia. Climate on Mt. Bogd Uul is characterized by an increase of the annual mean temperature by 1.5 K between 1965 and 2007, the lack of a long-term trend for annual precipitation and, with it, an increase in aridity. Tree-ring width increases with increasing June precipitation of the current year (June) and increasing late summer precipitation of the previous year. In >100-year old trees, also a negative correlation of tree-ring width with the July temperature of the year prior to tree-ring formation was found. Decreasing tree-ring width with increasing snowfall in December can be explained with the protection of the frost-sensitive eggs of gypsy moth by snow cover, which is a major herbivore of larch in Mongolia and causes reduction in the annual stem increment. The most significant change in wood anatomy was the decline of wide latewood, which is attributable to the increase of summer days with a mean temperature > 15 °C and drought periods in summer without precipitation. Increasing summer drought is also thought to have caused the repeated occurrence of missing rings since the 1960s, which were not observed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

  9. Acclimation of Foliar Respiration and Photosynthesis in Response to Experimental Warming in a Temperate Steppe in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yonggang; Xu, Ming; Shen, Ruichang; Yang, Qingpeng; Huang, Bingru; Wan, Shiqiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Thermal acclimation of foliar respiration and photosynthesis is critical for projection of changes in carbon exchange of terrestrial ecosystems under global warming. Methodology/Principal Findings A field manipulative experiment was conducted to elevate foliar temperature (T leaf) by 2.07°C in a temperate steppe in northern China. R d/T leaf curves (responses of dark respiration to T leaf), A n/T leaf curves (responses of light-saturated net CO2 assimilation rates to T leaf), responses of biochemical limitations and diffusion limitations in gross CO2 assimilation rates (A g) to T leaf, and foliar nitrogen (N) concentration in Stipa krylovii Roshev. were measured in 2010 (a dry year) and 2011 (a wet year). Significant thermal acclimation of R d to 6-year experimental warming was found. However, A n had a limited ability to acclimate to a warmer climate regime. Thermal acclimation of R d was associated with not only the direct effects of warming, but also the changes in foliar N concentration induced by warming. Conclusions/Significance Warming decreased the temperature sensitivity (Q 10) of the response of R d/A g ratio to T leaf. Our findings may have important implications for improving ecosystem models in simulating carbon cycles and advancing understanding on the interactions between climate change and ecosystem functions. PMID:23457574

  10. Effects of temperature and grazing on soil organic carbon storage in grasslands along the Eurasian steppe eastern transect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Ding, Yong; Hou, Xiangyang; Li, Frank Yonghong; Han, Wenjun; Yun, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Soil represents the largest terrestrial organic carbon pool. To address global climate change, it is essential to explore the soil organic carbon storage patterns and their controlling factors. We investigated the soil organic carbon density (SOCD) in 48 grassland sites along the Eurasian steppe eastern transect (ESET) region, which covers the Inner Mongolia grassland subregion and Mongolia grasslands subregion. Specifically, we analyzed the SOCD in the top 30 cm soil layer and its relationships with climatic variables, soil texture, grazing intensity and community biomass productivity. The results showed that the average SOCD of the ESET was 4.74 kg/m2, and the SOCD of the Inner Mongolia grassland subregion (4.11 kg/m2) was significantly lower than that of the Mongolia grassland subregion (5.79 kg/m2). Significant negative relationships were found between the SOCD and the mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP) and grazing intensity in the ESET region. The MAT and grazing intensity were identified as the major factors influencing the SOCD in the ESET region; the MAP and MAT were the major factors influencing the SOCD in the Inner Mongolia grassland subregion; and the MAT and soil pH were the major factors influencing the SOCD in the Mongolia grassland subregion.

  11. Colony density and activity times of the ant Camponotus semitestaceus (hymenoptera:formicidae) in a shrub steppe community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gano, K.A.; Rogers, L.E.

    1983-11-01

    Colony densities and above-ground activity periods were determined for Camponotus semitestaceus colonies within a shrub-steppe community. Colony densities (x +/- SD) averaged 0.088 +/- 0.032 per m/sup 2/ and 0.048 +/- 0.028 per m/sup 2/ on two sagebrush-bunchgrass sites and 0.028 +/- 0.028 per m/sup 2/ on a burned site. Seventy-five percent of the nest entrances were located alongside the stems of sagebrush, indicating a preference for these microhabitats as nest locations. Above-ground activity times were determined by using time lapse photography. Activity commenced shortly after sunset, when light intensities dropped to 2.5 to 1.0 foot-candles (ca. 27 to 11 lux) and terminated just before sunrise. Light intensity appears to be the primary cue for controlling above-ground activity periods of this species, but temperature also appears to be an important factor. When soil surface temperatures drop to 1.7 to 3.9/sup 0/C, all above-ground activity ceases, irrespective of light intensity. 19 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Colony density and activity times of the ant Camponotus semitestaceus (hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a shrub steppe community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gano, K.A.; Rogers, L.E.

    1983-11-01

    Colony densities and above-ground activity periods were determined for Camponotus semitestaceus colonies within a shrub-steppe community. Colony densities (anti x=/- SD) averaged 0.088 +/- 0.032 per m/sup 2/ and 0.048 +/- 0.028 per m/sup 2/ on two sagebrush-bunchgrass sites and 0.028 +/- 0.028 per m/sup 2/ on a burned site. Seventy-five percent of the nest entrances were located alongside the stems of sagebrush, indicating a preference for these microhabitats as nest locations. Above-ground activity times were determined by using time lapse photography. Activity commenced shortly after sunset, when light intensities dropped to 2.5 to 1.0 foot-candles (ca. 27 to 11 lux) and terminated just before sunrise. Light intensity appears to be the primary cue for controlling above-ground activity periods of this species, but temperature also appears to be an important factor. When soil surface temperatures drop to 1.7 to 3.9/sup 0/C, all above-ground activity ceases, irrespective of light intensity.

  13. Variation of tsetse fly abundance in relation to habitat and host presence in the Maasai Steppe, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngonyoka, Anibariki; Gwakisa, Paul S; Estes, Anna B; Nnko, Happiness J; Hudson, Peter J; Cattadori, Isabella M

    2017-06-01

    Human activities modify ecosystem structure and function and can also alter the vital rates of vectors and thus the risk of infection with vector-borne diseases. In the Maasai Steppe ecosystem of northern Tanzania, local communities depend on livestock and suitable pasture that is shared with wildlife, which can increase tsetse abundance and the risk of trypanosomiasis. We monitored the monthly tsetse fly abundance adjacent to Tarangire National Park in 2014-2015 using geo-referenced, baited epsilon traps. We examined the effect of habitat types and vegetation greenness (NDVI) on the relative abundance of tsetse fly species. Host availability (livestock and wildlife) was also recorded within 100×100 m of each trap site. The highest tsetse abundance was found in the ecotone between Acacia-Commiphora woodland and grassland, and the lowest in riverine woodland. Glossina swynnertoni was the most abundant species (68%) trapped throughout the entire study, while G. pallidipes was the least common (4%). Relative species abundance was negatively associated with NDVI, with greatest abundance observed in the dry season. The relationship with the abundance of wildlife and livestock was more complex, as we found positive and negative associations depending on the host and fly species. While habitat is important for tsetse distribution, hosts also play a critical role in affecting fly abundance and, potentially, trypanosomiasis risk. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  14. Seasonal changes in the communities of microorganisms and algae in the litters of tree plantations in the steppe zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltsev, Ye. I.; Didovich, S. V.; Maltseva, I. A.

    2017-08-01

    Specific structural and dynamic parameters of communities from various ecological and trophic groups of microorganisms and algae in the litter of artificial tree stands were studied using the example of the Staro-Berdyansky Forest in the steppe zone of Ukraine. The composition of the communities was shown to vary by seasons and depend on the forest-forming woody species. In spring, in all the litters, the maximal number of actinomycetes and aminotrophs was recorded; in the leaf litter, the number of phosphate-mobilizing organisms was also the largest. In summer, the development of cellulolytic organisms, ammonifiers, and nitrogen-fixers was intensified; in autumn, the number of micromycetes and oligotrophic organisms decreased. The composition of dominants, the species richness of algae and their abundance also varied by seasons. Representatives of the Chlorophyta division predominated. The highest species richness of algae was characteristic of the spring litter samples, and their number, for the spring and autumn ones. The positive correlation was established between the numbers of micromycetes and oligotrophs, micromycetes and algae. The negative correlation was found between the numbers of micromycetes and actinomycetes, cellulose-decompose bacteria and algae in the litters.

  15. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear, uranium, reserves, sustainability, independence; Nucleaire, Uranium, reserves, durabilite, independance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C

    2007-06-15

    In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  17. Methodological considerations of terrestrial laser scanning for vegetation monitoring in the sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kyle E.; Glenn, Nancy; Spaete, Lucas; Shinneman, Douglas; Pilliod, David S.; Arkle, Robert; McIlroy, Susan; Derryberry, DeWayne R.

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) provides fast collection of high-definition structural information, making it a valuable field instrument to many monitoring applications. A weakness of TLS collections, especially in vegetation, is the occurrence of unsampled regions in point clouds where the sensor’s line-of-sight is blocked by intervening material. This problem, referred to as occlusion, may be mitigated by scanning target areas from several positions, increasing the chance that any given area will fall within the scanner’s line-of-sight from at least one position. Because TLS collections are often employed in remote regions where the scope of sampling is limited by logistical factors such as time and battery power, it is important to design field protocols which maximize efficiency and support increased quantity and quality of the data collected. This study informs researchers and practitioners seeking to optimize TLS sampling methods for vegetation monitoring in dryland ecosystems through three analyses. First, we quantify the 2D extent of occluded regions based on the range from single scan positions. Second, we measure the efficacy of additional scan positions on the reduction of 2D occluded regions (area) using progressive configurations of scan positions in 1 ha plots. Third, we test the reproducibility of 3D sampling yielded by a 5-scan/ha sampling methodology using redundant sets of scans. Analyses were performed using measurements at analysis scales of 5 to 50 cm across the 1-ha plots, and we considered plots in grass and shrub-dominated communities separately. In grass-dominated plots, a center-scan configuration and 5 cm pixel size sampled at least 90% of the area up to 18 m away from the scanner. In shrub-dominated plots, sampling at least 90% of the area was only achieved within a distance of 12 m. We found that 3 and 5 scans/ha are needed to sample at least ~ 70% of the total area (1 ha) in the grass and shrub-dominated plots

  18. Parasite infection rates of impala (Aepyceros melampus) in fenced game reserves in relation to reserve characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    Under certain conditions reserves can pose a threat to wildlife conservation by increasing the transmission of parasites and pathogens. In this study, I investigated associations between reserve characteristics including area, density and species richness and parasite infection rates in impala (Aepyceros melampus). Using coprological methods to measure gastrointestinal parasitism rates of impala inhabiting five fully or partially fenced game reserves in central Kenya, I found that bovid species richness was correlated with parasite taxa richness across reserves, and that prevalence rates of multi-host strongyle nematodes were higher in reserves with more species. In addition, reserve size was also implicated as a potential predictor of infection risk. Overall, these results suggest that wildlife inhabiting highly diverse and small reserves may suffer from higher than normal rates of infection. Given the potential debilitating effects increases in parasitism can have on wildlife, these results underscore the importance of considering parasite transmission dynamics in the management of small, fenced protected areas. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Youth Problems on Indian Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Ruth M., Ed.

    Juvenile delinquency was identified as the major problem affecting youth on Indian reservations. Causes for delinquency which were discussed included culture conflict, expectation of failure, unemployment, failure of homes and parents, discrimination, inadequate education, off-reservation schools, and alcoholism. Needs identified by tribal leaders…

  20. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  1. [Evaluation of exposure and sensitization to house dust mites among rhinitis patients in the steppe environment of Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-li; Zhao, Xiang; Li, Feng-he; Lu, Yi; Tao, Qi-lei; Lu, Mei-ping; Cheng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation of exposure and sensitization to house dust mites among rhinitis patients, and the consistency of skin prick test (SPT) and serum specific IgE (sIgE) in the detection of sensitization in a steppe environment of inner Mongolia. Three hundreds and fourteen patients with rhinitis symptoms were recruited in this study in a hospital setting at Xilinhot City, inner Mongolia. All patients underwent medical history investigation, anterior rhinoscopy, and allergen tests in vivo (SPT) and in vitro (sIgE). Dust samples were collected from mattresses in patient's bedroom. The concentrations of group I major allergen of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed using a SPSS 17.0 software (t test, χ(2) test and so on). Among a total of 314 patients, the prevalence of positive SPT for Der p and Der f was 5.7% and 22.0%, respectively; and the prevalence of positive sIgE for Der p and Der f was 9.2% and 7.6%, respectively. Sensitization rates for house dust mites (Der p and/or Der f) were lower than those of pollens. The pollen allergen with the highest positive rate was mugwort (SPT, 51.9%; sIgE, 47.1%). Diagnostic tests using SPT as the gold standard for sensitization showed that the positive likelihood ratio of sIgE was 4.27 for Der p and 10.64 for Der f, and the Kappa value was 0.20 for Der p and 0.35 for Der f, respectively. A total of 276 dust samples collected from patient's mattresses were measured. The concentrations of Der p 1 and Der f1 were detectable in 2 (0.7%) and 4 (1.4%) mattress samples, respectively. There was positive correlation between the exposure levels of Derp 1 and the SPT positive reaction to Der p (r(s) = 0.156, P = 0.01), but no significant correlation was found between the exposure levels of Der p 1 and the sIgE positive reaction to Der p (r(s) = 0.116, P = 0.055). There was no significant

  2. Linkages of plant stoichiometry to ecosystem production and carbon fluxes with increasing nitrogen inputs in an alpine steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yunfeng; Li, Fei; Zhou, Guoying; Fang, Kai; Zhang, Dianye; Li, Changbin; Yang, Guibiao; Wang, Guanqin; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yuanhe

    2017-12-01

    Unprecedented levels of nitrogen (N) have entered terrestrial ecosystems over the past century, which substantially influences the carbon (C) exchange between the atmosphere and biosphere. Temperature and moisture are generally regarded as the major controllers over the N effects on ecosystem C uptake and release. N-phosphorous (P) stoichiometry regulates the growth and metabolisms of plants and soil organisms, thereby affecting many ecosystem C processes. However, it remains unclear how the N-induced shift in the plant N:P ratio affects ecosystem production and C fluxes and its relative importance. We conducted a field manipulative experiment with eight N addition levels in a Tibetan alpine steppe and assessed the influences of N on aboveground net primary production (ANPP), gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem exchange (NEE); we used linear mixed-effects models to further determine the relative contributions of various factors to the N-induced changes in these parameters. Our results showed that the ANPP, GEP, ER, and NEE all exhibited nonlinear responses to increasing N additions. Further analysis demonstrated that the plant N:P ratio played a dominate role in shaping these C exchange processes. There was a positive relationship between the N-induced changes in ANPP (ΔANPP) and the plant N:P ratio (ΔN:P), whereas the ΔGEP, ΔER, and ΔNEE exhibited quadratic correlations with the ΔN:P. In contrast, soil temperature and moisture were only secondary predictors for the changes in ecosystem production and C fluxes along the N addition gradient. These findings highlight the importance of plant N:P ratio in regulating ecosystem C exchange, which is crucial for improving our understanding of C cycles under the scenarios of global N enrichment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of Stocking Rate on the Variability of Peak Standing Crop in a Desert Steppe of Eurasia Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongwu; Jiao, Shuying; Han, Guodong; Zhao, Mengli; Ding, Haijun; Zhang, Xinjie; Wang, Xiaoliang; Ayers, Eldon L.; Willms, Walter D.; Havsatad, Kris; A, Lata; Liu, Yongzhi

    2014-02-01

    Proper grazing management practices can generate corresponding compensatory effects on plant community production, which may reduce inter-annual variability of productivity in some grassland ecosystems. However, it remains unclear how grazing influences plant community attributes and the variability of standing crop. We examined the effects of sheep grazing at four stocking rate treatments [control, 0 sheep ha-1 month-1; light (LG), 0.15 sheep ha-1 month-1; moderate (MG), 0.30 sheep ha-1 month-1; and heavy (HG), 0.45 sheep ha-1 month-1] on standing crop at the community level and partitioned by species and functional groups, in the desert steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design over a 9-year period. Standing crop was measured every August from 2004 to 2012. Peak standing crop decreased ( P < 0.05) with increasing stocking rate; peak standing crop in the HG treatment decreased 40 % compared to the control. May-July precipitation explained at least 76 % of the variation in peak standing crop. MG and HG treatments resulted in a decrease ( P < 0.05) in shrubs, semi-shrubs, and perennials forbs, and an increase ( P < 0.05) in perennial bunchgrasses compared to the control. The coefficients of variation at plant functional group and species level in the LG and MG treatments were lower ( P < 0.05) than in the control and HG treatments. Peak standing crop variability of the control and HG community were greatest, which suggested that LG and MG have greater ecosystem stability.

  4. The study of the cumulative effects of the application of urban sewage sludge on an eroded soil cultivated in the Algerian steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutmedjet, Ahmed; Boukkaya, Nassira; Houyou, zohra; Ouakid, Mohamed; Bielders, Charles

    2014-05-01

    Since the seventies, desertification is one of the major problems faced by the Mediterranean climate regions. These problems are inherent in the soil and climate characteristics of these regions, but their magnitude and acuity depend mainly on human activities. The process of desertification that affects more and more land is more pronounced as soil degradation, which accelerates constantly reduced resources farmland and pasture. Especially in areas bordering the Sahara, as the Algerian steppe, a real belt between the Sahara and the Algerian tell As part of the study of the cumulative effect of the application of urban sewage sludge on sandy soil and culture that is a cereal (barley), we had results that enabled us to identify some precepts,. The short-term effects studied in this experiment indicate that the amendment of the sewage sludge had a beneficial effect on the fertilizing qualities of the soil and therefore the performance of barley. To observations of Culture (barley), indicate that the best grain yield was obtained with D3 (28.76 quintals / ha) and D2 (33.91 quintals / ha). This is due to the effect of the sludge by the addition of required nutrients crop production. The lowest yield (24.11 quintals / ha) being obtained for the control (D0). It is the same for straw yield, with 47.5 quintals / ha in D2. The D3 treatment (30 t / ha) has previously presented the best results, but after 3 years we noticed that the best yields are obtained with D2 (10 t / ha). Except the pH and the rate of limestone that are related to changes in the characteristics of the site, there was an improvement in some physical and chemical properties of the soil. The contributions of sewage sludge amended greater quality soil biology D2 (number and effective species collected). Increasing the organic matter content (1.45%) and electrical conductivity (0.18 microseconds / cm) in the soil is only significant for the highest dose (30t/ha), although a tendency to enrichment in

  5. Caesium-137 soil-to-plant transfer for representative agricultural crops of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants in post-Chernobyl steppe landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Komissarova, Olga; Turykin, Leonid; Kuzmenkova, Natalia; Belyaev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 had a large-scale action on more than 2.3 million hectares agricultural lands in Russia. The area of radioactively contaminated chernozems of semi-arid steppe zone with initial levels of Cs-137 185-555 kBq/m2 in Tula region received the name "Plavsky radioactive hotspot". Nowadays, after the first half-life period of Cs-137 arable chernozems of the region are still polluted with 3-6-fold excess above the radioactive safety standard (126-228 kBq/m2). Therefore, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer are currently a central problem for land use on the territory. The purpose of the present study was revealing the biological features of Cs-137 root uptake from contaminated arable chernozems by different agricultural crops. The components of a grass mixture growing at the central part of Plavsky radioactive hotspot with typical dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants - galega (Galega orientalis, Fabaceae family) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis, Gramineae family) respectively - were selected for the investigation, that was conducted during the period of harvesting in 2015. An important point was that the other factors influenced on Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer - the level of soil pollution, soil properties, climatic conditions, vegetative phase, etc. - were equal. So, biological features of Cs-137 root uptake could be estimated the most credible manner. As a whole, general discrimination of Cs-137 root uptake was clearly shown for both agricultural crops. Whereas Cs-137 activity in rhizosphere 30-cm layer of arable chernozem was 371±74 Bq/kg (140±32 kBq/m2), Cs-137 activities in plant biomass were one-two orders of magnitude less, and transfer factor (TF) values (the ratio of the Cs-137 activities in vegetation and in soil) not exceeded 0.11. At the same time bioavailability of Cs-137 for bromegrass was significantly higher than for galega: TFs in total biomass of the

  6. Riqueza, abundância e diversidade de Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em três áreas da Reserva Biológica Guaribas, Paraíba, Brasil Richness, abundance, and diversity of Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae at three areas of the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysson K. P. de Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo realizou-se em três áreas da Reserva Biológica Guaribas, uma área com vegetação característica de Mata Atlântica, outra com vegetação característica de Tabuleiro Nordestino e a terceira, chamada de Transição, formada por um mosaico dos dois tipos vegetacionais. Foram coletados 2314 indivíduos pertencentes a 11 espécies de Euglossina. Utilizou-se como iscas seis fragrâncias artificiais: eugenol, eucaliptol, escatol, beta ionona, acetato de benzila e vanilina. Na área de Mata, foram coletados 850 indivíduos de 11 espécies, na área de Tabuleiro 737 indivíduos de cinco espécies e na área de Transição 727 indivíduos de seis espécies. A área de Mata apresentou a maior diversidade (H' = 0,94 e a maior riqueza. O coeficiente de similaridade binário de Sørensen indicou que as áreas mais semelhantes, com relação à composição das espécies, foram às de Tabuleiro e Transição (Ss = 0,92. O coeficiente de similaridade de Morisita apontou que as áreas de Mata e Transição são idênticas (Cmh = 1, com relação às abundâncias relativas das espécies. A área de Transição assemelha-se mais à área de Tabuleiro (quanto à composição e diversidade e mais à área de Mata (quanto à abundância relativa, o que sugere que algumas espécies de Mata também forrageiam na área de Transição.The study was carried out at three areas of the Guaribas Biological Reserve, one area with typical Atlantic rain forest vegetation, one with a Savanna-like vegetation typical of coastal ecosystems, locally known as 'Tabuleiro', and another called Transition area, containing a mosaic of the two former types of vegetation. A total of 2314 individuals belonging to 11 species of Euglossina were sampled, using traps. Six artificial fragrances were used as baits: eugenol, cineol, skatol, beta ionone, benzyl acetate, and vanillin. From the Forest area 850 males belonging to 11 species were sampled, from the Savanna-like vegetation

  7. Effect of stocking rate on soil-atmosphere CH4 flux during spring freeze-thaw cycles in a northern desert steppe, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Jie Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methane (CH(4 uptake by steppe soils is affected by a range of specific factors and is a complex process. Increased stocking rate promotes steppe degradation, with unclear consequences for gas exchanges. To assess the effects of grazing management on CH(4 uptake in desert steppes, we investigated soil-atmosphere CH(4 exchange during the winter-spring transition period. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDING: The experiment was conducted at twelve grazing plots denoting four treatments defined along a grazing gradient with three replications: non-grazing (0 sheep/ha, NG, light grazing (0.75 sheep/ha, LG, moderate grazing (1.50 sheep/ha, MG and heavy grazing (2.25 sheep/ha, HG. Using an automatic cavity ring-down spectrophotometer, we measured CH(4 fluxes from March 1 to April 29 in 2010 and March 2 to April 27 in 2011. According to the status of soil freeze-thaw cycles (positive and negative soil temperatures occurred in alternation, the experiment was divided into periods I and II. Results indicate that mean CH(4 uptake in period I (7.51 µg CH(4-C m(-2 h(-1 was significantly lower than uptake in period II (83.07 µg CH(4-C m(-2 h(-1. Averaged over 2 years, CH(4 fluxes during the freeze-thaw period were -84.76 µg CH(4-C m(-2 h(-1 (NG, -88.76 µg CH(4-C m(-2 h(-1 (LG, -64.77 µg CH(4-C m(-2 h(-1 (MG and -28.80 µg CH(4-C m(-2 h(-1 (HG. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CH(4 uptake activity is affected by freeze-thaw cycles and stocking rates. CH(4 uptake is correlated with the moisture content and temperature of soil. MG and HG decreases CH(4 uptake while LG exerts a considerable positive impact on CH(4 uptake during spring freeze-thaw cycles in the northern desert steppe in China.

  8. Marine ecology: reserves do have a key role in fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Callum

    2012-06-05

    A new study of the Great Barrier Reef proves a 100-year old conjecture correct: marine reserves do replenish populations in surrounding fishing grounds, while modern reserve networking theory is validated by exchange of offspring of animals among protected areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  10. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  11. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  12. Diminished ovarian reserve in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Tuğrul Ayanoğlu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psoriasis is a multi-systemic chronic inflammatory skin disease. Previous data suggests that women with some chronic inflammatory diseases have diminished ovarian reserve. This study explores ovarian reserve in patients with psoriasis. Materials and methods: We prospectively analyzed 14 female patients with psoriasis and 35 healthy age and body mass index matched controls. An interview explored demographic characteristics, obstetrical history and menstrual characteristics. Psoriatic area severity index (PASI in patients was assessed. Estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, thyroid stimulating hormone and with gynecologic ultrasonography, ovarian volume and antral follicular count (AFC were measured in both study and control groups. These values were analyzed with changes of the PASI in the patient group. Results: Patients with psoriasis had significantly higher levels of FSH and FSH/LH ratio than healthy controls (p = 0.039, p = 0.005 respectively. AFC of psoriasis patients were significantly lower than healthy controls (p = 0.002.There were no significant difference among other hormone levels and ovarian volumes (p > 0.05. The hormone levels, ovarian volume and AFC were not correlated with PASI of the patients. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that patients with psoriasis may have diminished ovarian reserve. Keywords: Psoriasis, Ovarian reserve, Psoriatic area severity index, Antral follicular count, Follicle-stimulating hormone

  13. Promoting teamwork and surgical optimization: combining TeamSTEPPS with a specialty team protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbs, Sheila Marie; Moss, Jacqueline

    2014-11-01

    This quality improvement project was a 300-day descriptive preintervention and postintervention comparison consisting of a convenience sample of 18 gynecology surgical team members. We administered the Team Strategies & Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS®) Teamwork Perception Questionnaire to measure the perception of teamwork. In addition, we collected data regarding rates of compliance (ie, huddle, time out) and measurable surgical procedure times. Results showed a statistically significant increase in the number of team members present for each procedure, 2.34 μ before compared with 2.61 μ after (P = .038), and in the final time-out (FTO) compliance as a result of a clarification of the definition of FTO, 1.05 μ before compared with 1.18 μ after (P = .004). Additionally, there was improvement in staff members' perception of teamwork. The implementation of team training, protocols, and algorithms can enhance surgical optimization, communication, and work relationships. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reserve Retirement Equality: Treating Reserves Fairly While Saving Taxpayer Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    rata .121 For example, a Reserve who performs the equivalent of five years of active duty, will receive one-fourth the retired pay of his active duty...4,225 per month.124 But because reserve-retirement benefits are based on pro rata years of service, this officer’s years of service for retirement...purposes are 3,146 retirement points divided by 360.125 This results in 8.74 years pro rata years of service.126 His retirement benefits thus are

  15. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  16. Cerebral correlates of cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Staff, Roger T; Fox, Helen C; Murray, Alison D

    2016-01-30

    Cognitive reserve is a hypothetical concept introduced to explain discrepancies between severity of clinical dementia syndromes and the extent of dementia pathology. We examined cognitive reserve in a research programme that followed up a non-clinical sample born in 1921 or 1936 and IQ-tested age 11 years in 1932 or 1947. Structural MRI exams were acquired in about 50% of the sample from whom a subsample were recruited into an additional fMRI study. Here, we summarise findings from seven inter-related studies. These support an understanding of cognitive reserve as a balance between positive life course activity-driven experiences and the negative effects of brain pathologies including cerebrovascular disease and total and regional brain volume loss. Hypothesised structural equation models illustrate the relative causal effects of these positive and negative contributions. Cognitive reserve is considered in the context of choice of interventions to prevent dementia and the opposing effects of cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer like brain appearances. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  18. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  19. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  20. Refuse dumps from leaf-cutting ant nests reduce the intensity of above-ground competition among neighboring plants in a Patagonian steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.; Lescano, María Natalia

    2017-11-01

    In arid environments, the high availability of sunlight due to the scarcity of trees suggests that plant competition take place mainly belowground for water and nutrients. However, the occurrence of soil disturbances that increase nutrient availability and thereby promote plant growth may enhance shoot competition between neighboring plants. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to evaluate the influence of the enriched soil patches generated by the leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmex lobicornis, on the performance of the alien forb Carduus thoermeri (Asteraceae) under different intraspecific competition scenarios. Our results showed that substrate type and competition scenario affected mainly aboveground plant growth. As expected, plants growing without neighbors and in nutrient-rich ant refuse dumps showed more aboveground biomass than plants growing with neighbors and in nutrient-poor steppe soils. However, aboveground competition was more intense in nutrient-poor substrates: plants under shoot and full competition growing in the nutrient-rich ant refuse dumps showed higher biomass than those growing on steppe soils. Belowground biomass was similar among focal plants growing under different substrate type. Our results support the traditional view that increments in resource availability reduce competition intensity. Moreover, the fact that seedlings in this sunny habitat mainly compete aboveground illustrates how limiting factors may be scale-dependent and change in importance as plants grow.

  1. Hydrocarbon and by-product reserves in British Columbia, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Statistical data on oil, gas and by-product reserves in British Columbia as of 31 December 2000, as estimated by the Oil and Gas Commission was presented along with a summary of year-end remaining established reserves, estimates of the reserves of oil, gas and by-products, and detailed reserve and pool parameters. British Columbia set a record in 2000 with 753 wells drilled, of which 59 were classed as oil. Most of the oil drilling took place in the Hay River area. 449 gas wells were drilled in 2000, mostly in the Fort St. John area. An additional 120 wells were cased. Raw gas reserves in 2000 increased to 294.8 10 9 m 3 , up slightly from the previous year. Remaining oil reserves at December 31, 2000 were 27,357 10 3 m 3 , an increase of about 4 per cent over 1999. This report also included a historical review of oil and raw gas reserves by geological period and unconnected gas reserves by plant area. Established hydrocarbon reserves, summaries and a project/unit cross-reference listing was included. Oil pools under waterflood or gas injection were also highlighted. Four appendices were also included, one each for reserve and pool parameter listings for crude oil reserves, gas reserves, raw gas analysis, and remaining hydrocarbon products. tabs

  2. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  3. Floral biology of Senecio macrophyllus M. BIEB. (Asteraceae, a rare Central European steppe plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożenna Czarnecka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the flowering phase and plant pollination ecology is very important for understanding the life history of long-lived perennials. In the case of rare species, the information may have implications for conservation practices. Our studies on flower morphology and blooming biology of the vulnerable plant Senecio macrophyllus M. BIEB. were conducted in situ (flowering, activity of insect visitors in the largest population in SE Poland and in laboratory (light and scanning electron microscopy. The disc florets open diurnally with most intensive anthesis in the early afternoon and attract insect visitors with nectar and pollen. In highly protandrous disc florets, pollen viability decreases in time, whereas stigma receptivity increases. The upper part of the pistil forms a brush-like pollen presenter, covered with unicellular trichomes with chromoplasts. Pollen presentation lasts 4–11 hours per floret, and 8 days in a single head, the main function of which is to extend the availability of male gamets for reproduction. The number of florets per head, the head size, and the number of pollen grains produced per anther, and the pollen grain viability differed significantly between microsites. The finding indicates that, apart from the biotic factors, abiotic conditions may considerably influence generative reproduction of the species. In the study area, the principal visitors of S. macrophyllus flowers were Hymenoptera, with predominance of Apis mellifera (53.4% of visits. The remarkable share of butterflies (13.9% recognized as the long-distance moving insects may improve the genetic variability of individuals within a fragmented population. A more detailed study is necessary to explain the role of insect visitors in effective pollination and in gene transfer between patches. The assessment of optimal conditions for the generative reproduction is fundamental for the in situ conservation of this rare species.

  4. Open-Habitat Birds in Recently Burned Areas: the Role of the Fire Extent and Species’ Habitat Breadth = Aves de medios abiertos en áreas quemadas recientemente: la importancia de la extensión del fuego y la amplitud de hábitat de las especies

    OpenAIRE

    Pons Ferran, Pere; Bas Lay, Josep Maria

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of open-habitat and steppe-land bird species in Western Mediterranean burned areas and to assess the role of the extent and location of the fire on species richness and composition. At the species level, the relationship was explored between habitat breadth, distribution extent and the ability to occupy recently burned areas. Location: Iberia and Southern France Methods: Fieldwork and bibliography were assembled to obtain breeding bird inventories for 21 burned area...

  5. Ecological Catastrophes in the steppe? Landscape Archaeology at the mining and metallurgical complex of Kargaly (Region of Orenbourg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent García, Juan M.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Kargaly is one of the most important centers of mining and metallurgy in the great Eurasian steppe. Dr. E.N. Chernykh and his team (Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow and various researchers at the CSIC and other Spanish institutions have developed a joint project to undertake a comprehensive study of the site's two main phases of occupation, the Bronze Age (2nd millenium BC and the first Russian industrialization (1745-1900 AD. The Russian members of the joint team are in charge of the archaeological investigations, while the Spanish members are studying metallurgical and mining technology and production, on the one hand, and the environmental context and impact of these activities, on the other. This article presents the research design and first results of the Palaeoenvironmental research at Kargaly. This work has two aspects. The first consisted of obtaining one of the most complete palaeoenvironmental data sets from the steppes through both the systematic sampling of archaeological sites to recover charcoal, seeds, fruits and pollen and the taking of palynological cores from natural deposits, on the other Both sampling programs were supported by radiocarbon dates. The second aspect, to which the greater part of this article is devoted, was dedicated to contextualizing the palaeobotanical evidence by studying the present-day landscape, with particular attention to understanding the processes which shape the variability of the pollen rain. Our purpose was to obtain explicit and measurable calibrative criteria which would enable us to answer the palaeoenvironmental questions raised by our archaeological and archaeometallurgical research. These questions include, most importantly, the following: what was the extent of forest (the energy base for the mining/metallurgical complex during the Bronze Age? and how do we evaluate subsistence practices? (an issue related to the origins of agriculture on the

  6. Gross primary productivity of the true steppe in central Asia in relation to NDVI: scaling up CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Johnson, Douglas A.; Saliendra, Nicanor Z.; Akshalov, Kanat; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2004-01-01

    Compared to other characteristics of CO2 exchange, gross primary productivity (P g ) is most directly related to photosynthetic activity. Until recently, it was considered difficult to obtain measurement-based P g . The objective of our study was to evaluate if P g can be estimated from continuous CO2 flux measurements using nonlinear identification of the nonrectangular hyperbolic model of ecosystem-scale, light-response curves. Estimates of P g and ecosystem respiration (R e ) were obtained using Bowen ratio– energy-balance measurements of CO2 exchange in a true-steppe ecosystem in northern Kazakhstan during four growing seasons (1998–2001). The maximum mean weekly apparent quantum yield (αmax) was 0.0388 mol CO2 mol photons and the maximum mean weekly P g was 28 g CO2/m2/day in July 2000. The highest mean weekly R e max (20 g CO2m2/day) was observed in July of both 1999 and 2000. Nighttime respiration calculated from daily respiration corrected for length of the dark period and temperature (using Q 10 = 2) was closely associated with measured nighttime respiration (R 2 = 0.67 to 0.93). The 4-year average annual gross primary production (GPP) was 1617 g CO2/m2/ year (range = 1308–1957). Ten-day normalized difference vegetation index corrected for the start of the season (NDVIsos) was closely associated with 10-day average P g (R 2 = 0.66 to 0.83), which was higher than R 2 values for regressions of mean 10-day net daytime fluxes on NDVIsos (0.55–0.72). This demonstrates the advantage of usingP g in scaling up flux-tower measurements compared to other characteristics (net daytime flux or net 24-h flux).

  7. Protective immune response of oral rabies vaccine in stray dogs, corsacs and steppe wolves after a single immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhugunissov, K; Bulatov, Ye; Taranov, D; Yershebulov, Z; Koshemetov, Zh; Abduraimov, Ye; Kondibayeva, Zh; Samoltyrova, A; Amanova, Zh; Khairullin, B; Sansyzbay, A

    2017-11-01

    In this study the safety and protective immunity of an oral rabies vaccine, based on the live, modified rabies virus strain VRC-RZ2, was examined in stray dogs (Canis Sp.), corsacs (Vulpes corsac) and steppe wolves (Canis lupus campestris). In the safety group (dogs, n=6; corsacs, n=3; wolves, n=3) which was vaccinated with a 10-times field dose/animal, no animals showed any signs of disease or changes in behavior or appetite during the period of clinical observation, similar to the animals in the negative control group. Saliva samples taken from animals prior and post (5 th and 10 th days) vaccination failed to demonstrate rabies virus antigen. Observations of immunogenicity in vaccinated carnivores (dogs, corsacs and wolves) during a 180 day period showed the titers of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) in the blood sera of vaccinated dogs to be within 0.59-1.37 IU/mL. On 14 days post vaccination (dpv), all the wild carnivores had detectable levels of neutralizing antibodies, with mean titers ranging from 0.50 ± 0.07 IU/mL (for wolves) to 0.59 ± 0.10 IU/mL (for corsacs). Weeks after vaccination, all the vaccinated wolves and corsacs had higher levels of neutralizing antibodies: 0.70 ± 0.10 - 0.71 ± 0.08 IU/mL at 30 dpv, 1.06 ± 0.08 - 1.28 ± 0.21 IU/mL at 60 dpv and 0.41 ± 0.09 - 047 ± 0.06 at 180 dpv. The highest level of VNA (˃1.0 IU/ml) was detected at 60 dpv, in all vaccinated animals. After challenge all vaccinated dogs remained healthy for 180 days. Control animals (unvaccinated dogs) developed symptoms of rabies on day 6 post administration of a virulent virus and died of rabies on days 11-13. Of note, the VNA titers in all the wild carnivores (corsacs and wolves) immunized with VRC-RZ2 were higher than 0.5 IU/ml (0.59 ± 0.11 IU/ml), even as early as 14 days post vaccination. These, presumably protective, titers of antibodies to rabies virus were present in the dogs and wild carnivores examined in this study for at

  8. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    .... The commentators represented Rural Development employees who work with the Multi-Family Housing Direct... their annual over-inflated tax bills and assessments. As a result, rent income funding that could be..., as rents cannot be raised to an amount that will cover all current and future reserve expenses...

  9. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  10. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  11. Efeito da pressão antrópica sobre igarapés na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, área de floresta na Amazônia Central Effect of the human pressure on the streams of the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, a forest area in Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sávio José Filgueiras Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    following environmental variables: pH, water electrical conductivity, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+ cations and suspended material. It was possible to see significant differences in the concentration of hydrogen ions, electrical conductivity and in the suspended material content, among the studied streams. In the stream in which the headwaters are within the reserve, the mean values corresponding to pH, electrical conductivity and suspended material were 4.47; 6.44 mS cm-1 and 1.25 mg L-1, respectively; and the highest values found in the impacted ones were 6.84, 141.50 mS cm-1 and 9.50 mg L-1. The results show that the stream which drains the forest area maintains its natural characteristics as it is protected from human activities, and the ones which come from the urban area are impacted.

  12. Survey of flora in the virgin reserve "Lom"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucalo Vojin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin Reserve "Lom" is one of the three protected areas of this rank in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the most conserved part of the forest of beech fir and spruce ass. Piceo-Abieti-Fagetum in the wider area. Previous research of flora in the Reserve was partial, within the more widely formulated themes. During the research in 2005 and 2006, in the area of the Reserve (298 ha the authors identified the biodiversity of 81 species fungi, 6 lichens 50 mosses, 17 ferns and 233 flowering plants.

  13. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  14. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  15. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  16. Annual methane budgets of sheep grazing systems were regulated by grazing intensities in the temperate continental steppe: A two-year case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Zhong, Mengying; Zhu, Yuhao; Yang, Helong; Johnson, Douglas A.; Rong, Yuping

    2018-02-01

    Methane (CH4) emission from animal husbandry accounts for a large percentage of anthropogenic contributions to CH4 emissions. Fully understanding of grazing management effects on the CH4 budget is essential for mitigating CH4 emissions in the temperate grazing steppe systems. Annual CH4 budgets for the sheep grazed steppes at various grazing intensities, un-grazing (UG, 0 sheep ha-1year-1), defer grazing (DG, 1.0 sheep ha-1 year-1), moderate grazing (MG, 1.43 sheep ha-1year-1), and heavy grazing (HG, 2.43 sheep ha-1year-1) were assessed across 2012-2014 in the agro-pastoral region of northern China. Annual soil CH4 uptake averaged across 2012-2014 were 1.1 ± 0.1, 2.4 ± 0.2, 2.2 ± 0.2, and 1.3 ± 0.1 kg CH4-C ha-1 for UG, DG (only 2013-2014), MG and HG sites. Non-growing season CH4 uptake comprised 50.0 ± 4.3% of annual CH4 uptake in 2012-2013 and 37.7 ± 2.0% in 2013-2014. DG and MG significantly promoted annual soil CH4 uptake (P 0.05). Bell-shaped relationship was presented between stocking rates and soil CH4 uptake (r2 = 0.59, P budgets for the grazed grasslands were -1.1 ± 0.1, 5.7 ± 0.6, 11.5 ± 1.5 and 15.5 ± 1.3 kg CH4-C ha-1 year-1 in UG, DG (only 2013-2014), MG and HG across 2012-2014. Soil CH4 uptake could offset 29.7 ± 5.6, 15.9 ± 4.3 and 6.8 ± 1.0% of total annual CH4 emissions from sheep, sheepfold and faeces in DG, MG, and HG. All grazed steppes are sources for atmospheric CH4 and the magnitude is regulated by grazing intensities. Sheep CH4 emissions for 1-g liveweight gain were 0.21, 0.32 and 0.37 g CH4-C in DG, MG and HG, respectively. DG is the recommended grazing management in this region to achieve greater herbage mass, higher sheep performance and lower CH4 emissions simultaneously.

  17. Brain reserve and cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Maria A.; Leavitt, Victoria M.; Riccitelli, Gianna; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, John; Filippi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We first tested the brain reserve (BR) hypothesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining whether larger maximal lifetime brain volume (MLBV; determined by genetics) protects against disease-related cognitive impairment, and then investigated whether cognitive reserve (CR) gained through life experience (intellectually enriching leisure activities) protects against cognitive decline independently of MLBV (BR). Methods: Sixty-two patients with MS (41 relapsing-remitting MS, 21 secondary progressive MS) received MRIs to estimate BR (MLBV, estimated with intracranial volume [ICV]) and disease burden (T2 lesion load; atrophy of gray matter, white matter, thalamus, and hippocampus). Early-life cognitive leisure was measured as a source of CR. We assessed cognitive status with tasks of cognitive efficiency and memory. Hierarchical regressions were used to investigate whether higher BR (ICV) protects against cognitive impairment, and whether higher CR (leisure) independently protects against cognitive impairment over and above BR. Results: Cognitive status was positively associated with ICV (R2 = 0.066, p = 0.017). An ICV × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.050, p = 0.030) revealed that larger ICV attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Controlling for BR, higher education (R2 = 0.047, p = 0.030) and leisure (R2 = 0.090, p = 0.001) predicted better cognition. A leisure × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.037, p = 0.030) showed that leisure independently attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Follow-up analyses revealed that BR protected against cognitive inefficiency, not memory deficits, whereas CR was more protective against memory deficits than cognitive inefficiency. Conclusion: We provide evidence of BR in MS, and show that CR independently protects against disease-related cognitive decline over and above BR. Lifestyle choices protect against cognitive impairment independently of genetic factors outside of one's control

  18. Wildlife reserves, populations, and hunting outcome with smart wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Strange, Niels

    2014-01-01

    We consider a hunting area and a wildlife reserve and answer the question: How does clever migration decision affect the social optimal and the private optimal hunting levels and population stocks? We analyze this in a model allowing for two-way migration between hunting and reserve areas, where...... the populations’ migration decisions depend on both hunting pressure and relative population densities. In the social optimum a pure stress effect on the behavior of smart wildlife exists. This implies that the population level in the wildlife reserve tends to increase and the population level in the hunting area...... and hunting levels tend to decrease. On the other hand, the effect on stock tends to reduce the population in the wildlife reserve and increase the population in the hunting area and thereby also increase hunting. In the case of the private optimum, open-access is assumed and we find that the same qualitative...

  19. Changes in the organic matter forms in chernozems of the Kamennaya Steppe under different land uses, locations, and hydromorphism degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikhod'ko, V. E.; Cheverdin, Yu. I.; Titova, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    The soils of the Kamennaya Steppe (Voronezh oblast) were studied. The rate of changes in the contents of Corg and the particular forms of organic matter (labile, microbial, and stable) were revealed in the quasi-natural soils of the fallows and shelterbelt and in the arable soils (rainfed farming for 12, 55, 85, and 115 yrs and irrigated farming for 40 yrs) of different positions on the watersheds and slopes. The effect of the increased soil moistening in the recent decades was also studied. In the upper 50 cm of the fallow soils that were not plowed since 1882, the relative Corg accumulation in the recent 30 yrs has amounted to 5%. The soils of the shelterbelt planted in 1903 were similar to the fallow soils. As compared to the soil of the unmown fallow, the Corg loss from the 1-m soil layer under the shelterbelt and the 12-year-old cropland were less than 9%; the losses from the plowed soils (used for 55-115 yrs) were 21-27% on the watersheds and 37-46% on the slopes. In the first decade, the rate of the Corg losses in the 0- to 20-cm layer of the cultivated chernozem was 120 g C/m2. With the increasing duration of the soil plowing (from 55 to 115 yrs), the Corg losses decreased from 45 to 28 g C/m2 per yr in the watershed soils and from 51 to 35 g C/m2 per yr in the soils on the slopes. The maximum loss of Corg was found for the soils on slopes, waterlogged soils, and irrigated soils. In the slope soils, the Corg loss due to erosion was 9-18% of the total. In the upper horizons of the old agrogenic soils, compared to the soil of the unmown fallow, the Cha/Cfa increased, since the content of fulvic acids (FA) faster decreased than that of the humic acids (HA); the C content of the nonhydrolyzable residue was reduced. The slope and waterlogged soils differed from the watershed soils in the smaller amounts of HA and FA and in the greater content of humin carbon. In the 0- to 20-cm layer of the soils studied, the rate of the basal respiration (BR) was 0.2-0.5 μg C

  20. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report Summary, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-02-28

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared and published each year to inform the public of the environmental activities that take place on the reservation and in the surrounding areas. It is written to comply with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. This document has been prepared to present the highlights of the Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report 2007 in an easy-to-read, summary format.

  1. Studies of the Woody Vegetation of the Welor Forest Reserve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Welor area has been classified as a forest reserve since 1935 while waiting for the outcome of studies for its appropriate exploitation based on its biological potential. Due to lack of information on this potential, the plant resources of this forest reserve have been used improperly and excessively. The present study aims ...

  2. Z' reservation at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Montagna, G.; Piccinini, F.; Renard, F.M.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the possibility that one extra Z\\equiv Z' exists with arbitrary mass and fermion couplings that do not violate (charged) lepton universality. We show that, in such a situation, a functional relationship is generated between the \\underline{deviations} from the SM values of three leptonic observables of two-fermion production at future e^+e^- colliders that is completely independent of the values of the Z' mass and couplings. This selects a certain region in the 3-d space of the deviations that is \\underline{characteristic} of the model (Z' "reservation"). As a specific and relevant example, we show the picture that would emerge at LEP2 under realistic experimental conditions.

  3. Animal breeding of the Saltov Culture bearers from the forest-steppe part of the Seversky Donets Basin (Ukraine. Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Koloda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a description and analysis of the archaeozoological material from medieval monuments of Saltov Culture (Kharkiv region, Ukraine in a wide geographical, climatic, cultural, historical, and archaeological context. The proposed statistical, biometric, and demographic analysis of the archaeozoological material reveals a settled character of Saltovian economy and animal husbandry from the forest-steppe zone. The settled character of animal breeding is suggested by the dominance of cattle and the significant presence of the domestic pig in the domestic herd, while the small cattle had a subordinate role in economy. The important role of the domestic horse (after cattle represents a specific feature of the Saltovian domestic herd that distinguishes the Saltovian archaeozoological complexes from other agriculture based cultures from Eastern Europe. The third part of the work proposes a comparative analysis of the archaeozoological complexes from Middle Age of Kharkov Region.

  4. How do steppe plants follow their optimal environmental conditions or persist under suboptimal conditions? The differing strategies of annuals and perennials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Mouheb, Hocine; Kadik, Leila; Albert, Cécile Hélène; Berrached, Rachda; Prinzing, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    For a species to be able to respond to environmental change, it must either succeed in following its optimal environmental conditions or in persisting under suboptimal conditions, but we know very little about what controls these capacities. We parameterized species distribution models (SDMs) for 135 plant species from the Algerian steppes. We interpreted low false-positive rates as reflecting a high capacity to follow optimal environmental conditions and high false-negative rates as a high capacity to persist under suboptimal environmental conditions. We also measured functional traits in the field and built a unique plant trait database for the North-African steppe. For both perennial and annual species, we explored how these two capacities can be explained by species traits and whether relevant trait values reflect species strategies or biases in SDMs. We found low false-positive rates in species with small seeds, flowers attracting specialist pollinators, and specialized distributions (among annuals and perennials), low root:shoot ratios, wide root-systems, and large leaves (perennials only) ( R 2   = .52-58). We found high false-negative rates in species with marginal environmental distribution (among annuals and perennials), small seeds, relatively deep roots, and specialized distributions (annuals) or large leaves, wide root-systems, and monocarpic life cycle (perennials) ( R 2   = .38 for annuals and 0.65 for perennials). Overall, relevant traits are rarely indicative of the possible biases of SDMs, but rather reflect the species' reproductive strategy, dispersal ability, stress tolerance, and pollination strategies. Our results suggest that wide undirected dispersal in annual species and efficient resource acquisition in perennial species favor both capacities, whereas short life spans in perennial species favor persistence in suboptimal environmental conditions and flowers attracting specialist pollinators in perennial and annual species favor

  5. Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis of Ki67 assay according to histology: prognostic relevance for resected early stage 'pure' and 'mixed' lobular breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbognin, Luisa; Sperduti, Isabella; Brunelli, Matteo; Marcolini, Lisa; Nortilli, Rolando; Pilotto, Sara; Zampiva, Ilaria; Merler, Sara; Fiorio, Elena; Filippi, Elisa; Manfrin, Erminia; Pellini, Francesca; Bonetti, Franco; Pollini, Giovanni Paolo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bria, Emilio

    2016-03-22

    The aim of this analysis was to investigate the potential impact of Ki67 assay in a series of patients