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Sample records for reserved cerebral cortex

  1. CEREBRAL CORTEX DAMAGE INDUCED BY ACUTE ORAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... Keywords: Brain, cerebral cortex, alcohol, Wistar rats, oxidative stress. INTRODUCTION. The prefrontal cortex is ... damage, memory loss, sleep disorders and psychosis, with or without ..... and emotional consequences of binge drinking: Role of amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Biol ...

  2. Excessive oral intake caffeine altered cerebral cortex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caffeine is commonly consumed in an effort to enhance speed in performance and wakefulness. However, little is known about the deleterious effects it can produce on the brain, this study aimed at determining the extents of effects and damage that can be caused by excessive consumption of caffeine on the cerebral cortex ...

  3. DNA turnover in rat cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-Capano, C; D'Onofrio, G; Giuditta, A

    1982-01-01

    After the intracranial injection of [methyl-3H]thymidine the specific activity of rat cortical DNA increases rapidly, reaching a maximum at about 5 h. More than half of the radioactive DNA disappears from the tissue in the following few hours. During the same period of time the concentration of radioactive DNA in liver remains essentially constant. Minor variations occur in both organs after 41 h. An apparent rapid turnover of DNA is also present in a fraction of purified neuronal perikarya prepared from the cerebral cortex.

  4. Cerebral correlates of cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Staff, Roger T; Fox, Helen C; Murray, Alison D

    2016-01-30

    Cognitive reserve is a hypothetical concept introduced to explain discrepancies between severity of clinical dementia syndromes and the extent of dementia pathology. We examined cognitive reserve in a research programme that followed up a non-clinical sample born in 1921 or 1936 and IQ-tested age 11 years in 1932 or 1947. Structural MRI exams were acquired in about 50% of the sample from whom a subsample were recruited into an additional fMRI study. Here, we summarise findings from seven inter-related studies. These support an understanding of cognitive reserve as a balance between positive life course activity-driven experiences and the negative effects of brain pathologies including cerebrovascular disease and total and regional brain volume loss. Hypothesised structural equation models illustrate the relative causal effects of these positive and negative contributions. Cognitive reserve is considered in the context of choice of interventions to prevent dementia and the opposing effects of cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer like brain appearances. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cerebral cortex damage induced by acute oral alcohol intake is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prefrontal cortex undergoes functional and structural changes due to binge or chronic alcohol consumption. This study examines alcohol-induced cerebral cortex damage and the association with oxidative stress in an animal model. Twenty-four Wistar rats (12 males and 12 females) weighing 150g to 250g were divided ...

  6. Screening for genes that wire the cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokmane Ludmilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thalamocortical projections convey visual, somatosensory and auditory information to the cerebral cortex. A recent report in Neural Development shows how a forward genetic screen has enabled the identification of novel mutations affecting specific decision points of thalamocortical axon pathfinding. See research article: http://www.neuraldevelopment.com/content/6/1/3/abstract

  7. Emprego dos gangliosidos do cortex cerebral nas neuropatias perifericas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Pitagoras De Mattos

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores registram a experiência pessoal com o emprego de gangliosídios do cortex cerebral nas neuropatias periféricas. O ensaio clínico e eletromiográfico revelou-se eficaz em 30 dos 40 casos tratados. Enfatizam os melhores resultados em casos de paralisias faciais periféricas.

  8. Changes in Cerebral Cortex of Children Treated for Medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Arthur K.; Marcus, Karen J.; Fischl, Bruce; Grant, P. Ellen; Young Poussaint, Tina; Rivkin, Michael J.; Davis, Peter; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Children with medulloblastoma undergo surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. After treatment, these children have numerous structural abnormalities. Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the thickness of the cerebral cortex in a group of medulloblastoma patients and a group of normally developing children. Methods and Materials: We obtained magnetic resonance imaging scans and measured the cortical thickness in 9 children after treatment of medulloblastoma. The measurements from these children were compared with the measurements from age- and gender-matched normally developing children previously scanned. For additional comparison, the pattern of thickness change was compared with the cortical thickness maps from a larger group of 65 normally developing children. Results: In the left hemisphere, relatively thinner cortex was found in the perirolandic region and the parieto-occipital lobe. In the right hemisphere, relatively thinner cortex was found in the parietal lobe, posterior superior temporal gyrus, and lateral temporal lobe. These regions of cortical thinning overlapped with the regions of cortex that undergo normal age-related thinning. Conclusion: The spatial distribution of cortical thinning suggested that the areas of cortex that are undergoing development are more sensitive to the effects of treatment of medulloblastoma. Such quantitative methods may improve our understanding of the biologic effects that treatment has on the cerebral development and their neuropsychological implications

  9. Hemodynamics in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Shinya; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kimura, Jun

    1991-01-01

    We examined ten healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET) in order to elucidate regional changes and correlations in the cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism. We also studied eight lacunar stroke patients so as to disclose the influences of vascular risk factors and aging on the cerebral blood flow and metabolism. We can conclude from our result as follows: (1) Cerebral blood volume (CBV) was minimum in the basal ganglia and cerebral blood flow (CBF)/CBV ratio was higher than that of cerebral cortex in healthy volunteers; (2) CBF of gray matter in healthy volunteers correlated with CBV and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen where oxygen extraction fraction inversely correlated with CBF, CBV, and CBF/CBV; and (3) the basal ganglia CBF/CBV ratio in lacunar stroke patients was lower than that of healthy volunteers. These findings suggested that the perfusion pressure in the basal ganglia was so high in the normal condition than the angionecrosis or occlusion in the perforating arteries would be induced, especially in the aged and hypertensive patients. (author)

  10. Analysis of haptic information in the cerebral cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Haptic sensing of objects acquires information about a number of properties. This review summarizes current understanding about how these properties are processed in the cerebral cortex of macaques and humans. Nonnoxious somatosensory inputs, after initial processing in primary somatosensory cortex, are partially segregated into different pathways. A ventrally directed pathway carries information about surface texture into parietal opercular cortex and thence to medial occipital cortex. A dorsally directed pathway transmits information regarding the location of features on objects to the intraparietal sulcus and frontal eye fields. Shape processing occurs mainly in the intraparietal sulcus and lateral occipital complex, while orientation processing is distributed across primary somatosensory cortex, the parietal operculum, the anterior intraparietal sulcus, and a parieto-occipital region. For each of these properties, the respective areas outside primary somatosensory cortex also process corresponding visual information and are thus multisensory. Consistent with the distributed neural processing of haptic object properties, tactile spatial acuity depends on interaction between bottom-up tactile inputs and top-down attentional signals in a distributed neural network. Future work should clarify the roles of the various brain regions and how they interact at the network level. PMID:27440247

  11. [Brodmann Areas 20, 21, and 22 in the Cerebral Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Kimitaka; Minami, Shujiro B

    2017-04-01

    The 20, 21, and 22 areas in the temporal lobe as classified by Brodmann are almost identical with Economo and Koskinas's TA, TE1, and TE2, and, generally, with the gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and inferior temporal gyrus according to brain anatomy. Before Brodmann's classification, Flechsig published his book "Soul and Brain" in 1897, in which primary, secondary, and association areas in the brain were classified. More recently, results from research using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fMRI support the parcellation of the cerebral cortex proposed by Flechsig, Brodmann, and Economo more than one century ago.

  12. Cerebral Microcirculation and Oxygen Tension in the Human Secondary Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linninger, A. A.; Gould, I. G.; Marinnan, T.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Chojecki, M.; Alaraj, A.

    2013-01-01

    The three-dimensional spatial arrangement of the cortical microcirculatory system is critical for understanding oxygen exchange between blood vessels and brain cells. A three-dimensional computer model of a 3 × 3 × 3 mm3 subsection of the human secondary cortex was constructed to quantify oxygen advection in the microcirculation, tissue oxygen perfusion, and consumption in the human cortex. This computer model accounts for all arterial, capillary and venous blood vessels of the cerebral microvascular bed as well as brain tissue occupying the extravascular space. Microvessels were assembled with optimization algorithms emulating angiogenic growth; a realistic capillary bed was built with space filling procedures. The extravascular tissue was modeled as a porous medium supplied with oxygen by advection–diffusion to match normal metabolic oxygen demand. The resulting synthetic computer generated network matches prior measured morphometrics and fractal patterns of the cortical microvasculature. This morphologically accurate, physiologically consistent, multi-scale computer network of the cerebral microcirculation predicts the oxygen exchange of cortical blood vessels with the surrounding gray matter. Oxygen tension subject to blood pressure and flow conditions were computed and validated for the blood as well as brain tissue. Oxygen gradients along arterioles, capillaries and veins agreed with in vivo trends observed recently in imaging studies within experimental tolerances and uncertainty. PMID:23842693

  13. Distinct development of the cerebral cortex in platypus and echidna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Hardman, Craig D

    2012-01-01

    Both lineages of the modern monotremes have distinctive features in the cerebral cortex, but the developmental mechanisms that produce such different adult cortical architecture remain unknown. Similarly, nothing is known about the differences and/or similarities between monotreme and therian cortical development. We have used material from the Hill embryological collection to try to answer key questions concerning cortical development in monotremes. Our findings indicate that gyrencephaly begins to emerge in the echidna brain shortly before birth (crown-rump length 12.5 mm), whereas the cortex of the platypus remains lissencephalic throughout development. The cortices of both monotremes are very immature at the time of hatching, much like that seen in marsupials, and both have a subventricular zone (SubV) within both the striatum and pallium during post-hatching development. It is particularly striking that in the platypus, this region has an extension from the palliostriatal angle beneath the developing trigeminoreceptive part of the somatosensory cortex of the lateral cortex. The putative SubV beneath the trigeminal part of S1 appears to accommodate at least two distinct types of cell and many mitotic figures and (particularly in the platypus) appears to be traversed by large numbers of thalamocortical axons as these grow in. The association with putative thalamocortical fibres suggests that this region may also serve functions similar to the subplate zone of Eutheria. These findings suggest that cortical development in each monotreme follows distinct paths from at least the time of birth, consistent with a long period of independent and divergent cortical evolution. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Altered protein mannosylation in developing cerebral cortex by streptomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, M D; Calandria, J M; Carminatti, H; Idoyaga-Vargas, V P

    2000-11-09

    Our research objective was to characterize the biochemical effect of streptomycin during postnatal rat cerebral cortex development using a sensitive method that preserves the in situ topological relationship. We found a decrease in the mannosylation of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides without affecting polypeptide synthesis, DNA synthesis or glucose and mannose disappearance from the medium in mini-tissue units derived from P5. In addition, the rate of Dolp-GlcNAc2 Man9 Glc3 synthesis and the oligosaccharide protein transferase activity did not change in the presence of the aminoglycoside. These findings strongly suggested that the alteration of protein mannosylation occurred downstream of G3 transfer to nascent polypeptides. Further, the mini-tissue units may be useful for the assessment of neurological toxicity of antibacterial agents.

  15. Dopamine-dependent changes in the functional connectivity between basal ganglia and cerebral cortex in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, D; Tijssen, M; van Bruggen, G; Bosch, A; Insola, A; Di Lazzaro, V; Mazzone, P; Oliviero, A; Quartarone, A; Speelman, H; Brown, P

    2002-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that interaction between the human basal ganglia and cerebral cortex involves activity in multiple functional circuits characterized by their frequency of oscillation, phase characteristics, dopamine dependency and topography. To this end we took recordings from

  16. Surface Reconstruction and Optimization of Cerebral Cortex for Application Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Park, Sang Kyu

    2016-03-01

    For the purposes of virtual surgery, medical education, medical communication, and realistic surface models of anatomic structures are required. In the most involved method, surface models can be made using segmentation and three-dimensional reconstruction procedures. Such models, however, are computationally expensive, and can be difficult to use. Therefore, optimization is often performed manually, but this is a time-consuming job that requires considerable artistic talent. In this article, the authors describe a method that uses Maya and ZBrush to construct optimized surface models of anatomic structures. The authors take 235 anatomic images generated from a cadaver, and perform segmentation and surface reconstruction using Photoshop and Mimics. Reconstructed surface models of the cerebral cortex are then optimized and divided by a morphing technique in Maya and ZBrush for use in medical applications. The optimized surface models do not require significant storage space, and are easily manufactured and modified. The resulting surface models can be displayed off-line and on-line in real time, as well as on smart phones. Using commercial software with the specialized functions described in this study, it is expected that the efficiencies produced by the proposed method will enable researchers to conveniently create surface models from serially sectioned images such as computed tomographs and magnetic resonance images. The surface models created in this research will also have widespread applications in both medical education and communication.

  17. Radial Structure Scaffolds Convolution Patterns of Developing Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Jalil Razavi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Commonly-preserved radial convolution is a prominent characteristic of the mammalian cerebral cortex. Endeavors from multiple disciplines have been devoted for decades to explore the causes for this enigmatic structure. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to consistent cortical convolution patterns still remain poorly understood. In this work, inspired by prior studies, we propose and evaluate a plausible theory that radial convolution during the early development of the brain is sculptured by radial structures consisting of radial glial cells (RGCs and maturing axons. Specifically, the regionally heterogeneous development and distribution of RGCs controlled by Trnp1 regulate the convex and concave convolution patterns (gyri and sulci in the radial direction, while the interplay of RGCs' effects on convolution and axons regulates the convex (gyral convolution patterns. This theory is assessed by observations and measurements in literature from multiple disciplines such as neurobiology, genetics, biomechanics, etc., at multiple scales to date. Particularly, this theory is further validated by multimodal imaging data analysis and computational simulations in this study. We offer a versatile and descriptive study model that can provide reasonable explanations of observations, experiments, and simulations of the characteristic mammalian cortical folding.

  18. Alteration of mice cerebral cortex development after prenatal exposure to cypermethrin and deltamethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junnan; Xu, Jinzhong; Zhang, Junshi; An, Lei

    2018-05-01

    Pyrethroids, a group of insecticides with high efficiency, low toxicity and wide spectrum, are used for pest control in agriculture. Here, we administered two representative pyrethroids (cypermethrin and deltamethrin) and an equal volume of vehicle (corn oil) to the pregnant ICR mice. This study investigated the effects of cypermethrin and deltamethrin on cerebral cortex development in mice as well as possible mechanisms in proliferation and differentiation. The results showed that histopathologic change did not occurred in the cerebral cortex using Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, however, the observation of fetuses exposed to cypermethrin and deltamethrin revealed reduction of neuronal proliferation, maturation and differentiation. Moreover, cypermethrin/deltamethrin-induced apoptosis of nerve cell was significantly higher in treated groups than that in control group by using flow cytometry, Western blot and TUNEL. It was worth mentioning that the newborns exposed to cypermethrin and deltamethrin did not showed abnormal neuronal distribution. These findings suggested that prenatal cypermethrin and deltamethrin exposure impaired corticogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Post-mortem assessment of hypoperfusion of cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Taya; Miners, Scott; Love, Seth

    2015-04-01

    ). However, MAG:PLP1 showed a significant negative correlation with the level of EDN1, which we previously showed to be elevated in the cerebral cortex Alzheimer's disease. These finding are in contrast with the previously demonstrated reduction in EDN1, and positive correlation with MAG:PLP1, in the hypoperfused white matter in Alzheimer's disease. The decline in MAG:PLP1 strongly suggests pathological hypoperfusion of the frontal cortex in Alzheimer's disease. Although severe small vessel disease or cerebral amyloid angiopathy may contribute in some cases, abnormal vascular contractility mediated by EDN1 is likely to be a more important overall contributor. Both amyloid-β accumulation and hypoperfusion are likely to cause the upregulation of VEGF. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Cerebral Cortex Regions Selectively Vulnerable to Radiation Dose-Dependent Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Tyler M; Karunamuni, Roshan; Kaifi, Samar; Burkeen, Jeffrey; Connor, Michael; Krishnan, Anitha Priya; White, Nathan S; Farid, Nikdokht; Bartsch, Hauke; Murzin, Vyacheslav; Nguyen, Tanya T; Moiseenko, Vitali; Brewer, James B; McDonald, Carrie R; Dale, Anders M; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A

    2017-04-01

    Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT. The study patients underwent high-resolution, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted; T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, FLAIR) before RT and 1 year afterward. Semiautomated software was used to segment anatomic regions of the cerebral cortex for each patient. Cortical thickness was measured for each region before RT and 1 year afterward. Two higher-order cortical regions of interest (ROIs) were tested for association between radiation dose and cortical thinning: entorhinal (memory) and inferior parietal (attention/memory). For comparison, 2 primary cortex ROIs were also tested: pericalcarine (vision) and paracentral lobule (somatosensory/motor). Linear mixed-effects analyses were used to test all other cortical regions for significant radiation dose-dependent thickness change. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05 using 2-tailed tests. Cortical atrophy was significantly associated with radiation dose in the entorhinal (P=.01) and inferior parietal ROIs (P=.02). By contrast, no significant radiation dose-dependent effect was found in the primary cortex ROIs (pericalcarine and paracentral lobule). In the whole-cortex analysis, 9 regions showed significant radiation dose-dependent atrophy, including areas responsible for memory, attention, and executive function (P≤.002). Areas of cerebral cortex important for higher-order cognition may be most vulnerable to radiation-related atrophy. This is consistent with clinical observations that brain radiation patients experience deficits in domains of

  1. Proteomic analysis of rat cerebral cortex following subchronic acrolein toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Lari, Parisa [Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abnous, Khalil, E-mail: Abnouskh@mums.ac.r [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinzadeh, Hossein, E-mail: Hosseinzadehh@mums.ac.ir [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Acrolein, a member of reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, is a major environmental pollutant. Acrolein is also produced endogenously as a toxic by-product of lipid peroxidation. Because of high reactivity, acrolein may mediate oxidative damages to cells and tissues. It has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of pathological states including pulmonary, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we employed proteomics approach to investigate the effects of subchronic oral exposures to 3 mg/kg of acrolein on protein expression profile in the brain of rats. Moreover effects of acrolein on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were investigated. Our results revealed that treatment with acrolein changed levels of several proteins in diverse physiological process including energy metabolism, cell communication and transport, response to stimulus and metabolic process. Interestingly, several differentially over-expressed proteins, including β-synuclein, enolase and calcineurin, are known to be associated with human neurodegenerative diseases. Changes in the levels of some proteins were confirmed by Western blot. Moreover, acrolein increases the level of MDA, as a lipid peroxidation biomarker and decreased GSH concentrations, as a non-enzyme antioxidant in the brain of acrolein treated rats. These findings suggested that acrolein induces the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the brain, and so that may contribute to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. - Highlights: • Acrolein intoxication increased lipid peroxidation and deplete GSH in rat brain. • Effect of acrolein on protein levels of cerebral cortex was analyzed by 2DE-PAGE. • Levels of a number of proteins with different biological functions were increased.

  2. Proteomic analysis of rat cerebral cortex following subchronic acrolein toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Lari, Parisa; Abnous, Khalil; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Acrolein, a member of reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, is a major environmental pollutant. Acrolein is also produced endogenously as a toxic by-product of lipid peroxidation. Because of high reactivity, acrolein may mediate oxidative damages to cells and tissues. It has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of pathological states including pulmonary, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we employed proteomics approach to investigate the effects of subchronic oral exposures to 3 mg/kg of acrolein on protein expression profile in the brain of rats. Moreover effects of acrolein on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were investigated. Our results revealed that treatment with acrolein changed levels of several proteins in diverse physiological process including energy metabolism, cell communication and transport, response to stimulus and metabolic process. Interestingly, several differentially over-expressed proteins, including β-synuclein, enolase and calcineurin, are known to be associated with human neurodegenerative diseases. Changes in the levels of some proteins were confirmed by Western blot. Moreover, acrolein increases the level of MDA, as a lipid peroxidation biomarker and decreased GSH concentrations, as a non-enzyme antioxidant in the brain of acrolein treated rats. These findings suggested that acrolein induces the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the brain, and so that may contribute to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. - Highlights: • Acrolein intoxication increased lipid peroxidation and deplete GSH in rat brain. • Effect of acrolein on protein levels of cerebral cortex was analyzed by 2DE-PAGE. • Levels of a number of proteins with different biological functions were increased

  3. Regulation of rat plasma and cerebral cortex oxylipin concentrations with increasing levels of dietary linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y; Hennebelle, Marie; Yang, Jun; Zamora, Daisy; Rapoport, Stanley I; Hammock, Bruce D; Ramsden, Christopher E

    2016-05-11

    Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the North American diet and is a precursor to circulating bioactive fatty acid metabolites implicated in brain disorders. This exploratory study tested the effects of increasing dietary LA on plasma and cerebral cortex metabolites derived from LA, its elongation-desaturation products dihomo-gamma linolenic (DGLA, 20:3n-6) acid and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), as well as omega-3 alpha-linolenic (α-LNA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). Plasma and cortex were obtained from rats fed a 0.4%, 5.2% or 10.5% energy LA diet for 15 weeks and subjected to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Total oxylipin concentrations, representing the esterified and unesterified pool, and unesterified oxylipins derived from LA and AA were significantly increased and EPA metabolites decreased in plasma at 5.2% or 10.5% energy LA compared to 0.4% energy LA. Unesterified plasma DHA metabolites also decreased at 10.5% energy LA. In cortex, total and unesterified LA and AA metabolites increased and unesterified EPA metabolites decreased at 5.2% or 10.5% LA. DGLA and α-LNA metabolites did not significantly change in plasma or cortex. Dietary LA lowering represents a feasible approach for targeting plasma and brain LA, AA, EPA or DHA-derived metabolite concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. TRH regulates action potential shape in cerebral cortex pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Molina, Víctor; Patiño, Javier; Vargas, Yamili; Sánchez-Jaramillo, Edith; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia; Charli, Jean-Louis

    2014-07-07

    Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) is a neuropeptide with a wide neural distribution and a variety of functions. It modulates neuronal electrophysiological properties, including resting membrane potential, as well as excitatory postsynaptic potential and spike frequencies. We explored, with whole-cell patch clamp, TRH effect on action potential shape in pyramidal neurons of the sensorimotor cortex. TRH reduced spike and after hyperpolarization amplitudes, and increased spike half-width. The effect varied with dose, time and cortical layer. In layer V, 0.5µM of TRH induced a small increase in spike half-width, while 1 and 5µM induced a strong but transient change in spike half-width, and amplitude; after hyperpolarization amplitude was modified at 5µM of TRH. Cortical layers III and VI neurons responded intensely to 0.5µM TRH; layer II neurons response was small. The effect of 1µM TRH on action potential shape in layer V neurons was blocked by G-protein inhibition. Inhibition of the activity of the TRH-degrading enzyme pyroglutamyl peptidase II (PPII) reproduced the effect of TRH, with enhanced spike half-width. Many cortical PPII mRNA+ cells were VGLUT1 mRNA+, and some GAD mRNA+. These data show that TRH regulates action potential shape in pyramidal cortical neurons, and are consistent with the hypothesis that PPII controls its action in this region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stimulation of prostaglandin synthesis in rat cerebral cortex via a beta-adrenoceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, K; Templeton, W W

    1982-01-01

    1. Synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) in rat cerebral cortex slices is increased by beta-adrenoceptor agonists. 2. Phenylephrine, an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, has no effect while oxymetazoline increased PGF2 alpha only. 3. PG synthesis stimulation by noradrenaline (NA) was prevented by beta- but not by alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists. 4. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP and inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase augment PG synthesis. 5. Stimulation of PG synthesis in rat cerebral cortex by NA is mediated by a beta-adrenoceptor.

  6. The basolateral amygdala modulates specific sensory memory representations in the cerebral cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Chavez, Candice M.; McGaugh, James L.; Weinberger, Norman M.

    2008-01-01

    Stress hormones released by an experience can modulate memory strength via the basolateral amygdala, which in turn acts on sites of memory storage such as the cerebral cortex [McGaugh, J. L. (2004). The amygdala modulates the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 1–28]. Stimuli that acquire behavioral importance gain increased representation in the cortex. For example, learning shifts the tuning of neurons in the primary auditory cor...

  7. Metabolic response of the cerebral cortex following gentle sleep deprivation and modafinil administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean-Marie; Tobler, Irene; Kopp, Caroline; Morgenthaler, Florence; Borbély, Alexander A; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2010-07-01

    The main energy reserve of the brain is glycogen, which is almost exclusively localized in astrocytes. We previously reported that cerebral expression of certain genes related to glycogen metabolism changed following instrumental sleep deprivation in mice. Here, we extended our investigations to another set of genes related to glycogen and glucose metabolism. We also compared the effect of instrumentally and pharmacologically induced prolonged wakefulness, followed (or not) by 3 hours of sleep recovery, on the expression of genes related to brain energy metabolism. Sleep deprivation for 6-7 hours. Animal sleep research laboratory. Adults OF1 mice. Wakefulness was maintained by "gentle sleep deprivation" method (GSD) or by administration of the wakefulness-promoting drug modafinil (MOD) (200 mg/kg i.p.). Levels of mRNAs encoding proteins related to energy metabolism were measured by quantitative real-time PCR in the cerebral cortex. The mRNAs encoding protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) and the glial glucose transporter were significantly increased following both procedures used to prolong wakefulness. Glycogenin mRNA levels were increased only after GSD, while neuronal glucose transporter mRNA only after MOD. These effects were reversed after sleep recovery. A significant enhancement of glycogen synthase activity without any changes in glycogen levels was observed in both conditions. These results indicate the existence of a metabolic adaptation of astrocytes aimed at maintaining brain energy homeostasis during the sleep-wake cycle.

  8. Factors affecting the conductivity of pathways in the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, T V; Burns, B D; Uttley, A M

    1968-03-01

    1. We have investigated the conductivity of neural pathways in slabs of unanaesthetized, isolated, cerebral cortex, cut from the isolated forebrains of twenty-five cats.2. Neurones within the isolated area were indirectly excited, either by a small electrode thrust into the subcortical white matter, or by remote stimulation of the pial surface. Sometimes a small electrode was employed for intracortical stimulation.3. The response of single neurones to these stimuli was recorded with extracellular micropipettes. Submaximal stimuli produced a stochastic response which was measured from the post-stimulus histogram (PSH) and provided an estimate of the probability of discharge at various times after the stimulus.4. The PSH often displayed several discrete humps of different latencies, indicating several pathways between stimulated and recording point. Conductivity measurements were usually restricted to the pathway of shortest latency.5. The conductivity of a pathway was defined as C = xy/x, averaged over 1 or 2 min, wherex = frequency of afferent test volleys,xy = frequency of response: i.e. of those action potentials contained within a well-defined hump of the PSH,(y = frequency of all discharges of the recorded neurone).6. The progress of conductivity was tested with some constant form of cortical stimulation, repeated at regular intervals of 1-5 sec. Reliable results were obtained for twenty-six pathways subjected to thirty-eight experiments.7. Temporary alteration of x, y or xy (conditioning with Deltax, Deltay or Deltaxy), for a period of 6-25 min, often caused a subsequent change in the conductivity (DeltaC) of a pathway which sometimes attenuated with a time constant of about 10 min, but which could persist without detectable attenuation for 20-30 min.8. Conditioning periods less than 6 min rarely produced changes in conductivity; alterations of conductivity were more likely to be caused by conditioning periods longer than 17 min, than by periods of 6-16 min.9

  9. Cerebral small vessel disease, cognitive reserve and cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Daniela; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz

    2015-11-01

    The concept of cognitive reserve describes differences between individuals in the ability to compensate age-related brain changes or pathology as a result of greater intellectual enrichment. Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a common age-related vascular disease of the brain associated with slowly accumulating tissue damage and represents a leading cause of functional loss, disability and cognitive decline in the elderly. The promotion of cognitive reserve might be a valuable possibility to moderate the negative impact of accumulating brain changes associated with CSVD on cognitive function and thus limit the functional consequences of CSVD. We here review existing studies investigating this topic in CSVD and provide conceptual considerations why future research is needed. Relevant studies were identified using the electronic databases PubMed and MEDLINE. Six studies including 7893 subjects were found that all focused on a single feature of CSVD only, i.e., white matter hyperintensities (WMH). We also included one study investigating 247 CADASIL patients. In general, they confirm that higher cognitive reserve (i.e., educational attainment) attenuates the negative impact of WMH on cognition. Further studies should attempt to replicate this association for all features of CSVD and to expand the concept to other areas of functional loss like disordered gait. Finally intervention studies will be needed to define when and how we can still increase our cognitive reserve and what kind and magnitude of protective effects this may offer.

  10. Protein metabolism in the rat cerebral cortex in vivo and in vitro as affected by the acquisition enhancing drug piracetam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nickolson, V.J.; Wolthuis, O.L.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of Piracetam on rat cerebral protein metabolism in vivo and in vitro was studied. It was found that the drug stimulates the uptake of labelled leucine by cerebral cortex slices, has no effect on the incorporation of leucine into cerebral protein, neither in slices nor in vivo, but

  11. Effects of Mercury Chloride on the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Wistar Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mercury is among the heavy metals that have been reported to cause devastating health problem worldwide. The primary site of action of mercury chloride is the central nervous system. This study investigated the effect of mercury chloride on the cerebral cortex of adult wistar rats. Twenty-four (24) adult wistar rats were used ...

  12. RTTN mutations link primary cilia function to organization of the human cerebral cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Kia; E. Verbeek (Elly); M.P. Engelen (Erik); R. Schot (Rachel); R.A. Poot (Raymond); I.F.M. de Coo (René); M. Leguin (Maarten); C.J. Poulton (Cathryn); F. Pourfarzad, F. (Farzin); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); A. Brehm (António); M.C.Y. de Wit (Marie Claire); R. Oegema (Renske); W.B. Dobyns (William); F.W. Verheijen (Frans); G.M.S. Mancini (Grazia)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPolymicrogyria is a malformation of the developing cerebral cortex caused by abnormal organization and characterized by many small gyri and fusion of the outer molecular layer. We have identified autosomal-recessive mutations in RTTN, encoding Rotatin, in individuals with bilateral

  13. Investigation of Implantable Multi-Channel Electrode Array in Rat Cerebral Cortex Used for Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Noriyuki; Fukayama, Osamu; Suzuki, Takafumi; Mabuchi, Kunihiko

    There have recently been many studies concerning the control of robot movements using neural signals recorded from the brain (usually called the Brain-Machine interface (BMI)). We fabricated implantable multi-electrode arrays to obtain neural signals from the rat cerebral cortex. As any multi-electrode array should have electrode alignment that minimizes invasion, it is necessary to customize the recording site. We designed three types of 22-channel multi-electrode arrays, i.e., 1) wide, 2) three-layered, and 3) separate. The first extensively covers the cerebral cortex. The second has a length of 2 mm, which can cover the area of the primary motor cortex. The third array has a separate structure, which corresponds to the position of the forelimb and hindlimb areas of the primary motor cortex. These arrays were implanted into the cerebral cortex of a rat. We estimated the walking speed from neural signals using our fabricated three-layered array to investigate its feasibility for BMI research. The neural signal of the rat and its walking speed were simultaneously recorded. The results revealed that evaluation using either the anterior electrode group or posterior group provided accurate estimates. However, two electrode groups around the center yielded poor estimates although it was possible to record neural signals.

  14. Distribution of neurons in functional areas of the mouse cerebral cortex reveals quantitatively different cortical zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Watson, Charles; Paxinos, George

    2013-01-01

    How are neurons distributed along the cortical surface and across functional areas? Here we use the isotropic fractionator (Herculano-Houzel and Lent, 2005) to analyze the distribution of neurons across the entire isocortex of the mouse, divided into 18 functional areas defined anatomically. We find that the number of neurons underneath a surface area (the N/A ratio) varies 4.5-fold across functional areas and neuronal density varies 3.2-fold. The face area of S1 contains the most neurons, followed by motor cortex and the primary visual cortex. Remarkably, while the distribution of neurons across functional areas does not accompany the distribution of surface area, it mirrors closely the distribution of cortical volumes—with the exception of the visual areas, which hold more neurons than expected for their volume. Across the non-visual cortex, the volume of individual functional areas is a shared linear function of their number of neurons, while in the visual areas, neuronal densities are much higher than in all other areas. In contrast, the 18 functional areas cluster into three different zones according to the relationship between the N/A ratio and cortical thickness and neuronal density: these three clusters can be called visual, sensory, and, possibly, associative. These findings are remarkably similar to those in the human cerebral cortex (Ribeiro et al., 2013) and suggest that, like the human cerebral cortex, the mouse cerebral cortex comprises two zones that differ in how neurons form the cortical volume, and three zones that differ in how neurons are distributed underneath the cortical surface, possibly in relation to local differences in connectivity through the white matter. Our results suggest that beyond the developmental divide into visual and non-visual cortex, functional areas initially share a common distribution of neurons along the parenchyma that become delimited into functional areas according to the pattern of connectivity established later

  15. Distribution of neurons in functional areas of the mouse cerebral cortex reveals quantitatively different cortical zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana eHerculano-Houzel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available How are neurons distributed along the cortical surface and across functional areas? Here we use the isotropic fractionator (Herculano-Houzel and Lent, 2005 to analyze the distribution of neurons across the entire isocortex of the mouse, divided into 18 functional areas defined anatomically. We find that the number of neurons underneath a surface area (the N/A ratio varies 4.5-fold across functional areas and neuronal density varies 3.2-fold. The face area of S1 contains the most neurons, followed by motor cortex and the primary visual cortex. Remarkably, while the distribution of neurons across functional areas does not accompany the distribution of surface area, it mirrors closely the distribution of cortical volumes – with the exception of the visual areas, which hold more neurons than expected for their volume. Across the non-visual cortex, the volume of individual functional areas is a shared linear function of their number of neurons, while in the visual areas, neuronal densities are much higher than in all other areas. In contrast, the 18 functional areas cluster into three different zones according to the relationship between the N/A ratio and cortical thickness and neuronal density: these three clusters can be called visual, sensory, and, possibly, associative. These findings are remarkably similar to those in the human cerebral cortex (see companion paper and suggest that, like the human cerebral cortex, the mouse cerebral cortex comprises two zones that differ in how neurons form the cortical volume, and three zones that differ in how neurons are distributed underneath the cortical surface, possibly in relation to local differences in connectivity through the white matter. Our results suggest that beyond the developmental divide into visual and non-visual cortex, functional areas initially share a common distribution of neurons along the parenchyma that become delimited into functional areas according to the pattern of connectivity

  16. Cerebral cortex dose sparing for glioblastoma patients: IMRT versus robust treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exeli, Ann-Katrin; Kellner, Daniel; Exeli, Lukas; Steininger, Phil; Wolf, Frank; Sedlmayer, Felix; Deutschmann, Heinz

    2018-02-06

    To date, patients with glioblastoma still have a bad median overall survival rate despite radiation dose-escalation and combined modality treatment. Neurocognitive decline is a crucial adverse event which may be linked to high doses to the cortex. In a planning study, we investigated the impact of dose constraints to the cerebral cortex and its relation to the organs at risk for glioblastoma patients. Cortical sparing was implemented into the optimization process for two planning approaches: classical intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and robust treatment planning. The plans with and without objectives for cortex sparing where compared based on dose-volume histograms (DVH) data of the main organs at risk. Additionally the cortex volume above a critical threshold of 28.6 Gy was elaborated. Furthermore, IMRT plans were compared with robust treatment plans regarding potential cortex sparing. Cortical dose constraints result in a statistically significant reduced cerebral cortex volume above 28.6 Gy without negative effects to the surrounding organs at risk independently of the optimization technique. For IMRT we found a mean volume reduction of doses beyond the threshold of 19%, and 16% for robust treatment planning, respectively. Robust plans delivered sharper dose gradients around the target volume in an order of 3 - 6%. Aside from that the integration of cortical sparing into the optimization process has the potential to reduce the dose around the target volume (4 - 8%). We were able to show that dose to the cerebral cortex can be significantly reduced both with robust treatment planning and IMRT while maintaining clinically adequate target coverage and without corrupting any organ at risk. Robust treatment plans delivered more conformal plans compared to IMRT and were superior in regards to cortical sparing.

  17. Reduced Numbers of Somatostatin Receptors in the Cerebral Cortex in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint Beal, M.; Mazurek, Michael F.; Tran, Vinh T.; Chattha, Geetinder; Bird, Edward D.; Martin, Joseph B.

    1985-07-01

    Somatostatin receptor concentrations were measured in patients with Alzheimer's disease and controls. In the frontal cortex (Brodmann areas 6, 9, and 10) and temporal cortex (Brodmann area 21), the concentrations of somatostatin in receptors in the patients were reduced to approximately 50 percent of control values. A 40 percent reduction was seen in the hippocampus, while no significant changes were found in the cingulate cortex, postcentral gyrus, temporal pole, and superior temporal gyrus. Scatchard analysis showed a reduction in receptor number rather than a change in affinity. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in both the frontal and temporal cortex. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity was linearly related to somatostatin-receptor binding in the cortices of Alzheimer's patients. These findings may reflect degeneration of postsynaptic neurons or cortical afferents in the patients' cerebral cortices. Alternatively, decreased somatostatinlike immunoreactivity in Alzheimer's disease might indicate increased release of somatostatin and down regulation of postsynaptic receptors.

  18. Cerebral cortex hyperthyroidism of newborn mct8-deficient mice transiently suppressed by lat2 inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Núñez

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone entry into cells is facilitated by transmembrane transporters. Mutations of the specific thyroid hormone transporter, MCT8 (Monocarboxylate Transporter 8, SLC16A2 cause an X-linked syndrome of profound neurological impairment and altered thyroid function known as the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome. MCT8 deficiency presumably results in failure of thyroid hormone to reach the neural target cells in adequate amounts to sustain normal brain development. However during the perinatal period the absence of Mct8 in mice induces a state of cerebral cortex hyperthyroidism, indicating increased brain access and/or retention of thyroid hormone. The contribution of other transporters to thyroid hormone metabolism and action, especially in the context of MCT8 deficiency is not clear. We have analyzed the role of the heterodimeric aminoacid transporter Lat2 (Slc7a8, in the presence or absence of Mct8, on thyroid hormone concentrations and on expression of thyroid hormone-dependent cerebral cortex genes. To this end we generated Lat2-/-, and Mct8-/yLat2-/- mice, to compare with wild type and Mct8-/y mice during postnatal development. As described previously the single Mct8 KO neonates had a transient increase of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine concentration and expression of thyroid hormone target genes in the cerebral cortex. Strikingly the absence of Lat2 in the double Mct8Lat2 KO prevented the effect of Mct8 inactivation in newborns. The Lat2 effect was not observed from postnatal day 5 onwards. On postnatal day 21 the Mct8 KO displayed the typical pattern of thyroid hormone concentrations in plasma, decreased cortex 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine concentration and Hr expression, and concomitant Lat2 inactivation produced little to no modifications. As Lat2 is expressed in neurons and in the choroid plexus, the results support a role for Lat2 in the supply of thyroid hormone to the cerebral cortex during early postnatal development.

  19. Visual Motion Discrimination by Propagating Patterns in Primate Cerebral Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Rory G; Solomon, Selina S; Martin, Paul R; Solomon, Samuel G; Gong, Pulin

    2017-10-18

    Visual stimuli can evoke waves of neural activity that propagate across the surface of visual cortical areas. The relevance of these waves for visual processing is unknown. Here, we measured the phase and amplitude of local field potentials (LFPs) in electrode array recordings from the motion-processing medial temporal (MT) area of anesthetized male marmosets. Animals viewed grating or dot-field stimuli drifting in different directions. We found that, on individual trials, the direction of LFP wave propagation is sensitive to the direction of stimulus motion. Propagating LFP patterns are also detectable in trial-averaged activity, but the trial-averaged patterns exhibit different dynamics and behaviors from those in single trials and are similar across motion directions. We show that this difference arises because stimulus-sensitive propagating patterns are present in the phase of single-trial oscillations, whereas the trial-averaged signal is dominated by additive amplitude effects. Our results demonstrate that propagating LFP patterns can represent sensory inputs at timescales relevant to visually guided behaviors and raise the possibility that propagating activity patterns serve neural information processing in area MT and other cortical areas. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Propagating wave patterns are widely observed in the cortex, but their functional relevance remains unknown. We show here that visual stimuli generate propagating wave patterns in local field potentials (LFPs) in a movement-sensitive area of the primate cortex and that the propagation direction of these patterns is sensitive to stimulus motion direction. We also show that averaging LFP signals across multiple stimulus presentations (trial averaging) yields propagating patterns that capture different dynamic properties of the LFP response and show negligible direction sensitivity. Our results demonstrate that sensory stimuli can modulate propagating wave patterns reliably in the cortex. The relevant

  20. Relating neuronal firing patterns to functional differentiation of cerebral cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Shinomoto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been empirically established that the cerebral cortical areas defined by Brodmann one hundred years ago solely on the basis of cellular organization are closely correlated to their function, such as sensation, association, and motion. Cytoarchitectonically distinct cortical areas have different densities and types of neurons. Thus, signaling patterns may also vary among cytoarchitectonically unique cortical areas. To examine how neuronal signaling patterns are related to innate cortical functions, we detected intrinsic features of cortical firing by devising a metric that efficiently isolates non-Poisson irregular characteristics, independent of spike rate fluctuations that are caused extrinsically by ever-changing behavioral conditions. Using the new metric, we analyzed spike trains from over 1,000 neurons in 15 cortical areas sampled by eight independent neurophysiological laboratories. Analysis of firing-pattern dissimilarities across cortical areas revealed a gradient of firing regularity that corresponded closely to the functional category of the cortical area; neuronal spiking patterns are regular in motor areas, random in the visual areas, and bursty in the prefrontal area. Thus, signaling patterns may play an important role in function-specific cerebral cortical computation.

  1. Daily consumption of white tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)) improves the cerebral cortex metabolic and oxidative profile in prediabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ana R; Alves, Marco G; Tomás, Gonçalo D; Conde, Vanessa R; Cristóvão, Ana C; Moreira, Paula I; Oliveira, Pedro F; Silva, Branca M

    2015-03-14

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major public health problem and its incidence is rising dramatically. The brain, particularly the cerebral cortex, is very susceptible to glucose fluctuations and hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)) is widely consumed; however, the antidiabetic properties of white tea remain largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of daily consumption of white tea on the cerebral cortex of prediabetic rats. The cerebral cortex metabolic profile was evaluated, and the expression levels of GLUT, phosphofructokinase-1, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and monocarboxylate transporter 4 were assessed. LDH activity was also determined. The cerebral cortex oxidative profile was determined by evaluating its antioxidant power, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation levels. Catalase, glutathione, glutamate, N-acetylaspartate, aspartate, choline, γ-aminobutyric acid, taurine and valine contents were determined. Daily consumption of white tea ameliorated glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Moreover, white tea altered the cortex glycolytic profile, modulating GLUT expression and lactate and alanine contents. Finally, white tea consumption restored protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels and catalase expression, and improved antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, daily consumption of white tea improved the cerebral cortex metabolic and oxidative profile in prediabetic rats, suggesting it as a good, safe and inexpensive strategy to prevent DM-related effects in the cerebral cortex.

  2. Decreased light attenuation in cerebral cortex during cerebral edema detected using optical coherence tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Carissa L. R.; Szu, Jenny I.; Eberle, Melissa M.; Wang, Yan; Hsu, Mike S.; Binder, Devin K.; Park, B. Hyle

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Cerebral edema develops in response to a variety of conditions, including traumatic brain injury and stroke, and contributes to the poor prognosis associated with these injuries. This study examines the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for detecting cerebral edema in vivo. Three-dimensional imaging of an in vivo water intoxication model in mice was performed using a spectral-domain OCT system centered at 1300 nm. The change in attenuation coefficient was calculated and cere...

  3. Effects of continuous low-dose prenatal irradiation on neuronal migration in mouse cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyodo-Taguchi, Yasuko; Ishikawa, Yuji; Hirobe, Tomohisa; Fushiki, Shinji; Kinoshita, Chikako.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the effects of continuous exposure to γ-rays during corticogenesis on the migration of neuronal cells in developing cerebral cortex. Pregnant mice were injected with 0.5 mg of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) on day 14 of gestation to label cells in the S phase. The mice were then exposed to 137 Cs γ-rays (dose rates of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.94 Gy/day) continuously for 3 days. Brains from 17-day-old embryos and from offspring at 3 and 8 weeks after birth were processed immunohistochemically to track the movements of BrdU-labeled cells. Comparative analyses of the distribution pattern of BrdU-labeled cells in the cerebral cortex revealed that the migration of neurons was delayed during the embryonic period in mice irradiated at 0.94 Gy/day, in 3-week-old mice, there was a significant difference in the distribution pattern of BrdU-labeled cells in the cerebral cortex between the mice irradiated prenatally and control, and in 8-week-old mice, there were no differences in the distribution pattern of BrdU-labeled cells between control and animals irradiated with 0.1 and 0.3 Gy/day. In contrast, in the animals irradiated with 0.94 Gy/day, the significant difference in the distribution pattern of the labeled cells relative to control was maintained. These results suggest that the migration of neuronal cells in mouse cerebral cortex is disturbed by continuous prenatal irradiation at low-dose and some modificational process occurred during the postnatal period. (author)

  4. Binding properties of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in rat cerebral cortex: similarity to smooth muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minneman, K.P.

    1983-12-01

    The characteristics of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in rat cerebral cortex were examined using the radioiodinated alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist ((/sup 125/I)BE). (/sup 125/I)BE labeled a single class of high-affinity binding sites in a particulate fraction of rat cerebral cortex with mass action kinetics and a KD of 57 pM. The binding of (/sup 125/I)BE was inhibited by various alpha adrenergic receptor antagonists, partial agonists and full agonists. The potency of these compounds in competing for the (/sup 125/I)BE binding sites suggested that (/sup 125/I)BE was labeling alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in rat cerebral cortex. In the absence of a physiological concentration of NaCl in the assay medium there was a small (20%) decrease in the density of (/sup 125/I)BE binding sites with no effect on the KD value. The absence of NaCl also caused a 4-fold increase in the potency of norepinephrine in competing for (/sup 125/I)BE binding sites. All drugs competed for (/sup 125/I) BE binding sites with Hill coefficients greater than 0.86, except for oxymetazoline which had a Hill coefficient of 0.77. Scatchard analysis of specific (/sup 125/I)BE binding in the presence of various competing drugs showed that the inhibition by both agonists and antagonists was purely competitive, but the inhibition by oxymetazoline was complex. Treatment of the particulate fraction of rat cerebral cortex with 0.2 to 200 nM phenoxybenzamine for 10 min caused a dose-dependent decrease in the density of (/sup 125/I) BE binding sites which could be mostly blocked by the presence of norepinephrine during the phenoxybenzamine exposure.

  5. Developmental Sex Differences in the Metabolism of Cardiolipin in Mouse Cerebral Cortex Mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Acaz-Fonseca, Estefan?a; Ortiz-Rodriguez, Ana; Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana B.; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Astiz, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a mitochondrial-specific phospholipid. CL content and acyl chain composition are crucial for energy production. Given that estradiol induces CL synthesis in neurons, we aimed to assess CL metabolism in the cerebral cortex (CC) of male and female mice during early postnatal life, when sex steroids induce sex-dimorphic maturation of the brain. Despite the fact that total amount of CL was similar, its fatty acid composition differed between males and females at birth. In male...

  6. Mitochondrial complex I inhibition in cerebral cortex of immature rats following homocysteic acid-induced seizures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Ješina, Pavel; Drahota, Zdeněk; Lisý, Václav; Haugvicová, Renata; Vojtíšková, Alena; Houštěk, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 204, č. 2 (2007), s. 597-609 ISSN 0014-4886 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/06/1261; GA MŠk 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : cerebral cortex * homocysteic acid * free radical scavenger Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.982, year: 2007

  7. Morphology and distribution of chandelier cell axon terminals in the mouse cerebral cortex and claustroamygdaloid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, M C; DeFelipe, J; Muñoz, A

    2009-01-01

    Chandelier cells represent a unique type of cortical gamma-aminobutityric acidergic interneuron whose axon terminals (Ch-terminals) only form synapses with the axon initial segments of some pyramidal cells. Here, we have used immunocytochemistry for the high-affinity plasma membrane transporter GAT-1 and the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin to analyze the morphology and distribution of Ch-terminals in the mouse cerebral cortex and claustroamygdaloid complex. In general, 2 types of Ch-terminals were distinguished on the basis of their size and the density of the axonal boutons that made up the terminal. Simple Ch-terminals were made up of 1 or 2 rows of labeled boutons, each row consisting of only 3-5 boutons. In contrast, complex Ch-terminals were tight cylinder-like structures made up of multiple rows of boutons. Simple Ch-terminals were detected throughout the cerebral cortex and claustroamygdaloid complex, the complex type was only occasionally found in certain regions, whereas in others they were very abundant. These results indicate that there are substantial differences in the morphology and distribution of Ch-terminals between different areas and layers of the mouse cerebral cortex. Furthermore, we suggest that the distribution of complex Ch-terminals may be related to the developmental origin of the different brain regions analyzed.

  8. Cholinergic receptor alterations in the cerebral cortex of spinal cord injured rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chinthu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many areas of the cerebral cortex process sensory information or coordinate motor output necessary for control of movement. Disturbances in cortical cholinergic system can affect locomotor coordination. Spinal cord injury causes severe motor impairment and disturbances in cholinergic signalling can aggravate the situation. Considering the impact of cortical cholinergic firing in locomotion, we focussed the study in understanding the cholinergic alterations in cerebral cortex during spinal cord injury. The gene expression of key enzymes in cholinergic pathway - acetylcholine esterase and choline acetyl transferase showed significant upregulation in the cerebral cortex of spinal cord injured group compared to control with the fold increase in expression of acetylcholine esterase prominently higher than cholineacetyl transferase. The decreased muscarinic receptor density and reduced immunostaining of muscarinic receptor subtypes along with down regulated gene expression of muscarinic M1 and M3 receptor subtypes accounts for dysfunction of metabotropic acetylcholine receptors in spinal cord injury group. Ionotropic acetylcholine receptor alterations were evident from the decreased gene expression of alpha 7 nicotinic receptors and reduced immunostaining of alpha 7 nicotinic receptors in confocal imaging. Our data pin points the disturbances in cortical cholinergic function due to spinal cord injury; which can augment the locomotor deficits. This can be taken into account while devising a proper therapeutic approach to manage spinal cord injury.

  9. Impaired cerebral cortex development and blood pressure regulation in FGF-2-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dono, R; Texido, G; Dussel, R; Ehmke, H; Zeller, R

    1998-08-03

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) has been implicated in various signaling processes which control embryonic growth and differentiation, adult physiology and pathology. To analyze the in vivo functions of this signaling molecule, the FGF-2 gene was inactivated by homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells. FGF-2-deficient mice are viable, but display cerebral cortex defects at birth. Bromodeoxyuridine pulse labeling of embryos showed that proliferation of neuronal progenitors is normal, whereas a fraction of them fail to colonize their target layers in the cerebral cortex. A corresponding reduction in parvalbumin-positive neurons is observed in adult cortical layers. Neuronal defects are not limited to the cerebral cortex, as ectopic parvalbumin-positive neurons are present in the hippocampal commissure and neuronal deficiencies are observed in the cervical spinal cord. Physiological studies showed that FGF-2-deficient adult mice are hypotensive. They respond normally to angiotensin II-induced hypertension, whereas neural regulation of blood pressure by the baroreceptor reflex is impaired. The present genetic study establishes that FGF-2 participates in controlling fates, migration and differentiation of neuronal cells, whereas it is not essential for their proliferation. The observed autonomic dysfunction in FGF-2-deficient adult mice uncovers more general roles in neural development and function.

  10. Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Peter; Turner-Bridger, Benita; Peter, Manuel; Momoh, Ayiba; Arambepola, Devika; Robinson, Hugh P C; Livesey, Frederick J

    2015-09-15

    A key aspect of nervous system development, including that of the cerebral cortex, is the formation of higher-order neural networks. Developing neural networks undergo several phases with distinct activity patterns in vivo, which are thought to prune and fine-tune network connectivity. We report here that human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cerebral cortex neurons form large-scale networks that reflect those found in the developing cerebral cortex in vivo. Synchronised oscillatory networks develop in a highly stereotyped pattern over several weeks in culture. An initial phase of increasing frequency of oscillations is followed by a phase of decreasing frequency, before giving rise to non-synchronous, ordered activity patterns. hPSC-derived cortical neural networks are excitatory, driven by activation of AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors, and can undergo NMDA-receptor-mediated plasticity. Investigating single neuron connectivity within PSC-derived cultures, using rabies-based trans-synaptic tracing, we found two broad classes of neuronal connectivity: most neurons have small numbers (40). These data demonstrate that the formation of hPSC-derived cortical networks mimics in vivo cortical network development and function, demonstrating the utility of in vitro systems for mechanistic studies of human forebrain neural network biology. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Immunohistochemical markers of neural progenitor cells in the early embryonic human cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vinci

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the human central nervous system represents a delicate moment of embryogenesis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of multiple immunohistochemical markers in the stem/progenitor cells in the human cerebral cortex during the early phases of development.  To this end, samples from cerebral cortex were obtained from 4 human embryos of 11 weeks of gestation. Each sample was formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded and immunostained with several markers including GFAP, WT1, Nestin, Vimentin, CD117, S100B, Sox2, PAX2, PAX5, Tβ4, Neurofilament, CD44, CD133, Synaptophysin and Cyclin D1. Our study shows the ability of the different immunohistochemical markers to evidence different zones of the developing human cerebral cortex, allowing the identification of the multiple stages of differentiation of neuronal and glial precursors. Three important markers of radial glial cells are evidenced in this early gestational age: Vimentin, Nestin and WT1. Sox2 was expressed by the stem/progenitor cells of the ventricular zone, whereas the postmitotic neurons of the cortical plate were immunostained by PAX2 and NSE. Future studies are needed to test other important stem/progenitor cells markers and to better analyze differences in the immunohistochemical expression of these markers during gestation.

  12. Genomic responses in rat cerebral cortex after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathiesen Tiit

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI initiates a complex sequence of destructive and neuroprotective cellular responses. The initial mechanical injury is followed by an extended time period of secondary brain damage. Due to the complicated pathological picture a better understanding of the molecular events occurring during this secondary phase of injury is needed. This study was aimed at analysing gene expression patterns following cerebral cortical contusion in rat using high throughput microarray technology with the goal of identifying genes involved in an early and in a more delayed phase of trauma, as genomic responses behind secondary mechanisms likely are time-dependent. Results Among the upregulated genes 1 day post injury, were transcription factors and genes involved in metabolism, e.g. STAT-3, C/EBP-δ and cytochrome p450. At 4 days post injury we observed increased gene expression of inflammatory factors, proteases and their inhibitors, like cathepsins, α-2-macroglobulin and C1q. Notably, genes with biological function clustered to immune response were significantly upregulated 4 days after injury, which was not found following 1 day. Osteopontin and one of its receptors, CD-44, were both upregulated showing a local mRNA- and immunoreactivity pattern in and around the injury site. Fewer genes had decreased expression both 1 and 4 days post injury and included genes implicated in transport, metabolism, signalling, and extra cellular matrix formation, e.g. vitronectin, neuroserpin and angiotensinogen. Conclusion The different patterns of gene expression, with little overlap in genes, 1 and 4 days post injury showed time dependence in genomic responses to trauma. An early induction of factors involved in transcription could lead to the later inflammatory response with strongly upregulated CD-44 and osteopontin expression. An increased knowledge of genes regulating the pathological mechanisms in trauma will help to find future

  13. TGF-β1 promotes cerebral cortex radial glia-astrocyte differentiation in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipursky, Joice; Francis, Daniel; Dezonne, Rômulo Sperduto; Bérgamo de Araújo, Ana Paula; Souza, Lays; Moraes, Carolina A.; Alcantara Gomes, Flávia Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The major neural stem cell population in the developing cerebral cortex is composed of the radial glial cells, which generate glial cells and neurons. The mechanisms that modulate the maintenance of the radial glia (RG) stem cell phenotype, or its differentiation, are not yet completely understood. We previously demonstrated that the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) promotes RG differentiation into astrocytes in vitro (Glia 2007; 55:1023-33) through activation of multiple canonical and non-canonical signaling pathways (Dev Neurosci 2012; 34:68-81). However, it remains unknown if TGF-β1 acts in RG-astrocyte differentiation in vivo. Here, we addressed the astrogliogenesis induced by TGF-β1 by using the intraventricular in utero injection in vivo approach. We show that injection of TGF-β1 in the lateral ventricles of E14,5 mice embryos resulted in RG fibers disorganization and premature gliogenesis, evidenced by appearance of GFAP positive cells in the cortical wall. These events were followed by decreased numbers of neurons in the cortical plate (CP). Together, we also described that TGF-β1 actions are region-dependent, once RG cells from dorsal region of the cerebral cortex demonstrated to be more responsive to this cytokine compared with RG from lateral cortex either in vitro as well as in vivo. Our work demonstrated that TGF-β1 is a critical cytokine that regulates RG fate decision and differentiation into astrocytes in vitro and in vivo. We also suggest that RG cells are heterogeneous population that acts as distinct targets of TGF-β1 during cerebral cortex development. PMID:25484855

  14. Specific metabolomics adaptations define a differential regional vulnerability in the adult human cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Cabré

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain neurons offer diverse responses to stresses and detrimental factors during development and aging, and as a result of both neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. This multiplicity of responses can be ascribed to the great diversity among neuronal populations. Here we have determined the metabolomic profile of three healthy adult human brain regions—entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex—using mass spectrometry-based technologies. Our results show the existence of a lessened energy demand, mitochondrial stress, and lower one-carbon metabolism (particularly restricted to the methionine cycle specifically in frontal cortex. These findings, along with the better antioxidant capacity and lower mTOR signaling also seen in frontal cortex, suggest that this brain region is especially resistant to stress compared to the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, which are more vulnerable regions. Globally, our results show the presence of specific metabolomics adaptations in three mature, healthy human brain regions, confirming the existence of cross-regional differences in cell vulnerability in the human cerebral cortex.

  15. Widespread heterogeneous neuronal loss across the cerebral cortex in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana, Alissa L; Kim, Eric H; Thu, Doris C V; Oorschot, Dorothy E; Tippett, Lynette J; Hogg, Virginia M; Synek, Beth J; Roxburgh, Richard; Waldvogel, Henry J; Faull, Richard L M

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by neuronal degeneration in the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex, and a variable symptom profile. Although progressive striatal degeneration is known to occur and is related to symptom profile, little is known about the cellular basis of symptom heterogeneity across the entire cerebral cortex. To investigate this, we have undertaken a double blind study using unbiased stereological cell counting techniques to determine the pattern of cell loss in six representative cortical regions from the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes in the brains of 14 Huntington's disease cases and 15 controls. The results clearly demonstrate a widespread loss of total neurons and pyramidal cells across all cortical regions studied, except for the primary visual cortex. Importantly, the results show that cell loss is remarkably variable both within and between Huntington's disease cases. The results also show that neuronal loss in the primary sensory and secondary visual cortices relate to Huntington's disease motor symptom profiles, and neuronal loss across the associational cortices in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes is related to both Huntington's disease motor and to mood symptom profiles. This finding considerably extends a previous study (Thu et al., Brain, 2010; 133:1094-1110) which showed that neuronal loss in the primary motor cortex was related specifically to the motor symptom profiles while neuronal loss in the anterior cingulate cortex was related specifically to mood symptom profiles. The extent of cortical cell loss in the current study was generally related to the striatal neuropathological grade, but not to CAG repeat length on the HTT gene. Overall our findings show that Huntington's disease is characterized by a heterogeneous pattern of neuronal cell loss across the entire cerebrum which varies with symptom profile.

  16. Cerebral Cortex Hyperthyroidism of Newborn Mct8-Deficient Mice Transiently Suppressed by Lat2 Inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Bárbara; Martínez de Mena, Raquel; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Font-Llitjós, Mariona; Nunes, Virginia; Palacín, Manuel; Dumitrescu, Alexandra M.; Morte, Beatriz; Bernal, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone entry into cells is facilitated by transmembrane transporters. Mutations of the specific thyroid hormone transporter, MCT8 (Monocarboxylate Transporter 8, SLC16A2) cause an X-linked syndrome of profound neurological impairment and altered thyroid function known as the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome. MCT8 deficiency presumably results in failure of thyroid hormone to reach the neural target cells in adequate amounts to sustain normal brain development. However during the perinatal period the absence of Mct8 in mice induces a state of cerebral cortex hyperthyroidism, indicating increased brain access and/or retention of thyroid hormone. The contribution of other transporters to thyroid hormone metabolism and action, especially in the context of MCT8 deficiency is not clear. We have analyzed the role of the heterodimeric aminoacid transporter Lat2 (Slc7a8), in the presence or absence of Mct8, on thyroid hormone concentrations and on expression of thyroid hormone-dependent cerebral cortex genes. To this end we generated Lat2-/-, and Mct8-/yLat2-/- mice, to compare with wild type and Mct8-/y mice during postnatal development. As described previously the single Mct8 KO neonates had a transient increase of 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine concentration and expression of thyroid hormone target genes in the cerebral cortex. Strikingly the absence of Lat2 in the double Mct8Lat2 KO prevented the effect of Mct8 inactivation in newborns. The Lat2 effect was not observed from postnatal day 5 onwards. On postnatal day 21 the Mct8 KO displayed the typical pattern of thyroid hormone concentrations in plasma, decreased cortex 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine concentration and Hr expression, and concomitant Lat2 inactivation produced little to no modifications. As Lat2 is expressed in neurons and in the choroid plexus, the results support a role for Lat2 in the supply of thyroid hormone to the cerebral cortex during early postnatal development. PMID:24819605

  17. Functional magnetic resonance imaging mapping of the motor cortex in patients with cerebral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.M.; Zerrin Yetkin, F.; Hammeke, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) to map cerebral functions in patients with frontal or parietal tumors. Methods. Charts and images of patients with cerebral tumors or vascular malformations who underwent FMRI with an echo-planar technique were reviewed. The FMRI maps of motor (11 patients), tactile sensory (12 patients) and language tasks (4 patients) were obtained. The location of the FMRI activation and the positive responses to intraoperative cortical stimulation were compared. The reliability of the paradigms for mapping the rolandic cortex was evaluated. Results. Rolandic cortex was activated by tactile tasks in hall 12 patients and by motor tasks in 10 of 11 patients. Language tasks elicited activation in each of the four patients. Activation was obtained within edematous brain and adjacent to tumors. FMRI in three cases with intraoperative electro-cortical mapping results showed activation for a language, tactile, or motor task within the same gyrus in which stimulation elicited a related motor, sensory, or language function. In patients with >2 cm between the margin of the tumor, as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging, and the activation, no decline in motor function occurred from surgical resection. Conclusions. FMRI of tactile, motor, and language tasks is feasible in patients with cerebral tumors. FMRI shows promise as a means of determining the risk of a postoperative motor deficit from surgical resection of frontal or parietal tumors. (authors)

  18. Adenomatous polyposis coli is required for early events in the normal growth and differentiation of the developing cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price David J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc is a large multifunctional protein known to be important for Wnt/β-catenin signalling, cytoskeletal dynamics, and cell polarity. In the developing cerebral cortex, Apc is expressed in proliferating cells and its expression increases as cells migrate to the cortical plate. We examined the consequences of loss of Apc function for the early development of the cerebral cortex. Results We used Emx1Cre to inactivate Apc specifically in proliferating cerebral cortical cells and their descendents starting from embryonic day 9.5. We observed reduction in the size of the mutant cerebral cortex, disruption to its organisation, and changes in the molecular identity of its cells. Loss of Apc leads to a decrease in the size of the proliferative pool, disrupted interkinetic nuclear migration, and increased apoptosis. β-Catenin, pericentrin, and N-cadherin proteins no longer adopt their normal high concentration at the apical surface of the cerebral cortical ventricular zone, indicating that cell polarity is disrupted. Consistent with enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signalling resulting from loss of Apc we found increased levels of TCF/LEF-dependent transcription and expression of endogenous Wnt/β-catenin target genes (Axin2 (conductin, Lef1, and c-myc in the mutant cerebral cortex. In the Apc mutant cerebral cortex the expression of transcription factors Foxg1, Pax6, Tbr1, and Tbr2 is drastically reduced compared to normal and many cells ectopically express Pax3, Wnt1, and Wt1 (but not Wnt2b, Wnt8b, Ptc, Gli1, Mash1, Olig2, or Islet1. This indicates that loss of Apc function causes cerebral cortical cells to lose their normal identity and redirect to fates normally found in more posterior-dorsal regions of the central nervous system. Conclusion Apc is required for multiple aspects of early cerebral cortical development, including the regulation of cell number, interkinetic nuclear migration, cell polarity, and

  19. Topographic organization of the cerebral cortex and brain cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, Simon B; Constable, R Todd; Yeo, B T Thomas

    2018-04-15

    One of the most specific but also challenging properties of the brain is its topographic organization into distinct modules or cortical areas. In this paper, we first review the concept of topographic organization and its historical development. Next, we provide a critical discussion of the current definition of what constitutes a cortical area, why the concept has been so central to the field of neuroimaging and the challenges that arise from this view. A key aspect in this discussion is the issue of spatial scale and hierarchy in the brain. Focusing on in-vivo brain parcellation as a rapidly expanding field of research, we highlight potential limitations of the classical concept of cortical areas in the context of multi-modal parcellation and propose a revised interpretation of cortical areas building on the concept of neurobiological atoms that may be aggregated into larger units within and across modalities. We conclude by presenting an outlook on the implication of this revised concept for future mapping studies and raise some open questions in the context of brain parcellation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proteomic analysis of rat cerebral cortex following subchronic acrolein toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Lari, Parisa; Abnous, Khalil; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2013-10-01

    Acrolein, a member of reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, is a major environmental pollutant. Acrolein is also produced endogenously as a toxic by-product of lipid peroxidation. Because of high reactivity, acrolein may mediate oxidative damages to cells and tissues. It has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of pathological states including pulmonary, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we employed proteomics approach to investigate the effects of subchronic oral exposures to 3mg/kg of acrolein on protein expression profile in the brain of rats. Moreover effects of acrolein on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were investigated. Our results revealed that treatment with acrolein changed levels of several proteins in diverse physiological process including energy metabolism, cell communication and transport, response to stimulus and metabolic process. Interestingly, several differentially over-expressed proteins, including β-synuclein, enolase and calcineurin, are known to be associated with human neurodegenerative diseases. Changes in the levels of some proteins were confirmed by Western blot. Moreover, acrolein increases the level of MDA, as a lipid peroxidation biomarker and decreased GSH concentrations, as a non-enzyme antioxidant in the brain of acrolein treated rats. These findings suggested that acrolein induces the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the brain, and so that may contribute to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inorganic Arsenic Induces NRF2-Regulated Antioxidant Defenses in Both Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Duan, Xiaoxu; Li, Jinlong; Zhao, Shuo; Li, Wei; Zhao, Lu; Li, Wei; Nie, Huifang; Sun, Guifang; Li, Bing

    2016-08-01

    Inorganic arsenic is reported to induce the reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative stress, which is supposed to be one of the main mechanisms of arsenic-related neurological diseases. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a master regulator of antioxidant defense systems, up-regulates the expression of target genes to fight against oxidative damages caused by harmful substances, including metals. In the present study, mice were used as a model to investigate the oxidative stress levels and the expressions of NRF2-regulated antioxidant substances in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg NaAsO2 exposure intra-gastrically. Our results showed that acute NaAsO2 treatment resulted in decreased total anti-oxidative capacity (T-AOC) and increased maleic dialdehyde production in the nervous system. We also detected rapidly elevation of NRF2 protein levels by enhancement of Nrf2 transcription, especially at 20 mg/kg NaAsO2 exposure group. In the meantime, mRNA and protein levels of Nrf2 encoding antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were consistently elevated time- and dose-dependently both in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Taken together, the presence study demonstrated the activation of NRF2 pathway, an early antioxidant defensive response, in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus upon inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure in vivo. A better knowledge on the roles of NRF2 pathway in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis would be helpful for the strategies on improvement of neurotoxicity related to this metalloid.

  2. Physiological activation of the human cerebral cortex during auditory perception and speech revealed by regional increases in cerebral blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Friberg, L

    1988-01-01

    Specific types of brain activity as sensory perception auditory, somato-sensory or visual -or the performance of movements are accompanied by increases of blood flow and oxygen consumption in the cortical areas involved with performing the respective tasks. The activation patterns observed...... by measuring regional cerebral blood flow CBF after intracarotid Xenon-133 injection are reviewed with emphasis on tests involving auditory perception and speech, and approach allowing to visualize Wernicke and Broca's areas and their contralateral homologues in vivo. The completely atraumatic tomographic CBF...... methods, that are based of the use of radioactive tracers, can be applied in the same manner for mapping cortex activity. In particular single photon tomography SPECT is readily applicable to clinical audiology, so that the cortical components of the auditory processing can be more closely investigated....

  3. Effect of. beta. -endorphin on catecholamine levels in rat hypothalamus and cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavnov, V.N.; Valueva, G.V.; Markov, V.V.; Luchitskii, E.V.

    1986-10-01

    The authors studied the effect of beta-endorphin on catecholamine concentrations in the hypothalmus and cerebral cortex in rats, as a contribution to the explanation of the mechanism of action of this peptide on certain pituitary trophic functions. Concentrations of dopamine, noradrenalin, and adrenalin were determined by a radioenzymatic method. A Mark 3 scintillation system was used for radiometric investigation of the samples. The results of these experiments indicate that beta-endorphin has a marked effect on brain catecholamine levels mainly in the hypothalamus.

  4. Principles of Network Architecture Emerging from Comparisons of the Cerebral Cortex in Large and Small Brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara L Finlay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral cortex retains its fundamental organization, layering, and input-output relations as it scales in volume over many orders of magnitude in mammals. How is its network architecture affected by size scaling? By comparing network organization of the mouse and rhesus macaque cortical connectome derived from complete neuroanatomical tracing studies, a recent study in PLOS Biology shows that an exponential distance rule emerges that reveals the falloff in connection probability with distance in the two brains that in turn determines common organizational features.

  5. [Effect of nootropic agents on impulse activity of cerebral cortex neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasnetsov, V V; Pravdivtsev, V A; Krylova, I N; Kozlov, S B; Provornova, N A; Ivanov, Iu V; Iasnetsov, V V

    2001-01-01

    The effect of nootropes (semax, mexidol, and GVS-111) on the activity of individual neurons in various cerebral cortex regions was studied by microelectrode and microionophoresis techniques in cats immobilized by myorelaxants. It was established that the inhibiting effect of mexidol upon neurons in more than half of cases is prevented or significantly decreased by the GABA antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin. The inhibiting effect of semax and GVS-111 upon neurons in more than half of cases is related to stimulation of the M-choline and NMDA receptors, respectively.

  6. Effect of skull type on the relative size of cerebral cortex and lateral ventricles in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Anders M.; Berendt, Mette; Holst, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Volume measurements of the brain are of interest in the diagnosis of brain pathology. This is particularly so in the investigation hydrocephalus and canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD), both of which result in thinning of the cerebral cortex and enlarged ventricles. Volume assessment can be made...... using computed tomography or more usually magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is, however, some uncertainty in the interpretation of such volume data due to the great variation in skull size and shape seen in dog. In this retrospective study, we examined normal MRI images from 63 dogs

  7. Effect of camphor essential oil on rat cerebral cortex activity as manifested by fractal dimension changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of camphor essential oil on rat cerebral cortex activity by fractal analysis. Fractal dimension (FD values of the parietal electrocortical activity were calculated before and after intra-peritoneal administration of camphor essential oil (450-675 μl/kg in anesthetized rats. Camphor oil induced seizure-like activity with single and multiple spiking of high amplitudes in the parietal electrocorticogram and occasional clonic limb convulsions. The FD values of cortical activity after camphor oil administration increased on the average. Only FD values of cortical ECoG sequences were lower than those before camphor oil administration.

  8. Cerebral Cortex Regions Selectively Vulnerable to Radiation Dose-Dependent Atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, Tyler M.; Karunamuni, Roshan; Kaifi, Samar; Burkeen, Jeffrey; Connor, Michael; Krishnan, Anitha Priya; White, Nathan S.; Farid, Nikdokht; Bartsch, Hauke; Murzin, Vyacheslav; Nguyen, Tanya T.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Brewer, James B.; McDonald, Carrie R.; Dale, Anders M.; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose and Objectives: Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. Methods and Materials: We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT. The study patients underwent high-resolution, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted; T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, FLAIR) before RT and 1 year afterward. Semiautomated software was used to segment anatomic regions of the cerebral cortex for each patient. Cortical thickness was measured for each region before RT and 1 year afterward. Two higher-order cortical regions of interest (ROIs) were tested for association between radiation dose and cortical thinning: entorhinal (memory) and inferior parietal (attention/memory). For comparison, 2 primary cortex ROIs were also tested: pericalcarine (vision) and paracentral lobule (somatosensory/motor). Linear mixed-effects analyses were used to test all other cortical regions for significant radiation dose-dependent thickness change. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05 using 2-tailed tests. Results: Cortical atrophy was significantly associated with radiation dose in the entorhinal (P=.01) and inferior parietal ROIs (P=.02). By contrast, no significant radiation dose-dependent effect was found in the primary cortex ROIs (pericalcarine and paracentral lobule). In the whole-cortex analysis, 9 regions showed significant radiation dose-dependent atrophy, including areas responsible for memory, attention, and executive function (P≤.002). Conclusions: Areas of cerebral cortex important for higher-order cognition may be most vulnerable to radiation-related atrophy. This is consistent with clinical observations

  9. Cerebral Cortex Regions Selectively Vulnerable to Radiation Dose-Dependent Atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, Tyler M.; Karunamuni, Roshan; Kaifi, Samar; Burkeen, Jeffrey; Connor, Michael [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Krishnan, Anitha Priya; White, Nathan S.; Farid, Nikdokht; Bartsch, Hauke [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Murzin, Vyacheslav [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Nguyen, Tanya T. [Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Brewer, James B. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); McDonald, Carrie R. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Dale, Anders M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A., E-mail: jhattangadi@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose and Objectives: Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. Methods and Materials: We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT. The study patients underwent high-resolution, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted; T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, FLAIR) before RT and 1 year afterward. Semiautomated software was used to segment anatomic regions of the cerebral cortex for each patient. Cortical thickness was measured for each region before RT and 1 year afterward. Two higher-order cortical regions of interest (ROIs) were tested for association between radiation dose and cortical thinning: entorhinal (memory) and inferior parietal (attention/memory). For comparison, 2 primary cortex ROIs were also tested: pericalcarine (vision) and paracentral lobule (somatosensory/motor). Linear mixed-effects analyses were used to test all other cortical regions for significant radiation dose-dependent thickness change. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05 using 2-tailed tests. Results: Cortical atrophy was significantly associated with radiation dose in the entorhinal (P=.01) and inferior parietal ROIs (P=.02). By contrast, no significant radiation dose-dependent effect was found in the primary cortex ROIs (pericalcarine and paracentral lobule). In the whole-cortex analysis, 9 regions showed significant radiation dose-dependent atrophy, including areas responsible for memory, attention, and executive function (P≤.002). Conclusions: Areas of cerebral cortex important for higher-order cognition may be most vulnerable to radiation-related atrophy. This is consistent with clinical observations

  10. Does cell lineage in the developing cerebral cortex contribute to its columnar organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the pioneer work of Lorente de Nó, Ramón y Cajal, Brodmann, Mountcastle, Hubel and Wiesel and others, the cerebral cortex has been seen as a jigsaw of anatomic and functional modules involved in the processing of different sets of information. In fact, a columnar distribution of neurons displaying similar functional properties throughout the cerebral cortex has been observed by many researchers. Although it has been suggested that much of the anatomical substrate for such organization would be already specified at early developmental stages, before activity-dependent mechanisms could take place, it is still unclear whether gene expression in the ventricular zone could play a role in the development of discrete functional units, such as minicolumns or columns. Cell lineage experiments using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have shown that the progeny of a single neuroepithelial/radial glial cell in the dorsal telencephalon is organized into discrete radial clusters of sibling excitatory neurons, which have a higher propensity for developing chemical synapses with each other rather than with neighbouring non-siblings. Here, we will discuss the possibility that the cell lineage of single neuroepithelial/radial glia cells could contribute for the columnar organization of the neocortex by generating radial columns of sibling, interconnected neurons. Borrowing some concepts from the studies on cell-cell recognition and transcription factor networks, we will also touch upon the potential molecular mechanisms involved in the establishment of sibling-neuron circuits.

  11. Inhibitory effect of novel pyrimidines on ATP and ADP hydrolysis in synaptosomes from rat cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechin, Sirlene R; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Zanatta, Nilo; Madruga, Claudia C; Pacholski, Iraci L; Flores, Darlene C; Bonacorso, Helio G; Martins, Marcos A P; Morsch, Vera M

    2003-11-01

    In this study, a new series of trihalomethyl-substituted pyrimidines and dihydropyrimidines were synthesized and tested as potential NTPDase inhibitors. For this purpose, synaptosomes from rat cerebral cortex were used as the enzyme source and ATP and ADP were used as the substrate. Among the new compounds, 4-methyl-2-methylsulfanyl-6-trichloromethylpyrimidine (2b) was found to be the most effective noncompetitive inhibitor, with an estimated K(i) value of 0.18 and 0.55 mM for ATP and ADP, respectively. Other pyrimidines inhibited NTPDase activity with the following rank order of inhibitory potency: 3,6-dimethyl-2-methylsulfanyl-4-trifluoromethyl-3,4-dihydro-pyrimidin-4-ol (3a) > 5-methyl-2-(4-methyl-6-trifluoromethyl-pyrimidin-2-yl)-3-trifluoromethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-3-pyrazol-3-ol (6a) > 5-bromo-4,6-dimethoxy-4-trichloromethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-pyrimidin-2-one (9) for ATP and 6a > 9 > 3a for ADP. Our results demonstrate that a novel group of pyrimidines compounds can act as inhibitors of ATP and ADP hydrolysis in synaptosomes from rat cerebral cortex. These results can contribute for the understanding of the NTPDase activity and for further studies involving new compounds that can enlist as it inhibitors.

  12. Dynamic gene expression in the human cerebral cortex distinguishes children from adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin N Sterner

    Full Text Available In comparison with other primate species, humans have an extended juvenile period during which the brain is more plastic. In the current study we sought to examine gene expression in the cerebral cortex during development in the context of this adaptive plasticity. We introduce an approach designed to discriminate genes with variable as opposed to uniform patterns of gene expression and found that greater inter-individual variance is observed among children than among adults. For the 337 transcripts that show this pattern, we found a significant overrepresentation of genes annotated to the immune system process (pFDR ~/= 0. Moreover, genes known to be important in neuronal function, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, are included among the genes more variably expressed in childhood. We propose that the developmental period of heightened childhood neuronal plasticity is characterized by more dynamic patterns of gene expression in the cerebral cortex compared to adulthood when the brain is less plastic. That an overabundance of these genes are annotated to the immune system suggests that the functions of these genes can be thought of not only in the context of antigen processing and presentation, but also in the context of nervous system development.

  13. Propofol Compared to Isoflurane Inhibits Mitochondrial Metabolism in Immature Swine Cerebral Cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Atkinson, D. B.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Kayser, Ernst-Bernhard; Morgan, Phil G.; Sedensky, Margaret M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-01-08

    Anesthetics used in infants and children are implicated in development of neurocognitive disorders. Although propofol induces neuroapoptosis in developing brain, the underlying mechanisms require elucidation and may have an energetic basis. We studied substrate utilization in an immature swine model anesthetized with either propofol or isoflurane for 4 hours. Piglets were infused with 13-Carbon labeled glucose and leucine in the common carotid artery in order to assess citric acid cycle (CAC) metabolism in the parietal cortex. The anesthetics produced similar systemic hemodynamics and cerebral oxygen saturation by near-infrared-spectroscopy. Compared to isoflurane, propofol depleted ATP and glycogen stores. Propofol also decreased pools of the CAC intermediates, citrate and α-ketoglutarate, while markedly increasing succinate along with decreasing mitochondrial complex II activity. Propofol also inhibited acetyl-CoA entry into the CAC through pyruvate dehydrogenase, while promoting glycolytic flux with marked accumulation of lactate. Although oxygen supply appeared similar between the anesthetic groups, propofol yielded a metabolic phenotype which resembled a hypoxic state. Propofol impairs substrate flux through the CAC in the immature cerebral cortex. These impairments occurred without systemic metabolic perturbations which typically accompany propofol infusion syndrome. These metabolic abnormalities may play a role in neurotoxity observed with propofol in the vulnerable immature brain.

  14. Neuromorphometrical changes in cerebral cortex of Swiss albino mice during postnatal development under HTO exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.L.; Sisodia, R.

    1988-01-01

    The present study is a neuromorphometrical evaluation of the effects of internal tritiated exposure (120.62 kBq/ml body water; or 9.1 mGy/day) on cerebral cortex during postnatal development. One day old Swiss albino mice along with mothers were maintained at the dose rate of 185 kBq/ml of tritiated drinking water thoughout the experimental period. Quantitative study on cerebral cortex on different 1 to 6 weeks of postnatal intervals showed a gradual decline in cortical depths in the visual area 17 which maximally reduced by 25.27 percent of control at 6 week. Frontal area 6, 8 and posterior cortical medial areas 29 C and 29 D however did not show any statistical significant change in their critical depths till 4 week p.p. Total cell density in layer VI of visual region area 17 remained unaffected, statistically in first three weeks which significantly declined at later intervals (p < 0.001). Increased number of glial cell and reduced neutron packing density has been noticed at all the intervals (p < 0.001). (author)

  15. Cell biologic studies of the subplate during the development of the mammalian cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, J.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    This study focuses on pre- and postnatal events that may be necessary in establishing organized connections within the cat cerebral cortex. The fetal white matter beneath the cortical plate - the subplate - is shown to contain synapses and synapsin I. The likely presynaptic elements are the waiting axons from the other parts of cortex as well as the thalamus. A postsynaptic target is here identified as a transient population of neurons born between E24 and E30, based on 3 H-thymidine labeling studies combined with immunohistochemistry for the neuron-specific molecule MAP2, as well as ultrastructural and neuroanatomical studies showing that these early-generated subplate neurons receive synapses and have distant projections. The subplate neurons define the subplate by their immunoreactivity for MAP2. An identity is also demonstrated between the adult remnant of the subplate neuron population and the previously described interstitial and transmitter-immunoreactive neurons within the adult cerebral cortical white matter. The subplate neurons are further developmentally correlated with extracellular matrix molecule fibronectin and in experiments in which the subplate neurons are intentionally killed, fibronectin immunostaining decreases

  16. Does Cell Lineage in the Developing Cerebral Cortex Contribute to its Columnar Organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcos R.; Hedin-Pereira, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Since the pioneer work of Lorente de Nó, Ramón y Cajal, Brodmann, Mountcastle, Hubel and Wiesel and others, the cerebral cortex has been seen as a jigsaw of anatomic and functional modules involved in the processing of different sets of information. In fact, a columnar distribution of neurons displaying similar functional properties throughout the cerebral cortex has been observed by many researchers. Although it has been suggested that much of the anatomical substrate for such organization would be already specified at early developmental stages, before activity-dependent mechanisms could take place, it is still unclear whether gene expression in the ventricular zone (VZ) could play a role in the development of discrete functional units, such as minicolumns or columns. Cell lineage experiments using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have shown that the progeny of a single neuroepithelial/radial glial cell in the dorsal telencephalon is organized into discrete radial clusters of sibling excitatory neurons, which have a higher propensity for developing chemical synapses with each other rather than with neighboring non-siblings. Here, we will discuss the possibility that the cell lineage of single neuroepithelial/radial glia cells could contribute for the columnar organization of the neocortex by generating radial columns of sibling, interconnected neurons. Borrowing some concepts from the studies on cell–cell recognition and transcription factor networks, we will also touch upon the potential molecular mechanisms involved in the establishment of sibling-neuron circuits. PMID:20676384

  17. Folding of the Cerebral Cortex Requires Cdk5 in Upper-Layer Neurons in Gyrencephalic Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Shinmyo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Folds in the cerebral cortex in mammals are believed to be key structures for accommodating increased cortical neurons in the cranial cavity. However, the mechanisms underlying cortical folding remain largely unknown, mainly because genetic manipulations for the gyrencephalic brain have been unavailable. By combining in utero electroporation and the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we succeeded in efficient gene knockout of Cdk5, which is mutated in some patients with classical lissencephaly, in the gyrencephalic brains of ferrets. We show that Cdk5 knockout in the ferret cerebral cortex markedly impaired cortical folding. Furthermore, the results obtained from the introduction of dominant-negative Cdk5 into specific cortical layers suggest that Cdk5 function in upper-layer neurons is more important for cortical folding than that in lower-layer neurons. Cdk5 inhibition induced severe migration defects in cortical neurons. Taken together, our findings suggest that the appropriate positioning of upper-layer neurons is critical for cortical folding.

  18. 1400W ameliorates acute hypobaric hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cognitive deficits by suppressing the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat cerebral cortex microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qinghai; Liu, Xin; Wang, Ning; Zheng, Xinchuan; Ran, Jihua; Liu, Zhengxiang; Fu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Jiang

    2017-02-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in neuronal modifications, and overproduction of NO contributes to memory deficits after acute hypobaric hypoxia-reoxygenation. This study investigated the ability of the iNOS inhibitor 1400W to counteract spatial memory deficits following acute hypobaric hypoxia-reoxygenation, and to affect expression of NOS, NO, 3-NT and MDA production, and apoptosis in rat cerebral cortex. We also used primary rat microglia to investigate the effect of 1400W on expression of NOS, NO, 3-NT and MDA production, and apoptosis. Acute hypobaric hypoxia-reoxygenation impaired spatial memory, and was accompanied by activated microglia, increased iNOS expression, NO, 3-NT and MDA production, and neuronal cell apoptosis in rat cerebral cortex one day post-reoxygenation. 1400W treatment inhibited iNOS expression without affecting nNOS or eNOS. 1400W also reduced NO, 3-NT and MDA production, and prevented neuronal cell apoptosis in cerebral cortex, in addition to reversing spatial memory impairment after acute hypobaric hypoxia-reoxygenation. Hypoxia-reoxygenation activated primary microglia, and increased iNOS and nNOS expression, NO, 3-NT, and MDA production, and apoptosis. Treatment with 1400W inhibited iNOS expression without affecting nNOS, reduced NO, 3-NT and MDA production, and prevented apoptosis in primary microglia. Based on the above findings, we concluded that the highly selective iNOS inhibitor 1400W inhibited iNOS induction in microglial cells, and reduced generation of NO, thereby mitigating oxidative stress and neuronal cell apoptosis in the rat cerebral cortex, and improving the spatial memory dysfunction caused by acute hypobaric hypoxia-reoxygenation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A role for PDGF-C/PDGFRα signaling in the formation of the meningeal basement membranes surrounding the cerebral cortex

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    Johanna Andrae

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C is one of three known ligands for the tyrosine kinase receptor PDGFRα. Analysis of Pdgfc null mice has demonstrated roles for PDGF-C in palate closure and the formation of cerebral ventricles, but redundancy with other PDGFRα ligands might obscure additional functions. In search of further developmental roles for PDGF-C, we generated mice that were double mutants for Pdgfc−/− and PdgfraGFP/+. These mice display a range of severe phenotypes including spina bifida, lung emphysema, abnormal meninges and neuronal over-migration in the cerebral cortex. We focused our analysis on the central nervous system (CNS, where PDGF-C was identified as a critical factor for the formation of meninges and assembly of the glia limitans basement membrane. We also present expression data on Pdgfa, Pdgfc and Pdgfra in the cerebral cortex and microarray data on cerebral meninges.

  20. Effect of prenatal exposure to ethanol on the development of cerebral cortex: I. Neuronal generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol causes profound disruptions in the development of the cerebral cortex. Therefore, the effect of in utero ethanol exposure on the generation of neurons was determined. Pregnant rats were fed a liquid diet in which ethanol constituted 37.5% of the total caloric content (Et) or pair-fed an isocaloric control diet (Ct) from gestational day (GD) 6 to the day of birth. The time of origin of cortical neurons was determined in the mature pups of females injected with [3H]thymidine on one day during the period from GD 10 to the day of birth. The brains were processed by standard autoradiographic techniques. Ethanol exposure produced multiple defects in neuronal ontogeny. The period of generation was 1-2 days later for Et-treated rats than for rats exposed prenatally to either control diet. Moreover, the generation period was 1-2 days longer in Et-treated rats. The numbers of neurons generated on a specific day was altered; from GD 12-19 significantly fewer neurons were generated in Et-treated rats than in Ct-treated rats, whereas after GD 19 more neurons were born. The distribution of neurons generated on a specific day was disrupted; most notable was the distribution of late-generated neurons in deep cortex of Et-treated rats rather than in superficial cortex as they are in controls. Cortical neurons in Et-treated rats tended to be smaller than in Ct-treated rats, particularly early generated neurons in deep cortex. The late-generated neurons in Et-treated rats were of similar size to those in Ct-treated rats despite their abnormal position in deep cortex. Neurons in Ct-treated rats tended to be rounder than those in Et-treated rats which were more polarized in the radial orientation

  1. GABA-to-ACh ratio in basal forebrain and cerebral cortex varies significantly during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanini, Giancarlo; Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A

    2012-10-01

    GABAergic and cholinergic transmission within the basal forebrain and cerebral cortex contribute to the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. In contrast to levels of acetylcholine (ACh), levels of endogenous GABA in basal forebrain and cortex during sleep and wakefulness have not previously been quantified. This study (1) tested the hypothesis that there are differential, state-specific changes in GABA levels within the substantia innominata (SI) region of the basal forebrain and somatosensory cortex; and (2) quantified the ratio of GABAergic to cholinergic transmission in the SI, cortex, and pontine reticular formation during rapid eye movement sleep (REM), non-REM sleep (NREM), and wakefulness. Within/between subjects. University of Michigan. Adult, male, purpose bred cats (n = 5). In vivo microdialysis, high performance liquid chromatography, electrophysiological recordings. In the SI, GABA levels were significantly greater during NREM (17%) than during REM. In the cortex, GABA levels were significantly greater during NREM than during wakefulness (39%) and REM (63%). During prolonged wakefulness, there was a linear increase in cortical GABA levels, and the amount of time spent awake accounted for 87% of the variance in GABA. The GABA-to-ACh ratio was largest during NREM for all brain regions. REM was characterized by a 68% decrease in the GABA-to-ACh ratio across brain regions, always due to a decrease in GABA levels. Three of the brain regions that comprise the anatomically distributed, sleep-generating network have in common a GABA-mediated, sleep-dependent decrease in the GABA-to-ACh ratio.

  2. Ischemia Induces Release of Endogenous Amino Acids from the Cerebral Cortex and Cerebellum of Developing and Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo S. Oja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia enhanced release of endogenous neuroactive amino acids from cerebellar and cerebral cortical slices. More glutamate was released in adult than developing mice. Taurine release enhanced by K+ stimulation and ischemia was more than one magnitude greater than that of GABA or glutamate in the developing cerebral cortex and cerebellum, while in adults the releases were almost comparable. Aspartate release was prominently enhanced by both ischemia and K+ stimulation in the adult cerebral cortex. In the cerebellum K+ stimulation and ischemia evoked almost 10-fold greater GABA release in 3-month olds than in 7-day olds. The release of taurine increased severalfold in the cerebellum of 7-day-old mice in high-K+ media, whereas the K+-evoked effect was rather small in adults. In 3-month-old mice no effects of K+ stimulation or ischemia were seen in the release of aspartate, glycine, glutamine, alanine, serine, or threonine. The releases from the cerebral cortex and cerebellum were markedly different and also differed between developing and adult mice. In developing mice only the release of inhibitory taurine may be large enough to counteract the harmful effects of excitatory amino acids in ischemia in both cerebral cortex and cerebellum, in particular since at that age the release of glutamate and aspartate cannot be described as massive.

  3. The micro-architecture of the cerebral cortex: functional neuroimaging models and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Jorge J; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Howarth, Clare; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2008-05-01

    In order to interpret/integrate data obtained with different functional neuroimaging modalities (e.g. fMRI, EEG/MEG, PET/SPECT, fNIRS), forward-generative models of a diversity of brain mechanisms at the mesoscopic level are considered necessary. For the cerebral cortex, the brain structure with possibly the most relevance for functional neuroimaging, a variety of such biophysical models has been proposed over the last decade. The development of technological tools to investigate in vitro the physiological, anatomical and biochemical principles at the microscopic scale in comparative studies formed the basis for such theoretical progresses. However, with the most recent introduction of systems to record electrical (e.g. miniaturized probes chronically/acutely implantable in the brain), optical (e.g. two-photon laser scanning microscopy) and atomic nuclear spectral (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) signals using living laboratory animals, the field is receiving even greater attention. Major advances have been achieved by combining such sophisticated recording systems with new experimental strategies (e.g. transgenic/knock-out animals, high resolution stereotaxic manipulation systems for probe-guidance and cellular-scale chemical-delivery). Theoreticians may now be encouraged to re-consider previously formulated mesoscopic level models in order to incorporate important findings recently made at the microscopic scale. In this series of reviews, we summarize the background at the microscopic scale, which we suggest will constitute the foundations for upcoming representations at the mesoscopic level. In this first part, we focus our attention on the nerve ending particles in order to summarize basic principles and mechanisms underlying cellular metabolism in the cerebral cortex. It will be followed by two parts highlighting major features in its organization/working-principles to regulate both cerebral blood circulation and neuronal activity, respectively

  4. The basolateral amygdala modulates specific sensory memory representations in the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Candice M; McGaugh, James L; Weinberger, Norman M

    2009-05-01

    Stress hormones released by an experience can modulate memory strength via the basolateral amygdala, which in turn acts on sites of memory storage such as the cerebral cortex [McGaugh, J. L. (2004). The amygdala modulates the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 1-28]. Stimuli that acquire behavioral importance gain increased representation in the cortex. For example, learning shifts the tuning of neurons in the primary auditory cortex (A1) to the frequency of a conditioned stimulus (CS), and the greater the level of CS importance, the larger the area of representational gain [Weinberger, N. M. (2007). Associative representational plasticity in the auditory cortex: A synthesis of two disciplines. Learning & Memory, 14(1-2), 1-16]. The two lines of research suggest that BLA strengthening of memory might be accomplished in part by increasing the representation of an environmental stimulus. The present study investigated whether stimulation of the BLA can affect cortical memory representations. In male Sprague-Dawley rats studied under urethane general anesthesia, frequency receptive fields were obtained from A1 before and up to 75min after the pairing of a tone with BLA stimulation (BLAstm: 100 trials, 400ms, 100Hz, 400microA [+/-16.54]). Tone started before and continued after BLAstm. Group BLA/1.0 (n=16) had a 1s CS-BLAstm interval while Group BLA/1.6 (n=5) has a 1.6s interval. The BLA/1.0 group did develop specific tuning shifts toward and to the CS, which could change frequency tuning by as much as two octaves. Moreover, its shifts increased over time and were enduring, lasting 75min. However, group BLA/1.6 did not develop tuning shifts, indicating that precise CS-BLAstm timing is important in the anesthetized animal. Further, training in the BLA/1.0 paradigm but stimulating outside of the BLA did not produce tuning shifts. These findings demonstrate that the BLA is capable of exerting highly specific

  5. Muscarinic receptor modulation of acetylcholine release from rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, M G; Pepeu, G

    1995-04-28

    An attempt to identify the muscarinic receptor subtypes involved in presynaptic modulation of acetylcholine (ACh) release from cortical and hippocampal slices was made by means of several muscarinic antagonists. Cortical and hippocampal slices prepared from adult rats were superfused with Krebs solution containing physostigmine; ACh content of the superfusate at rest and after electrical stimulation (1 Hz) was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. The antagonists were added to the Krebs at the concentration of 1 microM. ACh release at rest was enhanced only in the cortex by (+/-)-5,11-dihydro-11-([(2-[2-[(dipropylamino)methyl]-1- piperidinyl)ethyl)amino]carbonyl)-6H-pyrido[2,3-b](1,4)- benzodiazepine-6-one (AFDX384), an M2/M4 selective antagonist. The evoked ACh release from the cerebral cortex was significantly increased by AFDX384, methoctramine, pirenzepine, M2/M4, M2 and M1 selective antagonists, respectively, and scopolamine. This finding suggests that M1, M2 and M4 presynaptic receptor subtypes could regulate evoked ACh release in the cortex. In hippocampal slices, the evoked ACh release was enhanced by AFDX384, pirenzepine and scopolamine but not by methoctramine. In this region ACh release seems therefore regulated only by M1 and M4 receptor subtypes. The M3 antagonist (+/-)-p-fluorohexahydro-sila-difenidol hydrochloride did not affect ACh release.

  6. [Changes in DNA repair enzymes in rat ventroposterior nucleus of the thalamus after cerebral cortex infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mei-Xia; Zeng, Jin-Sheng; Hua, Hai-Ying; Xing, Shi-Hui; Ba, Yun-Peng

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the damage within the ventroposterior nucleus (VPN) of the thalamus after focal cortical infarction and its mechanism, and explore the effect of ebselen on the oxidative damage after cerebral cortex infarction in hypertensive rats. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRSP), and the rats were divided into four groups by table of random number: sham operation group, model group, vehicle group and ebselen group, each group consisted of 8 rats. In animals subjected to sham surgery the middle cerebral artery was exposed only. Ebselen (5 ml/kg) or vehicle (a mixed solvent consisting of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose and 0.02% Tween 20, 5 ml/kg) was given by gastric gavage starting 24 hours after cerebral cortical infarction. Two weeks after the MCAO, the rats were sacrificed, and VPN from each group was sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE), and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE) and Escherichia coli MutY DNA glycosylase (MYH) were determined by immunohistochemistry. HE staining showed that ebselen ameliorated the VPN damage induced by ischemia. Immunohistochemical imaging analysis revealed a distinct nuclear staining of APE and nuclear and cytoplasm distribution of MYH in the entire region of the VPN. Compared with sham operation group, the number of APE and MYH positive cells decreased in model group and vehicle group (APE: 57.0±14.7, 49.4±12.5 vs. 101.0±13.6, MYH: 15.0±4.7, 10.4±2.5 vs. 56.0±13.2, all PVPN; ebselen can obviously increase the level of APE and MYH, and ebselen may protect the VPN of the thalamus from damage after focal cortical infarction in rats.

  7. DNA repair in mammalian nerve cells. 1. DNA synthesis in cerebral cortex induced by γ-irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.A.; Terpilovskaya, O.N.; Kulikov, A.V.; Tret'yak, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of the DNA synthesis in cerebral cortex of rats, aged 14 and 60 days, after gamma-irradiation in vivo in a dose of 7 Gy, the 3 H-thymidine incorporation into DNA being determined. 137 Cs-radiation induces additional DNA synthesis in the neocortex tissue and in neurons. In the cortex of 14 day-old rats, the induced DNA synthesis stops 2 hours after irradiation, whereas in the cortex of 60 day-old rats and in neurons of rats of both the age groups DNA synthesis is proceeding for 3-35 hours. Specificity of DNA reparation, processes in nondividing cells is discussed

  8. Alterations of the cerebral cortex in sporadic small vessel disease: A systematic review of in vivo MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Roxane; De Guio, François; Chabriat, Hugues; Jouvent, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel diseases of the brain are a major determinant of cognitive impairment in the elderly. In small vessel diseases, the most easily identifiable lesions, both at post-mortem evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging, lie in subcortical areas. However, recent results obtained post-mortem, particularly in severe cases, have highlighted the burden of cortex lesions such as microinfarcts and diffuse neuronal loss. The recent development of image post-processing methods allows now assessing in vivo multiple aspects of the cerebral cortex. This systematic review aimed to analyze in vivo magnetic resonance imaging studies evaluating cortex alterations at different stages of small vessel diseases. Studies assessing the relationships between small vessel disease magnetic resonance imaging markers obtained at the subcortical level and cortex estimates were reviewed both in community-dwelling elderly and in patients with symptomatic small vessel diseases. Thereafter, studies analyzing cortex estimates in small vessel disease patients compared with healthy subjects were evaluated. The results support that important cortex alterations develop along the course of small vessel diseases independently of concomitant neurodegenerative processes. Easy detection and quantification of cortex changes in small vessel diseases as well as understanding their underlying mechanisms are challenging tasks for better understanding cognitive decline in small vessel diseases. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Ontogenetic Development of Sensitivity of the Cerebral Cortex to an Antagonist of GABA(A) Receptor Bicuculline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel; Bernášková, Klára; Kubová, Hana

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2018), s. 149-153 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15032 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cerebral cortex * rat * postnatal development * epileptic phenomena * bicuculline Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  10. Collateralization of the pathways descending from the cerebral cortex to brain stem and spinal cord in cat and monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Keizer (Koos)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe present study deals with the collateralization of the descending pathways from the cerebral cortex to the brain stem and the spinal cord in cat and monkey. The distributions of the branching cortical neurons were studied using retrograde fluorescent tracers. In addition, a new

  11. Decreased GABA receptor in the cerebral cortex of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A

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    Mathew Jobin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstact Background Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cerebral cortex, maintains the inhibitory tones that counter balances neuronal excitation. When this balance is perturbed, seizures may ensue. Methods In the present study, alterations of the general GABA, GABAA and GABAB receptors in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat and the therapeutic application of Bacopa monnieri were investigated. Results Scatchard analysis of [3H]GABA, [3H]bicuculline and [3H]baclofen in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat showed significant decrease in Bmax (P Aά1, GABAAγ, GABAAδ, GABAB and GAD where down regulated (P Aά5 subunit and Cyclic AMP responsible element binding protein were up regulated. Confocal imaging study confirmed the decreased GABA receptors in epileptic rats. Epileptic rats have deficit in radial arm and Y maze performance. Conclusions Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A treatment reverses epilepsy associated changes to near control suggesting that decreased GABA receptors in the cerebral cortex have an important role in epileptic occurrence; Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A have therapeutic application in epilepsy management.

  12. Structural and Ultrastructural Analysis of Cerebral Cortex, Cerebellum, and Hypothalamus from Diabetic Rats

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    Juan P. Hernández-Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic and peripheral neuropathies are well-described complications in diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is also associated to central nervous system damage. This little-known complication is characterized by impairment of brain functions and electrophysiological changes associated with neurochemical and structural abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate brain structural and ultrastructural changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, and cerebellum were obtained from controls and 8 weeks diabetic rats. Light and electron microscope studies showed degenerative changes of neurons and glia, perivascular and mitochondrial swelling, disarrangement of myelin sheath, increased area of myelinated axons, presynaptic vesicle dispersion in swollen axonal boutoms, fragmentation of neurofilaments, and oligodendrocyte abnormalities. In addition, depressive mood was observed in diabetic animals. The brain morphological alterations observed in diabetic animals could be related to brain pathologic process leading to abnormal function, cellular death, and depressive behavioral.

  13. Cholinergic Neurons - Keeping Check on Amyloid beta in the Cerebral Cortex

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    Saak V. Ovsepian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiological relevance of the uptake of ligands with no apparent trophic functions via the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR remains unclear. Herein, we propose a homeostatic role for this in clearance of amyloid β (Aβ in the brain. We hypothesize that uptake of Aβ in conjunction with p75NTR followed by its degradation in lysosomes endows cholinergic basalo-cortical projections enriched in this receptor a facility for maintaining physiological levels of Aβ in target areas. Thus, in addition to the diffuse modulator influence and channeling of extra-thalamic signals, cholinergic innervations could supply the cerebral cortex with an elaborate system for Aβ drainage. Interpreting the emerging relationship of new molecular data with established role of cholinergic modulator system in regulating cortical network dynamics should provide new insights into the brain physiology and mechanisms of neuro-degenerative diseases.

  14. Role of mechanical factors in the morphology of the primate cerebral cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus C Hilgetag

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The convoluted cortex of primates is instantly recognizable in its principal morphologic features, yet puzzling in its complex finer structure. Various hypotheses have been proposed about the mechanisms of its formation. Based on the analysis of databases of quantitative architectonic and connection data for primate prefrontal cortices, we offer support for the hypothesis that tension exerted by corticocortical connections is a significant factor in shaping the cerebral cortical landscape. Moreover, forces generated by cortical folding influence laminar morphology, and appear to have a previously unsuspected impact on cellular migration during cortical development. The evidence for a significant role of mechanical factors in cortical morphology opens the possibility of constructing computational models of cortical development based on physical principles. Such models are particularly relevant for understanding the relationship of cortical morphology to the connectivity of normal brains, and structurally altered brains in diseases of developmental origin, such as schizophrenia and autism.

  15. Characterization of primary and secondary cultures of astrocytes prepared from mouse cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytt, Dorte Marie; Madsen, Karsten Kirkegaard; Pajecka, Kamilla

    2010-01-01

    Astrocyte cultures were prepared from cerebral cortex of new-born and 7-day-old mice and additionally, the cultures from new-born animals were passaged as secondary cultures. The cultures were characterized by immunostaining for the astrocyte markers glutamine synthetase (GS), glial fibrillary...... acidic protein, and the glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2. The cultures prepared from 7-day-old animals were additionally characterized metabolically using (13)C-labeled glucose and glutamate as well as (15)N-labeled glutamate as substrates. All types of cultures exhibited pronounced immunostaining...... via the GS pathway and oxidatively via the tricarboxylic acid cycle as expected. Additionally, glutamate underwent pronounced transamination to aspartate and alanine and the intracellular pools of alanine and pyruvate exhibited compartmentation. Altogether the results show that cultures prepared from...

  16. Physiology, anatomy, and plasticity of the cerebral cortex in relation to musical instrument performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramo, Mark Jude

    2004-05-01

    The acquisition and maintenance of fine-motor skills underlying musical instrument performance rely on the development, integration, and plasticity of neural systems localized within specific subregions of the cerebral cortex. Cortical representations of a motor sequence, such as a sequence of finger movements along the keys of a saxophone, take shape before the figure sequence occurs. The temporal pattern and spatial coordinates are computed by networks of neurons before and during the movements. When a finger sequence is practiced over and over, performance gets faster and more accurate, probably because cortical neurons generating the sequence increase in spatial extent, their electrical discharges become more synchronous, or both. By combining experimental methods such as single- and multi-neuron recordings, focal stimulation, microanatomical tracers, gross morphometry, evoked potentials, and functional imaging in humans and nonhuman primates, neuroscientists are gaining insights into the cortical physiology, anatomy, and plasticity of musical instrument performance.

  17. ECoG and breathing activity in fetal lambs after undercut of cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioffe, S; Jansen, A H; Chernick, V

    1984-10-01

    Reduction of cortical inhibition has been suggested as a possible mechanism for the transition from episodic fetal to continuous postnatal breathing. Twelve fetal lambs were chronically decorticated at 112-115 days gestation. Lateral rectus, neck, and diaphragmatic electromyogram (EMG), electrocorticogram (ECoG), and tracheal and arterial blood pressure were monitored after allowing 3 days for recovery. The fetal lambs were studied for 4-28 days in 2- to 4-h sessions/day. There were no episodes of low-voltage high-frequency ECoG activity. The mean duration (+/- SD) of rapid eye movements (REM) measured by lateral rectus EMG [11 +/- 7.9 min and periods of tonic activity or silence [non-REM (NREM)], 14 +/- 7.4 min] in decorticated fetuses were not statistically different from REM (12 +/- 5.1 min) and NREM (15 +/- 6.8 min) sleep periods in intact fetuses. After decortication, the percentage of time (+/- SD) occupied by different states were phasic diaphragmatic EMG activity 36 +/- 7.8%, tonic diaphragmatic EMG 21 +/- 8.6%, and diaphragmatic silence 43 +/- 14.2%. Phasic diaphragmatic EMG activity occurred together with REM, the latter being present 45 +/- 3.7% of the time. Despite decortication, between 115 and 125 days gestation ECoG changed from a trace alternans to a high-voltage low-frequency pattern. We conclude that the cerebral cortex is not responsible for apnea during fetal life. In addition, these data suggest that the cerebral cortex may normally be the source of ECoG synchrony.

  18. Effect of donepezil hydrochloride (E2020) on extracellular acetylcholine concentration in the cerebral cortex of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosasa, T; Kuriya, Y; Yamanishi, Y

    1999-10-01

    Donepezil hydrochloride (donepezil), a potent and selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, has been developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We studied the effect of oral administration of this drug on the extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) concentration in the cerebral cortex of rats using microdialysis. We also observed fasciculation, a peripheral cholinergic sign induced by activation of neuromuscular transmission, after oral administration of the drug as an index of peripheral cholinergic activation. Other cholinesterase inhibitors, tacrine, ENA-713 and TAK-147, were used as reference drugs. Donepezil significantly and dose-dependently increased the extracellular ACh concentration in the rat cerebral cortex within the dose range of 2.5-10 mg/kg. Tacrine, ENA-713 and TAK-147 also elevated the extracellular concentration of ACh. The minimum effective doses of donepezil, tacrine, ENA-713 and TAK-147 were (< or = 2.5, 10, 10 and < or = 10 mg/kg, respectively. Donepezil produced fasciculation at doses of 2.5 mg/kg and above, with a dose-dependent increase in incidence and intensity. The reference compounds also induced fasciculation in a dose-dependent manner. The threshold doses of tacrine, ENA-713 and TAK-147 for fasciculation were 5, 2.5 and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively. The values of the ratio of the minimum effective dose for the ACh-increasing action to that for the fasciculation-producing action were: donepezil, < or = 1; tacrine, 2; ENA-713, 4; TAK-147, < or = 4. These results indicate that orally administered donepezil has a potent and selective activity on the central cholinergic system.

  19. Edible Camphor-induced Histopathological Changes in Hippocampus and Cerebral Cortex Following Oral Administration into Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatobi T Somade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Raw edible camphor (EC, and as component of herbal infusions are widely used to treat pile, back pain, erectile dysfunction, and as an aphrodisiac especially in preparation for sexual intercourse by men. It has been traced in umbilical cord, blood, fetal, adipose, and other tissues including brain, where it bioaccumulates. Methods: The study, therefore, investigated the possible histopathological changes in brain, heart, and spleen that may result following EC administration in rats. Thirty animals were used for the study and were divided into six groups of five rats each. Group I animals served as normal control, Group II animals served as vehicle control and were orally administered 6 mL/kg corn oil daily for 7 days, while Groups III-VI animals were orally administered 1, 2, 4, and 6 g/kg EC for 7 days daily. Results and Conclusions: Following the administrations of various doses of EC, the histopathological changes seen in the cerebral cortex of the brain include mild submeningeal spongiosis, mild diffuse spongiosis of the parenchyma, a very mild diffuse gliosis, and presences of gitter cells, while in hippocampus, there were mild diffuse gliosis and disruption of the progression of the hippocampal horns, as well as foci of spongiosis around the hippocampal horns, and neuronal cells have open faced nuclei. No effect was seen in heart and spleen except 4 g/kg of EC that revealed moderate diffuse congestion in spleen only. In conclusion, EC may not have any toxic effects on the cardiac and splenic cells, but had toxic effects on the brain hippocampus and cerebral cortex, and may lead to brain cell damage. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2017; 5(1.000: 7-11

  20. Exposure to brominated flame retardant PBDE-99 affects cytoskeletal protein expression in the neonatal mouse cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Henrik; Kultima, Kim; Scholz, Birger

    2008-01-01

    in the adult. The mechanisms underlying the late effects of early exposure are not clear. To gain insight into the initial neurodevelopmental damage inflicted by PBDE-99, we investigated the short-term effects of PBDE-99 on protein expression in the developing cerebral cortex of neonatal mice......, and the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of PBDE-99 in primary cultures of fetal rat cortical cells. We used two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to analyze protein samples isolated from the cortex of NMRI mice 24h after exposure to a single oral dose of 12 mg/kg PBDE-99 on post-natal day 10...... activity. These results indicate that the permanent neurological damage induced by PBDE-99 during the brain growth spurt involve detrimental effects on cytoskeletal regulation and neuronal maturation in the developing cerebral cortex....

  1. Metabolic Response of the Cerebral Cortex Following Gentle Sleep Deprivation and Modafinil Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Jean-Marie; Tobler, Irene; Kopp, Caroline; Morgenthaler, Florence; Borbély, Alexander A.; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2010-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES The main energy reserve of the brain is glycogen which is almost exclusively localized in astrocytes. We previously reported that cerebral expression of certain genes related to glycogen metabolism changed following instrumental sleep deprivation in mice. Here we extended our investigations to another set of genes related to glycogen and glucose metabolism. We also compared the effect of instrumentally and pharmacologically induced prolonged wakefulness followed (or not) by 3...

  2. Atypically diffuse functional connectivity between caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Katherine C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting sociocommunicative behavior, but also sensorimotor skill learning, oculomotor control, and executive functioning. Some of these impairments may be related to abnormalities of the caudate nuclei, which have been reported for autism. Methods Our sample was comprised of 8 high-functioning males with autism and 8 handedness, sex, and age-matched controls. Subjects underwent functional MRI scanning during performance on simple visuomotor coordination tasks. Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI effects were identified as interregional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signal cross-correlation, using the caudate nuclei as seed volumes. Results In the control group, fcMRI effects were found in circuits with known participation of the caudate nuclei (associative, orbitofrontal, oculomotor, motor circuits. Although in the autism group fcMRI effects within these circuits were less pronounced or absent, autistic subjects showed diffusely increased connectivity mostly in pericentral regions, but also in brain areas outside expected anatomical circuits (such as visual cortex. Conclusion These atypical connectivity patterns may be linked to developmental brain growth disturbances recently reported in autism and suggest inefficiently organized functional connectivity between caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex, potentially accounting for stereotypic behaviors and executive impairments.

  3. Influence of the language dominant hemisphere on the activation region of the cerebral cortex during mastication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Yasuhiko

    2005-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the relationship of the activation region of the cerebral cortex during mastication with the language dominant hemisphere. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to chew a special gum 50 times on each side of the mouth, the gum changed color, becoming a deeper red, as it was chewed. The depth of red of the chewed gum was used to ascertain the habitual masticatory side. Measurements were also performed on a conventional whole body 1.5 T clinical scanner using a single shot, multislice echo-planar imaging sequence. The subjects were asked to masticate first on the right side, and then on the left side. As well, they were instructed to do a shiritori test, which is a word game. Computer analysis of the fMRI was done using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 99 software (p<0.001, paired t-test). We found that the sensorimotor cortex activated by masticatory movements always contains language dominant hemisphere. (author)

  4. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus respond differently after post-natal exposure to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestaevel, Philippe; Bensoussan, Hélène; Dhieux, Bernadette; Delissen, Olivia; Dublineau, Isabelle; Voisin, Philippe; Vacher, Claire-Marie; Taouis, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is known to be sensitive to pollutants during its development. Uranium (U) is a heavy metal that occurs naturally in the environment as a component of the earth's crust, and populations may therefore be chronically exposed to U through drinking water and food. Previous studies have shown that the CNS is a target of U in rats exposed in adulthood. We assessed the effects of U on behavior and cholinergic system of rats exposed from birth for 10 weeks at 10 mg.L -1 or 40 mg.L -1 . For behavioral analysis, the sleep/wake cycle (recorded by telemetry), the object recognition memory and the spatial working memory (Y-maze) were evaluated. Acetylcholine (ACh) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels were evaluated in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. At 40 mg.L -1 , U exposure impaired object recognition memory (-20%), but neither spatial working memory nor the sleep/wake cycle was impaired. A significant decrease was observed in both the ACh concentration (-14%) and AChE activity (-14%) in the entorhinal cortex, but not in the hippocampus. Any significant effect on behaviour and cholinergic system was observed at 10 mg U.L -1 . These results demonstrate that early exposure to U during postnatal life induces a structure cerebral-dependant cholinergic response and modifies such memory process in rats. This exposure to U early in life could have potential delayed effects in adulthood. (author)

  5. Cerebral cortex classification by conditional random fields applied to intraoperative thermal imaging

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    Hoffmann Nico

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative thermal neuroimaging is a novel intraoperative imaging technique for the characterization of perfusion disorders, neural activity and other pathological changes of the brain. It bases on the correlation of (sub-cortical metabolism and perfusion with the emitted heat of the cortical surface. In order to minimize required computational resources and prevent unwanted artefacts in subsequent data analysis workflows foreground detection is a important preprocessing technique to differentiate pixels representing the cerebral cortex from background objects. We propose an efficient classification framework that integrates characteristic dynamic thermal behaviour into this classification task to include additional discriminative features. The first stage of our framework consists of learning this representation of characteristic thermal time-frequency behaviour. This representation models latent interconnections in the time-frequency domain that cover specific, yet a priori unknown, thermal properties of the cortex. In a second stage these features are then used to classify each pixel’s state with conditional random fields. We quantitatively evaluate several approaches to learning high-level features and their impact to the overall prediction accuracy. The introduction of high-level features leads to a significant accuracy improvement compared to a baseline classifier.

  6. Low intensity areas observed T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the cerebral cortex in various neurological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imon, Yukari [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-02-01

    We retrospectively studied magnetic resonance images of the brain in 158 patients (8 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 16 cases of Alzheimer`s disease, 8 cases of Parkinson`s disease, 53 cases of multiple cerebral infarct, 20 cases of other central nervous system (CNS) diseases, and 53 cases without any CNS disease) to examine the appearance of T2-weighted low signal intensity areas (LIA) in the cerebral cortex. The age of subjects ranged from 36 to 85 years with the mean 65.0 and SD 9.9 years. LIA in the motor and sensory cortices, and brain atrophy were evaluated visually on axial images of the spin-echo sequence obtained with a 1.5 tesla system. The incidence of LIA in the motor cortex was significantly higher in all CNS diseases than in cases without any CNS disease, but not significantly different among CNS diseases. LIA in the motor cortex showed a correlation with age, temporal and parietal atrophy. The appearance of LIA in the sensory cortex correlated with that of LIA in the motor cortex, and parietal atrophy. These results suggest that LIA may appear according to age and be associated with the accumulation of nonheme iron in the cortex, especially in patients with CNS diseases. (author)

  7. Neuronal activity (c-Fos delineating interactions of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hong eQiu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral cortex and basal ganglia (BG form a neural circuit that is disrupted in disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. We found that neuronal activity (c-Fos in the BG followed cortical activity, i.e., high in arousal state and low in sleep state. To determine if cortical activity is necessary for BG activity, we administered atropine to rats to induce a dissociative state resulting in slow-wave EEG but hyperactive motor behaviors. Atropine blocked c-Fos expression in the cortex and BG, despite high c-Fos expression in the sub-cortical arousal neuronal groups and thalamus, indicating that cortical activity is required for BG activation. To identify which glutamate receptors in the BG that mediate cortical inputs, we injected ketamine (NMDA receptor antagonist and 6-cyano-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (CNQX, a non-NMDA receptor antagonist. Systemic ketamine and CNQX administration revealed that NMDA receptors mediated subthalamic nucleus (STN input to internal globus pallidus (GPi and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr, while non-NMDA receptor mediated cortical input to the STN. Both types of glutamate receptors were involved in mediating cortical input to the striatum. Dorsal striatal (caudoputamen, CPu dopamine depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in reduced activity of the CPu, globus pallidus externa (GPe, and STN but increased activity of the GPi, SNr and putative layer V neurons in the motor cortex. Our results reveal that the cortical activity is necessary for BG activity and clarifies the pathways and properties of the BG-cortical network and their putative role in the pathophysiology of BG disorders.

  8. Functional MR imaging of cerebral auditory cortex with linguistic and non-linguistic stimulation: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Su Jin; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Shin, Tae Min

    1999-01-01

    To obtain preliminary data for understanding the central auditory neural pathway by means of functional MR imaging (fMRI) of the cerebral auditory cortex during linguistic and non-linguistic auditory stimulation. In three right-handed volunteers we conducted fMRI of auditory cortex stimulation at 1.5 T using a conventional gradient-echo technique (TR/TE/flip angle: 80/60/40 deg). Using a pulsed tone of 1000 Hz and speech as non-linguistic and linguistic auditory stimuli, respectively, images-including those of the superior temporal gyrus of both hemispheres-were obtained in sagittal plases. Both stimuli were separately delivered binaurally or monoaurally through a plastic earphone. Images were activated by processing with homemade software. In order to analyze patterns of auditory cortex activation according to type of stimulus and which side of the ear was stimulated, the number and extent of activated pixels were compared between both temporal lobes. Biaural stimulation led to bilateral activation of the superior temporal gyrus, while monoaural stimulation led to more activation in the contralateral temporal lobe than in the ipsilateral. A trend toward slight activation of the left (dominant) temporal lobe in ipsilateral stimulation, particularly with a linguistic stimulus, was observed. During both biaural and monoaural stimulation, a linguistic stimulus produced more widespread activation than did a non-linguistic one. The superior temporal gyri of both temporal lobes are associated with acoustic-phonetic analysis, and the left (dominant) superior temporal gyrus is likely to play a dominant role in this processing. For better understanding of physiological and pathological central auditory pathways, further investigation is needed

  9. Comparison of language cortex reorganization patterns between cerebral arteriovenous malformations and gliomas: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Long; Wang, Bo; Wang, Shuo; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Rong; Wang, Jia; Zhao, Jizong

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are congenital malformations that may grow in the language cortex but usually do not lead to aphasia. In contrast, language dysfunction is a common presentation for patients with a glioma that involves language areas. The authors attempted to demonstrate the difference in patterns of language cortex reorganization between cerebral AVMs and gliomas by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) evaluation. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed clinical and imaging data of 63 patients with an unruptured cerebral AVM (AVM group) and 38 patients with a glioma (glioma group) who underwent fMRI. All the patients were right handed, and all their lesions were located in the left cerebral hemisphere. Patients were further categorized into 1 of the 2 following subgroups according to their lesion location: the BA subgroup (overlying or adjacent to the inferior frontal or the middle frontal gyri [the Broca area]) and the WA subgroup (overlying or adjacent to the supramarginal, angular, or superior temporal gyri [the Wernicke area]). Lateralization indices of BOLD signal activations were calculated separately for the Broca and Wernicke areas. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the difference in patterns of language cortex reorganization between the 2 groups. RESULTS In the AVM group, right-sided lateralization of BOLD signal activations was observed in 23 patients (36.5%), including 6 with right-sided lateralization in the Broca area alone, 12 in the Wernicke area alone, and 5 in both areas. More specifically, in the 34 patients in the AVM-BA subgroup, right-sided lateralization of the Broca area was detected in 9 patients (26.5%), and right-sided lateralization of the Wernicke area was detected in 4 (11.8%); in the 29 patients in the AVM-WA subgroup, 2 (6.9%) had right-sided lateralization of the Broca area, and 13 (44.8%) had right-sided lateralization of the Wernicke area. In the glioma group

  10. Stem/progenitor cells in the cerebral cortex of the human preterm: a resource for an endogenous regenerative neuronal medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vinci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of the central nervous system represents a very delicate period of embryogenesis. Premature interruption of neurogenesis in human preterm newborns can lead to motor deficits, including cerebral palsy, and significant cognitive, behavioral or sensory deficits in childhood. Preterm infants also have a higher risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases later in life. In the last decade, great importance has been given to stem/progenitor cells and their possible role in the development and treatment of several neurological disorders. Several studies, mainly carried out on experimental models, evidenced that immunohistochemistry may allow the identification of different neural and glial precursors inside the developing cerebral cortex. However, only a few studies have been performed on markers of human stem cells in the embryonic period.This review aims at illustrating the importance of stem/progenitor cells in cerebral cortex during pre- and post-natal life. Defining the immunohistochemical markers of stem/progenitor cells in the human cerebral cortex during development may be important to develop an “endogenous” target therapy in the perinatal period. Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 26th-31st, 2015 · Cagliari (Italy · October 31st, 2015 · Stem cells: present and future Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Giordano

  11. The changes of regional cerebral blood flow: successful pain relief of intractable CRPS type II patients by motor cortex stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J. A.; Son, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Jung, S. G

    2004-01-01

    Authors report the effectiveness of MCS in extraordinarily extended pain due to intractable CRPS type II and rCBF study result for mechanism of pain control by MCS. A 43-year-old male presented severe spontaneous burning pain in his left hand and forearm and allodynia over the left arm and left hemibody. Authors planned MCS as a neuromodulation therapy for this intractable peripheral neuropathic pain patient because further neurodestructive procedure did not work anymore and have a potential risk of further aggrevation of neuopathic pain. We performed baseline and stimulation brain perfusion SPECT using 20 mCi of Tc-99m ECD. The baseline CBD studies were done with stimulator 'off' state and stimulation studies were done after stimulator 'on' with satisfactory pain relief. For the stimulation study, the radioisotope was injected immediately after pain-relief and the images were taken about 50 minutes after injection of radioisotope. In resting rCBF in the patient was compared with normal control datas, we found significant increase in rCBF in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right superior temporal gyrus, left temporooccipital area. When rCBF datas obtained after alleviation of pain with stimulator 'on' . there were significant increase in rCBF in bilateral prefrontal cortex and left temporoocipital area. After subtraction of ECD SPECT, we found significant increase in rCBF in the right premotor and supplementary motor cortex left sensorimotor cortex, right cingulated cortex, right posterior insular cortex, right anterior limb of internal capsule. left orbitofrontal cortex and right pyramidal tract in cerebral peduncle. Authors report exellent pain control by MCS in a case of severe CRPS type II with hemibody involvement and regional cerebral blood flow changes according to successful pain control

  12. [Effect of Electroacupuncture Intervention on IL-4/STAT 6 and NF-κB p 65 Signaling in Cerebral Cortex in Focal Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Qin, Wen-Yi; Luo, Yong

    2017-06-25

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on expression of cerebral cortical interleukin 4 (IL-4), signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT 6) and NF-κB family subunit p 65 in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI) rats, so as to explore its mechanisms in reducing cerebral ischemia. Forty-five male SD rats were randomly divided into sham group ( n =15), CIRI model group ( n =15), and EA group ( n =15). The CIRI model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R). EA (1 mA, 2 Hz/100 Hz) was applied to "Baihui"(GV 20) and the left "Hegu" (LI 4)-"Taichong" (LR 3) for 20 min, once every 12 h, three times altogether. The expression levels of p-STAT 6, STAT 6 and NF-κB p 65 in the ischemic cortex were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, separately, and the content of IL-4 was detected by ELISA. Compared with the sham group, cerebral IL-4 content and the expression levels of NF-κB p 65 immunoactivity and protein were significantly up-regulated in the CIRI model group ( P <0.001, P <0.01). Following EA intervention, the levels of IL-4, p-STAT 6 expression and ratio of p-STAT 6/STAT 6 were notably increased in the EA group than in the model group ( P <0.01),while the levels of cerebral NF-κB p 65 immunoactivity and protein expression were significantly down-regulated ( P <0.01, P <0.05). EA of GV 20 and LI 4-LR 3 can up-regulate cerebral cortical IL-4 content and p-STAT 6 expression, and down-regulate NF-κB p 65 expression in CIRI rats, which may contribute to its effect in improving cerebral ischemia by reducing inflammatory injury.

  13. Nonuniform alteration of dendritic development in the cerebral cortex following prenatal cocaine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L; Fischer, I; Levitt, P

    1996-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to cocaine has the potential to modify normal brain development and result in behavioral dysfunction. We used a new animal model in which cocaine was administered intravenously during prenatal development in pregnant rabbits twice daily at low dosages. Analysis of brain development focused on two areas of the cerebral cortex, anterior cingulate and primary visual, in which dopamine afferents, a target of cocaine, are differentially distributed. All postnatal rabbits exposed to cocaine prenatally exhibited normal features of cortical organization, including thickness, lamination patterns, and cytoarchitectonic differentiation. General axonal and astroglial organization, assessed by neurofilament-H and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining, also was unchanged in the cocaine-exposed animals. Analysis of dendritic organization was done using antibodies against microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), which reveals mostly the larger apical shafts of cortical pyramidal cells. In the anterior cingulate cortex of adolescent rabbits exposed to cocaine in utero, there is a marked decrease in both dendritic bundling and typical long, straight MAP2-stained profiles. In normal animals, the long, bundled dendrites area readily traced in a single focal plane from layer III or V pyramidal cell somata to the pial surface in saline-treated animals. Instead, the drug-exposed animals contained many more short segments of MAP2-stained dendrites that could be viewed coursing in and out of the plane of focus in the sections. Apical dendrites in mature visual cortex appeared normal in the cocaine-exposed rabbits. Examination of MAP2 staining at various postnatal ages revealed that the dendritic changes expressed in the adolescent anterior cingulate cortex appeared less robust, but still evident at birth. By P10-14, dendritic modifications were similar to the adult. Counts of the number of MAP2-positive dendritic profiles crossing the layer II-III interface

  14. Tyrosine hydroxylase-producing neurons in the human cerebral cortex do not colocalize with calcium-binding proteins or the serotonin 3A receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Stephen E; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Beyerle, Eric R; Fleming-Beattie, Julia C; Hawkins, Sarah M; McKernan, Courtney M; Rauh, Nicholas A

    2016-12-01

    Interneurons of the cerebral cortex play a significant role in cortical information processing and are of clinical interest due to their involvement in neurological disorders. In the human neocortex, three subsets of interneurons can be identified based on the production of the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calretinin or calbindin. A subset of interneurons in the mouse cortex expresses the serotonin 3A receptor (5-HT 3A R). Previous work in humans has also demonstrated the presence of a subgroup of cortical neurons that produces the catecholaminergic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Many TH-producing cells in the rat cortex coexpress calretinin and are adjacent to blood vessels. However, little is known about the phenotype of these TH interneurons in humans. Here we immunohistochemically examined the coexpression of TH with parvalbumin, calretinin, calbindin or 5-HT 3A R in human Brodmann's areas 10 and 24, cortical regions with high densities of TH-containing neurons. Colocalization of TH with these calcium-binding proteins and with 5-HT 3A R was not detected in either area. Cortical TH cells were rarely apposed to blood vessels, denoted by immunolabeling for the gliovascular marker aquaporin-4. Our results suggest that the TH-immunoreactive cells in the human cortex do not overlap with any known neurochemically-defined subsets of interneurons and provide further evidence of differences in the phenotype of these cells across species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lactate and glutamate dynamics during prolonged stimulation of the rat barrel cortex suggest adaptation of cerebral glucose and oxygen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnay, Sarah; Duarte, João M N; Just, Nathalie

    2017-03-27

    A better understanding of BOLD responses stems from a better characterization of the brain's ability to metabolize glucose and oxygen. Non-invasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fMRS) have thus been developed allowing for the reproducible assessment of metabolic changes during barrel cortex (S1BF) activations in rats. The present study aimed at further exploring the role of neurotransmitters on local and temporal changes in vascular and metabolic function in S1BF. fMRS and fMRI data were acquired sequentially in α-chloralose anesthetized rats during 32-min rest and trigeminal nerve stimulation periods. During stimulation, concentrations of lactate (Lac) and glutamate (Glu) increased in S1BF by 0.23±0.05 and 0.34±0.05μmol/g respectively in S1BF. Dynamic analysis of metabolite concentrations allowed estimating changes in cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (ΔCMR Glc ) and oxygen (ΔCMR O2 ). Findings confirmed a prevalence of oxidative metabolism during prolonged S1BF activation. Habituation led to a significant BOLD magnitude decline as a function of time while both total ΔCMR Glc and ΔCMR O2 remained constant revealing adaptation of glucose and oxygen metabolisms to support ongoing trigeminal nerve stimulation. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The cerebral cortex of Albert Einstein: a description and preliminary analysis of unpublished photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Dean; Lepore, Frederick E; Noe, Adrianne

    2013-04-01

    Upon his death in 1955, Albert Einstein's brain was removed, fixed and photographed from multiple angles. It was then sectioned into 240 blocks, and histological slides were prepared. At the time, a roadmap was drawn that illustrates the location within the brain of each block and its associated slides. Here we describe the external gross neuroanatomy of Einstein's entire cerebral cortex from 14 recently discovered photographs, most of which were taken from unconventional angles. Two of the photographs reveal sulcal patterns of the medial surfaces of the hemispheres, and another shows the neuroanatomy of the right (exposed) insula. Most of Einstein's sulci are identified, and sulcal patterns in various parts of the brain are compared with those of 85 human brains that have been described in the literature. To the extent currently possible, unusual features of Einstein's brain are tentatively interpreted in light of what is known about the evolution of higher cognitive processes in humans. As an aid to future investigators, these (and other) features are correlated with blocks on the roadmap (and therefore histological slides). Einstein's brain has an extraordinary prefrontal cortex, which may have contributed to the neurological substrates for some of his remarkable cognitive abilities. The primary somatosensory and motor cortices near the regions that typically represent face and tongue are greatly expanded in the left hemisphere. Einstein's parietal lobes are also unusual and may have provided some of the neurological underpinnings for his visuospatial and mathematical skills, as others have hypothesized. Einstein's brain has typical frontal and occipital shape asymmetries (petalias) and grossly asymmetrical inferior and superior parietal lobules. Contrary to the literature, Einstein's brain is not spherical, does not lack parietal opercula and has non-confluent Sylvian and inferior postcentral sulci.

  17. Effects of microgravity on muscle and cerebral cortex: a suggested interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Wu, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.

    The ``slow'' antigravity muscle adductor longus was studied in rats after 14 days of spaceflight (SF). The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light and electron microscopy revealed myofiber atrophy, segmental necrosis and regenerative myofibers. Regenerative myofibers were N-CAM immunoreactive (N-CAM-IR). The neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles, degenerative changes, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. No alterations of muscle spindles was seen either by light or electron microscopy. These observations suggest that muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight. In a separate study, GABA immunoreactivity (GABA-IR) was evaluated at the level of the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14 days of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension (``simulated'' microgravity). A reduction in number of GABA-immunoreactive cells with respect to the control animals was observed in layer Va and Vb. GABA-IR terminals were also reduced in the same layers, particularly those terminals surrounding the soma and apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layer Vb. On the basis of previous morphological and behavioral studies of the neuromuscular system after spaceflight and hindlimb suspension it is suggested that after limb unloading there are alterations of afferent signaling and feedback information from intramuscular receptors to the cerebral cortex due to modifications in the reflex organization of hindlimb muscle groups. We propose that the changes observed in GABA immunoreactivity of cells and terminals is an expression of changes in their modulatory activity to compensate for the alterations in the afferent information.

  18. Conantokin probes of NMDA receptors in normal and Alzheimer disease human cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragnarsson, L.; Dodd, P.R.; Lewis, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The pharmacology of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor site was examined in pathologically affected and relatively spared regions of cerebral cortex tissue obtained at autopsy from Alzheimer disease cases and matched controls. The affinity and density of the [ 3 H]MK-801 binding site were delineated along with the enhancement of [ 3 H]MK-801 binding by glutamate and spermine. Sites with distinct pharmacologies were distributed regionally through the cortex. The differences could not be explained by variations in the parameters of [ 3 H]MK-801 binding; rather, the data suggest that the subunit composition of NMDA receptors may be locally variable. Selective differences were also found between controls and Alzheimer disease cases in certain brain regions. The interactions of human NMDA sites with the Ala(7) and Lys(7) derivatives of conantokin-G (Con-G) were also characterized. Ala(7)-con-G showed the higher affinity of the two peptides, and also defined two distinct binding sites in controls. In distinction to the Ala(7) peptide, Lys(7)- con-G showed preferential binding to receptor sites in Alzheimer disease cf. control brain. Modified conantokins are useful for identifying differences in subunit composition of the NMDA receptors between brain areas. They may also have potential as protective agents against over-excitation mediated by specific NMDA receptors, which might contribute to localized brain damage in Alzheimer disease. For further characterization of the pharmacology of different NMDA receptor subunits, a mammalian expression system has been developed for the analysis of their responses to selected ligands, including conantokins. Copyright (2002) Australian Neuroscience Society

  19. In vivo synthesis of cholecystokinin in the rat cerebral cortex: identification of COOH-terminal peptides with labeled amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goltermann, N.R.

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis of the COOH-terminal octa- and tetrapeptides of cholecystokinin (CCK) has been studied in rat cerebral cortex after intraventricular administration of radioactive amino acids characteristic of the porcine COOH-terminal octapeptide of CCK, CCK-8. After immunosorption with a COOH-terminal directed antibody, cortical CCK was fractionated on Sephadex G-50 columns. The experiments demonstrated newly synthesized CCK forms which coeluted with porcine CCK-8 and CCK-4. Except for threonine the amino acids employed, methionine, tryptophan, aspartic acid, glycine and phenylalanine were incorporated. The sequence-specific radioimmunoassay, the incorporation of the employed labeled amino acids, and the elution pattern by gel filtration, suggest an almost identical structure of porcine and rat cortical CCK-8, and a concomitant synthesis of CCK-8 and CCK-4 in rat cerebral cortex

  20. Higher density of serotonin-1A receptors in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of alcohol-preferring P rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.T.; Threlkeld, P.G.; Lumeng, L.; Li, Ting-Kai

    1990-01-01

    Saturable [ 3 H]-80HDPAT binding to 5HT-1A receptors in membranes prepared from hippocampus and frontal cerebral cortex of alcohol-preferring (P) rats and of alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats has been compared. The B max values or densities of recognition sites for 5HT-1A receptors in both brain areas of the P rats are 38 and 44 percent lower in the P rats than in the NP rats. The corresponding K D values are 38 and 44 percent lower in the P rats than in the NP rats, indicating higher affinities of the recognition sites for the 5HT-1A receptors in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of the P rats. These findings indicate either an enrichment of 5HT-1A receptor density during selective breeding for alcohol preference or an upregulation of 5HT-1A receptors of 5HT found in these brain areas of P rats as compared with the NP rats

  1. Htr2a gene and 5-HT2A receptor expression in the cerebral cortex studied using genetically modified mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andrade

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin receptors of the 5-HT2A subtype are robustly expressed in the cerebral cortex where they have been implicated in the pathophysiology and therapeutics of mental disorders and the actions of hallucinogens. Much less is known, however, about the specific cell types expressing 5-HT2A receptors in cortex. In the current study we use immunohistochemical and electrophysiological approaches in genetically modified mice to address the expression of the Htr2a gene and 5-HT2A receptors in cortex. We first use an EGFP expressing BAC transgenic mice and identify three main Htr2A gene expressing neuronal populations in cortex. The largest of these cell populations corresponds to layer V pyramidal cells of the anterior cortex, followed by GABAergic interneurons of the middle layers, and nonpyramidal cells of the subplate/Layer VIb. We then use 5-HT2A receptor knockout mice to identify an antibody capable of localizing 5-HT2A receptors in brain and use it to map these receptors. We find strong laminar expression of 5-HT2A receptors in cortex, especially along a diffuse band overlaying layer Va. This band exhibits a strong anteroposterior gradient that closely matches the localization of Htr2A expressing pyramidal cells of layer V. Finally we use electrophysiological and immunohistochemical approaches to show that most, but not all, GABAergic interneurons of the middle layers are parvalbumin expressing Fast-spiking interneurons and that these cells are depolarized and excited by serotonin, most likely through the activation of 5-HT2A receptors. These results clarify and extend our understanding of the cellular distribution of 5-HT2A receptors in the cerebral cortex.

  2. Effect of acute and repeated restraint stress on glucose oxidation to CO2 in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices

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    Torres I.L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that glucocorticoids released during stress might impair neuronal function by decreasing glucose uptake by hippocampal neurons. Previous work has demonstrated that glucose uptake is reduced in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices 24 h after exposure to acute stress, while no effect was observed after repeated stress. Here, we report the effect of acute and repeated restraint stress on glucose oxidation to CO2 in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices and on plasma glucose and corticosterone levels. Male adult Wistar rats were exposed to restraint 1 h/day for 50 days in the chronic model. In the acute model there was a single exposure. Immediately or 24 h after stress, the animals were sacrificed and the hippocampus and cerebral cortex were dissected, sliced, and incubated with Krebs buffer, pH 7.4, containing 5 mM glucose and 0.2 µCi D-[U-14C] glucose. CO2 production from glucose was estimated. Trunk blood was also collected, and both corticosterone and glucose were measured. The results showed that corticosterone levels after exposure to acute restraint were increased, but the increase was smaller when the animals were submitted to repeated stress. Blood glucose levels increased after both acute and repeated stress. However, glucose utilization, measured as CO2 production in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices, was the same in stressed and control groups under conditions of both acute and chronic stress. We conclude that, although stress may induce a decrease in glucose uptake, this effect is not sufficient to affect the energy metabolism of these cells.

  3. Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates mode of cell division of early cerebral cortex progenitors and increases astrogliogenesis

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    Geissy LL Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (SHH plays a critical role in the development of different tissues. In the central nervous system, SHH is well known to contribute to the patterning of the spinal cord and separation of the brain hemispheres. In addition, it has recently been shown that SHH signaling also contributes to the patterning of the telencephalon and establishment of adult neurogenic niches. In this work, we investigated whether SHH signaling influences the behavior of neural progenitors isolated from the dorsal telencephalon, which generate excitatory neurons and macroglial cells in vitro. We observed that SHH increases proliferation of cortical progenitors and generation of astrocytes, whereas blocking SHH signaling with cyclopamine has opposite effects. In both cases, generation of neurons did not seem to be affected. However, cell survival was broadly affected by blockade of SHH signaling. SHH effects were related to three different cell phenomena: mode of cell division, cell cycle length and cell growth. Together, our data in vitro demonstrate that SHH signaling controls cell behaviors that are important for proliferation of cerebral cortex progenitors, as well as differentiation and survival of neurons and astroglial cells.

  4. Cellular and synaptic localization of EAAT2a in human cerebral cortex

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    Marcello eMelone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical techniques to analyze the distribution, cellular and synaptic localization of EAAT2, the main glutamate transporter, in normal human neocortex. EAAT2a immunoreactivity was in all layers and consisted of small neuropilar puncta and rare cells. In white matter EAAT2a+ cells were numerous. Electron microscopic studies showed that in gray matter ∼77% of immunoreactive elements were astrocytic processes, ∼14% axon terminals, ∼2.8% dendrites, whereas ∼5% were unidentifiable. In white matter, ∼81% were astrocytic processes, ∼17% were myelinated axons and ∼2.0% were unidentified. EAAT2a immunoreactivity was never in microglial cells and oligodendrocytes. Pre-embedding electron microscopy showed that ∼67% of EAAT2a expressed at (or in the vicinity of asymmetric synapses was in astrocytes, ∼17% in axon terminals, while ∼13% was both in astrocytes and in axons. Post-embeddeding electron microscopy studies showed that in astrocytic processes contacting asymmetric synapses and in axon terminals, gold particle density was ∼25.1 and ∼2.8 particles/µm2, respectively, and was concentrated in a membrane region extending for ∼300 nm from the active zone edge. Besides representing the first detailed description of EAAT2a in human cerebral cortex, these findings may contribute to understanding its role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases.

  5. Neuron-oligodendrocyte myelination co-culture derived from embryonic rat spinal cord and cerebral cortex.

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    Pang, Yi; Zheng, Baoying; Kimberly, Simpson L; Cai, Zhengwei; Rhodes, Philip G; Lin, Rick C S

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro myelination model derived from rat central nervous system (CNS) remains to be established. Here, we describe a simple and reproducible myelination culture method using dissociated neuron-oligodendrocyte (OL) co-cultures from either the embryonic day 16 (E16) rat spinal cord or cerebral cortex. The dissociated cells are plated directly on poly-L-lysine-coated cover slips and maintained in a modified myelination medium that supports both OL and neuron differentiation. The spinal cord derived OL progenitor cells develop quickly into myelin basic protein (MBP)+ mature OLs and start to myelinate axons around 17 days in vitro (DIV17). Myelination reaches its peak around six weeks (DIV40) and the typical nodes of Ranvier are revealed by paranodal proteins Caspr and juxaparanodal protein Kv1.2 immunoreactivity. Electron microscopy (EM) shows typical myelination cytoarchitecture and synaptic organization. In contrast, the cortical-derived co-culture requires triiodothyronine (T3) in the culture medium for myelination. Finally, either hypomyelination and/or demyelination can be induced by exposing proinflammatory cytokines or demyelinating agents to the co-culture, suggesting the feasibility of this modified in vitro myelination model for myelin-deficit investigation.

  6. Human Cerebral Cortex Cajal-Retzius Neuron: Development, Structure and Function. A Golgi Study

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    Miguel eMarín-Padilla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development, morphology and possible functional activity of the Cajal-Retzius cell of the developing human cerebral cortex have been explored herein. The C-RC, of extracortical origin, is the essential neuron of the neocortex first lamina. It receives inputs from subcortical afferent fibers that reach the first lamina early in development. Although the origin and function of these original afferent fibers remain unknown, they target the first lamina sole neuron: the C-RC. The neuron’ orchestrates the arrival, size and stratification of all pyramidal neurons (from ependymal origin of the neocortex gray matter. Its axonic terminals spread radially and horizontally throughout the entire first lamina establishing contacts with the dendritic terminals of all gray matter pyramidal cells regardless of size, location and/or eventual functional roles. While the neuron axonic terminals spread radially and horizontally throughout the first lamina, the neuron’ bodies undergoes progressive developmental dilution and locating any of them in the adult brain become quite difficult. The neuron bodies are probably retained in the older regions of the developing neocortex while their axonic collaterals will spread throughout its more recent ones that, eventually, will represent the great majority of the brain surface. This will explain their bodies progressive dilution in the developing neocortex and, later, in the adult brain. Although quite difficult to locate the body of any of them, they have been described in the adult brain.

  7. Structure of the cerebral cortex of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Balaenopteridae).

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    Hof, Patrick R; Van der Gucht, Estel

    2007-01-01

    Cetaceans diverged from terrestrial mammals between 50 and 60 million years ago and acquired, during their adaptation to a fully aquatic milieu, many derived features, including echolocation (in odontocetes), remarkable auditory and communicative abilities, as well as a complex social organization. Whereas brain structure has been documented in detail in some odontocetes, few reports exist on its organization in mysticetes. We studied the cerebral cortex of the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) in comparison to another balaenopterid, the fin whale, and representative odontocetes. We observed several differences between Megaptera and odontocetes, such as a highly clustered organization of layer II over the occipital and inferotemporal neocortex, whereas such pattern is restricted to the ventral insula in odontocetes. A striking observation in Megaptera was the presence in layer V of the anterior cingulate, anterior insular, and frontopolar cortices of large spindle cells, similar in morphology and distribution to those described in hominids, suggesting a case of parallel evolution. They were also observed in the fin whale and the largest odontocetes, but not in species with smaller brains or body size. The hippocampal formation, unremarkable in odontocetes, is further diminutive in Megaptera, contrasting with terrestrial mammals. As in odontocetes, clear cytoarchitectural patterns exist in the neocortex of Megaptera, making it possible to define many cortical domains. These observations demonstrate that Megaptera differs from Odontoceti in certain aspects of cortical cytoarchitecture and may provide a neuromorphologic basis for functional and behavioral differences between the suborders as well as a reflection of their divergent evolution. c 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Measurement of cerebral perfusion and haemodynamic reserve by SPECT: application to cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinling, M.

    1990-01-01

    The isolated measurement of cerebral blood flow can lead to gross errors in vascular disease, particularly ischaemic disease, because of disruption of the relations between blood flow and metabolism. In contrast, the measurement of cerebral blood flow combined with measurement of the haemodynamic reserve overcomes these difficulties, regardless of the method of evaluation: reactivity to CO 2 or to acetazolamide; measurement of the flow volume ratio. The author demonstrates that these measurements are even more valuable in situations in which morphological examinations (MRI or computed tomography) are of little value: transient ischaemic attacks, asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis, etc. However, these measurements are useful in constituted infarctions or in vasospasm to assess the distant effects or to guide the therapeutic adjustment or even to provide prognostic elements. Combined measurement of perfusion and haemodynamic reserve, although it does not constitute a formal proof, is now largely accessible by means of non-specialized gamma cameras with determination of the flow/volume ratio [fr

  9. Measurement of cerebral perfusion and haemodynamic reserve by SPECT: application to cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinling, M.

    1990-01-01

    The isolated measurement of cerebral blood flow can lead to gross errors in vascular disease, particularly ischaemic disease, because of disruption of the relations between blood flow and metabolism. In contrast, the measurement of cerebral blood flow combined with measurement of the haemodynamic reserve overcomes these difficulties, regardless of the method of evaluation: reactivity to CO 2 or to acetazolamide; measurement of the flow/volume ratio. The author demonstrates that these measurements are even more valuable in situations in which morphological examinations (MRI or computed tomography) are of little value: transient ischaemic attacks, asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis, etc. However, these measurements are useful in constituted infarctions or in vasospasm to assess the distant effects or to guide the therapeutic adjustment or even to provide prognostic elements. Combined measurement of perfusion and haemodynamic reserve, although it does not constitute a formal proof, is now largely accessible by means of non-specialized gamma cameras with determination of the flow/volume ratio [fr

  10. Effect of a low-dose x-ray irradiation on the development and differentiation of the cerebral cortex, (15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Yasushi; Hoshino, Kiyoshi; Hayasaka, Shizuka; Kameyama, Yoshiro

    1981-01-01

    Mice of 17 day's gestation received x-rays of 10 R, 25 R, or 100 R, and those of 13 or 15 day's gestation received 10 R in a single exposure. These irradiated fetuses were examined for the weight of the brain, thickness of the cerebral cortex, density of the cortical cells and branching of the pyramidal cells in the fifth layer of the cortex 12 weeks after birth. Decrease in the thickness of the cortex was observed in the mice which received 100 R at 17 day's gestation. A decrease in the branching index of the pyramidal cells was found in the mice which received 100 R. Although a decreasing tendency of the branching index was also recognized in those which received 10 R at 13 days of gestation, showing no statistically significant difference. (Ueda, J.)

  11. Electroacupuncture stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy side promotes brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the ischemic cerebral cortex of a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zongjun; Wang, Lumin

    2012-07-25

    A rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was established by suture occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. In situ hybridization results showed that the number of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA-positive cells in the ischemic rat cerebral cortex increased after cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion injury. Low frequency continuous wave electroacupuncture (frequency 2-6 Hz, current intensity 2 mA) stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy (right) side increased the number of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA-positive cells in the ischemic cerebral cortex 14 days after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. At the same time, electroacupuncture stimulation of the healthy brachial plexus truck significantly decreased neurological function scores and alleviated neurological function deficits. These findings suggest that electroacupuncture stimulation of the brachial plexus trunk on the healthy (right) side can greatly increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression and improve neurological function.

  12. Production rates and turnover of triiodothyronine in rat-developing cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Responses to hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.E.; Matthews, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    Local 5'-deiodination of serum thyroxine (T4) is the main source of triiodothyronine (T3) for the brain. Since we noted in previous studies that the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats tolerated marked reductions in serum T4 without biochemical hypothyroidism, we examined the in vivo T4 and T3 metabolism in that tissue and in the cerebellum of euthyroid and hypothyroid 2-wk-old rats. We also assessed the contribution of enhanced tissue T4 to T3 conversion and decreased T3 removal from the tissues to the T3 homeostasis in hypothyroid brain. Congenital and neonatal hypothyroidism was induced by adding methimazole to the drinking water. Serum, cerebral cortex (Cx), cerebellum (Cm), liver (L) and kidney (R) concentrations of 125I-T4, 125I-T3(T4), and 131I-T3 were measured at various times after injecting 125I-T4 and 131I-T3. The rate of T3 removal from the tissues was measured after injecting an excess of anti-T3-antibody to rats previously injected with tracer T3. In hypothyroidism, the fractional removal rates and clearances were reduced in all tissues, in cortex and cerebellum by 70%, and in liver and kidney ranging from 30 to 50%. While greater than 80% of the 125I-T3(T4) in the brain tissues of euthyroid rats was locally produced, in hypothyroid cerebral cortex and cerebellum the integrated concentrations of 125I-T3(T4) were 2.7- and 1.5-fold greater than in euthyroid rats

  13. Evidence that two stereochemically different alpha-2 adrenoceptors modulate norepinephrine release in rat cerebral cortex

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    Harsing, L.G. Jr.; Vizi, E.S. (Institute of Experimental Medicine, Budapest (Hungary))

    1991-01-01

    Cerebral cortex slices from the rat were loaded with (3H)norepinephrine ((3H)NE) and superfused in order to measure the release of radioactivity at rest and in response to electrical stimulation. The (-)-isomer and the (+)-isomer of CH-38083 (7,8-(methylenedioxy)-14- alpha-hydroxyalloberbane HCl), a selective alpha-2-adrenoceptor antagonist with an alloberbane skeleton, increased the electrically induced release of (3H)NE in a concentration-dependent manner, and a similar effect was observed with racemic CH-38083 and idazoxan. The stereoisomers of CH-38083 applied in a concentration range of 10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/l were equipotent in facilitating stimulation-evoked (3H)NE release: concentrations needed to enhance tritium outflow by 50% were 1.3 X 10(-7) mol/l for (-)-CH-38083 and 1.4 X 10(-7) mol/l for (+)-CH-38083. Exogenous NE decreased the electrically stimulated release of (3H)NE, and the stereoisomers of CH-38083 antagonized this inhibition with different potencies: the dissociation constant (KB) values for (-)-isomer and for (+)-isomer of CH-38083 were 14.29 and 97.18 nmol/l. These data indicate that presynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors that are available for NE released from axon terminals do not show stereospecificity toward enantiomers of CH-38083, whereas those that are occupied by exogenous NE are much more sensitive toward (-)-CH-38083. The alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin also differentiated between the alpha-2 adrenoceptor subtypes: prazosin (10(-6) mol/l) did not alter the increase of electrically induced (3H)NE release evoked by (-)- and (+)-CH-38083; however, in its presence, the stereoisomers of CH-38083 failed to antagonize the inhibitory effect of exogenous NE on its own release.

  14. Reorganization of the somatosensory cortex in hemiplegic cerebral palsy associated with impaired sensory tracts

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    Christos Papadelis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies argue that sensory deficits in hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP are related to deviant somatosensory processing in the ipsilesional primary somatosensory cortex (S1. A separate body of structural neuroimaging literature argues that these deficits are due to structural damage of the ascending sensory tracts (AST. The relationship between the functional and structural integrity of the somatosensory system and the sensory performance is largely unknown in HCP. To address this relationship, we combined findings from magnetoencephalography (MEG and probabilistic diffusion tractography (PDT in 10 children with HCP and 13 typically developing (TD children. With MEG, we mapped the functionally active regions in the contralateral S1 during tactile stimulation of the thumb, middle, and little fingers of both hands. Using these MEG-defined functional active regions as regions of interest for PDT, we estimated the diffusion parameters of the AST. Somatosensory function was assessed via two-point discrimination tests. Our MEG data showed: (i an abnormal somatotopic organization in all children with HCP in either one or both of their hemispheres; (ii longer Euclidean distances between the digit maps in the S1 of children with HCP compared to TD children; (iii suppressed gamma responses at early latencies for both hemispheres of children with HCP; and (iv a positive correlation between the Euclidean distances and the sensory tests for the more affected hemisphere of children with HCP. Our MEG-guided PDT data showed: (i higher mean and radian diffusivity of the AST in children with HCP; (ii a positive correlation between the axial diffusivity of the AST with the sensory tests for the more affected hemisphere; and (iii a negative correlation between the gamma power change and the AD of the AST for the MA hemisphere. Our findings associate for the first time bilateral cortical functional reorganization in the S1 of HCP children with

  15. Reorganization of the somatosensory cortex in hemiplegic cerebral palsy associated with impaired sensory tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadelis, Christos; Butler, Erin E; Rubenstein, Madelyn; Sun, Limin; Zollei, Lilla; Nimec, Donna; Snyder, Brian; Grant, Patricia Ellen

    2018-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies argue that sensory deficits in hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) are related to deviant somatosensory processing in the ipsilesional primary somatosensory cortex (S1). A separate body of structural neuroimaging literature argues that these deficits are due to structural damage of the ascending sensory tracts (AST). The relationship between the functional and structural integrity of the somatosensory system and the sensory performance is largely unknown in HCP. To address this relationship, we combined findings from magnetoencephalography (MEG) and probabilistic diffusion tractography (PDT) in 10 children with HCP and 13 typically developing (TD) children. With MEG, we mapped the functionally active regions in the contralateral S1 during tactile stimulation of the thumb, middle, and little fingers of both hands. Using these MEG-defined functional active regions as regions of interest for PDT, we estimated the diffusion parameters of the AST. Somatosensory function was assessed via two-point discrimination tests. Our MEG data showed: (i) an abnormal somatotopic organization in all children with HCP in either one or both of their hemispheres; (ii) longer Euclidean distances between the digit maps in the S1 of children with HCP compared to TD children; (iii) suppressed gamma responses at early latencies for both hemispheres of children with HCP; and (iv) a positive correlation between the Euclidean distances and the sensory tests for the more affected hemisphere of children with HCP. Our MEG-guided PDT data showed: (i) higher mean and radian diffusivity of the AST in children with HCP; (ii) a positive correlation between the axial diffusivity of the AST with the sensory tests for the more affected hemisphere; and (iii) a negative correlation between the gamma power change and the AD of the AST for the MA hemisphere. Our findings associate for the first time bilateral cortical functional reorganization in the S1 of HCP children with

  16. Brainstem stimulation augments information integration in the cerebral cortex of desflurane-anesthetized rats

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    Siveshigan ePillay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available States of consciousness have been associated with information integration in the brain as modulated by anesthesia and the ascending arousal system. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that electrical stimulation of the oral part of the pontine reticular nucleus (PnO can augment information integration in the cerebral cortex of anesthetized rats. Extracellular unit activity and local field potentials were recorded in freely moving animals from parietal association (PtA and secondary visual (V2 cortices via chronically implanted microwire arrays at three levels of anesthesia produced by desflurane: 3.5%, 4.5%, and 6.0% (where 4.5% corresponds to that critical for the loss of consciousness. Information integration was characterized by integration (multiinformation and interaction entropy, estimated from the statistical distribution of coincident spike patterns. PnO stimulation elicited electrocortical activation as indicated by the reductions in δ- and θ-band powers at the intermediate level of anesthesia. PnO stimulation augmented integration from 1.13 ± 0.03 to 6.12 ± 1.98 x103 bits and interaction entropy from 0.44 ± 0.11 to 2.18 ± 0.72 x103 bits; these changes were most consistent in the PtA at all desflurane concentrations. Stimulation of the retina with discrete light flashes after PnO stimulation elicited an additional 166 ± 25 and 92 ± 12% increase in interaction entropy in V2 during light and intermediate levels. The results suggest that the PnO may modulate spontaneous ongoing and sensory stimulus-related cortical information integration under anesthesia.

  17. Executive function and cerebral blood flow on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cases of subcortical infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Utsumi, Hiroya

    2006-01-01

    In order to clarify the extent of dysexecutive function of patients with subcortical infarctions, participants of this study underwent neuropsychological tests and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). These participants were categorized into two groups; patients with basal ganglia lesions (BG group) (n=5) and those with white matter lesions (WM group) (n=12). Participants were administered executive function tests as a part of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Administered executive measures included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT), the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), and the Trait Making Test; Parts A and B. There were no group differences in their age, years of education and global cognitive performance. Student's t-tests were conducted to determine group differences in executive function. As a result, the number of total errors, the number of perseverative errors and the number of categories completed on the WCST were significantly worse for the BG group than for the WM group. These groups did not differ on other measures administered. In addition, all participants underwent SPECT, and their results were compared with the normal control data. Hypoperfusion was found on parts of the bilateral frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes for the BG and WM groups. These tendencies stood out in the right hemisphere of the BG group. The BG group exhibited decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) on the area of right side dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (e.g., Brodmann area 44). These analyses revealed that individuals with BG lesions showed significant executive declines that might be associated with decreased CBF in the subcortical-frontal system. It may support the idea that BG is connected with DLPFC via frontal-subcortical neuronal circuit. Patients with BG lesions may experience dysexecutive function due to the phenomenon of diaschisis from the disruption of this circuit. (author)

  18. Differential binding of 3H-imipramine and 3H-mianserin in rat cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbrille-Ross, A.; Tang, S.W.; Coscina, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    Drug competition profiles, effect of raphe lesion, and sodium dependency of the binding of two antidepressant drugs 3 H-imipramine and 3 H-mianserin to rat cerebral cortex homogenate were compared to examine whether the drugs bound to a common ''antidepressant receptor.'' Of the neurotransmitters tested, only serotonin displaced binding of both 3 H-imipramine and 3 H-mianserin. 3 H-Mianserin binding was potently displaced by serotonin S 2 antagonists and exhibited a profile similar to that of 3 H-spiperone binding. In the presence of the serotonin S 2 antagonist spiperone, antihistamines (H 1 ) potently displaced 3 H-mianserin binding. 3 H-Imipramine binding was displaced potently by serotonin uptake inhibitors. The order of potency of serotonergic drugs in displacing 3 H-imipramine binding was not similar to their order in displacing 3 H-spiperone or -3H-serotonin binding. Prior midbrain raphe lesions greatly decreased the binding of 3 H-imipramine but did not alter binding of 3 H-mianserin. Binding of 3 H-imipramine but not 3 H-mianserin was sodium dependent. These results show that 3 H-imipramine and 3 H-mianserin bind to different receptors. 3 H-Imipramine binds to a presynaptic serotonin receptor which is probably related to a serotonin uptake recognition site, the binding of which is sodium dependent. 3 H-Mianserin binds to postsynaptic receptors, possibly both serotonin S 2 and histamine H 1 receptors, the binding of which is sodium independent

  19. Biosilicification (chalcedony) in human cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum from aged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado Figueroa, María; Flores, Luis; Sanchez, Juvenal; Cesaretti, Nora

    2008-10-01

    Aluminum and silicon have been observed to be present in the human degenerated brain and normal elderly brains by using a combination of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectrometry (EDS-SEM). Al and Si of electric organs were also reported--in electrocytes and cholinergic nerves--from living electric fish (family Rajidae). A biogenically produced crystalline mineral phase (i.e., chalcedony) has also been observed in electric organs by using a mineralogical microscope. Based on this evidence we decided to explore the presence of chalcedony (SiO2) in the human central nervous system (CNS). Sections from aged patients (mean, 81 years) were collected after autopsy and observed using a Leica DMLP mineralogical microscope. Chalcedony was detected in cerebral cortex and cerebellum. In plane-polarized light, chalcedony is rounded in shape, 12-20 microm in size, translucent, with a low refraction index. The crossed-polarizer image shows first order birefringence color (grey-white) and radial extinction. Chalcedony was also detected in the hippocampus in large amounts and sizes (50-60 microm). Chalcedony is a microcrystalline fibrous form of silica. It consists of nanoscale intergrowths of quartz and the optically length-slow fibrous silica polymorph moganite. Chalcedony precipitation occurs at a specific pH (7-8) and oxidation potential (Eh; 0.0 to -0.2) in geological environments. This observation supports the important role played by pH and Eh conditions in silica precipitation in elderly brains, as has also been reported in peripheral cholinergic nerves in electric organ from living electric fish. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) (silicase) are involved in physiological pH regulation and may also be participating in the polymerization-depolymerization of chalcedony in the human brain. This is the first time a biogenically produced crystalline mineral phase (i.e., chalcedony) has been observed in the human CNS from aged patients.

  20. In vivo assessment of iron content of the cerebral cortex in healthy aging using 7-Tesla T2*-weighted phase imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Mathijs; Doan, Nhat Trung; van Rooden, Sanneke; Versluis, Maarten J; van Lew, Baldur; Milles, Julien; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Buchem, Mark A

    2017-05-01

    Accumulation of brain iron has been suggested as a biomarker of neurodegeneration. Increased iron has been seen in the cerebral cortex in postmortem studies of neurodegenerative diseases and healthy aging. Until recently, the diminutive thickness of the cortex and its relatively low iron content have hampered in vivo study of cortical iron accumulation. Using phase images of a T2*-weighted sequence at ultrahigh field strength (7 Tesla), we examined the iron content of 22 cortical regions in 70 healthy subjects aged 22-80 years. The cortex was automatically segmented and parcellated, and phase shift was analyzed using an in-house developed method. We found a significant increase in phase shift with age in 20 of 22 cortical regions, concurrent with current understanding of cortical iron accumulation. Our findings suggest that increased cortical iron content can be assessed in healthy aging in vivo. The high spatial resolution and sensitivity to iron of our method make it a potentially useful tool for studying cortical iron accumulation in healthy aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tolerance to the sedative and anxiolytic effects of diazepam is associated with different alterations of GABAA receptors in rat cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, M C; Gutiérrez, M L; Gravielle, M C

    2015-12-03

    The clinical use of benzodiazepines is limited by the development of tolerance to their pharmacological effects. Tolerance to each of the pharmacological actions of benzodiazepines develops at different rates. The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism of tolerance by performing behavioral tests in combination with biochemical studies. To this end, we administered prolonged treatments of diazepam to rats for 7 or 14 days. Tolerance to the sedative effects of diazepam was detected by means of the open field test after the 7- and 14-day treatments, whereas tolerance to the anxiolytic actions of benzodiazepine manifested following only the 14-day treatment in the elevated plus maze. The cerebral cortical concentrations of diazepam did not decline after the diazepam treatments, indicating that tolerance was not due to alterations in pharmacokinetic factors. The uncoupling of GABA/benzodiazepine site interactions and an increase in the degree of phosphorylation of the GABAA receptor γ2 subunit at serine 327 in the cerebral cortex were produced by day 7 of diazepam treatment and persisted after 14 days of exposure to benzodiazepine. Thus, these alterations could be part of the mechanism of tolerance to the sedative effects of diazepam. An increase in the percentage of α1-containing GABAA receptors in the cerebral cortex was observed following the 14-day treatment with diazepam but not the 7-day treatment, suggesting that tolerance to the anxiolytic effects is associated with a change in receptor subunit composition. The understanding of the molecular bases of tolerance could be important for the development of new drugs that maintain their efficacies over long-term treatments. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Effect of Reading a Book on a Tablet Computer on Cerebral Blood Flow in the Prefrontal Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Akihiro; Eto, Takuya; Kinoshita, Fumiya; Takada, Hiroki

    2018-01-01

    By measuring cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex, we aimed to determine how reading a book on a tablet computer affects sleep. Seven students (7 men age range, 21-32 years) participated in this study. In a controlled illuminance environment, the subjects read a novel in printed form or on a tablet computer from any distance. As the subjects were reading, the cerebral blood flow in their prefrontal cortex was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. The study protocol was as follows. 1) Subjects mentally counted a sequence of numbers for 30 s as a pretest to standardized thinking and then 2) read the novel for 10 min, using the printed book or tablet computer. In step 2), the use of the book or tablet computer was in a random sequence. Subjects rested between the two tasks. Significantly increased brain activity (increase in regional cerebral blood flow) was observed following reading a novel on a tablet computer compared with that after reading a printed book. Furthermore, the region around Broca's area was more active when reading on a tablet computer than when reading a printed book. Considering the results of this study and previous studies on physiological characteristics during nonrapid eye movement sleep, we concluded that reading a book on a tablet computer before the onset of sleep leads to the potential inhibition of sound sleep through mechanisms other than the suppression of melatonin secretion.

  3. Sox2-Mediated Conversion of NG2 Glia into Induced Neurons in the Injured Adult Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Heinrich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult cerebral cortex lacks the capacity to replace degenerated neurons following traumatic injury. Conversion of nonneuronal cells into induced neurons has been proposed as an innovative strategy toward brain repair. Here, we show that retrovirus-mediated expression of the transcription factors Sox2 and Ascl1, but strikingly also Sox2 alone, can induce the conversion of genetically fate-mapped NG2 glia into induced doublecortin (DCX+ neurons in the adult mouse cerebral cortex following stab wound injury in vivo. In contrast, lentiviral expression of Sox2 in the unlesioned cortex failed to convert oligodendroglial and astroglial cells into DCX+ cells. Neurons induced following injury mature morphologically and some acquire NeuN while losing DCX. Patch-clamp recording of slices containing Sox2- and/or Ascl1-transduced cells revealed that a substantial fraction of these cells receive synaptic inputs from neurons neighboring the injury site. Thus, NG2 glia represent a potential target for reprogramming strategies toward cortical repair.

  4. Influence of synchronized sleep on the biosynthesis of RNA in two nuclear classes isolated from rabbit cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuditta, A; Rutigliano, B; Vitale-Neugebauer, A

    1980-12-01

    The biosynthesis of RNA during sleep has been studied in two purified nuclear fractions, separated from rabbit cerebral cortex after subarachnoidal injection of radioactive orotate. The biochemical parameters have been referred to the percent EEG synchronization recorded during the period of incorporation (1 hr). The content of radioactive RNA per nucleus increases significantly with percent synchronization in the fraction of large nuclei (of neuronal and astroglial origin). While sedimentation and electrophoretic analyses of this RNA are consistent with the hypothesis of an enhanced turnover of rRNA during wakefulness, the accumulation of labelled RNA which is observed during sleep may be due to a modified turnover of nuclear heterogeneous RNA. On the other hand, in the fraction of small nuclei (mostly of oligodendroglial origin) the content of radioactive RNA per nucleus and the pattern of sedimentation of labelled RNA show no dependence on the electrical state of the cortex. These data indicate that in the cerebral cortex the sleep-wakefulness transition is accompanied by a different cellular response in RNA turnover.

  5. [Changes of endoplasmic reticulum stress- and apoptosis-related factors in rat cerebral cortex following controlled hypotension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianxing; Li, Hongying; Zhou, Guobin; Wang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the changes of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)- and apoptosis-related factors in rat cerebral cortex following controlled hypotension. Twenty-four healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups, including a sham hypotension group (group A) and 3 hypotension groups with the mean arterial pressure maintained for 60 min at 70 mmHg (group B), 50 mmHg (group) and 30 mmHg (group D) with sodium nitroprusside and esmolol. All the rats received an equal volume of fluid infusion. Twelve hours after controlled hypotension, the rats were sacrificed to examine the protein expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase-12 in the cortex with Western blotting. GRP78 mRNA expression was measured by RT-PCR, and the cell apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL staining. Compared with those in group A, GRP78 mRNA and protein expressions of GRP78, CHOP, caspase-12 related with ERS increased significantly in groups C and D (P0.05). Apoptotic cells and Bax expression increased and Bcl-2 expression decreased significantly in groups C and D (P0.05); such changes were more prominent in group D than in group C (Pcontrolled hypotension (70 mmHg) does not induce neuronal injury in rat cerebral cortex, but severe hypertension (lower than 50 mmHg) can cause neuronal ERS and apoptosis.

  6. Activation of the basolateral amygdala induces long-term enhancement of specific memory representations in the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Candice M; McGaugh, James L; Weinberger, Norman M

    2013-03-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulates memory, particularly for arousing or emotional events, during post-training periods of consolidation. It strengthens memories whose substrates in part or whole are stored remotely, in structures such as the hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex. However, the mechanisms by which the BLA influences distant memory traces are unknown, largely because of the need for identifiable target mnemonic representations. Associative tuning plasticity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) constitutes a well-characterized candidate specific memory substrate that is ubiquitous across species, tasks and motivational states. When tone predicts reinforcement, the tuning of cells in A1 shifts toward or to the signal frequency within its tonotopic map, producing an over-representation of behaviorally important sounds. Tuning shifts have the cardinal attributes of forms of memory, including associativity, specificity, rapid induction, consolidation and long-term retention and are therefore likely memory representations. We hypothesized that the BLA strengthens memories by increasing their cortical representations. We recorded multiple unit activity from A1 of rats that received a single discrimination training session in which two tones (2.0 s) separated by 1.25 octaves were either paired with brief electrical stimulation (400 ms) of the BLA (CS+) or not (CS-). Frequency response areas generated by presenting a matrix of test tones (0.5-53.82 kHz, 0-70 dB) were obtained before training and daily for 3 weeks post-training. Tuning both at threshold and above threshold shifted predominantly toward the CS+ beginning on day 1. Tuning shifts were maintained for the entire 3 weeks. Absolute threshold and bandwidth decreased, producing less enduring increases in sensitivity and selectivity. BLA-induced tuning shifts were associative, highly specific and long-lasting. We propose that the BLA strengthens memory for important experiences by increasing the

  7. Maternal Exposure to PM2.5 during Pregnancy Induces Impaired Development of Cerebral Cortex in Mice Offspring

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    Tianliang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a serious environmental health problem closely related to the occurrence of central nervous system diseases. Exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5 during pregnancy may affect the growth and development of infants. The present study was to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy on brain development in mice offspring. Pregnant mice were randomly divided into experimental groups of low-, medium-, or high-dosages of PM2.5, a mock-treated group which was treated with the same amount of phosphate buffer solution (PBS, and acontrol group which was untreated. The ethology of offspring mice on postnatal days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 30, along with neuronal development and apoptosis in the cerebral cortex were investigated. Compared with the control, neuronal mitochondrial cristae fracture, changed autophagy characteristics, significantly increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL positive cell rate, and mRNA levels of apoptosis-related caspase-8 and caspase-9 were found in cerebral cortex of mice offspring from the treatment groups, with mRNA levels of Bcl-2 and ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax decreased. Treatment groups also demonstrated enhanced protein expressions of apoptosis-related cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8 and cleaved caspase-9, along with declined proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, Bcl-2, and ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax. Open field experiments and tail suspension experiments showed that exposure to high dosage of PM2.5 resulted in decreased spontaneous activities but increased static accumulation time in mice offspring, indicating anxiety, depression, and social behavioral changes. Our results suggested that maternal exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy might interfere with cerebral cortex development in mice offspring by affecting cell apoptosis.

  8. Distinction of neurons, glia and endothelial cells in the cerebral cortex: an algorithm based on cytological features

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    Miguel Ángel García-Cabezas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the number or density of neurons and types of glial cells and their relative proportions in different brain areas are at the core of rigorous quantitative neuroanatomical studies. Unfortunately, the lack of detailed, updated, systematic, and well-illustrated descriptions of the cytology of neurons and glial cell types, especially in the primate brain, makes such studies especially demanding, often limiting their scope and broad use. Here, following extensive analysis of histological materials and the review of current and classical literature, we compile a list of precise morphological criteria that can facilitate and standardize identification of cells in stained sections examined under the microscope. We describe systematically and in detail the cytological features of neurons and glial cell types in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey and the human using semithin and thick sections stained for Nissl. We used this classical staining technique because it labels all cells in the brain in distinct ways. In addition, we corroborate key distinguishing characteristics of different cell types in sections immunolabeled for specific markers counterstained for Nissl and in ultrathin sections processed for electron microscopy. Finally, we summarize the core features that distinguish each cell type in easy-to-use tables and sketches, and structure these key features in an algorithm that can be used to systematically distinguish cellular types in the cerebral cortex. Moreover, we report high inter-observer algorithm reliability, which is a crucial test for obtaining consistent and reproducible cell counts in unbiased stereological studies. This protocol establishes a consistent framework that can be used to reliably identify and quantify cells in the cerebral cortex of primates as well as other mammalian species in health and disease.

  9. Effect of Intranasally Delivered rh-VEGF165 on Angiogenesis Following Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia in the Cerebral Cortex of Newborn Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Kratimenos, Panagiotis; Koutroulis, Ioannis; Jain, Amishi; Buddhavarapu, Amulya; Ara, Jahan

    2017-11-07

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates vascular genesis and angiogenesis. Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia (HI) leads to the reduction of vasculature in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets. The present study tests the hypothesis that post-hypoxia intranasal administration of recombinant human VEGF 165 (rh-VEGF165) for 3 days increases the vascular density in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets without promoting neovascularization. Ventilated newborn piglets were divided into three groups ( n = 5/group): normoxic (Nx), hypoxic-ischemic (HI), and HI treated with intranasal rh-VEGF165rh-VEGF165 (HI-VEGF). HI piglets were exposed to HI (0.05 FiO2) for 30 min. Recombinant h-VEGF165 (100 ng/kg) was administered 15 min after HI and then once daily for 3 days. The animals were perfused transcardially and coronal brains sections were processed for Isolectin, Hoechst, and ki-67 cell proliferation marker staining. To assess the vascular density, 30-35 fields per animal section were manually counted using image J software. The vascular density (vessels/mm²) was 42.0 ± 8.0 in the Nx group, 26.4 ± 4.8 ( p rh-VEGF165rh-VEGF165 resulted in the attenuation of the HI-induced decrease in vascular density. However, rh-VEGF165 did not result in the formation of new vascularity, as evident by ki-67 staining. Intranasal rh-VEGF165 may prevent the HI-induced decrease in the vascular density of the brain and could serve as a promising adjuvant therapy for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).

  10. FEATURES OF NEUROENERGYMETABOLISM AND ACTIVATION INFLUENCES ON CEREBRAL CORTEX IN CHILDREN OF PRIMARY SHOOL AGE WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF TEMPERAMENT AND SUCCESS IN LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Sergeevna Bedereva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the relationship with intensity of energy metabolism and the level of activation of the cerebral cortex in primary schoolchildren with different temperament characteristic and their possible influence on successful learning. The study involved 148 children of primary school age. Determination of the level energetic metabolism and activation influences on the cerebral cortex was carried out by using methods of neuroenergymapping and omega-metry. The study of temperament types was performed by using a questionnaire proposed by A. Thomas and adapted for use in conditions of our country. Revealed differences in operation of the modulating system in schoolchildren with different temperamental signs. Children with the type of «Adequate» were characterized by an optimal level of activation and the intensity of energetic metabolism of the cerebral cortex. “Intense” had high level of activation and expressive level of neuroenergymetabolism, “Quiet” showed reduced the intensity of energy metabolism of the cerebral cortex. Some features of cerebral cortex activity, influencing the functional state (FS during the study, were revealed. In children with low success of learning symmetrical activation of the hemispheres and the redistribution of DCP level with the highest values in the occipital region and a parallel decrease in the Central parts of the cerebral cortex, were determined. More successful children had a significant asymmetry of activity cerebral hemispheres due to the dominance of the left, which led to generation of an adequate functional state during the study, which favoring more productivity learning activities. Thus, state of activating mechanisms neurometabolic reactions of the brain and temperamental characteristics are important factors, influencing success of primary schoolchildren’s learning.

  11. [Structural and functional reorganization of the interneuronal contacts of the cerebral cortex after a single convulsive paroxysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Iu N; Ereniev, S I; Semchenko, V V; Stepanov, S S

    1987-01-01

    Using the technique of contrasting the cerebral tissue with phosphotungstic acid, the authors studied the structural and functional status of interneuronal contacts of the molecular layer of the sensomotor cortex in the brain of Krushinsky-Molodkina rats following convulsive sound stimulation and the subsequent audiogenic convulsive paroxysm. Marked reduction in the general number of synapses 4 h after the attack was attended by transformation of some flat functionally mature contacts into concave ones, which reflects the activation of the synaptic pool. The relative levels of concave and flat mature contacts returned to the initial level 8 to 24 h later.

  12. Effects of Cortical Spreading Depression on Synaptic Activity, Blood Flow and Oxygen Consumption in Rat Cerebral Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Piilgaard

    2010-01-01

    As the title of this thesis indicates I have during my PhD studied the effects of cortical spreading depression (CSD) on synaptic activity, blood flow and oxygen consumption in rat cerebral cortex. This was performed in vivo using an open cranial window approach in anesthetized rats. I applied...... parameters of the whisker/infraorbital nerve etwork (IO) targeting the same cortical area. We tested the hypothesis that the relation between increases in CBF and CMRO2 evoked by stimulation and synaptic activity differed for the two activated networks and that activation of two distinct networks activate...

  13. Protective effect and its mechanism of curcumin on ischemia-reperfusion injury of cerebral cortex in rats

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    Li LIU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effect of curcumin pretreatment on the expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (MTFA in rats' cerebral cortex against focal ischemia reperfusion injury. Methods  Eighty male SD rats weighed 220g–300g were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham-operated group, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R group, curcumine 50mg/kg+I/R (low dose group, and curcumine 100mg/kg+I/R (high dose group. The common carotid artery, external carotid artery and internal carotid artery on the right side were exposed in the sham-operated group. Animals of the other groups were subjected to a 2-hour period of right middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion, and then they were sacrificed. Curcumin was administered (ip in a dose of 50mg/kg (low dose group or 100mg/kg (high dose group for 5 days, respectively, prior to arterial occlusion. The pathological changes in neurons and their mitochondria in the cerebral cortex supplied by middle cerebral artery were observed with Nissl staining and electron microscope, respectively. The expressions of UCP2 and MTFA in corresponding cotex were assessed by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Results  Compared with sham-operated group, animals in I/R group presented edema of neurons in the corresponding cortex, reduction in the number of Nissl bodies, and swelling of mitochondria with broken, even lysis of cristae. Low dose and high dose of curcumin pretreatment before brain ischemia significantly alleviated the loss of neurons and the damage of mitochondria, accompanied with an increase in the expression of UCP2 and TFAM (P<0.05, and the changes appeared a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05. Conclusions  Curcumin may prevent neurons from focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury by up-regulating UCP2 and MTFA. Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis may probably be a potential target of curcumin as a neuroprotective drug.

  14. Low level prenatal exposure to methylmercury disrupts neuronal migration in the developing rat cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Bao-Qiang; Yan, Chong-Huai; Cai, Shi-Zhong; Yuan, Xiao-Bing; Shen, Xiao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Low level MeHg exposure causes migratory defect of rat cerebrocortical neurons. ► The migration defect is due to the impact of MeHg on the neuronal migration itself. ► Rho GTPases seem to be involved in MeHg-induced disruption of neuronal migration. -- Abstract: We determined the effects of low-level prenatal MeHg exposure on neuronal migration in the developing rat cerebral cortex using in utero electroporation. We used offspring rats born to dams that had been exposed to saline or various doses of MeHg (0.01 mg/kg/day, 0.1 mg/kg/day, and 1 mg/kg/day) from gestational day (GD) 11–21. Immunohistochemical examination of the brains of the offspring was conducted on postnatal day (PND) 0, PND3, and PND7. Our results showed that prenatal exposure to low levels of MeHg (0.1 mg/kg/day or 1 mg/kg/day) during the critical stage in neuronal migration resulted in migration defects of the cerebrocortical neurons in offspring rats. Importantly, our data revealed that the abnormal neuronal distribution induced by MeHg was not caused by altered proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs), induction of apoptosis of NPCs and/or newborn neurons, abnormal differentiation of NPCs, and the morphological changes of radial glial scaffold, indicating that the defective neuronal positioning triggered by exposure to low-dose of MeHg is due to the impacts of MeHg on the process of neuronal migration itself. Moreover, we demonstrated that in utero exposure to low-level MeHg suppresses the expression of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, which play key roles in the migration of cerebrocortical neurons during the early stage of brain development, suggesting that the MeHg-induced migratory disturbance of cerebrocortical neurons is likely associated with the Rho GTPases signal pathway. In conclusion, our results provide a novel perspective on clarifying the mechanisms underlying the impairment of neuronal migration induced by MeHg

  15. Curcumin modulates dopaminergic receptor, CREB and phospholipase c gene expression in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Naijil

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Curcumin, an active principle component in rhizome of Curcuma longa, has proved its merit for diabetes through its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aims at evaluating the effect of curcumin in modulating the altered dopaminergic receptors, CREB and phospholipase C in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of STZ induced diabetic rats. Radioreceptor binding assays and gene expression was done in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of male Wistar rats using specific ligands and probes. Total dopaminergic receptor binding parameter, Bmax showed an increase in cerebral cortex and decrease in the cerebellum of diabetic rats. Gene expression studies using real time PCR showed an increased expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor in the cerebral cortex of diabetic rats. In cerebellum dopamine D1 receptor was down regulated and D2 receptor showed an up regulation. Transcription factor CREB and phospholipase C showed a significant down regulation in cerebral cortex and cerebellum of diabetic rats. We report that curcumin supplementation reduces diabetes induced alteration of dopamine D1, D2 receptors, transcription factor CREB and phospholipase C to near control. Our results indicate that curcumin has a potential to regulate diabetes induced malfunctions of dopaminergic signalling, CREB and Phospholipase C expression in cerebral cortex and cerebellum and thereby improving the cognitive and emotional functions associated with these regions. Furthermore, in line with these studies an interaction between curcumin and dopaminergic receptors, CREB and phospholipase C is suggested, which attenuates the cortical and cerebellar dysfunction in diabetes. These results suggest that curcumin holds promise as an agent to prevent or treat CNS complications in diabetes.

  16. Curcumin modulates dopaminergic receptor, CREB and phospholipase C gene expression in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, T Peeyush; Antony, Sherin; Gireesh, G; George, Naijil; Paulose, C S

    2010-05-31

    Curcumin, an active principle component in rhizome of Curcuma longa, has proved its merit for diabetes through its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aims at evaluating the effect of curcumin in modulating the altered dopaminergic receptors, CREB and phospholipase C in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of STZ induced diabetic rats. Radioreceptor binding assays and gene expression was done in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of male Wistar rats using specific ligands and probes. Total dopaminergic receptor binding parameter, B(max) showed an increase in cerebral cortex and decrease in the cerebellum of diabetic rats. Gene expression studies using real time PCR showed an increased expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor in the cerebral cortex of diabetic rats. In cerebellum dopamine D1 receptor was down regulated and D2 receptor showed an up regulation. Transcription factor CREB and phospholipase C showed a significant down regulation in cerebral cortex and cerebellum of diabetic rats. We report that curcumin supplementation reduces diabetes induced alteration of dopamine D1, D2 receptors, transcription factor CREB and phospholipase C to near control. Our results indicate that curcumin has a potential to regulate diabetes induced malfunctions of dopaminergic signalling, CREB and Phospholipase C expression in cerebral cortex and cerebellum and thereby improving the cognitive and emotional functions associated with these regions. Furthermore, in line with these studies an interaction between curcumin and dopaminergic receptors, CREB and phospholipase C is suggested, which attenuates the cortical and cerebellar dysfunction in diabetes. These results suggest that curcumin holds promise as an agent to prevent or treat CNS complications in diabetes.

  17. The contribution of CXCL12-expressing radial glia cells to neuro-vascular patterning during human cerebral cortex development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella eErrede

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on human developing brain by laser confocal and transmission electron microscopy to make a detailed analysis of important features of blood-brain barrier microvessels and possible control mechanisms of vessel growth and differentiation during cerebral cortex vascularization. The blood-brain barrier status of cortex microvessels was examined at a defined stage of cortex development, at the end of neuroblast waves of migration and before cortex lamination, with blood-brain barrier-endothelial cell markers, namely tight junction proteins (occludin and claudin-5 and influx and efflux transporters (Glut-1 and P-glycoprotein, the latter supporting evidence for functional effectiveness of the fetal blood-brain barrier. According to the well-known roles of astroglia cells on microvessel growth and differentiation, the early composition of astroglia/endothelial cell relationships was analysed by detecting the appropriate astroglia, endothelial, and pericyte markers. GFAP, chemokine CXCL12, and connexin 43 (Cx43 were utilized as markers of radial glia cells, CD105 (endoglin as a marker of angiogenically activated endothelial cells, and proteoglycan NG2 as a marker of immature pericytes. Immunolabeling for CXCL12 showed the highest level of the ligand in radial glial fibres in contact with the growing cortex microvessels. These specialized contacts, recognizable on both perforating radial vessels and growing collaterals, appeared as CXCL12-reactive en passant, symmetrical and asymmetrical vessel-specific RG fibre swellings. At the highest confocal resolution, these RG varicosities showed a CXCL12-reactive dot-like content whose microvesicular nature was confirmed by ultrastructural observations. A further analysis of radial glial varicosities reveals colocalization of CXCL12 with connexin Cx43, which is possibly implicated in vessel-specific chemokine signalling.

  18. The left frontal cortex supports reserve in aging by enhancing functional network efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzmeier, Nicolai; Hartmann, Julia; Taylor, Alexander N W; Araque-Caballero, Miguel Á; Simon-Vermot, Lee; Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Lana; Bürger, Katharina; Catak, Cihan; Janowitz, Daniel; Müller, Claudia; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Stahl, Robert; Dichgans, Martin; Duering, Marco; Ewers, Michael

    2018-03-06

    Recent evidence derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggests that functional hubs (i.e., highly connected brain regions) are important for mental health. We found recently that global connectivity of a hub in the left frontal cortex (LFC connectivity) is associated with relatively preserved memory abilities and higher levels of protective factors (education, IQ) in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. These results suggest that LFC connectivity supports reserve capacity, alleviating memory decline. An open question, however, is why LFC connectivity is beneficial and supports memory function in the face of neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that higher LFC connectivity is associated with enhanced efficiency in connected major networks involved in episodic memory. We further hypothesized that higher LFC-related network efficiency predicts higher memory abilities. We assessed fMRI during a face-name association learning task performed by 26 healthy, cognitively normal elderly participants. Using beta-series correlation analysis, we computed task-related LFC connectivity to key memory networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and dorsal attention network (DAN). Network efficiency within the DMN and DAN was estimated by the graph theoretical small-worldness statistic. We applied linear regression analyses to test the association between LFC connectivity with the DMN/DAN and small-worldness of these networks. Mediation analysis was applied to test LFC connectivity to the DMN and DAN as a mediator of the association between education and higher DMN and DAN small-worldness. Last, we tested network small-worldness as a predictor of memory performance. We found that higher LFC connectivity to the DMN and DAN during successful memory encoding and recognition was associated with higher small-worldness of those networks. Higher task-related LFC connectivity mediated the association between education and higher small-worldness in the DMN

  19. Evidence that histamine homologues discriminate between H3-receptors in guinea-pig cerebral cortex and ileum longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, E A; Shankley, N P; Black, J W

    1999-01-01

    The binding of the selective histamine H3-receptor agonist ([3H]-R-α-methylhistamine) to sites in guinea-pig cerebral cortex and ileum longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus has been characterized and a comparison made of the apparent affinities of a series of H3-receptor ligands.Saturation analysis suggested that [3H]-R-α-methylhistamine labelled a homogeneous population of histamine H3-receptors in guinea-pig cerebral cortex (pKD=9.91±0.07; nH=1.07±0.03; n=5) and ileum longitudinal muscle mye...

  20. Doppler Ultrasonographic Parameters for Predicting Cerebral Vascular Reserve in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Han Young; Lee, Hui Joong; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Yong Sun; Kang, Duk Sik

    2006-01-01

    We investigated Doppler ultrasonographic (US) parameters of patients with acute stroke to predict the cerebral vascular reserve (CVR) measured by SPECT. We reviewed the flow velocity and cross-sectional area of the circular vessel at the common, external, and internal carotid arteries (ICA) and the vertebral arteries (VA) in 109 acute stroke patients who underwent SPECT. Flow volume (FV) of each artery was calculated as the product of the angle-corrected time averaged flow velocity and cross-sectional area of the circular vessel. Total cerebral FV (TCBFV) was determined as the sum of the FVs of the right and left ICA and VA. We compared the Doppler US parameters between 44 cases of preserved and 65 cases of impaired CVR. In the preserved CVR group, ICA FV, anterior circulating FV (ACFV) and TCBFV were higher than in the impaired CVR group (p < 0.05, independent t-test). In the impaired CVR group, the ROC curves showed ACFV and TCBFV were suitable parameters to predict CVR (p < 0.05). Doppler US was helpful for understanding the hemodynamic state of acute stroke. FV measurement by Doppler US was useful for predicting CVR

  1. Tipping the balance: anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha therapy may damage cerebral nerve reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yun; Zou, Qinghua; Li, Haitao

    2009-12-01

    Anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha therapy has transformed the treatment of certain inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and ankylosing spondylitis, but onset of demyelinating events associated with multiple sclerosis as an adverse event was continuously reported, and such adverse events were only viewed as occasional. Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder affecting central nervous system, with varied clinical manifestations of cognitive, visual and motor network disorder. Recently, there is increasing evidence from functional magnetic resonance that cortical reorganization, a property that allows the central nervous system to adapt itself to various brain insults, which was viewed as to limit the clinical expression of tissue damage in patients with multiple sclerosis. In light of the mentioned above, we hypothesis that cerebral tissue damage may existed in a broader aspects of patients treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy, but its clinical manifestations from brain lesions were compensated by cortical reorganization. In other words, cerebral nerve reservation may be damaged by the therapy. If confirmed, the hypothesis may lead to a safety concern of the therapy, and an insight of the pathophysiology of both multiple sclerosis and certain inflammatory diseases.

  2. The primary motor and premotor areas of the human cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Philippe A; Paus, Tomás

    2006-04-01

    Brodmann's cytoarchitectonic map of the human cortex designates area 4 as cortex in the anterior bank of the precentral sulcus and area 6 as cortex encompassing the precentral gyrus and the posterior portion of the superior frontal gyrus on both the lateral and medial surfaces of the brain. More than 70 years ago, Fulton proposed a functional distinction between these two areas, coining the terms primary motor area for cortex in Brodmann area 4 and premotor area for cortex in Brodmann area 6. The parcellation of the cortical motor system has subsequently become more complex. Several nonprimary motor areas have been identified in the brain of the macaque monkey, and associations between anatomy and function in the human brain are being tested continuously using brain mapping techniques. In the present review, the authors discuss the unique properties of the primary motor area (M1), the dorsal portion of the premotor cortex (PMd), and the ventral portion of the premotor cortex (PMv). They end this review by discussing how the premotor areas influence M1.

  3. Depressive symptoms in older adults are associated with decreased cerebral oxygenation of the prefrontal cortex during a trail-making test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kazuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the relationships between depressive symptoms, cognitive decline, and brain structural changes in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine whether depressive symptoms are related to cerebral oxygenation during cognitive tasks in older adults. In this study, 80 elderly subjects (73.9 ± 5.4 years, 34 males) were evaluated using multi-channel Near-infrared spectroscopy. Concentration changes (mmolcm/l) in oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb), as the most reliable available indicator of changes in regional cerebral blood flow, in the right and left prefrontal cortex were measured during the Trail Making Test Part B (TMT-B). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the short Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Subjects were divided into a depressive group (GDS greater than or equal to 6) and non-depressive group (GDS lower than 6). In results, Oxy-Hb activation during the TMT-B was significantly smaller in the depressive group (n=13) than in the non-depressive group (n=67) in both the right and left prefrontal cortex. In the multivariate analysis, GDS scores were significantly negatively correlated with oxy-Hb activation after adjusting for age, gender and educational history (right, β=-0.32, p=0.002; left, β=-0.25, p=0.02). Less prefrontal activation in older adults with depressive symptoms may account for decline in executive function. Further studies are needed to investigate the influence of the less brain activation associated with depressive symptoms on future cognitive decline and structural brain changes in older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of electromagnetic pulse on the protein levels of tight junction associated-proteins in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, heart, lung, and testis of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, LianBo; Chen, Chen; Ding, GuiRong; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, MengYao

    2011-08-01

    To investigate changes in the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, heart, lung, and testes of rats after exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Eighteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham and exposure groups. The exposure groups received EMP at 200 kV/m for 200 pulses with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. The expression of TJ proteins (ZO-1, occludin, actin) in the several organs was examined by western blotting. ZO-1 levels in the cerebral cortex decreased 1 h and 3 h after EMP exposure compared with sham group (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed for occludin and actin. ZO-1 levels in the hippocampus increased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), and occludin decreased after 3 h (P<0.05); however, actin was unaffected. ZO-1 levels in the heart increased 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), occludin decreased 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), and actin increased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05). ZO-1, occludin and actin levels in the lung decreased compared with those in the sham group (P<0.05). ZO-1 and occludin levels in the testes decreased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), but actin showed no significant change. Exposure to EMP altered the expression levels of TJ proteins, particularly ZO-1, in the organs of adult male rats, which may induce changes in barrier structure and function. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Khat on apoptosis and related gene Smac/DIABLO expression in the cerebral cortex of rats following transient focal ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharafi, Walid A; Bi, Fang-Fang; Hu, Yue-Qiang; Mujlli, Hadi M; Xiao, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The leaves of the Khat shrub contain the major alkaloid compounds (cathinone) and cathine. These compounds can induce apoptosis and exacerbate the acute cerebral infarction, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Khat treatment on the expression and cellular localization of Smac/Diablo (second mitochondrial activator of caspase) in the cortex of ischemic rat brain. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered Khat (3g/kg) twice daily for 4 weeks, then underwent left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2h and reperfusion for 3, 6 and 12h, respectively. The infarction area was evaluated with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL). Smac/DIABLO expression levels in experimental and control groups were examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Khat significantly exacerbates the neurological damage compared with control (pSmac/DIABLO from the mitochondria to the cytosol after reperfusion. Such release of Smac/DIABLO was elevated after the rats were pretreated with Khat. Our results indicate that Khat treatment can induce apoptosis through enhancing the release of Smac/DIABLO from the mitochondria to the cytosol after transient focal ischemia which may be an important mechanism of Khat neurotoxicity. Therefore, Khat chewing should be avoided by people who have cerebrovascular problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mapping cortical thickness of the patients with unilateral end-stage open angle glaucoma on planar cerebral cortex maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bogorodzki

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To estimate and compare cerebral cortex thickness in patients with unilateral end-stage glaucoma with that of age-matched individuals with unaffected vision. METHODS: 14 patients with unilateral end-stage primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and 12 age-matched control individuals with no problems with vision were selected for the study based on detailed ophthalmic examination. For each participant 3D high-resolution structural brain T1-weighted magnetization prepared MR images were acquired on a 3.0 T scanner. Brain cortex thickness was estimated using the FreeSurfer image analysis environment. After warping of subjects' cortical surfaces to FreeSurfer common space, differences between POAG and control groups were inferred at the group analysis level with the General Linear Model. RESULTS: The analysis performed revealed local thinning in the visual cortex areas in the POAG group. Statistically significant differences form 600 mm2 clusters located in the Brodmann area BA19 in the left and right hemisphere. CONCLUSION: Unilateral vision loss due to end-stage neuropathy from POAG is associated with significant thinning of cortical areas employed in vision.

  7. Cerebral Oedema, Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and the Decrease in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase Activity in the Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus are Prevented by Dexamethasone in an Animal Model of Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Luciana; Galant, Leticia S; Dall'Igna, Dhébora M; Kolling, Janaina; Siebert, Cassiana; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Wyse, Angela T S; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emilio L

    2016-08-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disorder associated with acute and chronic brain dysfunction. This condition has been shown to lead to macroscopic cerebral alterations that are visible on imaging studies. Cerebral oedema is widely considered to be detrimental for MSUD patients; however, the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated whether acute administration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) causes cerebral oedema, modifies the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, affects the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and alters the levels of cytokines in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 10-day-old rats. Additionally, we investigated the influence of concomitant administration of dexamethasone on the alterations caused by BCAA. Our results showed that the animals submitted to the model of MSUD exhibited an increase in the brain water content, both in the cerebral cortex and in the hippocampus. By investigating the mechanism of cerebral oedema, we discovered an association between H-BCAA and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and the permeability of the BBB to small molecules. Moreover, the H-BCAA administration increases Il-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, whereas IL-10 levels were decreased in the hippocampus. Interestingly, we showed that the administration of dexamethasone successfully reduced cerebral oedema, preventing the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, BBB breakdown and the increase in the cytokines levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that dexamethasone can improve the acute cerebral oedema and brain injury associated with high levels of BCAA, either through a direct effect on brain capillary Na(+),K(+)-ATPase or through a generalized effect on the permeability of the BBB to all compounds.

  8. [Effect of Electroacupuncture on Cerebro-cortex Caspase-3 Expression and Blood Lipid Levels in Hyperlipemia Rats with Cerebral Ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo-Yu; Ma, Jia-Jia; Guan, Han-Yu; Tian, Yao; Ren, Xiu-Jun; Ma, Hui-Fang

    2017-04-25

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Fenglong" (ST 40), "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) plus manual acupuncture (MA) stimulation of "Shuigou" (GV 26) and "Baihui" (GV 20) on Caspase-3 protein expression in the cerebral cortex of rats with hyperlipemia and cerebral ischemia(HL-CI),so as to reveal its mechanisms underlying improvement of HL-CI. Forty-five rats were randomly divided into normal control,sham operation,model,EA group I(EA+MA was given for 14 days, i.e., 7 days before CI, and 7 days more after HL-CI)and EA group Ⅱ (EA+MA was given for only 7 days after HL-CI),with 9 rats being in each group. The HL-CI model was established by feeding the animals with high fat forage for 6 weeks and then making an occlusion of the unilateral middle cerebral artery by regional application of quantitative paper adsorbing 50% FeCl 3 solution (10 μL). Rats of the sham operation group were treated with the same procedures only without application of FeCl 3 solution. For rats of the EA group I,EA (1-3 mA, 2 Hz/100 Hz) was applied to bilateral acupoints SP 6 and ST 40 (for 20 min),and MA stimulation applied to GV 26 and GV 20. EA was conducted once daily for 7 days after 6 weeks' high fat fo-rage feeding, and EA+MA intervention was conducted once daily for 7 days after CI modeling. For rats in the EA group Ⅱ, EA+MA was applied to the same 4 acupoints once a day for 7 days only after CI modeling. The neurological impairment was assessed by Zea Longa's scoring. The blood sample was taken from the abdominal aorta for measuring the contents of serum cholesterol (CHO),triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Pathological changes of the cerebral cortex were observed after H.E. staining, and the expression of cerebro-cortex Caspase-3 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Following modeling,the neurological score,CHO, TG and LDL-C contents, and the number of Caspase-3 positive cells as well

  9. Existence of vimentin and GFAP protein expressions as a result of 2-Methoxyethanol administration in cerebral cortex tissue of Swiss Webster mice (Mus musculus): an immunohistochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irnidayanti, Yulia

    2014-07-01

    Une of the plastic-based materials widely used in the plastics industry in various countries is ester phthalate. This compound will be oxidized in the body into 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME). The effect of 2-ME on human health and environment depends on the number, duration and the frequency of exposure. Recently, the incidence of brain damage tends to increase. In the last decade, it has been widely reported the negative effects of chemical pollutants to the environment. The aim of this study were to know the existence of the expression of Vimentin and GFAP proteins caused by 2-ME on the histological structure of the cerebral cortex of mice fetal during the prenatal period on gestation day 14 (GD 14) and day 18 (GD 18). The 2-ME compound was injected intraperitoneally with a dose of 7.5 mmol kg(-1) of body weight at GD-10. The result showed that there is a change in existence Vimentin protein in the cerebral cortex fetal of treated mice at GD 14, which is very conspicuous. Meanwhile, a change in existence of GFAP protein in cerebral cortex fetal of treated mice at GD 14, have relatively no difference from controls and no impact on histological structure changes of the cerebral corteks at GD 14. The change in existence of Vimentin protein in the cerebral cortex fetal of treated mice at GD 14 have an impact on histological structure of the cerebral cortex of mice treated at GD 18. It is believed that the impact is due to the effects of 2-methoxyethanol.

  10. Double-bouquet cells in the monkey and human cerebral cortex with special reference to areas 17 and 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelipe, Javier; Ballesteros-Yáñez, Inmaculada; Inda, Maria Carmen; Muñoz, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The detailed microanatomical study of the human cerebral cortex began in 1899 with the experiments of Santiago Ramón y Cajal, who applied the Golgi method to define the structure of the visual, motor, auditory and olfactory cortex. In the first article of this series, he described a special type of interneuron in the visual cortex capable of exerting its influence in the vertical dimension. These neurons are now more commonly referred to as double-bouquet cells (DBCs). The DBCs are readily distinguished owing to their characteristic axons that give rise to tightly interwoven bundles of long, vertically oriented axonal collaterals resembling a horsetail (DBC horsetail). Nevertheless, the most striking characteristic of these neurons is that they are so numerous and regularly distributed that the DBC horsetails form a microcolumnar structure. In addition, DBCs establish hundreds of inhibitory synapses within a very narrow column of cortical tissue. These features have generated considerable interest in DBCs over recent years, principally among those researchers interested in the analysis of cortical circuits. In the present chapter, we shall discuss the morphology, synaptic connections and neurochemical features of DBCs that have been defined through the study of these cells in different cortical areas and species. We will mainly consider the immunocytochemical studies of DBCs that have been carried out in the visual cortex (areas 17 and 18) of human and macaque monkey. We will see that there are important differences in the morphology, number and distribution of DBC horsetails between areas 17 and 18 in the primate. This suggests important differences in the microcolumnar organization between these areas, the functional significance of which awaits detailed correlative physiological and microanatomical studies.

  11. The pyramidal neuron in cerebral cortex following prenatal X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoso, J.A.; Norton, S.

    1982-01-01

    Pregnant rats were subjected to whole body X-irradiation amounting to 125 R, on gestational day 15. Cortical pyramidal neurons were examined in irradiated and control offspring at 4 weeks and 4 to 6 months postnatally. All gestationally irradiated rats developed ectopic cortex located below the corpus callosum adjacent to the caudate nucleus in the forebrain. With the rapid Golgi stain, counts were made of dendritic spines on the apical dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal cells in the normally-located cortex and compared with similar neurons in the ectopias. Dendritic spines were present on all pyramidal cells but spines were more sparse on ectopic pyramidal cells. Electron microscopic examination of ectopic and layered cortex in irradiated rats showed axodendritic synapses on the spines and shafts of the dendrites and axosomatic synapses, all of which were indistinguishable morphologically from synapses in control cortex. As a result of the observations made with the light and electron microscopes, it is concluded that the ectopic cortex may contain functional cells in spite of the abnormal location of the tissue

  12. Effect of soy milk on circulating 17- β estradiol, number of neurons in cerebral cortex and hippocampus and determination of their ratio in neonatal ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban Abbasabadi, Behrokh; Tadjalli, Mina

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soy milk on serum 17- β estradiol level and number of neurons in cerebral cortex and hippocampus as well as determination of the ratio of neurons in cortical and hippocampal regions in neonatal ovariectomized rats. Thirty female rats (one day old) were divided into six groups of five. At day 7, ovariectomy surgery was performed in four groups and two other groups were assumed as sham and control groups. Three groups of ovareictomaized rats were fed with soy milk at the doses of 0.75, 1.50 and 3.00 mL kg -1 per day since they were 14. At day 60, the blood samples were collected to measure the17- β estradiol concentration, and then the brain of rats were prepared for histological studies. The serum 17- β estradiol level significantly increased in ovariectomized rats fed with soy milk compared to ovariectomized rats with no soy milk supplementation. In addition, the results showed that soy milk significantly increased the number of neurons in CA1, CA2 and dentate gyrus regions of hippocampus and granular layer of cerebral cortex in ovariectomized rats, whereas there was no significant change in number of neurons in CA3 zone of hippocampus and molecular, pyramidal and multiform layers of cerebral cortex in ovariectomized rats fed with soy milk. The ratio of cerebral cortex neurons to hippocampal neurons had no significant changes among the experimental groups.

  13. Antioxidant Activity of Grapevine Leaf Extracts against Oxidative Stress Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus and Cerebellum of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Wohlenberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become increasingly important to study the beneficial properties of derivatives of grapes and grapevine. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of Vitis labrusca leaf extracts, comparing conventional and organic grapevines, in different brain areas of rats. We used male Wistar rats treated with grapevine leaf extracts for a period of 14 days, and on the 15th day, we administered in half of the rats, mineral oil and the other half, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. The animals were euthanized by decapitation and the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were removed to assess oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS were unchanged. However, CCl4 induced oxidative damage to proteins in all tissues studied, and this injury was prevented by both extracts. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was increased by CCl4 in the cerebral cortex and decreased in other tissues. However, CCl4 increased catalase (CAT activity in the cerebellum and decreased it in the cerebral cortex. The SOD/CAT ratio was restored in the cerebellum by both extracts and only in the cerebral cortex by the organic extract.

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Grapevine Leaf Extracts against Oxidative Stress Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus and Cerebellum of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlenberg, Mariane; Almeida, Daniela; Bokowski, Liane; Medeiros, Niara; Agostini, Fabiana; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, it has become increasingly important to study the beneficial properties of derivatives of grapes and grapevine. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of Vitis labrusca leaf extracts, comparing conventional and organic grapevines, in different brain areas of rats. We used male Wistar rats treated with grapevine leaf extracts for a period of 14 days, and on the 15th day, we administered in half of the rats, mineral oil and the other half, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The animals were euthanized by decapitation and the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were removed to assess oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS) were unchanged. However, CCl4 induced oxidative damage to proteins in all tissues studied, and this injury was prevented by both extracts. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased by CCl4 in the cerebral cortex and decreased in other tissues. However, CCl4 increased catalase (CAT) activity in the cerebellum and decreased it in the cerebral cortex. The SOD/CAT ratio was restored in the cerebellum by both extracts and only in the cerebral cortex by the organic extract. PMID:26784867

  15. Beta-amyloid-induced cholinergic denervation correlates with enhanced nitric oxide synthase activity in rat cerebral cortex: Reversal by NMDA receptor blockade : Reversal by NMDA receptor blockade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O’Mahony, S.; Harkany, T.; Ábrahám, I.; Jong, G.I. de; Varga, J.L.; Zarándi, M.; Penke, B.; Nyakas, C.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Leonard, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    Ample experimental evidence indicates that acute beta-amyloid infusion into the nucleus basalis of rats elicits abrupt degeneration of the magnocellular cholinergic neurons projecting to the cerebral cortex, In fact, involvement of a permanent Ca2+ overload, partially via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)

  16. The circadian oscillator of the cerebral cortex: molecular, biochemical and behavioral effects of deleting the Arntl clock gene in cortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering, Tenna; Carstensen, Mikkel Bloss; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2018-01-01

    A molecular circadian oscillator resides in neurons of the cerebral cortex, but its role is unknown. Using the Cre-LoxP method, we have here abolished the core clock gene Arntl in those neurons. This mouse represents the first model carrying a deletion of a circadian clock component specifically...

  17. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography of the cerebral cortex using a 7 degree-of freedom robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Perez, Robnier; Jivraj, Jamil; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2017-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) provides a high-resolution imaging technique with limited depth penetration. The current use of OCT is limited to relatively small areas of tissue for anatomical structure diagnosis or minimally invasive guided surgery. In this study, we propose to image a large area of the surface of the cerebral cortex. This experiment aims to evaluate the potential difficulties encountered when applying OCT imaging to large and irregular surface areas. The current state-of-the-art OCT imaging technology uses scanning systems with at most 3 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) to obtain a 3D image representation of the sample tissue. We propose the use of a 7 DOF industrial robotic arm to increase the scanning capabilities of our OCT. Such system will be capable of acquiring data from large samples of tissue that are too irregular for conventional methods. Advantages and disadvantages of our system are discussed.

  18. The role of α-E-catenin in cerebral cortex development: radial glia specific effect on neuronal migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Theres eSchmid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During brain development, radial glial cells possess an apico-basal polarity and are coupled by adherens junctions to an F-actin belt. To elucidate the role of the actin, we conditionally deleted the key component α-E-catenin in the developing cerebral cortex. Deletion at early stages resulted in severe disruption of tissue polarity due to uncoupling of adherens junctions with the intracellular actin fibers leading to the formation of subcortical band heterotopia. Interestingly, this phenotype closely resembled the phenotype obtained by conditional RhoA deletion, both in regard to the macroscopic subcortical band heterotopia and the subcellular increase in G-actin/F-actin ratio. These data therefore together corroborate the role of the actin cytoskeleton and its anchoring to the adherens junctions for neuronal migration disorders.

  19. Effects of Cortical Spreading Depression on Synaptic Activity, Blood Flow and Oxygen Consumption in Rat Cerebral Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Piilgaard

    2010-01-01

    As the title of this thesis indicates I have during my PhD studied the effects of cortical spreading depression (CSD) on synaptic activity, blood flow and oxygen consumption in rat cerebral cortex. This was performed in vivo using an open cranial window approach in anesthetized rats. I applied...... two different sets of interneurons. Our data imply that for a given cortical area the amplitude of vascular signals will depend critically on the type of input and hence on the type of neurons activated. In the second study I investigated the effect of cortical spreading depression (CSD) on the evoked...... parameters as well as on neurovascular coupling. A preserved neurometabolic coupling in the wake of CSD was evident in the TC network. During CSD intracellular Ca2+ concentration increases. This amongst other factors increases the likelihood of activation of the calcineurin pathway (CaN) and opening...

  20. Metabolic differences between primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons from cerebellum and cerebral cortex. Effects of fluorocitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, B; Westergaard, N; Schousboe, A; Fonnum, F

    1995-04-01

    Astrocytes and neurons cultured from mouse cerebellum and cerebral cortex were analyzed with respect to content and synthesis of amino acids as well as export of metabolites to the culture medium and the response to fluorocitrate, an inhibitor of aconitase. The intracellular levels of amino acids were similar in the two astrocytic populations. The release of citrate, lactate and glutamine, however, was markedly higher from cerebellar than from cortical astrocytes. Neurons contained higher levels of glutamate, aspartate and GABA than astrocytic cultures. Cortical neurons were especially high in GABA and aspartate, and the level of aspartate increased specifically when the extracellular level of glutamine was elevated. Fluorocitrate inhibited the TCA cycle in the astrocytes, but was less effective in cerebellar neurons. Whereas neurons responded to fluorocitrate with an increase in the formation of lactate, reflecting glycolysis, astrocytes decreased the formation of lactate in the presence of fluorocitrate, indicating that astrocytes to a high degree synthesize pyruvate and hence lactate from TCA cycle intermediates.

  1. The influence of fetal ethanol exposure on subsequent development of the cerebral cortex as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigland, Lindsey A; Ford, Matthew M; Lerch, Jason P; Kroenke, Christopher D

    2013-06-01

    . Additionally, regional patterns in cortical thickness differences suggested primary sensory areas were particularly vulnerable to gestational EtOH exposure. Structural MRI measurements were in accordance with previous histological studies performed in animal models of FASD. In addition to establishing a summary of MRI outcomes throughout development in FASD, this research suggests that MRI techniques are sufficiently sensitive to detect neuroanatomical effects of fetal EtOH exposure on development of the cerebral cortex during the period of time corresponding to late gestation in humans. Importantly, this research provides a link between animal histological data and human MRI data. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Cortical chemoarchitecture shapes macroscale effective functional connectivity patterns in macaque cerebral cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turk, Elise; Scholtens, Lianne H.; van den Heuvel, Martijn P.

    The mammalian cortex is a complex system of-at the microscale level-interconnected neurons and-at the macroscale level-interconnected areas, forming the infrastructure for local and global neural processing and information integration. While the effects of regional chemoarchitecture on local

  3. Cerebral responses and role of the prefrontal cortex in conditioned pain modulation: an fMRI study in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Volodymyr B.; Viganò, Alessandro; Noirhomme, Quentin; Bogdanova, Olena V.; Guy, Nathalie; Laureys, Steven; Renshaw, Perry F.; Dallel, Radhouane; Phillips, Christophe; Schoenen, Jean

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying conditioned pain modulation (CPM) are multifaceted. We searched for a link between individual differences in prefrontal cortex activity during multi-trial heterotopic noxious cold conditioning and modulation of the cerebral response to phasic heat pain. In 24 healthy female subjects, we conditioned laser heat stimuli to the left hand by applying alternatively ice-cold or lukewarm compresses to the right foot. We compared pain ratings with cerebral fMRI BOLD responses. We also analyzed the relation between CPM and BOLD changes produced by the heterotopic cold conditioning itself, as well as the impact of anxiety and habituation of cold-pain ratings. Specific cerebral activation was identified in precuneus and left posterior insula/SII, respectively, during early and sustained phases of cold application. During cold conditioning, laser pain decreased (n = 7), increased (n = 10) or stayed unchanged (n = 7). At the individual level, the psychophysical effect was directly proportional to the cold-induced modulation of the laser-induced BOLD response in left posterior insula/SII. The latter correlated with the BOLD response recorded 80 s earlier during the initial 10-s phase of cold application in anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal and lateral prefrontal cortices. High anxiety and habituation of cold pain were associated with greater laser heat-induced pain during heterotopic cold stimulation. The habituation was also linked to the early cold-induced orbitofrontal responses. We conclude that individual differences in conditioned pain modulation are related to different levels of prefrontal cortical activation by the early part of the conditioning stimulus, possibly due to different levels in trait anxiety. PMID:25461267

  4. Growth of the Developing Cerebral Cortex Is Controlled by MicroRNA-7 through the p53 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pollock

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Proper growth of the mammalian cerebral cortex is crucial for normal brain functions and is controlled by precise gene-expression regulation. Here, we show that microRNA-7 (miR-7 is highly expressed in cortical neural progenitors and describe miR-7 sponge transgenic mice in which miR-7-silencing activity is specifically knocked down in the embryonic cortex. Blocking miR-7 function causes microcephaly-like brain defects due to reduced intermediate progenitor (IP production and apoptosis. Upregulation of miR-7 target genes, including those implicated in the p53 pathway, such as Ak1 and Cdkn1a (p21, is responsible for abnormalities in neural progenitors. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Ak1 or p21 and specific blockade of miR-7 binding sites in target genes using protectors in vivo induce similarly reduced IP production. Using conditional miRNA sponge transgenic approaches, we uncovered an unexpected role for miR-7 in cortical growth through its interactions with genes in the p53 pathway.

  5. Difference of language cortex reorganization between cerebral arteriovenous malformations, cavernous malformations, and gliomas: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Long; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Bo; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Yuanli; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Rong; Ye, Xun; Wu, Jun; Zhao, Jizong

    2016-04-01

    The authors attempted to demonstrate the difference in language cortex reorganization between cerebral malformations (AVMs), cavernous malformations (CMs), and gliomas by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical and imaging data of 27 AVM patients (AVM-L group), 29 CM patients (CM-L group), and 20 glioma patients (Glioma-L group) were retrospectively reviewed, with lesions overlying the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca area). As a control, patients with lesions involving the right inferior frontal gyrus were also enrolled, including 14 AVM patients (AVM-R group), 20 CM patients (CM-R group), and 14 glioma patients (Glioma-R group). All patients were right-handed. Lateralization indices (LI) of BOLD signal activations were calculated separately for Broca and Wernicke areas. In AVM-L group, right-sided lateralization of BOLD signals was observed in 10 patients (37.0%), including 6 in the Broca area alone, 1 in the Wernicke area alone, and 3 in both areas. Three patients (10.3%) of CM-L group showed right-sided lateralization in both Broca and Wernicke areas, and 1 patient (5.0%) of Glioma-L group had right-sided lateralization in the Wernicke area alone. A significant difference of right-sided lateralization was observed between the AVM-L group and CM-L group (P = 0.018) and also between the AVM-L group and Glioma-L group (P = 0.027). No patient in AVM-R, CM-R, or Glioma-R groups showed right-sided lateralization. Language cortex reorganization may occur in AVM, CM, and glioma patients when the traditional language cortex was involved by lesions, but the potential of reorganization for CM and glioma patients seems to be insufficient compared with AVM patients.

  6. Stimulus rate dependence of regional cerebral blood flow in human striate cortex, demonstrated by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, P.T.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between the repetition rate of a simple sensory stimulus and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the human brain. Positron emission tomography (PET), using intravenously administered H 2 ( 15 )O as the diffusible blood-flow tracer, was employed for all CBF measurements. The use of H 2 ( 15 )O with PET allowed eight CBF measurements to be made in rapid sequence under multiple stimulation conditions without removing the subject from the tomograph. Nine normal volunteers each underwent a series of eight H2( 15 )O PET measurements of CBF. Initial and final scans were made during visual deprivation. The six intervening scans were made during visual activation with patterned-flash stimuli given in random order at 1.0-, 3.9-, 7.8-, 15.5-, 33.1-, and 61-Hz repetition rates. The region of greatest rCBF increase was determined. Within this region the rCBF was determined for every test condition and then expressed as the percentage change from the value of the initial unstimulated scan (rCBF% delta). In every subject, striate cortex rCBF% delta varied systematically with stimulus rate. Between 0 and 7.8 Hz, rCBF% delta was a linear function of stimulus repetition rate. The rCBF response peaked at 7.8 Hz and then declined. The rCBF% delta during visual stimulation was significantly greater than that during visual deprivation for every stimulus rate except 1.0 Hz. The anatomical localization of the region of peak rCBF response was determined for every subject to be the mesial occipital lobes along the calcarine fissure, primary visual cortex. Stimulus rate is a significant determinant of rCBF response in the visual cortex. Investigators of brain responses to selective activation procedures should be aware of the potential effects of stimulus rate on rCBF and other measurements of cerebral metabolism

  7. A mutant with bilateral whisker to barrel inputs unveils somatosensory mapping rules in the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renier, Nicolas; Dominici, Chloé; Erzurumlu, Reha S; Kratochwil, Claudius F; Rijli, Filippo M; Gaspar, Patricia; Chédotal, Alain

    2017-03-28

    In mammals, tactile information is mapped topographically onto the contralateral side of the brain in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). In this study, we describe Robo3 mouse mutants in which a sizeable fraction of the trigemino-thalamic inputs project ipsilaterally rather than contralaterally. The resulting mixture of crossed and uncrossed sensory inputs creates bilateral whisker maps in the thalamus and cortex. Surprisingly, these maps are segregated resulting in duplication of whisker representations and doubling of the number of barrels without changes in the size of S1. Sensory deprivation shows competitive interactions between the ipsi/contralateral whisker maps. This study reveals that the somatosensory system can form a somatotopic map to integrate bilateral sensory inputs, but organizes the maps in a different way from that in the visual or auditory systems. Therefore, while molecular pre-patterning constrains their orientation and position, preservation of the continuity of inputs defines the layout of the somatosensory maps.

  8. Paradoxical sleep deprivation increases the content of glutamate and glutamine in rat cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettendorff, L; Sallanon-Moulin, M; Touret, M; Wins, P; Margineanu, I; Schoffeniels, E

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the sleep/waking cycle, the effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and of the vigilance-promoting drug modafinil on the amino acid contents of rat brain cortex. No significant nycthemeral variations in amino acid levels could be detected. PSD (12-24 hours), using the water tank method, significantly increased the levels of glutamate and glutamine. The increase was still observed after the sleep rebound period. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels did not change significantly during the instrumental sleep deprivation but increased during the rebound period. Control experiments indicate that the increase in glutamate and glutamine levels is due to PSD rather than to the stress associated with the experimental procedure. The increase in glutamate content cannot arise only from transamination reactions, because the levels of other amino acids (such as aspartate) did not decrease. Modafinil treatment did not significantly modify the brain cortex content of any of the amino acids tested.

  9. Spatial patterns of neuronal activity in rat cerebral cortex during non-rapid eye movement sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Wanger, Tim; Wetzel, Wolfram; Scheich, Henning; Ohl, Frank W.; Goldschmidt, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that cortical activity in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) is spatially homogeneous on the mesoscopic scale. This is partly due to the limited observational scope of common metabolic or imaging methods in sleep. We used the recently developed technique of thallium-autometallography (TlAMG) to visualize mesoscopic patterns of activity in the sleeping cortex with single-cell resolution. We intravenously injected rats with the lipophilic chelate complex thallium diethy...

  10. Induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of superoxide dismutase expression in rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum by PTU-induced hypothyroidism and its reversal by curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Srikanta; Anand, Chinmay; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda; Dandapat, Jagneshwar

    2012-08-01

    The present study was carried out to elucidate the effectiveness of curcumin in ameliorating the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cerebral cortex and cerebellum of rat brain under 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism. Induction of hypothyroidism in adult rats by PTU resulted in augmentation of lipid peroxidation (LPx), an index of oxidative stress in cerebellum but not in cerebral cortex. Curcumin-supplementation to PTU-treated (hypothyroid) rats showed significant reduction in the level of LPx in both the regions of brain. The decreased translated products (SOD1 and SOD2) and the unchanged activity of SOD in cerebral cortex of PTU-treated rats were increased on supplementation of curcumin to the hypothyroid rats. Declined translated products of SOD1 and SOD2 in cerebellum of PTU-treated rats were alleviated on administration of curcumin to hypothyroid rats. On the other hand, the decreased activity of SOD in cerebellum of PTU-treated rats was further declined on administration of curcumin to the hypothyroid rats. Results of the present investigation indicate that curcumin differentially modulates the expression of superoxide dismutase in rat brain cortex and cerebellum under PTU-induced hypothyroidism.

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging detects early cerebral cortex abnormalities in neuronal architecture induced by bilateral neonatal enucleation: An experimental model in the ferret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Bock

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is a technique that non-invasively provides quantitative measures of water translational diffusion, including fractional anisotropy (FA, that are sensitive to the shape and orientation of cellular elements, such as axons, dendrites and cell somas. For several neurodevelopmental disorders, histopathological investigations have identified abnormalities in the architecture of pyramidal neurons at early stages of cerebral cortex development. To assess the potential capability of DTI to detect neuromorphological abnormalities within the developing cerebral cortex, we compare changes in cortical FA with changes in neuronal architecture and connectivity induced by bilateral enucleation at postnatal day 7 (BEP7 in ferrets. We show here that the visual callosal pattern in BEP7 ferrets is more irregular and occupies a significantly greater cortical area compared to controls at adulthood. To determine whether development of the cerebral cortex is altered in BEP7 ferrets in a manner detectable by DTI, cortical FA was compared in control and BEP7 animals on postnatal day 31. Visual cortex, but not rostrally-adjacent non-visual cortex, exhibits higher FA than control animals, consistent with BEP7 animals possessing axonal and dendritic arbors of reduced complexity than age-matched controls. Subsequent to DTI, Golgi staining and analysis methods were used to identify regions, restricted to visual areas, in which the orientation distribution of neuronal processes is significantly more concentrated than in control ferrets. Together, these findings suggest that DTI can be of utility for detecting abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders at early stages of cerebral cortical development, and that the neonatally-enucleated ferret is a useful animal model system for systematically assessing the potential of this new diagnostic strategy.

  12. Visual space and object space in the cerebral cortex of retinal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goesaert, Elfi; Van Baelen, Marc; Spileers, Werner; Wagemans, Johan; Op de Beeck, Hans P

    2014-01-01

    The lower areas of the hierarchically organized visual cortex are strongly retinotopically organized, with strong responses to specific retinotopic stimuli, and no response to other stimuli outside these preferred regions. Higher areas in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex show a weak eccentricity bias, and are mainly sensitive for object category (e.g., faces versus buildings). This study investigated how the mapping of eccentricity and category sensitivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging is affected by a retinal lesion in two very different low vision patients: a patient with a large central scotoma, affecting central input to the retina (juvenile macular degeneration), and a patient where input to the peripheral retina is lost (retinitis pigmentosa). From the retinal degeneration, we can predict specific losses of retinotopic activation. These predictions were confirmed when comparing stimulus activations with a no-stimulus fixation baseline. At the same time, however, seemingly contradictory patterns of activation, unexpected given the retinal degeneration, were observed when different stimulus conditions were directly compared. These unexpected activations were due to position-specific deactivations, indicating the importance of investigating absolute activation (relative to a no-stimulus baseline) rather than relative activation (comparing different stimulus conditions). Data from two controls, with simulated scotomas that matched the lesions in the two patients also showed that retinotopic mapping results could be explained by a combination of activations at the stimulated locations and deactivations at unstimulated locations. Category sensitivity was preserved in the two patients. In sum, when we take into account the full pattern of activations and deactivations elicited in retinotopic cortex and throughout the ventral object vision pathway in low vision patients, the pattern of (de)activation is consistent with the retinal loss.

  13. Visual space and object space in the cerebral cortex of retinal disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfi Goesaert

    Full Text Available The lower areas of the hierarchically organized visual cortex are strongly retinotopically organized, with strong responses to specific retinotopic stimuli, and no response to other stimuli outside these preferred regions. Higher areas in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex show a weak eccentricity bias, and are mainly sensitive for object category (e.g., faces versus buildings. This study investigated how the mapping of eccentricity and category sensitivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging is affected by a retinal lesion in two very different low vision patients: a patient with a large central scotoma, affecting central input to the retina (juvenile macular degeneration, and a patient where input to the peripheral retina is lost (retinitis pigmentosa. From the retinal degeneration, we can predict specific losses of retinotopic activation. These predictions were confirmed when comparing stimulus activations with a no-stimulus fixation baseline. At the same time, however, seemingly contradictory patterns of activation, unexpected given the retinal degeneration, were observed when different stimulus conditions were directly compared. These unexpected activations were due to position-specific deactivations, indicating the importance of investigating absolute activation (relative to a no-stimulus baseline rather than relative activation (comparing different stimulus conditions. Data from two controls, with simulated scotomas that matched the lesions in the two patients also showed that retinotopic mapping results could be explained by a combination of activations at the stimulated locations and deactivations at unstimulated locations. Category sensitivity was preserved in the two patients. In sum, when we take into account the full pattern of activations and deactivations elicited in retinotopic cortex and throughout the ventral object vision pathway in low vision patients, the pattern of (deactivation is consistent with the retinal loss.

  14. Region-specific maturation of cerebral cortex in human fetal brain: diffusion tensor imaging and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Saksena, Sona [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lucknow, UP (India); Husain, Nuzhat; Srivastava, Savita [CSM Medical University, Department of Pathology, Lucknow (India); Rathore, Ram K.S.; Sarma, Manoj K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Kanpur (India); Malik, Gyanendra K. [CSM Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Lucknow (India); Das, Vinita [CSM Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lucknow (India); Pradhan, Mandakini [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Genetics, Lucknow (India); Pandey, Chandra M. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Biostatistics, Lucknow (India); Narayana, Ponnada A. [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-09-15

    In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical analysis in different cortical regions in fetal brains at different gestational age (GA) were performed. DTI was performed on 50 freshly aborted fetal brains with GA ranging from 12 to 42 weeks to compare age-related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in different cerebral cortical regions that include frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes at the level of thalami. GFAP immunostaining was performed and the percentage of GFAP-positive areas was quantified. The cortical FA values in the frontal lobe peaked at around 26 weeks of GA, occipital and temporal lobes at around 20 weeks, and parietal lobe at around 23 weeks. A significant, but modest, positive correlation (r=0.31, p=0.02) was observed between cortical FA values and percentage area of GFAP expression in cortical region around the time period during which the migrational events are at its peak, i.e., GA {<=} 28 weeks for frontal cortical region and GA{<=}22 weeks for rest of the lobes. The DTI-derived FA quantification with its GFAP immunohistologic correlation in cortical regions of the various lobes of the cerebral hemispheres supports region-specific migrational and maturational events in human fetal brain. (orig.)

  15. A library of cortical morphology analysis tools to study development, aging and genetics of cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunov, Peter; Rogers, William; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Lancaster, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Sharing of analysis techniques and tools is among the main driving forces of modern neuroscience. We describe a library of tools developed to quantify global and regional differences in cortical anatomy in high resolution structural MR images. This library is distributed as a plug-in application for popular structural analysis software, BrainVisa (BV). It contains tools to measure global and regional gyrification, gray matter thickness and sulcal and gyral white matter spans. We provide a description of each tool and examples for several case studies to demonstrate their use. These examples show how the BV library was used to study cortical folding process during antenatal development and recapitulation of this process during cerebral aging. Further, the BV library was used to perform translation research in humans and non-human primates on the genetics of cerebral gyrification. This library, including source code and self-contained binaries for popular computer platforms, is available from the NIH-Neuroimaging Informatics Tools and Resources Clearinghouse (NITRC) resource ( http://www.nitrc.org/projects/brainvisa_ext ).

  16. Culturated rat cerebral cortex explants and their application in the study of SPECT scan radiopharaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, B.M. de.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis mechanics that result in the distinct localization of radiopharmaceuticals within the brain have been investigated. In order to 'get more insight' in uptake and binding of radiopharmaceuticals bu brain tissue, use has been made of the tissue culture technique. Tissue culture privides the opportunity of doing experiments with brain tissue under stable conditions, in the absence of a blood-brain barrier, and without interference by cerebral blood flow. The present thesis is presented in two sections. The first part focusses on longterm culture of 'organotypic' cerebral neocortex tissue, obtained from neonatal rat brain and explanted into a chemically defined medium. Procedures were developed which enabled culturing of this tissue without the occurence of central necrosis and with the preservation of a characteristic histiotypic organization. Morphological characteristics of the cultures were described and measured at various ages in vitro. In the second part, the cultures were used to study mechanisms that might contribute to the tissue uptake of radiopharmaceuticals which are in clinical use for SPECT brain imaging. (author). 369 refs.; 50 figs.; 13 tabs

  17. Increased Cell Fusion in Cerebral Cortex May Contribute to Poststroke Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Paltsyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used a model of a hemorrhagic stroke in a motor zone of the cortex in rats at the age of 3 months The report shows that cortical neurons can fuse with oligodendrocytes. In formed binuclear cells, the nucleus of an oligodendrocyte undergoes neuron specific reprogramming. It can be confirmed by changes in chromatin structure and in size of the second nucleus, by expression of specific neuronal markers and increasing total transcription rate. The nucleus of an oligodendrocyte likely transforms into a second neuronal nucleus. The number of binuclear neurons was validated with quantitative analysis. Fusion of neurons with oligodendrocytes might be a regenerative process in general and specifically following a stroke. The appearance of additional neuronal nuclei increases the functional outcome of the population of neurons. Participation of a certain number of binuclear cells in neuronal function might compensate for a functional deficit that arises from the death of a subset of neurons. After a stroke, the number of binuclear neurons increased in cortex around the lesion zone. In this case, the rate of recovery of stroke-damaged locomotor behavior also increased, which indicates the regenerative role of fusion.

  18. [Correlation of diffusion tensor imaging between the cerebral cortex and speech discrimination in presbycusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lu; Yu, Shuilian; Chen, Ruichun; Jing, Yan; Liang, Jianping

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between pure-tone average (PTA), the fractional anisotropy (FA) of the auditory pathway, cognitive cortex and auditory cortex in presbycusis. Twenty-five elderly subjects with presbycusis were participated in the study. PTA, speech discrimination abilities were evaluated in each subject. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was applied to access the FA of the IC, the superior frontal gyrus and the Heschl's gyrus. Compare the difference between two sides of the values of FA in the three areas. Bivariate correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of PTA and FA of the inferior colliculus (IC), the superior frontal gyrus and the Heschl's gyrus on speech discrimination abilities. There were no significant differences between the left and right side of the inferior colliculus (P > 0.05). Higher FA values were recorded at the left side of the Heschl's gyrus and the superior frontal gyrus (P < 0.05). Both PTA and the FA of the superior frontal gyrus have a negative association with speech discrimination abilities (P < 0.01, P < 0.05), while the FA of the Heschl's gyrus has a positive association with speech discrimination abilities (P < 0.05). Our findings indicated that the speech discrimination abilities of the elderly is not only related to the peripheral auditory function, but also to the central auditory and cognitive function.

  19. Differentiated effect of ageing on the enzymes of Krebs' cycle, electron transfer complexes and glutamate metabolism of non-synaptic and intra-synaptic mitochondria from cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, R F; Gorini, A; Hoyer, S

    2006-11-01

    The effect of ageing on the activity of enzymes linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain and glutamate metabolism was studied in three different types of mitochondria of cerebral cortex of 1-year old and 2-year old male Wistar rats. We assessed the maximum rate (V(max)) of the mitochondrial enzyme activities in non-synaptic perikaryal mitochondria, and in two populations of intra-synaptic mitochondria. The results indicated that: (i) in normal, steady-state cerebral cortex the values of the catalytic activities of the enzymes markedly differed in the various populations of mitochondria; (ii) in intra-synaptic mitochondria, ageing affected the catalytic properties of the enzymes linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain and glutamate metabolism; (iii) these changes were more evident in intra-synaptic "heavy" than "light" mitochondria. These results indicate a different age-related vulnerability of subpopulations of mitochondria in vivo located into synapses than non-synaptic ones.

  20. Differential microstructural alterations in rat cerebral cortex in a model of chronic mild stress depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Kroenke, Christopher D; Wiborg, Ove

    2018-01-01

    Chronic mild stress leads to depression in many cases and is linked to several debilitating diseases including mental disorders. Recently, neuronal tracing techniques, stereology, and immunohistochemistry have revealed persistent and significant microstructural alterations in the hippocampus......, hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala, which form an interconnected system known as the stress circuit. Most studies have focused only on this circuit, however, some studies indicate that manipulation of sensory and motor systems may impact genesis and therapy of mood disorders and therefore...... these areas should not be neglected in the study of brain microstructure alterations in response to stress and depression. For this reason, we explore the microstructural alterations in different cortical regions in a chronic mild stress model of depression. The study employs ex-vivo diffusion MRI (d...

  1. Postnatal changes in the nitric oxide system of the rat cerebral cortex after hypoxia during delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ana Patricia; Alonso, David; Lisazoaín, Ignacio; Serrano, Julia; Leza, Juan Carlos; Bentura, María Luisa; López, Juan Carlos; Manuel Encinas, Juan; Fernández-Vizarra, Paula; Castro-Blanco, Susana; Martínez, Alfredo; Martinez-Murillo, Ricardo; Lorenzo, Pedro; Pedrosa, Juan Angel; Peinado, María Angeles; Rodrigo, José

    2003-05-14

    The impact of hypoxia in utero during delivery was correlated with the immunocytochemistry, expression and activity of the neuronal (nNOS) and inducible (iNOS) isoforms of the nitric oxide synthase enzyme as well as with the reactivity and expression of nitrotyrosine as a marker of protein nitration during early postnatal development of the cortex. The expression of nNOS in both normal and hypoxic animals increased during the first few postnatal days, reaching a peak at day P5, but a higher expression was consistently found in hypoxic brain. This expression decreased progressively from P7 to P20, but was more prominent in the hypoxic group. Immunoreactivity for iNOS was also higher in the cortex of the hypoxic rats and was more evident between days P0 and P5, decreasing dramatically between P10 and P20 in both groups of rats. Two nitrated proteins of 52 and 38 kDa, were also identified. Nitration of the 52-kDa protein was more intense in the hypoxic animals than in the controls, increasing from P0 to P7 and then decreasing progressively to P20. The 38-kDa nitrated protein was seen only from P10 to P20, and its expression was more intense in control than in the hypoxic group. These results suggest that the NO system may be involved in neuronal maturation and cortical plasticity over postnatal development. Overproduction of NO in the brain of hypoxic animals may constitute an effort to re-establish normal blood flow and may also trigger a cascade of free-radical reactions, leading to modifications in the cortical plasticity.

  2. Evolutionary appearance of von Economo’s neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauda, Franco; Geminiani, Giuliano Carlo; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    von Economo’s neurons (VENs) are large, spindle-shaped projection neurons in layer V of the frontoinsular (FI) cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex. During human ontogenesis, the VENs can first be differentiated at late stages of gestation, and increase in number during the first eight postnatal months. VENs have been identified in humans, chimpanzee, bonobos, gorillas, orangutan and, more recently, in the macaque. Their distribution in great apes seems to correlate with human-like social cognitive abilities and self-awareness. VENs are also found in whales, in a number of different cetaceans, and in the elephant. This phylogenetic distribution may suggest a correlation among the VENs, brain size and the “social brain.” VENs may be involved in the pathogenesis of specific neurological and psychiatric diseases, such as autism, callosal agenesis and schizophrenia. VENs are selectively affected in a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia in which empathy, social awareness and self-control are seriously compromised, thus associating VENs with the social brain. However, the presence of VENs has also been related to special functions such as mirror self-recognition. Areas containing VENs have been related to motor awareness or sense-of-knowing, discrimination between self and other, and between self and the external environment. Along this line, VENs have been related to the “global Workspace” architecture: in accordance the VENs have been correlated to emotional and interoceptive signals by providing fast connections (large axons = fast communication) between salience-related insular and cingulate and other widely separated brain areas. Nevertheless, the lack of a characterization of their physiology and anatomical connectivity allowed only to infer their functional role based on their location and on the functional magnetic resonance imaging data. The recent finding of VENs in the anterior insula of the macaque opens the way to new insights and

  3. Evolutionary appearance of von Economo's neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauda, Franco; Geminiani, Giuliano Carlo; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    von Economo's neurons (VENs) are large, spindle-shaped projection neurons in layer V of the frontoinsular (FI) cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex. During human ontogenesis, the VENs can first be differentiated at late stages of gestation, and increase in number during the first eight postnatal months. VENs have been identified in humans, chimpanzee, bonobos, gorillas, orangutan and, more recently, in the macaque. Their distribution in great apes seems to correlate with human-like social cognitive abilities and self-awareness. VENs are also found in whales, in a number of different cetaceans, and in the elephant. This phylogenetic distribution may suggest a correlation among the VENs, brain size and the "social brain." VENs may be involved in the pathogenesis of specific neurological and psychiatric diseases, such as autism, callosal agenesis and schizophrenia. VENs are selectively affected in a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia in which empathy, social awareness and self-control are seriously compromised, thus associating VENs with the social brain. However, the presence of VENs has also been related to special functions such as mirror self-recognition. Areas containing VENs have been related to motor awareness or sense-of-knowing, discrimination between self and other, and between self and the external environment. Along this line, VENs have been related to the "global Workspace" architecture: in accordance the VENs have been correlated to emotional and interoceptive signals by providing fast connections (large axons = fast communication) between salience-related insular and cingulate and other widely separated brain areas. Nevertheless, the lack of a characterization of their physiology and anatomical connectivity allowed only to infer their functional role based on their location and on the functional magnetic resonance imaging data. The recent finding of VENs in the anterior insula of the macaque opens the way to new insights and experimental

  4. Evolutionary appearance of Von Economo’s Neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco eCauda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Von Economo’s neurons (VENs are large, spindle-shaped projection neurons in layer V of the frontoinsular (FI cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex. During human ontogenesis, the VENs can first be differentiated at late stages of gestation, and increase in number during the first eight postnatal months.VENs have been identified in humans, chimpanzee, bonobos, gorillas, orangutan and, more recently, in the macaque. Their distribution in great apes seems to correlate with human-like social cognitive abilities and self-awareness. VENs are also found in whales, in a number of different cetaceans, and in the elephant. This phylogenetic distribution may suggest a correlation among the VENs, brain size and the social brain. VENs may be involved in the pathogenesis of specific neurological and psychiatric diseases, such as autism, callosal agenesis and schizophrenia. VENs are selectively affected in a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia in which empathy, social awareness and self-control are seriously compromised, thus associating VENs with the social brain.However, the presence of VENs has also been related to special functions such as mirror self-recognition. Areas containing VENs have been related to motor awareness or sense-of-knowing, discrimination between self and other, and between self and the external environment. Along this line, VENs have been related to the global Workspace architecture: in accordance the VENs have been correlated to emotional and interoceptive signals by providing fast connections (large axons = fast communication between salience-related insular and cingulate and other widely separated brain areas.Nevertheless, the lack of a characterization of their physiology and anatomical connectivity allowed only to infer their functional role based on their location and on the fMRI data. The recent finding of VENs in the anterior insula of the macaque opens the way to new insights and experimental investigatio

  5. Greater addition of neurons to the olfactory bulb than to the cerebral cortex of eulipotyphlans but not rodents, afrotherians or primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Pedro F. M.; Manger, Paul R.; Catania, Kenneth C.; Kaas, Jon H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory bulb is an evolutionarily old structure that antedates the appearance of a six-layered mammalian cerebral cortex. As such, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to scaling the mass of the olfactory bulb as a function of its number of neurons might be shared across mammalian groups, as we have found to be the case for the ensemble of non-cortical, non-cerebellar brain structures. Alternatively, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the olfactory bulb might be distinct in those mammals that rely heavily on olfaction. The group previously referred to as Insectivora includes small mammals, some of which are now placed in Afrotheria, a base group in mammalian radiation, and others in Eulipotyphla, a group derived later, at the base of Laurasiatheria. Here we show that the neuronal scaling rules that apply to building the olfactory bulb differ across eulipotyphlans and other mammals such that eulipotyphlans have more neurons concentrated in an olfactory bulb of similar size than afrotherians, glires and primates. Most strikingly, while the cerebral cortex gains neurons at a faster pace than the olfactory bulb in glires, and afrotherians follow this trend, it is the olfactory bulb that gains neurons at a faster pace than the cerebral cortex in eulipotyphlans, which contradicts the common view that the cerebral cortex is the fastest expanding structure in brain evolution. Our findings emphasize the importance of not using brain structure size as a proxy for numbers of neurons across mammalian orders, and are consistent with the notion that different selective pressures have acted upon the olfactory system of eulipotyphlans, glires and primates, with eulipotyphlans relying more on olfaction for their behavior than glires and primates. Surprisingly, however, the neuronal scaling rules for primates predict that the human olfactory bulb has as many neurons as the larger eulipotyphlan olfactory bulbs, which questions the classification of humans as microsmatic

  6. Glutamate Levels and Resting Cerebral Blood Flow in Anterior Cingulate Cortex Are Associated at Rest and Immediately Following Infusion of S-Ketamine in Healthy Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten Borup Bojesen; Kirsten Borup Bojesen; Kasper Aagaard Andersen; Kasper Aagaard Andersen; Kasper Aagaard Andersen; Sophie Nordahl Rasmussen; Sophie Nordahl Rasmussen; Sophie Nordahl Rasmussen; Lone Baandrup; Line Malmer Madsen; Birte Yding Glenthøj; Birte Yding Glenthøj; Egill Rostrup; Brian Villumsen Broberg

    2018-01-01

    Progressive loss of brain tissue is seen in some patients with schizophrenia and might be caused by increased levels of glutamate and resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alterations. Animal studies suggest that the normalisation of glutamate levels decreases rCBF and prevents structural changes in hippocampus. However, the relationship between glutamate and rCBF in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of humans has not been studied in the absence of antipsychotics and illness chronicity. Ketamine i...

  7. G-protein activity in Percoll-purified plasma membranes, bulk plasma membranes, and low-density plasma membranes isolated from rat cerebral cortex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouřová, Lenka; Stöhr, Jiří; Lisý, Václav; Rudajev, Vladimír; Novotný, Jiří; Svoboda, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2009), BR111-BR122 ISSN 1234-1010 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/0121; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110606 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : rat cerebral cortex * plasma membrane * G-protein activity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.543, year: 2009

  8. Serotonin-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover: mediation by the S2 binding site in rat cerebral cortex but not in subcortical regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, P.J.; Sanders-Bush, E.

    1985-01-01

    In rat cerebral cortex, serotonin (5-HT) stimulates phosphoinositide turnover with an EC50 of 1 microM in the presence of pargyline. The EC50 is 16-fold higher in the absence of pargyline. Selective S2 antagonists inhibit 5-HT-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover. Schild analysis of the blockade by ketanserin of the 5-HT effect gives an estimated Kd of ketanserin for the phosphoinositide-linked receptor of 11.7 nM, which agrees with the Kd (3.5 nM) of [ 3 H]ketanserin for the S2 site. Furthermore, MK-212, 5-HT and 5-fluorotryptamine stimulate phosphoinositide turnover with potencies that resemble their potencies at the S2 but not the S1 binding site. Of 11 agonists tested, the tryptamine derivatives tend to be more efficacious than the piperazine derivatives. The selective S1 agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)tetralin is inactive at stimulating phosphoinositide turnover. No significant relationship exists between the regional distributions of 5-HT-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover and S2 binding sites. Furthermore, the S2 antagonist ketanserin is less potent and less efficacious in hippocampus and limbic forebrain than in cerebral cortex. These data suggest that 5-HT-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover is linked to the S2 binding site in rat cerebral cortex. However, 5-HT increases phosphoinositide turnover in subcortical regions by mechanisms other than stimulation of the S2 receptor

  9. [Comparative experimental study of the influence of drugs that improve brain metabolism (angiogen, cytoflavin) on neuronal apoptosis and function of cerebral cortex during aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhanova, E D; Anisimov, V N; Sukhanov, D S; Teplyĭ, D L

    2015-01-01

    The safety of cortical neurons and their functional activity is essential for organism at all stages of ontogenesis. However, aging changes leading to an increase in apoptosis level may cause considerable damage to cerebral cortex function, including sensorimotor. We have studied the role of exogenous neurometabolites (angiogen, cytoflavin) in apoptosis regulation and correction of age-related motor and behavioral disturbances. To study the regulation of neuronal morphofunctional activity, we used accelerate-senescent transgenic HER2 mice in comparison to wild type FBV mice. Functional changes in cerebral cortex were studied by the Suok test and open field test, the level of neuronal apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL method, the expression of apoptosis-modulating proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. We have revealed differences in psycho-emotional and locomotor activity of these strains of mice. In addition, results of our study showed morphological differences: increase in the apoptosis level of cortical neurons in aged FBV type mice, but no changes in aged HER2 mice. The investigated drugs induce cell death of cortical neurons in transgenic mice of both ages and in young wild-type mice by p53-dependent pathway. Increased apoptosis in the cortex of old transgenic mice has important clinical implications, because reduced apoptosis during aging is one of the causes of cancer. The treatment of old wild-type animals reduces elevated neuronal apoptosis, which decreases risk of age neurodegeneration. Thus, revealed morphological changes in the cerebral cortex are the basis for involutional disabilities (including reduced locomotor activity and increased anxiety level). The use of angiogen and cytoflavin treatment improves functional activity of the cortex and protects normal structure of nervous tissue.

  10. Delayed Influence of Spinal Cord Injury on the Amino Acids of NO• Metabolism in Rat Cerebral Cortex Is Attenuated by Thiamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Boyko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe spinal cord injuries (SCIs result in chronic neuroinflammation in the brain, associated with the development of cognitive and behavioral impairments. Nitric oxide (NO• is a gaseous messenger involved in neuronal signaling and inflammation, contributing to nitrosative stress under dysregulated production of reactive nitrogen species. In this work, biochemical changes induced in the cerebral cortex of rats 8 weeks after SCI are assessed by quantification of the levels of amino acids participating in the NO• and glutathione metabolism. The contribution of the injury-induced neurodegeneration is revealed by comparison of the SCI- and laminectomy (LE-subjected animals. Effects of the operative interventions are assessed by comparison of the operated (LE/SCI and non-operated animals. Lower ratios of citrulline (Cit to arginine (Arg or Cit to ornithine and a more profound decrease in the ratio of lysine to glycine distinguish SCI animals from those after LE. The data suggest decreased NO• production from both Arg and homoarginine in the cortex 8 weeks after SCI. Both LE and SCI groups show a strong decrease in the level of cortex glutathione. The neurotropic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant actions of thiamine (vitamin B1 prompted us to study the thiamine effects on the SCI-induced changes in the NO• and glutathione metabolism. A thiamine injection (400 mg/kg intraperitoneally within 24 h after SCI abrogates the changes in the cerebral cortex amino acids related to NO•. Thiamine-induced normalization of the brain glutathione levels after LE and SCI may involve increased supply of glutamate for glutathione biosynthesis. Thus, thiamine protects from sequelae of SCI on NO•-related amino acids and glutathione in cerebral cortex.

  11. Structure of the cerebral cortex. Intrinsec organization and comparative analysis of the neocortex | Estructura de la corteza cerebral. Organización intrínseca y análisis comparativo del neocórtex

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde, Facundo

    2002-01-01

    We review our present knowledge on the intrinsic organization of the neocortex based on studies carried out with the Golgi method in several mammalian species. An outline is presented on certain general aspects of the termination of specific afferent fibers in layer IV in insectivora, rodents, carnivora and primates. The principal components of the cerebral cortex have been classified in two broad types: pyramidal cells, which account for nearly 70% of the total population, and intrinsic neur...

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Niladri [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada)]. E-mail: nbasu@uottawa.ca; Scheuhammer, Anton M. [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); O' Brien, Mike [Furbearers and Upland Game, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, Nova Scotia, B4N 4E5 (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 {+-} 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 {+-} 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 {+-} 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects.

  13. Astrocytic adaptation during cerebral angiogenesis follows the new vessel formation induced through chronic hypoxia in adult mouse cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masamoto, Kazuto; Kanno, Iwao

    2014-03-01

    We examined longitudinal changes of the neuro-glia-vascular unit during cerebral angiogenesis induced through chronic hypoxia in the adult mouse cortex. Tie2-GFP mice in which the vascular endothelial cells expressed green fluorescent proteins (GFP) were exposed to chronic hypoxia, while the spatiotemporal developments of the cortical capillary sprouts and the neighboring astrocytic remodeling were characterized with repeated two-photon microscopy. The capillary sprouts appeared at early phases of the hypoxia adaptation (1-2 weeks), while the morphological changes of the astrocytic soma and processes were not detected in this phase. In the later phases of the hypoxia adaptation (> 2 weeks), the capillary sprouts created a new connection with existing capillaries, and its neighboring astrocytes extended their processes to the newly-formed vessels. The findings show that morphological adaptation of the astrocytes follow the capillary development during the hypoxia adaptation, which indicate that the newly-formed vessels provoke cellular interactions with the neighboring astrocytes to strengthen the functional blood-brain barrier.

  14. Simulation of spreading depolarization trajectories in cerebral cortex: Correlation of velocity and susceptibility in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Milakara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many cerebral grey matter structures including the neocortex, spreading depolarization (SD is the principal mechanism of the near-complete breakdown of the transcellular ion gradients with abrupt water influx into neurons. Accordingly, SDs are abundantly recorded in patients with traumatic brain injury, spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH and malignant hemispheric stroke using subdural electrode strips. SD is observed as a large slow potential change, spreading in the cortex at velocities between 2 and 9 mm/min. Velocity and SD susceptibility typically correlate positively in various animal models. In patients monitored in neurocritical care, the Co-Operative Studies on Brain Injury Depolarizations (COSBID recommends several variables to quantify SD occurrence and susceptibility, although accurate measures of SD velocity have not been possible. Therefore, we developed an algorithm to estimate SD velocities based on reconstructing SD trajectories of the wave-front's curvature center from magnetic resonance imaging scans and time-of-SD-arrival-differences between subdural electrode pairs. We then correlated variables indicating SD susceptibility with algorithm-estimated SD velocities in twelve aSAH patients. Highly significant correlations supported the algorithm's validity. The trajectory search failed significantly more often for SDs recorded directly over emerging focal brain lesions suggesting in humans similar to animals that the complexity of SD propagation paths increase in tissue undergoing injury.

  15. Down-regulation of 3H-imipramine binding sites in rat cerebral cortex prenatal exposure to antidepressants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, D.; de Ceballos, M.L.; Del Rio, J.

    1990-01-01

    Several antidepressant drugs were given to pregnant rats in the last 15 days of gestation and 3 H-imipramine binding ( 3 H-IMI) was subsequently measured in the cerebral cortex of the offspring. The selective serotonin (5-HT) uptake blockers chlorimipramine and fluoxetine as well as the selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors clorgyline and deprenyl induced, after prenatal exposure, a down-regulation of 3 H-IMI binding sites at postnatal day 25. The density of these binding sites was still reduced at postnatal day 90 in rats exposed in utero to the MAO inhibitors. The antidepressants desipramine and nomifensine were ineffective in this respect. After chronic treatment of adult animals, only chlorimipramine was able to down-regulate the 3 H-IMI binding sites. Consequently, prenatal exposure of rats to different antidepressant drugs affecting predominantly the 5-HT systems induces more marked and long-lasting effects on cortical 3 H-IMI binding sites. The results suggest that the developing brain is more susceptible to the actions of antidepressants

  16. Down-regulation of sup 3 H-imipramine binding sites in rat cerebral cortex prenatal exposure to antidepressants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, D.; de Ceballos, M.L. (Cajal Institute, Madrid (Spain)); Del Rio, J. (Univ. of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain))

    1990-01-01

    Several antidepressant drugs were given to pregnant rats in the last 15 days of gestation and {sup 3}H-imipramine binding ({sup 3}H-IMI) was subsequently measured in the cerebral cortex of the offspring. The selective serotonin (5-HT) uptake blockers chlorimipramine and fluoxetine as well as the selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors clorgyline and deprenyl induced, after prenatal exposure, a down-regulation of {sup 3}H-IMI binding sites at postnatal day 25. The density of these binding sites was still reduced at postnatal day 90 in rats exposed in utero to the MAO inhibitors. The antidepressants desipramine and nomifensine were ineffective in this respect. After chronic treatment of adult animals, only chlorimipramine was able to down-regulate the {sup 3}H-IMI binding sites. Consequently, prenatal exposure of rats to different antidepressant drugs affecting predominantly the 5-HT systems induces more marked and long-lasting effects on cortical {sup 3}H-IMI binding sites. The results suggest that the developing brain is more susceptible to the actions of antidepressants.

  17. Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4+/-2.3 years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS.

  18. Network-Level Structural Abnormalities of Cerebral Cortex in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Perry F.; Hwang, Jaeuk; Bae, Sujin; Musen, Gail; Kim, Jieun E.; Bolo, Nicolas; Jeong, Hyeonseok S.; Simonson, Donald C.; Lee, Sun Hea; Weinger, Katie; Jung, Jiyoung J.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Choi, Yera; Jacobson, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) usually begins in childhood and adolescence and causes lifelong damage to several major organs including the brain. Despite increasing evidence of T1DM-induced structural deficits in cortical regions implicated in higher cognitive and emotional functions, little is known whether and how the structural connectivity between these regions is altered in the T1DM brain. Using inter-regional covariance of cortical thickness measurements from high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance data, we examined the topological organizations of cortical structural networks in 81 T1DM patients and 38 healthy subjects. We found a relative absence of hierarchically high-level hubs in the prefrontal lobe of T1DM patients, which suggests ineffective top-down control of the prefrontal cortex in T1DM. Furthermore, inter-network connections between the strategic/executive control system and systems subserving other cortical functions including language and mnemonic/emotional processing were also less integrated in T1DM patients than in healthy individuals. The current results provide structural evidence for T1DM-related dysfunctional cortical organization, which specifically underlie the top-down cognitive control of language, memory, and emotion. PMID:24058401

  19. Neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive neurons in the cerebral cortex of humans and other haplorrhine primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghanti, Mary Ann; Conley, Tiffini; Sudduth, Jessica; Erwin, Joseph M.; Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the distribution of neurons immunoreactive for neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the posterior part of the superior temporal cortex (Brodmann's area 22 or area Tpt) of humans and nonhuman haplorrhine primates. NPY has been implicated in learning and memory and the density of NPY-expressing cortical neurons and axons is reduced in depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Due to the role that NPY plays in both cognition and neurodegenerative diseases, we tested the hypothesis that the density of cortical and interstitial neurons expressing NPY was increased in humans relative to other primate species. The study sample included great apes (chimpanzee and gorilla), Old World monkeys (pigtailed macaque, moor macaque, and baboon) and New World monkeys (squirrel monkey and capuchin). Stereologic methods were used to estimate the density of NPY-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in layers I-VI of area Tpt and the subjacent white matter. Adjacent Nissl-stained sections were used to calculate local densities of all neurons. The ratio of NPY-ir neurons to total neurons within area Tpt and the total density of NPY-ir neurons within the white matter were compared among species. Overall, NPY-ir neurons represented only an average of 0.006% of the total neuron population. While there were significant differences among species, phylogenetic trends in NPY-ir neuron distributions were not observed and humans did not differ from other primates. However, variation among species warrants further investigation into the distribution of this neuromodulator system. PMID:23042407

  20. [Postsynaptic reactions of cerebral cortex neurons, activated by nociceptive afferents during stimulation of the Raphe nuclei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labakhua, T Sh; Dzhanashiia, T K; Gedevanishvili, G I; Dzhokhadze, L D; Tkemaladze, T T; Abzianidze, I V

    2012-01-01

    On cats, we studied the influence of stimulation of the Raphe nuclei (RN) on postsynaptic processes evoked in neurons of the somatosensory cortex by stimulation of nociceptive (intensive stimulation of the tooth pulp) and non-nociceptive (moderate stimulation of the ventroposteromedial--VPN--nucleus of the thalamus) afferent inputs. 6 cells, selectively excited by stimulation of nocciceptors and 9 cells, activated by both the above nociceptive and non-nociceptive influences (nociceptive and convergent neurons, respectively) were recorded intracellular. In neurons of both groups, responses to nociceptive stimulation (of sufficient intensity) looked like an EPSP-spike-IPSP (the letter of significant duration, up to 200-300 ms) compleх. Conditioning stimulation of the RN which preceded test stimulus applied to the tooth pulp or VPM nucleus by 100 to 800 ms, induced 40-60 % decrease of the IPSP amplitude only, while maхimal effect of influence, in both cases, was noted within intervals of 300-800 ms between conditioning and test stimulus. During stimulation of the RN, serotonin released via receptor and second messengers, provides postsynaptic modulation of GABAergic system, decreasing the IPSP amplitude which occurs after stimulation of both the tooth pulp and VPM thalamic nucleus. This process may be realized trough either pre- or postsynaptic mechanisms.

  1. Spatial patterns of neuronal activity in rat cerebral cortex during non-rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanger, Tim; Wetzel, Wolfram; Scheich, Henning; Ohl, Frank W; Goldschmidt, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    It is commonly assumed that cortical activity in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) is spatially homogeneous on the mesoscopic scale. This is partly due to the limited observational scope of common metabolic or imaging methods in sleep. We used the recently developed technique of thallium-autometallography (TlAMG) to visualize mesoscopic patterns of activity in the sleeping cortex with single-cell resolution. We intravenously injected rats with the lipophilic chelate complex thallium diethyldithiocarbamate (TlDDC) during spontaneously occurring periods of NREMS and mapped the patterns of neuronal uptake of the potassium (K+) probe thallium (Tl+). Using this method, we show that cortical activity patterns are not spatially homogeneous during discrete 5-min episodes of NREMS in unrestrained rats-rather, they are complex and spatially diverse. Along with a relative predominance of infragranular layer activation, we find pronounced differences in metabolic activity of neighboring neuronal assemblies, an observation which lends support to the emerging paradigm that sleep is a distributed process with regulation on the local scale.

  2. Application of magnetic resonance to the mapping of cerebral cortex functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrero-Gonzalez, B.; Esteban, F.; Fernandez-Valle, M.E.; Santisteban, C.; Ruiz-Cabello, J.; Cortijo, M.

    1996-01-01

    Our aim is to utilize magnetic resonance for mapping brain function. This a recent application of MR that takes advantage of its noninvasive character and higher spatial resolution than other techniques (such as PET,EEG and MEG), which is increasing the vast number of its applications. It is our interest to show a brain map is made, employing conventional methods clinically available with two simple cases very known by this and other techniques. Rapid acquisitions were acquired with a gradient-echo pulse sequence. The analysis of these images was done off-line with IDL-Based home developed software to produce activation maps in visual (through a screen located at certain fixed distance) and motor cortex (Induced by self-paced finger tapping). Our results, with a motor and photic stimulations, reliably produced significant signal increase in the areas of interest. However, many issues are still open; new advances in image analysis, computation and in MR techniques may help to answer these, and broad the number of clinical applications. (Author) 29 refs

  3. Modeling fMRI signals can provide insights into neural processing in the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Simo; Sharifian, Fariba; Heikkinen, Hanna; Vigário, Ricardo

    2015-08-01

    Every stimulus or task activates multiple areas in the mammalian cortex. These distributed activations can be measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which has the best spatial resolution among the noninvasive brain imaging methods. Unfortunately, the relationship between the fMRI activations and distributed cortical processing has remained unclear, both because the coupling between neural and fMRI activations has remained poorly understood and because fMRI voxels are too large to directly sense the local neural events. To get an idea of the local processing given the macroscopic data, we need models to simulate the neural activity and to provide output that can be compared with fMRI data. Such models can describe neural mechanisms as mathematical functions between input and output in a specific system, with little correspondence to physiological mechanisms. Alternatively, models can be biomimetic, including biological details with straightforward correspondence to experimental data. After careful balancing between complexity, computational efficiency, and realism, a biomimetic simulation should be able to provide insight into how biological structures or functions contribute to actual data processing as well as to promote theory-driven neuroscience experiments. This review analyzes the requirements for validating system-level computational models with fMRI. In particular, we study mesoscopic biomimetic models, which include a limited set of details from real-life networks and enable system-level simulations of neural mass action. In addition, we discuss how recent developments in neurophysiology and biophysics may significantly advance the modelling of fMRI signals. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Correlations between histology and neuronal activity recorded by microelectrodes implanted chronically in the cerebral cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Douglas; Cogan, Stuart; Kane, Sheryl; Pikov, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Objective. To quantify relations between the neuronal activity recorded with chronically-implanted intracortical microelectrodes and the histology of the surrounding tissue, using radial distance from the tip sites and time after array implantation as parameters. Approach. ‘Utah’-type intracortical microelectrode arrays were implanted into cats’ sensorimotor cortex for 275-364 days. The brain tissue around the implants was immuno-stained for the neuronal marker NeuN and for the astrocyte marker GFAP. Pearson’s product-moment correlations were used to quantify the relations between these markers and the amplitudes of the recorded neuronal action potentials (APs) and their signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). Main results. S/N was more stable over post-implant time than was AP amplitude, but its increased correlation with neuronal density after many months indicates ongoing loss of neurons around the microelectrodes. S/N was correlated with neuron density out to at least 140 μm from the microelectrodes, while AP amplitude was correlated with neuron density and GFAP density within ˜80 μm. Correlations between AP amplitude and histology markers (GFAP and NeuN density) were strongest immediately after implantation, while correlation between the neuron density and S/N was strongest near the time the animals were sacrificed. Unlike AP amplitude, there was no significant correlation between S/N and density of GFAP around the tip sites. Significance. Our findings indicate an evolving interaction between changes in the tissue surrounding the microelectrodes and the microelectrode’s electrical properties. Ongoing loss of neurons around recording microelectrodes, and the interactions between their delayed electrical deterioration and early tissue scarring around the tips appear to pose the greatest threats to the microelectrodes’ long-term functionality.

  5. Sleep Loss Promotes Astrocytic Phagocytosis and Microglial Activation in Mouse Cerebral Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesi, Michele; de Vivo, Luisa; Chini, Mattia; Gilli, Francesca; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2017-05-24

    We previously found that Mertk and its ligand Gas6 , astrocytic genes involved in phagocytosis, are upregulated after acute sleep deprivation. These results suggested that astrocytes may engage in phagocytic activity during extended wake, but direct evidence was lacking. Studies in humans and rodents also found that sleep loss increases peripheral markers of inflammation, but whether these changes are associated with neuroinflammation and/or activation of microglia, the brain's resident innate immune cells, was unknown. Here we used serial block-face scanning electron microscopy to obtain 3D volume measurements of synapses and surrounding astrocytic processes in mouse frontal cortex after 6-8 h of sleep, spontaneous wake, or sleep deprivation (SD) and after chronic (∼5 d) sleep restriction (CSR). Astrocytic phagocytosis, mainly of presynaptic components of large synapses, increased after both acute and chronic sleep loss relative to sleep and wake. MERTK expression and lipid peroxidation in synaptoneurosomes also increased to a similar extent after short and long sleep loss, suggesting that astrocytic phagocytosis may represent the brain's response to the increase in synaptic activity associated with prolonged wake, clearing worn components of heavily used synapses. Using confocal microscopy, we then found that CSR but not SD mice show morphological signs of microglial activation and enhanced microglial phagocytosis of synaptic elements, without obvious signs of neuroinflammation in the CSF. Because low-level sustained microglia activation can lead to abnormal responses to a secondary insult, these results suggest that chronic sleep loss, through microglia priming, may predispose the brain to further damage. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We find that astrocytic phagocytosis of synaptic elements, mostly of presynaptic origin and in large synapses, is upregulated already after a few hours of sleep deprivation and shows a further significant increase after prolonged and

  6. Bcl-2 family members make different contributions to cell death in hypoxia and/or hyperoxia in rat cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoming; Qiu, Jingxin; Grafe, Marjorie R; Rea, Harriett C; Rassin, David K; Perez-Polo, J Regino

    2003-11-01

    Hypoxic brain injury during fetal or neonatal development leads to damaged immature neurons and can result in cognitive or behavioral dysfunction. Hyperoxia therapy (treatment with oxygen) is commonly applied to infants with signs of perinatal hypoxia-anoxia. Both hypoxia and hyperoxia have been shown to result in apoptosis in the brains of rats in several animal models. One determinant of cellular commitment to cell death is the differential expression of the Bcl-2 family of proteins in response to trauma. Here, we characterize cell death and the expression of Bcl-2 homologous proteins in 7-day-old neonatal rat cerebral cortex after hypoxia (5% O(2) for 40 min) and/or hyperoxia (>95% O(2) for 2 h after hypoxia). The expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), two anti-apoptotic proteins, decreased at 24 h after hypoxia. Bcl-X(L) increased after either hyperoxia or hypoxia+hyperoxia. We did not detect significant changes in the cytoplasmic levels of pro-apoptotic protein Bax after any of these three treatments. Using cell death ELISA and DNA FragEL assays, we observed increased cell death at 24h after hypoxia, hyperoxia or hypoxia+hyperoxia treatments. At 24 h after either hypoxia, hyperoxia or hypoxia+hyperoxia, caspase 3 activity also increased significantly. Our results suggest that both hypoxia and hyperoxia alone can induce cell death. The Bcl-2 --> cytochrome c --> caspase 3 pathway played a role in hypoxia-induced cell death, while other pathways may be involved in hyperoxia-induced cell death.

  7. The effects of kinesio taping on potential in chronic low back pain patients anticipatory postural control and cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sea Hyun; Lee, Jeong Hun; Oh, Kyeong Ae; Kim, Kyung Yoon

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of kinesio tape applied to chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients on anticipatory postural control and cerebral cortex potential. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients whose low back pain had continued for more than 12 weeks were selected and assigned to a control group (n=10) to which ordinary physical therapy was applied and an experimental group (n=10) to which kinesio tape was applied. Anticipatory postural control was evaluated using electromyography, and movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) was assessed using electroencephalography. Clinical evaluation was performed using a visual analogue scale and the Oswestry disability index. [Results] According to the analysis results for anticipatory postural control, there were significant decreases in the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle and the external oblique muscle in both groups. Among them, the TrA of the experimental group exhibited the greatest differences. According to the results of a between-group comparison, there was significant difference in the TrA between the two groups. There was also a significant decrease in the MRCP of both groups. In particular, changes in the movement monitoring potential (MMP) of the experimental group were greatest at Fz, C3, Cz, and C4. According to the between-group comparison, there were significant differences in MMP at F3, C3, and Cz. Both groups saw VAS and ODI significantly decrease. Among them, the ODI of the experimental group underwent the greatest change. [Conclusion] Kinesio tape applied to CLBP patients reduced their pain and positively affected their anticipatory postural control and MRCP.

  8. LIN7A depletion disrupts cerebral cortex development, contributing to intellectual disability in 12q21-deletion syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Interstitial deletion of 12q21 has been reported in four cases, which share several common clinical features, including intellectual disability (ID, low-set ears, and minor cardiac abnormalities. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH analysis using the Agilent Human Genome CGH 180K array was performed with the genomic DNA from a two-year-old Japanese boy with these symptoms, as well as hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Consequently, a 14 Mb deletion at 12q21.2-q21.33 (nt. 77 203 574-91 264 613 bp, which includes 72 genes, was detected. Of these, we focused on LIN7A, which encodes a scaffold protein that is important for synaptic function, as a possible responsible gene for ID, and we analyzed its role in cerebral cortex development. Western blotting analyses revealed that Lin-7A is expressed on embryonic day (E 13.5, and gradually increases in the mouse brain during the embryonic stage. Biochemical fractionation resulted in the enrichment of Lin-7A in the presynaptic fraction. Suppression of Lin-7A expression by RNAi, using in utero electroporation on E14.5, delayed neuronal migration on postnatal day (P 2, and Lin-7A-deficient neurons remained in the lower zone of the cortical plate and the intermediate zone. In addition, when Lin-7A was silenced in cortical neurons in one hemisphere, axonal growth in the contralateral hemisphere was delayed; development of these neurons was disrupted such that one half did not extend into the contralateral hemisphere after leaving the corpus callosum. Taken together, LIN7A is a candidate gene responsible for 12q21-deletion syndrome, and abnormal neuronal migration and interhemispheric axon development may contribute to ID and corpus callosum hypoplasia, respectively.

  9. Effect of pimozide on the increase of muscarinic receptors caused by mazindol and apomorphine in the rat cerebral motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Sousa, F C; Marinho, M M; Aguiar, G V; Viana, G S

    1995-01-01

    The effects of pimozide, mazindol and apomorphine on muscarinic receptors in homogenates of rat cerebral motor cortex were measured by binding assays, using 3H-N-methylscopolamine (3H-NMS) alone as ligand (for the measurement of M1- and M2-like receptors) or in the presence of carbachol or pirenzepine for determination of M1- and M2-like receptors, respectively. Female Wistar rats (150 g) were treated daily for one week with pimozide, a dopaminergic antagonist (10 and 20 mg/kg, po, by gavage), or with apomorphine (1 mg/kg, ip). In another set of experiments, animals were treated with pimozide and 30 min later with mazindol (10 mg/kg, po, by gavage) or apomorphine. The drugs were administered daily for one week. Controls received the same volume of saline. 3H-NMS binding was increased from the control value of 418 +/- 17 to 548 +/- 42 fmol/mg protein by administration of mazindol (10 mg/kg) but binding was reduced to 360 +/- 11 fmol/mg protein upon administration of pimozide (20 mg/kg) plus mazindol (10 mg/kg). Similarly 10 mg/kg pimozide reduced the increase in M1-like receptors caused by mazindol from 262 +/- 31 to 220 +/- 20 fmol/mg protein. Although 20 mg/kg pimozide alone produced a decrease in M1- plus M2-like receptors (from 418 +/- 17 to 348 +/- 22 fmol/mg protein), its action was preferentially on M2-like receptors, decreasing them from 148 +/- 10 to 111 +/- 15 fmol/mg protein in the control and treated groups, respectively. At the higher dose, 20 mg/kg pimozide also inhibited the 3H-NMS binding (M1- plus M2-like receptors) in the presence of apomorphine (263 +/- 25 vs 418 +/- 17 fmol/mg protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Differential binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin in rat cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumbrille-Ross, A.; Tang, S.W.; Coscina, D.V.

    1981-11-16

    Drug competition profiles, effect of raphe lesion, and sodium dependency of the binding of two antidepressant drugs /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin to rat cerebral cortex homogenate were compared to examine whether the drugs bound to a common ''antidepressant receptor.'' Of the neurotransmitters tested, only serotonin displaced binding of both /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin. /sup 3/H-Mianserin binding was potently displaced by serotonin S/sub 2/ antagonists and exhibited a profile similar to that of /sup 3/H-spiperone binding. In the presence of the serotonin S/sub 2/ antagonist spiperone, antihistamines (H/sub 1/) potently displaced /sup 3/H-mianserin binding. /sup 3/H-Imipramine binding was displaced potently by serotonin uptake inhibitors. The order of potency of serotonergic drugs in displacing /sup 3/H-imipramine binding was not similar to their order in displacing /sup 3/H-spiperone or -3H-serotonin binding. Prior midbrain raphe lesions greatly decreased the binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine but did not alter binding of /sup 3/H-mianserin. Binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine but not /sup 3/H-mianserin was sodium dependent. These results show that /sup 3/H-imipramine and /sup 3/H-mianserin bind to different receptors. /sup 3/H-Imipramine binds to a presynaptic serotonin receptor which is probably related to a serotonin uptake recognition site, the binding of which is sodium dependent. /sup 3/H-Mianserin binds to postsynaptic receptors, possibly both serotonin S/sub 2/ and histamine H/sub 1/ receptors, the binding of which is sodium independent.

  11. Embryonic mosaic deletion of APP results in displaced Reelin-expressing cells in the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, D G; Taylor, W M; Tilearcio, M; Cavanaugh, T; Selkoe, D J; Young-Pearse, T L

    2017-04-15

    It is widely accepted that amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In addition, APP has been proposed to have functions in numerous biological processes including neuronal proliferation, differentiation, migration, axon guidance, and neurite outgrowth, as well as in synapse formation and function. However, germline knockout of APP yields relatively subtle phenotypes, and brain development appears grossly normal. This is thought to be due in part to functional compensation by APP family members and other type I transmembrane proteins. Here, we have generated a conditional mouse knockout for APP that is controlled temporally using Cre ER and tamoxifen administration. We show that total cortical expression of APP is reduced following tamoxifen administration during embryonic time points critical for cortical lamination, and that this results in displacement of Reelin-positive cells below the cortical plate with a concurrent elevation in Reelin protein levels. These results support a role for APP in cortical lamination and demonstrate the utility of a conditional knockout approach in which APP can be deleted with temporal control in vivo. This new tool should be useful for many different applications in the study of APP function across the mammalian life span. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microstructural parcellation of the human cerebral cortex – from Brodmann's post-mortem map to in vivo mapping with high-field magnetic resonance imaging

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    Stefan Geyer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2009 marked the 100th anniversary of the publication of the famous brain map of Korbinian Brodmann. Although a "classic" guide to microanatomical parcellation of the cerebral cortex, it is – from today's state-of-the-art neuroimaging perspective – problematic to use Brodmann's map as a structural guide to functional units in the cortex. In this article we discuss some of the reasons, especially the problematic compatibility of the "post-mortem world" of microstructural brain maps with the "in vivo world" of neuroimaging. We conclude with some prospects for the future of in vivo structural brain mapping: a new approach which has the enormous potential to make direct correlations between microstructure and function in living human brains: "in vivo Brodmann mapping" with high-field magnetic resonance imaging.

  13. Dogs Have the Most Neurons, Though Not the Largest Brain: Trade-Off between Body Mass and Number of Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex of Large Carnivoran Species

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    Jardim-Messeder, Débora; Lambert, Kelly; Noctor, Stephen; Pestana, Fernanda M.; de Castro Leal, Maria E.; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N.; Mohammad, Osama B.; Manger, Paul R.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    Carnivorans are a diverse group of mammals that includes carnivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous, domesticated and wild species, with a large range of brain sizes. Carnivory is one of several factors expected to be cognitively demanding for carnivorans due to a requirement to outsmart larger prey. On the other hand, large carnivoran species have high hunting costs and unreliable feeding patterns, which, given the high metabolic cost of brain neurons, might put them at risk of metabolic constraints regarding how many brain neurons they can afford, especially in the cerebral cortex. For a given cortical size, do carnivoran species have more cortical neurons than the herbivorous species they prey upon? We find they do not; carnivorans (cat, mongoose, dog, hyena, lion) share with non-primates, including artiodactyls (the typical prey of large carnivorans), roughly the same relationship between cortical mass and number of neurons, which suggests that carnivorans are subject to the same evolutionary scaling rules as other non-primate clades. However, there are a few important exceptions. Carnivorans stand out in that the usual relationship between larger body, larger cortical mass and larger number of cortical neurons only applies to small and medium-sized species, and not beyond dogs: we find that the golden retriever dog has more cortical neurons than the striped hyena, African lion and even brown bear, even though the latter species have up to three times larger cortices than dogs. Remarkably, the brown bear cerebral cortex, the largest examined, only has as many neurons as the ten times smaller cat cerebral cortex, although it does have the expected ten times as many non-neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex compared to the cat. We also find that raccoons have dog-like numbers of neurons in their cat-sized brain, which makes them comparable to primates in neuronal density. Comparison of domestic and wild species suggests that the neuronal composition of carnivoran

  14. Dogs Have the Most Neurons, Though Not the Largest Brain: Trade-Off between Body Mass and Number of Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex of Large Carnivoran Species

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    Débora Jardim-Messeder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carnivorans are a diverse group of mammals that includes carnivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous, domesticated and wild species, with a large range of brain sizes. Carnivory is one of several factors expected to be cognitively demanding for carnivorans due to a requirement to outsmart larger prey. On the other hand, large carnivoran species have high hunting costs and unreliable feeding patterns, which, given the high metabolic cost of brain neurons, might put them at risk of metabolic constraints regarding how many brain neurons they can afford, especially in the cerebral cortex. For a given cortical size, do carnivoran species have more cortical neurons than the herbivorous species they prey upon? We find they do not; carnivorans (cat, mongoose, dog, hyena, lion share with non-primates, including artiodactyls (the typical prey of large carnivorans, roughly the same relationship between cortical mass and number of neurons, which suggests that carnivorans are subject to the same evolutionary scaling rules as other non-primate clades. However, there are a few important exceptions. Carnivorans stand out in that the usual relationship between larger body, larger cortical mass and larger number of cortical neurons only applies to small and medium-sized species, and not beyond dogs: we find that the golden retriever dog has more cortical neurons than the striped hyena, African lion and even brown bear, even though the latter species have up to three times larger cortices than dogs. Remarkably, the brown bear cerebral cortex, the largest examined, only has as many neurons as the ten times smaller cat cerebral cortex, although it does have the expected ten times as many non-neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex compared to the cat. We also find that raccoons have dog-like numbers of neurons in their cat-sized brain, which makes them comparable to primates in neuronal density. Comparison of domestic and wild species suggests that the neuronal

  15. Human arachnoid granulations Part I: a technique for quantifying area and distribution on the superior surface of the cerebral cortex

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    Holman David W

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arachnoid granulations (AGs are herniations of the arachnoid membrane into the dural venous sinuses on the surface of the brain. Previous morphological studies of AGs have been limited in scope and only one has mentioned surface area measurements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the topographic distribution of AGs on the superior surface of the cerebral cortex. Methods En face images were taken of the superior surface of 35 formalin-fixed human brains. AGs were manually identified using Adobe Photoshop, with a pixel location containing an AG defined as 'positive'. A set of 25 standard fiducial points was marked on each hemisphere for a total of 50 points on each image. The points were connected on each hemisphere to create a segmented image. A standard template was created for each hemisphere by calculating the average position of the 25 fiducial points from all brains. Each segmented image was mapped to the standard template using a linear transformation. A topographic distribution map was produced by calculating the proportion of AG positive images at each pixel in the standard template. The AG surface area was calculated for each hemisphere and for the total brain superior surface. To adjust for different brain sizes, the proportional involvement of AGs was calculated by dividing the AG area by the total area. Results The total brain average surface area of AGs was 78.53 ± 13.13 mm2 (n = 35 and average AG proportional involvement was 57.71 × 10-4 ± 7.65 × 10-4. Regression analysis confirmed the reproducibility of AG identification between independent researchers with r2 = 0.97. The surface AGs were localized in the parasagittal planes that coincide with the region of the lateral lacunae. Conclusion The data obtained on the spatial distribution and en face surface area of AGs will be used in an in vitro model of CSF outflow. With an increase in the number of samples, this analysis technique can be used

  16. PiB Fails to Map Amyloid Deposits in Cerebral Cortex of Aged Dogs with Canine Cognitive Dysfunction.

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    Fast, Rikke; Rodell, Anders; Gjedde, Albert; Mouridsen, Kim; Alstrup, Aage K; Bjarkam, Carsten R; West, Mark J; Berendt, Mette; Møller, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Dogs with Canine Cognitive Dysfunction (CCD) accumulate amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain. As the cognitive decline and neuropathology of these old dogs share features with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the relation between Aβ and cognitive decline in animal models of cognitive decline is of interest to the understanding of AD. However, the sensitivity of the biomarker Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) to the presence of Aβ in humans and in other mammalian species is in doubt. To test the sensitivity and assess the distribution of Aβ in dog brain, we mapped the brains of dogs with signs of CCD (n = 16) and a control group (n = 4) of healthy dogs with radioactively labeled PiB ([(11)C]PiB). Structural magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were obtained from each dog. Tracer washout analysis yielded parametric maps of PiB retention in brain. In the CCD group, dogs had significant retention of [(11)C]PiB in the cerebellum, compared to the cerebral cortex. Retention in the cerebellum is at variance with evidence from brains of humans with AD. To confirm the lack of sensitivity, we stained two dog brains with the immunohistochemical marker 6E10, which is sensitive to the presence of both Aβ and Aβ precursor protein (AβPP). The 6E10 stain revealed intracellular material positive for Aβ or AβPP, or both, in Purkinje cells. The brains of the two groups of dogs did not have significantly different patterns of [(11)C]PiB binding, suggesting that the material detected with 6E10 is AβPP rather than Aβ. As the comparison with the histological images revealed no correlation between the [(11)C]PiB and Aβ and AβPP deposits in post-mortem brain, the marked intracellular staining implies intracellular involvement of amyloid processing in the dog brain. We conclude that PET maps of [(11)C]PiB retention in brain of dogs with CCD fundamentally differ from the images obtained in most humans with AD.

  17. [Effect of electro-acupuncture on metabolites in the cerebral cortex of ulcerative colitis rats based on Pi/Wei-brain related theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhao, Ji-lan; Hou, Tian-shu; Han, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Zheng-yu; Peng, Xiao-hua; Wu, Qiao-Feng

    2014-10-01

    To study the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) at points along Foot Yangming Channel on metabolite of ulcerative colitis (UC) rats' cerebral cortex and to identify key metabolites by referring to Pi/Wei-brain related theory in Chinese medicine (CM). The UC rat model was set up by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) method. Male SD rats were randomly divided into the model group and the EA group, 13 in each group. Another 13 rats were recruited as the blank control group. Rats in the blank control group and the model group received no EA. EA was performed at Zusanli (ST36), Shangjuxu (ST37), and Tianshu (ST25) for 5 days by using disperse-dense wave. Then all rats were sacrificed. Their recto-colon and the ileocecal junction were pathomorphologically observed by light microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Cerebral cortexes were extracted. Water-soluble and lipid-soluble brain tissue metabolites were respectively extracted for metabolic research using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). EA could obviously improve the general condition of UC model rats, decrease the value of DAI, reduce the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the intestinal tract, stabilize structures such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and so on (P theory.

  18. Evidence that antioxidants prevent the inhibition of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity induced by octanoic acid in rat cerebral cortex in vitro.

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    de Assis, Dênis R; Ribeiro, César A J; Rosa, Rafael B; Schuck, Patricia F; Dalcin, Karina B; Vargas, Carmen R; Wannmacher, Clóvis M D; Dutra-Filho, Carlos S; Wyse, Angela T S; Briones, Paz; Wajner, Moacir

    2003-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of octanoic acid, which accumulates in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency and in Reye syndrome, on key enzyme activities of energy metabolism in the cerebral cortex of young rats. The activities of the respiratory chain complexes I-IV, creatine kinase, and Na+,K(+)-ATPase were evaluated. Octanoic acid did not alter the electron transport chain and creatine kinase activities, but, in contrast, significantly inhibited Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity both in synaptic plasma membranes and in homogenates prepared from cerebral cortex. Furthermore, decanoic acid, which is also increased in MCAD deficiency, and oleic acid strongly reduced Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity, whereas palmitic acid had no effect. We also examined the effects of incubating glutathione and trolox (alpha-tocopherol) alone or with octanoic acid on Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. Tested compounds did not affect Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity by itself, but prevented the inhibitory effect of octanoic acid. These results suggest that inhibition of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity by octanoic acid is possibly mediated by oxidation of essential groups of the enzyme. Considering that Na+,K(+)-ATPase is critical for normal brain function, it is feasible that the significant inhibition of this enzyme activity by octanoate and also by decanoate may be related to the neurological dysfunction found in patients affected by MCAD deficiency and Reye syndrome.

  19. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring.

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    Sérgio Gomes da Silva

    Full Text Available Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and absolute cell numbers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exercised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral paradigms (exploratory activity and habituation in open field tests, spatial memory in a water maze test, and aversive memory in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Results showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increased BDNF levels and absolute numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampal formation of offspring. No differences in BDNF levels or cell numbers were detected in the cerebral cortex. It was also observed that offspring from exercised mothers exhibited better cognitive performance in nonassociative (habituation and associative (spatial learning mnemonic tasks than did offspring from sedentary mothers. Our findings indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy enhances offspring cognitive function (habituation behavior and spatial learning and increases BDNF levels and cell numbers in the hippocampal formation of offspring.

  20. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats

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    da Silva Medeiros, Niara; Koslowsky Marder, Roberta; Farias Wohlenberg, Mariane; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings. PMID:26649198

  1. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats

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    Niara da Silva Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS, protein oxidation (carbonyl, sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

  2. Effect of ageing and ischemia on enzymatic activities linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain, glutamate and aminoacids metabolism of free and intrasynaptic mitochondria of cerebral cortex.

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    Villa, Roberto Federico; Gorini, Antonella; Hoyer, Siegfried

    2009-12-01

    The effect of ageing and the relationships between the catalytic properties of enzymes linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain, glutamate and aminoacid metabolism of cerebral cortex, a functional area very sensitive to both age and ischemia, were studied on mitochondria of adult and aged rats, after complete ischemia of 15 minutes duration. The maximum rate (Vmax) of the following enzyme activities: citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase for Krebs' cycle; NADH-cytochrome c reductase as total (integrated activity of Complex I-III), rotenone sensitive (Complex I) and cytochrome oxidase (Complex IV) for electron transfer chain; glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate-oxaloacetate-and glutamate-pyruvate transaminases for glutamate metabolism were assayed in non-synaptic, perikaryal mitochondria and in two populations of intra-synaptic mitochondria, i.e., the light and heavy mitochondrial fraction. The results indicate that in normal, steady-state cerebral cortex, the value of the same enzyme activity markedly differs according (a) to the different populations of mitochondria, i.e., non-synaptic or intra-synaptic light and heavy, (b) and respect to ageing. After 15 min of complete ischemia, the enzyme activities of mitochondria located near the nucleus (perikaryal mitochondria) and in synaptic structures (intra-synaptic mitochondria) of the cerebral tissue were substantially modified by ischemia. Non-synaptic mitochondria seem to be more affected by ischemia in adult and particularly in aged animals than the intra-synaptic light and heavy mitochondria. The observed modifications in enzyme activities reflect the metabolic state of the tissue at each specific experimental condition, as shown by comparative evaluation with respect to the content of energy-linked metabolites and substrates. The derangements in enzyme activities due to ischemia is greater in aged than in adult animals and especially the non-synaptic and the intra-synaptic light

  3. Dopamine D2 receptors in the cerebral cortex: Distribution and pharmacological characterization with [3H]raclopride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidow, M.S.; Goldman-Rakic, P.S.; Rakic, P.; Innis, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    An apparent involvement of dopamine in the regulation of cognitive functions and the recognition of a widespread dopaminergic innervation of the cortex have focused attention on the identity of cortical dopamine receptors. However, only the presence and distribution of dopamine D 1 receptors in the cortex have been well documented. Comparable information on cortical D 2 sites is lacking. The authors report here the results of binding studied in the cortex and neostriatum of rat and monkey using the D 2 selective antagonist [ 3 H]raclopride. In both structures [ 3 H]raclopride bound in a sodium-dependent and saturable manner to a single population of sites with pharmacological profiles of dopamine D 2 receptors. D 2 sites were present in all regions of the cortex, although their density was much lower than in the neostriatum. The density of these sites in both monkey and, to a lesser extent, rat cortex displayed a rostral-caudal gradient with highest concentrations in the prefrontal and lowest concentrations in the occipital cortex, corresponding to dopamine levels in these areas. Thus, the present study established the presence and widespread distribution of dopamine D 2 receptors in the cortex

  4. Liquid-Diet with Alcohol Alters Maternal, Fetal and Placental Weights and the Expression of Molecules Involved in Integrin Signaling in the Fetal Cerebral Cortex

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    Ujjwal K. Rout

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes wide range of behavioral and structural deficits in children, commonly known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. Children with FAS may suffer behavioral deficits in the absence of obvious malformations. In rodents, the exposure to alcohol during gestation changes brain structures and weights of offspring. The mechanism of FAS is not completely understood. In the present study, an established rat (Long-Evans model of FAS was used. The litter size and the weights of mothers, fetuses and placentas were examined on gestation days 18 or 20. On gestation day 18, the effects of chronic alcohol on the expression levels of integrin receptor subunits, phospholipase-Cγ and N-cadherin were examined in the fetal cerebral cortices. Presence of alcohol in the liquid-diet reduced the consumption and decreased weights of mothers and fetuses but increased the placental weights. Expression levels of β1 and α3 integrin subunits and phospholipase-Cγ2 were significantly altered in the fetal cerebral cortices of mothers on alcohol containing diet. Results show that alcohol consumption during pregnancy even with protein, mineral and vitamin enriched diet may affect maternal and fetal health, and alter integrin receptor signaling pathways in the fetal cerebral cortex disturbing the development of fetal brains.

  5. Acute liver failure in rats activates glutamine-glutamate cycle but declines antioxidant enzymes to induce oxidative stress in cerebral cortex and cerebellum.

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    Santosh Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Liver dysfunction led hyperammonemia (HA causes a nervous system disorder; hepatic encephalopathy (HE. In the brain, ammonia induced glutamate-excitotoxicity and oxidative stress are considered to play important roles in the pathogenesis of HE. The brain ammonia metabolism and antioxidant enzymes constitute the main components of this mechanism; however, need to be defined in a suitable animal model. This study was aimed to examine this aspect in the rats with acute liver failure (ALF. METHODS: ALF in the rats was induced by intraperitoneal administration of 300 mg thioacetamide/Kg. b.w up to 2 days. Glutamine synthetase (GS and glutaminase (GA, the two brain ammonia metabolizing enzymes vis a vis ammonia and glutamate levels and profiles of all the antioxidant enzymes vis a vis oxidative stress markers were measured in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of the control and the ALF rats. RESULTS: The ALF rats showed significantly increased levels of ammonia in the blood (HA but little changes in the cortex and cerebellum. This was consistent with the activation of the GS-GA cycle and static levels of glutamate in these brain regions. However, significantly increased levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl contents were consistent with the reduced levels of all the antioxidant enzymes in both the brain regions of these ALF rats. CONCLUSION: ALF activates the GS-GA cycle to metabolize excess ammonia and thereby, maintains static levels of ammonia and glutamate in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Moreover, ALF induces oxidative stress by reducing the levels of all the antioxidant enzymes which is likely to play important role, independent of glutamate levels, in the pathogenesis of acute HE.

  6. The steady-state response of the cerebral cortex to the beat of music reflects both the comprehension of music and attention.

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    Meltzer, Benjamin; Reichenbach, Chagit S; Braiman, Chananel; Schiff, Nicholas D; Hudspeth, A J; Reichenbach, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The brain's analyses of speech and music share a range of neural resources and mechanisms. Music displays a temporal structure of complexity similar to that of speech, unfolds over comparable timescales, and elicits cognitive demands in tasks involving comprehension and attention. During speech processing, synchronized neural activity of the cerebral cortex in the delta and theta frequency bands tracks the envelope of a speech signal, and this neural activity is modulated by high-level cortical functions such as speech comprehension and attention. It remains unclear, however, whether the cortex also responds to the natural rhythmic structure of music and how the response, if present, is influenced by higher cognitive processes. Here we employ electroencephalography to show that the cortex responds to the beat of music and that this steady-state response reflects musical comprehension and attention. We show that the cortical response to the beat is weaker when subjects listen to a familiar tune than when they listen to an unfamiliar, non-sensical musical piece. Furthermore, we show that in a task of intermodal attention there is a larger neural response at the beat frequency when subjects attend to a musical stimulus than when they ignore the auditory signal and instead focus on a visual one. Our findings may be applied in clinical assessments of auditory processing and music cognition as well as in the construction of auditory brain-machine interfaces.

  7. Inhalation of air polluted with gasoline vapours alters the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinawy, Amal A; Ezzat, Ahmed R; Al-Suwaigh, Badryah R

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of exposure to the vapours of two kinds of gasoline, a widely used fuel for the internal combustion engines on the levels of the amino acid neurotransmitters of the rat brain. Recent studies provide strong evidence for a causative role for traffic-related air pollution on morbidity outcomes as well as premature death (Health Effects Institute, 2009; Levy et al., 2010; von Stackelberg et al., 2013). Exposure to the vapours of gasoline or its constituents may be accidental, occupational by workers at fuel stations and factories, or through abuse as a mean of mood alteration (Fortenberry, 1985; Mc Garvey et al., 1999). Two kinds of gasoline that are common in Egypt have been used in this study. The first contains octane enhancers in the form of lead derivatives (leaded gasoline; G1) and the other contains methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as the octane enhancer (unleaded gasoline; G2). The levels of the major excitatory (aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and the inhibitory (GABA and glycine) amino acid neurotransmitters were determined in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. The current study revealed that the acute inhalation of air polluted with the two types of gasoline vapours (1/2 LC50 for 30 min) induced elevation in the levels of aspartic and glutamic acids along with a decrease in glycine and GABA in most studied brain areas. Chronic inhalation of both types of gasoline (a single daily 30-min session of 1/5 LC50 for 60 days) caused a significant increase in the aspartic and glutamic acid concentrations of the hippocampus without affecting the levels of GABA or glycine. Acute and chronic inhalation of either one of G1 and G2 vapours induced a disturbance and fluctuation in the levels of the free amino acids that act as excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain areas under investigation. These neurotransmitters are fundamental for the communicative functioning of the neurons and such

  8. The human cerebral cortex is neither one nor many: neuronal distribution reveals two quantitatively different zones in the gray matter, three in the white matter, and explains local variations in cortical folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Pedro F. M.; Ventura-Antunes, Lissa; Gabi, Mariana; Mota, Bruno; Grinberg, Lea T.; Farfel, José M.; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata E. L.; Leite, Renata E. P.; Filho, Wilson J.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    The human prefrontal cortex has been considered different in several aspects and relatively enlarged compared to the rest of the cortical areas. Here we determine whether the white and gray matter of the prefrontal portion of the human cerebral cortex have similar or different cellular compositions relative to the rest of the cortical regions by applying the Isotropic Fractionator to analyze the distribution of neurons along the entire anteroposterior axis of the cortex, and its relationship with the degree of gyrification, number of neurons under the cortical surface, and other parameters. The prefrontal region shares with the remainder of the cerebral cortex (except for occipital cortex) the same relationship between cortical volume and number of neurons. In contrast, both occipital and prefrontal areas vary from other cortical areas in their connectivity through the white matter, with a systematic reduction of cortical connectivity through the white matter and an increase of the mean axon caliber along the anteroposterior axis. These two parameters explain local differences in the distribution of neurons underneath the cortical surface. We also show that local variations in cortical folding are neither a function of local numbers of neurons nor of cortical thickness, but correlate with properties of the white matter, and are best explained by the folding of the white matter surface. Our results suggest that the human cerebral cortex is divided in two zones (occipital and non-occipital) that differ in how neurons are distributed across their gray matter volume and in three zones (prefrontal, occipital, and non-occipital) that differ in how neurons are connected through the white matter. Thus, the human prefrontal cortex has the largest fraction of neuronal connectivity through the white matter and the smallest average axonal caliber in the white matter within the cortex, although its neuronal composition fits the pattern found for other, non-occipital areas. PMID

  9. The human cerebral cortex is neither one nor many: Neuronal distribution reveals two quantitatively different zones in the grey matter, three in the white matter, and explains local variations in cortical folding

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    Pedro F. M. Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The human prefrontal cortex has been considered different in several aspects and relatively enlarged compared to the rest of the cortical areas. Here we determine whether the white and gray matter of the prefrontal portion of the human cerebral cortex have similar or different cellular compositions relative to the rest of the cortical regions by applying the Isotropic Fractionator to analyze the distribution of neurons along the entire anteroposterior axis of the cortex, and its relationship with the degree of gyrification, number of neurons under the cortical surface, and other parameters. The prefrontal region shares with the remainder of the cerebral cortex (except for occipital cortex the same relationship between cortical volume and number of neurons. In contrast, both occipital and prefrontal areas vary from other cortical areas in their connectivity through the white matter, with a systematic reduction of cortical connectivity through the white matter and an increase of the mean axon caliber along the anteroposterior axis. These two parameters explain local differences in the distribution of neurons underneath the cortical surface. We also show that local variations in cortical folding are neither a function of local numbers of neurons nor of cortical thickness, but correlate with properties of the white matter, and are best explained by the folding of the white matter surface. Our results suggest that the human cerebral cortex is divided in two zones (occipital and non-occipital that differ in how neurons distributed across their grey matter volume and in three zones (prefrontal, occipital, and non-occipital that differ in how neurons are connected through the white matter. Thus, the human prefrontal cortex has the largest fraction of neuronal connectivity through the white matter and the smallest average axonal caliber in the white matter within the cortex, although its neuronal composition fits the pattern found for other, non

  10. Characterization of the fiber connectivity profile of the cerebral cortex in schizotypal personality disorder: A pilot study

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    Kai eLiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD is considered one of the classic disconnection syndromes. However, the specific cortical disconnectivity pattern has not been fully investigated. In this study, we aimed to explore significant alterations in whole-cortex structural connectivity in SPD individuals (SPDs by combining the techniques of brain surface morphometry and white matter (WM tractography. Diffusion and structural MR data were collected from twenty subjects with SPD (all males; age, 19.7 ± 0.9 yrs and eighteen healthy controls (all males; age, 20.3 ± 1.0 yrs. To measure the structural connectivity for a given unit area of the cortex, the fiber connectivity density (FiCD value was proposed and calculated as the sum of the fractional anisotropy of all the fibers connecting to that unit area in tractography. Then, the resultant whole-cortex FiCD maps were compared in a vertex-wise manner between SPDs and controls. Compared with normal controls, SPDs showed significantly decreased FiCD in the rostral middle frontal gyrus (crossing BA9 and BA10 and significantly increased FiCD in the anterior part of the fusiform/inferior temporal cortex (P < 0.05, Monte Carlo simulation corrected. Moreover, the gray matter volume extracted from the left rostral middle frontal cluster was observed to be significantly greater in the SPD group (P = 0.02. Overall, this study identifies a decrease in connectivity in the left middle frontal cortex as a key neural deficit at the whole-cortex level in SPD, thus providing insight into its neuropathological basis.

  11. Anti-neuroinflammatory and antioxidant effects of N-acetyl cysteine in long-term consumption of artificial sweetener aspartame in the rat cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Abbass Sayed Saleh

    2015-10-01

    Long term consumption of the artificial sweetener aspartame (ASP induced large increments in cortical inflammation and oxidative stress. Daily oral NAC administration can significantly reverse brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels, blocked the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production with selective attenuation in expression of proinflammatory cytokines of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in the rat cerebral cortex. Also, NAC can significantly replenish and correct intracellular glutathione (GSH levels, modulate the elevated levels of total nitric oxide (TNO and lipid peroxidation (LPO. Conclusions: The present results amply support the concept that the brain oxidative stress and inflammation coexist in experimental animals chronically treated with aspartame and they represent two distinct therapeutic targets in ASP toxicity. The present data propose that NAC attenuated ASP neurotoxicity and improved neurological functions, suppressed brain inflammation, and oxidative stress responses and may be a useful strategy for treating ASP-induced neurotoxicity.

  12. Effects of Vision Restoration Training on Early Visual Cortex in Patients With Cerebral Blindness Investigated With Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemaekers, M.; Bergsma, D.P.; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; van der Wildt, G.J.; van den Berg, A.V.

    Cerebral blindness is a loss of vision as a result of postchiasmatic damage to the visual pathways. Parts of the lost visual field can be restored through training. However, the neuronal mechanisms through which training effects occur are still unclear. We therefore assessed training-induced changes

  13. Photothrombosis-Induced Infarction of the Mouse Cerebral Cortex Is Not Affected by the Nrf2-Activator Sulforaphane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Linda; Nilsson, Åsa; Pekna, Marcela; Pekny, Milos; Nilsson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Sulforaphane-induced activation of the transcription factor NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 or the gene Nfe2l2) and subsequent induction of the phase II antioxidant system has previously been shown to exert neuroprotective action in a transient model of focal cerebral ischemia. However, its ability to attenuate functional and cellular deficits after permanent focal cerebral ischemia is not clear. We assessed the neuroprotective effects of sulforaphane in the photothrombotic model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia. Sulforaphane was administered (5 or 50 mg/kg, i.p.) after ischemic onset either as a single dose or as daily doses for 3 days. Sulforaphane increased transcription of Nrf2, Hmox1, GCLC and GSTA4 mRNA in the brain confirming activation of the Nrf2 system. Single or repeated administration of sulforaphane had no effect on the infarct volume, nor did it reduce the number of activated glial cells or proliferating cells when analyzed 24 and 72 h after stroke. Motor-function as assessed by beam-walking, cylinder-test, and adhesive test, did not improve after sulforaphane treatment. The results show that sulforaphane treatment initiated after photothrombosis-induced permanent cerebral ischemia does not interfere with key cellular mechanisms underlying tissue damage. PMID:22911746

  14. Photothrombosis-induced infarction of the mouse cerebral cortex is not affected by the Nrf2-activator sulforaphane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J Porritt

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane-induced activation of the transcription factor NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 or the gene Nfe2l2 and subsequent induction of the phase II antioxidant system has previously been shown to exert neuroprotective action in a transient model of focal cerebral ischemia. However, its ability to attenuate functional and cellular deficits after permanent focal cerebral ischemia is not clear. We assessed the neuroprotective effects of sulforaphane in the photothrombotic model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia. Sulforaphane was administered (5 or 50 mg/kg, i.p. after ischemic onset either as a single dose or as daily doses for 3 days. Sulforaphane increased transcription of Nrf2, Hmox1, GCLC and GSTA4 mRNA in the brain confirming activation of the Nrf2 system. Single or repeated administration of sulforaphane had no effect on the infarct volume, nor did it reduce the number of activated glial cells or proliferating cells when analyzed 24 and 72 h after stroke. Motor-function as assessed by beam-walking, cylinder-test, and adhesive test, did not improve after sulforaphane treatment. The results show that sulforaphane treatment initiated after photothrombosis-induced permanent cerebral ischemia does not interfere with key cellular mechanisms underlying tissue damage.

  15. Attenuation by methyl mercury and mercuric sulfide of pentobarbital induced hypnotic tolerance in mice through inhibition of ATPase activities and nitric oxide production in cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuu, Jiunn-Jye; Huang, Zih-Ning; Yu, Hsun-Hsin; Chang, Liang-Hao [College of Engineering, Southern Taiwan University, Institute of Biotechnology, Tainan (China); Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn [College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Institute of Pharmacology, Taipei (China)

    2008-06-15

    This study is aimed at exploring the possible mechanism of hypnosis-enhancing effect of HgS or cinnabar (a traditional Chinese medicine containing more than 95% HgS) in mice treated with pentobarbital. We also examined whether the effect of HgS is different from that of the well-known methyl mercury (MeHg). After a short period (7 days) of oral administration to mice, a nontoxic dose (0.1 g/kg) of HgS not only significantly enhanced pentobarbital-induced hypnosis but also attenuated tolerance induction; while a higher dose (1 g/kg) of HgS or cinnabar exerted an almost irreversible enhancing effect on pentobarbital-hypnosis similar to that of MeHg (2 mg/kg) tested, which was still effective even after 10 or 35 days cessation of administration. To study comparatively the effects of different mercury forms from oral administration of MeHg and HgS on membrane ATPase activities of experimental mice, analysis of the Hg content in the cerebral cortex revealed that correlated with the decrease of Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities. Furthermore, NO levels of blood but not that of cerebral cortex were also decreased by mercuric compounds. Although pentobarbital alone enhanced cytochrome p450-2C9 in time dependent manner, all of mercurial compounds tested had no such effect. All of these findings indicated that the mercurial compounds including cinnabar, HgS and MeHg exert a long-lasting enhancing hypnotic activity without affecting pentobarbital metabolism, which provides evidence-based sedative effect of cinnabar used in Chinese traditional medicine for more than 2,000 years. The nontoxic HgS dosing (0.1 g/kg/day) for consecutive 7 days is perhaps useful for delaying or preventing pentobarbital-tolerance. (orig.)

  16. Increased 20-HETE synthesis explains reduced cerebral blood flow but not impaired neurovascular coupling after cortical spreading depression in rat cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordsmann, Jonas Christoffer; ko, Rebecca; Choi, Hyun B

    2013-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is associated with release of arachidonic acid (AA), impaired neurovascular coupling, and reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF), caused by cortical vasoconstriction. We tested the hypothesis that the released AA is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme to produce...... neurovascular coupling after CSD. These findings suggest that CSD-induced increments in 20-HETE cause the reduction in CBF after CSD, and that the attenuation of stimulation-induced CBF responses after CSD has a different mechanism. We suggest that blockade of 20-HETE synthesis may be clinically relevant...

  17. Evaluation of cerebral activity in the prefrontal cortex in mood [affective] disorders during animal-assisted therapy (AAT) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Jun; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko; Ishigooka, Jun; Fukamauchi, Fumihiko; Numajiri, Maki; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies have shown the possibility that animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is useful for promoting the recovery of a patient's psychological, social, and physiological aspect. As a pilot study, we measured the effect that AAT had on cerebral activity using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and examined whether or not NIRS be used to evaluate the effect of AAT biologically and objectively. Two patients with mood [affective] disorders and a healthy subject participated in this study. We performed two AAT and the verbal fluency task (VFT). The NIRS signal during AAT showed great [oxy-Hb] increases in most of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the two patients. When the NIRS pattern during AAT was compared with that during VFT, greater or lesser differences were observed between them in all subjects. The present study suggested that AAT possibly causes biological and physiological changes in the PFC, and that AAT is useful for inducing the activity of the PFC in patients with depression who have generally been said to exhibit low cerebral activity in the PFC. In addition, the possibility was also suggested that the effect of AAT can be evaluated using NIRS physiologically and objectively.

  18. Avalanche analysis from multi-electrode ensemble recordings in cat, monkey and human cerebral cortex during wakefulness and sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima eDehghani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-organized critical states are found in many natural systems, from earthquakes to forest fires, they have also been observed in neural systems, particularly, in neuronal cultures. However, the presence of critical states in the awake brain remains controversial. Here, we compared avalanche analyses performed on different in vivo preparations during wakefulness, slow-wave sleep and REM sleep, using high-density electrode arrays in cat motor cortex (96 electrodes, monkey motor cortex and premotor cortex and human temporal cortex (96 electrodes in epileptic patients. In neuronal avalanches defined from units (up to 160 single units, the size of avalanches never clearly scaled as power-law, but rather scaled exponentially or displayed intermediate scaling. We also analyzed the dynamics of local field potentials (LFPs and in particular LFP negative peaks (nLFPs among the different electrodes (up to 96 sites in temporal cortex or up to 128 sites in adjacent motor and pre-motor cortices. In this case, the avalanches defined from nLFPs displayed power-law scaling in double logarithmic representations, as reported previously in monkey. However, avalanche defined as positive LFP (pLFP peaks, which are less directly related to neuronal firing, also displayed apparent power-law scaling. Closer examination of this scaling using the more reliable cumulative distribution function (CDF and other rigorous statistical measures, did not confirm power-law scaling. The same pattern was seen for cats, monkey and human, as well as for different brain states of wakefulness and sleep. We also tested other alternative distributions. Multiple exponential fitting yielded optimal fits of the avalanche dynamics with bi-exponential distributions. Collectively, these results show no clear evidence for power-law scaling or self-organized critical states in the awake and sleeping brain of mammals, from cat to man.

  19. Targeted Inactivation of Bax Reveals a Subtype-Specific Mechanism of Cajal-Retzius Neuron Death in the Postnatal Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Ledonne

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cajal-Retzius cells (CRs, the first-born neurons in the developing cerebral cortex, coordinate crucial steps in the construction of functional circuits. CRs are thought to be transient, as they disappear during early postnatal life in both mice and humans, where their abnormal persistence is associated with pathological conditions. Embryonic CRs comprise at least three molecularly and functionally distinct subtypes: septum, ventral pallium/pallial-subpallial boundary (PSB, and hem. However, whether subtype-specific features exist postnatally and through which mechanisms they disappear remain unknown. We report that CR subtypes display unique distributions and dynamics of death in the postnatal mouse cortex. Surprisingly, although all CR subtypes undergo cell death, septum, but not hem, CRs die in a Bax-dependent manner. Bax-inactivated rescued septum-CRs maintain immature electrophysiological properties. These results underlie the existence of an exquisitely refined control of developmental cell death and provide a model to test the effect of maintaining immature circuits in the adult neocortex.

  20. Preventive Effects of Resveratrol on Endocannabinoid System and Synaptic Protein Modifications in Rat Cerebral Cortex Challenged by Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion and Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranca Carta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the putative roles of a single acute dose of resveratrol (RVT in preventing cerebral oxidative stress induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, followed by reperfusion (BCCAO/R and to investigate RVT’s ability to preserve the neuronal structural integrity. Frontal and temporal-occipital cortices were examined in two groups of adult Wistar rats, sham-operated and submitted to BCCAO/R. In both groups, 6 h before surgery, half the rats were gavage-fed with a single dose of RVT (40 mg/per rat in 300 µL of sunflower oil as the vehicle, while the second half received the vehicle alone. In the frontal cortex, RVT pre-treatment prevented the BCCAO/R-induced increase of lipoperoxides, augmented concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide and docosahexaenoic acid, increased relative levels of the cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1 and 2 (CB2, and peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor (PPAR-α proteins. Increased expression of CB1/CB2 receptors mirrored that of synaptophysin and post-synaptic density-95 protein. No BCCAO/R-induced changes occurred in the temporal-occipital cortex. Collectively, our results demonstrate that, in the frontal cortex, RVT pre-treatment prevents the BCCAO/R-induced oxidative stress and modulates the endocannabinoid and PPAR-α systems. The increased expression of synaptic structural proteins further suggests the possible efficacy of RVT as a dietary supplement to preserve the nervous tissue metabolism and control the physiological response to the hypoperfusion/reperfusion challenge.

  1. Attempt to identify the functional areas of the cerebral cortex on CT slices parallel to the orbito-meatal line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Hirotaka; Okuda, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Takashi; Nishimura, Tsuyoshi (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Shiraishi, Junzo

    1982-06-01

    In order to identify the functional brain areas, such as Broca's area, on computed tomography slices parallel to the orbito-meatal line, the numbers of Brodmann's cortical mapping were shown on a diagram of representative brain sections parallel to the orbito-meatal line. Also, we described a method, using cerebral sulci as anatomical landmarks, for projecting lesions shown by CT scan onto the lateral brain diagram. The procedures were as follows. The distribution of lesions on CT slices was determined by the identification of major cerebral sulci and fissures, such as the Sylvian fissure, the central sulcus, and the superior frontal sulcus. Those lesions were then projected onto the lateral diagram by comparing each CT slice with the horizontal diagrams of brain sections. The method was demonstrated in three cases developing neuropsychological symptoms.

  2. Recovery of slow potentials in AC-coupled electrocorticography: application to spreading depolarizations in rat and human cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartings, Jed A; Watanabe, Tomas; Dreier, Jens P

    2009-01-01

    -band waveforms from AC-coupled recordings. We constructed digital filters that reproduced the phase and amplitude distortions introduced by specific AC-coupled amplifiers and, based on this characterization, derived digital inverse filters to remove these distortions from ECoG recordings. Performance....... The spreading SPCs of depolarization waves are observed in human cortex with AC-coupled electrocorticography (ECoG), although SPC morphology is distorted by the high-pass filter stage of the amplifiers. Here, we present a signal processing method to reverse these distortions and recover approximate full...... recovered full-band waveforms with morphologic characteristics typical of the negative DC shifts recorded in animals. Compared with those recorded in the rat cortex with the same analog and digital methods, the negative DC shifts of human depolarizations had significantly greater durations (1:47 vs. 0...

  3. Opioid-receptor (OR) signaling cascades in rat cerebral cortex and model cell lines: the role of plasma membrane structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ujčíková, Hana; Brejchová, Jana; Vošahlíková, Miroslava; Kagan, Dmytro; Dlouhá, Kateřina; Sýkora, Jan; Merta, Ladislav; Drastichová, Z.; Novotný, J.; Ostašov, Pavel; Roubalová, Lenka; Parenti, M.; Hof, Martin; Svoboda, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S165-S176 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/0919; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : GPCR * morphine * mu-OR, delta-OR and kappa-OR * rat brain cortex * adenylyl cyclase I and II * proteomic analysis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  4. A Cognição Social e o Córtex Cerebral Social Cognition and the Brain Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Butman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A cognição social é o processo que orienta condutas frente a outros indivíduos da mesma espécie. Várias estruturas cerebrais têm um papel chave para controlar as condutas sociais: o córtex pré-frontal ventromedial, a amígdala, o córtex somatosensorial direito e a ínsula. O córtex pré-frontal ventromedial está comprometido com o raciocínio social e com a tomada de decisões; a amígdala com o julgamento social de faces; o córtex somatosensorial direito, com a empatia e com a simulação; enquanto que a insula, com a resposta autonômica. Estes achados estão de acordo com a hipótese do marcador somático, um mecanismo específico por meio do qual adquirimos, representamos ou memorizamos os valores de nossas ações. Estas estruturas cerebrais atuam como mediadores entre as representações perceptuais dos estímulos sensoriais e a recuperação do conhecimento que o estímulo pode ativar. O sistema límbico é a zona limítrofe; nela, a psicologia se encontra com a neurologia. A correta sincronização destas zonas e estruturas, no adulto, é a chave para uma situação livre de patologia.Social cognition refers to the processes that subserve behavior in response to other individuals of the same species. Several brain structures play a key role in guiding social behaviors: ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, right somatosensory cortex and insula. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is most directly involved in social reasoning and decision making; the amygdala in social judgment of faces, the right somatosensory cortex in empathy and simulation and the insula in autonomic responses. These findings are corresponding to the somatic marker hypothesis, particular mechanism by which we acquire, represent and retrieve the values of our actions. These brain structures appear to mediate between perceptual representation of social stimuli and retrieval of knowledge that such stimuli can trigger. The limbic system is the border zone

  5. The action of piracetam on 14C-glucose metabolism in normal and posthypoxic rat cerebral cortex slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska-Janik, K.; Zaleska, M.

    1977-01-01

    The stimulating effect of piracetam on the respiration and glycolysis was observed in rat brain cortex slices incubated under oxygen atmosphere. After preincubation of the slices under pure nitrogen atmosphere, piracetam influenced also decarboxylation of the C 1 -glucose carbon, indicating stimulation of the pentose cycle. Any significant effect of piracetam on the lowered by anoxia incorporation of 14 C from U- 14 C-glucose into macromolecular fractions was not observed. The results have supported a protective effect of piracetam against oxygen deficiency, caused mainly by stimulation of metabolic glucose pathways, connected with energy production in CNS. (author)

  6. Diffusion-Weighted MRI in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Focus on the Cerebral Cortex and Chronologic Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Song, Chang Joon; Lee, In Ho; Yu, In Kyu; Choi, See Sung

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate high cortical signal intensity and chronologic changes for diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We retrospectively analyzed the DWI results of 16 patients with probable CJD (according to WHO criteria) and evaluated the distribution, extent and bilaterality of the lesions in the cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus. We also reviewed the chronologic changes of the lesions by evaluating the followup MR examination results in 8 of 16 patients. Cortical abnormalities were present in 15 (94%) of 16 patients. Isolated cortical involvement was present in 6 patients (40%), while the combined involvement of the cortex and basal ganglia was present in 9 patients (60%). The distribution of the lesions was bilateral in 12 patients and predominantly on the right side in 8 patients. Upon follow-up MR imaging, the cortical lesions showed progress in terms of extent and signal intensity. Basal ganglia abnormalities were present in 9 of 15 patients. Moreover, 4 of 6 patients who had no abnormal signal intensity in the basal ganglia on the initial MR imaging results, showed abnormally high signal intensity upon follow-up MR imaging. The characteristically high cortical signal intensities on DWI in an elderly patient with rapidly progressive dementia should point to the diagnosis of early phase CJD and might be useful for the differential diagnosis

  7. Diffusion-Weighted MRI in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Focus on the Cerebral Cortex and Chronologic Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Song, Chang Joon; Lee, In Ho [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In Kyu [Eulji University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, See Sung [Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    To evaluate high cortical signal intensity and chronologic changes for diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We retrospectively analyzed the DWI results of 16 patients with probable CJD (according to WHO criteria) and evaluated the distribution, extent and bilaterality of the lesions in the cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus. We also reviewed the chronologic changes of the lesions by evaluating the followup MR examination results in 8 of 16 patients. Cortical abnormalities were present in 15 (94%) of 16 patients. Isolated cortical involvement was present in 6 patients (40%), while the combined involvement of the cortex and basal ganglia was present in 9 patients (60%). The distribution of the lesions was bilateral in 12 patients and predominantly on the right side in 8 patients. Upon follow-up MR imaging, the cortical lesions showed progress in terms of extent and signal intensity. Basal ganglia abnormalities were present in 9 of 15 patients. Moreover, 4 of 6 patients who had no abnormal signal intensity in the basal ganglia on the initial MR imaging results, showed abnormally high signal intensity upon follow-up MR imaging. The characteristically high cortical signal intensities on DWI in an elderly patient with rapidly progressive dementia should point to the diagnosis of early phase CJD and might be useful for the differential diagnosis.

  8. Developmental disturbance of rat cerebral cortex following prenatal low-dose gamma-irradiation: a quantitative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Y.; Hoshino, K.; Hayasaka, I.; Inouye, M.; Kameyama, Y. (Kagawa Medical School, (Japan))

    1991-06-01

    Pregnant rats were exposed to a single whole-body gamma-irradiation on Day 15 of gestation at a dose of 0.27, 0.48, 1.00, or 1.46 Gy. They were allowed to give birth and the offspring were killed at 6 or 12 weeks of age for microscopic and electron microscopic examinations of the cerebrum. Their body weight, brain weight, cortical thickness, and numerical densities of whole cells and synapses in somatosensory cortex were examined. Growth of the dendritic arborization of layer V pyramidal cells was also examined quantitatively with Golgi-Cox specimens. A significant dose-related reduction in brain weight was found in all irradiated groups. Neither gross malformation nor abnormality of cortical architecture was observed in the groups exposed to 0.27 Gy. A significant change was found in thickness of cortex in the groups exposed to 0.48 Gy or more. Cell packing density increased significantly in the group exposed to 1.00 Gy. Significant reduction in the number of intersections of dendrites with the zonal boundaries were found in the groups exposed to 0.27 Gy or more. There was no difference in the numerical density of synapses in layer I between the control and irradiated groups. These results suggested that doses as low as 0.27 Gy could cause a morphologically discernible change in the mammalian cerebrum.

  9. Laf4/Aff3, a Gene Involved in Intellectual Disability, Is Required for Cellular Migration in the Mouse Cerebral Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheena; Lickiss, Tom; Molnár, Zoltán; Davies, Kay E.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the AFF (AF4/FMR2) family of putative transcription factors are involved in infant acute leukaemia and intellectual disability (ID), although very little is known about their transcriptional targets. For example, deletion of human lymphoid nuclear protein related to AF4/AFF member 3 (LAF4/AFF3) is known to cause severe neurodevelopmental defects, and silencing of the gene is also associated with ID at the folate-sensitive fragile site (FSFS) FRA2A; yet the normal function of this gene in the nervous system is unclear. The aim of this study was to further investigate the function of Laf4 in the brain by focusing on its role in the cortex. By manipulating expression levels in organotypic slices, we demonstrate here that Laf4 is required for normal cellular migration in the developing cortex and have subsequently identified Mdga2, an important structural protein in neurodevelopment, as a target of Laf4 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, we show that the migration deficit caused by loss of Laf4 can be partially rescued by Mdga2 over-expression, revealing an important functional relationship between these genes. Our study demonstrates the key transcriptional role of Laf4 during early brain development and reveals a novel function for the gene in the process of cortical cell migration relevant to the haploinsufficiency and silencing observed in human neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25162227

  10. Distribution of precursor amyloid-β-protein messenger RNA in human cerebral cortex: relationship to neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.A.; Higgins, G.A.; Young, W.G.; Goldgaber, D.; Gajdusek, D.C.; Wilson, M.C.; Morrison, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neuritic plaques (NP), two neuropathological markers of Alzheimer disease, may both contain peptide fragments derived from the human amyloid β protein. However, the nature of the relationship between NFT and NP and the source of the amyloid β proteins found in each have remained unclear. The authors used in situ hybridization techniques to map the anatomical distribution of precursor amyloid-β-protein mRNA in the neocortex of brains from three subjects with no known neurologic disease and from five patients with Alzheimer disease. In brains from control subjects, positively hybridizing neurons were present in cortical regions and layers that contain a high density of neuropathological markers in Alzheimer disease, as well as in those loci that contain NP but few NFT. Quantitative analyses of in situ hybridization patterns within layers III and V of the superior frontal cortex revealed that the presence of high numbers of NFT in Alzheimer-diseased brains was associated with a decrease in the number of positively hybridizing neurons compared to controls and Alzheimer-diseased brains with few NFT. These findings suggest that the expression of precursor amyloid-β-protein mRNA may be a necessary but is clearly not a sufficient prerequisite for NFT formation. In addition, these results may indicate that the amyloid β protein, present in NP in a given region or layer of cortex, is not derived from the resident neuronal cell bodies that express the mRNA for the precursor protein

  11. Regional differences of relationships between atrophy and glucose metabolism of cerebral cortex in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, H.; Uemura, K.; Kanekiyo, S.; Ishii, K.; Ishii, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this paper is to estimate a correlation between the extent of atrophy and the decline in the brain function measured with PET study among the patients with Alzheimer's disease by each brain lobe. Materials and Methods: Two groups, the normal controls (male: 8, female: 22 age: 62.4±4.9) and the patients with Alzheimer's disease (male: 6, female: 24, age: 65.9±7.2) participated in this study. The extent of atrophy was evaluated from the extracted gyrus on 2D-projection magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the cerebral cortical glucose metabolism was assessed on 2D-projection positron emission tomography (PET) image, and then a relationship between the cerebral atrophy and the function was evaluated by each brain lobe extracted automatically. 2D-projection of PET and MR images were made by means of the Mollweide method which keeps the area of the brain surface. In order to extract brain lobes from each subject automatically, the bitmap with different value by each brain lobe was made from a standard brain image and was automatically transformed to match each subject's brain image by using SPM99. A correlation image was generated between 2D-projection images of glucose metabolism and the area of the sulcus and the gyrus extracted from the correlation between MR and PET images clustered by K-means method. Results: The glucose metabolism of Alzheimer's disease was lower than that of normal control subjects at the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes with the same extent of atrophy as that of the normal. There was high correlation between the area of gyrus and the glucose metabolism, and the correlation tendency of the Alzheimer's disease was steeper than that of the normal control at the parietal lobe. Conclusions: Combined analysis of regional morphology and function may be useful to distinguish pathological process such as early stage of Alzheimer's disease from normal physiological aging

  12. Zbtb20-Induced CA1 Pyramidal Neuron Development and Area Enlargement in the Cerebral Midline Cortex of Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob V; Blom, Jonas B; Noraberg, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Expression of the transcriptional repressor Zbtb20 is confined to the hippocampal primordium of the developing dorsal midline cortex in mice. Here, we show that misexpression of Zbtb20 converts projection neurons of the subiculum and postsubiculum (dorsal presubiculum) to CA1 pyramidal neurons...... that are innervated by Schaffer collateral projections in ectopic strata oriens and radiatum. The Zbtb20-transformed neurons express Bcl11B, Satb2, and Calbindin-D28k, which are markers of adult CA1 pyramidal neurons. Downregulation of Zbtb20 expression by RNA interference impairs the normal maturation of CA1...... pyramidal neurons resulting in deficiencies in Calbindin-D28k expression and in reduced apical dendritic arborizations in stratum lacunosum moleculare. Overall, the results show that Zbtb20 is required for various aspects of CA1 pyramidal neuron development such as the postnatal extension of apical...

  13. Optogenetic Stimulation Shifts the Excitability of Cerebral Cortex from Type I to Type II: Oscillation Onset and Wave Propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Heitmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Constant optogenetic stimulation targeting both pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons has recently been shown to elicit propagating waves of gamma-band (40-80 Hz oscillations in the local field potential of non-human primate motor cortex. The oscillations emerge with non-zero frequency and small amplitude-the hallmark of a type II excitable medium-yet they also propagate far beyond the stimulation site in the manner of a type I excitable medium. How can neural tissue exhibit both type I and type II excitability? We investigated the apparent contradiction by modeling the cortex as a Wilson-Cowan neural field in which optogenetic stimulation was represented by an external current source. In the absence of any external current, the model operated as a type I excitable medium that supported propagating waves of gamma oscillations similar to those observed in vivo. Applying an external current to the population of inhibitory neurons transformed the model into a type II excitable medium. The findings suggest that cortical tissue normally operates as a type I excitable medium but it is locally transformed into a type II medium by optogenetic stimulation which predominantly targets inhibitory neurons. The proposed mechanism accounts for the graded emergence of gamma oscillations at the stimulation site while retaining propagating waves of gamma oscillations in the non-stimulated tissue. It also predicts that gamma waves can be emitted on every second cycle of a 100 Hz oscillation. That prediction was subsequently confirmed by re-analysis of the neurophysiological data. The model thus offers a theoretical account of how optogenetic stimulation alters the excitability of cortical neural fields.

  14. Preventive effects of physical exercise on the inhibition of creatine kinase in the cerebral cortex of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n2p106

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    Daiane Bittencourt Fraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown the health benefits of physical exercise, increasing the oxidative response of muscle. However, the effects of exercise on the brain are poorly understood and contradictory. The inhibition of creatine kinase (CK activity has been associated with the pathogenesis of a large number of diseases, especially in the brain. The objective of this study was to determine the preventive effects of physical exercise in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of mice after chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Eight to 10-week-old male mice (C57BL-6 were divided into four groups and submitted to an exercise program (swimming, 5 times a week, for 8 weeks. After this period, the animals were passively exposed to cigarette smoke for 60 consecutive days, 3 times a day (4 Marlboro red cigarettes per session, for a total of 12 cigarettes. CK activity was measured in cerebral cortex and hippocampal homogenates. Enzyme activity was inhibited in the cerebral cortex of animals submitted to the inhalation of cigarette smoke. However, exercise prevented this inhibition. In contrast, CK activity remained unchanged in the hippocampus. This inhibition of CK by inhalation of cigarette smoke might be related to the process of cell death. Physical exercise played a preventive role in the inhibition of CK activity caused by exposure to cigarette smoke.

  15. Effect of Testosterone on Neuronal Morphology and Neuritic Growth of Fetal Lamb Hypothalamus-Preoptic Area and Cerebral Cortex in Primary Culture.

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    Radhika C Reddy

    Full Text Available Testosterone plays an essential role in sexual differentiation of the male sheep brain. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN, is 2 to 3 times larger in males than in females, and this sex difference is under the control of testosterone. The effect of testosterone on oSDN volume may result from enhanced expansion of soma areas and/or dendritic fields. To test this hypothesis, cells derived from the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA and cerebral cortex (CTX of lamb fetuses were grown in primary culture to examine the direct morphological effects of testosterone on these cellular components. We found that within two days of plating, neurons derived from both the HPOA and CTX extend neuritic processes and express androgen receptors and aromatase immunoreactivity. Both treated and control neurites continue to grow and branch with increasing time in culture. Treatment with testosterone (10 nM for 3 days significantly (P < 0.05 increased both total neurite outgrowth (35% and soma size (8% in the HPOA and outgrowth (21% and number of branch points (33% in the CTX. These findings indicate that testosterone-induced somal enlargement and neurite outgrowth in fetal lamb neurons may contribute to the development of a fully masculine sheep brain.

  16. Protective effect of L-Theanine against aluminium induced neurotoxicity in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of rat brain - histopathological, and biochemical approach.

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    Sumathi, Thangarajan; Shobana, Chandrasekar; Thangarajeswari, Mohan; Usha, Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    L-Theanine is an amino acid derivative primarily found in tea. It has been reported to promote relaxation and have neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress and the status of antioxidant system in the management of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) induced brain toxicity in various rat brain regions and further to elucidate the potential role of L-Theanine in alleviating such negative effects. Aluminium administration significantly decreased the level of reduced glutathione and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase and Mg(2+) ATPase and increased the level of lipid peroxidation and the activities of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase in all the brain regions when compared with control rats. Pre-treatment with L-Theanine at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. significantly increased the antioxidant status and activities of membrane bound enzymes and also decreased the level of LPO and the activities of marker enzymes, when compared with aluminium induced rats. Aluminium induction also caused histopathological changes in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of rat brain which was reverted by pretreatment with L-Theanine. The present study clearly indicates the potential of L-Theanine in counteracting the damage inflicted by aluminium on rat brain regions.

  17. Mechanisms of L-Triiodothyronine-Induced Inhibition of Synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase Activity in Young Adult Rat Brain Cerebral Cortex

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    Pradip K. Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of thyroid hormones (TH in the normal functioning of adult mammalian brain is unclear. Our studies have identified synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase as a TH-responsive physiological parameter in adult rat cerebral cortex. L-triiodothyronine (T3 and L-thyroxine (T4 both inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity (but not Mg2+-ATPase activity in similar dose-dependent fashions, while other metabolites of TH were less effective. Although both T3 and the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity in cerebrocortical synaptosomes in similar ways, the β-adrenergic receptor blocker propranolol did not counteract the effect of T3. Instead, propranolol further inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that the effect of T3 on synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase activity was independent of β-adrenergic receptor activation. The effect of T3 on synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase activity was inhibited by the α2-adrenergic agonist clonidine and by glutamate. Notably, both clonidine and glutamate activate Gi-proteins of the membrane second messenger system, suggesting a potential mechanism for the inhibition of the effects of TH. In this paper, we provide support for a nongenomic mechanism of action of TH in a neuronal membrane-related energy-linked process for signal transduction in the adult condition.

  18. In vivo and in vitro effect of imipramine and fluoxetine on Na+,K+-ATPase activity in synaptic plasma membranes from the cerebral cortex of rats

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    L.M. Zanatta

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of in vivo chronic treatment and in vitro addition of imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, or fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on the cortical membrane-bound Na+,K+-ATPase activity were studied. Adult Wistar rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of 10 mg/kg of imipramine or fluoxetine for 14 days. Twelve hours after the last injection rats were decapitated and synaptic plasma membranes (SPM from cerebral cortex were prepared to determine Na+,K+-ATPase activity. There was a significant decrease (10% in enzyme activity after imipramine but fluoxetine treatment caused a significant increase (27% in Na+,K+-ATPase activity compared to control (P<0.05, ANOVA; N = 7 for each group. When assayed in vitro, the addition of both drugs to SPM of naive rats caused a dose-dependent decrease in enzyme activity, with the maximal inhibition (60-80% occurring at 0.5 mM. We suggest that a imipramine might decrease Na+,K+-ATPase activity by altering membrane fluidity, as previously proposed, and b stimulation of this enzyme might contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of fluoxetine, since brain Na+,K+-ATPase activity is decreased in bipolar patients.

  19. Spatiotemporal Profiles of Proprioception Processed by the Masseter Muscle Spindles in Rat Cerebral Cortex: An Optical Imaging Study.

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    Fujita, Satoshi; Kaneko, Mari; Nakamura, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Muscle spindles in the jaw-closing muscles, which are innervated by trigeminal mesencephalic neurons (MesV neurons), control the strength of occlusion and the position of the mandible. The mechanisms underlying cortical processing of proprioceptive information are critical to understanding how sensory information from the masticatory muscles regulates orofacial motor function. However, these mechanisms are mostly unknown. The present study aimed to identify the regions that process proprioception of the jaw-closing muscles using in vivo optical imaging with a voltage-sensitive dye in rats under urethane anesthesia. First, jaw opening that was produced by mechanically pulling down the mandible evoked an optical response, which reflects neural excitation, in two cortical regions: the most rostroventral part of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and the border between the ventral part of the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) and the insular oral region (IOR). The kinetics of the optical signal, including the latency, amplitude, rise time, decay time and half duration, in the S1 region for the response with the largest amplitude were comparable to those in the region with the largest response in S2/IOR. Second, we visualized the regions responding to electrical stimulation of the masseter nerve, which activates both motor efferent fibers and somatosensory afferent fibers, including those that transmit nociceptive and proprioceptive information. Masseter nerve stimulation initially excited the rostral part of the S2/IOR region, and an adjacent region responded to jaw opening. The caudal part of the region showing the maximum response overlapped with the region responding to jaw opening, whereas the rostral part overlapped with the region responding to electrical stimulation of the maxillary and mandibular molar pulps. These findings suggest that proprioception of the masseter is processed in S1 and S2/IOR. Other sensory information, such as nociception, is

  20. Nerve cell nuclear and nucleolar abnormalities in the human oedematous cerebral cortex. An electron microscopic study using cortical biopsies.

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    Castejón, O J; Arismendi, G J

    2004-01-01

    Cerebral cortical biopsies of 17 patients with clinical diagnosis of congenital hydrocephalus, complicated brain trauma, cerebellar syndrome and vascular anomaly were examined with the transmission electron microscope to study the nuclear and nucleolar abnormalities induced by moderate and severe brain oedema, and the associated anoxic-ischemic conditions of brain tissue. In infant patients with congenital hydrocephalus and Arnold-Chiari malformation two different structural patterns of immature chromatin organization were found: the clear type characterized by a clear granular and fibrillar structure of euchromatin, scarce heterochromatin masses and few perichromatin granules, and a dense granular and fibrillar euchromatin with abundant and scattered heterochromatin masses, and increased number of perichromatin granules. The lobulated nuclei exhibited an irregularly dilated and fragmented perinuclear cistern, and areas of apparently intact nuclear pore complexes alternating with regions of nuclear pore complex disassembly. In moderate traumatic brain injuries some nucleoli exhibit apparent intact nucleolar substructures, and in severe brain oedema some nucleoli appeared shrunken and irregularly outlined with one or two fibrillar centers, and others were disintegrated. The nuclear and nucleolar morphological alterations are discussed in relation with oxidative stress, peroxidative damage, hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity, calcium overload, glutamate excitotoxicity, and caspase activation.

  1. Deciphering the Neuronal Circuitry Controlling Local Blood Flow in the Cerebral Cortex with Optogenetics in PV::Cre Transgenic Mice

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    Urban, Alan; Rancillac, Armelle; Martinez, Lucie; Rossier, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Although it is know since more than a century that neuronal activity is coupled to blood supply regulation, the underlying pathways remains to be identified. In the brain, neuronal activation triggers a local increase of cerebral blood flow (CBF) that is controlled by the neurogliovascular unit composed of terminals of neurons, astrocytes, and blood vessel muscles. It is generally accepted that the regulation of the neurogliovascular unit is adjusted to local metabolic demand by local circuits. Today experimental data led us to realize that the regulatory mechanisms are more complex and that a neuronal system within the brain is devoted to the control of local brain-blood flow. Recent optogenetic experiments combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed that light stimulation of neurons expressing the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV) is associated with positive blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the corresponding barrel field but also with negative BOLD in the surrounding deeper area. Here, we demonstrate that in acute brain slices, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) based photostimulation of PV containing neurons gives rise to an effective contraction of penetrating arterioles. These results support the neurogenic hypothesis of a complex distributed nervous system controlling the CBF. PMID:22715327

  2. Capillary hydrophilic interaction chromatography/mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of multiple neurotransmitters in primate cerebral cortex.

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    Zhang, Xiaozhe; Rauch, Alexander; Lee, Han; Xiao, Hongbin; Rainer, Gregor; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2007-01-01

    A diverse array of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators control and affect brain function. A profound understanding of the signaling pathways and the neural circuits underlying behavior is therefore likely to require the tracking of concentration changes of active neurochemicals. In the present study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a method allowing the simultaneous determination of the concentrations of six neurotransmitters: acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and aspartate, in the extracellular brain fluid (EBF). We used hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to analyze the EBF from the monkey brain. A push-pull sampling method was used to collect EBF from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of conscious monkeys at flow rates in the range of low nL/min. The detection limits of acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, GABA, glutamate and aspartate were 0.015, 0.15, 0.3, 1.2, 6 and 15 femtomoles, respectively, allowing us to quantitatively determine the concentrations of these six neurotransmitters simultaneously from 500 nL in vivo samples. We conclude that HILIC/MS/MS combined with the push-pull sampling method represents a sensitive technique for simultaneous monitoring of neurotransmitters from EBF samples. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Resting-State Connectivity of the Left Frontal Cortex to the Default Mode and Dorsal Attention Network Supports Reserve in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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    Franzmeier, Nicolai; Göttler, Jens; Grimmer, Timo; Drzezga, Alexander; Áraque-Caballero, Miguel A; Simon-Vermot, Lee; Taylor, Alexander N W; Bürger, Katharina; Catak, Cihan; Janowitz, Daniel; Müller, Claudia; Duering, Marco; Sorg, Christian; Ewers, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reserve refers to the phenomenon of relatively preserved cognition in disproportion to the extent of neuropathology, e.g., in Alzheimer's disease. A putative functional neural substrate underlying reserve is global functional connectivity of the left lateral frontal cortex (LFC, Brodmann Area 6/44). Resting-state fMRI-assessed global LFC-connectivity is associated with protective factors (education) and better maintenance of memory in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Since the LFC is a hub of the fronto-parietal control network that regulates the activity of other networks, the question arises whether LFC-connectivity to specific networks rather than the whole-brain may underlie reserve. We assessed resting-state fMRI in 24 MCI and 16 healthy controls (HC) and in an independent validation sample (23 MCI/32 HC). Seed-based LFC-connectivity to seven major resting-state networks (i.e., fronto-parietal, limbic, dorsal-attention, somatomotor, default-mode, ventral-attention, visual) was computed, reserve was quantified as residualized memory performance after accounting for age and hippocampal atrophy. In both samples of MCI, LFC-activity was anti-correlated with the default-mode network (DMN), but positively correlated with the dorsal-attention network (DAN). Greater education predicted stronger LFC-DMN-connectivity (anti-correlation) and LFC-DAN-connectivity. Stronger LFC-DMN and LFC-DAN-connectivity each predicted higher reserve, consistently in both MCI samples. No associations were detected for LFC-connectivity to other networks. These novel results extend our previous findings on global functional connectivity of the LFC, showing that LFC-connectivity specifically to the DAN and DMN, two core memory networks, enhances reserve in the memory domain in MCI.

  4. Resting-State Connectivity of the Left Frontal Cortex to the Default Mode and Dorsal Attention Network Supports Reserve in Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Nicolai Franzmeier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reserve refers to the phenomenon of relatively preserved cognition in disproportion to the extent of neuropathology, e.g., in Alzheimer’s disease. A putative functional neural substrate underlying reserve is global functional connectivity of the left lateral frontal cortex (LFC, Brodmann Area 6/44. Resting-state fMRI-assessed global LFC-connectivity is associated with protective factors (education and better maintenance of memory in mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Since the LFC is a hub of the fronto-parietal control network that regulates the activity of other networks, the question arises whether LFC-connectivity to specific networks rather than the whole-brain may underlie reserve. We assessed resting-state fMRI in 24 MCI and 16 healthy controls (HC and in an independent validation sample (23 MCI/32 HC. Seed-based LFC-connectivity to seven major resting-state networks (i.e., fronto-parietal, limbic, dorsal-attention, somatomotor, default-mode, ventral-attention, visual was computed, reserve was quantified as residualized memory performance after accounting for age and hippocampal atrophy. In both samples of MCI, LFC-activity was anti-correlated with the default-mode network (DMN, but positively correlated with the dorsal-attention network (DAN. Greater education predicted stronger LFC-DMN-connectivity (anti-correlation and LFC-DAN-connectivity. Stronger LFC-DMN and LFC-DAN-connectivity each predicted higher reserve, consistently in both MCI samples. No associations were detected for LFC-connectivity to other networks. These novel results extend our previous findings on global functional connectivity of the LFC, showing that LFC-connectivity specifically to the DAN and DMN, two core memory networks, enhances reserve in the memory domain in MCI.

  5. Aerobic Glycolysis in the Frontal Cortex Correlates with Memory Performance in Wild-Type Mice But Not the APP/PS1 Mouse Model of Cerebral Amyloidosis.

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    Harris, Richard A; Tindale, Lauren; Lone, Asad; Singh, Olivia; Macauley, Shannon L; Stanley, Molly; Holtzman, David M; Bartha, Robert; Cumming, Robert C

    2016-02-10

    Aerobic glycolysis and lactate production in the brain plays a key role in memory, yet the role of this metabolism in the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains poorly understood. Here we examined the relationship between cerebral lactate levels and memory performance in an APP/PS1 mouse model of AD, which progressively accumulates amyloid-β. In vivo (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed an age-dependent decline in lactate levels within the frontal cortex of control mice, whereas lactate levels remained unaltered in APP/PS1 mice from 3 to 12 months of age. Analysis of hippocampal interstitial fluid by in vivo microdialysis revealed a significant elevation in lactate levels in APP/PS1 mice relative to control mice at 12 months of age. An age-dependent decline in the levels of key aerobic glycolysis enzymes and a concomitant increase in lactate transporter expression was detected in control mice. Increased expression of lactate-producing enzymes correlated with improved memory in control mice. Interestingly, in APP/PS1 mice the opposite effect was detected. In these mice, increased expression of lactate producing enzymes correlated with poorer memory performance. Immunofluorescent staining revealed localization of the aerobic glycolysis enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and lactate dehydrogenase A within cortical and hippocampal neurons in control mice, as well as within astrocytes surrounding amyloid plaques in APP/PS1 mice. These observations collectively indicate that production of lactate, via aerobic glycolysis, is beneficial for memory function during normal aging. However, elevated lactate levels in APP/PS1 mice indicate perturbed lactate processing, a factor that may contribute to cognitive decline in AD. Lactate has recently emerged as a key metabolite necessary for memory consolidation. Lactate is the end product of aerobic glycolysis, a unique form of metabolism that occurs within certain regions of the brain. Here

  6. What is normal in normal aging? Effects of Aging, Amyloid and Alzheimer’s Disease on the Cerebral Cortex and the Hippocampus

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    Fjell, Anders M.; McEvoy, Linda; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M.; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2015-01-01

    What can be expected in normal aging, and where does normal aging stop and pathological neurodegeneration begin? With the slow progression of age-related dementias such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), it is difficult to distinguish age-related changes from effects of undetected disease. We review recent research on changes of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus in aging and the borders between normal aging and AD. We argue that prominent cortical reductions are evident in fronto-temporal regions in elderly even with low probability of AD, including regions overlapping the default mode network. Importantly, these regions show high levels of amyloid deposition in AD, and are both structurally and functionally vulnerable early in the disease. This normalcy-pathology homology is critical to understand, since aging itself is the major risk factor for sporadic AD. Thus, rather than necessarily reflecting early signs of disease, these changes may be part of normal aging, and may inform on why the aging brain is so much more susceptible to AD than is the younger brain. We suggest that regions characterized by a high degree of life-long plasticity are vulnerable to detrimental effects of normal aging, and that this age-vulnerability renders them more susceptible to additional, pathological AD-related changes. We conclude that it will be difficult to understand AD without understanding why it preferably affects older brains, and that we need a model that accounts for age-related changes in AD-vulnerable regions independently of AD-pathology. PMID:24548606

  7. Modulation of the release of norepinephrine by gamma-aminobutyric acid and morphine in the frontal cerebral cortex of the rat

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    Peoples, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Agents that enhance gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, neurotransmission modulate certain effects of opioids, such as analgesia. Opioid analgesia is mediated in part by norepinephrine in the forebrain. In this study, the interactions between morphine and GABAergic agents on release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine from rat frontal cerebral cortical slices were examined. GABA, 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}-10{sup {minus}3} M, enhanced potassium stimulated ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine release and reversed the inhibitory effect of morphine in a noncompetitive manner. GABA did not enhance release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187. The effect of GABA was reduced by the GABA{sub A} receptor antagonists bicuculline methiodide or picrotoxin, and by the selective inhibitor of GABA uptake SKF 89976A, but was blocked completely only when bicuculline methiodide and SKF 89976A were used in combination. The GABA{sub A} agonist muscimol, 10{sup {minus}4} M, mimicked the effect of GABA, but the GABA{sub B} agonist ({plus minus})baclofen, 10{sup {minus}4} M, did not affect the release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine in the absence or the presence of morphine. Thus GABA appears to produce this effect by stimulating GABA uptake and GABA{sub A}, but not GABA{sub B}, receptors. In contrast to the results that would be predicted for an event involving GABA{sub A} receptors, however, the effect of GABA did not desensitize, and benzodiazepine agonists did not enhance the effect of GABA at any concentration tested between 10{sup {minus}8} and 10{sup {minus}4} M. Thus these receptors may constitute a subclass of GABA{sub A} receptors. These results support a role of GABA uptake and GABA{sub A} receptors in enhancing the release of norepinephrine and modulating its inhibition by opioids in the frontal cortex of the rat.

  8. Spared Primary Motor Cortex and the Presence of MEP in Cerebral Palsy Dictate the Responsiveness to tDCS During Gait Training

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    Luanda Collange Grecco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current priority of investigations involving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and neurorehabilitation is to identify biomarkers associated with the positive results of the interventions such that respondent and non-respondent patients can be identified in the early phases of treatment. The aims were to determine whether; 1 present motor evoked potential (MEP and, 2 injuries involving the primary motor cortex, are associated with tDCS-enhancement in functional outcome following gait training in children with cerebral palsy (CP. We reviewed the data from our parallel, randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind studies. Fifty-six children with spastic CP received gait training (either treadmill training or virtual reality training and tDCS (active or sham. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to identify clinical, neurophysiologic and neuroanatomic predictors associated with the responsiveness to treatment with tDCS. MEP presence during the initial evaluation and the subcortical injury were associated with positive effects in the functional results. The logistic regression revealed that present MEP was a significant predictor for the six-minute walk test (p=0.003 and gait speed (p=0.028, whereas the subcortical injury was a significant predictor of gait kinematics (p=0.013 and gross motor function (p = 0.021. In this preliminary study involving children with CP, two important prediction factors of good responses to anodal tDCS combined with gait training were identified. Apparently, MEP (integrity of the corticospinal tract and subcortical location of the brain injury exerted different influences on aspects related to gait, such as velocity and kinematics.

  9. Chronic Mild Hyperhomocysteinemia Alters Inflammatory and Oxidative/Nitrative Status and Causes Protein/DNA Damage, as well as Ultrastructural Changes in Cerebral Cortex: Is Acetylsalicylic Acid Neuroprotective?

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    de S Moreira, Daniella; Figueiró, Paula W; Siebert, Cassiana; Prezzi, Caroline A; Rohden, Francieli; Guma, Fatima C R; Manfredini, Vanusa; Wyse, Angela T S

    2018-04-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid derived from methionine metabolism. When plasma homocysteine levels exceed 10-15 μM, there is a condition known as hyperhomocysteinemia, which occur as a result of an inborn error of methionine metabolism or by non-genetic causes. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is considered a risk factor for development of neurodegenerative diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether acetylsalicylic acid has neuroprotective role on the effect of homocysteine on inflammatory, oxidative/nitrative stress, and morphological parameters in cerebral cortex of rats subjected to chronic mild hyperhomocysteinemia. Wistar male rats received homocysteine (0.03 μmol/g of body weight) by subcutaneous injections twice a day and acetylsalicylic acid (25 mg/Kg of body weight) by intraperitoneal injections once a day from the 30th to the 60th postpartum day. Control rats received vehicle solution in the same volume. Results showed that rats subjected to chronic mild hyperhomocysteinemia significantly increased IL-1β, IL-6, and acetylcholinesterase activity and reduced nitrite levels. Homocysteine decreased catalase activity and immunocontent and superoxide dismutase activity, caused protein and DNA damage, and altered neurons ultrastructure. Acetylsalicylic acid totally prevented the effect of homocysteine on acetylcholinesterase activity and catalase activity and immunocontent, as well as the ultrastructural changes, and partially prevented alterations on IL-1β levels, superoxide dismutase activity, sulfhydryl content, and comet assay. Acetylsalicylic acid per se increased DNA damage index. In summary, our findings showed that chronic chemically induced model of mild hyperhomocysteinemia altered some parameters and acetylsalicylic acid administration seemed to be neuroprotective, at least in part, on neurotoxicity of homocysteine.

  10. [The motor organization of cerebral cortex and the role of the mirror neuron system. Clinical impact for rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallés, Laia; Gironès, Xavier; Lafuente, José Vicente

    2015-01-06

    The basic characteristics of Penfield homunculus (somatotopy and unique representation) have been questioned. The existence of a defined anatomo-functional organization within different segments of the same region is controversial. The presence of multiple motor representations in the primary motor area and in the parietal lobe interconnected by parieto-frontal circuits, which are widely overlapped, form a complex organization. Both features support the recovery of functions after brain injury. Regarding the movement organization, it is possible to yield a relevant impact through the understanding of actions and intentions of others, which is mediated by the activation of mirror-neuron systems. The implementation of cognitive functions (observation, image of the action and imitation) from the acute treatment phase allows the activation of motor representations without having to perform the action and it plays an important role in learning motor patterns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased GABA-A receptor binding and reduced connectivity at the motor cortex in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a multimodal investigation using 18F-fluoroflumazenil PET, immunohistochemistry, and MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Chul Hoon; Park, Eun Sook; Park, Bumhee; Oh, So Ra; Oh, Maeng-Keun; Park, Chang Il; Lee, Jong Doo

    2013-08-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor-mediated neural transmission is important to promote practice-dependent plasticity after brain injury. This study investigated alterations in GABA-A receptor binding and functional and anatomic connectivity within the motor cortex in children with cerebral palsy (CP). We conducted (18)F-fluoroflumazenil PET on children with hemiplegic CP to investigate whether in vivo GABA-A receptor binding is altered in the ipsilateral or contralateral hemisphere of the lesion site. To evaluate changes in the GABA-A receptor subunit after prenatal brain injury, we performed GABA-A receptor immunohistochemistry using rat pups with a diffuse hypoxic ischemic insult. We also performed diffusion tensor MR imaging and resting-state functional MR imaging on the same children with hemiplegic CP to investigate alterations in anatomic and functional connectivity at the motor cortex with increased GABA-A receptor binding. In children with hemiplegic CP, the (18)F-fluoroflumazenil binding potential was increased within the ipsilateral motor cortex. GABA-A receptors with the α1 subunit were highly expressed exclusively within cortical layers III, IV, and VI of the motor cortex in rat pups. The motor cortex with increased GABA-A receptor binding in children with hemiplegic CP had reduced thalamocortical and corticocortical connectivity, which might be linked to increased GABA-A receptor distribution in cortical layers in rats. Increased expression of the GABA-A receptor α1 subunit within the ipsilateral motor cortex may be an important adaptive mechanism after prenatal brain injury in children with CP but may be associated with improper functional connectivity after birth and have adverse effects on the development of motor plasticity.

  12. Ethanol activation of protein kinase A regulates GABA-A receptor subunit expression in the cerebral cortex and contributes to ethanol-induced hypnosis

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    Sandeep eKumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinases are implicated in neuronal cell functions such as modulation of ion channel function, trafficking and synaptic excitability. Both protein kinase C (PKC and A (PKA are involved in regulation of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA-A receptors through phosphorylation. However, the role of PKA in regulating GABA-A receptors following acute ethanol exposure is not known. The present study investigated the role of PKA in ethanol effects on GABA-A receptor α1 subunit expression in the P2 synaptosomal fraction of the rat cerebral cortex. Additionally, GABA-related behaviors were also examined. Rats were administered ethanol (2.0 – 3.5 g/kg or saline and PKC, PKA and GABA-A receptor α1 subunit levels were measured by Western blot analysis. Ethanol (3.5 g/kg transiently increased GABA-A receptor α1 subunit expression and PKA RIIβ subunit expression at similar time points whereas PKA RIIα was increased at later time points. In contrast, PKC isoform expression remained unchanged. Notably, the moderate ethanol dose (2.0g/kg had no effect on GABA-A α1 subunit levels although PKA RIIα and RIIβ were increased at 10 and 60 minutes, when PKC isozymes are also known to be elevated. To determine if PKA activation was responsible for the ethanol-induced elevation of GABA-A α1 subunits, the PKA antagonist H89 was administered to rats prior to ethanol exposure. H89 administration prevented ethanol-induced increases in GABA-A receptor α1 subunit expression. Moreover, increasing PKA activity intracerebroventricularly with Sp-cAMP prior to a hypnotic dose of ethanol increased ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex duration. This effect appears to be mediated in part by GABA-A receptors as increasing PKA activity also increased the duration of muscimol-induced loss of righting reflex. Overall these data suggest that PKA mediates ethanol-induced GABA-A receptor expression and contributes to ethanol behavioral effects involving GABA-A receptors.

  13. Intellectual Enrichment Is Linked to Cerebral Efficiency in Multiple Sclerosis: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evidence for Cognitive Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F.; Wylie, Glenn R.; DeLuca, John; Chiaravalloti, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive reserve hypothesis helps to explain the incomplete relationship between brain disease and cognitive status in people with neurologic diseases, including Alzheimer's; disease and multiple sclerosis. Lifetime intellectual enrichment (estimated with education or vocabulary knowledge) lessens the negative impact of brain disease on…

  14. Expression of glial fibrillar acidic protein in the sensorimotor cortex of the cerebral hemispheres in the modeling of transient ischemia against the background of previous sensitization by brain antigen and immunocorrection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Yaremenko

    2017-12-01

    neurodegeneration and an increase in the number of GFAP+-gliocytes. Moreover, these effects are observed both from the side of circulatory disturbance, and from the contralateral side, where immune damage is prevalent. The latter testifies to the modulation of Imunofan by the immune response in brain damage. Conclusions. Sensitization by the brain antigen causes neurodegenerative changes in the sensorimotor cortex and an increase in the number of GFAP+-astrocytes. Sensitization by brain antigen leads to the potentiation of an increase in the number of GFAP+-astrocytes in response to transient circulatory disturbances in the cerebral cortex. Immunofan significantly reduces the severity of neurodegenerative changes and the number of GFAP+-astrocytes in the cerebral cortex caused by both ischemic attack and sensitization.

  15. Correlation between the arterial pulse wave of the cerebral microcirculation and CBF during breath holding and hyperventilation in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, S; Viola, P; Litterio, P; Buongarzone, M P; Fiorelli, L

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate if relative changes in the amplitude of the arterial pulse wave of the cerebral microcirculation (APWCM) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) may provide information about relative changes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in cerebral cortex. In 10 healthy human volunteers, through simultaneous recording of the APWCM amplitude by means of NIRS and the mean blood flow velocity (MBFV) of middle cerebral artery by means of transcranial Doppler (TCD) at rest and during breath holding and hyperventilation, we evaluate a possible correlation between relative changes of the mean APWCM amplitude and relative changes of MBFV. We found a significant linear correlation: breath holding: R(2) 0.84, p breath holding and hyperventilation. APWCM detected by NIRS, a safe, repeatable, inexpensive technology and at the bedside may improve the study of cerebral cortex microcirculation in neurological diseases. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alterations of cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reserve in patients with chronic traumatic brain injury accompanying deteriorated intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ho Chun; Bom, Hee Seung

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate alterations of regional cerbral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR), and correlation between these alternations and cognitive dysfunctin in patients with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI) and normal brain MRI findings. Thirty TBI patients and 19 healthy volunteers underwent rest/acetazolaminde brain SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO. Korean-Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale test was also performed in the patient group. Statistical analysis was performed with statistical parametric mapping software (SPM '97). CBF was diminished in the left hemisphere including Wernicke's area in all patients with lower verbal scale scores. In addition, a reduction in CBF in the right frontal, temporal and parietal cortices was related with depressed scores in information, digital span, arithmetic and similarities. In patients with lower performance scale scores, CBF was mainly diminished in the right hemisphere including superior temporal and supramarginal gyri, premotor, primary somatomotor and a part of prefrontal cortices, left frontal lobe and supramarginal gyrus. CVR was diminished in sixty-four Brodmann's areas compared to control. A reduction in CVR was demonstrated bilaterally in the frontal and temporal lobes in patients with lower scores in both verbal and performance tests, and in addition, both inferior parietal and occipital lobes in information subset. Alterations of CBF and CVR were demonstrated in the symptomatic TBI patients with normal MRI finding. These alterations were correlated with the change of intelligence, of which the complex functions are subserved by multiple interconnected cortical structures.=20

  17. Alterations of cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reserve in patients with chronic traumatic brain injury accompanying deteriorated intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Chun; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National Univ. Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate alterations of regional cerbral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR), and correlation between these alternations and cognitive dysfunctin in patients with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI) and normal brain MRI findings. Thirty TBI patients and 19 healthy volunteers underwent rest/acetazolaminde brain SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO. Korean-Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale test was also performed in the patient group. Statistical analysis was performed with statistical parametric mapping software (SPM '97). CBF was diminished in the left hemisphere including Wernicke's area in all patients with lower verbal scale scores. In addition, a reduction in CBF in the right frontal, temporal and parietal cortices was related with depressed scores in information, digital span, arithmetic and similarities. In patients with lower performance scale scores, CBF was mainly diminished in the right hemisphere including superior temporal and supramarginal gyri, premotor, primary somatomotor and a part of prefrontal cortices, left frontal lobe and supramarginal gyrus. CVR was diminished in sixty-four Brodmann's areas compared to control. A reduction in CVR was demonstrated bilaterally in the frontal and temporal lobes in patients with lower scores in both verbal and performance tests, and in addition, both inferior parietal and occipital lobes in information subset. Alterations of CBF and CVR were demonstrated in the symptomatic TBI patients with normal MRI finding. These alterations were correlated with the change of intelligence, of which the complex functions are subserved by multiple interconnected cortical structures.

  18. Meningocortical lesion increases expression of the cholecystokinin gene in rat cerebral cortex: evidence for the involvement of platelet-activating factor (PAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, E; Olenik, C; Uhl, A; Seregi, A; Meyer, D K

    1993-06-01

    In rat neocortex, interneurons express the gene encoding cholecystokinin. After an injury to the meninges and the underlying cortex the levels of cholecystokinin mRNA are transiently enhanced in the ipsilateral hemisphere. In the present study, we have investigated, whether platelet-activating factor plays a role in this phenomenon. Two antagonists of platelet-activating receptors, i.e. WEB 2086 (1.5 mg/kg) and brotizolam (10 mg/kg), were used. When injected 30 min prior to the injury of the parietal cortex, both agents reduced the rise in the concentration of cholecystokinin mRNA in frontal cortex by approximately 60%. They had no significant effect when given 30 min after the injury. Our finding that antagonists of platelet-activating factor receptors diminish the injury-induced change in the activity of cholecystokinin-interneurons opens the possibility that these agents may also affect other pathophysiological aspects of brain trauma.

  19. Effects of chronic exposure to 950 MHz ultra-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on reactive oxygen species metabolism in the right and left cerebral cortex of young rats of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado-Filho, Orlando V; Borba, Juliana B; Maraschin, Tatiana; Souza, Larissa M; Henriques, João A P; Moreira, José C F; Saffi, Jenifer

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effect of 950 MHz ultra-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (UHF-EMR) on biomarkers of oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids in the left cerebral cortex (LCC) and right cerebral cortex (RCC) of neonate and 6-day-old rats. Twelve rats were equally divided into two groups as controls (CR) and exposed (ER), for each age (0 and 6 days). The LCC and RCC were examined in ER and CR after exposure. Radiation exposure lasted 30 min per day for up to 27 days (throughout pregnancy and 6 days postnatal). The specific absorption rate ranged from 1.32-1.14 W/kg. The damage to lipids, proteins and DNA was verified by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, carbonylated proteins (CP) and comets, respectively. The concentration of glucose in the peripheral blood of the rats was measured by the Accu-Chek Active Kit due to increased CP in RCC. In neonates, no modification of the biomarkers tested was detected. On the other hand, there was an increase in the levels of CP in the RCC of the 6-day-old ER. Interestingly, the concentration of blood glucose was decreased in this group. Our results indicate that there is no genotoxicity and oxidative stress in neonates and 6 days rats. However, the RCC had the highest concentration of CP that do not seem to be a consequence of oxidative stress. This study is the first to demonstrate the use of UHF-EMR causes different damage responses to proteins in the LCC and RCC.

  20. Assessment of cerebral blood flow reserve using blood oxygen level-dependent echo planar imaging after acetazolamide administration in patients post-STA-MCA anastomosis surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenke, Kiichiro; Kusunoki, Katsusuke; Saito, Masahiro; Sadamoto, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Shinsuke; Kumon, Yoshiaki; Sakaki, Saburo; Nagasawa, Kiyoshi

    1998-01-01

    Recently, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) echo planar imaging (EPI) has been used to estimate blood flow changes. Theoretically, a relative decrement of deoxyhemoglobin in cerebral blood supply induces a MR signal change after neuronal stimulation. In the present study, we have attempted to evaluate CBF reserve capacity by the BOLD EPI in patients who had undergone STA-MCA anastomosis surgery. Then, we compared with the signal intensity changes obtained by this procedure with the CBF changes by Xe-SPECT after acetazolamide administration. Six patients, post-STA-MCA anastomosis surgery, were studied. Pre-operatively, MR signal intensity and CBF, by Xe-SPECT, were increased in the intact side after acetazolamide administration in all patients, and MR signal intensities were decreased in low flow regions after acetazolamide administration in all four patients in whom so-called steal phenomenon was demonstrated by Xe-SPECT study. Post-operatively, poor response was shown after acetazolamide administration with both Xe-SPECT and BOLD EPI in the two patients who had unsuccessful anastomoses. In the successfully anastomosed patients, improved vascular reactivity was demonstrated on BOLD EPI after acetazolamide administration in 3 of 4 patients in whom an improvement of vascular reactivity was demonstrated on Xe-SPECT. In one patient, MRI studies were considered to have technical artifacts, because the MR signal intensity did not increase, even in the intact side after acetazolamide administration. In conclusion, BOLD EPI after acetazolamide administration is an useful procedure for the pre- and post-operative of vascular reserve in patients with ischemic stroke. (author)

  1. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes in cerebral cortex of Fisher 344 rats: a light microscope autoradiography study of age-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow; Di Tullio, Maria Antonietta; Amenta, Francesco

    2006-02-01

    The density and localization of muscarinic cholinergic M1-M5 receptor subtypes was investigated in frontal and occipital cortex of male Fisher 344 rats aged 6 months (young-adult), 15 months (mature) and 22 months (senescent) by combined kinetic and equilibrium binding and light microscope autoradiography. In 6-month-old rats, the rank order density of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes was M1>M2>M4>M3>M5 both in frontal and occipital cortex. A not homogeneous distribution of different receptor subtypes throughout cerebrocortical layers of frontal or occipital cortex was found. In frontal cortex silver grains corresponding to the M1 and M2 receptor subtypes were decreased in 15- and 22-month-old groups. The M3 receptor density was remarkably and moderately decreased in layers II/III and V, respectively, of rats aged 15 and 22 months. A reduced M4 receptor density was observed in layer I and to a lesser extent in layer V of mature and senescent rats, whereas no age-related changes of M5 receptor were found. In occipital cortex a diminution of M1 receptor was observed in layers II/III and V of mature and senescent rats. The M2 receptor expression decreased in layer I of 15- and 22-month-old senescent rats, whereas M3-M5 receptors were unchanged with exception of a slight decrease of the M4 receptor in layer IV and of M5 receptor in layers II/III. These findings indicate a different sensitivity to aging of muscarinic receptor subtypes located in various cerebrocortical layers. This may account for the difficulty in obtaining relevant results in manipulating cholinoceptors to counter age-related impairment of cholinergic system.

  2. Cerebral cartography and connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-05-19

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamics of functional brain connectivity, the definition of areal parcellations and their hierarchical organization into large-scale networks, the extension of whole-brain connectivity to cellular-scale networks, and the mapping of structure/function relations in empirical recordings and computational models. Successfully addressing these challenges will require extensions of methods and tools from network science to the mapping and analysis of human brain connectivity data. The emerging view that the brain is more than a collection of areas, but is fundamentally operating as a complex networked system, will continue to drive the creation of ever more detailed and multi-modal network maps as tools for on-going exploration and discovery in human connectomics. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. An attempt to identify the functional areas of the cerebral cortex on CT slices parallel to the orbito-meatal line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Hirotaka; Okuda, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Takashi; Nishimura, Tsuyoshi; Shiraishi, Junzo.

    1982-01-01

    In order to identify the functional brain areas, such as Broca's area, on computed tomography slices parallel to the orbito-meatal line, the numbers of Brodmann's cortical mapping were shown on a diagram of representative brain sections parallel to the orbito-meatal line. Also, we described a method, using cerebral sulci as anatomical landmarks, for projecting lesions shown by CT scan onto the lateral brain diagram. The procedures were as follows. The distribution of lesions on CT slices was determined by the identification of major cerebral sulci and fissures, such as the Sylvian fissure, the central sulcus, and the superior frontal sulcus. Those lesions were then projected onto the lateral diagram by comparing each CT slice with the horizontal diagrams of brain sections. The method was demonstrated in three cases developing neuropsychological symptoms. (author)

  4. Quantitative histological studies on aging changes in cerebral cortex of rhesus monkey and albino rat with notes on effects of prolonged low-dose ionizing irradiation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizzee, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Brains of a series of eight young adult control (150 days) and eight middle-aged control (550 days) rats were fixed by a two-stage perfusion procedure employing Heidenhain's 'susa' solution. An equal number of rats were exposed to γ-irradiation at 6.5 R/day beginning on the 50th postnatal day and were sacrificed in the same manner and at the same age levels as the previous group. Paraffin sections were cut at 20 and 6 μ from cerebral cortical area 3 in the rat brains. Sections used for cell counts were stained with Harris' hematoxylin and eosin or iron hematoxylin, gallocyanin, acid fuchsin and ponceau de xylidene. Counts of neurons and glia were carried out at 20 equally spaced submolecular depth levels, and cell frequency profiles were plotted for each of the two cell types. The mean neuron and glial packing density for the total depth of the submolecular cortex of area 3 was not significantly different in young adult and middle-aged controls or in young adult irradiated (total dose 650 R) and control animals. However, statistical evaluation of data for relative depth levels 7 through 20 indicated that the packing density in this zone was significantly less (P<0.02) in middle-aged controls than in young adult animals. In middle-aged irradiated rats (total dose about 3250 R) neuron and glial packing densities for total depth of submolecular cortex were not significantly different than in control animals at the same age level. However, the values obtained for neuron packing density at relative depth levels 1 through 8 were significantly lower in middle-aged irradiated than in middle-aged control rats. The neuron packing density in middle-aged irradiated rats was significantly lower than in the young adult irradiated males. In electron micrographs, an increase in the amount of glycogen granules in astrocyte cell processes in cerebral cortex of irradiated middle-aged rats was noted, but there was no evidence of any other ultrastructural alterations

  5. Change of cerebral blood flow distribution and vascular reserver according to age in Koreans measured by Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ho Cheon; Bom, Hee Seung; Sohn, Hye Kyung; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Min, Jung Jun; Kim, Ji Yeol; Lee Jae Tae; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the normal values of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) in normal children to aged volunteers using Tc-99m HMPAO. Thirty four right-handed normal volunteers (20 males, 14 females, mean age 40.3±24.9 years, range 4 to 82 years) were underwent rest/acetazolamide (ACZ) brain SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO and the sequential injection and subtraction method. rCBF was estimated on the basis of a semiquantitative approach by means of right/left ratio, region/cerebellum and region to whole brain ratios in frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, basal ganglia, thalami, and cerebellum. CVR was measured by means of % perfusion increase calculated as % mean count change compared to rest rCBF in each regions. Mean values of right to left ratios range from 1.004 to 1.018. rCBF was highest in cerebellum and lowest in basal ganglia and thalami. Frontal and temporal rCBF decreased while occipital and thalamic rCBF increased according to age. No sexual difference of rCBF was noted. Mean CVR was 29.9±12.9%. Mean CVR significantly increased to late teens, and declined thereafter. After 6th decade, CVR in both frontal lobes, left parietal lobe and right basal ganglia decreased significantly with advancing age. There was no sexual difference of CVR. Quantitative assessment of CVR was possible by ACZ Tc-99m MHPAO brain SPECT. It revealed that rCBF and CVR changed according to age in normal Korean volunteers. There was no sexual difference

  6. Effect of acute administration of Pistacia lentiscus L. essential oil on rat cerebral cortex following transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quartu Marina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ischemia/reperfusion leads to inflammation and oxidative stress which damages membrane highly polyunsaturated fatty acids (HPUFAs and eventually induces neuronal death. This study evaluates the effect of the administration of Pistacia lentiscus L. essential oil (E.O., a mixture of terpenes and sesquiterpenes, on modifications of fatty acid profile and endocannabinoid (eCB congener concentrations induced by transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO in the rat frontal cortex and plasma. Methods Adult Wistar rats underwent BCCAO for 20 min followed by 30 min reperfusion (BCCAO/R. 6 hours before surgery, rats, randomly assigned to four groups, were gavaged either with E.O. (200 mg/0.45 ml of sunflower oil as vehicle or with the vehicle alone. Results BCCAO/R triggered in frontal cortex a decrease of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, the membrane highly polyunsaturated fatty acid most susceptible to oxidation. Pre-treatment with E.O. prevented this change and led further to decreased levels of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, as assessed by Western Blot. In plasma, only after BCCAO/R, E.O. administration increased both the ratio of DHA-to-its precursor, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and levels of palmytoylethanolamide (PEA and oleoylethanolamide (OEA. Conclusions Acute treatment with E.O. before BCCAO/R elicits changes both in the frontal cortex, where the BCCAO/R-induced decrease of DHA is apparently prevented and COX-2 expression decreases, and in plasma, where PEA and OEA levels and DHA biosynthesis increase. It is suggested that the increase of PEA and OEA plasma levels may induce DHA biosynthesis via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR alpha activation, protecting brain tissue from ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  7. Local structure and global connectivity in the cerebral cortex: neuroinformatics, histology and ultra high resolution diffusion MRI in the rhesus and marmoset monkey brain

    OpenAIRE

    Reveley, Colin

    2017-01-01

    This thesis concerns the cortical connectivity in Primates. The efficacy of Diffusion weighted MRI (dMRI) is examined. White matter (“WM”) systems subjacent to cortex (“superficial WM” ) are found to be a limiting factor to dMRI tractography. Superficial WM systems are examined with dMRI itself, and with analysis of histological data from the scanned brains. dMRI data was acquired ex-vivo at exceptional spatial and angular resolution (250μm in Rhesus, 150μm in Marmoset). The superficial WM wa...

  8. Presence of D4 dopamine receptors in human prefrontal cortex: a postmortem study Presença de receptores dopaminérgicos D4 em córtex cerebral humano: um estudo post-mortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Marazziti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to explore the presence and the distribution of D4 dopamine receptors in postmortem human prefrontal cortex, by means of the binding of [³H]YM-09151-2, an antagonist that has equal affinity for D2, D3 and D4 receptors. It was therefore necessary to devise a unique assay method in order to distinguish and detect the D4 component. METHOD: Frontal cortex samples were harvested postmortem, during autopsy sessions, from 5 subjects. In the first assay, tissue homogenates were incubated with increasing concentrations of [³H]YM-09151-2, whereas L-745870, which has a high affinity for D4 and a low affinity for D2/D3 receptors, was used as the displacer. In the second assay, raclopride, which has a high affinity for D2/D3 receptors and a low affinity for D4 receptors, was used to block D2/D3. The L-745870 (500 nM was added to both assays in order to determine the nonspecific binding. RESULTS: Our experiments revealed the presence of specific and saturable binding of [³H]YM-09151-2. The blockade of D2 and D3 receptors with raclopride ensured that the D4 receptors were labeled. The mean maximum binding capacity was 88 ± 25 fmol/mg protein, and the dissociation constant was 0.8 ± 0.4 nM. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, although not conclusive, suggest that the density of D4 receptors is low in the human prefrontal cortex.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença e a distribuição de receptores dopaminérgicos do tipo 4 (D4 no córtex cerebral humano em amostras post-mortem através do bloqueio com ³H-YM-09151-2 - um antagonista com afinidade equivalente pelos receptores D2, D3 e D4 - e do desenvolvimento de um método para a detecção específica do componente D4. MÉTODO: Foram obtidas amostras de córtex cerebral de cinco cadáveres. Em um primeiro ensaio, os homogeneizados de tecido cerebral foram incubados em concentrações crescentes de ³H-YM-09151-2, enquanto que o L-745

  9. Spontaneous Up states in vitro: a single-metric index of the functional maturation and regional differentiation of the cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos eRigas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the development and differentiation of the neocortex remains a central focus of neuroscience. While previous studies have examined isolated aspects of cellular and synaptic organization, an integrated functional index of the cortical microcircuit is still lacking. Here we aimed to provide such an index, in the form of spontaneously recurring periods of persistent network activity -or Up states- recorded in mouse cortical slices. These coordinated network dynamics emerge through the orchestrated regulation of multiple cellular and synaptic elements and represent the default activity of the cortical microcircuit. To explore whether spontaneous Up states can capture developmental changes in intracortical networks we obtained local field potential recordings throughout the mouse lifespan. Two independent and complementary methodologies revealed that Up state activity is systematically modified by age, with the largest changes occurring during early development and adolescence. To explore possible regional heterogeneities we also compared the development of Up states in two distinct cortical areas and show that primary somatosensory cortex develops at a faster pace than primary motor cortex. Our findings suggest that in vitro Up states can serve as a functional index of cortical development and differentiation and can provide a baseline for comparing experimental and/or genetic mouse models.

  10. Altered Coupling between Motion-Related Activation and Resting-State Brain Activity in the Ipsilesional Sensorimotor Cortex after Cerebral Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity maps using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI can closely resemble task fMRI activation patterns, suggesting that resting-state brain activity may predict task-evoked activation or behavioral performance. However, this conclusion was mostly drawn upon a healthy population. It remains unclear whether the predictive ability of resting-state brain activity for task-evoked activation would change under different pathological conditions. This study investigated dynamic changes of coupling between patterns of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC and motion-related activation in different stages of cerebral stroke. Twenty stroke patients with hand motor function impairment were involved. rs-fMRI and hand motion-related fMRI data were acquired in the acute, subacute, and early chronic stages of cerebral stroke on a 3-T magnetic resonance (MR scanner. Sixteen healthy participants were enrolled as controls. For each subject, an activation map of the affected hand was first created using general linear model analysis on task fMRI data, and then an RSFC map was determined by seeding at the peak region of hand motion activation during the intact hand task. We then measured the extent of coupling between the RSFC maps and motion-related activation maps. Dynamic changes of the coupling between the two fMRI maps were estimated using one-way repeated measures analysis of variance across the three stages. Moreover, imaging parameters were correlated with motor performances. Data analysis showed that there were different coupling patterns between motion-related activation and RSFC maps associating with the affected motor regions during the acute, subacute, and early chronic stages of stroke. Coupling strengths increased as the recovery from stroke progressed. Coupling strengths were correlated with hand motion performance in the acute stage, while coupling recovery was negatively correlated with the recovery

  11. Effect of epileptogenic agents on the incorporation of /sup 3/H-glycine into proteins in the cat's cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojik, I.; Feher, O.

    1982-06-01

    Filter paper strips soaked in /sup 3/H-glycine solution were applied to acoustic cortex of cats, anaesthetized with Nembutal and pretreated with epileptogenic agents (Metrazol, G-penicillin, and 3-amino-pyridine) and cycloheximide. The untreated contralateral hemisphere served as control. After 1 h incubation, both cortical samples were excised simultaneously and fixed in Bouin solution for autoradiography. Incorporation was blocked by cycloheximide. There was no glycine incorporation on the penicillin-treated side, while pyramidal cells were intensively labelled in layers II-V of the mirror focus. 3-Aminopyridine produced the same result. Metrazol as convulsant proved to be far weaker than the previous two. The intensity of incorporation was significantly more intensive in the mirror focus than in the primary one. Penicillin and 3-aminopyridine, while provoking cortical seizures, seem to inhibit glycine incorporation into a neuron-specific, function-dependent protein contained by the labelled cells in the autoradiogram.

  12. A cable theory based biophysical model of resistance change in crab peripheral nerve and human cerebral cortex during neuronal depolarisation: implications for electrical impedance tomography of fast neural activity in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, Adam; Bayford, Richard; Holder, David

    2012-05-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a medical imaging method with the potential to image resistance changes which occur during neuronal depolarisation in the brain with a resolution of milliseconds and millimetres. Most biomedical EIT is conducted with applied current over 10 kHz, as this reduces electrode impedance and so instrumentation artefact. However, impedance changes during neuronal depolarization are negligible at such frequencies. In order to estimate optimal recording frequency and specify instrumentation requirements, we have modelled their amplitude and frequency dependence during evoked activity using cable theory. Published values were used for the electrical properties and geometry of cell processes. The model was adjusted for the filtering effect of membrane capacitance and proportion of active neurons. At DC, resistance decreases by 2.8 % in crab nerve during the compound action potential and 0.6 % (range 0.06-1.7 %) locally in cerebral cortex during evoked physiological activity. Both predictions correlate well with independent experimental data. This encourages the view that true tomographic imaging of fast neural activity in the brain is possible, at least with epicortical electrodes in the first instance. It is essential to undertake this at low frequencies below about 100 Hz as above 1 kHz the signal becomes vanishingly small.

  13. Effect of destruction of central noradrenergic and serotonergic nerve terminals by systemic neurotoxins on the long-term effects of antidepressants on. beta. -adrenoceptors and 5-HT/sub 2/ binding sites in the rat cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, H.; Ross, S.B.; Saellemark, M. (Astra Pharmaceuticals AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden))

    1984-01-01

    The dependence of intact noradrenergic and serotonergic nerve terminals for the decrease in the number of ..beta..-adrenoceptors and 5-HT/sub 2/ binding sites in the cerebral cortex produced by long-term treatment of rats with antidepressant drugs was examined. Noradrenergic nerve terminals were destroyed with the selective noradrenaline neurotoxin DSP4, and serotonergic nerve terminals were destroyed with p-chloroamphetamine (PCA). It was found that lesioning of the noradrenergic nerve terminals abolished the decrease in ..beta..-adrenoceptors produced by desipramine, mianserin and zimeldine and partially antagonized that of the ..beta..-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol. PCA pretreatment did not antagonize the long-term effects on the ..beta..-adrenoceptor produced by these compounds. Lesioning of serotonergic nerve terminals affected the down-regulation of 5-HT/sub 2/ binding sites produced by long-term treatment with mianserin, desipramine and amiflamine. DSP4 pretreatment partially abolished the down-regulation of 5-HT/sub 2/ binding sites produced by long-term treatment with desipramine, while the effects of mianserin and amiflamine were inaffected by pretreatment with DSP4.

  14. Pre and post operative evaluation of the perfusion reserve by acetazolamide 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in patients with chronic occlusive cerebral arteries. A comparative study with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Masuda, Kouji; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Fukui, Masashi

    1994-01-01

    We studied the pre and post-operative perfusion reserve using Diamox 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT in 7 patients with chronic occlusive cerebral arteries and then compared the results with PET. STAMCA anastomosis was performed on 5 patients, while a carotid endarterectomy was done on 2 patients. The cerebral blood flow, the vascular response to CO 2 or Diamox, the oxygen extraction fraction and transit time (CBV/CBF) were measured by PET. In the pre-operative state, the visual evaluations for hypoperfusion area at rest agreed in 5 out of 7 patients in HMPAO SPECT and PET studies. In the remaining 2 patients, hypoperfusion areas were only detected in the PET study. The pre-operative evaluation of perfusion reserve agreed in 2 patients. In the remaining 5 patients, 3 patients showed definite positive (++) in PET and positive (+) in HMPAO SPECT, and one patient showed positive (+) in PET and negative (-) in HMPAO SPECT. The post-operative change of hypoperfusion areas well agreed in HMPAO SPECT and PET studies. However, the change of perfusion reserve was underestimated in HMPAO SPECT compared with PET. In the semiquantitative and quantitative analyses, the count rate ratios (affected/unaffected side) in HMPAO SPECT were apparently higher than those of CBF in PET. The postoperative change of the count rate ratios in HMPAO SPECT were smaller than those of CBF in PET. There was no significant correlation between the change in the ratio of the HMPAO SPECT after the administration of Diamox and the oxygen extraction fraction, and it was thus thought to be impossible to predict the areas with an increased oxygen extraction fraction. Thus, Diamox HMPAO SPECT may underestimate the areas of hypoperfusion or decrease in perfusion reserve when compared with PET. We should consider these limitations in the evaluation of pre and post operative cerebral hemodynamics. (author)

  15. Ketamine-induced apoptosis in the mouse cerebral cortex follows similar characteristic of physiological apoptosis and can be regulated by neuronal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Shen, Feng-Yan; Zou, Rong; Zheng, Jing-Jing; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2017-06-17

    The effects of general anesthetics on inducing neuronal apoptosis during early brain development are well-documented. However, since physiological apoptosis also occurs during this developmental window, it is important to determine whether anesthesia-induced apoptosis targets the same cell population as physiological apoptosis or different cell types altogether. To provide an adequate plane of surgery, ketamine was co-administered with dexmedetomidine. The apoptotic neurons in the mouse primary somatosensory cortex (S1) were quantitated by immunohistochemistry. To explore the effect of neural activity on ketamine-induced apoptosis, the approaches of Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) and an environmental enrichment (EE) were performed. Ketamine-induced apoptosis in S1 is most prominent at postnatal days 5 and 7 (P5 - P7), and becomes insignificant by P12. Physiological and ketamine-induced apoptosis follow similar developmental patterns, mostly comprised of layer V pyramidal neurons at P5 and shifting to mostly layer II to IV GABAergic neurons by P9. Changes in neuronal activity induced by the DREADD system bidirectionally regulated the pattern of ketamine-induced apoptosis, with reduced activity inducing increased apoptosis and shifting the lamination pattern to a more immature form. Importantly, rearing mice in an EE significantly reduced the magnitude of ketamine-induced apoptosis and shifted its developmental pattern to a more mature form. Together, these results demonstrate that lamination pattern and cell-type dependent vulnerability to ketamine-induced apoptosis follow the physiological apoptosis pattern and are age- and activity-dependent. Naturally elevating neuronal activity is a possible method for reducing the adverse effects of general anesthesia.

  16. Age-dependent decrease and alternative splicing of methionine synthase mRNA in human cerebral cortex and an accelerated decrease in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R Muratore

    Full Text Available The folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS is highly sensitive to cellular oxidative status, and lower MS activity increases production of the antioxidant glutathione, while simultaneously decreasing more than 200 methylation reactions, broadly affecting metabolic activity. MS mRNA levels in postmortem human cortex from subjects across the lifespan were measured and a dramatic progressive biphasic decrease of more than 400-fold from 28 weeks of gestation to 84 years was observed. Further analysis revealed alternative splicing of MS mRNA, including deletion of folate-binding domain exons and age-dependent deletion of exons from the cap domain, which protects vitamin B12 (cobalamin from oxidation. Although three species of MS were evident at the protein level, corresponding to full-length and alternatively spliced mRNA transcripts, decreasing mRNA levels across the lifespan were not associated with significant changes in MS protein or methionine levels. MS mRNA levels were significantly lower in autistic subjects, especially at younger ages, and this decrease was replicated in cultured human neuronal cells by treatment with TNF-α, whose CSF levels are elevated in autism. These novel findings suggest that rather than serving as a housekeeping enzyme, MS has a broad and dynamic role in coordinating metabolism in the brain during development and aging. Factors adversely affecting MS activity, such as oxidative stress, can be a source of risk for neurological disorders across the lifespan via their impact on methylation reactions, including epigenetic regulation of gene expression.

  17. Voluntary running in young adult mice reduces anxiety-like behavior and increases the accumulation of bioactive lipids in the cerebral cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván J Santos-Soto

    Full Text Available Combinatorial therapies using voluntary exercise and diet supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids have synergistic effects benefiting brain function and behavior. Here, we assessed the effects of voluntary exercise on anxiety-like behavior and on total FA accumulation within three brain regions: cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of running versus sedentary young adult male C57/BL6J mice. The running group was subjected to one month of voluntary exercise in their home cages, while the sedentary group was kept in their home cages without access to a running wheel. Elevated plus maze (EPM, several behavioral postures and two risk assessment behaviors (RABs were then measured in both animal groups followed immediately by blood samplings for assessment of corticosterone levels. Brains were then dissected for non-targeted lipidomic analysis of selected brain regions using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Results showed that mice in the running group, when examined in the EPM, displayed significantly lower anxiety-like behavior, higher exploratory and risky behaviors, compared to sedentary mice. Notably, we found no differences in blood corticosterone levels between the two groups, suggesting that the different EPM and RAB behaviors were not related to reduced physiological stress in the running mice. Lipidomics analysis revealed a region-specific cortical decrease of the saturated FA: palmitate (C16:0 and a concomitant increase of polyunsaturated FA, arachidonic acid (AA, omega 6-C20: 4 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, omega 3-C22: 6, in running mice compared to sedentary controls. Finally, we found that running mice, as opposed to sedentary animals, showed significantly enhanced cortical expression of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 protein, a signaling molecule required in the production of both AA and DHA. In summary, our data support the anxiolytic effects of exercise and provide insights into the molecular processes

  18. The value of qualitative and quantitative assessment of lesion to cerebral cortex signal ratio on double inversion recovery sequence in the differentiation of demyelinating plaques from non-specific T2 hyperintensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamcan, Salih; Battal, Bilal; Akgun, Veysel; Sari, Sebahattin; Tasar, Mustafa [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik, Ankara (Turkey); Oz, Oguzhan; Tasdemir, Serdar [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Neurology, Ankara (Turkey); Bozkurt, Yalcin [Golcuk Military Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2017-02-15

    To assess the usefulness of the visual assessment and to determine diagnostic value of the lesion-to-cerebral cortex signal ratio (LCSR) measurement in the differentiation of demyelinating plaques and non-specific T2 hyperintensities on double inversion recovery (DIR) sequence. DIR and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences of 25 clinically diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 25 non-MS patients with non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions were evaluated visually and LCSRs were measured by two observers independently. On DIR sequence, the calculated mean LCSR ± SD for demyelinating plaques and non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions were 1.60 ± 0.26 and 0.75 ± 0.19 for observer1, and 1.61 ± 0.27 and 0.74 ± 0.19 for observer2. LCSRs of demyelinating plaques were significantly higher than other non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions on DIR sequence. By using the visual assessment demyelinating plaques were differentiated from non-specific T2-hyperintensities with 92.8 % sensitivity, 97.5 % specificity and 95.1 % accuracy for observer1 and 92.8 % sensitivity, 95 % specificity and 93.9 % accuracy for observer2. Visual assessment and LCSR measurement on DIR sequence seems to be useful for differentiating demyelinating MS plaques from supratentorial non-specific T2 hyperintensities. This feature can be used for diagnosis of MS particularly in patients with only supratentorial T2-hyperintense lesions who are categorized as radiologically possible MS. (orig.)

  19. Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding in Bovine Cerebral Microvessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroutka, Stephen J.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Reinhard, John F.; Synder, Solomon H.

    1980-05-01

    Purified preparations of microvessels from bovine cerebral cortex contain substantial levels of alpha-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, and histamine 1 receptor binding sites but only negligible serotonin, muscarinic cholinergic, opiate, and benzodiazepine receptor binding. Norepinephrine and histamine may be endogenous regulators of the cerebral microcirculation at the observed receptors.

  20. ApoER2 Controls Not Only Neuronal Migration in the Intermediate Zone But Also Termination of Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Yuki; Kubo, Ken-Ichiro; Fujino, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Tokuo T; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2018-01-01

    Neuronal migration contributes to the establishment of mammalian brain. The extracellular protein Reelin sends signals to various downstream molecules by binding to its receptors, the apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and very low-density lipoprotein receptor and exerts essential roles in the neuronal migration and formation of the layered neocortex. However, the cellular and molecular functions of Reelin signaling in the cortical development are not yet fully understood. Here, to gain insight into the role of Reelin signaling during cortical development, we examined the migratory behavior of Apoer2-deficient neurons in the developing brain. Stage-specific labeling of newborn neurons revealed that the neurons ectopically invaded the marginal zone (MZ) and that neuronal migration of both early- and late-born neurons was disrupted in the intermediate zone (IZ) in the Apoer2 KO mice. Rescue experiments showed that ApoER2 functions both in cell-autonomous and noncell-autonomous manners, that Rap1, integrin, and Akt are involved in the termination of migration beneath the MZ, and that Akt also controls neuronal migration in the IZ downstream of ApoER2. These data indicate that ApoER2 controls multiple processes in neuronal migration, including the early stage of radial migration and termination of migration beneath the MZ in the developing neocortex. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Oxygen consumption and blood flow coupling in human motor cortex during intense finger tapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyedi Vafaee, Manouchehr; Vang, Kim; Bergersen, Linda H

    2012-01-01

    Rates of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and glucose consumption (CMR(glc)) rise in cerebral cortex during continuous stimulation, while the oxygen-glucose index (OGI) declines as an index of mismatched coupling of oxygen consumption (cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen-CMRO(2)) to CBF and CMR(glc). To t......Rates of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and glucose consumption (CMR(glc)) rise in cerebral cortex during continuous stimulation, while the oxygen-glucose index (OGI) declines as an index of mismatched coupling of oxygen consumption (cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen-CMRO(2)) to CBF and CMR...

  2. Lack of insulin results in reduced seladin-1 expression in primary cultured neurons and in cerebral cortex of STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazkayasi, Inci; Ismail, Muhammad-Al-Mustafa; Parrado-Fernandez, Cristina; Björkhem, Ingemar; Pekiner, Can; Uma, Serdar; Cedazo-Minguez, Angel; Burul-Bozkurt, Nihan

    2016-10-28

    Several studies demonstrated that Diabetes mellitus (DM) enhances the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although hyperglycemia and perturbed function of insulin signaling have been proposed to contribute to AD pathogenesis, the molecular mechanisms behind this association is not clear yet. Seladin-1 is an enzyme catalyzing the last step in cholesterol biosynthesis converting desmosterol to cholesterol. The neuroprotective function of seladin-1 has gained interest in AD research recently. Seladin-1 has anti-apoptotic properties and regulates the expression of β-secretase (BACE-1). Here we measured seladin-1 mRNA and protein expressions in rat primary cultured neurons under diabetic conditions and also in the brains of rats with streptozotocine (STZ)-induced diabetes. We show that constant lack of insulin for 5days decreased seladin-1 levels in cultured rat primary neurons. Similarly, a decrease in seladin-1 was found in the brains of rats with STZ-induced diabetes. However, if the lack of insulin and/or high glucose treatment was intermittent, neuronal seladin-1 levels were not affected in vitro. On the other hand, treatment of neurons with metformin resulted in a significant increase in seladin-1. Constant lack of insulin for 5days, as well as high glucose treatment, increased the neuronal expression of BACE-1 in vitro, but not in the in vivo model. Our study defines insulin as a regulator of seladin-1 expression for the first time. The relevance of these findings for the association of DM with AD is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve?Evidence from cerebral glucose metabolism in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Eva Kowoll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bilingualism is discussed as one factor contributing to ‘cognitive reserve’ (CR as it enhances executive control functions. To elucidate the underlying cerebral correlates regional glucose uptake was compared between bilinguals and monolinguals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and beginning Alzheimer´s disease (AD by using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET. Methods: 30 patients (73.2 ± 7.4 diagnosed with MCI or probable AD received physical and neuropsychological examinations, blood tests and FDG-PET scans. 16 patients were classified as lifelong bilinguals following the criterion of Bialystok et al.; groups were matched for age, sex and MMSE scores. Analyses were conducted using SPM 8 using the whole brain as reference region for intensity normalization controlling for years of education.Results: Bilingual patient groups showed substantially greater impairment of glucose uptake in frontotemporal and parietal regions (including Brodmann areas 9, 47, 40 and 21 and in the left cerebellum relative to monolingual patients.Conclusions: Bilingualism is likely to contribute to CR given that bilingual patients showed more severe brain changes than monolinguals when adjusting for severity of cognitive impairment . The latter did not only comprise Brodmann areas relevant to speech and language but also structures typically involved in AD pathology such as the temporal and the parietal cortices.

  4. Tributyltin induces oxidative damage, inflammation and apoptosis via disturbance in blood–brain barrier and metal homeostasis in cerebral cortex of rat brain: An in vivo and in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Sumonto; Gera, Ruchi; Siddiqui, Waseem A.; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainable blood–brain barrier disruption was found by single acute dose of TBTC (up to 1 week). • Imbalance in essential metal homeostasis in the cortical tissue may lead to oxidative stress. • Astroglial activation and inflammation resulted in neuronal loss. • TBTC primarily induced apoptosis as found in in-vitro study via activation of calcium, p38 signaling, ROS and caspases. • Calcium inhibitors and anti-oxidants showed protective efficacy in TBTC induced cell death. - Abstract: Tributyltin (TBT), a member of the organotin family, is primarily used for its biocidal activity. Persistent environmental levels of TBT pose threat to the ecosystem. Since neurotoxic influence of TBT remains elusive, we therefore, studied its effect on cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats. A single oral dose of Tributyltin-Chloride (TBTC) (10, 20, 30 mg/kg) was administered and the animals were sacrificed on day 3 and day 7. Blood–brain barrier permeability remained disrupted significantly till day 7 with all the doses of TBTC. Pro-oxidant metal levels (Fe, Cu) were increased with a concomitant decrease in Zn. ROS generation was substantially raised resulting in oxidative damage (increased protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation) with marked decline in tissue antioxidant status (GSH/GSSG levels). Protein expression studies indicated astrocyte activation, upregulation of inflammatory molecules (IL-6, Cox-2 and NF-κB) and simultaneous elevation in the apoptotic index (Bax/Bcl2). Neurodegeneration was evident by reduced neurofilament expression and increased calpain cleaved Tau levels. The in-vitro study demonstrated involvement of calcium and signaling molecules (p38), with downstream activation of caspase-3 and -8, and apoptotic cell death was evident by nuclear fragmentation, DNA laddering and Annexin V binding experiments. Ca 2+ inhibitors (BAPTA-AM, EGTA, and RR) and free radical scavengers (NAC and biliprotein [C-PC]) increased cell viability (MTT

  5. Modulation of cerebral RAGE expression following nitric oxide synthase inhibition in rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Rosaria; Demartini, Chiara; Zanaboni, Anna Maria; Blandini, Fabio; Amantea, Diana; Tassorelli, Cristina

    2017-04-05

    The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a key mediator of neuroinflammation following cerebral ischemia. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a dualistic role in cerebral ischemia, depending on whether it originates from neuronal, inducible or endothelial synthase. Although a dynamic interplay between RAGE and NO pathways exists, its relevance in ischemic stroke has not been investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibition on RAGE expression in rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo). Full-length (fl-RAGE) gene expression was elevated in the striatum and, to a lesser extent, in the cortex of rats undergone tMCAo. The exacerbation of cortical damage caused by systemic administration of L-N-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine (L-NIO), a relatively selective inhibitor of endothelial NOS (eNOS), was associated with elevated mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and fl-RAGE in both the cortex and the striatum. Conversely, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a non-selective NOS inhibitor, decreased cortical damage, did not affect cerebral cytokine mRNA levels, while it increased fl-RAGE mRNA expression only in the striatum. Fl-RAGE striatal protein levels varied accordingly with observed mRNA changes in the striatum, while in the cortex, RAGE protein levels were reduced by tMCAo and further decreased following L-NIO treatment. Modulation of RAGE expression by different inhibitors of NOS may have opposite effects on transient cortical ischemia: the non selective inhibition of NOS activity is protective, while the selective inhibition of eNOS is harmful, probably via the activation of inflammatory pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of the Bee Venom Herbal Acupuncture on the Neurotransmitters of the Rat Brain Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Seok Yun

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of bee venom Herbal Acupuncture on neurotransmitters in the rat brain cortex, herbal acupuncture with bee venom group and normal saline group was performed at LI4 bilaterally of the rat. the average optical density of neurotransmitters from the cerebral cortex was analysed 30 minutes after the herbal aqupuncture, by the immunohistochemistry. The results were as follows: 1. The density of NADPH-diaphorase in bee venom group was increased significantly at the motor cortex, visual cortex, auditory cortex, cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex and perirhinal cortex compared to the normal saline group. 2. The average optical density of vasoactive intestinal peptide in bee venom group had significant changes at the insular cortex, retrosplenial cortex and perirhinal cortex, compared to the normal saline group. 3. The average optical density of neuropeptide-Y in bee venom group increased significantly at the visual cortex and cingulate cortex, compared to the normal saline group.

  7. Automated immunohistochemical method to analyze large areas of the human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbass, Mohamad; Trought, Kathleen; Long, David; Semechko, Anton; Wong, Albert H C

    2018-01-15

    There have been inconsistencies in the histological abnormalities found in the cerebral cortex from patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Discrepancies in previously published reports may arise from small sample sizes, inconsistent methodology and biased cell counting. We applied automated quantification of neuron density, neuron size and cortical layer thickness in large regions of the cerebral cortex in psychiatric patients. This method accurately segments DAPI positive cells that are also stained with CUX2 and FEZF2. Cortical layer thickness, neuron density and neuron size were automatically computed for each cortical layer in numerous Brodmann areas. We did not find pronounced cytoarchitectural abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex or orbitofrontal cortex in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder. There were no significant differences in layer thickness measured in immunohistochemically stained slides compared with traditional Nissl stained slides. Automated cell counts were correlated, reliable and consistent with manual counts, while being much less time-consuming. We demonstrate the validity of using a novel automated analysis approach to post-mortem brain tissue. We were able to analyze large cortical areas and quantify specific cell populations using immunohistochemical markers. Future analyses could benefit from efficient automated analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. CEREBRAL CORTEX DAMAGE INDUCED BY ACUTE ORAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... Binge ethanol exposure decreases neurogenesis in adult rat hippocampus. J Neurochem, 83(5): 1087-1093. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.2002.01214.x. 16. Obernier JA, White AM, Swartzwelder HS, Crews FT. 2002. Cognitive deficits and CNS damage after a 4-day binge ethanol exposure in rats. Pharmacol ...

  9. Developmental malformations of the cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Weber, D.; Sorge, I.; Hirsch, W.; Merkenschlager, A.

    2010-01-01

    Migration disorders (MD) are increasingly recognized as an important cause of epilepsy and developmental delay. Up to 25% of children with refractory epilepsy have a cortical malformation. MD encompass a wide spectrum with underlying genetic etiologies and clinical manifestations. Research regarding the delineation of the genetic and molecular basis of these disorders has provided greater insight into the pathogenesis of not only the malformation but also the process involved in normal cortical development. Diagnosis of MD is important since patients who fail three antiepileptic medications are less likely to have their seizures controlled with additional trials of medications and therefore epilepsy surgery should be considered. Recent improvements in neuroimaging have resulted in a significant increase in the recognition of MD. Findings can be subdivided in disorders due to abnormal neurogenesis, neuronal migration, neuronal migration arrest and neuronal organization resulting in different malformations like microcephaly, lissencephaly, schizencephaly and heterotopia. The examination protocol should include T1-w and T2-w sequences in adequate slice orientation. T1-w turbo-inversion recovery sequences (TIR) can be helpful to diagnose heterotopia. Contrast agent is needed only to exclude other differential diagnoses. (orig.)

  10. Contributions of Early Versus Later-Generated Cortical Layers to the Development of Laminar Patterns of Ferret Somatosensory Cortex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noctor, Stephen C

    1998-01-01

    .... While it is recognized that the early-generated components of cerebral cortex are essential for the formation of important architectural structures, the contributions of later generated cortical...

  11. Peripheral Nerve Injury in Developing Rats Reorganizes Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-19

    identify by block num ber) motor cortex neuroplasticity development cerebral cortex 0 ABSTRACT (Contfnue an revered Old. It necessay nd identify by block...PAGE (Mn Dt0 "ted) . .. .. 5 27 004 , -. - % SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Wign Dale, Ente,.dD - arts was present and there was an absence of a

  12. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  13. Cholinergic markers in the cortex and hippocampus of some animal species and their correlation to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta-Salazar, E; Cuellar-Lemus, C A; Díaz-Cintra, S; Feria-Velasco, A I

    2014-10-01

    The cholinergic system includes neurons located in the basal forebrain and their long axons that reach the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. This system modulates cognitive function. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ageing, cognitive impairment is associated with progressive damage to cholinergic fibres, which leads us to the cholinergic hypothesis for AD. The AD produces alterations in the expression and activity of acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE), enzymes specifically related to cholinergic system function. Both proteins play a role in cholinergic transmission, which is altered in both the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus due to ageing and AD. Dementia disorders are associated with the severe destruction and disorganisation of the cholinergic projections extending to both structures. Specific markers, such as anti-ChAT and anti-AChE antibodies, have been used in light immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy assays to study this system in adult members of certain animal species. This paper reviews the main immunomorphological studies of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in some animal species with particular emphasis on the cholinergic system and its relationship with the AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain region-selective mechanisms contribute to the progression of cerebral alterations in acute liver failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauli, Omar; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Rodrigo, Regina; Agusti, Ana; Boix, Jordi; Nieto-Charques, Laura; Cerdán, Sebastián; Felipo, Vicente

    2011-02-01

    Patients with acute liver failure (ALF) often die of intracranial pressure (IP) and cerebral herniation. Main contributors to increased IP are ammonia, glutamine, edema, and blood flow. The sequence of events and underlying mechanisms, as well as the temporal pattern, regional distribution, and contribution of each parameter to the progression of neurologic deterioration and IP, are unclear. We studied rats with ALF to follow the progression of changes in ammonia, glutamine, grade and type (vasogenic or cytotoxic) of edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, cerebral blood flow, and IP. We assessed whether the changes in these parameters were similar between frontal cortex and cerebellum and evaluated the presence, type, and progression of edema in 12 brain areas. ALF was induced by injection of galactosamine. The grade and type of edema was assessed by measuring the apparent diffusion coefficient by magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebral blood flow was measured by magnetic resonance and blood-brain barrier permeability by Evans blue-albumin extravasation. Increased IP arises from an early increase of blood-brain barrier permeability in certain areas (including cerebellum but not frontal cortex) followed by vasogenic edema. Ammonia and glutamine then increase progressively, leading to cytotoxic edema in many areas. Alterations in lactate and cerebral blood flow are later events that further increase IP. Different mechanisms in specific regions of the brain contribute, with different temporal patterns, to the progression of cerebral alterations and IP in ALF. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of insulin on visuo-spatial memory and histology of cerebral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insulin action on learning and memory is linked to nitric oxide (NO) signalling, but its effects on memory and histology of cerebral cortex in conditions of varied NO availability is unclear. This research sought to determine the effect of insulin on visuo-spatial learning, memory and histology of cerebral cortex during NO ...

  16. Cerebral visual impairment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, G N; Jacobson, L K

    2001-12-01

    Much of the brain is devoted to vision. Damage causes visual problems ranging from profound impairment, to cognitive visual problems only. A child with cerebral blindness may have intact perception of movement. The principal cognitive visual pathways comprise the dorsal and the ventral streams. The dorsal stream runs between the occipital lobes (which process incoming visual data), the posterior parietal lobes (which process the whole visual scene and give attention to component parts), the motor cortex (which facilitates movement through the visual scene) and the frontal cortex (which directs attention to chosen parts of the visual scene). The ventral stream runs between the occipital lobes and the temporal lobes (which enable recognition of people and objects, facilitate route finding and serve visual memory). Damage to these pathways disrupts these functions in a variety of combinations. This paper reviews cerebral visual impairment in children, the differential diagnosis and the management. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. Cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenan, T.J.; Grossman, R.I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews retrospectively MR, CT, and angiographic findings in patients with cerebral vasculitis in order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the various imaging modalities, as well as the spectrum of imaging abnormalities in this disease entity. Studies were retrospectively reviewed in 12 patients with cerebral vasculitis proved by means of angiography and/or brain biopsy

  18. Growth differentiation factor 11 improves neurobehavioral recovery and stimulates angiogenesis in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingxi; Zhang, Lina; Niu, Tengfei; Ai, Chibo; Jia, Gongwei; Jin, Xinhao; Wen, Lan; Zhang, Keming; Zhang, Qinbin; Li, Changqing

    2018-02-09

    The recent suggestion that growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) acts as a rejuvenation factor has remained controversial. However, in addition to its role in aging, the relationship between GDF11 and cerebral ischemia is still an important area that needs more investigation. Here we examined effects of GDF11 on angiogenesis and recovery of neurological function in a rat model of stroke. Exogenous recombinant GDF11 (rGDF11) at different doses were directly injected into the tail vein in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Neurobehavioral tests were performed, the proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs) and GDF11 downstream signal activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5) were assessed, and functional microvessels were measured. Results showed that rGDF11 at a dosage of 0.1 mg/kg/day could effectively activate cerebral angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, rGDF11 improved the modified neurological severity scores and the adhesive removal somatosensory test, promoted proliferation of ECs, induced ALK5 and increased vascular surface area and the number of vascular branch points in the peri-infarct cerebral cortex after cerebral I/R. These effects were suppressed by blocking ALK5. Our novel findings shed new light on the role of GDF11. Our results strongly suggest that GDF11 improves neurofunctional recovery from cerebral I/R injury and that this effect is mediated partly through its proangiogenic effect in the peri-infarct cerebral cortex, which is associated with ALK5. Thus, GDF11/ALK5 may represent new therapeutic targets for aiding recovery from stroke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Ruth M

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy affects movement and posture causing activity limitation; it is a lifelong condition, with foreseeable complications. There are evidence-based interventions that will prevent participation restriction. Childhood interventions are generally delivered within multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs. Sadly young adults are often not transferred to an appropriate multidisciplinary adult neurodisability service. An unexplained neurological deterioration should warrant further investigation. Pain is an important underreported symptom and musculoskeletal complaints are prevalent. Disabled adults have less participation socially, in employment, marriage, and independent living related to health problems, discrimination, or lack of access to information, support, and equipment. Evidence-based interventions include a variety of modalities at all International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health levels to include support and adaptations. Rehabilitation interventions that have been shown to be effective include surgery in childhood, ankle-foot orthoses, strength training, and electrical stimulation. Management of spasticity is beneficial and has an evidence base. Orthotics and casting are also used. Systematic reviews of upper limb therapies also show the benefit of physical therapy exercise, strengthening, fitness training, and constraint therapy. Occupational therapy has a weaker evidence base than in other disabling conditions but many modalities are transferable. Speech therapy is effective although no specific intervention is better. Psychological wellbeing interventions, including improving self-efficacy, health knowledge, and coping skills, are beneficial. Management of continence, nutrition, and fatigue promote wellbeing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. TEMPERAMENT AS A FACTOR INFLUENCING ON ADAPTIVE RESERVES OF YOUNG SCHOOLCHILDREN ORGANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Sergeevna Bedereva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the relationship with intensity of energy metabolism and the level of activation of the cerebral cortex in primary schoolchildren with different temperament characteristic and their possible the impact on the backup power of the brain of children 8–10 years. Materials and methods. The study involved 118 children aged 8–10 years of Krasnoyarsk (mean age 8,9±0,7 years. The potentials were recorded unipolarly in 5 main leads. The study was conducted in the 3-minute test with hyperventilation, the recorded values of the background state and in the 5th minute of the recovery period. Omega-potential were recorded in the frontal leads. Results. Determined that children with different type of temperament are significant differences in the intensity of energy metabolism, activation of the cerebral cortex, and the backup power capabilities of the brain. Children with type of temperament “adequate” had optimal level of activation, mean values of DCP and fairly well developed backup energy capabilities of the brain. In children with type of temperament “intense” was defined with a high level of activation and neuroenergymatabolism, but they had low reserves of energy metabolism of the brain. The “calm” in contrast, at low intensity of neuroenergetics background state had high reserve energy capabilities of the brain. Conclusion. The findings suggest that temperament is correlated with the system of regulation of activity of the cerebral cortex and can to determine individual adaptive reserves of an organism of the child.

  1. The effect of prolonged exposure to morphine on canine cerebral 5-HT2A receptors measured with (123)I-R91150 SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Antita; Polis, Ingeborgh; Vermeire, Simon; Waelbers, Tim; Croubels, Siska; Duchateau, Luc; Van Dorpe, Sylvia; Eersels, Jos; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2014-07-01

    Down-stream neuronal alterations, including changes in the 5-HT-2A receptor system, play an important role in the etiology and treatment of depression. The present study examined the effect of prolonged opioid treatment on cerebral 5-HT2A receptors. Cerebral 5-HT2A receptor availability was estimated in seven healthy five-year-old female neutered Beagle dogs pre and post 10-day morphine treatment (oral sustained release morphine 20mg twice daily for 10 days) with (123)I-R-91150, a 5-HT2A selective radioligand, and SPECT. 5-HT2A receptor binding indices (BI) for the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortex and the subcortical region were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear mixed-effect model with treatment as fixed effect and dog as random effect. Morphine treatment significantly (P≤0.05) lowered 5-HT2A BIs in the right and left frontal cortex, the right and left temporal cortex, the right and left parietal cortex, and the subcortical region. The decreased cerebral 5-HT2A receptor availability following prolonged morphine exposure provides further evidence for an interaction between the opioid and serotonergic system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. Alterations in cortical thickness and neuronal density in the frontal cortex of Albert Einstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B; Harvey, T

    1996-06-07

    Neuronal density, neuron size, and the number of neurons under 1 mm2 of cerebral cortical surface area were measured in the right pre-frontal cortex of Albert Einstein and five elderly control subjects. Measurement of neuronal density used the optical dissector technique on celloidin-embedded cresyl violet-stained sections. The neurons counted provided a systematic random sample for the measurement of cell body cross-sectional area. Einstein's cortex did not differ from the control subjects in the number of neurons under 1 mm2 of cerebral cortex or in mean neuronal size. Because Einstein's cortex was thinner than the controls he had a greater neuronal density.

  3. The Significance of Memory in Sensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckli, Lars; Petro, Lucy S

    2017-05-01

    Early sensory cortex is typically investigated in response to sensory stimulation, masking the contribution of internal signals. Recently, van Kerkoerle and colleagues reported that attention and memory signals segregate from sensory signals within specific layers of primary visual cortex, providing insight into the role of internal signals in sensory processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Cerebral Paragonimiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, I

    1975-01-01

    The first case of cerebral paragonimiasis was reported by Otani in Japan in 1887. This was nine years after Kerbert's discovery of the fluke in the lungs of Bengal tigers and seven years after a human pulmonary infection by the fluke was demonstrated by Baelz and Manson. The first case was a 26-year-old man who had been suffering from cough and hemosputum for one year. The patient developed convulsive seizures with subsequent coma and died. The postmortem examination showed cystic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobes. An adult fluke was found in the occipital lesion and another was seen in a gross specimen of normal brain tissue around the affected occipital lobe. Two years after Otani's discovery, at autopsy a 29-year-old man with a history of Jacksonian seizure was reported as having cerebral paragonimiasis. Some time later, however, it was confirmed that the case was actually cerebral schistosomiasis japonica. Subsequently, cases of cerebral paragonimiasis were reported. However, the majority of these cases were not confirmed histologically. It was pointed out that some of these early cases were probably not Paragonimus infection. After World War II, reviews as well as case reports were published. Recently, investigations have been reported from Korea, with a clinicla study on 62 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis seen at the Neurology Department of the National Medical Center, Seoul, between 1958 and 1964. In 1971 Higashi described a statistical study on 105 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis that had been treated surgically in Japan.

  5. The cortical connectivity of the prefrontal cortex in the monkey brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeterian, Edward H; Pandya, Deepak N; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Petrides, Michael

    2012-01-01

    One dimension of understanding the functions of the prefrontal cortex is knowledge of cortical connectivity. We have surveyed three aspects of prefrontal cortical connections: local projections (within the frontal lobe), the termination patterns of long association (post-Rolandic) projections, and the trajectories of major fiber pathways. The local connections appear to be organized in relation to dorsal (hippocampal origin) and ventral (paleocortical origin) architectonic trends. According to the proposal of a dual origin of the cerebral cortex, cortical areas can be traced as originating from archicortex (hippocampus) on the one hand, and paleocortex, on the other hand, in a stepwise manner (e.g., Sanides, 1969; Pandya and Yeterian, 1985). Prefrontal areas within each trend are connected with less architectonically differentiated areas, and also with more differentiated areas. Such organization may allow for the systematic exchange of information within each architectonic trend. The long connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions seem to be organized preferentially in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Prefrontal areas are connected with post-Rolandic auditory, visual and somatosensory association areas, and with multimodal and paralimbic regions. This long connectivity likely works in conjunction with local connections to serve prefrontal cortical functions. The afferent and efferent connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions are conveyed by specific long association pathways. These pathways as well appear to be organized in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Finally, although prefrontal areas have preferential connections in relation to dual architectonic trends, it is clear that there are interconnections between and among areas in each trend, which may provide a substrate for the overall integrative function of the prefrontal cortex. Prefrontal corticocortical

  6. Blood -brain barrier disruption was less under isoflurane than pentobarbital anesthesia via a PI3K/Akt pathway in early cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Oak Z; Mellender, Scott J; Kiss, Geza K; Liu, Xia; Weiss, Harvey R

    2017-05-01

    One of the important factors altering the degree of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in cerebral ischemia is the anesthetic used. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway has been reported to be involved in modulating BBB permeability and in isoflurane induced neuroprotection. This study was performed to compare the degree of BBB disruption in focal cerebral ischemia under isoflurane vs pentobarbital anesthesia and to determine whether inhibition of PI3K/Akt would affect the disruption in the early stage of focal cerebral ischemia. Permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion was performed in rats under 1.4% isoflurane or pentobarbital (50mg/kg i.p.) anesthesia with controlled ventilation. In half of each group LY294002, which is a PI3K/Akt inhibitor, was applied on the ischemic cortex immediately after MCA occlusion. After one hour of MCA occlusion, the transfer coefficient (K i ) of 14 C-α-aminoisobutyric acid ( 14 C-AIB) was determined to quantify the degree of BBB disruption. MCA occlusion increased the K i both in the isoflurane and pentobarbital anesthetized rats. However, the value of K i was lower under isoflurane (11.5±6.0μL/g/min) than under pentobarbital (18.3±7.1μL/g/min) anesthesia. The K i of the contralateral cortex of the pentobarbital group was higher (+74%) than that of the isoflurane group. Application of LY294002 on the ischemic cortex increased the K i (+99%) only in the isoflurane group. The degree of BBB disruption by MCA occlusion was significantly lower under isoflurane than pentobarbital anesthesia in the early stage of cerebral ischemia. Our data demonstrated the importance of choice of anesthetics and suggest that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway plays a significant role in altering BBB disruption in cerebral ischemia during isoflurane but not during pentobarbital anesthesia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Tomonaga, Masanori; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Yamanouchi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Hiroyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy was studied clinicopathologically, with special attention given to the CT images. Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy is characterized, by a lobar-type hemorrhage involving the cortex, with direct extension into the subarachnoid space. Multiple hemorrhages are frequent, and cortical infarctions are present as complications in elderly patients without risk factors. CT scans taken in 5 cases demonstrated lobar hemorrhages in superficial locations, frequently in multiple sites or recurrently, with surrounding edema and mass effect. A subarachnoid extension of the hemorrhage through the superficial cortex, proven pathologically in all cases, was noted by CT in 4 of the 5 cases. However, cortical infarction was not detected by CT in any case. Therefore, CT is of value in the diagnosis of cerebral hemorrhage due to amyloid angiopathy based on distinctive findings such as a lobar hemorrhage in superficial regions, with extension into the subarachnoid space, frequently in multiple sites or recurrently. (author)

  8. Cellular scaling rules for the brain of Artiodactyla include a highly folded cortex with few neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazu, Rodrigo S.; Maldonado, José; Mota, Bruno; Manger, Paul R.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate, insectivore, and afrotherian brains has shown that non-neuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of artiodactyls, a group within the order Cetartiodactyla, believed to be a relatively recent radiation from the common Eutherian ancestor. We find that artiodactyls share non-neuronal scaling rules with all groups analyzed previously. Artiodactyls share with afrotherians and rodents, but not with primates, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The neuronal scaling rules that apply to the remaining brain areas are, however, distinct in artiodactyls. Importantly, we show that the folding index of the cerebral cortex scales with the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex in distinct fashions across artiodactyls, afrotherians, rodents, and primates, such that the artiodactyl cerebral cortex is more convoluted than primate cortices of similar numbers of neurons. Our findings suggest that the scaling rules found to be shared across modern afrotherians, glires, and artiodactyls applied to the common Eutherian ancestor, such as the relationship between the mass of the cerebral cortex as a whole and its number of neurons. In turn, the distribution of neurons along the surface of the cerebral cortex, which is related to its degree of gyrification, appears to be a clade-specific characteristic. If the neuronal scaling rules for artiodactyls extend to all cetartiodactyls, we predict that the large cerebral cortex of cetaceans will still have fewer neurons than the human cerebral cortex. PMID:25429261

  9. Cellular scaling rules for the brain of Artiodactyla include a highly folded cortex with few neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eSiqueira Kazu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate, insectivore and afrotherian brains has shown that nonneuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of artiodactyls, a group within the order Cetartiodactyla, believed to be a relatively recent radiation from the common Eutherian ancestor. We find that artiodactyls share nonneuronal scaling rules with all groups analyzed previously. Artiodactyls share with afrotherians and rodents, but not with primates, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The neuronal scaling rules that apply to the remaining brain areas are however distinct in artiodactyls. Importantly, we show that the folding index of the cerebral cortex scales with the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex in distinct fashions across artiodactyls, afrotherians, rodents, and primates, such that the artiodactyl cerebral cortex is more convoluted than primate cortices of similar numbers of neurons. Our findings suggest that the scaling rules found to be shared across modern afrotherians, glires and artiodactyls applied to the common Eutherian ancestor, such as the relationship between the mass of the cerebral cortex as a whole and its number of neurons. In turn, the distribution of neurons along the surface of the cerebral cortex, which is related to its degree of gyrification, appears to be a clade-specific characteristic. If the neuronal scaling rules for artiodactyls extend to all cetartiodactyls, we predict that the large cerebral cortex of cetaceans will still have fewer neurons than the human cerebral cortex.

  10. New perspectives on the auditory cortex: learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Norman M

    2015-01-01

    Primary ("early") sensory cortices have been viewed as stimulus analyzers devoid of function in learning, memory, and cognition. However, studies combining sensory neurophysiology and learning protocols have revealed that associative learning systematically modifies the encoding of stimulus dimensions in the primary auditory cortex (A1) to accentuate behaviorally important sounds. This "representational plasticity" (RP) is manifest at different levels. The sensitivity and selectivity of signal tones increase near threshold, tuning above threshold shifts toward the frequency of acoustic signals, and their area of representation can increase within the tonotopic map of A1. The magnitude of area gain encodes the level of behavioral stimulus importance and serves as a substrate of memory strength. RP has the same characteristics as behavioral memory: it is associative, specific, develops rapidly, consolidates, and can last indefinitely. Pairing tone with stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis induces RP and implants specific behavioral memory, while directly increasing the representational area of a tone in A1 produces matching behavioral memory. Thus, RP satisfies key criteria for serving as a substrate of auditory memory. The findings suggest a basis for posttraumatic stress disorder in abnormally augmented cortical representations and emphasize the need for a new model of the cerebral cortex. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A radial glia-specific role of RhoA in double cortex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappello, Silvia; Böhringer, Christian R J; Bergami, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The positioning of neurons in the cerebral cortex is of crucial importance for its function as highlighted by the severe consequences of migrational disorders in patients. Here we show that genetic deletion of the small GTPase RhoA in the developing cerebral cortex results in two migrational...... disorders: subcortical band heterotopia (SBH), a heterotopic cortex underlying the normotopic cortex, and cobblestone lissencephaly, in which neurons protrude beyond layer I at the pial surface of the brain. Surprisingly, RhoA(-/-) neurons migrated normally when transplanted into wild-type cerebral cortex......, whereas the converse was not the case. Alterations in the radial glia scaffold are demonstrated to cause these migrational defects through destabilization of both the actin and the microtubules cytoskeleton. These data not only demonstrate that RhoA is largely dispensable for migration in neurons but also...

  12. Expression of glial fibrillar acidic protein in the sensorimotor cortex of the cerebral hemispheres in the modeling of transient ischemia against the background of previous sensitization by brain antigen and immunocorrection

    OpenAIRE

    Yaremenko, L. M.; Grabovoy, A. N.; Shepelev, S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Aim. In order to analyze the dynamics of expression of glial fibrillar acidic protein in the sensorimotor cortex of the large hemispheres in the simulation of transient ischemia against the background of previous sensitization by brain antigen and immunocorrection.Materials and methods. The study is conducted on 185 male mature white rats from Wistar line weighing 260-290 g, in which the damage of the brain was modulated. The brain for study was taken on the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 30th and 90th days...

  13. Expression of glial fibrillar acidic protein in the sensorimotor cortex of the cerebral hemispheres in the modeling of transient ischemia against the background of previous sensitization by brain antigen and immunocorrection

    OpenAIRE

    L. M. Yaremenko; A. N. Grabovoy; S. E. Shepelev

    2017-01-01

    Aim. In order to analyze the dynamics of expression of glial fibrillar acidic protein in the sensorimotor cortex of the large hemispheres in the simulation of transient ischemia against the background of previous sensitization by brain antigen and immunocorrection. Materials and methods. The study is conducted on 185 male mature white rats from Wistar line weighing 260-290 g, in which the damage of the brain was modulated. The brain for study was taken on the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 30th and 90th...

  14. Atypical cerebral listeriosis associated with Listeria innocua in a beef bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Paulo Ricardo Dell'Armelina; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Grattarola, Carla; Casalone, Cristina; Del Piero, Fabio; Bottero, Maria Teresa; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2013-02-01

    Natural infections of cattle associated with Listeria innocua have not been reported. This report describes the first case of cerebral listeriosis in a bull due to Listeria innocua. The animal presented neurological signs characterized by weakness, incoordination and recumbency. Histopathologic evaluation of brain tissue revealed multifocal microabscesses, perivascular lymphocytic cuffing, vasculitis, oedema and haemorrhages. All lesions extended from the medulla oblongata to the basal nuclei/parietal cortex area. Indirect immunohistochemistry labelled for Listeria sp. in the brain tissue, but not for Listeria monocytogenes, neurotropic Flaviviruses, BVDV, bovine Herpesvirus 1, Chlamydophila spp. and Histophilus somni. PCR was negative for ovine herpesvirus. L. innocua was isolated from brainstem and identified by biochemical tests (Camp and beta-hemolysis negative). Subsequently, the species was confirmed by a duplex PCR and minisequencing assays. L. innocua should be histologically considered as a differential diagnosis of thrombotic meningoencephalitis, malignant catarrhal fever and cerebral listeriosis due to L. monocytogenes in cattle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduced basal and novelty-induced levels of activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (Arc) and c-Fos mRNA in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-01-01

    to a novel open field environment was compromised in different neocortical areas and the hippocampal formation in APP/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice characterized by pronounced accumulation and deposition of beta amyloid (Aβ). Notably, the basal level of Arc and c-fos mRNA in the neocortex was significantly lower...... in APP/PS1ΔE9 compared to wild-type mice. Novelty exposure induced an increase in Arc and c-Fos mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), parietal cortex, and hippocampal formation in both APP/PS1ΔE9 transgenic and wild-type mice. However, novelty-induced IEG expression did not reach the same levels...... in APP/PS1ΔE9 as in the wild-type mice. In contrast, synaptophysin levels did not differ between mutant and wild type mice, suggesting that the observed effect was not due to a general decrease in the number of presynapses. These data suggest a reduction in basal and novelty-induced neuronal activity...

  16. Finding prefrontal cortex in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Christiana M

    2016-08-15

    The prefrontal cortex of the rat. I. Cortical projection of the mediodorsal nucleus. II. Efferent connections The cortical projection field of the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) was identified in the rat using the Fink-Heimer silver technique for tracing degenerating fibers. Small stereotaxic lesions confined to MD were followed by terminal degeneration in the dorsal bank of the rhinal sulcus (sulcal cortex) and the medial wall of the hemisphere anterior and dorsal to the genu of the corpus callosum (medial cortex). No degenerating fibers were traced to the convexity of the hemisphere. The cortical formation receiving a projection from MD is of a relatively undifferentiated type which had been previously classified as juxtallocortex. A study of the efferent fiber connections of the rat׳s MD-projection cortex demonstrated some similarities to those of monkey prefrontal cortex. A substantial projection to the pretectal area and deep layers of the superior colliculus originates in medial cortex, a connection previously reported for caudal prefrontal (area 8) cortex in the monkey. Sulcal cortex projects to basal olfactory structures and lateral hypothalamus, as does orbital frontal cortex in the monkey. The rat׳s MD-projection cortex differs from that in the monkey in that it lacks a granular layer and appears to have no prominent direct associations with temporal and juxtahippocampal areas. Furthermore, retrograde degeneration does not appear in the rat thalamus after damage to MD-projection areas, suggesting that the striatum or thalamus receives a proportionally larger share of the MD-projection in this animal than it does in the monkey. Comparative behavioral investigations are in progress to investigate functional differences between granular prefrontal cortex in the primate and the relatively primitive MD-projection cortex in the rat. © 1969. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:50th Anniversary Issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  17. Amusia for pitch caused by right middle cerebral artery infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, M Seth; Abrams, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old right-handed man with hypertension and dyslipidemia noted that he was singing along to classic rock songs on his car radio, but his voice was off pitch. Six days later, a magnetic resonance imaging scan of his brain revealed a cerebral infarct of the right temporal parietal cortex and insula. Case reports of the precise anatomic correlates of disordered pitch musical processing have been few and fragmentary. The anatomic involvement of our case coincides with the areas of involvement in 3 previously reported cases. Increased awareness of amusia as a rare clinical presentation of stroke should lead to earlier stroke intervention. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cerebral Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... off. When hypoxia lasts for longer periods of time, it can cause coma, seizures, and even brain death. In brain death, there is no measurable activity in the brain, although cardiovascular function is preserved. Life support is required for respiration. × Definition Cerebral hypoxia ...

  19. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W. J.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a

  20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the primary motor cortex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    cerebral pathophysiology, characterization and distinct regional mapping of human cognitive functions such as vision, motor, language, memory, etc. ..... Rosen B R 1991 Functional mapping of the human visual cortex by magnetic resonance imaging; Science 254 716–. 719. Blinkenberg M, Bonde C, Holm S, Svarer C, ...

  1. Ferulic acid attenuates focal cerebral ischemia-induced decreases in p70S6 kinase and S6 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Phil-Ok

    2013-10-25

    Ferulic acid exhibits neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemia. PI3/K and Akt signaling pathways play an essential role in protecting against cerebral ischemia. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a major downstream target of Akt, regulates p70S6 kinase and S6, both of which are involved in ribosomal biogenesis and protein synthesis. I investigated whether ferulic acid regulates mTOR, p70S6 kinase, and S6 phosphorylation during brain ischemic injury. Rats were treated immediately with vehicle or ferulic acid (100mg/kg, i.v.) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Brains tissues were removed at 24h after the onset of MCAO and the cerebral cortex regions were collected. Ferulic acid reduced the MCAO-induced infarct volume. I showed previously that ferulic acid prevents the MCAO injury-induced decrease of Akt phosphorylation. In this study, MCAO injury induced decreases in mTOR, p70S6 kinase, and S6 phosphorylation levels, while ferulic acid attenuated the injury-induced decreases. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that ferulic acid prevented the MCAO-induced reduction in the number of positive cells for phosphorylated p70S6 kinase and phosphorylated S6. These findings suggest that ferulic acid has a neuroprotective function against focal cerebral ischemia by modulating p70S6 kinase expression and S6 phosphorylation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Local O2 Balance in Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Improved during Pentobarbital Compared with Isoflurane Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Oak Z; Barsoum, Sylviana; Rah, Kang H; Liu, Xia; Weiss, Harvey R

    2015-06-01

    Most anesthetics affect cerebral blood flow and metabolism. We compared microregional O2 balance in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion during pentobarbital and isoflurane anesthesia. After 1 hour of middle cerebral artery occlusion and a 2-hour reperfusion under isoflurane (1.4%, n = 14) or pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, n = 14) anesthesia in rats, regional cerebral blood flow using (14)C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography, microregional arterial and venous O2 saturation (20-60 μm in diameter) using cryomicrospectrophotometry, and the size of cortical infarct were determined. Ischemia-reperfusion decreased the average cortical venous O2 saturation in both pentobarbital and isoflurane groups (P pentobarbital despite a similar average regional cerebral blood flow and O2 consumption. The heterogeneity of venous O2 saturation reported as a coefficient of variation (100 × standard deviation/mean) was smaller (P pentobarbital than that with isoflurane (7.5 versus 16.1). The number of veins with low venous O2 saturation (pentobarbital (5 of 80 versus 24 of 80). The percentage of cortical infarct in total cortex was smaller with pentobarbital (5.2 ± 2.5% versus 12.3 ± 2.6%, P pentobarbital than isoflurane anesthesia. This improvement in microregional O2 balance with pentobarbital was accompanied by the reduced cortical infarct. Our data suggest that the neurologic outcome could vary during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion depending on the anesthetics used. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cerebral cortical registration of subliminal visceral stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Mark K; Shaker, Reza

    2002-02-01

    Although brain registration of subliminal somatic stimulations such as masked visual stimuli and their influence on electrical and hemodynamic measures of cerebral activity have been reported previously, there have been no reports on cerebral cortical registration of subliminal visceral stimulation. Because studies evaluating the consequences of subliminal somatic stimulation have shown that subliminal stimulation can effect behavior, it is conceivable that such subliminal messages from the intestine could potentially influence intestinal sensory/motor function or effect the perception/interpretation of sensory signals originating from the gut. We studied the cerebral cortical functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to subliminal, liminal, and supraliminal rectal distention in healthy volunteers. Study findings indicate that subliminal afferent signals originating from the gut are registered in the cerebral cortex without reaching the level of awareness. Locations of cortical activity caused by intestinal subliminal stimulation are similar to those of liminal and supraliminal stimulation but their intensity and volume are significantly lower (P Subliminal afferent signals originating from the gut are registered in the cerebral cortex and induce changes in measures of brain activity, such as hemodynamic changes detectable by fMRI.

  4. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow in the right cortex homologous to left language areas are directly affected by left hemispheric damage in aphasic stroke patients: evaluation by Tc-ECD SPECT and novel analytic software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uruma, G; Kakuda, W; Abo, M

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the influence of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in language-relevant areas of the dominant hemisphere on rCBF in each region in the non-dominant hemisphere in post-stroke aphasic patients. The study subjects were 27 aphasic patients who suffered their first symptomatic stroke in the left hemisphere. In each subject, we measured rCBF by means of 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimmer single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The SPECT images were analyzed by the statistical imaging analysis programs easy Z-score Imaging System (eZIS) and voxel-based stereotactic extraction estimation (vbSEE). Segmented into Brodmann Area (BA) levels, Regions of Interest (ROIs) were set in language-relevant areas bilaterally, and changes in the relative rCBF as average negative and positive Z-values were computed fully automatically. To assess the relationship between rCBF changes of each ROIs in the left and right hemispheres, the Spearman ranked correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis were applied. Globally, a negative and asymmetric influence of rCBF changes in the language-relevant areas of the dominant hemisphere on the right hemisphere was found. The rCBF decrease in left BA22 significantly influenced the rCBF increase in right BA39, BA40, BA44 and BA45. The results suggested that the chronic increase in rCBF in the right language-relevant areas is due at least in part to reduction in the trancallosal inhibitory activity of the language-dominant left hemisphere caused by the stroke lesion itself and that these relationships are not always symmetric.

  5. Sensory experience-dependent formation of perineuronal nets and expression of Cat-315 immunoreactive components in the mouse somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Suemitsu, Shunsuke; Okamoto, Motoi; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Ishihara, Takeshi

    2017-07-04

    Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are structures of extracellular matrix molecules surrounding the cell bodies and proximal dendrites of certain neurons. While PNNs are present throughout the mouse cerebral cortex, recent studies have shown that the components differ among cortical sub-regions and layers, suggesting region-specific functions. Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV neurons) may be important regulators of cortical plasticity during the early "critical period" that is sensitive to sensory input. Here we examined the distribution and developmental functions of PNN components associated with PV neurons in the somatosensory cortex during the critical period. Aggrecan, brevican, neurocan, phosphacan, and tenascin-R were identified as PNN components in the mouse somatosensory cortex. High-magnification analysis revealed that some lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA)-reactive molecules did not co-localize with monoclonal antibody Cat-315 recognition molecules around the cell body. During postnatal development, Cat-315-positive (Cat-315 + ) PNNs appeared later than PNNs binding to the lectin WFA (WFA + PNNs). These WFA + PNNs changed from granular-like to reticular-like structures during normal cortical development, while this transition was delayed by sensory deprivation. This study indicates that the formation of reticular-like WFA + PNNs is dependent on sensory experience in the mouse somatosensory cortex. We suggest that Cat-315 + molecules and WFA expression in PNNs are involved in the early critical period of input-dependent cortical plasticity. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modified areal cartography in auditory cortex following early- and late-onset deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen; Chabot, Nicole; Kok, Melanie A; Lomber, Stephen G

    2014-07-01

    Cross-modal plasticity following peripheral sensory loss enables deprived cortex to provide enhanced abilities in remaining sensory systems. These functional adaptations have been demonstrated in cat auditory cortex following early-onset deafness in electrophysiological and psychophysical studies. However, little information is available concerning any accompanying structural compensations. To examine the influence of sound experience on areal cartography, auditory cytoarchitecture was examined in hearing cats, early-deaf cats, and cats with late-onset deafness. Cats were deafened shortly after hearing onset or in adulthood. Cerebral cytoarchitecture was revealed immunohistochemically using SMI-32, a monoclonal antibody used to distinguish auditory areas in many species. Auditory areas were delineated in coronal sections and their volumes measured. Staining profiles observed in hearing cats were conserved in early- and late-deaf cats. In all deaf cats, dorsal auditory areas were the most mutable. Early-deaf cats showed further modifications, with significant expansions in second auditory cortex and ventral auditory field. Borders between dorsal auditory areas and adjacent visual and somatosensory areas were shifted ventrally, suggesting expanded visual and somatosensory cortical representation. Overall, this study shows the influence of acoustic experience in cortical development, and suggests that the age of auditory deprivation may significantly affect auditory areal cartography. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. DNA damage response and senescence in endothelial cells of human cerebral cortex and relation to Alzheimer's neuropathology progression: a population-based study in the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC-CFAS) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Claire J; Simpson, Julie E; Al Mashhadi, Sufana; Axe, Claire; Wilson, Suzanna; Heath, Pamela R; Shaw, Pamela J; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Ince, Paul G; Wharton, Stephen B

    2014-12-01

    Abnormalities of the brain microvasculature in Alzheimer's disease have led to the vascular hypothesis of the disease, which predicts that vascular changes precede neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. To determine the spectrum of endothelial injury in the elderly and its relation to Alzheimer-type neuropathology we investigated DNA damage in a population-based sample derived from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. We examined endothelial damage in frontal and temporal cortex (n = 97) using immunohistochemistry for γH2AX and DNA-protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). To determine the effects of endothelial DNA damage at the earliest stages of Alzheimer's pathology we further focused our analysis on cases classified as Braak 0-II and examined endothelial senescence using histochemistry for β-galactosidase and the expression of genes related to DNA damage and senescence using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We demonstrated large variation in endothelial DNA damage which was not associated with Alzheimer's neuropathology. Endothelial DNA-PKcs correlated with neuronal and glial DNA-PKcs counts. Focusing our further analysis on Braak 0-II cases, qPCR analysis demonstrated a trend to increased TP53 (P = 0.064) in cases with high compared with low endothelial DNA damage which was supported by immunohistochemical analysis of p53. Endothelial β-galactosidase expression was associated with increased neuronal (P = 0.033) and glial (P = 0.038), but not endothelial DNA-PKcs expression. Damage to brain endothelial cells occurs early in relation to, or independently of, Alzheimer pathology, and parallels that in neurones and glia. Endothelial DNA damage and senescence are a brain ageing process that may contribute to dysfunction of the neurovascular unit in some elderly individuals. © 2014 British Neuropathological Society.

  8. Pentoxifylline attenuates TNF-α protein levels and brain edema following temporary focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Abedin; Mojarrad, Somye; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2011-03-04

    Cerebral edema is the most common cause of neurological deterioration and mortality during acute ischemic stroke. Despite the clinical importance of cerebral ischemia, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent studies suggest a role for TNF-α in the brain edema formation. To further investigate whether TNF-α would play a role in brain edema formation, we examined the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX, an inhibitor of TNF-α synthesis) on the brain edema and TNF-α levels in a model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. The right middle cerebral artery (MCA) of rats was occluded for 60 min using the intraluminal filament method. The animals received PTX (60 mg/kg) immediately, 1, 3, or 6h post-ischemic induction. Twenty-four hours after induction of ischemic injury, permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain edema were determined by in situ brain perfusion of Evans Blue (EB) and wet-to-dry weight ratio, respectively. TNF-α protein levels in ischemic cortex were also measured at 1, 4, and 24h after the beginning of an ischemic stroke by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The administration of PTX up to 6h after occlusion of the MCA significantly reduced the brain edema. Moreover, PTX significantly reduced the concentration of TNF-α in ischemic brain cortex up to 4h post-transient focal stroke (Pedema in a model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. The beneficial effects of PTX may be mediated, at least in part, through a decline in TNF-α production and BBB breakdown. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your local affiliate Find your local affiliate United Cerebral Palsy United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) is a trusted resource for individuals with Cerebral Palsy and other disabilities and their networks. Individuals with ...

  10. Involvement of brain-gut axis in treatment of cerebral infarction by β-asaron and paeonol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaogang; Cai, Qiufang; Li, Jianxiang; Guo, Weifeng

    2018-02-14

    Cerebral infarction (CI) causes severe brain damage with high incidence. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of brain-gut axis in the treatment of CI by combined administration of β-asaron and paeonol. Rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was established, the interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the rat peripheral blood were determined by ELISA assay, and brain tissue damage was evaluated by TUNNEL assay. The correlation of cholecystokinin (CCK) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling components between intestinal mucosa and prefrontal cortex of MCAO rats treated with β-asaron and paeonol were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. In vitro transwell co-culture was performed to confirm the correlated expression. The expression of CCK and NF-κB signaling components were closely correlated between the intestinal mucosa and prefrontal cortex of MCAO rats treated with β-asaron and paeonol. The combined administration also regulates the IL-1β and TNF-α in the MCAO rat peripheral blood and ameliorate the brain damage in MCAO rats. Elevated expression of related genes was observed in the cortical neurons co-cultured with intestinal mucosal epithelial cells treated by β-asaron and paeonol. The brain-gut axis mediates the therapeutic effect of β-asaron and paeonol for cerebral infarction through CCK and NF-κB signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Arousal on Mouse Sensory Cortex Depend on Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Shimaoka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Changes in arousal modulate the activity of mouse sensory cortex, but studies in different mice and different sensory areas disagree on whether this modulation enhances or suppresses activity. We measured this modulation simultaneously in multiple cortical areas by imaging mice expressing voltage-sensitive fluorescent proteins (VSFP. VSFP imaging estimates local membrane potential across large portions of cortex. We used temporal filters to predict local potential from running speed or from pupil dilation, two measures of arousal. The filters provided good fits and revealed that the effects of arousal depend on modality. In the primary visual cortex (V1 and auditory cortex (Au, arousal caused depolarization followed by hyperpolarization. In the barrel cortex (S1b and a secondary visual area (LM, it caused only hyperpolarization. In all areas, nonetheless, arousal reduced the phasic responses to trains of sensory stimuli. These results demonstrate diverse effects of arousal across sensory cortex but similar effects on sensory responses. : Shimaoka et al. use voltage-sensitive imaging to show that the effects of arousal on the mouse cortex are markedly different across areas and over time. In all the sensory areas studied, nonetheless, arousal reduced the phasic voltage responses to trains of sensory stimuli. Keywords: cerebral cortex, cortical state, locomotion, sensory processing, widefield imaging

  12. Cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery in silver fox (Vulpes vulpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedykt Skoczylas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study of the vascularization of the cerebrum in silver fox was performed on 80 cerebral hemispheres. It was found that the middle cerebral artery is the strongest vessel supplying blood to the cerebrum. The artery gets divided into ten permanent branches. Two olfactory arteries supply the region of the cerebrum located on the border between the old and the new cortex. The other eight supply the region of the new cortex. The frontal, parietal and temporal branches descended independently from the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery or formed a common trunk. Common trunks for respective groups of branches have been described as the anterior, superior and posterior middle cerebral artery. The alterior olfactory artery in 5% of cases and posterior olfactory artery in 2.5% of cases were independent branches of the middle cerebral artery extending from the rostral cerebral artery.

  13. Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen metabolism in thalamic hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Nobuyuki; Asakura, Ken

    1987-12-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO/sub 2/), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) were studied in 20 cases of thalamic hemorrhage using positron CT and /sup 15/O labeled gas steady-state inhalation method. CBF reduction was limited around the thalamus in the small sized hematoma. CBF were significantly diminished in the mean cortical, parietal, temporal, basal ganglia and thalamic area ipsilateral and cerebellar cortex contralateral to the medium sized hematoma. There was bilateral and diffuse CBF reduction in the large sized hematoma which was caused by increased intracranial pressure. CMRO/sub 2/ value were similary changed as CBF. OEF change showed within normal limit. Diffuse CBV reduction was observed in the large sized hematoma. This reduction was the result of decreased vascular bed caused by mass effect of the hematoma and hydrocephalus. Effect of surgical treatment such as ventricular drainage and hematoma evacuation were also discussed in correlation to CBF in some case using positron and single photon ECT.

  14. Utility of the cerebral SPECT in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuguerot, C.H.; Lopez-Lerena, J.J.; Quagliata, A.; Hermida, J.C.; Oliveira, M.C.; Anastasia, H.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare cortical and subcortical cerebral perfusion in schizophrenics patients with normal controls, and analyze the relation to clinical patterns and neuroleptic treatment. Method: 18 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia under neuroleptic treatment (except 3 cases), evaluated with clinical scales (BPRS and PANSS). The control group included 5 subjects in good health. All subjects were studied with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99 etilencisteinato (99mTc-ECD) as a tracer. Region of interest (ROI) were defined in cerebral cortex and thalamus-basal ganglia areas. The cortical cerebral blood flow was measured with a quantitative analysis, expressed as a ratio of regional tracer uptake to occipital cortex uptake. In basal ganglia and thalamus, regional blood flow was evaluated with a semiquantitative methodology, defining categories. Results: Schizophrenics patients showed a significant reduction of perfusion on a left anterior frontal cortex ('hipofrontality') and global decrease of perfusion on left hemisphere. The interhemispheric (left/right) ratio of perfusion was incremented respect control group. In thalamic-basal ganglia complex, a significant hypoperfusion was found in neuroleptic-free patients and control group. On the other hand, neuroleptic-treated patients revealed normal or increased regional blood flow in thalamus and basal ganglia. Only the clinical item 'thought disorder' had significant high correlation with perfusion on left structures (left anterior frontal, left lateral frontal, left temporo-parietal); the other items correlated with right structures. Conclusions: The findings suggest a pattern o left cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with an incremented interhemispheric ratio of cerebral blood flow. The pivotal role of thalamic and basal ganglia areas in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and neuroleptic action was reaffirmed; apparently, perfusion in thalamic-basal ganglia

  15. Microglia in diffuse plaques in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis (Dutch). An immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat-Schieman, M. L.; Rozemuller, A. J.; van Duinen, S. G.; Haan, J.; Eikelenboom, P.; Roos, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    In hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis (Dutch) (HCHWA-D) beta/A4 amyloid deposition is found in meningocortical blood vessels and in diffuse plaques in the cerebral cortex. Diffuse plaques putatively represent early stages in the formation of senile plaques. Microglia are intimately

  16. The Expression of Interleukin-1Β and MIRNA-146A in the Cerebral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The expression of IL-1β and miR-146a were detected in the cerebral cortex by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis respectively, 24 hours after bacterial inoculation. In the cerebral cortical tissue of acute E. coli meningitis immature rat model the IL-1β ...

  17. Microangiographic study of the normal anatomy of the cerebral venous system in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, M.

    1984-01-01

    Microangiographic serial cuts were performed in 20 Sprague-Dawley rats for a systematic study of the normal anatomy of the cerebral veins. The draining pathways of the cerebral and cerebellar cortex, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, hippocampus and the midbrain are described and discussed with regard to their different functions. (orig.)

  18. The effect of glycerol on regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Nagata, Izumi; Yamagata, Sen; Taki, Waro; Kobayashi, Akira; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Nishizawa, Sadahiko.

    1989-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography with 15 O-labelled CO 2 , O 2 and CO gases, the effects of glycerol on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV) and oxygen metabolism (CMRO 2 ) were investigated in 6 patients with meningioma accompanying peritumoral brain edema. The same study was done in 5 normal volunteers. The changes of blood gases, hematocrit and hemoglobin were also examined. After a drip infusion of glycerol, the regional CBF increased not only in the peritumoral cortex and white matter but also in the intact cortex and white matter on the contralateral side. The increase of CBF was extensive and substantially there were no regional differences. In contrast, the changes of CMRO 2 were not significant. This was derived from the increase in oxygen extraction fraction throughout extensive areas including the peritumoral area. There were no changes in CBV. Hematocrit and hemoglobin decreased to a small degree. In the normal volunteers, the same findings were noted. Thus, glycerol increases the functional reserve for cerebral oxygen metabolism, not only in the peritumoral regions but also in the intact regions. The effects of glycerol on hemodynamics and metabolism were discussed with reference to some differences from mannitol. (author)

  19. Auditory-visual integration in fields of the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Michinori; Sugimoto, Shunji; Hosokawa, Yutaka; Ojima, Hisayuki; Horikawa, Junsei

    2017-03-01

    While multimodal interactions have been known to exist in the early sensory cortices, the response properties and spatiotemporal organization of these interactions are poorly understood. To elucidate the characteristics of multimodal sensory interactions in the cerebral cortex, neuronal responses to visual stimuli with or without auditory stimuli were investigated in core and belt fields of guinea pig auditory cortex using real-time optical imaging with a voltage-sensitive dye. On average, visual responses consisted of short excitation followed by long inhibition. Although visual responses were observed in core and belt fields, there were regional and temporal differences in responses. The most salient visual responses were observed in the caudal belt fields, especially posterior (P) and dorsocaudal belt (DCB) fields. Visual responses emerged first in fields P and DCB and then spread rostroventrally to core and ventrocaudal belt (VCB) fields. Absolute values of positive and negative peak amplitudes of visual responses were both larger in fields P and DCB than in core and VCB fields. When combined visual and auditory stimuli were applied, fields P and DCB were more inhibited than core and VCB fields beginning approximately 110 ms after stimuli. Correspondingly, differences between responses to auditory stimuli alone and combined audiovisual stimuli became larger in fields P and DCB than in core and VCB fields after approximately 110 ms after stimuli. These data indicate that visual influences are most salient in fields P and DCB, which manifest mainly as inhibition, and that they enhance differences in auditory responses among fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Alterations in apical dendrite bundling in the somatosensory cortex of 5-HT3A receptor knockout mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit-Rigter, L.A.; Wadman, W.J.; van Hooft, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    In various species and areas of the cerebral cortex, apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons form clusters which extend through several layers of the cortex also known as dendritic bundles. Previously, it has been shown that 5-HT3A receptor knockout mice show hypercomplex apical dendrites of cortical

  1. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, Kevin; Howman-Giles, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV max , and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV max with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  2. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Disciplines of Imaging and Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2014-04-15

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV{sub max}, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV{sub max} with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  3. Neuropeptide S overcomes short term memory deficit induced by sleep restriction by increasing prefrontal cortex activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasson, Julien; Canini, Frédéric; Poly-Thomasson, Betty; Trousselard, Marion; Granon, Sylvie; Chauveau, Frédéric

    2017-12-01

    Sleep restriction (SR) impairs short term memory (STM) that might be related to different processes. Neuropeptide S (NPS), an endogenous neuropeptide that improves short term memory, activates arousal and decreases anxiety is likely to counteract the SR-induced impairment of STM. The objective of the present study was to find common cerebral pathways in sleep restriction and NPS action in order to ultimately antagonize SR effect on memory. The STM was assessed using a spontaneous spatial alternation task in a T-maze. C57-Bl/6J male mice were distributed in 4 groups according to treatment (0.1nmol of NPS or vehicle intracerebroventricular injection) and to 20h-SR. Immediately after behavioural testing, regional c-fos immunohistochemistry was performed and used as a neural activation marker for spatial short term memory (prefrontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus) and emotional reactivity (basolateral amygdala and ventral hippocampus). Anxiety-like behaviour was assessed using elevated-plus maze task. Results showed that SR impaired short term memory performance and decreased neuronal activation in cingular cortex.NPS injection overcame SR-induced STM deficits and increased neuronal activation in infralimbic cortex. SR spared anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze. Neural activation in basolateral nucleus of amygdala and ventral hippocampus were not changed after SR.In conclusion, the present study shows that NPS overcomes SR-induced STM deficits by increasing prefrontal cortex activation independently of anxiety-like behaviour. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum cystatin C and cerebral microbleeds in patients with acute cerebral stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Biao; Jü, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hai-Rong; Li, Fang

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that kidney dysfunction is associated with cerebral microbleeds (CMB). Cystatin C is a more useful measurement than creatinine-based estimating equations for evaluating kidney function. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between cystatin C levels and CMB in patients with acute cerebral stroke. This cross-sectional study included a total of 485 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 129 patients with cerebral hemorrhage. The serum levels of cystatin C were significantly higher in acute cerebral stroke patients with CMB than in those without (pstroke. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) in patients with acute cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage were 2.92 (1.81-6.93) and 2.98 (1.76-6.97), respectively. The present study suggests that elevated levels of cystatin C are associated with the presence of CMB in acute stroke patients, independent of conventional risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The motor cortex and facial expression: new insights from neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecraft, Robert J; Stilwell-Morecraft, Kimberly S; Rossing, William R

    2004-09-01

    For more than a century, unusual and complex deficits in facial expression have been known to occur following localized brain damage. Some brain injuries leave the face with pronounced alterations in affect whereas others result in movement disorders such as blepharospasm and Meige syndrome. There is also a historic trail of clinical observations that document deficits in either voluntary or emotional control of the facial muscles following central nervous system damage. Recent studies in the nonhuman primate cerebral cortex reveal the existence of multiple cortical facial representations in the frontal lobe and adjacent anterior cingulate cortex. These comprise the facial representation of the primary motor cortex (M1), ventral lateral premotor cortex (LPMCv), supplementary motor cortex (M2), rostral cingulate motor cortex (M3), and caudal cingulate motor cortex (M4). Homologous facial representations reside in the human brain based on observations following cortical stimulation, functional neuroimaging, and localized surgical resection. In the nonhuman primate, all these facial representations have been found to be directly interconnected through topographically organized corticocortical connections, and each facial area has also been found to send direct corticobulbar projections to the facial motor nucleus. The facial representations of M2 and M3 are both located on the medial wall of the hemisphere, in the vascular territory of the anterior cerebral artery. Both preferentially give rise to bilateral projections to parts of the facial nucleus that innervate the upper facial musculature as demonstrated in the monkey. The facial representation of M1, LPMCv, and M4 preferentially give rise to contralateral axonal projections ending in parts of the facial nucleus that innervate the lower facial musculature. The facial representation of M1 and LPMCv both reside in the vascular territory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). The classic clinical presentation of

  6. Orbital prefrontal cortex volume correlates with social cognitive competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joanne L; Lewis, Penelope A; Dunbar, Robin I M; García-Fiñana, Marta; Roberts, Neil

    2010-10-01

    Intentionality, or Theory of Mind, is the ability to explain and predict the behaviour of others by attributing to them intentions and mental states and is hypothesised to be one of several social cognitive mechanisms which have impacted upon brain size evolution. Though the brain activity associated with processing this type of information has been studied extensively, the neuroanatomical correlates of these abilities, e.g. whether subjects who perform better have greater volume of associated brain regions, remain to be investigated. Because social abilities of this type appear to have evolved relatively recently, and because the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was the last brain region to develop both phylogenetically and ontogenetically, we hypothesised a relationship between PFC volume and intentional competence. To test this, we estimated the volume of four regional prefrontal subfields in each cerebral hemisphere, in 40 healthy adult humans by applying stereological methods on T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance images. Our results reveal a significant linear relationship between intentionality score and volume of orbital PFC (p=0.01). Since this region is known to be involved in the processing of social information our findings support the hypothesis that brain size evolution is, at least in part, the result of social cognitive mechanisms supporting social cohesion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ferulic acid attenuates the cerebral ischemic injury-induced decrease in peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jin-Hee; Gim, Sang-Ah; Koh, Phil-Ok

    2014-04-30

    Ferulic acid, a phenolic phytochemical compound found in various plants, has a neuroprotective effect through its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation functions. Peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin play a potent neuroprotective function against oxidative stress. We investigated whether ferulic acid regulates peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin levels in cerebral ischemia. Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 210-230g) were treated with vehicle or ferulic acid (100mg/kg) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and cerebral cortex tissues were collected 24h after MCAO. Decreases in peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin levels were elucidated in MCAO-operated animals using a proteomics approach. We found that ferulic acid treatment prevented the MCAO-induced decrease in the expression of peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed that ferulic acid treatment attenuated the MCAO-induced decrease in peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin levels. Moreover, immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the interaction between thioredoxin and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) decreased during MCAO, whereas ferulic acid prevented the MCAO-induced decrease in this interaction. Our findings suggest that ferulic acid plays a neuroprotective role by attenuating injury-induced decreases in peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin levels in neuronal cell injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cerebral hypometabolism in progressive supranuclear palsy studied with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, N.L.; Gilman, S.; Berent, S.; Morin, E.M.; Brown, M.B.; Koeppe, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is characterized by supranuclear palsy of gaze, axial dystonia, bradykinesia, rigidity, and a progressive dementia. Pathological changes in this disorder are generally restricted to subcortical structures, yet the type and range of cognitive deficits suggest the involvement of many cerebral regions. We examined the extent of functional impairment to cerebral cortical and subcortical structures as measured by the level of glucose metabolic activity at rest. Fourteen patients with PSP were compared to 21 normal volunteers of similar age using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography. Glucose metabolism was reduced in the caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, pons, and cerebral cortex, but not in the cerebellum in the patients with PSP as compared to the normal subjects. Analysis of individual brain regions revealed significant declines in cerebral glucose utilization in most regions throughout the cerebral cortex, particularly those in the superior half of the frontal lobe. Declines in the most affected regions of cerebral cortex were greater than those in any single subcortical structure. Although using conventional neuropathological techniques the cerebral cortex appears to be unaffected in PSP, significant and pervasive functional impairments in both cortical and subcortical structures are present. These observations help to account for the constellation of cognitive symptoms in individual patients with PSP and the difficulty encountered in identifying a characteristic psychometric profile for this group of patients

  9. Cerebral Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vasculitis is an inflammation systems may be involved of blood vessels due to various origins. Vessels of the peripheral and/or central nervous. Vasculitis of the CNS is rare and occurs in the context of systemic diseases or as primary angiitis of the CNS. Epidemiology: The overall incidence of primary vasculitis is about 40/1,000,000 persons [excluding giant cell (temporal arteritis, GCA]. Its incidence increases with age. The incidence of GCA is much higher (around 200/1,000,000 persons in the age group[50 years. Clinical Presentation: Clinical and pathological presentation in CNS vasculitis represents a wide spectrum. Among others, headache, cranial nerve affections, encephalopathy, seizures, psychosis, myelitis, stroke, intracranial haemorrhage and aseptic meningoencephalitis are described. Primary and secondary vasculitides leading more frequently to CNS manifestations are discussed. Primary and secondary Vasculitides: Including Giant Cell (Temporal Arteritis , Takayasu arteritis, Polyarteritis nodosa, Primary angiitis of the CNS, Wegener’s granulomatosis, and Connective tissue diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, mixed connective disease and Sjögren syndrome, are systemic immune-mediated diseases that lead to multiple organ affections. Cerebral Vasculitis: Imaging and Differential Diagnosis: Vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases that affect blood vessel walls of varying calibers (inflammatory vasculopathy. Since the devastating symptoms of CNS vasculitis are at least partially reversible, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In order to establish a differential diagnosis clinical features, disease progression, age of onset, blood results, as well as CSF examinations have to be taken into consideration. Neuroimaging techniques, such as MRI and DSA, play a central role in the diagnosis and disease monitoring .The diagnostic

  10. Effects of video game playing on cerebral blood flow in young adults: a SPECT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Yang, Bang-Hung; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Lin, Chun-Lung; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chien Chang, Alice; Lee, Shin-Min

    2013-04-30

    To study the impact of video game playing on the human brain, the effects of two video games playing on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in young adults were determined. Thirty healthy subjects comprising 18 males and 12 females who were familiar with video game playing were recruited. Each subject underwent three sessions of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with a bolus injection of 20 mCi (99m)Tc ECD IV to measure their CBF. The first measurement was performed as baseline, the second and third measurements were performed after playing two different video games for 30 min, respectively. Statistic parametric mapping (SPM2) with Matlab 6.5 implemented on a personal computer was used for image analysis. CBF was significantly decreased in the prefrontal cortex and significantly increased in the temporal and occipital cortices after both video games playing. Furthermore, decreased CBF in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) which was significantly correlated with the number of killed characters was found after the violent game playing. The major finding of hypo-perfusion in prefrontal regions after video game playing is consistent with a previous study showing reduced or abnormal prefrontal cortex functions after video game playing. The second finding of decreased CBF in the ACC after playing the violent video game provides support for a previous hypothesis that the ACC might play a role in regulating violent behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics by computed tomography perfusion imaging before and after cranioplasty in patients with brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Wang; Lan, Yu; Xiao Ming, Zhou; Zhi Ming, Li; Rui Rui, Zhao; Lei, Niu; Qing Lan, Sui; Hui Jian, Li

    2017-01-01

    To assess the clinical significance of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging by evaluating cerebral hemodynamic changes quantitatively and qualitatively both before and after cranioplasty in patients with brain injury. Sixteen patients with cerebral trauma underwent CTP imaging 2 days before and 10-15 days after cranioplasty. The cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time and time to peak were analysed in both the affected and corresponding contralateral regions, including the basal ganglia, thalamus, cortex and white matter. Quantitative analyses were performed before and after cranioplasty. The CBF in the cortex of the affected side was significantly increased after cranioplasty (p cranioplasty (p cranioplasty. CTP imaging can accurately reflect changes in cerebral hemodynamics before and after cranioplasty in patients with trauma. Cranioplasty can significantly improve CBF in the cortex on the affected side for a short time (10-15 days) to meet the prevailing metabolic demand.

  12. Contribution of different regions of the prefrontal cortex and lesion laterality to deficit of decision-making on the Iowa Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerchefani, Riadh; Ouerchefani, Naoufel; Allain, Philippe; Ben Rejeb, Mohamed Riadh; Le Gall, Didier

    2017-02-01

    Few studies have examined the contribution of different sub-regions of the prefrontal cortex and lesion laterality to decision-making abilities. In addition, there are inconsistent findings about the role of ventromedial and dorsolateral lesions in decision-making deficit. In this study, decision-making processes are investigated following different damaged areas of the prefrontal cortex. We paid particular attention to the contribution of laterality, lesion location and lesion volume in decision-making deficit. Twenty-seven patients with discrete ventromedial lesions, dorsolateral lesions or extended-frontal lesions were compared with normal subjects on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Our results showed that all frontal subgroups were impaired on the IGT in comparison with normal subjects. We noted also that IGT performance did not vary systematically based on lesion laterality or location. More precisely, our lesion analysis revealed that decision-making processes depend on a large cerebral network, including both ventromedial and dorsolateral areas of the prefrontal cortex. Consistent with past findings, our results support the claim that IGT deficit is not solitarily associated with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Efeitos da exposição pré-natal e pós-natal ao etanol no córtex cerebral de ratos: um estudo do neurópilo Effects of prenatal and postnatal ethanol exposure in the cerebral cortex of rats: a study of neuropil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Sousa Jerônimo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Exposição pré-natal ao etanol é freqüentemente associada a microcefalia e atraso na migração celular. O mecanismo pelo qual o etanol induz seus efeitos no desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso não é muito bem entendido. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o efeito da exposição crônica ao etanol sobre o córtex visual de ratos durante seu desenvolvimento. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Ratos Wistar provenientes do acasalamento de 30 fêmeas, divididos nos grupos etanol (n = 10 - 3 g/kg/dia - e controle (n = 10, foram utilizados nesse experimento. Os ratos foram perfundidos e o encéfalo, dividido em três partes: anterior, médio e posterior. Os cortes obtidos do fragmento posterior foram expostos à rotina histológica e submetidos a diferentes técnicas de coloração. Na análise estatística foi utilizado o teste t para comparar os pesos encefálicos e corporais. Considerou-se como nível de rejeição de hipótese nula um valor de p BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to ethanol is frequently associated with microencephaly and delayed cell migration. The mechanism by which ethanol affects the development of the nervous system is still not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of chronic exposure to ethanol on the visual cortex of rats during their development. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Wistar rats, born from the mating of 30 females, were divided into two groups: those exposed to ethanol (n = 10 - 3 g/kg/day - and a control group (n = 10. The rats were perfused and brain was divided into three parts: anterior, middle and posterior. Slices taken from the posterior fragment were subjected to histological analysis routine and different staining techniques. A statistical analysis was carried out using t test to compare brain and body weight. A value < 0,05 was considered a rejection of null hypothesis. RESULTS: There was a reduction of brain weight in different analyzed periods. There were no fiber deposits. Ectopia and neuronal heterotopia were

  14. Metabolic interaction between ApoE genotype and onset age in Alzheimer's disease: implications for brain reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosconi, L; Herholz, K; Prohovnik, I; Nacmias, B; De Cristofaro, M T R; Fayyaz, M; Bracco, L; Sorbi, S; Pupi, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Clinically apparent Alzheimer's disease (AD) is thought to result when brain tissue damage exceeds a critical threshold of "brain reserve", a process possibly accelerated by the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) E4 allele. The interaction between onset age and ApoE genotype was investigated to assess whether early disease onset (<65 years) in patients carrying the E4 allele is associated with greater cerebral metabolic (regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose utilisation, rCMRgl) reduction. Methods: AD patients, divided into early (EOAD; 27 patients) and late onset (LOAD; 65 patients) groups, both groups balanced as to the number of E4 carriers (E4+) and non-carriers (E4–), and matched controls (NC; 35 cases) underwent 18F-FDG PET ([18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography) scanning. SPM'99 software was used to compare AD patients to NC and to perform a two way ANOVA with onset age and ApoE genotype as grouping factors. Results were considered significant at p<0.001, uncorrected. Results: AD patients demonstrated rCMRgl reductions compared to NC, with rCMRgl lower in association cortex and relatively higher in limbic areas in EOAD compared to LOAD subjects. rCMRgl was lower in the anterior cingulate and frontal cortex for E4+ compared to E4– subjects. A significant onset age by ApoE interaction was detected in the hippocampi and basal frontal cortex, with EOAD E4+ subjects having the greatest rCMRgl reduction. Conclusions: The interactive effects of early onset age, possibly reflecting lower brain reserve, and ApoE E4 allele, possibly leading to greater tissue damage, lead to reduced tolerance to the pathophysiological effects of AD in key brain regions. PMID:15607989

  15. Spreading convulsions, spreading depolarization and epileptogenesis in human cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Jens P; Major, Sebastian; Pannek, Heinz-Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    channels initiates spreading depression of brain activity. In contrast, epileptic seizures show modest ion translocation and sustained depolarization below the inactivation threshold for action potential generating channels. Such modest sustained depolarization allows synchronous, highly frequent neuronal...... stimulations. Eventually, epileptic field potentials were recorded during the period that had originally seen spreading depression of activity. Such spreading convulsions are characterized by epileptic field potentials on the final shoulder of the large slow potential change of spreading depolarization. We...... depolarizations in contrast to only three patients (12%) with 55 ictal epileptic events isolated from spreading depolarizations. Spreading depolarization frequency and depression periods per 24 h recording episodes showed an early and a delayed peak on Day 7. Patients surviving subarachnoid haemorrhage with poor...

  16. Cross-population myelination covariance of human cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwei; Zhang, Nanyin

    2017-09-01

    Cross-population covariance of brain morphometric quantities provides a measure of interareal connectivity, as it is believed to be determined by the coordinated neurodevelopment of connected brain regions. Although useful, structural covariance analysis predominantly employed bulky morphological measures with mixed compartments, whereas studies of the structural covariance of any specific subdivisions such as myelin are rare. Characterizing myelination covariance is of interest, as it will reveal connectivity patterns determined by coordinated development of myeloarchitecture between brain regions. Using myelin content MRI maps from the Human Connectome Project, here we showed that the cortical myelination covariance was highly reproducible, and exhibited a brain organization similar to that previously revealed by other connectivity measures. Additionally, the myelination covariance network shared common topological features of human brain networks such as small-worldness. Furthermore, we found that the correlation between myelination covariance and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) was uniform within each resting-state network (RSN), but could considerably vary across RSNs. Interestingly, this myelination covariance-RSFC correlation was appreciably stronger in sensory and motor networks than cognitive and polymodal association networks, possibly due to their different circuitry structures. This study has established a new brain connectivity measure specifically related to axons, and this measure can be valuable to investigating coordinated myeloarchitecture development. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4730-4743, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpicelli, Laura A; Levey, Allan I

    2004-01-01

    The M1, M2 and M4 subtypes of mAChRs are the predominant receptors in the CNS. These receptors activate a multitude of signaling pathways important for modulating neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity and feedback regulation of ACh release. In addition, novel functions mediated by mAChRs are currently being discovered. These studies are greatly facilitated by the recent development of subtype selective toxins and mice lacking individual mAChR genes. Studies in cell culture and the rodent brain demonstrate that mAChR internalization and intracellular trafficking is an important component of mAChR regulation. Characterizing mAChR intracellular trafficking could help facilitate the development of selective mAChR ligands. For example, a selective M1 agonist would cause a shift in the distribution of M1 from the cell surface to an intracellular distribution, while M2 and M4 would remain on the cell surface. Characterizing mAChR intracellular trafficking is also important for understanding the cellular mechanisms that regulate mAChR cell surface expression and signaling. Furthermore, intracellular trafficking has recently been demonstrated to play a role in the development of tolerance to drugs (Whistler et al., 1999; He et al., 2002). Because individual mAChR subtypes are novel targets for treatments of diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, understanding the mechanisms that regulate mAChR signaling and intracellular trafficking following acute and chronic stimulation might lead to the development of rational strategies.

  18. Inhibition of polyphosphoinositide turnover in rat cerebral cortex by clonidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    In the rat brain, a number of receptors are linked to phospholipase C which catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane inositol phospholipids; stimulation of α 1 -adrenergic receptors, for example, increases polyphosphoinositide turnover, but stimulation of α 2 -receptors does not. The hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids in rat cortical slices was investigated using a direct assay involving prelabeling these lipids with 3 H-inositol and then measuring the formation of 3 H-inositol phosphates in the presence of lithium ions. As expected, clonidine, an α 2 -agonist, did not stimulate the formation of 3 H-inositol phosphates; however, clonidine antagonized the ability of noradrenaline to stimulate 3 H-inositol phosphate formation. This effect was not blocked by antagonists of α 2 , 5HT 2 , H 2 , or muscarinic receptors. Clonidine did not affect carbachol-stimulated 3 H-inositol phosphate formation

  19. Cerebral hemometabolism: from isolated measurements to monitoring and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cruz

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview is presented on historical and multivariate aspects of cerebral hemometabolism. This involves a full multivariate approach, from blood pressure to cerebral metabolism. From isolated measurements, to monitoring and management, a comprehensive overview of cerebral hemometabolism is addressed, from its inception to current days, up to a new concept, the cerebral hemodynamic reserve. A multivariate functional diagram is proposed, to summarize the multivariate interrelationships of cerebral hemometabolism. A generic proposition is mode for studies of truly normal cerebral hemometabolism in children, for subsequent clinical applications. Another proposition is made for multivariate cerebral hemometabolic monitoring, in a broad variety of circumstances of predominantly global changes in intracranial dynamics, both in animal and clinical research.

  20. Prefrontal cortex cytoarchitecture in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease: a relationship with IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veluw, Susanne J; Sawyer, Eva K; Clover, Linda; Cousijn, Helena; De Jager, Celeste; Esiri, Margaret M; Chance, Steven A

    2012-10-01

    We have previously shown that the minicolumnar spacing of neurons in the cerebral cortex relates to cognitive ability, and that minicolumn thinning occurs in old age. The present study examines further the relationship between cognitive ability and cortical fine structure(minicolumn organization and neuropathology) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI)and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Premortem neuropsychological scores were related to postmortem microanatomy in 58 adults (20 normal controls, 18 MCI, and 20 confirmed AD patients). We found a correspondence between minicolumn thinning in the dlPFC and IQ decline in dementia.In mild impairment, IQ remained stable, as did dlPFC minicolumn width and dlPFC plaque load. IQ only declined as dlPFC minicolumn thinning occurred and dlPFC plaque load increased in more severe dementia. By contrast, plaque load increased and minicolumns became steadily thinner in the PHG, where minicolumn width correlated with declining mini-mental state examination score across both MCI and severe dementia. By including a further 14 younger control subjects, we found that in normal healthy aging, minicolumn width decreased in the dlPFC, whereas PHG minicolumn width did not change.AD patients in our dataset with higher IQ were older at time of death and had less pathology, which supports a neural basis for the cognitive reserve hypothesis.

  1. Studies of cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shin

    1983-01-01

    Cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of 25 patients with Parkinson's disease were studied. The rCBF was measured with the intra-arterial Xe-133 injection method. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Sixty four % of Parkinson's disease patients showed ventricular dilation, and 76% of Parkinson's disease patients showed cortical atrophy on the CT scan, but we had to allow for the effects of the natural aging process on these results. 2) No correlation was recognized either between cerebral atrophy and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between cerebral atrophy and the duration of Parkinson's disease. 3) In Parkinson's disease patients, the mean rCBF was lower than that of normal control subjects. The difference was even more remarkable in older patients. Only 40% of Parkinson's disease patients showed hyperfrontal pattern. 4) There was no correlation either between the mean rCBF and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between the mean rCBF and the duration of Parkinson's disease. There was no significant difference between the mean rCBF of Parkinson's disease patients receiving levodopa and that of untreated patients. 5) The mean rCBF decreased in patients with cerebral atrophy on the CT scan. 6) Parkinson's disease patients with intellectual impairment showed cerebral atrophy and a remarkable decrease of the mean rCBF. 7) The effect of aging on cerebral atrophy on the CT scan had to be allowed for, but judging from the decrease of the mean rCBF, the cerebral cortex is evidently involved in Parkinson's disease. 8) The rCBF decline in Parkinson's disease patients may be related with the diminished cortical metabolic rate due to a remote effect of striatal dysfunction and a disturbance of mesocortical dopaminergic pathways. (J.P.N.)

  2. Adaptation to sensory input tunes visual cortex to criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, Woodrow L.; Clawson, Wesley P.; Pobst, Jeff; Karimipanah, Yahya; Wright, Nathaniel C.; Wessel, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    A long-standing hypothesis at the interface of physics and neuroscience is that neural networks self-organize to the critical point of a phase transition, thereby optimizing aspects of sensory information processing. This idea is partially supported by strong evidence for critical dynamics observed in the cerebral cortex, but the impact of sensory input on these dynamics is largely unknown. Thus, the foundations of this hypothesis--the self-organization process and how it manifests during strong sensory input--remain unstudied experimentally. Here we show in visual cortex and in a computational model that strong sensory input initially elicits cortical network dynamics that are not critical, but adaptive changes in the network rapidly tune the system to criticality. This conclusion is based on observations of multifaceted scaling laws predicted to occur at criticality. Our findings establish sensory adaptation as a self-organizing mechanism that maintains criticality in visual cortex during sensory information processing.

  3. Benzodiazepine receptor imaging with iomazenil SPECT in aphasic patients with cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshi, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Shin; Ohyama, Masashi [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)] (and others)

    1999-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between prognosis of aphasia and neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex, we evaluated the distribution of central-type benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) binding in post-stroke aphasics with [{sup 123}I]iomazenil and SPECT. We performed iomazenil SPECT in six aphasic patients (aged from 45 to 75 years; all right-handed) with unilateral left cerebral infarction. Three patients showed signs of Broca's aphasia and the other three Wernicke's aphasia. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging was performed with [{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine (IMP). The regions of interest (ROIs) on both images were set in the cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex and language relevant area in both hemispheres. Three patients were classified in the mild prognosis group and the other three in the moderate prognosis group. The left language-relevant area was more closely concerned with the difference in aphasic symptoms than the right one in both BZR and CBF distribution, but the ipsilateral to the contralateral ratio (I/C ratio) in the language-relevant areas in the BZR distribution was significantly lower in the moderate prognosis group than in the mild prognosis group, although no difference was seen for these values between the two groups in the CBF distribution. These results suggest that BZR imaging, which makes possible an increase in neuronal cell viability in the cerebral cortex, is useful not only for clarifying the aphasic symptoms but also for evaluating the prognosis of aphasia in patients with cerebral infarction. (author)

  4. Benzodiazepine receptor imaging with iomazenil SPECT in aphasic patients with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshi, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Shin; Ohyama, Masashi

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between prognosis of aphasia and neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex, we evaluated the distribution of central-type benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) binding in post-stroke aphasics with [ 123 I]iomazenil and SPECT. We performed iomazenil SPECT in six aphasic patients (aged from 45 to 75 years; all right-handed) with unilateral left cerebral infarction. Three patients showed signs of Broca's aphasia and the other three Wernicke's aphasia. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging was performed with [ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP). The regions of interest (ROIs) on both images were set in the cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex and language relevant area in both hemispheres. Three patients were classified in the mild prognosis group and the other three in the moderate prognosis group. The left language-relevant area was more closely concerned with the difference in aphasic symptoms than the right one in both BZR and CBF distribution, but the ipsilateral to the contralateral ratio (I/C ratio) in the language-relevant areas in the BZR distribution was significantly lower in the moderate prognosis group than in the mild prognosis group, although no difference was seen for these values between the two groups in the CBF distribution. These results suggest that BZR imaging, which makes possible an increase in neuronal cell viability in the cerebral cortex, is useful not only for clarifying the aphasic symptoms but also for evaluating the prognosis of aphasia in patients with cerebral infarction. (author)

  5. Role of hydrogen sulfide in early blood-brain barrier disruption following transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Jiang

    Full Text Available We determined the role of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S in cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia and early BBB disruption following ischemic stroke. A cranial window was prepared over the left frontal, parietal and temporal cortex in mice. Transient focal cerebral Ischemia was induced by directly ligating the middle cerebral artery (MCA for two hours. Regional vascular response and cerebral blood flow (CBF during ischemia and reperfusion were measured in real time. Early BBB disruption was assessed by Evans Blue (EB and sodium fluorescein (Na-F extravasation at 3 hours of reperfusion. Topical treatment with DL-propargylglycine (PAG, an inhibitor for cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE and aspartate (ASP, inhibitor for cysteine aminotransferase/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (CAT/3-MST, but not O-(Carboxymethylhydroxylamine hemihydrochloride (CHH, an inhibitor for cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, abolished postischemic cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia and prevented EB and Na-F extravasation. CSE knockout (CSE-/- reduced postischemic cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia but only inhibited Na-F extravasation. An upregulated CBS was found in cerebral cortex of CSE-/- mice. Topical treatment with CHH didn't further alter postischemic cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia, but prevented EB extravasation in CSE-/- mice. In addition, L-cysteine-induced hydrogen sulfide (H2S production similarly increased in ischemic side cerebral cortex of control and CSE-/- mice. Our findings suggest that endogenous production of H2S by CSE and CAT/3-MST during reperfusion may be involved in postischemic cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia and play an important role in early BBB disruption following transient focal cerebral ischemia.

  6. Visual Information Present in Infragranular Layers of Mouse Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Ryan J; Hasenstaub, Andrea R

    2018-03-14

    The cerebral cortex is a major hub for the convergence and integration of signals from across the sensory modalities; sensory cortices, including primary regions, are no exception. Here we show that visual stimuli influence neural firing in the auditory cortex of awake male and female mice, using multisite probes to sample single units across multiple cortical layers. We demonstrate that visual stimuli influence firing in both primary and secondary auditory cortex. We then determine the laminar location of recording sites through electrode track tracing with fluorescent dye and optogenetic identification using layer-specific markers. Spiking responses to visual stimulation occur deep in auditory cortex and are particularly prominent in layer 6. Visual modulation of firing rate occurs more frequently at areas with secondary-like auditory responses than those with primary-like responses. Auditory cortical responses to drifting visual gratings are not orientation-tuned, unlike visual cortex responses. The deepest cortical layers thus appear to be an important locus for cross-modal integration in auditory cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The deepest layers of the auditory cortex are often considered its most enigmatic, possessing a wide range of cell morphologies and atypical sensory responses. Here we show that, in mouse auditory cortex, these layers represent a locus of cross-modal convergence, containing many units responsive to visual stimuli. Our results suggest that this visual signal conveys the presence and timing of a stimulus rather than specifics about that stimulus, such as its orientation. These results shed light on both how and what types of cross-modal information is integrated at the earliest stages of sensory cortical processing. Copyright © 2018 the authors 0270-6474/18/382854-09$15.00/0.

  7. The effects of TMS over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on trans-saccadic memory of multiple objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, L L; Dessing, J C; Malik, P; Prime, S L; Crawford, J D

    2014-10-01

    Humans typically make several rapid eye movements (saccades) per second. It is thought that visual working memory can retain and spatially integrate three to four objects or features across each saccade but little is known about this neural mechanism. Previously we showed that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the posterior parietal cortex and frontal eye fields degrade trans-saccadic memory of multiple object features (Prime, Vesia, & Crawford, 2008, Journal of Neuroscience, 28(27), 6938-6949; Prime, Vesia, & Crawford, 2010, Cerebral Cortex, 20(4), 759-772.). Here, we used a similar protocol to investigate whether dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), an area involved in spatial working memory, is also involved in trans-saccadic memory. Subjects were required to report changes in stimulus orientation with (saccade task) or without (fixation task) an eye movement in the intervening memory interval. We applied single-pulse TMS to left and right DLPFC during the memory delay, timed at three intervals to arrive approximately 100 ms before, 100 ms after, or at saccade onset. In the fixation task, left DLPFC TMS produced inconsistent results, whereas right DLPFC TMS disrupted performance at all three intervals (significantly for presaccadic TMS). In contrast, in the saccade task, TMS consistently facilitated performance (significantly for left DLPFC/perisaccadic TMS and right DLPFC/postsaccadic TMS) suggesting a dis-inhibition of trans-saccadic processing. These results are consistent with a neural circuit of trans-saccadic memory that overlaps and interacts with, but is partially separate from the circuit for visual working memory during sustained fixation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Locations of cerebral infarctions in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, F.Y.; Chia, L.G. (Section of Neurology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan)); Shen, W.C. (Section of Neuroradiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan))

    1992-06-01

    The locations of cerebral infarctions were studied in 14 patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and 173 patients with noninflammatory ischemic stroke (IS). In patients with TBM, 75% of infarctions occurred in the 'TB zone' supplied by medial striate and thalamoperforating arteries; only 11% occurred in the 'IS zone' supplied by lateral striate, anterior choroidal and thalamogeniculate arteries. In patients with IS, 29% of infarctions occurred in the IS zone, 29% in the subcortical white matter, and 24% in (or involving) the cerebral cortex. Only 11% occurred in the TB zone. Bilaterally symmetrical infarctions of the TB zone were common with TBM (71%) but rare with IS (5%). (orig.).

  9. Cerebral blood flow in asymptomatic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Iiji, Osamu; Ashida, Keiichi; Imaizumi, Masatoshi

    1993-01-01

    We studied the relationship between cortical grey matter flow (CBF) and age, cerebrovascular risk factors and the severity of subcortical hypersignals (HS, hyperintensity score in MRI) in 47 asymptomatic subjects with cerebrovascular risk factors. Multiple regression analysis revealed that HS was most strongly related to CBF, and that hematocrit, age and evidence of ischemic change detected in the electrocardiogram also appeared to be independent determinants of CBF. Both the severity and location of hypersignals were correlated with CBF. The most significant negative correlation observed was that between CBF and HS in the basal ganglia-thalamic region, where the degree of signal abnormality was modest. Decreased CBF in asymptomatic subjects with cerebrovascular risk factors may be related to microcirculatory disturbance associated with elevated hematocrit and an increase in the number of risk factors, and functional suppression of cerebral cortex due to the neuronal disconnection associated with subcortical lesions. In addition, impaired cerebral circulation may be related to MRI signal abnormalities. (author)

  10. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shin; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Sakamoto, Shizuki; Soeda, Toshiyuki; Terashi, Akiro; Iio, Masaaki.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine functional changes in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) were determined using 0-15 positron emission tomography in 10 PD patients and five age-matched healthy volunteers. There was a tendency among PD patients towards a decreased CBF and CMRO 2 in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. These values were significantly lower in the frontal cortex in the PD group than the control group. There was no difference in OEF between the groups. A more decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism was observed in patients staged as severer on the scale of Hoehn and Yahr. There was no correlation between cerebral oxygen metabolism and tremor, rigidity, or bradykinesis. A decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism was associated with mental disorders, such as depression, hallucination, and dementia. These results may provide an important clue for the understanding of mesocortical dopaminergic pathway and the relationship between PD and dementia. (N.K.)

  11. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Shin; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Sakamoto, Shizuki; Soeda, Toshiyuki; Terashi, Akiro; Iio, Masaaki.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine functional changes in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO/sub 2/) were determined using 0-15 positron emission tomography in 10 PD patients and five age-matched healthy volunteers. There was a tendency among PD patients towards a decreased CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. These values were significantly lower in the frontal cortex in the PD group than the control group. There was no difference in OEF between the groups. A more decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism was observed in patients staged as severer on the scale of Hoehn and Yahr. There was no correlation between cerebral oxygen metabolism and tremor, rigidity, or bradykinesis. A decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism was associated with mental disorders, such as depression, hallucination, and dementia. These results may provide an important clue for the understanding of mesocortical dopaminergic pathway and the relationship between PD and dementia. (N.K.).

  12. Asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage detected by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yumi; Ohsuga, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Shinohara, Yukito

    1991-01-01

    Detection of previous cerebral infarction on CT films of patients with no history of stroke is a common occurrence. The incidence of silent cerebral infarction was reported to be about 10 to 11 percent, but very few reports concerning asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage available. However, recent clinical application of MRI has resulted in the detection of old asymptomatic hemorrhage in patients with no history known stroke-like episodes. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the incidence, the cause and the character of the asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage among patients who had undergone MRI examinations. From September 1987 through June 1990, 2757 patients have undergone 3474 MR scans of the brain with 1.0 Tesla Siemens Magneton unit in our hospital. Seventeen patients showed no clinical signs or symptoms suggesting a stroke episode corresponding to the detected hemorrhagic lesion. The 17 patients corresponded to 0.6% of the patients who underwent MRI, 1.5% of the patients with cerebrovascular disease and 9.5% of the patients with intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH), which was rather higher than expected. Among the 17 patients, 12 were diagnosed as primary ICH and 5 as secondary ICH. Most of the primary asymptomatic hemorrhage were hypertensive ones and slit-like curvilinear lesions between the putamen and claustrum or external capsule. The secondary asymptomatic hemorrhage were due to AVM and angiomas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and pons. (author)

  13. Postradiation regional cerebral blood flow in primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Cerveny, T.J.; Hampton, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Early transient incapacitation (ETI) is the complete cessation of performance during the first 30 min after radiation exposure and performance decrement (PD) is a reduction in performance at the same time. Supralethal doses of radiation have been shown to produce a marked decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in primates concurrent with hypotension and a dramatic release of mast cell histamine. In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced ETI/PD phenomenon and the postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow, primates were exposed to 100 Gy (1 Gy = 100 rads), whole-body, gamma radiation. Pontine and cortical blood flows were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after radiation exposure. Systemic blood pressures were determined simultaneously. Systemic arterial histamine levels were determined preradiation and postradiation. Data obtained indicated that radiated animals showed a decrease in blood flow of 63% in the motor cortex and 51% in the pons by 10 min postradiation. Regional cerebral blood flow of radiated animals showed a slight recovery 20 min postradiation, followed by a fall to the 10 min nadir by 60 min postradiation. Immediately, postradiation systemic blood pressure fell 67% and remained at that level for the remainder of the experiment. Histamine levels in the radiated animals increased a hundredfold 2 min postradiation. This study indicates that regional cerebral blood flow decreases postradiation with the development of hypotension and may be associated temporally with the postradiation release of histamine

  14. Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction preserves mitochondrial integrity and reduces apoptosis after focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion via the mitochondrial p53 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Rui; Zhang, Yong; Xiang, Jun; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Guo-Hua; Li, Wen-Wei; Xu, Li-Li; Cai, Ding-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction (XXMD) has been used to treat stroke and other neurological diseases for more than 1000 years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of XXMD on mitochondrial damage and apoptosis after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham, cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), and cerebral ischemia and reperfusion plus XXMD (60 g/kg/day) (XXMD60). Focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion models were induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Cerebral ischemic injury was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Ultrastructural features of mitochondria in the penumbra of the ischemic cortex were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and cleaved caspase 3 immunohistochemistry. Proteins in the mitochondrial p53 pathway were detected by western blot and immunofluorescence. The results showed that XXMD treatment markedly attenuated ischemic changes, preserved mitochondrial integrity, and significantly reduced apoptosis. In addition, we found that XXMD treatment reduced p53 and Bax levels and increased Bcl-2 levels in mitochondrial fractions. XXMD significantly blocked the release of cytochrome c and Smac/Diablo from mitochondria, and inhibited activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 in cytoplasmic fractions. Increased expression of c-IAP1 was observed in the XXMD60 group. The findings demonstrated that XXMD protected mitochondria from ischemic injury and inhibited apoptosis. The mitochondrial p53 pathway could be partially involved in the protective effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow in aphasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soh, K; Larsen, B; Skinhøj, E

    1978-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied in 13 aphasic patients with left hemisphere lesions, using the intracarotid xenon 133 injection method and a 254-detector gamma camera system. The rCBF was measured during rest and during various function tests, including a simple speech test...... whatsoever. This is probably related to the functional nature of the rCBF method: subnormal flow values and lack of the normal flow increase during function tests apparently may disclose functionally inactivated but structurally intact cortex....

  16. Comprehensive visual impairment evaluation for cerebral palsy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the visual impairment in cerebral palsy children with series objective indicators, and conclude their clinical features of visual function.METHODS: Objective tests including following pursuing test, optokinetic nystagmus(OKNdrum test, refractive error examination, fundus examination, ocular deviation examination, pattern visual evoked potential(P-VEPtests and brain magnetic resonance imaging(MRIwere carried out in 43 cerebral palsy children(86 eyeswith ocular visual dysfunction; The visual impairment data of the cerebral palsy children were collected, and the clinical features and possible mechanism were analyzed.RESULTS: 1. Of the 43 cerebral palsy children(86 eyeswith the visual impairment presented diversified, 25(50 eyes, 58.1%of refractive error, 24(48 eyes, 55.8%of strabismus, 12(24 eyes, 27.9%with nystagmus, 19(38 eyes, 44.2%of optical nerve atrophy or hyperplasia, 35(70 eyes, 81.4%of VEP abnormality. Among children with spastic cerebral palsy, the incidence of visual impairment was statistically significant difference compared with other groups(PP>0.05, no nystagmus in patients with severe occipital cortex damage.CONCLUSION: Cerebral palsy children were usually with visual impairment, and presented with special clinical features; Comprehensive objective visual tests are accurate and reliable for evaluation of the visual function in cerebral palsy children.

  17. MUSCARINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR-EXPRESSION IN ASTROCYTES IN THE CORTEX OF YOUNG AND AGED RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERZEE, EA; DEJONG, GI; STROSBERG, AD; LUITEN, PGM

    The present report describes the cellular and subcellular distribution pattern of immunoreactivity to M35, a monoclonal antibody raised against purified muscarinic acetylcholine receptor protein, in astrocytes in the cerebral cortex of young and aged rats. Most M35-positive astrocytes were localized

  18. Regulation of NPY/NPY Y1 receptor/G protein system in rat brain cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Lewejohann, K.; Farke, W.; Bischoff, A.; Feth, F.; Rascher, W.

    1995-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) content, NPY receptors, and alpha-subunits of the G proteins Go and Gi were determined in cerebral cortex of male normotensive Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats at 3-28 wk of age and of adult female rats. NPY lacked major effects on adenylate cyclase or inositol

  19. Incomplete brain infarction of reperfused cortex may be quantitated with iomazenil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawara, J; Sperling, B; Lassen, N A

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: [123I]Iomazenil is a specific radioligand for the central benzodiazepine receptor that may be useful as an indicator of the intactness of cortical neurons after focal cerebral ischemia. We evaluated the binding of this receptor in reperfused cortex among patients with isch...

  20. Hydrogen sulfide intervention in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-juan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the mechanism underlying the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide against neuronal damage caused by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. We established the middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats via the suture method. Ten minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the animals were intraperitoneally injected with hydrogen sulfide donor compound sodium hydrosulfide. Immunofluorescence revealed that the immunoreactivity of P2X 7 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury decreased with hydrogen sulfide treatment. Furthermore, treatment of these rats with hydrogen sulfide significantly lowered mortality, the Longa neurological deficit scores, and infarct volume. These results indicate that hydrogen sulfide may be protective in rats with local cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by down-regulating the expression of P2X 7 receptors.

  1. Combination of a Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplant With Umbilical Cord Blood for Cerebral X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Jiang, Min-Yan; Liu, Sha; Cai, Yan-Na; Liang, Cui-Li; Liu, Li

    2015-08-01

    Childhood cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects central nervous system myelin and the adrenal cortex. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the best available curative therapy if performed during the early stages of disease. Only 30% of patients who might benefit from a hematopoietic stem cell transplant will have a full human leukocyte antigen-matched donor, which is considered to be the best choice. We present a 5-year-old boy with cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy whose brain magnetic resonance imaging severity score was 7 and who needed an immediate transplantation without an available full human leukocyte antigen-matched donor. We combined haploidentical and umbilical cord blood sources for transplantation and saw encouraging results. After transplantation, the patient showed neurological stability for 6 months and the level of very long chain fatty acids had decreased. By 1 year, the patient appeared to gradually develop cognition, motor, and visual disturbances resulting from possible mix chimerism. Transplantation of haploidentical stem cells combined with the infusion of umbilical cord blood is a novel approach for treating cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. It is critical to monitor posttransplant chimerism and carry out antirejection therapy timely for a beneficial clinical outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurovascular coupling and decoupling in the cortex during voluntary locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Bing-Xing; Smith, Jared B; Drew, Patrick J

    2014-08-13

    Hemodynamic signals are widely used to infer neural activity in the brain. We tested the hypothesis that hemodynamic signals faithfully report neural activity during voluntary behaviors by measuring cerebral blood volume (CBV) and neural activity in the somatosensory cortex and frontal cortex of head-fixed mice during locomotion. Locomotion induced a large and robust increase in firing rate and gamma-band (40-100 Hz) power in the local field potential in the limb representations in somatosensory cortex, and was accompanied by increases in CBV, demonstrating that hemodynamic signals are coupled with neural activity in this region. However, in the frontal cortex, CBV did not change during locomotion, but firing rate and gamma-band power both increased, indicating a decoupling of neural activity from the hemodynamic signal. These results show that hemodynamic signals are not faithful indicators of the mean neural activity in the frontal cortex during locomotion; thus, the results from fMRI and other hemodynamic imaging methodologies for studying neural processes must be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410975-07$15.00/0.

  3. Pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex in post-stroke, vascular and other ageing-related dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Vincent; Oakley, Arthur E; Slade, Janet Y; Hall, Roslyn; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; Burke, Matthew; Thomas, Alan J; Khundakar, Ahmad; Allan, Louise M; Kalaria, Raj N

    2014-09-01

    dementia ratings. Total estimated neuronal densities were not significantly changed between patients with post-stroke dementia and post-stroke patients with no dementia groups or ageing controls in any of the three frontal regions. In further morphometric analysis of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, we showed that neither diffuse cerebral atrophy nor neocortical thickness explained the selective neuronal volume effects. We also noted that neurofilament protein SMI31 immunoreactivity was increased in post-stroke and vascular dementia compared with post-stroke patients with no dementia and correlated with decreased neuronal volumes in subjects with post-stroke dementia and vascular dementia. Our findings suggest selective regional pyramidal cell atrophy in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex-rather than neuronal density changes per se-are associated with dementia and executive dysfunction in post-stroke dementia and vascular dementia. The changes in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex pyramidal cells were not associated with neurofibrillary pathology suggesting there is a vascular basis for the observed highly selective neuronal atrophy. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Anti-excitotoxic effects of cannabidiol are partly mediated by enhancement of NCX2 and NCX3 expression in animal model of cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksar, Sepideh; Bigdeli, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-05

    Excitotoxicity and imbalance of sodium and calcium homeostasis trigger pathophysiologic processes in cerebral ischemia which can accelerate neuronal death. Neuroprotective role of cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main non-psychoactive phytocannabinoids of the cannabis plant, has attracted attention of many researchers in the neurodegenerative diseases studies. The present investigation was designed to determine whether cannabidiol can alleviate the severity of ischemic damages and if it is able to exert its anti-excitotoxic effects through sodium and calcium regulation. By using stereotaxic surgery, a guide cannula was implanted into the lateral ventricle. Cannabidiol (50, 100, and 200ng/rat; i.c.v.) was administrated for 5 consecutive days. After pretreatment, the rats were subjected to 60min of right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After 24h, neurological deficits score, infarct volume, brain edema, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in total of hemisphere, cortex, piriform cortex-amygdala, and striatum were assessed. The expression of Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers (NCXs) protein as an endogenous target in these regions was also studied. The present results indicate that administration of cannabidiol (100 and 200ng/rat) in the MCAO-induced cerebral ischemia caused a remarkable reduction in neurological deficit, infarction, brain edema, and BBB permeability in comparison with the vehicle group. Up-regulation of NCX2 and NCX3 in cannabidiol-received groups was also observed. These findings support the view that the reduction of ischemic injuries elicited by cannabidiol can be at least partly due to the enhancement of NCX protein expression and its cerebro-protective role in those cerebral territories supplied by MCA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiologically Isolated Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy-Related Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Dimitri; Wacongne, Anne; Thouvenot, Eric

    2017-11-01

    In amyloid β-related angiitis of the central nervous system (also called cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation), cerebral amyloid angiopathy occurs in association with primary vasculitis of small- and medium-sized leptomeningeal and cortical arteries. To avoid brain biopsy, clinicoradiological criteria (including clinical features due to inflammation-related uni/multifocal white matter hyperintensities) for the diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation have been validated recently. We report 3 cases with acute symptoms directly related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy in the presence of asymptomatic cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation hyperintensities on initial magnetic resonance imaging. Recognizing radiological features of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy is important because radiological isolated cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation may become symptomatic and immunosuppressive treatment is often effective in cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation, although optimal treatment regimen is yet unknown. In contrast, apart from hypertension treatment, few therapeutic options exist in cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Therapeutic time window and underlying therapeutic mechanism of breviscapine injection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chao; Zhu, Yanrong; Weng, Yan; Wang, Shiquan; Guan, Yue; Wei, Guo; Yin, Ying; Xi, Miaomaio; Wen, Aidong

    2014-01-01

    Breviscapine injection is a Chinese herbal medicine standardized product extracted from Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. It has been widely used for treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the therapeutic time window and the action mechanism of breviscapine are still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic time window and underlying therapeutic mechanism of breviscapine injection against cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2h followed by 24h of reperfusion. Experiment part 1 was used to investigate the therapeutic time window of breviscapine. Rats were injected intravenously with 50mg/kg breviscapine at different time-points of reperfusion. After 24h of reperfusion, neurologic score, infarct volume, brain water content and serum level of neuron specific enolase (NSE) were measured in a masked fashion. Part 2 was used to explore the therapeutic mechanism of breviscapine. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), 8-hydroxyl-2'- deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and the antioxidant capacity of ischemia cortex were measured by ELISA and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, respectively. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis were used to analyze the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Part 1: breviscapine injection significantly ameliorated neurologic deficit, reduced infarct volume and water content, and suppressed the levels of NSE in a time-dependent manner. Part 2: breviscapine inhibited the increased levels of 4-HNE and 8-OHdG, and enhanced the antioxidant capacity of cortex tissue. Moreover, breviscapine obviously raised the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins after 24h of reperfusion. The therapeutic time window of breviscapine injection for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury seemed to be within 5h after reperfusion. By up-regulating the expression of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway

  7. Fluctuations in Cerebral Hemodynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Latka, Miroslaw

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that the scaling properties of intracranial pressure (ICP) fluctuations and fluctuations of blood flow velocity in middle cerebral arteries are characterized by two scaling exponents...

  8. Cerebral arteriovenous malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names AVM - cerebral; Arteriovenous hemangioma; Stroke - AVM; Hemorrhagic stroke - AVM Patient Instructions Brain surgery - discharge Headache - what to ask your doctor Stereotactic ...

  9. Mechanism of aquaporin 4 (AQP 4) up-regulation in rat cerebral edema under hypobaric hypoxia and the preventative effect of puerarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi; Yan, Muyang; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Qi; He, Shang; Chen, Jingwen; Wang, Chengbin

    2018-01-15

    We aim to investigate the mechanism of aquaporin 4 (AQP 4) up-regulation during high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) in rats under hypobaric hypoxia and preventative effect of puerarin. Rats were exposed to a hypobaric chamber with or without the preventative treatment of puerarin or dexamethasone. Morriz water maze was used to evaluate the spatial memory injury. HE staining and W/D ratio were used to evaluate edema injury. Rat astrocytes and microglia were co-cultured under the condition of hypoxia with the administration of p38 inhibitor, NF-κB inhibitor or puerarin. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) of cortex and culture supernatant were measured with ELISA. AQP4, phosphorylation of MAPKs, NF-κB pathway of cortex and astrocytes were measured by Western blot. Weakened spatial memory and cerebral edema were observed after hypobaric hypoxia exposure. AQP4, phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPK signal pathway of cortex increased after hypoxia exposure and decreased with preventative treatment of puerarin. Hypoxia increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in cortex and microglia and puerarin could prevent the increase of them. AQP4 of astrocytes increased after co-cultured with microglia when both were exposed to hypoxia. AQP4 showed a decrease after administered with p38 inhibitor, NF-κB inhibitor or puerarin. Hypoxia triggers inflammatory response, during which AQP4 of astrocytes can be up regulated through the release of TNF-α and IL-6 from microglia. Puerarin can exert a preventative effect on the increase of AQP4 through inhibiting the release of TNF-α and phosphorylation of NF-κB, MAPK pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with aphasia due to basal ganglionic lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shin; Kato, Toshiaki; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Terashi, Akiro

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in right handed eight patients with subcortical lesion and aphasia were measured to investigate the correlation between aphasia and functional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) in the cortex and the basal ganglionic region. All patients had no lesion in the cortex, but in the basal ganglionic region (putamen, caudate nucleus, internal capsule, and periventricular white matter) on CT images. Patients with bilateral lesion were excluded in this study. Six patients with cerebral infarction in the left basal ganglionic region and two patients with the left putammal hemorrhage were examined. Five patients had non fluent Broca's type speech, two patients had poor comprehension, fluent Wernicke-type speech and one patient was globally aphasic. CBF, CMRO 2 , and oxygen extraction fraction were measured by the positron emission tomography using 15 O 2 , C 15 O 2 inhalation technique. In addition to reduction of CBF and CMRO 2 in the basal ganglionic region, CBF and CMRO 2 decreased in the left frontal cortex especially posterior part in four patients with Broca's aphasia. In two patients with Wernicke type aphasia, CBF and CMRO 2 decreased in the basal ganglionic region and the left temporal cortex. In a globally aphasic patient, marked reduction of CBF and CMRO 2 was observed in the left frontal and temporal cortex, in addition to the basal ganglionic region. These results suggest that dysfunction of cortex as well as that of basal ganglionic region might be related to the occurence of aphasia. However, in one patient with Broca's ahasia, CBF and CMRO 2 were preserved in the cortex and metabolic reduction was observed in only basal ganglia. This case indicates the relation between basal ganglionic lesion and the occurrence of aphasia. These results suggest that measurements of cerebral blood flow and metabolism were necessary to study the responsible lesion for aphasia. (author)

  11. Impact of personality on the cerebral processing of emotional prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Kaza, Evangelia; Lotze, Martin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2011-09-01

    While several studies have focused on identifying common brain mechanisms governing the decoding of emotional speech melody, interindividual variations in the cerebral processing of prosodic information, in comparison, have received only little attention to date: Albeit, for instance, differences in personality among individuals have been shown to modulate emotional brain responses, personality influences on the neural basis of prosody decoding have not been investigated systematically yet. Thus, the present study aimed at delineating relationships between interindividual differences in personality and hemodynamic responses evoked by emotional speech melody. To determine personality-dependent modulations of brain reactivity, fMRI activation patterns during the processing of emotional speech cues were acquired from 24 healthy volunteers and subsequently correlated with individual trait measures of extraversion and neuroticism obtained for each participant. Whereas correlation analysis did not indicate any link between brain activation and extraversion, strong positive correlations between measures of neuroticism and hemodynamic responses of the right amygdala, the left postcentral gyrus as well as medial frontal structures including the right anterior cingulate cortex emerged, suggesting that brain mechanisms mediating the decoding of emotional speech melody may vary depending on differences in neuroticism among individuals. Observed trait-specific modulations are discussed in the light of processing biases as well as differences in emotion control or task strategies which may be associated with the personality trait of neuroticism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cerebral magnetic resonance changes associated with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga, Iñigo; Guillen, Virginia; Lafuente, José-Vicente

    2017-06-07

    Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic disease, of unknown origin, whose diagnostic criteria were established in 1990 by the American College of Rheumatology. New criteria were proposed in 2010 that have not yet been validated. It is characterized by a generalized chronic musculoskeletal pain, accompanied by hyperalgesia and allodynia, as well as other motor, vegetative, cognitive and affective symptoms and signs. We have reviewed a set of studies with cerebral magnetic resonance (morphometry, connectivity and spectroscopy) that refer to changes in areas involved in pain processing. Modifications in gray and white matter volume, as well as in levels of N-acetylaspartate, choline or glutamate, among other metabolites, have been observed in the hippocampus, insula, prefrontal and cingular cortex. Neuroradiological findings are nonspecific and similar to those found in other examples of chronic pain. An increase in the sample size and a standardized methodology would facilitate comparison, allowing the drawing of general conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Relation between clinical findings and progression of cerebral cortical pathology in MM1-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: proposed staging of cerebral cortical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yasushi; Tatsumi, Shinsui; Mimuro, Maya; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Hashizume, Yoshio; Yoshida, Mari

    2014-06-15

    In our pathologic observation of the cerebral cortex including the neocortex, hippocampus, and limbic cortex in 43 Japanese patients with MM1-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the earliest pathologic finding was spongiform change and next was gliosis. Subsequently, neuropil rarefaction appeared, followed by neuron loss. On the basis of these observations, we propose the following cortical pathologic staging: Stage I, spongiform change; Stage II, hypertrophic astrocytosis; Stage III, neuropil rarefaction; Stage IV, neuron loss; Stage V, status spongiosus; and Stage VI, large cavity formation. We also suggest a more simple staging classification: Stages I and II, mild; Stages III and IV, moderate; and Stages V and VI, severe involvement. Based on statistical analysis of the cases, strong correlation coefficients were obtained between the neocortical and limbic pathologic stage and both total disease duration and brain weight. We estimated that the first observation times of cortical hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted images of magnetic resonance imaging, myoclonus, and periodic sharp wave complexes on the electroencephalogram approximately correspond to the early phase of Stage II of the neocortex. The time to reach the akinetic mutism state approximately corresponds to the middle phase of Stage II of the neocortex. Therefore, we think that approximate clinical manifestations at death, total disease duration, and brain weight can be estimated according to the pathologic stage of the neocortex or limbic cortex. Panencephalopathic-type pathology appeared approximately 12 months after disease onset, and this time approximately corresponds to the middle phase of Stage III of the neocortex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in the Rett syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Hideto; Fueki, Noboru; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Sakuragawa, Norio; Iio, Masaaki (National Central Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on six patients with the Rett syndrome and the results were compared with the concurrent clinical status of the patients. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) was low in five patients, and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) was low in four patients; both had a tendency to decline with advancing age. Although the cause is unknown, it is suggested that impaired oxidative metabolism exists in the Rett syndrome. An analysis of the distribution among brain regions showed that the ratios of values for the frontal cortex to those for the temporal cortex for both the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CMRO{sub 2} were lower than those for the controls, which may indicate the loss of of hyperfrontality in the Rett syndrome. Distribution of brain metabolism may be immature in the Rett syndrome. (author).

  15. Electroacupunctre improves motor impairment via inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in the sensorimotor cortex after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weilin; Wang, Xian; Yang, Shanli; Huang, Jia; Xue, Xiehua; Zheng, Yi; Shang, Guanhao; Tao, Jing; Chen, Lidian

    2016-04-15

    Electroacupuncture (EA) is one of the safety and effective therapies for improving neurological and sensorimotor impairment via blockade of inappropriate inflammatory responses. However, the mechanisms of anti-inflammation involved is far from been fully elucidated. Focal cerebral ischemic stroke was administered by the middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) surgery. The MCAO/R rats were accepted EA treatment at the LI 11 and ST 36 acupoints for consecutive 3days. The neurological outcome, animal behaviors test and molecular biology assays were used to evaluate the MCAO/R model and therapeutic effect of EA. EA treatment for MCAO rats showed a significant reduction in the infarct volumes accompanied by functional recovery in mNSS outcomes, motor function performances. The possible mechanisms that EA treatment attenuated the over-activation of Iba-1 and ED1 positive microglia in the peri-infract sensorimotor cortex. Simultaneously, both tissue and serum protein levels of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were decreased by EA treatment in MCAO/R injured rats. The levels of inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) were decreased in the peri-infract sensorimotor cortex and blood serum of MCAO/R injured rats after EA treatment. Furthermore, we found that EA treatment prevented from the nucleus translocation of NF-κB p65 and suppressed the expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in the peri-infract sensorimotor cortex. The findings from this study indicated that EA improved the motor impairment via inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation that invoked NF-κB p65, p38 MAPK and MyD88 produced proinflammatory cytokine in the peri-infract sensorimotor cortex of rats following ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Progression of vasogenic edema induced by activated microglia under permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Miki; Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Mizuno, Shodo; Ishida, Atsuhiko; Vogel, Christoph F; Tsuji, Mayumi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Itoh, Kouichi

    2018-02-05

    Brain edema is a severe complication that accompanies ischemic stroke. Increasing evidence shows that inflammatory cytokines impair tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier, suggesting the involvement of microglia in brain edema. In this study, we examined the role of microglia in the progression of ischemic brain edema using mice with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. The intensity of T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) in the cerebral cortex and the striatum was elevated 3 h after occlusion and spread to peripheral regions of the ischemic hemisphere. Merged images of 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining and T2WI revealed the exact vasogenic edema region, which spread from the ischemic core to outside the ischemic region. Microglia were strongly activated in the ischemic region 3 h after occlusion and, notably, activated microglia were observed in the non-ischemic region 24 h after occlusion. Pretreatment with minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation clearly suppressed not only vasogenic edema but also infarct formation. We demonstrated in this study that vasogenic edema spreads from the ischemic core to the peripheral region, which can be elicited, at least in part, by microglial activation induced by ischemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduced Cerebrovascular Reactivity and Increased Resting Cerebral Perfusion in Rats Exposed to a Cafeteria Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Smith, Mariana; Janik, Rafal; Adams, Conner; Lake, Evelyn M; Thomason, Lynsie A M; Jeffers, Matthew S; Stefanovic, Bojana; Corbett, Dale

    2018-02-10

    To better understand the effects of a diet high in fat, sugar, and sodium on cerebrovascular function, Sprague Dawley rats were chronically exposed to a Cafeteria diet. Resting cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reactivity was quantified using continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, structural changes to the cerebrovasculature and susceptibility to ischemic lesion were examined. Compared to control animals fed standard chow (SD), Cafeteria diet (CAF) rats exhibited increased resting brain perfusion in the hippocampus and reduced cerebrovascular reactivity in response to 10% inspired CO 2 challenges in both the hippocampus and the neocortex. CAF rats switched to chow for one month (SWT) exhibited improved resting perfusion in the hippocampus as well as improved cerebrovascular reactivity in the neocortex. However, the diet switch did not correct cerebrovascular reactivity in the hippocampus. These changes were not accompanied by alterations in the structural integrity of the cerebral microvasculature, examined using rat endothelial cell antigen-1 (RECA-1) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) immunostaining. Also, the extent of tissue damage induced by endothelin-1 injection into sensorimotor cortex was not affected by the Cafeteria diet. These results demonstrate that short-term consumption of an ultra-processed diet reduces cerebrovascular reactivity. This effect persists after dietary normalization despite recovery of peripheral symptomatology. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cerebral Palsy (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Cerebral Palsy What's in this article? What Is ...

  19. Cerebral Palsy (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth / For Kids / Cerebral Palsy What's in this article? What's CP? ...

  20. The anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  1. A theory of cerebellar cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, David

    1969-01-01

    1. A detailed theory of cerebellar cortex is proposed whose consequence is that the cerebellum learns to perform motor skills. Two forms of input—output relation are described, both consistent with the cortical theory. One is suitable for learning movements (actions), and the other for learning to maintain posture and balance (maintenance reflexes). 2. It is known that the cells of the inferior olive and the cerebellar Purkinje cells have a special one-to-one relationship induced by the climbing fibre input. For learning actions, it is assumed that: (a) each olivary cell responds to a cerebral instruction for an elemental movement. Any action has a defining representation in terms of elemental movements, and this representation has a neural expression as a sequence of firing patterns in the inferior olive; and (b) in the correct state of the nervous system, a Purkinje cell can initiate the elemental movement to which its corresponding olivary cell responds. 3. Whenever an olivary cell fires, it sends an impulse (via the climbing fibre input) to its corresponding Purkinje cell. This Purkinje cell is also exposed (via the mossy fibre input) to information about the context in which its olivary cell fired; and it is shown how, during rehearsal of an action, each Purkinje cell can learn to recognize such contexts. Later, when the action has been learnt, occurrence of the context alone is enough to fire the Purkinje cell, which then causes the next elemental movement. The action thus progresses as it did during rehearsal. 4. It is shown that an interpretation of cerebellar cortex as a structure which allows each Purkinje cell to learn a number of contexts is consistent both with the distributions of the various types of cell, and with their known excitatory or inhibitory natures. It is demonstrated that the mossy fibre-granule cell arrangement provides the required pattern discrimination capability. 5. The following predictions are made. (a) The synapses from parallel

  2. Motor Cortex Reorganization in Patients with Glioma Assessed by Repeated Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Anne; Noack, Anika; Baumgarten, Peter; Seifert, Volker; Forster, Marie-Therese

    2018-04-01

    Evidence for cerebral reorganization after resection of low-grade glioma has mainly been obtained by serial intraoperative cerebral mapping. Noninvasively collected data on cortical plasticity in tumor patients over a surgery-free period are still scarce. The present study therefore aimed at evaluating motor cortex reorganization by navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) in patients after perirolandic glioma surgery. nTMS was performed preoperatively and postoperatively in 20 patients, separated by 26.1 ± 24.8 months. Further nTMS mapping was conducted in 14 patients, resulting in a total follow-up period of 46.3 ± 25.4 months. Centers of gravity (CoGs) were calculated for every muscle representation area, and Euclidian distances between CoGs over time were defined. Results were compared with data from 12 healthy individuals, who underwent motor cortex mapping by nTMS in 2 sessions. Preoperatively and postoperatively pooled CoGs from the area of the dominant abductor pollicis brevis muscle and of the nondominant leg area differed significantly compared with healthy individuals (P reorganization of all representation areas was observed in 3 patients, and a significant shift of hand representation areas was identified in further 3 patients. Complete functional recovery of postoperative motor deficits was exclusively associated with cortical reorganization. Despite the low potential of remodeling within the somatosensory region, long-term reorganization of cortical motor function can be observed. nTMS is best suited for a noninvasive evaluation of this reorganization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Down syndrome: age-dependence of PiB binding in postmortem frontal cortex across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, Harry; Spielmann, H Peter; Matveev, Sergey; Cauvi, Francesca Macchiavello; Murphy, M Paul; Beckett, Tina L; McCarty, Katie; Lott, Ira T; Doran, Eric; Schmitt, Frederick; Head, Elizabeth

    2017-06-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in brain accumulates as a function of age in people with Down syndrome (DS) with subsequent development into Alzheimer disease neuropathology, typically by 40 years of age. In vivo imaging using the Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) ligand has facilitated studies linking Aβ, cognition, and dementia in DS. However, there are no studies of PiB binding across the lifespan in DS. The current study describes in vitro 3 H-PiB binding in the frontal cortex of autopsy cases with DS compared to non-DS controls. Tissue from 64 cases included controls (n = 25) and DS (n = 39). In DS, 3 H-PiB binding was significantly associated with age. After age 40 years in DS, 3 H-PiB binding rose dramatically along with increasing individual variability. 3 H-PiB binding correlated with the amount of Aβ42. Using fixed frontal tissue and fluorescent 6-CN-PiB, neuritic and cored plaques along with extensive cerebral amyloid angiopathy showed 6-CN-PiB binding. These results suggest that cortical PiB binding as shown by positron emission tomography imaging reflects plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy in DS brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pathogenesis of lober intracerebral hemorrhage related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Naoto; Namba, Hiroki; Miura, Katsutoshi; Baba, Satoshi; Isoda, Haruo; Yokoyama, Tetsuo

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is an important cause of lober intracerebral hemorrhage in the elderly. Although leptomeningeal and cortical arteries with the deposition of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) have been thought to rupture in CAA, the pathogenesis of CAA-related hemorrhage still remains obscure. We studied 10 cases of CAA according to the Boston criteria from April 2006 to July 2009 in Omaezaki Municipal Hospital. Based on clinical data, we examined the primary site of hemorrhage and hypothesized the mechanisms of bleeding. Intracerebral hematoma evacuation was performed to alleviate neurological deteriolation in 2 patients and to make diagnosis in 3 patients. The surgical specimens were pathologically examined. The characteristic MR images of CAA related hemorrhage were characterized by microbleeds, superficial siderosis, subpial or subarachnoid hemorrhage, subcortical hemorrhage and lober intracerebral hemorrhage. Chronological images obtained in 1 patient revealed that lober intracerebral hemorrhage developed from microbleed with subpial hemorrhage without subarachnoid hemorrhage in one side of the cortex in the affected facing cerebral sulci. Operative findings showed subpial and subarachnoid hemorrhages around the cortical veins on the affected cerebral sulci in all cases. Abnormal fragile vessels existed in one side of the cortex of the affected sulci but not in the other side of the cortex. Complete hamatoma evacuation was performed in 4 cases. The surgical specimens of the hematoma and the adjacent brain parenchyma were pathologically examined by tissue staining with hematoxylin-eosin and Congo red. Many vessels in subpial, subcortical and subarachnoid space along the cerebral sulci were deposited with Aβ. From these findings, we speculated that the primary hemorrhage related to CAA occurred from the cortical arteries with Aβ deposition in the subpial space along the cerebral sulci and formed a lober intracerebral hematoma. Subarachnoid

  5. Sepsis causes neuroinflammation and concomitant decrease of cerebral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, Alexander; Hermann, Sven; Mormann, Florian; Weberpals, Marc; Paxian, Stephan A; Okulla, Thorsten; Schäfers, Michael; Kummer, Markus P; Klockgether, Thomas; Heneka, Michael T

    2008-09-15

    Septic encephalopathy is a severe brain dysfunction caused by systemic inflammation in the absence of direct brain infection. Changes in cerebral blood flow, release of inflammatory molecules and metabolic alterations contribute to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. To investigate the relation of electrophysiological, metabolic and morphological changes caused by SE, we simultaneously assessed systemic circulation, regional cerebral blood flow and cortical electroencephalography in rats exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Additionally, cerebral glucose uptake, astro- and microglial activation as well as changes of inflammatory gene transcription were examined by small animal PET using [18F]FDG, immunohistochemistry, and real time PCR. While the systemic hemodynamic did not change significantly, regional cerebral blood flow was decreased in the cortex paralleled by a decrease of alpha activity of the electroencephalography. Cerebral glucose uptake was reduced in all analyzed neocortical areas, but preserved in the caudate nucleus, the hippocampus and the thalamus. Sepsis enhanced the transcription of several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, transforming growth factor beta, and monocot chemoattractant protein 1 in the cerebrum. Regional analysis of different brain regions revealed an increase in ED1-positive microglia in the cortex, while total and neuronal cell counts decreased in the cortex and the hippocampus. Together, the present study highlights the complexity of sepsis induced early impairment of neuronal metabolism and activity. Since our model uses techniques that determine parameters relevant to the clinical setting, it might be a useful tool to develop brain specific therapeutic strategies for human septic encephalopathy.

  6. Sepsis causes neuroinflammation and concomitant decrease of cerebral metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semmler Alexander

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Septic encephalopathy is a severe brain dysfunction caused by systemic inflammation in the absence of direct brain infection. Changes in cerebral blood flow, release of inflammatory molecules and metabolic alterations contribute to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Methods To investigate the relation of electrophysiological, metabolic and morphological changes caused by SE, we simultaneously assessed systemic circulation, regional cerebral blood flow and cortical electroencephalography in rats exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Additionally, cerebral glucose uptake, astro- and microglial activation as well as changes of inflammatory gene transcription were examined by small animal PET using [18F]FDG, immunohistochemistry, and real time PCR. Results While the systemic hemodynamic did not change significantly, regional cerebral blood flow was decreased in the cortex paralleled by a decrease of alpha activity of the electroencephalography. Cerebral glucose uptake was reduced in all analyzed neocortical areas, but preserved in the caudate nucleus, the hippocampus and the thalamus. Sepsis enhanced the transcription of several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, transforming growth factor beta, and monocot chemoattractant protein 1 in the cerebrum. Regional analysis of different brain regions revealed an increase in ED1-positive microglia in the cortex, while total and neuronal cell counts decreased in the cortex and the hippocampus. Conclusion Together, the present study highlights the complexity of sepsis induced early impairment of neuronal metabolism and activity. Since our model uses techniques that determine parameters relevant to the clinical setting, it might be a useful tool to develop brain specific therapeutic strategies for human septic encephalopathy.

  7. Metabolic Characterization of Acutely Isolated Hippocampal and Cerebral Cortical Slices Using [U-(13)C]Glucose and [1,2-(13)C]Acetate as Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNair, Laura F; Kornfelt, Rasmus; Walls, Anne B

    2017-01-01

    ]glucose in slices from cerebral cortex and hippocampus revealed no significant regional differences regarding glycolytic or total TCA cycle activities. On the contrary, results from the incubations with [1,2-(13)C]acetate suggest a higher capacity of the astrocytic TCA cycle in hippocampus compared to cerebral...

  8. Circuit changes in motor cortex during motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, Andrew E; Hooks, Bryan M

    2018-01-01

    Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents asa model system. Rodent neocortex contains well-differentiated motor and sensory regions, as well as neurons expressing similar genetic markers to many of the same circuit components in human cortex. Furthermore, rodents have circuit mapping tools for labeling, targeting, and manipulating these cell types as circuit nodes. Crucially, the projection from rodent primary somatosensory cortex to primary motor cortex is a well-studied corticocortical projection and a model of sensorimotor integration. We first summarize some of the descending pathways involved in making dexterous movements, including reaching. We then describe local and long-range circuitry in mouse motor cortex, summarizing structural and functional changes associated with motor skill acquisition. We then address which specific connections might be responsible for plasticity. For insight into the range of plasticity mechanisms employed by cortex, we review plasticity in sensory systems. The similarities and differences between motor cortex plasticity and critical periods of plasticity in sensory systems are discussed. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gamma band plasticity in sensory cortex is a signature of the strongest memory rather than memory of the training stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Norman M; Miasnikov, Alexandre A; Bieszczad, Kasia M; Chen, Jemmy C

    2013-09-01

    Gamma oscillations (∼30-120Hz) are considered to be a reflection of coordinated neuronal activity, linked to processes underlying synaptic integration and plasticity. Increases in gamma power within the cerebral cortex have been found during many cognitive processes such as attention, learning, memory and problem solving in both humans and animals. However, the specificity of gamma to the detailed contents of memory remains largely unknown. We investigated the relationship between learning-induced increased gamma power in the primary auditory cortex (A1) and the strength of memory for acoustic frequency. Adult male rats (n=16) received three days (200 trials each) of pairing a tone (3.66 kHz) with stimulation of the nucleus basalis, which implanted a memory for acoustic frequency as assessed by associatively-induced disruption of ongoing behavior, viz., respiration. Post-training frequency generalization gradients (FGGs) revealed peaks at non-CS frequencies in 11/16 cases, likely reflecting normal variation in pre-training acoustic experiences. A stronger relationship was found between increased gamma power and the frequency with the strongest memory (peak of the difference between individual post- and pre-training FGGs) vs. behavioral responses to the CS training frequency. No such relationship was found for the theta/alpha band (4-15 Hz). These findings indicate that the strength of specific increased neuronal synchronization within primary sensory cortical fields can determine the specific contents of memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcranial static magnetic field stimulation of the human motor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Antonio; Mordillo-Mateos, Laura; Arias, Pablo; Panyavin, Ivan; Foffani, Guglielmo; Aguilar, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate in healthy humans the possibility of a non-invasive modulation of motor cortex excitability by the application of static magnetic fields through the scalp. Static magnetic fields were obtained by using cylindrical NdFeB magnets. We performed four sets of experiments. In Experiment 1, we recorded motor potentials evoked by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex before and after 10 min of transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) in conscious subjects. We observed an average reduction of motor cortex excitability of up to 25%, as revealed by TMS, which lasted for several minutes after the end of tSMS, and was dose dependent (intensity of the magnetic field) but not polarity dependent. In Experiment 2, we confirmed the reduction of motor cortex excitability induced by tSMS using a double-blind sham-controlled design. In Experiment 3, we investigated the duration of tSMS that was necessary to modulate motor cortex excitability. We found that 10 min of tSMS (compared to 1 min and 5 min) were necessary to induce significant effects. In Experiment 4, we used transcranial electric stimulation (TES) to establish that the tSMS-induced reduction of motor cortex excitability was not due to corticospinal axon and/or spinal excitability, but specifically involved intracortical networks. These results suggest that tSMS using small static magnets may be a promising tool to modulate cerebral excitability in a non-invasive, painless, and reversible way. PMID:21807616

  11. Beneficial synergistic effects of concurrent treatment with theanine and caffeine against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingyan; Tian, Xia; Gou, Lingshan; Ling, Xin; Wang, Ling; Feng, Yan; Yin, Xiaoxing; Liu, Yi

    2013-07-01

    Theanine and caffeine, 2 naturally occurring components in tea, have repeatedly been shown to deliver unique cognitive benefits when consumed in combination. In this study, we assessed the beneficial synergistic effects of concurrent treatment with theanine and caffeine against cerebral damage in rats. Theanine and caffeine had no effect on physiological variables, including pH, partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2), mean arterial blood pressure, plasma glucose, or regional cerebral blood flow. Treatment with theanine (1 mg/kg body mass, intraperitoneal injection) alone significantly reduced cerebral infarction induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, but caffeine (10 mg/kg, intravenous administration) alone only had a marginal effect. However, the combination of theanine plus caffeine resulted in a significant reduction of cerebral infarction and brain edema compared with theanine monotherapy. Meanwhile, increased malondialdehyde levels as well as decreased superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and glutathione levels observed in the cerebral cortex after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion were significantly ameliorated by the combination therapy. Furthermore, the elevated inflammatory response levels observed in the cortex after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion were markedly attenuated by the combined treatment. Thus, it is suggested that the neuroprotective potential of a combination therapy with theanine and caffeine against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion is partly ascribed to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  12. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W.J.; Willemsen, Antoon T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  13. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P; Albers, Frans W J; Willemsen, Antoon T M

    2007-12-01

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies.

  14. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Georgiadis, Janniko R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Groningen (Netherlands); Holstege, Gert [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Uroneurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Wit, Hero P. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); Albers, Frans W.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  15. Androgen receptor immunoreactivity in rat occipital cortex after callosotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Lepore

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Gonadal steroidogenesis can be influenced by direct neural links between the central nervous system and the gonads. It is known that androgen receptor (AR is expressed in many areas of the rat brain involved in neuroendocrine control of reproduction, such as the cerebral cortex. It has been recently shown that the occipital cortex exerts an inhibitory effect on testicular stereoidogenesis by a pituitary-independent neural mechanism. Moreover, the complete transection of the corpus callosum leads to an increase in testosterone (T secretion of hemigonadectomized rats. The present study was undertaken to analyze the possible corticocortical influences regulating male reproductive activities. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: 1 intact animals as control; 2 rats undergoing sham callosotomy; 3 posterior callosotomy; 4 gonadectomy and posterior callosotomy. Western blot analysis showed no remarkable variations in cortical AR expression in any of the groups except in group I where a significant decrease in AR levels was found. Similarly, both immunocytochemical study and cell count estimation showed a lower AR immunoreactivity in occipital cortex of callosotomized rats than in other groups. In addition, there was no difference in serum T and LH concentration between sham-callosotomized and callosotomized rats. In conclusion, our results show that posterior callosotomy led to a reduction in AR in the right occipital cortex suggesting a putative inhibiting effect of the contralateral cortical area.

  16. Cerebral hemodynamics in adult ischemic-type patients with moyamoya disease compared with those of atherothrombotic middle cerebral artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, Masaru; Yamane, Kanji; Nishida, Masahiro; Manabe, Kazufumi; Yokota, Akira

    2005-01-01

    We measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in adult ischemic-type patients with moyamoya disease and in patients with atherothrombotic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to investigate cerebral hemodynamics in adult ischemic-type of moyamoya disease. In this study we measured rCBF and regional cerebro-vascular response (rCVR) using acetazolamide by Xe-non-enhanced CT. Our subjects consisted of 15 adult ischemic-type patients with moyamoya disease and 27 atherothrombotic stroke patients with proximal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. The region of inter est was conducted in the anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery territories as well as basal ganglia regions. rGBF was preserved in all regions of patients with moyamoya disease. However, rCVR severely decreased in the anterior circulation territory in patients with moyamoya disease compared with those of MCAO. These results suggest that rCBF in the anterior circulation territory of adult ischemic-type patients with moyamoya disease is preserved by vasodilation of the cerebral arteries, while cerebral hemodynamic reserve capacity is severely reduced. The results indicated that basal moyamoya vessels are dilated. These findings may be one of the reasons why stroke occurs more frequently in adult than child patients with moyamoya disease. (author)

  17. Cerebral haematocrit measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutfi, Issa.

    1987-01-01

    Regional cerebral haematocrit was measured in a group of sixteen subjects by the single-photon emission computerized tomography method. This group included three normal subjects as controls and thirteen patients affected with ischaemic cerebral disease presenting clinically with transient ischaemic attacks-six patients - or recent cerebral stroke - seven patients. Two intravenous radioactive tracers - technetium-99m l