WorldWideScience

Sample records for reserve sierra chincua

  1. [Historical presence of invasive fish in the biosphere reserve sierra de Huautla, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Mojica, Humberto; de Rodríguez-Romero, Felipe Jesús; Díaz-Pardo, Edmundo

    2012-06-01

    The effects of invasive species on native ecosystems are varied, and these have been linked to the disappearance or decline of native fauna, changes in community structure, modification of ecosystems and as vectors of new diseases and parasites. Besides, the development of trade in species for ornamental use has contributed significantly to the import and introduction of invasive fish in some important areas for biodiversity conservation in Mexico, but the presence of these species is poorly documented. In this study we analyzed the fish community in the Biosphere Reserve Sierra de Huautla by looking at diversity changes in the last 100 years. For this, we used databases of historical records and recent collections for five sites in the Amacuzac river, along the Biosphere Reserve area. We compared the values of similarity (Jaccard index) between five times series (1898-1901, 1945-1953, 1971-1980, 1994-1995 and 2008-2009), and we obtained values of similarity (Bray-Curtis) between the five sites analyzed. In our results we recognized a total of 19 species for the area, nine non-native and ten native, three of which were eliminated for the area. Similarity values between the early days and current records were very low (.27); the major changes in the composition of the fauna occurred in the past 20 years. The values of abundance, diversity and similarity among the sampling sites, indicate the dominance of non-native species. We discuss the role of the ornamental fish trade in the region as the leading cause of invasive introduction in the ecosystem and the possible negative effects that at least four non-native species have had on native fauna and the ecosystem (Oreochromis mossambicus, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus and P pardalis). There is an urgent need of programs for registration, control and eradication of invasive species in the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve and biodiversity protection areas in Mexico.

  2. Diversidad de mamíferos de la Reserva Natural Sierra Nanchititla, México Diversity of mammals in the Natural Reserve Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Monroy-Vilchis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La Reserva Natural Sierra Nanchititla (RNSN, por su extensión, es la segunda área natural protegida del Estado de México; sin embargo, se desconoce gran parte de su biodiversidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar su diversidad mastofaunística. Se utilizó el trampeo directo para la colecta de mamíferos pequeños y trampas-cámara para el estudio de los mamíferos medianos y grandes. Se calculó la diversidad a partir del índice de Margalef, y se evaluaron la dominancia y la equidad mediante los índices de Simpson y Shannon-Wiener, respectivamente. Se registraron 53 especies de mamíferos; 3 de ellas son el primer registro estatal, 10 son endémicas de México y 4 las considera en alguna categoría de vulnerabilidad el gobierno mexicano. En la zona habitan 5 de las 6 especies de felinos de México. La composición mastofaunística de la RNSN fue comparada con la de la sierra Purépecha, Michoacán, con la que comparte el 38% de las especies. De acuerdo con el índice de Jaccard, la similitud entre ambas es baja. Considerando los resultados, la importancia de la RNSN con respecto a su diversidad mastofaunística es evidente, así como la necesidad de delinear estrategias para su conservación.The Sierra Nanchititla Natural Reserve (SNNR is the second largest natural protected area in the State of Mexico, however its biodiversity is largely unknown. The aim of this research was to estimate its mammalian diversity. Direct trapping was used to capture small mammals and camera-trapping for the study of medium and large mammals. Diversity was calculated from Margalef's index, dominance and equity were evaluated through Simpson's and Shannon-Wiener indexes, respectively. Fifty three species were registered, 3 of them are the first record for the State of Mexico, 10 are endemic to Mexico and 4 are considered in some category of vulnerability by the Mexican government. The area is inhabited by 5 of the 6 Mexican felid species. The

  3. Subsistence fisheries in the Sierra Manantlán Biosphere Reserve (Jalisco/Colima, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Mercado-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las reservas de la biósfera enfrentan el doble objetivo de proteger ecosistemas ejemplares y proveer a las comunidades locales con oportunidades de desarrollo. Las pesquerías de subsistencia están presentes en muchas áreas protegidas en México, pero son poco conocidas. Los pescadores de subsistencia tienen pocas oportunidades para expresar sus opiniones acerca de la calidad de los ecosistemas de los cuales dependen para sobrevivir. Utilizamos encuestas para describir las pesquerías de subsistencia del Río Ayuquila, (Jalisco, Colima, México y documentar las perspectivas que los pescadores tienen de la calidad ambiental del río y el manejo que se le da al mismo. La pesquería de subsistencia en el Ayuquila tiene gran importancia para las comunidades rurales de la Reserva de la Biósfera Sierra de Manantlán, pero está poco organizada, y es secundaria en importancia a actividades agropecuarias en la región. La pesquería ha sido afectada por la contaminación y la sobreexplotación, pero esfuerzos realizados por la dirección de la reserva y los gobiernos locales han resultado en mejoras a lo largo del tiempo. Estas mejoras se ven reflejadas en las opiniones que los pescadores tienen acerca de la situación ambiental actual del río, y de las instituciones que se encargan de darle manejo. Describimos cómo procesos regionales han afectado al manejo que se da al río e identificamos áreas donde es posible mejorar su situación. El empoderamiento de los pescadores de subsistencia es posible a través de su participación en encuestas como las que aquí presentamos y que pueden ser utilizadas por instituciones regionales para mejorar las condiciones de vida de los pobladores y las estrategias de conservación de recursos naturales.

  4. Recommendation system to determine suitable and viable hiking routes: a prototype application in Sierra de las Nieves Nature Reserve (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vías, Jesús; Rolland, José; Gómez, María Luisa; Ocaña, Carmen; Luque, Ana

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes a system for recommending hiking routes to help manage hiking activities in a protected area. The system proposes various routes, based on five criteria that maximize some aspects of hikers' requirements (by analyzing the viability and difficulty of the trails) and also those of protected areas managers (by proposals to relieve congestion in areas already used for hiking and to promote awareness of new ones, as a contribution to environmental education). The recommendation system uses network analysis, multi-criteria decision analysis and geographic information system by free software tools: PgRouting, PostgreSQL and PostGIS. This system has been tested in Sierra de las Nieves Nature Reserve (Andalusia, Spain). Of the 182 routes obtained by the system, 62 (34%) are considered viable for hikers in Sierra de las Nieves, taking into account the type of user most likely to visit this protected area. Most routes have a high difficulty level, which is coherent with the mountainous character of the protected area.

  5. Biodiversity and distribution of helminths and protozoa in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güiris, A D M; Rojas, H N M; Berovides, A V; Sosa, P J; Pérez, E M E; Cruz, A E; Chávez, H C; Moguel, A J A; Jimenez-Coello, M; Ortega-Pacheco, A

    2010-06-24

    A cross sectional survey was performed to identify gastrointestinal helminths and protozoans in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve known as "La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", Mexico (El Triunfo and La Sepultura). During a three-year survey, fecal samples from 90 horses and parasites from 2 necropsied animals were collected. Five families from the Nematoda class: Ascaridae, Kathlanidae, Oxyuridae, Strongylidae and Trichostrongylidae were found, whereas, only one family from the class Cestoda, was observed: Anoplocephalidae. One family from the class Insecta, was observed: Gasterophiilidae. The number of species of parasites ranged from 13 to 18 with an average of 15 per animal. Adult parasites were recovered from the large intestine luminal contents at necropsy. Species recovered included: Strongylus vulgaris, S. equinus, S. edentatus, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Coronocyclus coronatum, C. labiatus, C. labratus, Cyathostomum tetracanthum, Cylicocyclus insigne, C. leptostomus, Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus, Cylicostephanus asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. minutus, C. longibursatus, Petrovinema poculatum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Cylicostephanus goldi, Tridentoinfundibulum gobi, Triodontophorus serratus and T. tenuicollis. One species of Diptera were recovered from stomach and identified: Gasterophilus intestinalis. Furthermore, different species of protozoa were recovered from fresh horse-dung and identified in four classes: Sporozoa, Litostomatea, Ciliasida and Suctoria. Nine families: Cryptosporidiidae, Eimeriidae, Balantidiidae, Buetschliidae, Blepharocorythidae, Cycloposthiidae, Spirodiniididae, Ditoxidae, Acinetidae; and 31 ciliates species were recorded: Allantosoma dicorniger, A. intestinalis, Alloiozona trizona, Blepharosphaera intestinalis, Blepharoprosthium pireum, Blepharoconus benbrooki, Bundleia postciliata, Didesmis ovalis, D. quadrata, Sulcoarcus pellucidulus, Blepharocorys angusta, B. cardionucleata, B. curvigula, B. juvata, B

  6. Recurrencia histórica de peces invasores en la Reserva de la Biósfera Sierra de Huautla, México Historical presence of invasive fish in the Biosphere Reserve Sierra de Huautla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Mejía-Mojica

    2012-06-01

    registro, control y erradicación de especies invasoras en la reserva de Biosfera Sierra de Huautla y áreas de protecciónde la biodiversidad en MéxicoHistorical presence of invasive fish in the Biosphere Reserve Sierra de Huautla, Mexico. The effects of invasive species on native ecosystems are varied, and these have been linked to the disappearance or decline of native fauna, changes in community structure, modification of ecosystems and as vectors of new diseases and parasites. Besides, the development of trade in species for ornamental use has contributed significantly to the import and introduction of invasive fish in some important areas for biodiversity conservation in Mexico, but the presence of these species is poorly documented. In this study we analyzed the fish community in the Biosphere Reserve Sierra de Huautla by looking at diversity changes in the last 100 years. For this, we used databases of historical records and recent collections for five sites in the Amacuzac river, along the Biosphere Reserve area. We compared the values of similarity (Jaccard index between five times series (1898-1901, 1945-1953, 1971-1980, 1994-1995 and 2008-2009, and we obtained values of similarity (Bray-Curtis between the five sites analyzed. In our results we recognized a total of 19 species for the area, nine non-native and ten native, three of which were eliminated for the area. Similarity values between the early days and current records were very low (.27; the major changes in the composition of the fauna occurred in the past 20 years. The values of abundance, diversity and similarity among the sampling sites, indicate the dominance of non-native species. We discuss the role of the ornamental fish trade in the region as the leading cause of invasive introduction in the ecosystem and the possible negative effects that at least four non-native species have had on native fauna and the ecosystem (Oreochromis mossambicus, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, Pterygoplichthys

  7. Registro del águila elegante (Spizaetus ornatus en la Reserva de la Biosfera sierra de Manantlán, Jalisco-Colima, México A new record for the Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus in the Sierra Manantlán Biosphere Reserve, Jalisco-Colima, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Aranda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un registro del águila elegante (Spizaetus ornatus en un bosque de encino-pino de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra de Manantlán, Jalisco-Colima, correspondiente a un individuo de 2 a 3 años de edad. Este registro es significativo ante la escasez de registros de esta especie en el occidente de México, los cuales corresponden a localidades en los estados de Nayarit (1 Colima (3, Jalisco (1 y Guerrero (1. Se considera que el águila elegante está en peligro de extinción en México (NOM-059-ECOL-2001; su presencia en esta área natural protegida da aliento para su conservación.An immature Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus was observed and photographed while perched in pine-oak forest in the Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve, Jalisco-Colima, Mexico. From plumage characteristics we believe the eagle to be 2-3 years old. This record is significant due to the paucity of records for this species in Western Mexico: Nayarit (1 Colima (3, Jalisco (1 and Guerrero (1. The Ornate Hawk-Eagle is considered as a threatened species in Mexico, and this record from a natural protected area brings hope for its conservation.

  8. Ecología del crecimiento de una lagartija del género Xenosaurus Peters 1861 (Squamata: Xenosauridae en la Reserva de la Biosfera, Sierra Gorda, Querétaro, México Growth ecology of a lizard of the genus Xenosaurus Peters 1861 (Squamata: Xenosauridae from the Biosphere Reserve, Sierra Gorda, Querétaro, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GASTÓN ZAMORA-ABREGO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos el crecimiento corporal de una nueva especie de lagartija endémica del género Xenosaurus Peters, ubicada en la Reserva de la Biósfera, Sierra Gorda - Querétaro, México. Se estimaron las tasas de crecimiento corporal y se analizaron a partir de los modelos de crecimiento de Von Bertalanffy, logístico por longitud y logístico por peso. Para describir el patrón de crecimiento de estas lagartijas, utilizamos el modelo logístico por longitud debido a que fue el modelo que tuvo el mejor ajuste a las tasas observadas de crecimiento corporal. No encontramos diferencias significativas entre machos y hembras en el parámetro característico de crecimiento ni en la talla asintótica proyectada. Por lo tanto, se construyó una sola curva de crecimiento para ambos sexos. Los machos alcanzan la madurez sexual a los 24 meses, mientras que las hembras lo hacen hasta los 37 meses. Las tasas de crecimiento independientes de la talla no fueron estadísticamente diferentes entre años (2001, 2002 y 2003, ni entre estaciones (estación húmeda y seca. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la variación en el crecimiento corporal de esta especie, no es causada exclusivamente por las variaciones ambientales, sino más bien por una compleja combinación de factores ambientales y bases genéticas.We analyzed variation in body growth of a new lizard species of the genus Xenosaurus Peters that is endemic to the Biosphere Reserve, Sierra Gorda - Querétaro, México. We calculated body growth rates and analyzed them by means of the Von Bertalanffy, logistic-by-length, and logistic-by-weight growth models. We used the logistic-by-length model to describe the growth pattern of these lizards because this model provided the best fit to the observed body growth rates. No significant differences were found between males and females in the characteristic growth parameter or in the projected asymptotic size. Therefore, a single growth curve was constructed for both

  9. Detection of trees damaged by pests in Abies religiosa forests in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve using infrared aerial photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Leautaud Valenzuela

    2017-03-01

    photographic mosaic of the sampling area. The unassisted and assisted spectral classification technique was carried out in the ERDAS Imagine image-processing software package. For the unassisted classification, tests were carried out considering various numbers of categories: 5, 10 and 15; the assisted classification included the spectral properties of each category used for the partition to group images into five categories: healthy forest, diseased forest, Juniperus scrubland, bare soil and shaded areas. The accuracy of the technique for the detection of damaged trees was verified through field work, visiting different checkpoints where the health status of the tree was corroborated by direct observation and infrared photography at ground level. A representative sampling area of the A. religiosa forest was established in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (RBMM, sufficient to encompass the largest number of damaged trees, but not so large as to excessively prolong the information-processing phases and make field sampling unattainable.  The analysis comprised an area of 1907 ha in Sierra Chincua, where the greatest affectation was observed in a core zone including 97 points (62% with more than twice the density of individuals (11 trees/km2, relative to the buffer zone (4 trees/km2. This greater damage is the result of forest management policies, which have set no management (including sanitation in the core zone. At the end of this research work, we concluded that digital aerial photographs proved useful for the detection of damaged trees in Abies religiosa forests of RBMM. It is possible to obtain multispectral images using a low-cost photographic technology that is relatively simple and widely available. Our study showed that the best method to detect damage in A. religiosa forests in RBMM is the visual interpretation of aerial photographs, yielding a detection efficiency of over 98%. The method used has a greater costeffectiveness compared to helicopter overflight

  10. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Agelastos, Anthony Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Joel D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  11. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip; Agelastos, Anthony Michael; Miller, Joel D.

    2017-04-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  12. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MHRL

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research. (A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone). ©Sierra Leone Journal .... was used to. She seemed to have had a change of mind after ingesting.

  13. Sierra Structural Dynamics Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD , we refer the reader to Sierra/SD, User's Notes . Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature. This page intentionally left blank.

  14. Diversidad y datos reproductivos de mamíferos medianos y grandes en el bosque mesófilo de montaña de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra de Manantlán, Jalisco-Colima, México Medium and large mammal diversity and reproductive data in the cloud forest, Biosphere Reserve of Sierra Manantlán, Jalisco-Colima, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Aranda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El bosque mesófilo de montaña (BMM es uno de los ecosistemas con menor extensión territorial y de los más amenazados en México. Este trabajo presenta datos sobre la riqueza, abundancia relativa, actividad y datos reproductivos de especies de mamíferos medianos y grandes en el BMM ubicado en la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra de Manantlán. Entre febrero de 2008 y agosto de 2009, mediante la utilización de fototrampas, se obtuvieron 372 registros independientes que corresponden a 17 especies. Esta información respalda la elección adecuada de método y sitios de monitoreo. Los resultados indican que el ecosistema se encuentra en buen estado de conservación, lo que coincide con lo que en fecha reciente registró la Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Es recomendable establecer acciones de monitoreo a mediano y largo plazo en múltiples sitios, para complementar la evaluación que se ha realizado de este ecosistema en el país.The cloud forest (CF is one of the ecosystems with less surface and the most threatened in Mexico. This paper presents information on the richness, relative abundance, activity and reproductive data of medium and large mammals in the CF located in the Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve. Between February 2008 and August 2009, we used camera-traps with which we obtained 372 independent records, corresponding to 17 species. We believe this data supports an appropriate choice of method and monitoring sites; but also data on richness, abundance and reproduction of the species indicate that the ecosystem is properly preserved in the area, which is consistent with recently reported Conabio. Therefore we recommend establishing monitoring activities in the medium and long term in multiple sites, which could complement the assessment that has been undertaken at national level in this ecosystem.

  15. African Journals Online: Sierra Leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research. The Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research publishes papers in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Pharmaceutical ...

  16. Sierra Nevada Subregional Boundary - Sierra Nevada Conservancy [ds542

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Sierra Nevada Conservancy (SNC) boundary. The boundary was mapped to correspond with statute AB 2600 (2004) and as re-defined in AB 1201 (2005). Work on the boundary...

  17. Birds of Sierra de Vallejo, Nayarit, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa-Esquivel, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sierra de Vallejo, is considered a priority region for conservation, and is strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures. The inventory of birds are refers to studies in near areas. This study is a concrete contribution of the birds of the mountain chain and north of it. We considered bibliographic records and databases available on the web with records of ocurrence and specimens of scientific collections. Also we perform point counts in different localities inside the reserve. We observed a richness of 261 birds species, the family Tyrannidae is the best represented. Of the species recorded, 177 are permanent residents (31 are endemic and 15 are quasi-endemics to Mexico and 73 are migratory; the remaining eleven records have other status. Also 43 species are in endangered categories. We include species that have not been recorded in the lists of the area and records of species expand their ranges at Nayarit. Due to the great diversity of birds observed, it is necesary to continue the research work about habitat use, abundance and monitoring, it will provides the basis for the conservation of birds of Sierra de Vallejo.

  18. Modeling interfacial fracture in Sierra.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Arthur A.; Ohashi, Yuki; Lu, Wei-Yang; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Foulk, James W.,; Reedy, Earl David,; Austin, Kevin N.; Margolis, Stephen B.

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes computational efforts to model interfacial fracture using cohesive zone models in the SIERRA/SolidMechanics (SIERRA/SM) finite element code. Cohesive surface elements were used to model crack initiation and propagation along predefined paths. Mesh convergence was observed with SIERRA/SM for numerous geometries. As the funding for this project came from the Advanced Simulation and Computing Verification and Validation (ASC V&V) focus area, considerable effort was spent performing verification and validation. Code verification was performed to compare code predictions to analytical solutions for simple three-element simulations as well as a higher-fidelity simulation of a double-cantilever beam. Parameter identification was conducted with Dakota using experimental results on asymmetric double-cantilever beam (ADCB) and end-notched-flexure (ENF) experiments conducted under Campaign-6 funding. Discretization convergence studies were also performed with respect to mesh size and time step and an optimization study was completed for mode II delamination using the ENF geometry. Throughout this verification process, numerous SIERRA/SM bugs were found and reported, all of which have been fixed, leading to over a 10-fold increase in convergence rates. Finally, mixed-mode flexure experiments were performed for validation. One of the unexplained issues encountered was material property variability for ostensibly the same composite material. Since the variability is not fully understood, it is difficult to accurately assess uncertainty when performing predictions.

  19. Reading Comprehension Instruction Practices in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersbach, S.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this study an attempt was made to give insight in the way reading comprehension is taught in Sierra Leone. Attention was paid to the didactical strategies and the materials used during reading comprehension instruction. Methodology: Primary school teachers in Sierra Leone (N=43) were

  20. Sierra/SM theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, Nathan Karl

    2013-07-01

    Presented in this document are the theoretical aspects of capabilities contained in the Sierra/SM code. This manuscript serves as an ideal starting point for understanding the theoretical foundations of the code. For a comprehensive study of these capabilities, the reader is encouraged to explore the many references to scientific articles and textbooks contained in this manual. It is important to point out that some capabilities are still in development and may not be presented in this document. Further updates to this manuscript will be made as these capabilites come closer to production level.

  1. Quaternary environments in Sierra Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Marc; Gómez Ortiz, Antonio; Palacios Estremera, David; Salvador Franch, Ferran; Salvà Catarineu, Monserrat

    2016-01-01

    El conocimiento relativo a la evolución ambiental cuaternaria en las montañas de la Península Ibérica ha avanzado sustancialmente en las últimas décadas. Particularmente significativos son los progresos realizados en el macizo de Sierra Nevada, en el sur peninsular. En este caso, los investigadores se han servido de registros naturales y fuentes documentales para reconstruir la dinámica ambiental desde la Última Glaciación y posterior deglaciación del macizo hasta su evolución reciente. Los c...

  2. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  3. Aspen Delineation - Sierra State Parks [ds380

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SIERRA_SP_PTS) collected in aspen stands on lands administered by the...

  4. Climate change and fire regimes in the Sierra de Manantlan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke A. Cassell; Ernesto Alvarado; Emily Heyerdahl; Diego Perez-Salicrup; Enrique Jardel-Pelaez

    2010-01-01

    Fire has been attributed as one of the most influential factors in vegetation community and succession in the Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve in Jalisco and Colima, México. A mosaic of low, mixed and high severity fire regimes characterizes the landscape with ecosystems ranging from mesophyllous mountain forest to higher elevation pine and oak forest. Research...

  5. Site fidelity of the declining amphibian Rana sierrae (Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen Matthews; Haiganoush Preisler

    2010-01-01

    From 1997 to 2006, we used mark–recapture models to estimate the site fidelity of 1250 Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frogs (Rana sierrae) in Kings Canyon National Park, California, USA, during their three main activity periods of overwintering, breeding, and feeding. To quantify site fidelity, the tendency to return to and reuse previously occupied...

  6. Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.46 Example Problems Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plews, Julia A.; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Merewether, Mark Thomas; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Presented in this document are tests that exist in the Sierra/SolidMechanics example problem suite, which is a subset of the Sierra/SM regression and performance test suite. These examples showcase common and advanced code capabilities. A wide variety of other regression and verification tests exist in the Sierra/SM test suite that are not included in this manual.

  7. Sierra toolkit computational mesh conceptual model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, David G.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Cochran, William K.; Williams, Alan B.; Sjaardema, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh is a software library intended to support massively parallel multi-physics computations on dynamically changing unstructured meshes. This domain of intended use is inherently complex due to distributed memory parallelism, parallel scalability, heterogeneity of physics, heterogeneous discretization of an unstructured mesh, and runtime adaptation of the mesh. Management of this inherent complexity begins with a conceptual analysis and modeling of this domain of intended use; i.e., development of a domain model. The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh software library is designed and implemented based upon this domain model. Software developers using, maintaining, or extending the Sierra Toolkit computational mesh library must be familiar with the concepts/domain model presented in this report.

  8. The Special Court for Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this article is the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the extent to which it can be said that the Special Court has already challenged, or will, in the future, challenge the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. In this regard, an analysis is undertaken of the Special Court......'s Statute, Rules of Procedure and Evidence and practice to date, in order to determine its treatment of gender-based crimes and whether it can be said that the Special Court for Sierra Leone challenges the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. Udgivelsesdato: december 2004...

  9. Active deformation in the northern Sierra de Valle Fértil, Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Gustavo; Alvarado, Patricia; Fosdick, Julie C.; Perucca, Laura; Saez, Mauro; Venerdini, Agostina

    2015-12-01

    The Western Sierras Pampeanas region in the San Juan Province is characterized by thick-skinned deformation with approximately N-S trending ranges of average heights of 2500 m and a high frequency occurrence of seismic activity. Its location to the east of the mainly thin-skinned tectonics of the Argentine Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt suggests that at 30°S, deformation is concentrated in a narrow zone involving these two morphostructural units. In this paper, we present new apatite (U-Th)/He results (AHe) across the northern part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil (around 30°S) and analyze them in a framework of thermochronologic available datasets. We found Pliocene AHe results for Carboniferous and Triassic strata in the northern Sierra de Valle Fértil consistent with the hypothesis of recent cooling and inferred erosional denudation concentrated along the northern end of this mountain range. Our analysis shows that this northern region may have evolved under different conditions than the central part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil. Previous studies have observed AHe ages consistent with Permian through Cretaceous cooling, indicating the middle part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil remained near surface before the Pampean slab subduction flattening process. Those studies also obtained ˜5 My cooling ages in the southern part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil, which are similar to our results in the northern end of the range. Taken together, these results suggest a pattern of young deformation in the northern and southern low elevation ends of the Sierra de Valle Fértil consistent with regions of high seismic activity, and Quaternary active faulting along the western-bounding thrust fault of the Sierra de Valle Fértil.

  10. Explaining Violence in Sierra Leone's Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explaining the violence of civil war is never a simple task for the scholar. In the case of the Sierra Leone, paradoxically, the task has in some ways been rendered more difficult by the sheer variety of compelling scholarship on the question. This paper seeks to identify the most useful of the explanations offered thus far, and ...

  11. Rebellion and Agrarian Tensions in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.; Richards, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the extent to which customary governance in Sierra Leone can be held responsible for an increasingly unstable two-class agrarian society. A case is made for regarding the civil war (1991–2002) as being an eruption of long-term, entrenched agrarian tensions exacerbated by chiefly

  12. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research (SLJBR) publishes papers in all ... An original article should give sufficient detail of experimental procedures for .... For references cited in a paper which has been accepted for publication but not ...

  13. Rice genetic resources in postwar Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakanda, R.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    This research presents the effect of the 10-year long civil war in Sierra Leone on rice genetic resources, using farmers and their seed systems in three selected districts as reference points. The war disrupted all forms of production and development in the country and like other sectors of the

  14. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research publishes papers in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biotechnology in relation to Medicine, ...

  15. Macroeconomic costs of the unmet burden of surgical disease in Sierra Leone: a retrospective economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Caris E; Quaife, Matthew; Kamara, Thaim B; Lavy, Christopher B D; Leather, Andy J M; Bolkan, Håkon A

    2018-03-14

    The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery estimated that low/middle-income countries will lose an estimated cumulative loss of US$12.3 trillion from gross domestic product (GDP) due to the unmet burden of surgical disease. However, no country-specific data currently exist. We aimed to estimate the costs to the Sierra Leone economy from death and disability which may have been averted by surgical care. We used estimates of total, met and unmet need from two main sources-a cluster randomised, cross-sectional, countrywide survey and a retrospective, nationwide study on surgery in Sierra Leone. We calculated estimated disability-adjusted life years from morbidity and mortality for the estimated unmet burden and modelled the likely economic impact using three different methods-gross national income per capita, lifetime earnings foregone and value of a statistical life. In 2012, estimated, discounted lifetime losses to the Sierra Leone economy from the unmet burden of surgical disease was between US$1.1 and US$3.8 billion, depending on the economic method used. These lifetime losses equate to between 23% and 100% of the annual GDP for Sierra Leone. 80% of economic losses were due to mortality. The incremental losses averted by scale up of surgical provision to the Lancet Commission target of 80% were calculated to be between US$360 million and US$2.9 billion. There is a large economic loss from the unmet need for surgical care in Sierra Leone. There is an immediate need for massive investment to counteract ongoing economic losses. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Medium and large mammals in the Sierra La Madera, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erick Oswaldo Bermudez-Enriquez; Rosa Elena Jimenez-Maldonado; Gertrudis Yanes-Arvayo; Maria de la Paz Montanez-Armenta; Hugo Silva-Kurumiya

    2013-01-01

    Sierra La Madera is a Sky Island mountain range in the Madrean Archipelago. It is in Fracción V of the Ajos-Bavispe CONANP Reserve in the Municipios (= Counties) of Cumpas, Granados, Huásabas, Moctezuma, and Villa Hidalgo. Medium and large mammals were inventoried using camera traps. Eighteen Wild View 2® camera traps were deployed during four sampling periods: August...

  17. Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.48 Verification Tests Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plews, Julia A.; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Merewether, Mark Thomas; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael; Xavier, Patrick G.

    2018-03-01

    Presented in this document is a small portion of the tests that exist in the Sierra / SolidMechanics (Sierra / SM) verification test suite. Most of these tests are run nightly with the Sierra / SM code suite, and the results of the test are checked versus the correct analytical result. For each of the tests presented in this document, the test setup, a description of the analytic solution, and comparison of the Sierra / SM code results to the analytic solution is provided. Mesh convergence is also checked on a nightly basis for several of these tests. This document can be used to confirm that a given code capability is verified or referenced as a compilation of example problems. Additional example problems are provided in the Sierra / SM Example Problems Manual. Note, many other verification tests exist in the Sierra / SM test suite, but have not yet been included in this manual.

  18. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez-Cossio, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sanchez, S.; Calligaro, T.F.; Tenorio, D.; Jimenez-Reyes, M.; Los Rios, M. de

    2009-01-01

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500).

  19. Sierra Madre Oriental in Coahuila, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This desolate landscape is part of the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range, on the border between the Coahuila and Nuevo Leon provinces of Mexico. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on November 28, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and green wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  20. Birds of Sierra de Vallejo, Nayarit, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa-Esquivel, E.M.; Puebla-Olivares, F

    2014-01-01

    Sierra de Vallejo, is considered a priority region for conservation, and is strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures. The inventory of birds are refers to studies in near areas. This study is a concrete contribution of the birds of the mountain chain and north of it. We considered bibliographic records and databases available on the web with records of ocurrence and specimens of scientific collections. Also we perform point counts in different localities inside the...

  1. Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Sierra Nevada Regional study unit constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  2. Discovery of the Sierra Pintada uranium district, Mendoza Province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, F.; Belluco, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1956, uranium-bearing minerals have been known to exist in Sierra Pintada, Mendoza Province, Argentina. Based on paragenetic considerations, a first radiometric prospection was carried out, leading to the discovery of two groups of anomalies (Puesto Agua del Toro and Cuesta de los Terneros), such as vein-type deposits, with uraninite and 'yellow minerals' and one sandstone-type deposit (Puesto La Josefa), related to sediments with carbon trash. Some recent geological research and surveys in the area, and a reduced drilling programme carried out on selected anomalies, led to reinterpretation of the potential of the area. Furthermore, and as a result of an airborne radiometric prospection performed in mid-1968, numerous anomalies have been discovered. The main constellation of anomalies, along the flanks of the El Tigre Brachyanticline, occurs in sandstones of Permian age. Explored by 80 000 m of drilling, they have shown the existence of several peneconcordant lens-shaped ore bodies of economic size, with uranophane on the surface and prevailing uraninite and some brannerite, coffinite and davidite below the water table. Reserves exceed 20 000 tonnes of U 3 O 8 . A new regional programme with a 4-km drill-grid initiated in 1978 led to the discovery of new ore bodies which are at present being evaluated. The alternatives and discontinuities during the development of the district, the prospecting and exploration techniques employed, and the results achieved in the different stages of the operation are discussed in detail. This case history attempts to illustrate the developing philosophy which was successfully applied in Sierra Pintada, with emphasis on the following points: (a) the need for adequate geological knowledge of the area; (b) the advantage of a massive survey (in this case, air survey); (c) the necessity for exploration (drilling) in order to define the anomalies and make their evaluation possible; and (d) the convenience of extending exploration

  3. Invasive exotic plant species in Sierra Nevada ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carla M. D' Antonio; Eric L. Berlow; Karen L. Haubensak

    2004-01-01

    The Sierra Nevada is a topographically and floristically diverse region of the western United States. While it comprises only a fifth of the total land area of California, half of the native plant species in the state occur within the range. In addition, more than 400 plant species are endemic to the Sierra Nevada and many of these are listed as threatened or have...

  4. Biosphere and atmosphere interactions in Sierra Nevada forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen H. Goldstein

    2004-01-01

    In the Sierra Nevada, studies are being conducted to assess the impacts of both anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbon emissions on regional tropospheric ozone and fine aerosol production. Impacts of ozone deposition and management practices on ecosystem health are also being studied. Human-induced changes in regional air quality have consequences for Sierra Nevada...

  5. Micrometeorological Observations in a Sierra Nevada Meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, D. A.; Oliphant, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Mountain meadows play important roles on watershed and ecosystem services, including improving water quality, moderating runoff and providing biodiversity hotspots. In the Sierra Nevada, mountain meadows are an integral part of the mountain ecosystem and watersheds that impact more than 20 million people. Grazing, logging and other forms of anthropogenic land use in the Sierra Nevada have degraded the functioning of meadows, by altering the morphology, hydrology and vegetation. Existing meandering stream networks become incised and straightened by increased runoff, which effectively lowers the water table and completely alters the ecosystem from moist meadow sedges, grasses, and herbs to dryland grass and shrubs. Given the large growth cycle in healthy meadows, it is also expected that they sequester a significant amount of carbon and enhance atmospheric humidity through evapotranspiration, but relatively little work has been done on the bio-micrometeorology of meadows. The purpose of this study is to assess the growing season carbon, water and energy budgets of a partly degraded meadow in the northern Sierra Nevada. Loney Meadow, located at nearly 2,000 m in the Tahoe National Forest, has been identified as a degraded meadow and is scheduled to undergo restoration work to raise the water table in 2017. A micrometeorological tower with eddy covariance instruments was deployed at the site for most of the snow-free period from May to October 2016. The measurements include: fluxes of CO2, water vapor, surface radiation and energy budget components; ancillary meteorological and soil data; and an automated camera capturing daily images of the meadow surface. The poster will present diurnal and seasonal CO2 on a daily basis with a very rapid increase at the onset of the growing season.

  6. Improving access to surgery in a developing country: experience from a surgical collaboration in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Adam L; Kamara, Thaim B; Groen, Reinou S; Fadlu-Deen, Betsy D; Doah, Kisito S; Kingham, T Peter

    2010-01-01

    Although surgery is increasingly recognized as an essential component of primary health care, there has been little documentation of surgical programs in low- and middle-income countries. Surgeons OverSeas (SOS) is a New York-based organization with a mission to save lives in developing countries by improving surgical care. This article highlights the surgical program in Sierra Leone as a possible model to improve access to surgery. An SOS team conducted a needs assessment of surgical capacity in Sierra Leone in February 2008. Interventions were then developed and programs were implemented. A follow-up assessment was conducted in December 2009, which included interviews of key Sierra Leone hospital personnel and a review of operating room log books. Based on an initial needs assessment, a program was developed that included training, salary support, and the provision of surgical supplies and equipment. Two 3-day workshops were conducted for a total of 44 health workers, salary support given to over 100 staff, and 2 containers of supplies and equipment were donated. Access to surgery, as measured by the number of major operations at Connaught Hospital, increased from 460 cases in 2007 to 768 cases in 2009. The SOS program in Sierra Leone highlights a method for improving access to surgery that incorporates an initial needs assessment with minimal external support and local staff collaboration. The program functions as a catalyst by providing training, salary support, and supplies. The beneficial results of the program can then be used to advocate for additional resources for surgery from policy makers. This model could be beneficial in other resource-poor countries in which improved access to surgery is desired. Copyright 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  8. Projected treatment capacity needs in sierra leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard A; MacDonald, Emily; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; Nygård, Karin; Vold, Line; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2015-01-30

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa requires immediate and sustained input from the international community in order to curb transmission. The CDC has produced a model that indicates that to end the outbreak by pushing the reproductive number below one, 25% of the patients must be placed in an Ebola Treatment Unit (ETC) and 45% must be isolated in community settings in which risk of disease transmission is reduced and safe burials are provided. In order to provide firmer targets for the international response in Sierra Leone, we estimated the national and international personnel and treatment capacity that may be required to reach these percentages. We developed a compartmental SEIR model that was fitted to WHO data and local data allowing the reproductive number to change every 8 weeks to forecast the progression of the EVD epidemic in Sierra Leone. We used the previously estimated 2.5x correction factor estimated by the CDC to correct for underreporting. Number of personnel required to provide treatment for the predicted number of cases was estimated using UNMEER and UN OCHA requests for resources required to meet the CDC target of 70% isolation. As of today (2014-12-04), we estimate that there are 810 (95% CI=646 to 973) EVD active cases in treatment, with an additional 3751 (95% CI=2778 to 4723) EVD cases unreported and untreated. To reach the CDC targets today, we need 1140 (95% CI=894 to 1387) cases in ETCs and 2052 (95% CI=1608 to 2496) at home or in a community setting with a reduced risk for disease transmission. In 28 days (2015-01-01), we will need 1309 (95% CI=804 to 1814) EVD cases in ETCs and 2356 (95% CI=1447 to 3266) EVD cases at reduced risk of transmission. If the current transmission rate is not reduced, up to 3183 personnel in total will be required in 56 days (2015-01-29) to operate ETCs according to our model. The current outbreak will require massive input from the international community in order to curb the

  9. Interaction of an Introduced Predator with Future Effects of Climate Change in the Recruitment Dynamics of the Imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog (Rana sierrae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    I Lacan; Kathleen R. Matthews; K.V. Feldman

    2008-01-01

    Between-year variation in snowpack (from 20 to 200% of average) and summer rainfall cause large fluctuations in volume of small lakes in the higher elevation (> 3000 m) Sierra Nevada, which are important habitat for the imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog, Rana sierrae. Climate change (global warming) is predicted to increase these...

  10. Geomagnetic Polarity Epochs: Sierra Nevada II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A; Doell, R R; Dalrymple, G B

    1963-10-18

    Ten new determinations on volcanic extrusions in the Sierra Nevada with potassium-argon ages of 3.1 million years or less indicate that the remanent magnetizations fall into two groups, a normal group in which the remanent magnetization is directed downward and to the north, and a reversed group magnetized up and to the south. Thermomagnetic experiments and mineralogic studies fail to provide an explanation of the opposing polarities in terms of mineralogic control, but rather suggest that the remanent magnetization reflects reversals of the main dipole field of the earth. All available radiometric ages are consistent with this field-reversal hypothesis and indicate that the present normal polarity epoch (N1) as well as the previous reversed epoch (R1) are 0.9 to 1.0 million years long, whereas the previous normal epoch (N2) was at least 25 percent longer.

  11. Sierra Toolkit Manual Version 4.48.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Toolkit Team

    2018-03-01

    This report provides documentation for the SIERRA Toolkit (STK) modules. STK modules are intended to provide infrastructure that assists the development of computational engineering soft- ware such as finite-element analysis applications. STK includes modules for unstructured-mesh data structures, reading/writing mesh files, geometric proximity search, and various utilities. This document contains a chapter for each module, and each chapter contains overview descriptions and usage examples. Usage examples are primarily code listings which are generated from working test programs that are included in the STK code-base. A goal of this approach is to ensure that the usage examples will not fall out of date. This page intentionally left blank.

  12. Assessing unmet anaesthesia need in Sierra Leone: a secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, Connaught Hospital Freetown, Sierra Leone. 3. Department of .... need, is a key part of planning for increasing surgical capacity. Limitations. As noted by Groen et al24 this data .... Emergency and surgery services of ...

  13. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    university hospital in southern Sierra Leone, a total of 66 (4.71±2.52) victims reported having been bitten by snakes in 11 ... social, economic, psychological and health impacts of snakebite ..... Epidemiological profile of snakebite cases from.

  14. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone ... disability associated with venomous snakebites result in lasting .... 1Mean ± Standard Error. 95% Confidence Limit. Community. Self. Reported.

  15. British Military Intervention into Sierra Leone: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberson, Walter G

    2007-01-01

    .... The successful British intervention led to the defeat of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) and final peace accords, restored order to a failed state, and allowed the democratic restoration of the government of Sierra Leone...

  16. Population size, survival, growth, and movements of Rana sierrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A. W.; Halstead, Brian J.; Link, William

    2013-01-01

    Based on 2431 captures of 757 individual frogs over a 9-yr period, we found that the population of R. sierrae in one meadow–stream complex in Yosemite National Park ranged from an estimated 45 to 115 adult frogs. Rana sierrae at our relatively low elevation site (2200 m) grew at a fast rate (K = 0.73–0.78), had high overwintering survival rates (44.6–95%), lived a long time (up to 16 yr), and tended to be fairly sedentary during the summer (100% minimum convex polygon annual home ranges of 139 m2) but had low year-to-year site fidelity. Even though the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) has been present in the population for at least 13 yr, there was no clear downward trend as might be expected from reports of R. sierrae population declines associated with Bd or from reports of widespread population decline of R. sierrae throughout its range.

  17. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zackary Suleiman

    A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone ... Case Study ... Peri-operative management of patients with significant cardio-respiratory disease ... contribute to patient safety by preventing any.

  18. Sierra Structural Dynamics User's Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  19. Sierra/SD User's Notes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munday, Lynn Brendon; Day, David M.; Bunting, Gregory; Miller, Scott T; Crane, Nathan K

    2018-03-01

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  20. Preliminary flora of the Sierra Bacadehuachi, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; George M. Ferguson; George Yatskievych; Beatriz E. Loyola-Reina; Gertrudis Yanes-Arvayo; Maria de la Paz Montanez-Armenta; John L. Anderson; Stephen F. Hale; Sky Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    The Sierra Bacadéhuachi in east-central Sonora is the westernmost mountain range in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO), located east of Bacadéhuachi, Municipio de Bacadéhuachi, 34 km east of the Chihuahua border, and 165 km south of the Arizona border. The vegetation ranges from lowland foothills thornscrub up through desert grassland to oak woodland and pine-oak forest...

  1. Uranium - raw material reserves for coming generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keutner, H.

    1981-01-01

    Large uranium occurences have been discovered in the South of Mexico. The deposits are situated in the Sierra Mixteca. Reserves of 9.400 tons had been at Mexico's disposal even before these new discoveries. The quantitiy discovered recentyl amounts to 20.000 tons. The uranium reserves available apart from those in centrally controlled economic systems are presently estimated at five million tons. Meanwhile American scientists have found out that all the rivers of the world transport about 16.000 tons of uranium from the continents into the oceans per annum. The energy value of this washed out amount of uranium corresponds to the 25-fold world power demand of today. US scientists have discovered that the oceans can provide uranium for about seven million years of the present world energy demand. While the petroleum reserves decrease worldwide it seems that the exploration of uranium has just been started. (orig.) [de

  2. Contaminant studies in the Sierra Nevadas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Fellers, G.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Several species of anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) are experiencing severe population declines in even seemingly pristine areas of the Sierra Mountains of California. Among the most severely depressed species are the redlegged frog, the foothill and mountain yellow-legged frogs, the Yosemite toad, and the Cascades frog. Several factors, such as habitat fragmentation, introduced predators (especially fish), and disease, have been linked to these declines. But recent evidence from a USGS-led study shows that contaminants are a primary factor. During the past three years, researchers from the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, the Western Ecology Research Center, the USDA Beltsville Agriculture Research Center, and the Texas A&M University have teamed up to conduct an extensive study on airborne pesticides and their effects on amphibian populations in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Previous work on environmental chemistry demonstrated that pesticides from the intensely agricultural Central Valley of California are being blown into the more pristine Sierra Nevada Mountains, especially around Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks. Several pesticides, including diazinon, chlorpyrifos, malathion and endosulfan, can be measured in snow, rainfall, and pond waters in these national parks. With the exception of endosulfan, these pesticides affect and even kill both invertebrates and vertebrate species by inhibiting cholinesterase, an enzyme essential to proper nervous system functioning. In the summer of 2001, we published a paper showing that these same pesticides are now found in adults and the tadpoles of Pacific treefrogs. The results of this landmark study showed that more than 50 percent of the tadpoles and adults sampled in Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks had detectable levels of diazinon or chlorpyrifos and that 86 percent of the Pacific treefrogs sampled in the Lake Tahoe region had detectable levels of endosulfan. In contrast, frogs that were

  3. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  4. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan...

  5. Factors affecting ethnobotanical knowledge in a mestizo community of the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Rodríguez, Leonardo; Ortiz-Sánchez, Amanda; Mariano, Nestor A; Maldonado-Almanza, Belinda; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2014-01-27

    Worldwide, mestizo communities' ethnobotanical knowledge has been poorly studied. Based on a mestizo group in Mexico, this study assesses a) the use value (UV) of the local flora, b) gendered differences in plant species, and c) the association between socio-economic variables and ethnobotanical knowledge. To assess the degree of knowledge of plant resources, we conducted 41 interviews collecting information on knowledge of local plant resources and the socio-economic situation of the informant. We also collected free listings of useful plants by category of use to identify the UV of each species. With the support of key informants, we photographed and collected the plant material recorded during the interviews and free listings on five different habitats. Paired t-tests and a Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to determine differences in the number of species known by men and women. Differences in distribution were analyzed by means of the Shapiro-Wilk's W normality tests. To determine the association of socio-economic factors and ethnobotanical knowledge, we used a non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS). Informants listed 185 species. Medicinal plants constituted the most diverse group (90 species). Tropical deciduous forest is the habitat that concentrates the highest proportion of plant resources (80 species). The use-values were classified into three groups: A (4-6 UV; three species), B (0.35-1.37 UV; 39 species) and C (0-0.29 UV; 143 species). High-quality wood species and those associated to religious ceremonies had the highest UV. Women's and men's knowledge of plant species showed statistically significant differences at the interspecific and the intracategorical levels (Student's test, T15 = 4.8, p economic activities associated with the intracultural distribution of ethnobotanical knowledge among mestizo Mexican communities. It also provides information on plant resources and habitats and how local peasants value them. This information could help in the development of proposals to improve biocultural conservation and strengthen traditional knowledge systems for effective forest management.

  6. Medical Officers in Sierra Leone: Surgical Training Opportunities, Challenges and Aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Lucy; Leather, Andrew; George, Peter Matthew; Kamara, Thaim Bay

    2018-02-05

    The critical shortage of human resources for healthcare falls most heavily on sub-Saharan nations such as Sierra Leone, where such workforce deficits have grave impacts on its burden of surgical disease. An important aspect in retention and development of the workforce is training. This study focuses on postgraduate surgical training (formal and short course) and perceptions of opportunities, challenges and aspirations, in a country where more than half of surgical procedures are performed by medical officers. The study presents findings from 12 in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with medical officers by the primary investigator in Sierra Leone between April and June 2017. Each interview was transcribed alongside an introspective reflexive journal to acknowledge and account for researcher biases. Two interviewees had accessed postgraduate surgical training and 10 (83%) had accessed short course surgically relevant training. The number of short courses accessed grew higher the more recently the medical officers had graduated. Supervision, short length and international standards were the most appreciated aspects of short training courses. Some medical officers perceived the formal postgraduate surgical training programme to be ill-equipped, doubting its credibility. This demotivated some from applying. Training is an essential aspect of developing an adequate surgical workforce. Faith must be restored in the capabilities of Sierra Leone's Ministry of Health and Sanitation to provide adequate and sustainable training. This study advocates for the use of short courses to restore this faith and the expansion of postgraduate surgical training to the districts through developing a regional teaching complex to provide short courses and eventually formal postgraduate training in the future. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, P.P.

    1999-01-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully

  8. SIERRA - A 3-D device simulator for reliability modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jue-Hsien; Arledge, Lawrence A., Jr.; Yang, Ping; Maeda, John T.

    1989-05-01

    SIERRA is a three-dimensional general-purpose semiconductor-device simulation program which serves as a foundation for investigating integrated-circuit (IC) device and reliability issues. This program solves the Poisson and continuity equations in silicon under dc, transient, and small-signal conditions. Executing on a vector/parallel minisupercomputer, SIERRA utilizes a matrix solver which uses an incomplete LU (ILU) preconditioned conjugate gradient square (CGS, BCG) method. The ILU-CGS method provides a good compromise between memory size and convergence rate. The authors have observed a 5x to 7x speedup over standard direct methods in simulations of transient problems containing highly coupled Poisson and continuity equations such as those found in reliability-oriented simulations. The application of SIERRA to parasitic CMOS latchup and dynamic random-access memory single-event-upset studies is described.

  9. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-07-08

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  10. Sierra/Aria 4.48 Verification Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal Fluid Development Team

    2018-04-01

    Presented in this document is a portion of the tests that exist in the Sierra Thermal/Fluids verification test suite. Each of these tests is run nightly with the Sierra/TF code suite and the results of the test checked under mesh refinement against the correct analytic result. For each of the tests presented in this document the test setup, derivation of the analytic solution, and comparison of the code results to the analytic solution is provided. This document can be used to confirm that a given code capability is verified or referenced as a compilation of example problems.

  11. Comparison of preliminary herpetofaunas of the Sierras la Madera (Oposura) and Bacadehuachi with the mainland Sierra Madre Occidental in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Erik F. Enderson; Dale S. Turner; Roberto A. Villa; Stephen F. Hale; George M. Ferguson; Charles. Hedgcock

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles were observed in the Sierra La Madera (59 species), an isolated Sky Island mountain range, and the Sierra Bacadéhuachi (30 species), the westernmost mountain range in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) range in east-central Sonora. These preliminary herpetofaunas were compared with the herpetofauna of the Yécora area in eastern Sonora in the main...

  12. Comparison of the tropical floras of the Sierra la Madera and the Sierra Madre Occidental, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Gertrudis Yanes-Arvayo; Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; Melissa Valenzuela-Yanez; Maria de la Paz Montanez-Armenta; Hugo Silva-Kurumiya

    2013-01-01

    The floras of the tropical vegetation in the Sky Island Sierra la Madera (SMA) near Moctezuma in northeastern Sonora (30°00’N 109°18’W) and the Yécora (YEC) area in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) in eastern Sonora (28°25’N 109°15”W) were compared. The areas are 175 km apart. Tropical vegetation includes foothills thornscrub (FTS) in both areas and tropical deciduous...

  13. Sierra/Solid Mechanics 4.48 User's Guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merewether, Mark Thomas; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael; Gampert, Scott; Xavier, Patrick G.; Plews, Julia A.

    2018-03-01

    Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) is a Lagrangian, three-dimensional code for finite element analysis of solids and structures. It provides capabilities for explicit dynamic, implicit quasistatic and dynamic analyses. The explicit dynamics capabilities allow for the efficient and robust solution of models with extensive contact subjected to large, suddenly applied loads. For implicit problems, Sierra/SM uses a multi-level iterative solver, which enables it to effectively solve problems with large deformations, nonlinear material behavior, and contact. Sierra/SM has a versatile library of continuum and structural elements, and a large library of material models. The code is written for parallel computing environments enabling scalable solutions of extremely large problems for both implicit and explicit analyses. It is built on the SIERRA Framework, which facilitates coupling with other SIERRA mechanics codes. This document describes the functionality and input syntax for Sierra/SM.

  14. Sierra/solid mechanics 4.22 user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Jesse David

    2011-10-01

    Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) is a Lagrangian, three-dimensional code for the analysis of solids and structures. It provides capabilities for explicit dynamic and implicit quasistatic and dynamic analyses. The explicit dynamics capabilities allow for the efficient and robust solution of models subjected to large, suddenly applied loads. For implicit problems, Sierra/SM uses a multi-level iterative solver, which enables it to effectively solve problems with large deformations, nonlinear material behavior, and contact. Sierra/SM has a versatile library of continuum and structural elements, and an extensive library of material models. The code is written for parallel computing environments, and it allows for scalable solutions of very large problems for both implicit and explicit analyses. It is built on the SIERRA Framework, which allows for coupling with other SIERRA mechanics codes. This document describes the functionality and input structure for Sierra/SM.

  15. Fumio Matsumura--accomplishments at the University of California, Davis, and in the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiber, James N

    2015-05-01

    Fumio Matsumura joined the University of California, Davis, faculty in 1987 where he served as founding director of the Center for Environmental Health Sciences, associate director of the U.C. Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program, and chair of the Department of Environmental Toxicology. He was an active affiliate with the NIEHS-funded Superfund Basic Research Program and the NIH Comprehensive Cancer Center. He was in many instances a primary driver or otherwise involved in most activities related to environmental toxicology at Davis, including the education of students in environmental biochemistry and ecotoxicology. A significant part of his broad research program was focused on the long range transport of chemicals such as toxaphene, PCBs and related contaminants used or released in California to the Sierra Nevada mountains, downwind of the urban and agricultural regions of the state. He hypothesized that these chemical residues adversely affected fish and wildlife, and particularly the declining populations of amphibians in Sierra Nevada streams and lakes. Fumio and his students and colleagues found residues of toxaphene and PCBs at higher elevations, an apparent result of atmospheric drift and deposition in the mountains. Fumio and his wife Teruko had personal interests in, and a love of the mountains, as avid skiers, hikers, and outdoor enthusiasts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nest trees of northern flying squirrels in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc D. Meyer; Douglas A. Kelt; Malcolm P. North

    2005-01-01

    We examined the nest-tree preferences of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in an old-growth, mixed-conifer and red fir (Abies magnifica) forest of the southern Sierra Nevada of California. We tracked 27 individuals to 122 nest trees during 3 summers. Flying squirrels selected nest trees that were larger in diameter and...

  17. Peruvian Rural School Construction System. SERP 71: Sierra Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangiano, Miguel

    Based on cooperative action of the government and local communities, the Peruvian Rural School System (SERP 71) evolved from the necessity to reconstruct Peruvian schools of the Sierra region after the earthquake of 1970, and from Peru's new educational reform law (1970) which called for an active-dynamic pupil attitude, continuous updating of…

  18. Indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding in Sierra Leone | Abdul ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to document and preserve valuable indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding and production under traditional cattle production system in Sierra Leone. Data were collected from thirty (30) cattle farms from three locations: Gbindi (16 farms), Sackelereh (7 farms), and Flamansa (7 farms) in ...

  19. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra ... TESTING (VCT) FOR HIV AMONG NURSING STUDENTS IN ZAMBIA ... All students were aware of where to go for VCT, and 80% .... attitudes that assure patients that they will be .... them better practitioners, but their awareness of.

  20. Young Women's Political Participation in Post-War Sierra Leone ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The end of the civil war in Sierra Leone in 2002 was facilitated in many ways by women through women's pro-democracy movements. These movements will continue to be pivotal in the gradual strengthening of democratic governance structures. Irrespective of the immense barriers that they face, women of all ages have ...

  1. Geology of Sierra de San Miguel area Rocha department (Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzio, R.; Veroslavsky, G.; Morales, E. . E mail: rossana@fcien.edu.uy

    2004-01-01

    This paper is part of a regional study about Mesozoic magmatism, tectonics and sedimentation in Uruguay. As a result of the geological studies carried out in Sierra de San Miguel area (Rocha department), lithological descriptions, their stratigraphic relationships and their petrographic characterization are presented [es

  2. Ecosystems and diversity of the Sierra Madre Occidental

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. S. Gonzalez-Elizondo; M. Gonzalez-Elizondo; L. Ruacho Gonzalez; I. L. Lopez Enriquez; F. I . Retana Renteria; J. A. Tena Flores

    2013-01-01

    The Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) is the largest continuous ignimbrite plate on Earth. Despite its high biological and cultural diversity and enormous environmental and economical importance, it is yet not well known. We describe the vegetation and present a preliminary regionalization based on physiographic, climatic, and floristic criteria. A confluence of three main...

  3. Diets of California spotted owls in the Sierra National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Munton; Kenneth D. Johnson; George N. Steger; Gary P. Eberlein

    2002-01-01

    From May 1987 through October 1992 and from July through August 1998, we studied diets of California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). Regurgitated pellets were collected at roost and nest sites between 1,000 and 7,600 ft elevation in the Sierra National Forest and were examined for remnant bones, feathers, and insect exoskeletons....

  4. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    recommendations to the health sector of Sierra Leone for it prevention. This retrospective .... pressure. 27% of the population is exposed to 3 to. 5 of these risk factors. According to .... Many studies have identified foot ulcer as the most common ...

  5. Military Interventions in Sierra Leone: Lessons from a Failed State

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Larry J; Reese, Timothy R

    2008-01-01

    This study by Larry J. Woods and Colonel Timothy R. Reese analyzes the massive turmoil afflicting the nation of Sierra Leone, 1993-2002, and the efforts by a variety of outside forces to bring lasting stability to that small country...

  6. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjälkander O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Owolabi Bjälkander,1 Laurel Bangura,2 Bailah Leigh,3 Vanja Berggren,1 Staffan Bergström,1 Lars Almroth11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Inter Africa Committee, Sierra Leone; 3Department of Community Health, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra LeoneAbstract: Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM in the world, and yet little is known about the health consequences of the practice.Purpose: To explore whether and what kind of FGM-related health complications girls and women in Sierra Leone experience, and to elucidate their health care-seeking behaviors.Patients and methods: A feasibility study was conducted to test and refine questionnaires and methods used for this study. Thereafter, a cross-section of girls and women (n = 258 attending antenatal care and Well Women Clinics in Bo Town, Bo District, in the southern region and in Makeni Town, Bombali District, in the northern region of Sierra Leone were randomly selected. Participants answered interview-administrated pretested structured questionnaires with open-ended-questions, administrated by trained female personnel.Results: All respondents had undergone FGM, most between 10 and 14 years of age. Complications were reported by 218 respondents (84.5%, the most common ones being excessive bleeding, delay in or incomplete healing, and tenderness. Fever was significantly more often reported by girls who had undergone FGM before 10 years of age compared with those who had undergone the procedure later. Out of those who reported complications, 187 (85.8% sought treatment, with 89 of them visiting a traditional healer, 75 a Sowei (traditional circumciser, and 16 a health professional.Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of FGM and the proportion of medical complications show that FGM is a matter for public health concern in Sierra Leone. Girls who

  7. When free healthcare is not free. Corruption and mistrust in Sierra Leone's primary healthcare system immediately prior to the Ebola outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Pieternella; Lodge, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Sierra Leone is one of three countries recently affected by Ebola. In debates surrounding the circumstances that contributed to the initial failure to contain the outbreak, the word 'trust' is often used: In December 2014, WHO director Margret Chan used 'lack of trust in governments'; The Lancet's Editor-in-Chief, wrote how Ebola has exposed the '… breakdown of trust between communities and their governments.' This article explores the lack of trust in public healthcare providers in Sierra Leone, predating the Ebola outbreak, apparently linked to widespread petty corruption in primary healthcare facilities. It compares four NGO-supported accountability interventions targeting Sierra Leone's primary health sector. Field research was conducted in Kailahun, Kono and Tonkolili Districts, based on interviews with health workers and focus group discussions with primary healthcare users. Field research showed that in most clinics, women and children entitled to free care routinely paid for health services. A lack of accountability in Sierra Leone's health sector appears pervasive at all levels. Petty corruption is rife. Understaffing leads to charging for free care in order to pay clinic-based 'volunteers' who function as vaccinators, health workers and birth attendants. Accountability interventions were found to have little impact on healthworker (mis)behaviour. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Lassa fever in post-conflict sierra leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G Shaffer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever (LF, an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV, is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002 ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease.Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects.Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to develop more effective and/or supplemental treatments for

  9. Good laboratory practices guarantee biosafety in the Sierra Leone-China friendship biosafety laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qin; Zhou, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Du, Hai-Jun; Nie, Kai; Song, Jing-Dong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wen-Wen; Guo, Jian-Qiang; Wei, He-Jiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yan-Hai; Wu, Jiang; Kamara, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Background The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa between 2014 and 2015 was the largest EDV epidemic since the identification of Ebola virus (EBOV) in 1976, and the countries most strongly affected were Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. Findings The Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab), a fixed Biosafety Level 3 laboratory in the capital city of Sierra Leone, was established by the Chinese government and has been active in EBOV ...

  10. Level-2 Milestone 6007: Sierra Early Delivery System Deployed to Secret Restricted Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, A. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    This report documents the delivery and installation of Shark, a CORAL Sierra early delivery system deployed on the LLNL SRD network. Early ASC program users have run codes on the machine in support of application porting for the final Sierra system which will be deployed at LLNL in CY2018. In addition to the SRD resource, Shark, unclassified resources, Rzmanta and Ray, have been deployed on the LLNL Restricted Zone and Collaboration Zone networks in support of application readiness for the Sierra platform.

  11. SIERRA/Aero User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a compressible fluid dynamics program intended to solve a wide variety compressible fluid flows including transonic and hypersonic problems. This document describes the commands for assembling a fluid model for analysis with this module, henceforth referred to simply as Aero for brevity. Aero is an application developed using the SIERRA Toolkit (STK). The intent of STK is to provide a set of tools for handling common tasks that programmers encounter when developing a code for numerical simulation. For example, components of STK provide field allocation and management, and parallel input/output of field and mesh data. These services also allow the development of coupled mechanics analysis software for a massively parallel computing environment. In the definitions of the commands that follow, the term Real_Max denotes the largest floating point value that can be represented on a given computer. Int_Max is the largest such integer value.

  12. Transient fuel rod behavior prediction with RODEX-3/SIERRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billaux, M R; Shann, S H; Swam, L.F. Van [Siemens Power Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses some aspects of the fuel performance code SIERRA (SIEmens Rod Response Analysis). SIERRA, the latest version of the code RODEX-3, has been developed to improve the fuel performance prediction capabilities of the code, both at high burnup and during transient reactor conditions. The paper emphasizes the importance of the mechanical models of the cracked pellet and of the cladding, in the prediction of the transient response of the fuel rod to power changes. These models are discussed in detail. Other aspects of the modelling of high burnup effects are also presented, in particular the modelling of the rim effect and the way it affects the fuel temperature. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs.

  13. Diagnosis of Knowledge Management in the Brisas Sierra Mar hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivón Sosa-Piedra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was made in order to evaluate the Knowledge in the Management at Brisas Sierra Mar Hotel, Santiago de Cuba. Due to this, it is being value the actual approaches that was utilized in the existent methodologies for the measurement conduct of the knowledge in the Enterprise Organizations. To fulfill these results we utilized different methods, technical, abilities and scientific investigation tools, such as: analysis-method, synthesis, historical logical, and inducement; technical as a team work, expert judgments, interviews and first and second class information review, as well as the informatics decision programs for the selection and validations of the experts, the Statistic Program for Social Sciences for Windows (SPSS version 15.0 in indicting of the information. The investigation propitiated an evaluation of the actual situation of Brisas Sierra Mar Hotel, Santiago de Cuba and permitted to identify the stage of their main intellectual, placing them in an intermediate level.

  14. Transient fuel rod behavior prediction with RODEX-3/SIERRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billaux, M.R.; Shann, S.H.; Swam, L.F. Van

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses some aspects of the fuel performance code SIERRA (SIEmens Rod Response Analysis). SIERRA, the latest version of the code RODEX-3, has been developed to improve the fuel performance prediction capabilities of the code, both at high burnup and during transient reactor conditions. The paper emphasizes the importance of the mechanical models of the cracked pellet and of the cladding, in the prediction of the transient response of the fuel rod to power changes. These models are discussed in detail. Other aspects of the modelling of high burnup effects are also presented, in particular the modelling of the rim effect and the way it affects the fuel temperature. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  15. SIERRA/Aero User Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a compressible fluid dynamics program intended to solve a wide variety compressible fluid flows including transonic and hypersonic problems. This document describes the commands for assembling a fluid model for analysis with this module, henceforth referred to simply as Aero for brevity. Aero is an application developed using the SIERRA Toolkit (STK). The intent of STK is to provide a set of tools for handling common tasks that programmers encounter when developing a code for numerical simulation. For example, components of STK provide field allocation and management, and parallel input/output of field and mesh data. These services also allow the development of coupled mechanics analysis software for a massively parallel computing environment. In the definitions of the commands that follow, the term Real_Max denotes the largest floating point value that can be represented on a given computer. Int_Max is the largest such integer value.

  16. SIERRA/Aero Theory Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a two and three dimensional, node-centered, edge-based finite volume code that approximates the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. It is applicable to inviscid and high Reynolds number laminar and turbulent flows. Currently, two classes of turbulence models are provided: Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and hybrid methods such as Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models are currently under development. The gas may be modeled either as ideal, or as a non-equilibrium, chemically reacting mixture of ideal gases. This document describes the mathematical models contained in the code, as well as certain implementation details. First, the governing equations are presented, followed by a description of the spatial discretization. Next, the time discretization is described, and finally the boundary conditions. Throughout the document, SIERRA/ Aero is referred to simply as Aero for brevity.

  17. SIERRA/Aero Theory Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a two and three dimensional, node-centered, edge-based finite volume code that approximates the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. It is applicable to inviscid and high Reynolds number laminar and turbulent flows. Currently, two classes of turbulence models are provided: Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and hybrid methods such as Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models are currently under development. The gas may be modeled either as ideal, or as a non-equilibrium, chemically reacting mixture of ideal gases. This document describes the mathematical models contained in the code, as well as certain implementation details. First, the governing equations are presented, followed by a description of the spatial discretization. Next, the time discretization is described, and finally the boundary conditions. Throughout the document, SIERRA/ Aero is referred to simply as Aero for brevity.

  18. Failure of Sierra White granite under general states of stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, M. D.; Dewers, T. A.; Lee, M.; Holdman, O.; Cheung, C.; Haimson, B. C.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of the intermediate principal stress on the failure of Sierra White granite was investigated by performing tests under true triaxial states of stress. Tests were performed under constant Lode angle conditions with Lode angles ranging from 0 to 30°, pure shear to axisymmetric compression. Results show that the failure of Sierra White granite is heavily dependent on the intermediate principal stress which became more dramatic as the mean stress increased. An analysis of the shear bands formed at failure was performed using an associated flow rule and the Rudnicki and Rice (1975) localization criteria. The localization analysis showed excellent agreement with experimental results. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  19. Courtright intrusive zone: Sierra National Forest, Fresno County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, P.C.; Kistler, R.W.; DeGraff, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    This is a field guide to a well-exposed area of plutonic and metamorphic rocks in the Sierra National Forest, Fresno County, California. The plutonic rocks, of which three major bodies are recognized, besides aplite and pegmatite dykes, range 103 to approx 90 m.y. in age. Points emphasized include cataclastic features within the plutonic rocks, schlieren and mafic inclusions. (M.A. 83M/0035).-A.P.

  20. Hydrographic and chemical observations in the Sierra Leone River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koske, P.H.; Weiler, K.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrographic and chemical observations in the Sierra Leone River estuary are reported, a West-African river in the tropics. Because of the typical change between rainy season in the sommer months and dry season in winter time the research work has been adapted to these semi-annual changes. The collected data and results are given and discussed under this aspect of the seasonal fluctuations. (orig.) [de

  1. Seroprevalence of Ebola virus infection in Bombali District, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadege Goumkwa Mafopa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey of anti-Ebola Zaire virus nucleoprotein IgG prevalence was carried out among Ebola virus disease survivors and their Community Contacts in Bombali District, Sierra Leone. Our data suggest that the specie of Ebola virus (Zaire responsible of the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa may cause mild or asymptomatic infection in a proportion of cases, possibly due to an efficient immune response.

  2. Global solar radiation in Sierra Leone (West Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaquoi, J.G.M.

    1987-09-01

    A correlation equation of the Angstrom type has been developed to predict the monthly average daily global solar irradiation incident on a horizontal surface in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Measurements of the global insolation have been compared with those predicted using the equation. A good agreement (greater than 95% in most cases) was observed between the measured values and the predicted ones. (author). 15 refs, 2 tabs

  3. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Tehachapi-Cummings Valley and Kern River Valley basins and surrounding watersheds in the Southern Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  4. Groundwater quality in the Central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Two small watersheds of the Fresno and San Joaquin Rivers in the Central Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  5. Reducing CO2 emissions in Sierra Leone and Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.

    1991-01-01

    With soring population growth rates and minimal economic growth, the nations of Africa are afflicted with innumerable problems. Why then should Africa's developing countries worry about CO 2 emissions? First, because agricultural activities form the backbone of most African economies; thus, these nations may be particularly vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. Second, acting to reduce carbon emissions will bring about more efficient energy use. All of Africa could benefit from the improved use of energy. Finally, the accumulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere is a global problem with individual solutions; in order to reduce international emissions, all countries, including those in Africa, must contribute. Typical of many African countries, Ghana and Sierra Leone have among the lowest levels of energy demand per capita across the globe. primary energy demand per capita in these two West African nations equals about one quarter of the world's average and about one twentieth of the US average. This work summarizes the results of two long-term energy use and carbon emissions scenarios for Sierra Leone and Ghana. In the high emissions (HE) scenario for 2025, policy changes focused on galvanizing economic growth lead to significant increases in energy use and carbon emissions in Ghana and Sierra Leone between 1985 and 2025. In the low emissions (LE) scenario, the implementation of policies aimed specifically at curtailing CO 2 emissions significantly limits the increase in carbon in both nations by 2025

  6. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, P.P. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Graduate Group in Ecology

    1999-12-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully.

  7. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  8. Herbal medicine use among hypertensive patients attending public and private health facilities in Freetown Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter Bai; Kamara, Halimatu; Bah, Abdulai Jawo; Steel, Amie; Wardle, Jon

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence, determinants and pattern of herbal medicine use among hypertensive patients in Freetown. We conducted a cross-sectional study among hypertensive patients attending public and private health facilities in Freetown, Sierra Leone between August and October 2016. We analyzed the data using SPSS version 24. We used Chi-square, Fisher exact two-tailed test and regression analysis for data analysis. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Out of 260 study participants, over half (n = 148, 56.9%) reported using herbal medicine for the treatment of hypertension alone or together with comorbid condition(s). The most commonly used herbal medicine among users were honey (n = 89, 33.3%), moringa (n = 80, 30.0%) and garlic (n = 73, 27.3%). No significant difference existed between users and non-users of herbal medicine with regards to socio-demographic and health-related factors. The majority (n = 241, 92.7%) of respondents considered herbal medicine beneficial if it was recommended by a healthcare provider yet 85.1% (n = 126) did not disclose their herbal medicine use to their health care provider. There is a high use of herbal medicines among hypertensive patients in Freetown, Sierra Leone. It is essential for healthcare providers to take heed of the findings of this study and routinely ask their patients about their herbal medicine use status. Such practice will provide the opportunity to discuss the benefits and risks of herbal medicine use with the aim of maximizing patient desired therapeutic outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A quantitative evaluation of the conservation umbrella of spotted owl management areas in the Sierra Nevada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Burnett

    Full Text Available Whether by design or default, single species management often serves as an umbrella for species with similar habitat requirements. In recent decades the focus of National Forest management in the Sierra Nevada of California has shifted towards increasing closed canopy mature forest conditions through the protection of areas occupied by the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis. To evaluate the implications of these habitat changes and the potential umbrella resulting from a system of owl reserves on the broader avian community, we estimated occupancy of birds inside and outside of Spotted Owl Home Range Core Areas in northeastern California. We used point count data in a multi-species hierarchical Bayesian model incorporating the detection history of 81 species over a two-year time period (2005-2006. A small set of vegetation cover and topography covariates were included in the model to account for broad differences in habitat conditions, as well as a term identifying whether or not a site was within a Core Area. Seventeen species had a negative Core Area effect, seven had a positive effect, and the rest were not significant. Estimated species richness was significantly different with 23.1 species per 100 m radius circle outside Core Areas and 21.7 inside Core Areas. The majority of the species negatively associated with Core Areas are tied to early successional and other disturbance-dependent habitats. Conservation and climate vulnerability rankings were mixed. On average we found higher scores (greater risk for the species positively associated with Core Areas, but a larger number of species with the highest scores were negatively associated with Core Areas. We discuss the implications for managing the Sierra Nevada ecosystem and illustrate the role of monitoring broader suites of species in guiding management of large complex ecosystems.

  10. Partitioning of water flux in a Sierra Nevada ponderosa pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpius, M.R.; Panek, J.A.; Nikolov, N.T.; McKay, M.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2003-01-01

    The weather patterns of the west side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (cold, wet winters and hot, dry summers) strongly influence how water is partitioned between transpiration and evaporation and result in a specific strategy of water use by ponderosa pine trees (Pinus ponderosa) in this region. To investigate how year-round water fluxes were partitioned in a young ponderosa pine ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, water fluxes were continually measured from June 2000 to May 2001 using a combination of sap flow and eddy covariance techniques (above- and below-canopy). Water fluxes were modeled at our study site using a biophysical model, FORFLUX. During summer and fall water fluxes were equally partitioned between transpiration and soil evaporation while transpiration dominated the water fluxes in winter and spring. The trees had high rates of canopy conductance and transpiration in the early morning and mid-late afternoon and a mid-day depression during the dry season. We used a diurnal centroid analysis to show that the timing of high canopy conductance and transpiration relative to high vapor pressure deficit (D) shifted with soil moisture: during periods of low soil moisture canopy conductance and transpiration peaked early in the day when D was low. Conversely, during periods of high soil moisture canopy conductance and transpiration peaked at the same time or later in the day than D. Our observations suggest a general strategy by the pine trees in which they maximize stomatal conductance, and therefore carbon fixation, throughout the day on warm sunny days with high soil moisture (i.e. warm periods in winter and late spring) and maximize stomatal conductance and carbon fixation in the morning through the dry periods. FORFLUX model estimates of evaporation and transpiration were close to measured/calculated values during the dry period, including the drought, but underestimated transpiration and overestimated evaporation during the wet period. ?? 2003

  11. 77 FR 49789 - Record of Decision for Issuing a Presidential Permit to Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission, LLC, for the Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission Line Project...: Record of Decision (ROD). SUMMARY: DOE announces its decision to issue a Presidential permit to Energia... analyzed in the Environmental Impact Statement for the Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission Line Project...

  12. Curriculum Diversification Re-examined--A Case Study of Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cream A. H.

    This paper deals with a case study of secondary curriculum diversification as a vocationalization strategy in Sierra Leone. It explores diversification issues from four crucial standpoints that are distinct but highly interrelated. First, diversification is dealt with as a policy that was adopted and actively pursued by Sierra Leone for over a…

  13. Increasing elevation of fire in the Sierra Nevada and implications for forest change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark W. Schwartz; Nathalie Butt; Christopher R. Dolanc; Andrew Holguin; Max A. Moritz; Malcolm P. North; Hugh D. Safford; Nathan L. Stephenson; James H. Thorne; Phillip J. van Mantgem

    2015-01-01

    Fire in high-elevation forest ecosystems can have severe impacts on forest structure, function and biodiversity. Using a 105-year data set, we found increasing elevation extent of fires in the Sierra Nevada, and pose five hypotheses to explain this pattern. Beyond the recognized pattern of increasing fire frequency in the Sierra Nevada since the late 20th century, we...

  14. Nitrogen dynamics of spring-fed wetland ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada foothills oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall D. Jackson; Barbara Allen-Diaz

    2002-01-01

    Spring-fed wetlands are small, highly productive, patchy ecosystems nested within the oak woodland/annual grassland matrix of the Sierra Nevada foothills. In an effort to place these wetlands in a landscape context, we described seasonal variation (1999-2000 growing season) in nitrogen cycling parameters at 6 spring-fed wetland sites of the Sierra Nevada foothill oak...

  15. A preliminary floristic inventory in the Sierra de Mazatan, Municipios of Ures and Mazatan, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Jesus Sanchez-Escalante; Manuel Espericueta-Betancourt; Reyna Amanda Castillo-Gamez

    2005-01-01

    Presently, the flora of the Sierra de Mazatán contains 357 species of vascular plants distributed in 248 genera and 80 families. The families with the most species are Asteraceae (48), Fabaceae (45), Poaceae (28), Euphorbiaceae (18), and Acanthaceae, Cactaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Solanaceae (11 each). The results show that the flora of the Sierra de Mazat...

  16. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  17. High Sierra Ecosystems: The Role of Fish Stocking in Amphibian Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen Matthews

    2003-01-01

    With a rich diversity of aquatic habitats, including deep lakes, shallow ponds, and rushing streams, Dusy Basinin Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks typifies the high Sierra ecosystem where mountain yellow-legged frogs usually thrive. Yet throughout the Sierra, aquatic ecologist Kathleen Matthews found entire water basins empty of these amphibians. Comprehensive...

  18. Cryptic elevational zonation in trapdoor spiders (Araneae, Antrodiaetidae, Aliatypus janus complex) from the California southern Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, James; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Derkarabetian, Shahan; Hedin, Marshal

    2018-01-01

    The relative roles of ecological niche conservatism versus niche divergence in promoting montane speciation remains an important topic in biogeography. Here, our aim was to test whether lineage diversification in a species complex of trapdoor spiders corresponds with riverine barriers or with an ecological gradient associated with elevational tiering. Aliatypus janus was sampled from throughout its range, with emphasis on populations in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. We collected multi-locus genetic data to generate a species tree for A. janus and its close relatives. Coalescent based hypothesis tests were conducted to determine if genetic breaks within A. janus conform to riverine barriers. Ecological niche models (ENM) under current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions were generated and hypothesis tests of niche conservatism and divergence were performed. Coalescent analyses reveal deeply divergent genetic lineages within A. janus, likely corresponding to cryptic species. Two primary lineages meet along an elevational gradient on the western slopes of the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains. ENMs under both current and LGM conditions indicate that these groups occupy largely non-overlapping niches. ENM hypothesis testing rejected niche identity between the two groups, and supported a sharp ecological gradient occurring where the groups meet. However, the niche similarity test indicated that the two groups may not inhabit different background niches. The Sierra Nevada Mountains provide a natural laboratory for simultaneously testing ecological niche divergence and conservatism and their role in speciation across a diverse range of taxa. Aliatypus janus represents a species complex with cryptic lineages that may have diverged due to parapatric speciation along an ecological gradient, or been maintained by the evolution of ecological niche differences following allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.48 User's Guide: Addendum for Shock Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plews, Julia A.; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Merewether, Mark Thomas; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael; Xavier, Patrick G.

    2018-03-01

    This is an addendum to the Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.48 User's Guide that documents additional capabilities available only in alternate versions of the Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) code. These alternate versions are enhanced to provide capabilities that are regulated under the U.S. Department of State's International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) export-control rules. The ITAR regulated codes are only distributed to entities that comply with the ITAR export-control requirements. The ITAR enhancements to Sierra/SM in- clude material models with an energy-dependent pressure response (appropriate for very large deformations and strain rates) and capabilities for blast modeling. Since this is an addendum to the standard Sierra/SM user's guide, please refer to that document first for general descriptions of code capability and use.

  20. Implementation of Safeguards and Non-Proliferation in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sierra Leone under the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements (CSAs) has enacted the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (NSRP) Act 2012 and has given numerous powers to the Authority to implement the above mentioned act fully. The NSRP Act 2012 established the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Authority which among other things to regulate, control and supervise the acquisition, importation, exportation, use, transportation and disposal of radioactive sources and devices emitting Ionizing Radiation. The Authority is bounded by law to cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the application of Safeguards Agreement and any protocol thereto between Sierra Leone and the International Atomic Energy Agency including conducting inspections and providing any assistance or information required by designated IAEA inspectors in the fulfillment of their responsibilities pursuant to Section 5, Subsection 2, Article xvi of the NSRP Act 2012. The Authority is also granted powers to adopt all necessary measures including a system of licensing to control the export, re-export, transit and transhipment of any nuclear material, equipment or technology in order to protect the safety and security of Sierra Leone. The Regulatory Authority has established departments for the control of nuclear materials: One of which is The Regulatory Control Department; responsible for Inspections, Authorization and Enforcement actions for all radiation sources and nuclear materials. The Authority has been conducting inspections regularly on various facilities ranging from medical radiation generating equipment to industrial radiography sources. The methodology to be used is the issuance of the standard IAEA checklist which is consistent with the Regulatory Authority’s documents for inspection of sources and is in line with the General Safety Requirements(GSR)Part III. The expected outcomes would be increasing training of regulatory authority’s staff, the procurement of

  1. Novel Retinal Lesion in Ebola Survivors, Sierra Leone, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Paul J; Scott, Janet T; Baxter, Julia M; Parkes, Craig K; Dwivedi, Rahul; Czanner, Gabriela; Vandy, Matthew J; Momorie, Fayiah; Fornah, Alimamy D; Komba, Patrick; Richards, Jade; Sahr, Foday; Beare, Nicholas A V; Semple, Malcolm G

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a case-control study in Freetown, Sierra Leone, to investigate ocular signs in Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors. A total of 82 EVD survivors with ocular symptoms and 105 controls from asymptomatic civilian and military personnel and symptomatic eye clinic attendees underwent ophthalmic examination, including widefield retinal imaging. Snellen visual acuity was Ebola virus, permitting cataract surgery. A novel retinal lesion following the anatomic distribution of the optic nerve axons occurred in 14.6% (97.5% CI 7.1%-25.6%) of EVD survivors and no controls, suggesting neuronal transmission as a route of ocular entry.

  2. Environmental exposures to agrochemicals in the Sierra Nevada mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeNoir, J.; Aston, L.; Data, S.; Fellers, G.; McConnell, L.; Sieber, J.

    2000-01-01

    The release of pesticides into the environment may impact human and environmental health. Despite the need for environmental exposure data, few studies quantify exposures in urban areas and even fewer determine exposures to wildlife in remote areas. Although it is expected that concentrations in remote regions will be low, recent studies suggest that even low concentrations may have deleterious effects on wildlife. Many pesticides are known to interfere with the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife, adversely affecting growth, development, and behavior. This chapter reviews the fate and transport of pesticides applied in the Central Valley of California and quantifies their subsequent deposition into the relatively pristine Sierra Nevada Mountain Range.

  3. PROBLEMS IN THE ADMISSION TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE LOWER SIERRA DE SONORA, CASE: UNIVERSITY OF SIERRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ángel Vásquez-Navarro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to clarify the issues and find solutions to align somewhat academic models of institutions of higher average level and above found in the central highlands of the state of Sonora, as are the University of Sierra, and the CBTA 53 and confront the culture of the people of the importance of young people studying a degree in that region.The above educational institutions are located in the geographical catchment area and education, in fact, in the same population, in the northeastern state of Sonora. The mountains of Sonora had always intended to have a school of higher education. To justify the town of Montezuma as a geographically strategic point, and thanks to the efforts made by the governor in turn was as the University of Sierra opens its doors to students on the mountain in August 2002.For the analysis of the functioning of an educational institution in the rural sector, should take into account a wide range of factors, however, this work will be key to analyze the dislocation and inconsistency of educational models from an institution of higher average level in relationship to another level, which serve as a unique educational opportunities for the people of Sonora and surrounding Montezuma. In addition, the cultural aspect, which reflects a regional behavior of the inhabitants of the region. La Sierra University is located in the mountainous region of the state of Sonora, in the town of Montezuma, with a catchment area of more than 30 municipalities in this area, which lacked a college until recently time.

  4. The Sierra de Cabral range: a restraining bend related to the Sierra Ballena shear zone in Dom Feliciano belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masquelin, H.

    2010-01-01

    Restraining and releasing bends occurring in all crustal environments are common but enigmatic features of strike-slip fault systems. They can be reported in all scales of observation. Regional-scale restraining bends are sites of mountain building, transpressional deformation and basement exhumation. Releasing bends are sites of subsidence, transtensional deformation and pull-apart basins. The Dom Feliciano Belt of Southern Uruguay has two main structures observed from the outer space: (i) the Sierra Ballena Shear Zone and (ii) the Sierra de Cabral flexure located to the SW of the former. Although a transpressional regime is commonly accepted for the Dom Feliciano Belt, the available tectonic models do not provide satisfactory explanations for its building mechanism. A restraining bend is proposed at the SW termination of Sierra Ballena strike-slip ductile shear zone. In a key-area (Alvariza Range) the relationship between the Zanja del Tigre volcanic-detritic and the calcareous succession shows three en-échelon upright bends of the same quartzite hanging-wall between two sub-vertical strike-slip faults, suggesting the existence of a shortened strike-slip duplex operating in viscous-elastic rheology. The deformation partitioning includes strike-slip and dip-slip simple-shear components as well as one contractional pure-shear component. Because restraining bends were scarcely described in Neoproterozoic low-grade regional exhumation conditions, this structural framework would be a natural laboratory to study fault kinematics, fault dynamics, their associated deformation and the tectonic and erosion constraints related to the exhumation of many crystalline terrains

  5. WASH activities at two Ebola treatment units in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Mallow

    Full Text Available The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD in West Africa was the largest in history. Starting in September 2014, International Medical Corps (IMC operated five Ebola treatment units (ETUs in Sierra Leone and Liberia. This paper explores how future infectious disease outbreak facilities in resource-limited settings can be planned, organized, and managed by analyzing data collected on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH and infection prevention control (IPC protocols.We conducted a retrospective cohort study by analyzing WASH/IPC activity data routinely recorded on paper forms or white boards at ETUs during the outbreak and later merged into a database from two IMC-run ETUs in Sierra Leone between December 2014 and December 2015.The IMC WASH/IPC database contains data from over 369 days. Our results highlight parameters key to designing and maintaining an ETU. High concentration chlorine solution usage was highly correlated with both daily patient occupancy and high-risk zone staff entries; low concentration chlorine usage was less well explained by these measures. There is high demand for laundering and disinfecting of personal protective equipment (PPE on a daily basis and approximately 1 (0-4 piece of PPE is damaged each day.Lack of standardization in the type and format of data collected at ETUs made constructing the WASH/IPC database difficult. However, the data presented here may help inform humanitarian response operations in future epidemics.

  6. Home birth and hospital birth trends in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Abdirahman, Hafsa A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Jimmy, David Henry; Malanoski, Anthony P; Sundufu, Abu James; Stenger, David A

    2012-06-01

    As of April 2010, all maternity care at government healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone is provided at no cost to patients. In late 2010, we conducted a community health census of 18 sections of the city of Bo (selected via randomized cluster sampling from 68 total sections). Among the 3421 women with a history of pregnancy who participated in the study, older women most often reported having a history of both home and hospital deliveries, while younger women showed a preference for hospital births. The proportion of lastborn children delivered at a healthcare facility increased from 71.8% of offspring 10-14 years old to 81.1% of those one to nine years old and 87.3% of infants born after April 2010. These findings suggest that the new maternal healthcare initiative has accelerated an existing trend toward a preference for healthcare facility births, at least in some urban parts of Sierra Leone. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. A Method for Snow Reanalysis: The Sierra Nevada (USA) Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Manuela; Margulis, Steven; Cortes, Gonzalo; Durand, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a state-of-the art methodology for constructing snow water equivalent (SWE) reanalysis. The method is comprised of two main components: (1) a coupled land surface model and snow depletion curve model, which is used to generate an ensemble of predictions of SWE and snow cover area for a given set of (uncertain) inputs, and (2) a reanalysis step, which updates estimation variables to be consistent with the satellite observed depletion of the fractional snow cover time series. This method was applied over the Sierra Nevada (USA) based on the assimilation of remotely sensed fractional snow covered area data from the Landsat 5-8 record (1985-2016). The verified dataset (based on a comparison with over 9000 station years of in situ data) exhibited mean and root-mean-square errors less than 3 and 13 cm, respectively, and correlation greater than 0.95 compared with in situ SWE observations. The method (fully Bayesian), resolution (daily, 90-meter), temporal extent (31 years), and accuracy provide a unique dataset for investigating snow processes. This presentation illustrates how the reanalysis dataset was used to provide a basic accounting of the stored snowpack water in the Sierra Nevada over the last 31 years and ultimately improve real-time streamflow predictions.

  8. New foot remains from the Gran Dolina-TD6 Early Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Adrián; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martínez, Ignacio; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents and describes new foot fossils from the species Homo antecessor, found in level TD6 of the site of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). These new fossils consist of an almost complete left talus (ATD6-95) and the proximal three-quarters of a right fourth metatarsal (ATD6-124). The talus ATD6-95 is tentatively assigned to Hominin 10 of the TD6 sample, an adult male specimen with which the second metatarsal ATD6-70+107 (already published) is also tentatively associated. Analysis of these fossils and other postcranial remains has made possible to estimate a stature similar to those of the specimens from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). The morphology of the TD6 metatarsals does not differ significantly from that of modern humans, Neanderthals and the specimens from Sima de los Huesos. Talus ATD6-95, however, differs from the rest of the comparative samples in being long and high, having a long and wide trochlea, and displaying a proportionally short neck. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  10. DNA sequences of troglobitic nicoletiid insects support Sierra de El Abra and the Sierra de Guatemala as a single biogeographical area: Implications for Astyanax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Espinasa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The blind Mexican tetra fish, Astyanax mexicanus, has become the most influential model for research of cave adapted organisms. Many authors assume that the Sierra de Guatemala populations and the Sierra de El Abra populations are derived from two independent colonizations. This assumption arises in part from biogeography. The 100 m high, 100 m wide Servilleta Canyon of the Boquillas River separates both mountain ranges and is an apparent barrier for troglobite dispersion. Anelpistina quinterensis (Nicoletiidae, Zygentoma, Insecta is one of the most troglomorphic nicoletiid silverfish insects ever described. 16S rRNA sequences support that this species migrated underground to reach both mountain ranges within less than 12,000 years. Furthermore, literature shows a plethora of aquatic and terrestrial cave restricted species that inhabit both mountain ranges. Thus, the Servilleta canyon has not been an effective biological barrier that prevented underground migration of troglobites between the Sierra de Guatemala and the Sierra de El Abra. The Boquillas River has changed its course throughout time. Caves that in the past connected the two Sierras were only recently geologically truncated by the erosion of the new river course. It is likely that, with the geological changes of the area and throughout the 2-8 million years of evolutionary history of cave Astyanax, there have been opportunities to migrate across the Servilleta canyon.

  11. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  12. Geologic studies in the Sierra de Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio Alfonso

    The Sierra del Cuervo has been endowed with uranium mineralization, which has attracted many geological studies, and recently the author was part of a team with the goal of selecting a site of a radioactive waste repository. The first part of the work adds to the regional framework of stratigraphy and tectonics of the area. It includes the idea of a pull apart basin development, which justifies the local great thickness of the Cuervo Formation. It includes the regional structural frame work and the composite stratigraphic column of the Chihuahua Trough and the equivalent Cretaceous Mexican Sea. The general geologic features of the NE part of the Sierra del Cuervo are described, which include the folded ignimbrites and limestones in that area; the irregular large thicknesses of the Cuervo Formation; and the western vergence of the main folding within the area. Sanidine phenocrystals gave ages of 54.2 Ma and 51.8 Ma ± 2.3 Ma. This is the first time these dates have been reported in print. This age indicates a time before the folded structures which outcrop in the area, and 44 Ma is a date after the Cuervo Formation was folded. The Hidalgoan orogeny cycle affected the rocks between this lapse of time. Since then the area has been partially affected by three tensional overlapped stages, which resulted in the actual Basin and Range physiography. The jarosite related to the tectonic activity mineralization has been dated by the Ar-Ar method and yields an age of 9.8 Ma. This is the first report of a date of mineralization timing at Pena Blanca Uranium District in the Sierra del Cuervo. These are some of the frame work features that justify the allocation of a radioactive waste repository in the Sierra del Cuervo. An alluvial fan system within the Boquilla Colorada microbasin was selected as the best target for more detailed site assessment. The study also included the measurement of the alluvium thicknesses by geoelectric soundings; studies of petrography and weathered

  13. Uranium mining in Sierra Pintada: knowledge, epistemic communities and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Demarco, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the conflict triggered by the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) proposing to re-open the Mining Complex of Sierra Pintada, in San Rafael, Province of Mendoza. Since 2004 when the Commission submitted the first report to the Ministry of Public Works and Environment of Mendoza to obtain the necessary permission to restart the works in the mine, several protests have taken place and many legal measures were taken in order to stop any resuming attempts. This study argues that, although CNEA has been an epistemic community capable of applying their policy proposals in the nuclear field, their technical knowledge is currently not sufficient to design a policy, and moreover, to hold that they are working for local and sustainable development. Only 'puzzling' 'with actors' paradigms and knowledge is possible to fit together their demands and achieve a public policy, or solution, for this problem. (author) [es

  14. Development of a Pediatric Ebola Predictive Score, Sierra Leone1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Kevin; Naveed, Asad; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohamed Boie; Baion, David E.; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia; Williamson, Elizabeth; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2018-01-01

    We compared children who were positive for Ebola virus disease (EVD) with those who were negative to derive a pediatric EVD predictor (PEP) score. We collected data on all children <13 years of age admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in Sierra Leone during August 2014–March 2015 and performed multivariable logistic regression. Among 1,054 children, 309 (29%) were EVD positive and 697 (66%) EVD negative, with 48 (5%) missing. Contact history, conjunctivitis, and age were the strongest positive predictors for EVD. The PEP score had an area under receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.80. A PEP score of 7/10 was 92% specific and 44% sensitive; 3/10 was 30% specific, 94% sensitive. The PEP score could correctly classify 79%–90% of children and could be used to facilitate triage into risk categories, depending on the sensitivity or specificity required. PMID:29350145

  15. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  16. Element Verification and Comparison in Sierra/Solid Mechanics Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Yuki; Roth, William

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this project was to study the effects of element selection on the Sierra/SM solutions to five common solid mechanics problems. A total of nine element formulations were used for each problem. The models were run multiple times with varying spatial and temporal discretization in order to ensure convergence. The first four problems have been compared to analytical solutions, and all numerical results were found to be sufficiently accurate. The penetration problem was found to have a high mesh dependence in terms of element type, mesh discretization, and meshing scheme. Also, the time to solution is shown for each problem in order to facilitate element selection when computer resources are limited.

  17. Rock-Ice Feature Inventory for the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Sierra Nevada is a tectonic uplift mountain range with a gradual gain in elevation on the west side and a steep escarpment on the east. Most of the mapped...

  18. California; Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District; Approval of Air Plan Revisions; Wood Burning Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve a revision to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD) portion of the California SIP concerning emissions of particulate matter (PM) from wood burning devices.

  19. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego Theory Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  20. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego Theory Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  1. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  2. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego User Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  3. Los recursos humanos en un espacio natural protegido: Sierra Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Enriqueta Cózar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Sierra Nevada, como todas las áreas de montaña españolas y gran parte del territorio interior andaluz, ha experimentado durante el siglo XX un considerable retroceso demográfico. La población con la que llega al umbral del siglo XXI es una cuarta parte más pequeña que la registrada en 1900 y un tercio inferior a la de 1950. Diversos y complejos factores, tanto internos como externos al área de montaña, de carácter más económico que demográfico, fueron los desencadenantes de una fuerte emigración. La gran pérdida de población ha originado cambios trascendentales en la demografía y en la actividad económica de Sierra Nevada. En la actualidad, la población de este espacio protegido se caracteriza por una desequilibrada distribución en el territorio, un escaso crecimiento natural, un acelerado envejecimiento y una actividad mayoritariamente terciaria. La declaración, en Julio de 1989, como espacio natural protegido bajo la figura de Parque Natural, y la más reciente de Parque Nacional, apenas ha modificado la inercia demográfica regresiva de la mayor parte de sus municipios; tan sólo se ha podido apreciar una cierta tendencia a la estabilización demográfica de la población total del macizo

  4. Physiochemical characterization of insoluble residues in California Sierra Nevada snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, Jessie; Axson, Jessica; Bondy, Amy; Craig, Rebecca; May, Nathaniel; Shen, Hongru; Weber, Michael; Warner, Katy; Pratt, Kerri; Ault, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The effects atmospheric aerosols have on cloud particle formation are dependent on both the aerosol physical and chemical characteristics. For instance, larger, irregular-shaped mineral dusts efficiently form cloud ice crystals, enhancing precipitation, whereas small, spherical pollution aerosols have the potential to form small cloud droplets that delay the autoconversion of cloudwater to precipitation. Thus, it is important to understand the physiochemical properties and sources of aerosols that influence cloud and precipitation formation. We present an in-depth analysis of the size, chemistry, and sources of soluble and insoluble residues found in snow collected at three locations in the California Sierra Nevada Mountains during the 2012/2013 winter season. For all sites, February snow samples contained high concentrations of regional pollutants such as ammonium nitrate and biomass burning species, while March snow samples were influenced by mineral dust. The snow at the lower elevation sites in closer proximity to the Central Valley of California were heavily influenced by agricultural and industrial emissions, whereas the highest elevation site was exposed to a mixture of Central Valley pollutants in addition to long-range transported dust from Asia and Africa. Further, air masses likely containing transported dust typically traveled over cloud top heights at the low elevation sites, but were incorporated into the cold (-28°C, on average) cloud tops more often at the highest elevation site, particularly in March, which we hypothesize led to enhanced ice crystal formation and thus the observation of dust in the snow collected at the ground. Overall, understanding the spatial and temporal dependence of aerosol sources is important for remote mountainous regions such as the Sierra Nevada where snowpack provides a steady, vital supply of water.

  5. Knowledge of breast cancer in women in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHEE Shepherd

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has been described as one of the life-threatening diseases affecting women and is a major problem in women’s health issues. The unrecorded number of cases of breast lumps and breast cancer observed in women in Sierra Leone prompted the researcher to organize a “Breast Week” during which 1 200 women were educated on breast cancer and the importance of breast health. This research is a follow up of the “Breast Week” which was organized in Freetown, Sierra Leone The specific objective of this study was to assess whether the knowledge and teachings given to the women who participated in this project was fully understood. A sample size of 120 women (10% who participated in the “Breast Week” was obtained through systematic sampling. A quantitative approach was adopted and a structured interview schedule guided the data collection process. The data were processed through use of SPSS and Microsoft Excel. Texts from open ended questions were categorized and frequency counts were applied to the data. It was found that the majority (96.6% of the women had some knowledge of breast cancer. They linked breast cancer to the signs and symptoms associated with it and were able to describe the disease as one that kills women if not promptly detected and/or treated appropriately. Findings indicate that the majority of the women are aware of the dangers of the disease and had knowledge of someone who had died of breast cancer (59.2%. An assessment of the effectiveness of knowledge on breast cancer showed that these women could identify breast cancer as a disease that affects women and may cause death if not detected on time.

  6. US uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current low level of demand, compounded by rapidly rising costs and low prices, has caused a significant reduction in drilling for uranium in the United States, and the trend is likely to continue for a few more years. The effect on uranium reserves will be fewer additions to reserves because less exploration is being done. Further reductions will occur, especially in low-cost reserves, because of increasing costs, continuing depletion through production, and erosion through the high grading of deposits to fulfill previous contractual commitments. During the past several years, it has been necessary to increase the upper reserve cost level twice to compensate for rising costs. Rising costs are reducing the $15 reserves, the cost category corresponding most closely to the present market price, to an insignificant level. An encouraging factor related to US uranium reserves is that the US position internationally, as far as quantity is concerned, is not bad for the longer term. Also, there is a general opinion that US consumers would rather contract for domestic uranium than for foreign because of greater assurance of supply. Still another factor, nearly impossible to assess, is what effect rising costs in other countries will have on their uranium reserves. The annual conferences between the Grand Junction Area Office staff and major uranium companies provide a broad overview of the industry's perception of the future. It is not optimistic for the short term. Many companies are reducing their exploration and mining programs; some are switching to other more marketable mineral commodities, and a few are investing more heavily in foreign ventures. However, there is general optimism for the long term, and many predict a growth in demand in the mid-1980s. If the industry can survive the few lean years ahead, rising prices may restore its viability to former levels

  7. Anfibios y reptiles de la sierra de Cuatro Venados, Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Regalado, N.; Lavariega, M. C.; Gómez-Ugalde, R. M.; Rodríguez-Pérez, C.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles of the Sierra de Cuatro Venados, Oaxaca, Mexico We surveyed amphibian and reptile communities in temperate forest in the Sierra de Cuatro Venados to increase knowledge of the Oaxacan herpetofauna. We obtained 193 visual and 106 voucher records during 38 days of fieldwork. During the study, we recorded 36 of the 40 species predicted to occur in this mountain range: nine amphibians and 27 reptiles, five of which represent new records at the regional scale. Pine-o...

  8. Topographic Evolution of the Sierra Nevada Resolved by Inversion of Low-Temperature Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, D. F.; Brandon, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    At present, there are two competing ideas for the topographic evolution of the Sierra Nevada Range. One idea is that the Sierra Nevada was formed as a monocline in the Cretaceous, marking the transition from the Great Valley forearc basin to the west, and a high Nevadaplano plateau to the east, similar to the west flank of the modern Altiplano of the Andes. Both the thermochronologic signature of local relief and the stable isotopic evidence of a topographic rain shadow support this hypothesis. However, a suite of geomorphic observations suggests that the Sierra gained a large fraction of its present elevation as recently as the Pliocene. This recent surface uplift could have been driven by convective removal of in the lower part of the lithosphere and/or by changes in dynamic topography associated with deep subduction of the Farallon plate. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of low-temperature thermochronology in the Sierra Nevada, which provides a definitive solution, which indicates that both ideas are likely correct. Our analysis is distinguished by three new factors: The first is that we allow for separate evolutions for the local relief and the long-wavelength topography. Second, we use Al-in-Hb paleobarometry to constrain the initial depth of emplacement for the Sierra Nevada plutons. Third, our analysis is tied to a sea-level reference by using the paleo-bathymetric record of the Great Valley basin, where it on-laps the Sierra Nevada batholith. According to our analysis, westward tilting of the Sierra accounts for 2 km of uplift since 20 Ma. Topographic relief increased by a factor of 2. These findings suggest that the Sierra Nevada lost elevation through most of the Tertiary but regained much of its initial elevation following the onset of surface uplift in the Miocene.

  9. Rebuilding after emergency: Revamping agricultural research in Sierra Leone after civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo; Workneh, Sindu; Rhodes, Edward; Sutherland, John

    2009-01-01

    "The civil war in Sierra Leone, caused by a mix of political, social, and economic factors, had a huge impact on the overall economy in general and on the performance of the agricultural sector in particular. The agricultural research system of Sierra Leone was severely affected by the civil war. Research infrastructure was destroyed, laboratories were damaged and abandoned, and well-trained researchers and scientists fled from the country. With the cessation of hostilities in 2002, the gover...

  10. SierraDNA – Demonstrating the Usefulness of Direct ILS Database Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Padgett

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Innovative Interface’s Sierra(™ Integrated Library System (ILS brings with it a Database Navigator Application (SierraDNA - in layman's terms SierraDNA gives Sierra sites read access to their ILS database. Unlike the closed use cases produced by vendor supplied APIs, which restrict Libraries to limited development opportunities, SierraDNA enables sites to publish their own APIs and scripts based upon custom SQL code to meet their own needs and those of their users and processes. In this article we give examples showing how SierraDNA can be utilized to improve Library services. We highlight three example use cases which have benefited our users, enhanced online security and improved our back office processes. In the first use case we employ user access data from our electronic resources proxy server (WAM to detect hacked user accounts. Three scripts are used in conjunction to flag user accounts which are being hijacked to systematically steal content from our electronic resource provider’s websites. In the second we utilize the reading histories of our users to augment our search experience with an Amazon style “People who borrowed this book also borrowed…these books” feature. Two scripts are used together to determine which other items were borrowed by borrowers of the item currently of interest. And lastly, we use item holds data to improve our acquisitions workflow through an automated demand based ordering process. Our explanation and SQL code should be of direct use for adoption or as examples for other Sierra customers willing to exploit their ILS data in similar ways, but the principles may also be useful to non-Sierra sites that also wish to enhancement security, user services or improve back office processes.

  11. Using evidence to strengthen accountability for health financing in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebbie, Sowo A; Le Voir, Rosanna; Tom-Kargbo, Joanna; Yilla, Mohamed Drissa; Kamara, Abu Bakarr; Nam, Sara L

    2016-12-01

    In 2012, the government of Sierra Leone cut the national budget allocation to the health sector. Civil society organizations planned a nationwide health budget advocacy campaign, coinciding with the 2012 general elections, to hold future leaders to account on financing for women's and children's health. As part of the campaign, Evidence for Action produced district health budget tracking scorecards. The scorecards presented Ministry of Finance data on the allocation and disbursement of health funds in each district. The data were communicated using simple, non-technical language so that citizens could understand the key messages and take action. A total of 5600 scorecards were shared at district electoral forums attended by political candidates, community members, and health activists. Since the election, the proportion of the total government budget allocated to health increased from 7.4% in 2012 to 11.2% in 2014. However, transforming politicians' commitments and pledges into implementation has been challenging, confirming that accountability is a long-term process. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  13. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  14. Brazilian uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    Due to a growing demand of electric power to support Brasil's development, the use of nuclear energy will be indispensable. The nuclear fuel cycle for the production of energy, starts with the uranium exploration. The work performed in this field led to the discovery of several deposits in the country, which to-date totalize a reserve of 236,300t of U 308 , ranking Brazil in the 6th place among the nations of the western world holding uranium reserves. (Author) [pt

  15. Ecología de la fauna silvestre de la sierra nevada y la Sierra del Ajusco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Granados Sánchez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sobre la fauna silvestre de la Sierra del Ajusco y la Sierra Nevada, localizadas dentro de la Faja Volcánica Transmexicana (FVT, en la porción oriental del límite meridional de la Cuenca de México. La enorme riqueza biológica de esta zona que rodea la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de México, uno de los mayores complejos urbanos del mundo, ha sobrevivido durante décadas al impacto de la urbanización de las áreas forestales, explotación de recursos naturales, contaminación, cacería, incendios y pastoreo. A pesar de esto, se desconocen muchos de los factores que regulan la dinámica de los ecosistemas en esta región. Con relación a la fauna silvestre la carencia de información es mucho más evidente, aspectos elementales como la diversidad de especies, las interacciones ecológicas, la función de los organismos en el ecosistema, las condiciones de estrés a que están sometidos, han sido poco explorados. En esta investigación se recurrió a observaciones de campo y a la consulta de diferentes fuentes bibliográficas para estimar la riqueza de especies de mamíferos, aves, reptiles y anfibios; las relaciones ecológicas entre los mismos y las consecuencias de la modificación de su hábitat producto de las actividades humanas.

  16. Noteworthy records of two species of mammals in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, Mexico Registros notables de dos especies de mamíferos de la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Briones-Salas; María D. Luna-Krauletz; Ariadna Marín-Sánchez; Jorge Servín

    2006-01-01

    We conducted mammal surveys in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca (Sierra Norte) in Oaxaca, Mexico, and recorded the occurrence of two conspicuous mammal species: the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus) and the coyote (Canis latrans cagottis). Spider monkeys has not been previously recorded in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, and coyotes have not been previously observed in Mexico at elevations as high as the present one (3 200 mas1) in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca.Se efectuaron colectas de mamífero...

  17. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  18. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  19. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  20. Uranium reserves fall: AAEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Figures released by the AAEC show that Australia's reasonably assured resources of uranium recoverable at US$80 a kg fell by 5,000 tonnes during 1980-81. Reserves at 30 June 1981 totalled 294,000 tonnes. This represented 17 per cent of the Western World's low cost reasonably assured resources

  1. The metamorphic basement of the southern Sierra de Aconquija, Eastern Sierras Pampeanas: Provenance and tectonic setting of a Neoproterozoic back-arc basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna, Clara Eugenia; Altenberger, Uwe; Mon, Ricardo; Günter, Christina; Gutiérrez, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampeanas are mainly composed of Neoproterozoic-early Palaeozoic metamorphic complexes whose protoliths were sedimentary sequences deposited along the western margin of Gondwana. South of the Sierra de Aconquija, Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, a voluminous metamorphic complex crops out. It is mainly composed of schists, gneisses, marbles, calk-silicate schists, thin layers of amphibolites intercalated with the marbles and granitic veins. The new data correlate the Sierra de Aconquija with others metamorphic units that crop out to the south, at the middle portion of the Sierra de Ancasti. Bulk rock composition reflects originally shales, iron rich shales, wackes, minor litharenites and impure limestones as its protoliths. Moreover, comparisons with the northern Sierra de Aconquija and from La Majada (Sierra de Ancasti) show similar composition. Amphibolites have a basaltic precursor, like those from the La Majada (Sierra de Ancasti) ones. The analyzed metamorphic sequence reflects low to moderate weathering conditions in the sediments source environment and their chemical composition would be mainly controlled by the tectonic setting of the sedimentary basin rather than by the secondary sorting and reworking of older deposits. The sediments composition reveal relatively low maturity, nevertheless the Fe - shale and the litharenite show a tendency of minor maturity among them. The source is related to an acid one for the litharenite protolith and a more basic to intermediate for the other rocks, suggesting a main derivation from intermediate to felsic orogen. The source of the Fe-shales may be related to and admixture of the sediments with basic components. Overall the composition point to an upper continental crust as the dominant sediment source for most of the metasedimentary rocks. The protolith of the amphibolites have basic precursors, related to an evolving back-arc basin. The chemical data in combination with the specific sediment association

  2. Sierra Elvira limestone: petrophysical characteristics of an Andalusian heritage stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valverde, I.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available “Sierra Elvira stone” is one of the ornamental building stones most widely used in the historical monuments of eastern Andalusia. A Liassic age limestone, it appears in the central section of the Baetic Mountains and more specifically in the Middle Subbaetic domain. While the most common variety is a crinoid limestone, a micritic limestone of the same age has also been quarried, albeit in much smaller quantities. These stones form very thick beds, up to nearly 5 m deep, that run in consistently parallel lines and have a dip angle that facilitates quarrying.With petrographic, physical and mechanical properties that ensure stone strength and durability, it is a high quality building material suitable for both structural and ornamental purposes. These properties can be attributed to the minimal open porosity and concomitant excellent water resistance that characterize the stone, as well as to its high mechanical strength and low textural anisotropy, both elastic and mechanical. With such attributes, the stone can be successfully used for any number of purposes, including decorative stonework (portals, fountains, plinths, structural members (column shafts and bases or urban curbing and paving. Intervention on Sierra de Elvira limestone structures should be limited to cleaning or repair, for consolidating or protective materials are scantly effective.La “Piedra de Sierra Elvira” constituye una de las piedras ornamentales más significativas del Patrimonio Arquitectónico de Andalucía Oriental. Es una roca caliza del Lias que aflora en el Subbético Medio del sector central de las Cordilleras Béticas. El litotipo más explotado es una caliza con crinoides, en bastante menor importancia se ha extraído también otra caliza micrítica de la misma edad. Los bancos son muy potentes, en algunos casos de más de 5 m, con un paralelismo constante y un buzamiento que favorece su explotación en los frentes de cantera.Sus caracter

  3. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz T Paweska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD cases.The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14% tested positive for Ebola virus RNA.The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens.

  4. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paweska, Janusz T; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Meier, Gunther H; le Roux, Chantel; Conteh, Ousman S; Kemp, Alan; Fourie, Cardia; Naidoo, Prabha; Naicker, Serisha; Ohaebosim, Phumza; Storm, Nadia; Hellferscee, Orienka; Ming Sun, Lisa K; Mogodi, Busisiwe; Prabdial-Sing, Nishi; du Plessis, Desiree; Greyling, Deidre; Loubser, Shayne; Goosen, Mark; McCulloch, Stewart D; Scott, Terence P; Moerdyk, Alexandra; Dlamini, Wesley; Konneh, Kelfala; Kamara, Idrissa L; Sowa, Dauda; Sorie, Samuel; Kargbo, Brima; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-06-01

    In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL) near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14%) tested positive for Ebola virus RNA. The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens.

  5. A biomass energy flow chart for Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoo-Gottfried, K.; Hall, D.O.

    1999-01-01

    Terrestrial above-ground biomass production and utilisation in Sierra Leone was analysed for the years 1984/5 to 1990/1. The total production of biomass energy was estimated at an annual average of 131 PJ (39% from agriculture, 51% from forestry and 10% from livestock). Of the 117 PJ produced from agricultural and forestry operations, 37 PJ was harvested as firewood and burnt (10.9 GJ or 0.72 t wood per capita per year, supplying 80% of the country's energy), 12 PJ was harvested for food, 66 PJ was unutilised crop and forestry residues, 3 PJ was harvested crop residues for use directly as fuel, and 2 PJ was harvested and used for industrial purposes and not for fuel. Livestock produced wastes with an energy content of 13 PJ of which only 0.1 PJ was collected and used for fuel. Thus 54 PJ (41%) of the 131 PJ of biomass energy produced annually was actually utilised while 49 PJ remained as unused agricultural residues and dung, and a further 27 PJ was unused forestry residues. The total amount of biomass (fuelwood, residues and dung) used directly to provide energy, mostly in households, was estimated at 40 PJ (11.8 GJ per capita per year of 0.79 t fuelwood equivalent). Direct biomass energy utilisation in agroindustry (0.4 PJ) was negligible in comparison. Two assessments of Sierra Leone's biomass standing stock and MAI (mean annual increment) were examined in order to assess the sustainability of various biomass use scenarios. Large differences were found between the MAI of the two assessments, making it difficult to predict sustainability of biomass production and use. The estimation of total standing stock varied between 227 and 366 Mt and the estimation of MAI varied between 15 and 70 Mt. Analysis of the availability and use of the biomass resource is crucial if biomass energy is to be used on a sustainable basis. A software package has been developed and is available to draft biomass flow charts but further work is needed to incorporate social and economic

  6. Monitoring lichens diversity and climatic change in Sierra Nevada (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Calzado, M.ª R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are common organisms in high mountain zones, where they play an important role in ecosystem balance. In recent years, the increasing interest in understanding more about their interactions with abiotic factors has prompted several investigations, some of which have proved their value as bioindicators of climatic conditions. In this context, focusing on climatic change effects on high mountain vascular plants and supported by the Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments project (GLORIA, we have monitored for the first time the lichens biodiversity in Sierra Nevada with the intention of studying the alterations caused by the process of climatic change. The aim of this paper is to explain the monitoring experience developed on the massif and contribute to the first results from the biodiversity and statistical analysis of the sampling data.Los líquenes son organismos comunes en las zonas de alta montaña donde juegan un importante papel en el equilibrio de los ecosistemas. En los últimos años, el creciente interés por entender más acerca de sus interacciones con los factores abióticos ha motivado diversas investigaciones, algunas de las cuales han demostrado su valor como bioindicadores de las condiciones climáticas. En este contexto, centrándonos en los efectos del cambio climático en plantas vasculares de alta montaña y respaldados por el proyecto “Iniciativa para la investigación y el seguimiento global de los ambientes alpinos (GLORIA”, se ha monitorizado por primera vez la diversidad de líquenes en Sierra Nevada con la intención de estudiar las posibles alteraciones que esta pueda sufrir causadas por el proceso de cambio climático. El objetivo de este artículo es el de dar a conocer la experiencia de seguimiento en el macizo y aportar los primeros resultados procedentes del análisis, tanto de la biodiversidad como estadístico, de los datos de muestreo.

  7. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  8. An exploration of the political economy dynamics shaping health worker incentives in three districts in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Maria Paola; Witter, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    The need for evidence-based practice calls for research focussing not only on the effectiveness of interventions and their translation into policies, but also on implementation processes and the factors influencing them, in particular for complex health system policies. In this paper, we use the lens of one of the health system's 'building blocks', human resources for health (HRH), to examine the implementation of official policies on HRH incentives and the emergence of informal practices in three districts of Sierra Leone. Our mixed-methods research draws mostly from 18 key informant interviews at district level. Data are organised using a political economy framework which focuses on the dynamic interactions between structure (context, historical legacies, institutions) and agency (actors, agendas, power relations) to show how these elements affect the HRH incentive practices in each district. It appears that the official policies are re-shaped both by implementation challenges and by informal practices emerging at local level as the result of the district-level dynamics and negotiations between District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) and nongovernmental organisations (NGOs). Emerging informal practices take the form of selective supervision, salary supplementations and per diems paid to health workers, and aim to ensure a better fit between the actors' agendas and the incentive package. Importantly, the negotiations which shape such practices are characterised by a substantial asymmetry of power between DHMTs and NGOs. In conclusion, our findings reveal the influence of NGOs on the HRH incentive package and highlight the need to empower DHMTs to limit the discrepancy between policies defined at central level and practices in the districts, and to reduce inequalities in health worker remuneration across districts. For Sierra Leone, these findings are now more relevant than ever as new players enter the stage at district level, as part of the Ebola response and

  9. The saltiest springs in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James G.; Diggles, Michael F.; Evans, William C.; Klemic, Karin

    2017-07-20

    The five saltiest springs in the Sierra Nevada in California are found between 38.5° and 38.8° N. latitude, on the South Fork American River; on Caples Creek, a tributary of the Silver Fork American River; and on the North Fork Mokelumne River. The springs issue from Cretaceous granitic rocks in the bottoms of these major canyons, between 1,200- and 2,200-m elevation. All of these springs were well known to Native Americans, who excavated meter-sized basins in the granitic rock, within which they produced salt by evaporation near at least four of the five spring sites. The spring waters are dominated by Cl, Na, and Ca; are enriched relative to seawater in Ca, Li, and As; and are depleted in SO4, Mg, and K. Tritium analyses indicate that the spring waters have had little interaction with rainfall since about 1954. The waters are apparently an old groundwater of meteoric origin that resided at depth before moving up along fractures to the surface of the exhumed granitic rocks. However, along the way these waters incorporated salts from depth, the origin of which could have been either from marine sedimentary rocks intruded by the granitic magmas or from fluid inclusions in the granitic rocks. Prolonged storage at depth fostered water-rock interactions that undoubtedly modified the fluid compositions.

  10. SIERRA Multimechanics Module: Aria User Manual Version 4.42.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2016-10-01

    Aria is a Galerkin finite element based program for solving coupled-physics problems described by systems of PDEs and is capable of solving nonlinear, implicit, transient and direct-to-steady state problems in two and three dimensions on parallel architectures. The suite of physics currently supported by Aria includes thermal energy transport, species transport, and electrostatics as well as generalized scalar, vector and tensor transport equations. Additionally, Aria includes support for manufacturing process flows via the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations specialized to a low Reynolds number (Re %3C 1) regime. Enhanced modeling support of manufacturing processing is made possible through use of either arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian (ALE) and level set based free and moving boundary tracking in conjunction with quasi-static nonlinear elastic solid mechanics for mesh control. Coupled physics problems are solved in several ways including fully-coupled Newton's method with analytic or numerical sensitivities, fully-coupled Newton- Krylov methods and a loosely-coupled nonlinear iteration about subsets of the system that are solved using combinations of the aforementioned methods. Error estimation, uniform and dynamic h-adaptivity and dynamic load balancing are some of Aria's more advanced capabilities. Aria is based upon the Sierra Framework.

  11. Sierra Stars Observatory Network: An Accessible Global Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard; Beshore, Edward

    2011-03-01

    The Sierra Stars Observatory Network (SSON) is a unique partnership among professional observatories that provides its users with affordable high-quality calibrated image data. SSON comprises observatories in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere and is in the process of expanding to a truly global network capable of covering the entire sky 24 hours a day in the near future. The goal of SSON is to serve the needs of science-based projects and programs. Colleges, universities, institutions, and individuals use SSON for their education and research projects. The mission of SSON is to promote and expand the use of its facilities among the thousands of colleges and schools worldwide that do not have access to professional-quality automated observatory systems to use for astronomy education and research. With appropriate leadership and guidance educators can use SSON to help teach astronomy and do meaningful scientific projects. The relatively small cost of using SSON for this type of work makes it affordable and accessible for educators to start using immediately. Remote observatory services like SSON need to evolve to better support education and research initiatives of colleges, institutions and individual investigators. To meet these needs, SSON is developing a sophisticated interactive scheduling system to integrate among the nodes of the observatory network. This will enable more dynamic observations, including immediate priority interrupts, acquiring moving objects using ephemeris data, and more.

  12. Geological and geophysical investigations at Sierra del Medio massif - Argentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perucca, J.C.; Llambias, E.; Puigdomenech, H.H.; Cebrelli, E.; Castro, C.E.; Grassi, I.; Salinas, L.I.

    1987-01-01

    Geological investigations were performed at Sierra del Medio (Chubut Province), a mountainous massif of about 25 km by 8 km of migmatic origin, which emerges from a depressed tectonic trench or graben called Pampa de Gastre. The most ancient rocks belong to biotitic and anphibolic schist that passed almost entirely to tonalitoid migmatites with a second process producing granitic rocks. Boreholes were drilled on the basis of conclusions from Landsat satellites imagery and aerial photographic sets, folowed by field work on geological, petrographic, geophysical and hydrogeological features at surface, structural interpretation supported by geostatistical computations. Two sets of boreholes were drilled to investigate subsurface rock behaviour al 300 m depth and 800 m depth respectively, beginning at peripheral places and ending at the central part or selected site. Basic purposes of boreholes were to define structural and petrographic features of the rock massif by a good comprehension of master joints and faulting distribution with its belts of alteration mylonitization or brecciation, mechanical properties of samples, chemical composition and varitions, petrographic facies and mineralogy. Boreholes provided data to investigate joints, faults and dikes as general discontinuities for hydraulic research like permeability or effective hydraulic conductivity, and their geostatistical modelling. Boreholes are also being prepared for geophysical logging from which logthermal ones have already been completed. (Author) [es

  13. SIERRA Multimechanics Module: Aria User Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    Aria is a Galerkin fnite element based program for solving coupled-physics problems described by systems of PDEs and is capable of solving nonlinear, implicit, transient and direct-to-steady state problems in two and three dimensions on parallel architectures. The suite of physics currently supported by Aria includes thermal energy transport, species transport, and electrostatics as well as generalized scalar, vector and tensor transport equations. Additionally, Aria includes support for manufacturing process fows via the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations specialized to a low Reynolds number ( %3C 1 ) regime. Enhanced modeling support of manufacturing processing is made possible through use of either arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian (ALE) and level set based free and moving boundary tracking in conjunction with quasi-static nonlinear elastic solid mechanics for mesh control. Coupled physics problems are solved in several ways including fully-coupled Newton's method with analytic or numerical sensitivities, fully-coupled Newton- Krylov methods and a loosely-coupled nonlinear iteration about subsets of the system that are solved using combinations of the aforementioned methods. Error estimation, uniform and dynamic h -adaptivity and dynamic load balancing are some of Aria's more advanced capabilities. Aria is based upon the Sierra Framework.

  14. SIERRA Multimechanics Module: Aria User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    Aria is a Galerkin fnite element based program for solving coupled-physics problems described by systems of PDEs and is capable of solving nonlinear, implicit, transient and direct-to-steady state problems in two and three dimensions on parallel architectures. The suite of physics currently supported by Aria includes thermal energy transport, species transport, and electrostatics as well as generalized scalar, vector and tensor transport equations. Additionally, Aria includes support for manufacturing process fows via the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations specialized to a low Reynolds number ( %3C 1 ) regime. Enhanced modeling support of manufacturing processing is made possible through use of either arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian (ALE) and level set based free and moving boundary tracking in conjunction with quasi-static nonlinear elastic solid mechanics for mesh control. Coupled physics problems are solved in several ways including fully-coupled Newton's method with analytic or numerical sensitivities, fully-coupled Newton- Krylov methods and a loosely-coupled nonlinear iteration about subsets of the system that are solved using combinations of the aforementioned methods. Error estimation, uniform and dynamic h -adaptivity and dynamic load balancing are some of Aria's more advanced capabilities. Aria is based upon the Sierra Framework.

  15. específico en la sierra norte de Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Garzón García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La primera parte del artículo ofrece una visión panorámica de la política de fomento del uso público en la Red de Espacios Naturales Protegidos de Andalucía desde su origen hasta nuestros días, con especial incidencia en cuestiones tales como el papel preponderante asumido por la figura de Parque Natural, el desequilibrio territorial de las intervenciones planteadas, o la necesaria ordenación y planificación de la actividad. Ello conforma el contexto idóneo para abordar, en segunda instancia, un análisis particularizado de la gestión del uso público en el Parque Natural Sierra Norte de Sevilla. La elección de este ámbito territorial se fundamenta tanto en sus especiales condicionantes para el fomento de esta línea de acción (privilegiada situación, existencia de una demanda tradicional asociada a determinados enclaves, propiedad de la tierra… como en la singular gestión desarrollada desde la declaración del parque, destacando las nuevas perspectivas e incertidumbres que parecen despertarse a partir del impulso y aprobación de una planificación específica

  16. A Self-Assessment of the Effectiveness to Control Radiation Sources in Sierra Leone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bun-Tejan, Umaru Remilekun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    There is an urgent need to effectively control sources of ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiation pose serious occupational, public health, and environmental consequences, if not properly controlled. The government of Sierra Leone knows the importance of controlling these sources of ionizing radiation and of establishing an independent Nuclear Safety Infrastructure. Sierra Leone has no nuclear facilities but, it is rapidly developing its infrastructure in order to obtain nuclear technology. However, the regulatory effectiveness in controlling radiation risk is essential for the International Atomic Energy Agency to allow the transfer of nuclear technology. For this reason, this study will evaluate the status of the regulatory authority in Sierra Leone to control radiation risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review mission to Sierra Leone found that the RPBA did not give sufficient enforcement powers to the Board Secretariat. The research evaluated the status of the regulatory authority of Sierra Leone. The status of the regulatory authority was evaluated against several parameters including management systems, regulatory processes, authorization, inspection, and enforcement. The ability to effectively control ionizing radiation sources depends on the status of the regulatory body. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service Report on Sierra Leone led us to infer that there is a need for the regulatory authority to rapidly improve its ability to control ionizing radiation sources in the country. The findings however, revealed that the overall strengths of the regulatory body in Sierra Leone slightly outnumber the weaknesses. Management systems have a ratio of 0.85:1 of strengths to weaknesses. This ratio makes management systems the weakest parameter evaluated. Thus there is need for stronger collaboration between management staff. The Regulatory processes have a ratio of 1.3:1, authorizations have a ratio of 4.3:1, inspections have ratio of 2

  17. A Self-Assessment of the Effectiveness to Control Radiation Sources in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bun-Tejan, Umaru Remilekun; Lee, Byung Soo

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to effectively control sources of ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiation pose serious occupational, public health, and environmental consequences, if not properly controlled. The government of Sierra Leone knows the importance of controlling these sources of ionizing radiation and of establishing an independent Nuclear Safety Infrastructure. Sierra Leone has no nuclear facilities but, it is rapidly developing its infrastructure in order to obtain nuclear technology. However, the regulatory effectiveness in controlling radiation risk is essential for the International Atomic Energy Agency to allow the transfer of nuclear technology. For this reason, this study will evaluate the status of the regulatory authority in Sierra Leone to control radiation risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review mission to Sierra Leone found that the RPBA did not give sufficient enforcement powers to the Board Secretariat. The research evaluated the status of the regulatory authority of Sierra Leone. The status of the regulatory authority was evaluated against several parameters including management systems, regulatory processes, authorization, inspection, and enforcement. The ability to effectively control ionizing radiation sources depends on the status of the regulatory body. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service Report on Sierra Leone led us to infer that there is a need for the regulatory authority to rapidly improve its ability to control ionizing radiation sources in the country. The findings however, revealed that the overall strengths of the regulatory body in Sierra Leone slightly outnumber the weaknesses. Management systems have a ratio of 0.85:1 of strengths to weaknesses. This ratio makes management systems the weakest parameter evaluated. Thus there is need for stronger collaboration between management staff. The Regulatory processes have a ratio of 1.3:1, authorizations have a ratio of 4.3:1, inspections have ratio of 2

  18. Photo series for quantifying forest fuels in Mexico: montane subtropical forests of the Sierra Madre del Sur and temperate forests and montane shrubland of the northern Sierra Madre Oriental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge E. Morfin-Rios; Ernesto Alvarado-Celestino; Enrique J. Jardel-Pelaez; Robert E. Vihnanek; David K. Wright; Jose M. Michel-Fuentes; Clinton S. Wright; Roger D. Ottmar; David V. Sandberg; Andres Najera-Diaz

    2008-01-01

    Single wide-angle and stereo photographs display a range of forest ecosystems conditions and fuel loadings in montane subtropical forests of the Sierra Madre del Sur and temperate forests and montane shrubland of the northern Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Each group of photographs includes inventory information summarizing overstory vegetation composition and...

  19. Southern Sierra Nevada Continental Dynamics Project: 1993 field observations of the NPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G.R. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Malin, P.E. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Ruppert, S.D. [LLNL, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Southern Sierra Nevada Continental Dynamics Project is a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional investigation of the cause of the uplift of the Sierra Nevada and its relationship to extension in the adjacent Basin and Range. A broad range of geologic and geophysical data have been collected as part of this project. These data include both passive and active seismic measurements, as well as gravity and magnetotelluric observations. Three seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles were recorded: (1) a 325-km-long, north-south profile extending from just east of Mono Lake south across the Garlock fault, (2) a 400-km-long, east-west profile extending from Death Valley west across the Sierra Nevada to near the San Andreas fault, and (3) a 480-km-long, east-west profile deployed for the NPE. This profile extended from Beatty, Nevada, west across the Sierra Nevada along the previously recorded east-west profile and continued nearly to the Pacific Ocean. Up to 675 seismic recorders were deployed for each profile. These data are allowing us to develop refined models of the crustal and upper mantle structure of the southern Sierra Nevada and to evaluate alternative hypotheses for its uplift and for Basin and Range extension. They also provide insight into the propagation of regional phases across complex structures.

  20. The geodynamic evolution of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas based on geochemical, Sm-Nd, Pb-Pb and SHRIMP data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobe, M; Lopez de Luchi, M; Steenken, A

    2011-01-01

    , have been carried out to unravel the provenance and the geodynamic history of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, Central Argentina. The geochemical and the Sm–Nd data point to a slightly stronger mafic and less-fractionated material in the provenance area of the Sierras de Co´rdoba when compared...

  1. 77 FR 23476 - Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1470-000] Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  2. 75 FR 26786 - Notice of Public Meeting: Sierra Front-Northwestern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... 261A; 10-08807; MO 4500012081; TAS: 14X1109] Notice of Public Meeting: Sierra Front-Northwestern Great..., Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Sierra Front-Northwestern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council (RAC... discussion will include, but are not limited to: District Manager's reports on current program of work, Draft...

  3. Airborne Pesticides as an Unlikely Cause for Population Declines of Alpine Frogs in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured...

  4. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  5. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:26865820

  6. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.

  7. Tectonic, volcanic, and climatic geomorphology study of the Sierras Pampeanas Andes, northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, A. L.; Strecker, M. R.; Fielding, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    A proposed analysis of Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) data extends current research in the Sierras Pampeanas and the Puna of northwestern Argentina to the determination - by the digital analysis of mountain-front sinuousity - of the relative age and amount of fault movement along mountain fronts of the late-Cenozoic Sierras Pampeanas basement blocks; the determination of the age and history of the boundary across the Andes at about 27 S latitude between continuing volcanism to the north and inactive volcanism to the south; and the determination of the age and extent of Pleistocene glaciation in the High Sierras, as well as the comparative importance of climatic change and tectonic movements in shaping the landscape. The integration of these studies into other ongoing geology projects contributes to the understanding of landform development in this active tectonic environment and helps distinguish between climatic and tectonic effects on landforms.

  8. Magmatism and mineralization ages from northeast area of La Sierra de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulacco, Jose H

    2001-01-01

    Three igneous rock groups, characterized as pre, sin and post-kinematics, have intruded the crystalline basement of Sierra de San Luis, Argentina. The ore deposits are associated with Devonian to Carboniferous epizonal granite stocks and batholiths in an area underlain by metamorphic rocks. This granitoids are characterized as post-kinematics magmatism. Model lead ages on the ore deposits (338,8 - 292,1 Ma) are strongly supported by K-Ar ages of the intrusives. The bulk of the north Sierra de San Luis ore deposits are genetically related to late Carboniferous granite plutons. The ore bodies are tungsten veins with greisen envelopes, lead veins, epithermal fluorite veins and REE and Th deposit. A generalized scheme of ore bodies related to granites is proposed. The ore deposits and their lithotectonic setting are characteristic of Gondwana metallogenetic Epoch in the Sierra de San Luis (au)

  9. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierra from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour.

  10. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierrae from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour. Copyright ?? 2011 British Lichen Society.

  11. Fossil hominin radii from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Laura; Carretero, José Miguel; García-González, Rebeca; Lorenzo, Carlos; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    Complete radii in the fossil record preceding recent humans and Neandertals are very scarce. Here we introduce the radial remains recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site in the Sierra de Atapuerca between 1976 and 2011 and which have been dated in excess of 430 ky (thousands of years) ago. The sample comprises 89 specimens, 49 of which are attributed to adults representing a minimum of seven individuals. All elements are described anatomically and metrically, and compared with other fossil hominins and recent humans in order to examine the phylogenetic polarity of certain radial features. Radial remains from SH have some traits that differentiate them from those of recent humans and make them more similar to Neandertals, including strongly curved shafts, anteroposterior expanded radial heads and both absolutely and relatively long necks. In contrast, the SH sample differs from Neandertals in showing a high overall gracility as well as a high frequency (80%) of an anteriorly oriented radial tuberosity. Thus, like the cranial and dental remains from the SH site, characteristic Neandertal radial morphology is not present fully in the SH radii. We also analyzed the cross-sectional properties of the SH radial sample at two different levels: mid-shaft and at the midpoint of the neck length. When standardized by shaft length, no difference in the mid-shaft cross-sectional properties were found between the SH hominins, Neandertals and recent humans. Nevertheless, due to their long neck length, the SH hominins show a higher lever efficiency than either Neandertals or recent humans. Functionally, the SH radial morphology is consistent with more efficient pronation-supination and flexion-extension movements. The particular trait composition in the SH sample and Neandertals resembles more closely morphology evident in recent human males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A behavioral intervention for war-affected youth in Sierra Leone: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M; Brennan, Robert T; Weisz, John R; Hansen, Nathan B

    2014-12-01

    Youth in war-affected regions are at risk for poor psychological, social, and educational outcomes. Effective interventions are needed to improve mental health, social behavior, and school functioning. This randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of a 10-session cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based group mental health intervention for multisymptomatic war-affected youth (aged 15-24 years) in Sierra Leone. War-affected youth identified by elevated distress and impairment via community screening were randomized (stratified by sex and age) to the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI) (n = 222) or to a control condition (n = 214). After treatment, youth were again randomized and offered an education subsidy immediately (n = 220) or waitlisted (n = 216). Emotion regulation, psychological distress, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, functional impairment, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed at pre- and postintervention and at 6-month follow-up. For youth in school, enrollment, attendance, and classroom performance were assessed after 8 months. Linear mixed-effects regressions evaluated outcomes. The YRI showed significant postintervention effects on emotion regulation, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, and reduced functional impairment, and significant follow-up effects on school enrollment, school attendance, and classroom behavior. In contrast, education subsidy was associated with better attendance but had no effect on mental health or functioning, school retention, or classroom behavior. Interactions between education subsidy and YRI were not significant. YRI produced acute improvements in mental health and functioning as well as longer-term effects on school engagement and behavior, suggesting potential to prepare war-affected youth for educational and other opportunities. Clinical trial registration information-Trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI); http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT

  13. Vulnerability of birds to climate change in California's Sierra Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney B. Siegel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In a rapidly changing climate, effective bird conservation requires not only reliable information about the current vulnerability of species of conservation concern, but also credible projections of their future vulnerability. Such projections may enable managers to preempt or reduce emerging climate-related threats through appropriate habitat management. We used NatureServe's Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI to predict vulnerability to climate change of 168 bird species that breed in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA. The CCVI assesses species-specific exposure and sensitivity to climate change within a defined geographic area, through the integration of (a species' range maps, (b information about species' natural history traits and ecological relationships, (c historic and current climate data, and (d spatially explicit climate change projections. We conducted the assessment under two different downscaled climate models with divergent projections about future precipitation through the middle of the 21st century. Assessments differed relatively little under the two climate models. Of five CCVI vulnerability ranking categories, only one species, White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura, received the most vulnerable rank, Extremely Vulnerable. No species received the second-highest vulnerability ranking, Highly Vulnerable. Sixteen species scored as Moderately Vulnerable using one or both climate models: Common Merganser (Mergus merganser, Osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus, Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus, Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius, Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa, Black Swift (Cypseloides niger, Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana, American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus, Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus, American Pipit (Anthus rubescens, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch (Leucosticte tephrocotis, Pine Grosbeak

  14. Semiarid ethnoagroforestry management: Tajos in the Sierra Gorda, Guanajuato, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogesteger van Dijk, Vincent M; Casas, Alejandro; Moreno-Calles, Ana Isabel

    2017-06-12

    The semi-arid environments harbor nearly 40% of biodiversity, and half of indigenous cultures of Mexico. Thousands of communities settled in these areas depend on agriculture and using wild biodiversity for their subsistence. Water, soil, and biodiversity management strategies are therefore crucial for people's life. The tajos, from Sierra Gorda, are important, poorly studied, biocultural systems established in narrow, arid alluvial valleys. The systems are constructed with stone-walls for capturing sediments, gradually creating fertile soils in terraces suitable for agriculture in places where it would not be possible. We analyzed biocultural, ecological, economic and technological relevance of the artificial oasis-like tajos, hypothesizing their high capacity for maintaining agricultural and wild biodiversity while providing resources to people. We conducted our research in three sections of the Mezquital-Xichú River, in three communities of Guanajuato, Mexico. Agroforestry management practices were documented through semi-structured and in-depth qualitative interviews. Vegetation composition of local forests and that maintained in tajos was sampled and compared. Tajos harbor high agrobiodiversity, including native varieties of maize and beans, seven secondary crops, 47 native and 25 introduced perennial plant species. Perennial plants cover on average 26.8% of the total surface of plots. Tajos provide nearly 70% of the products required by households' subsistence and are part of their cultural identity. Tajos are heritage of TEK and land management forms of pre-Columbian Mexican and Mediterranean agricultural techniques, adapting and integrating modern agricultural practices. Tajos are valuable biocultural systems adapted to local semiarid conditions and sources of technology for similar areas of the World.

  15. Origen y decadencia del gamonalismo en la sierra ecuatoriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibarra Crespo, Hernán

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the historical path of gamonalismo in Ecuadorian highlands. Although it could be alike to Mexican caciquismo and Brazilian coronelismo, gamonalismo had its specific forms. In Ecuador it is possible to reconstruct its meaning in political terms, as a form of traditional domination. The use of this particular term is analyzed in different historical moments between the 18th and 20th century; focusing on the origin and decline of this local power. The aim is to build an interpretative frame in order to understand agrarian sources of Ecuadorian state development and ethnic domination.

    Este artículo analiza la trayectoria histórica del gamonalismo en la sierra ecuatoriana. Aunque homologado con el caciquismo mexicano y el coronelismo brasileño, tiene rasgos específicos. En el Ecuador es posible reconstruir el significado del gamonalismo en el lenguaje político y como modalidad de dominación tradicional. Por una parte, se realiza un rastreo y análisis del uso del término en distintos momentos históricos entre los siglos XVIII y XX. Por otra parte, se efectúa un abordaje del origen y declinación de esta forma de poder. Se aspira a construir un marco interpretativo que aporte a la comprensión de los fundamentos agrarios de la constitución del Estado ecuatoriano y las formas de dominación étnica.

  16. Differential cooling and uplift of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Central Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenken, A; Martino, R.; Wemmer, K.; Siegesmund, S.; Drobe, M.; Lopez de Luchi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampean as are constituted by the Neo proterozoic to early Cambrian basement of the Sierras de Cordoba, San Luis and eastern La Rioja (29grades 00seconds - 33grades 30seconds, 64grades 00seconds - 6 00W) outcropping in the east of the Chaco-Parana basin. High-grade metamorphic gneisses and schists dominate the basement. The intrusion of magmatic rocks took place during the Pampean, Famatinian and Achalian cycles. The basement is divided in different lithological and structural domains by N-S trending ductile shear-zones. The east-dipping compressive Los Tuneles and Guacha Corral shear-zones at the western limit of the Sierras de Cordoba are the most important with respect to the exhumation history of the Sierras. An extensive survey on the cooling history by K/Ar biotite and muscovite dating of the basement rocks of the Sierras de Cordoba and San Luis was carried out and interpreted in terms of a differential exhumation history of the different blocks. Beginning of cooling in the Sierra de San Luis is documented by large muscovite booklets from pegmatites yielding ages between 438 Ma and 448 Ma. Slow cooling rates (3grades/Ma) led to a systematic reset of the K/Ar ages in the fine-grained muscovites forming two groups between 430 Ma and 410 Ma and 410 Ma and 380 Ma resulting from the Achalian deformation in the upper Silurian-Upper Devonian. In contrast to the Upper Ordovician/-Llandoverian cooling onset in the Sierra de San Luis, large pegmatitic muscovites from the Sierras de Cordoba record late Cambrian to Early Ordovician ages between 493 Ma and 474 Ma. The limit between those age domains is marked by the Los Tuneles and Guacha Corral shear-zones accommodating the vertical displacement responsible for the different ages. Cooling ages from the shear-zone rocks at 430 Ma define the upper limit for the contraction that is related to the collision with the Cuyania Terrane to the western outboard of Gondwana

  17. Gravity data from the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of very small changes of Earth’s gravitational field (time-lapse gravity) provide a direct, non-invasive method for measuring changes in aquifer storage change. An existing network of gravity stations in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed was revised in 2014 to better understand the spatial distribution of changes in aquifer storage, especially with relation to ephemeral channel recharge and a groundwater cone of depression associated with pumping in the greater Sierra Vista area. In addition, the network was extended to provide baseline data for possible future enhanced-recharge projects.

  18. SIERRA Code Coupling Module: Arpeggio User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    The SNL Sierra Mechanics code suite is designed to enable simulation of complex multiphysics scenarios. The code suite is composed of several specialized applications which can operate either in standalone mode or coupled with each other. Arpeggio is a supported utility that enables loose coupling of the various Sierra Mechanics applications by providing access to Framework services that facilitate the coupling. More importantly Arpeggio orchestrates the execution of applications that participate in the coupling. This document describes the various components of Arpeggio and their operability. The intent of the document is to provide a fast path for analysts interested in coupled applications via simple examples of its usage.

  19. Late holocene tectonic damming up in eastern Sierras Pampeanas, Cordoba, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massabie, A.C.; Limarino, C.O; Panarello, H.O.; Cordero, R.R; Bertels, A

    2001-01-01

    Neogene deformation due to Andean Orogeny has caused block faulting in the Sierras Pampeanas area, fracturing a Precambrian Paleozoic crystalline basement. These dislocations produced Late Tertiary to Quaternary landscape changes which are mainly expressed in clear and good preserved fluvial path modifications in sedimentary cover. The study of alterations of fluvial channel pattern associated with Quaternary tectonics has special neotectonic value in this central area of Argentina as a basic method to gain more precise temporal restrain of recent movements. Attention to this specific neotectonic field parallels general geologic knowledge evolution in Sierras Pampeanas. But in spite that nowadays better stratigraphic controls are available based on morphostructural, sedimentologic and paleontologic constraints (Massabie, 1999), still remain temporal uncertainties. Major difficulties for a more precise dating of neotectonic in the area of Sierras Pampeanas is a direct consequence of the random distribution of Neogene continental sediments located in different isolated basins which are mainly lacking of good bioestratigraphic control for comprehensive correlation. First steps in the study of Quaternary faulting dating in Sierras Pampeanas starts with the pioneer paper of Schlagintweit (1954) which reported a Quaternary faulting backed by stratigraphic and morphostructural considerations. Afterthen other papers about Quaternary faulting were presented based on similar geologic constraints (Lencinas y Timonieri, 1968; Massabie, 1976, 1987; Massabie and Szlafsztein, 1991; Kraemer et al., 1993; Massabie et al.,1998). In the way up to manage better adjust of Quaternary faulting dating in Sierras Pampeanas, there is a first work for Eastern Sierras Pampeanas presenting 14 C dating (Costa and Vita-Finzi, 1996). The authors postulated a late step of faulting younger than 1,300 for Comechingones fault with radiocarbon analysis based on organic matter in footwall colluvium

  20. Soil fauna in forest and coffee plantations from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camero R, Edgar

    2002-01-01

    Two research stations (M inca, 700 m altitude and Maria Ter esa, 790 m altitude) were established in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta in places to study the soil fauna associated with forest and coffee plantations. Soil fauna was collected using pitfall and Bailer's traps. Samples were taken from litter as well as from horizons 0, A and B. individuals collected were identified to family level. Diversity, abundance and frequency indexes were used to compare fauna composition at both sites. Significant differences were found between the two research sites as well as with data from other high altitude forest in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta

  1. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units, 2006-2007--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The three study units are located in the Sierra Nevada region of California in parts of Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Madera, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems used for drinking water. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) for each study unit are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 132 wells in the three study units during 2006 and 2007 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those

  2. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is amending Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions, to simplify the administration of reserve requirements. The final rule creates a...

  3. Noteworthy records of two species of mammals in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, Mexico Registros notables de dos especies de mamíferos de la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Briones-Salas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted mammal surveys in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca (Sierra Norte in Oaxaca, Mexico, and recorded the occurrence of two conspicuous mammal species: the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus and the coyote (Canis latrans cagottis. Spider monkeys has not been previously recorded in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, and coyotes have not been previously observed in Mexico at elevations as high as the present one (3 200 mas1 in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca.Se efectuaron colectas de mamíferos en la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca (Sierra Norte en Oaxaca, México, y se registró la notoria presencia de dos mamíferos: el mono araña (Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus y el coyote (Canis latrans cagottis. El mono araña no se había registrado previamente en la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, en tanto que el coyote, no había sido registrado en México a tan gran altitud (3 200 m como la de la localidad de captura.

  4. Bayesian inference in an extended SEIR model with nonparametric disease transmission rate: an application to the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasso, Gianluca; Lambert, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    SummaryThe 2014 Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone is analyzed using a susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) epidemic compartmental model. The discrete time-stochastic model for the epidemic evolution is coupled to a set of ordinary differential equations describing the dynamics of the expected proportions of subjects in each epidemic state. The unknown parameters are estimated in a Bayesian framework by combining data on the number of new (laboratory confirmed) Ebola cases reported by the Ministry of Health and prior distributions for the transition rates elicited using information collected by the WHO during the follow-up of specific Ebola cases. The time-varying disease transmission rate is modeled in a flexible way using penalized B-splines. Our framework represents a valuable stochastic tool for the study of an epidemic dynamic even when only irregularly observed and possibly aggregated data are available. Simulations and the analysis of the 2014 Sierra Leone Ebola data highlight the merits of the proposed methodology. In particular, the flexible modeling of the disease transmission rate makes the estimation of the effective reproduction number robust to the misspecification of the initial epidemic states and to underreporting of the infectious cases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Holocene glaciation of the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Nicole D.; Clark, Douglas H.

    2011-05-01

    Sediment cores from two bedrock-dammed lakes in North Fork Big Pine Creek, Sierra Nevada, California, preserve the most detailed and complete record of Holocene glaciation yet recovered in the region. The lakes are fed by outwash from the Palisade Glacier, the largest (˜1.3 km 2) and presumably longest-lived glacier in the range, and capture essentially all of the rock flour it produces. Distinct late-Holocene (Matthes) and late-Pleistocene (Recess Peak) moraines lie between the modern glacier and the lakes. The lakes have therefore received continuous sedimentation from the basin since the retreat of the Tioga glacier (Last Glacial Maximum) and capture rock flour related to all post-LGM advances. A total of eight long cores (up to 5.5 m sediment depth) and one short surface sediment short core preserve a coherent record of fluctuating rock flour flux to the lakes through the Holocene. Age constraints on rock flour spikes in First and Second lakes based on 31 14C-dated macrofossils indicate Holocene glaciation began ˜3200 cal yr B P, followed by a possible glacier maximum at ˜2800 cal yr B P and four distinct glacier maxima at ˜2200, ˜1600, ˜700 and ˜250-170 cal yr. B.P., the most recent maximum being the largest. Reconstruction of the equilibrium-line altitudes (ELA) associated with each distinct advance recorded in the moraines (Recess Peak, Matthes, and modern) indicates ELA depressions (relative to modern) of ˜250 m and 90 m for Recess Peak and Matthes advances, respectively. These differences represent decreases in summer temperatures of 1.7-2.8 °C (Recess Peak) and 0.2-2° (Matthes), and increases in winter precipitation of 22-34 cm snow water equivalent (s.w.e.) (Recess Peak) and 3-26 cm s.w.e. (Matthes) compared to modern conditions. Although small, these changes are significant and similar to those noted in the Cascade Range to the north, and represent a significant departure from historical climate trends in the region.

  6. Paleozoic and Mesozoic deformations in the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Kistler, Ronald Wayne

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of structural and stratigraphic data indicates that several periods of regional deformation, consisting of combined folding, faulting, cataclasis, and regional metamorphism, occurred throughout the central Sierra Nevada during Paleozoic and Mesozoic time. The oldest regional deformation occurred alono northward trends during the Devonian and Mississippian periods in most roof pendants containing lower Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks at the center and along the crest of the range. This deformation is expressed in some roof pendants by an angular unconformity separating older thrice-deformed from younger twice-deformed Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The first Mesozoic deformation, which consisted of uplift and erosion and was accompanied by the onset of Andean-type volcanism during the Permian and Triassic, is expressed by an angular unconformity in several roof pendants from the Saddlebag Lake to the Mount Morrison areas. This unconformity is defined by Permian and Triassic andesitic to rhyolitic metavolcanic rocks unconformably overlying more intensely deformed Pennsylvanian, Permian(?), and older metasedimentary rocks. A later regional deformation occurred during the Triassic along N. 20?_30? W. trends in Permian and Triassic metavolcanic rocks of the Saddlebag Lake and Mount Dana roof pendants, in upper Paleozoic rocks of the Pine Creek roof pendant, and in the Calaveras Formation of the western metamorphic belt; the roof pendants are crosscut by Upper Triassic granitic rocks of the Lee Vining intrusive epoch. A still later period of Early and Middle Jurassic regional deformation occurred along N. 30?-60? E. trends in upper Paleozoic rocks of the Calaveras Formation of the western metamorphic belt. A further period of deformation was the Late Jurassic Nevadan orogeny, which occurred along N. 20?_40? W. trends in Upper Jurassic rocks of the western metamorphic belt that are crosscut by Upper Jurassic granitic rocks of the Yosemite intrusive epoch

  7. Influence of anuran prey on the condition and distribution of Rana muscosa in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L. Pope; K.R. Matthews

    2002-01-01

    Mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) at high elevations of the Sierra Nevada must obtain enough food during summer to survive 7–9 winter months when their aquatic habitats are frozen and food is presumably unavailable. Adults of R. muscosa prey on a variety of organisms, including aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates and...

  8. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research - Vol 5, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Two Artemisinin-Based Combinations in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria among Children Under ... The Use of Mobile Electronic Devices for Public Health Data Collection and Syndromic Surveillance at the Republic Of Sierra Leone Armed Forces · EMAIL FREE ...

  9. Child mental health in Sierra Leone : A survey and exploratory qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoder, H.N.C.; Tol, W.A.; Reis, R.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study complements the growing amount of research on the psychosocial impact of war on children in Sierra Leone by examining local perceptions of child mental health, formal and informal care systems, help-seeking behaviour and stigma. Methods The study combined: (1) a nationwide

  10. 75 FR 42601 - Establishment of the Sierra Pelona Valley Viticultural Area (2010R-004P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ...; Treasury decision. SUMMARY: This Treasury decision establishes the 9.7-square mile ``Sierra Pelona Valley... purchase. DATES: Effective Date: August 23, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Christina McMahon... origin of their wines to consumers and helps consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment...

  11. Aspen in the Sierra Nevada: Regional conservation of a continental species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Rogers; Wayne D. Shepperd; Dale L. Bartos

    2007-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) a common species in North America, is a minor species in the Sierra Nevada of California. However, the limited coverage of aspen in this area appears to carry a disproportionate biodiversity load: numerous species are dependent on the unique components of aspen forests habitat. Land managers in the region...

  12. Petrography of the Paleogene Volcanic Rocks of the Sierra Maestra, Southeastern Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, V. L.

    2006-12-01

    This study is a petrographic analysis of over 200 specimens of the Paleogene volcanic rocks of the Sierra Maestra (Southerneastern Cuba), a key structure in the framework of the northern Caribbean plate boundary evolution. The purpose of this study is to understand the eruptive processes and the depositional environments. The volcanic sequence in the lower part of the Sierra Maestra begins with highly porphyritic pillow lavas, topped by massive tuffs and autoclastic flows. The presence of broken phenocrystals, palagonitic glass and hyaloclastites in this section of the sequence suggests that the prevalent mode of eruption was explosive. The absence of welding in the tuffs suggests that the rocks were emplaced in a deep submarine environment. Coherent flows, much less common than the massive tuffs, show evidence of autoclastic fracturing, also indicating low temperature-submarine environments. These observations support the hypothesis that the Sierra Maestra sequence may be neither part of the Great Antilles Arc of the Mesozoic nor any other fully developed volcanic arc, rather a 250 km long, submarine eruptive system of dikes, flows and sills, most likely a back-arc structure. The volcanic rocks of the upper sequence are all very fine grained, reworked volcaniclastic materials, often with the structures of distal turbidities, in mode and texture similar to those drilled on the Cayman Rise. This study suggests that the Sierra Maestra most likely records volcanism of diverse sources: a local older submarine source, and one or more distal younger sources, identifiable with the pan-Caribbean volcanic events of the Tertiary.

  13. Training for Innovation: Capacity-Building in Agricultural Research in Post-War Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Bebeley, Jenneh F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI) used training and development to build capacity for innovation in agricultural research following the country's civil war which ended in 2002. The Institute's training for innovation addressed different agricultural product value chains (APVCs) within the framework of…

  14. Fire weather and large fire potential in the northern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon M. Collins

    2014-01-01

    Fuels, weather, and topography all contribute to observed fire behavior. Of these, weather is not only the most dynamic factor, it is the most likely to be directly influenced by climate change. In this study 40 years of daily fire weather observations from five weather stations across the northern Sierra Nevada were analyzed to investigate potential changes or trends...

  15. Role of oaks in fisher habitat quality in the Sierra Nevada mountains at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Thompson; Kathryn Purcell; Rebecca Green; Richard. Sweitzer

    2015-01-01

    Fishers (Pekania pennanti) occur in ponderosa pine, mixed conifer, and mixed hardwood conifer habitats in the southern Sierra Nevada at elevations from approximately 1400 to 2300 m. They are a candidate species for listing under both the Federal and California Endangered Species Acts. Since 2007, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (...

  16. Survival of fishers in the southern Sierra Nevada region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sweitzer; Craig M. Thompson; Rebecca E. Green; Reginald H. Barrett; Kathryn L. Purcell

    2015-01-01

    Fishers in the western United States were recently proposed for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of concerns for loss of suitable habitat and evidence of a diversity of mortality risks that reduce survival. One of 2 remnant populations of fishers in California is in the southern Sierra Nevada region, where we studied them at 2 research sites in the...

  17. Hacia una Estrategia de Desarrollo para la Sierra Rural en el Perú

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escobal, J.A.; Valdivia, L.

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es elaborar un documento que establezca los lineamientos de una política de desarrollo para la Sierra rural en el Perú e identificar los requerimientos institucionales y de investigación complementaria que se requerirían para la construcción de programas específicos que

  18. Ethnobotany of the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy-Güicán

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, Mireia Alcántara; Angueyra, Andrea; Cleef, Antoine M.; Andel, van Tinde

    2018-01-01

    Background: The Sierra Nevada del Cocuy-Güicán in the Colombian Andes is protected as a National Natural Park since 1977 because of its fragile páramo ecosystems, extraordinary biodiversity, high plant endemism, and function as water reservoir. The vegetation on this mountain is threatened by

  19. The Role of Religion During and After the Civil War in Sierra Leone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Civil wars in Africa are renowned for their strong religious elements, with religion being used for different purposes and in different capacities. Sierra Leone's civil war (1991-2002), known also as the “rebel war,” had significant religious dimensions. The warring factions used religion for their gain. Beyond that, Muslim and ...

  20. Socio-Ecological Factors Affecting Pregnant Women's Anemia Status in Freetown, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna; Drolet, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sierra Leone has high maternal mortality. Socio-ecological factors are considered contributing factors to this high mortality. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 4% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. Purpose: The current study explores socio-ecological contributing factors to the anemia…

  1. Snowmelt runoff and water yield along elevation and temperature gradients in California's southern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn T. Hunsaker; Thomas W. Whitaker; Roger C. Bales

    2012-01-01

    Differences in hydrologic response across the rain-snow transition in the southern Sierra Nevada were studied in eight headwater catchments – the Kings River Experimental Watersheds – using continuous precipitation, snowpack, and streamflow measurements. The annual runoff ratio (discharge divided by precipitation) increased about 0.1 per 300 m of mean catchment...

  2. Roadless area-intensive management tradeoffs on the Sierra National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Hrubes; Kent P. Connaughton; Robert W. Sassaman

    1979-01-01

    This hypothesis was tested by a linear programing model: Roadless areas on the Sierra National Forest precluded from planned future development would be candidates for wilderness designation, and the associated loss in present and future timber harvests could be offset by investing in more intensive management. The results of this simulation test suggest that levels of...

  3. Evaluating avian-habitat relationships models in mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Sallie J. Hejl; Terry A. Larson

    1992-01-01

    Using data from two studies in the southern and central Sierra Nevada, we compared the presence and abundance of bird species breeding in mixedconifer forests during 1978-79 and 1983-85 to predictions &om the California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (WHR) System. Twelve percent of the species observed in either study were not predicted by the WHR database to occur...

  4. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  5. A national survey of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) grain quality in Sierra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As Sierra Leone approaches self-sufficiency in rice, against a backdrop of agricultural commercialization, the dynamics of the rice grain production and consumption will increasingly be driven by the quality of grains demanded by consumers to be produced by farmers and marketed by traders in the open market.

  6. Silviculture-ecology of forest-zone hardwoods in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; John C. Tappeiner

    1996-01-01

    Although the principal hardwood species in the forest zone of the Sierra Nevada (California black oak, tanoak, Pacific madrone, and canyon live oak) are key components of many ecosystems, they have received comparatively little study. Currently they are underutilized and unmanaged. This paper brings together what is known on the silviculture-ecology of these species...

  7. Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclure, Richard; Denov, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In post-war contexts, education is widely regarded as essential not only for civic reconciliation, but also as a key force for gender equity. In Sierra Leone, however, despite enhanced educational opportunities for girls, much of the emphasis on post-war educational reconstruction is unlikely to rectify gender inequities that remain entrenched…

  8. Carbon and nutrient contents in soils from the Kings River Experimental Watersheds, Sierra Nevada Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.W. Johnson; C.T. Hunsaker; D.W. Glass; B.M. Rau; B.A. Roath

    2011-01-01

    Soil C and nutrient contents were estimated for eight watersheds in two sites (one high elevation, Bull, and one low elevation, Providence) in the Kings River Experimental Watersheds in the western Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Eighty-seven quantitative pits were dug to measure soil bulk density and total rock content, while three replicate surface samples...

  9. Genotypic anomaly in ebola virus strains circulating in magazine wharf Area, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Smits (Saskia); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); P. Pertile; C. Cancedda; K. Dierberg; I. Wurie; A. Kamara; D. Kargbo; S.L. Caddy; A. Arias; L. Thorne; J. Lu; U. Jah; I. Goodfellow; M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe Magazine Wharf area, Freetown, Sierra Leone was a focus of ongoing Ebola virus transmission from late June 2015. Viral genomes linked to this area contain a series of 13 T to C substitutions in a 150 base pair intergenic region downstream of viral protein 40 open reading frame,

  10. commercial drinking water quality and safety in bo city, sierra leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research ... These include 6 water sources and the production facilities for 10 brands of machine-filled factory-produced water sachets as well as the 10 sources and finished samples for ... Workers at all of these facilities were also interviewed about their knowledge and practices.

  11. Sierra Nevada grasslands: interactions between livestock grazing and ecosystem structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara H. Allen-Diaz

    2004-01-01

    Livestock grazing plays an integral role in the grass-dominated ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada. Grazing has been asserted to influence such key ecological characteristics as water quality, net primary productivity, nutrient cycling, plant and animal diversity, wildlife habitat availability, and oak regeneration (Belsky and others 1999, Kauffmann and Krueger 1984)....

  12. Culture and environment in the Sierra de Misantla, Veracruz, Mexico: the case of Oecopetalum mexicanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maite Lascurain; Citlalli Lopez-Binnquist; Marla R. Emery

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the cultural and environmental dimensions of foraging the wild edible fruit cachichín (Oecopetalum mexicanum) in the Sierra de Misantla in central Veracruz, Mexico, including gathering practices, social organization, subsistence, commerce, and consumption. Gathering cachichín brings...

  13. Using epiphytic macrolichen communities for biomonitoring ammonia in forests of the greater Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Jovan; Bruce. Mccune

    2006-01-01

    Chronic, excessive nitrogen deposition is potentially an important ecological threat to forests of the greater Sierra Nevada in California. We developed a model for ammonia bioindication, a major nitrogen pollutant in the region, using epiphytic macrolichens. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to extract gradients in lichen community composition from surveys...

  14. Verification Tests for Sierra/SM's Reproducing Kernal Particle Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffin, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report seeks to verify the proper implemention of RKPM within Sierra by comparing the results from several basic example problems excecuted with RKPM against the analytical and FEM solutions for these same problems. This report was compiled as a summer student intern project.

  15. PARTITIONING OF WATER FLUX IN A SIERRA NEVADA PONDEROSA PINE PLANTATION. (R826601)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The weather patterns of the west side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (cold, wet winters and hot, dry summers) strongly influence how water is partitioned between transpiration and evaporation and result in a specific strategy of water use by ponderosa pine trees (Pinus pond...

  16. The Violence of Peace and the Role of Education: Insights from Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Mario; Higgins, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Research on peacebuilding has mushroomed over the last decade and there is a growing interest in the role of education in supporting peacebuilding processes. This paper engages with these debates, UN peacebuilding activities and the location of education initiatives therein, through a case study of Sierra Leone. In the first part, we explore the…

  17. Black bear abundance, habitat use, and food habits in the Sierra San Luis, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Sierra Corona; Ivan A. Sayago Vazquez; M. del Carmen Silva Hurtado; Carlos A. Lopez Gonzalez

    2005-01-01

    We studied black bears to determine habitat use, food habits, and abundance between April 2002 and November 2003 in the Sierra San Luis, Sonora. We utilized transects to determine spoor presence, camera traps for abundance, and scat analysis. During 2002, bears fed principally on plant material, and for 2003 on animal matter, namely livestock. Habitat use differed...

  18. School Persistence in the Wake of War: Wartime Experiences, Reintegration Supports, and Dropout in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students' risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively associated…

  19. West nile virus anti-body surveillance in three Sierra Nevada raptors of conservation concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Hull; J.J. Keane; L.A. Tell; H.B. Ernest

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection has caused high levels of mortality in North American hawks and owls. To investigate the extent of infection among raptors of conservation concern in the Sierra Nevada, we tested 62 Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), 209 Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis), and 22 Great Gray Owls (...

  20. Learning Curve Characteristics for Caesarean Section Among Associate Clinicians : A Prospective Study from Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalewijn, B.P.; van Duinen, A.; Koroma, A. P.; Rijken, M. J.; Elhassein, M.; Bolkan, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In response to the high maternal mortality ratio, Sierra Leone has adopted an associate clinician postgraduate surgical task-sharing training programme. Little is known about learning curve characteristics for caesarean sections among associate clinicians. The aim of this study is to

  1. Converts to human rights? Popular debate about war and justice in rural central Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archibald, S.; Richards, P.

    2002-01-01

    Internationally, war in Sierra Leone (1991-2002) is regarded as an instance of violent conflict driven by economic factors (attempts to control the mining of alluvial diamonds). Fieldwork (2000-01) in rural areas recovering from war suggests a very different picture. War victims and combatants from

  2. Management of rice seed during insurgency : a case study in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokuwa, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Technography, Oryza glaberrima, Oryza sativa, farmer hybrids, sub-optimal agriculture, farmer adaptive management, plant genetic resources, peace and extreme (wartime) conditions, local seed channels, selection for robustness, Sierra Leone, West Africa.

  3. Burn Severity and Its Impact on Soil Properties: 2016 Erskine Fire in the Southern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, S.; Guo, J.; Krugh, W. C.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfire frequency in the southern Sierra Nevada has increased over the past decades. The effects of wildfires on soils can increase the frequency of slope failure and debris flow events, which pose a greater risk to people, as human populations expand into foothill and mountainous communities of the Sierra Nevada. Alterations in the physical properties of burned soils are one such effect that can catalyze slope failure and debris flow events. Moreover, the degree of a soil's physical alteration resulting from wildfire is linked to fire intensity. The 2016 Erskine fire occurred in the southern Sierra Nevada, burning 48,019 acres, resulting in soils of unburned, low, moderate, and high burn severities. In this study, the physical properties of soils with varying degrees of burn severity are explored within the 2016 Erskine fire perimeter. The results constrain the effects of burn severity on soil's physical properties. Unburned, low, moderate, and high burn severity soil samples were collected within the Erskine fire perimeter. Alterations in soils' physical properties resulting from burn severity are explored using X-ray diffractometry analysis, liquid limit, plastic limit, and shear strength tests. Preliminary results from this study will be used to assess debris flow and slope failure hazard models within burned areas of the Kern River watershed in the southern Sierra Nevada.

  4. From Typology to Topography in Clarence King's "Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekzema, Loren

    The book "Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada" by Clarence King, a late-ninteenth-century American geologist, writer, art critic, and romantic, is discussed in this paper. In the writing and revision of this book, King was attempting a metamorphosis of landscape description into popular reading as he moved from being a symbolic writer to…

  5. Developing and managing sustainable forest ecosystems for spotted owls in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Verner; K.S. McKelvey

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the California spotted owl have revealed significant selection for habitats with large, old trees; relatively high basal areas of snags; and relatively high biomass in large, downed logs. Based on planning documents for national forests in the Sierra Nevada, we projected declining amounts of older-forest attributes. Region 5 has adopted measures to retain...

  6. La campagne pour un quota de femmes en politique en Sierra ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 nov. 2011 ... Aisha Ibrahim est directrice du Gender Research and Documentation ... Comme elles travaillaient toutes à faire avancer des causes différentes, ... et qu'il n'existe pas de discrimination à l'endroit des femmes en Sierra Leone.

  7. Empowering Women through Education: Evidence from Sierra Leone. NBER Working Paper No. 18016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Naci H.; Cannonier, Colin

    2012-01-01

    We use data from Sierra Leone where a substantial education program provided increased access to education for primary-school age children but did not benefit children who were older. We exploit the variation in access to the program generated by date of birth and the variation in resources between various districts of the country. We find that…

  8. Stratigraphy and Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic history of northern Sierra Los Ajos and adjacent areas, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Gray, Floyd; Iriondo, Alexander; Miggins, Daniel P.; Blodgett, Robert B.; Maldonado, Florian; Miller, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic mapping in the northern Sierra Los Ajos reveals new stratigraphic and structural data relevant to deciphering the Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the range. The northern Sierra Los Ajos is cored by Proterozoic, Cambrian, Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian strata, equivalent respectively to the Pinal Schist, Bolsa Quartzite and Abrigo Limestone, Martin Formation, Escabrosa Limestone, and Horquilla Limestone. The Proterozoic–Paleozoic sequence is mantled by Upper Cretaceous rocks partly equivalent to the Fort Crittenden and Salero Formations in Arizona, and the Cabullona Group in Sonora, Mexico.Absence of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Bisbee Group below the Upper Cretaceous rocks and above the Proterozoic–Paleozoic rocks indicates that the Sierra Los Ajos was part of the Cananea high, a topographic highland during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Deposition of Upper Cretaceous rocks directly on Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks indicates that the Sierra Los Ajos area had subsided as part of the Laramide Cabullona basin during Late Cretaceous time. Basal beds of the Upper Cretaceous sequence are clast-supported conglomerate composed locally of basement (Paleozoic) clasts. The conglomerate represents erosion of Paleozoic basement in the Sierra Los Ajos area coincident with development of the Cabullona basin.The present-day Sierra Los Ajos reaches elevations of greater than 2600 m, and was uplifted during Tertiary basin-and-range extension. Upper Cretaceous rocks are exposed at higher elevations in the northern Sierra Los Ajos and represent an uplifted part of the inverted Cabullona basin. Tertiary uplift of the Sierra Los Ajos was largely accommodated by vertical movement along the north-to-northwest-striking Sierra Los Ajos fault zone flanking the west side of the range. This fault zone structurally controls the configuration of the headwaters of the San Pedro River basin, an important bi-national water resource in the US

  9. Scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone: A prospective cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Sarah; Begum, Hashina; Friedman, Howard S; James, Chris D

    2017-12-01

    Family planning is commonly regarded as a highly cost-effective health intervention with wider social and economic benefits. Yet use of family planning services in Sierra Leone is currently low and 25.0% of married women have an unmet need for contraception. This study aims to estimate the costs and benefits of scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone. Using the OneHealth Tool, two scenarios of scaling up family planning coverage to currently married women in Sierra Leone over 2013-2035 were assessed and compared to a 'no-change' counterfactual. Our costing included direct costs of drugs, supplies and personnel time, programme costs and a share of health facility overhead costs. To monetise the benefits, we projected the cost savings of the government providing five essential social services - primary education, child immunisation, malaria prevention, maternal health services and improved drinking water - in the scale-up scenarios compared to the counterfactual. The total population, estimated at 6.1 million in 2013, is projected to reach 8.3 million by 2035 in the high scenario compared to a counterfactual of 9.6 million. We estimate that by 2035, there will be 1400 fewer maternal deaths and 700 fewer infant deaths in the high scenario compared to the counterfactual. Our modelling suggests that total costs of the family planning programme in Sierra Leone will increase from US$4.2 million in 2013 to US$10.6 million a year by 2035 in the high scenario. For every dollar spent on family planning, Sierra Leone is estimated to save US$2.10 in expenditure on the five selected social sector services over the period. There is a strong investment case for scaling up family planning services in Sierra Leone. The ambitious scale-up scenarios have historical precedent in other sub-Saharan African countries, but the extent to which they will be achieved depends on a commitment from both the government and donors to strengthening Sierra Leone's health system post-Ebola.

  10. Fumarole/plume and diffuse CO2 emission from Sierra Negra volcano, Galapagos archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padron, E.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Perez, N.; Theofilos, T.; Melian, G.; Barrancos, J.; Virgil, G.; Sumino, H.; Notsu, K.

    2009-12-01

    The active shield-volcano Sierra Negra is part of the Galapagos hotspot. Sierra Negra is the largest shield volcano of Isabela Island, hosting a 10 km diameter caldera. Ten historic eruptions have occurred and some involved a frequently visited east caldera rim fissure zone called Volcan Chico. The last volcanic event occurred in October 2005 and lasted for about a week, covering approximately twenty percent of the eastern caldera floor. Sierra Negra volcano has experienced some significant changes in the chemical composition of its volcanic gas discharges after the 2005 eruption. This volcanic event produced an important SO2 degassing that depleted the magmatic content of this gas. Not significant changes in the MORB and plume-type helium contribution were observed after the 2005 eruption, with a 65.5 % of MORB and 35.5 % of plume contribution. In 2006 a visible and diffuse gas emission study was performed at the summit of Sierra Negra volcano, Galapagos, to evaluate degassing rate from this volcanic system. Diffuse degassing at Sierra Negra was mainly confined in three different DDS: Volcan Chico, the southern inner margin of the caldera, and Mina Azufral. These areas showed also visible degassing, which indicates highly fractured areas where volcano-hydrothermal fluids migrate towards surface. A total fumarole/plume SO2 emission of 11 ± 2 td-1 was calculated by mini-DOAS ground-based measurements at Mina Azufral fumarolic area. Molar ratios of major volcanic gas components were also measured in-situ at Mina Azufral with a portable multisensor. The results showed H2S/SO2, CO2/SO2 and H2O/SO2 molar ratios of 0.41, 52.2 and 867.9, respectively. Multiplying the observed SO2 emission rate times the observed (gas)i/SO2 mass ratio we have estimated other volatiles emission rates. The results showed that H2O, CO2 and H2S emission rates from Sierra Negra are 562, 394, and 2.4 t d-1, respectively. The estimated total output of diffuse CO2 emission from the summit of

  11. Active basement uplift as seen with cosmogenic lenses: the Sierra Pie de Palo case (Western Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siame, L. L.; Sébrier, M.; Costa, C. H.; Ahumada, E. A.; Bellier, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Andean foreland of western Argentina (28°S-33°S) corresponds to retroarc deformations associated with the ongoing flat subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American lithosphere, and associated with high levels of seismic activity and crustal active faulting. To improve earthquake source identification and characterization in the San Juan region, data from seismology, structural geology and quantitative geomorphology can be integrated and combined to provide a seismotectonic model. In this model, the Andean back-arc of western Argentina has to be regarded as an obliquely converging foreland where Plio-Quaternary deformations are partitioned between strike-slip and thrust motions that are localized on the E-verging, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera, and the W-verging thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas, respectively. In this domain, the Sierra Pie de Palo is a key structure playing a major role in the partitioning of the Plio-Quaternary deformations. Located in the westernmost Sierras Pampeanas, the Sierra Pie de Palo forms a NNE striking, 80 km-long and 35-40 km-wide, ellipsoid range that reaches elevation as high as 3162 m. This mountain range is an actively growing basement fold associated with a high level of seismic activity (e.g., the November 23, 1977, Caucete, Mw 7.4 earthquake). To evaluate the degree of tectonic activity around the Sierra Pie de Palo, we combined a detailed morphometric analysis of the topography together with in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations measured in (1) bedrock outcrops corresponding to the exhumed erosional regional surface, (2) surface boulders abandoned on alluvial fans deformed by active faults, and (3) in fluvial sediments sampled at the outlets of selected watersheds that drains out from the Sierra Pie de Palo. All together, our results allows: (1) assessing quantitative constraints on the rate of tectonic and denudation processes that are responsible for the active growth and erosion of the Sierra

  12. Population dynamics of spotted owls in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakesley, J.A.; Seamans, M.E.; Conner, M.M.; Franklin, A.B.; White, Gary C.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Munton, T.E.; Shaw, D.W.H.; Keane, J.J.; Steger, G.N.; McDonald, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    The California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) is the only spotted owl subspecies not listed as threatened or endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act despite petitions to list it as threatened. We conducted a meta-analysis of population data for 4 populations in the southern Cascades and Sierra Nevada, California, USA, from 1990 to 2005 to assist a listing evaluation by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Our study areas (from N to S) were on the Lassen National Forest (LAS), Eldorado National Forest (ELD), Sierra National Forest (SIE), and Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SKC). These study areas represented a broad spectrum of habitat and management conditions in these mountain ranges. We estimated apparent survival probability, reproductive output, and rate of population change for spotted owls on individual study areas and for all study areas combined (meta-analysis) using model selection or model-averaging based on maximum-likelihood estimation. We followed a formal protocol to conduct this analysis that was similar to other spotted owl meta-analyses. Consistency of field and analytical methods among our studies reduced confounding methodological effects when evaluating results. We used 991 marked spotted owls in the analysis of apparent survival. Apparent survival probability was higher for adult than for subadult owls. There was little difference in apparent survival between male and female owls. Model-averaged mean estimates of apparent survival probability of adult owls varied from 0.811 ?? 0.021 for females at LAS to 0.890 ?? 0.016 for males at SKC. Apparent survival increased over time for owls of all age classes at LAS and SIE, for adults at ELD, and for second-year subadults and adults at SKC. The meta-analysis of apparent survival, which included only adult owls, confirmed an increasing trend in survival over time. Survival rates were higher for owls on SKC than on the other study areas. We analyzed data

  13. Status of fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, J.

    2005-01-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  14. 77 FR 66361 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... (Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions) published in the Federal Register on April 12, 2012. The... simplifications related to the administration of reserve requirements: 1. Create a common two-week maintenance...

  15. Herpetofauna inside and outside from a natural protected area: the case of Reserva Estatal de la Biósfera Sierra San Juan, Nayarit, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. Luja

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural Protected Areas (NPAs includes important species richness, and it is assumed that these are the best areas for biodiversity conservation. There are certain doubts, however, about the effectiveness of the NPAs in developing countries, where economic resources for conservation are scarce and NPAs are not monitored and managed efficiently. In the present study we assessed the species richness, diversity, abundance, and functional guilds of amphibians and reptiles inside and outside of the NPA Reserva Estatal de la Biósfera Sierra San Juan (REBSSJ, Nayarit, Mexico. Our results showed that species numbers of amphibian and reptiles were higher outside than inside the reserve, as well the individual number distributed among species, except for lizard species. Analyses of functional guilds showed that both richness and functional dispersion were greater in amphibians and reptiles outside the reserve. Likewise, outside the reserve we recorded a higher species number with some category of risk at the national level (NOM-059, international level (IUCN, and also by using the Environmental Vulnerability Score (EVS algorithm. The results suggest that areas outside of the reserve are crucial to the maintenance of regional biodiversity, due to high complementarity with species composition inside of the reserves. These data can be used to implement conservation measures that include a new demarcation of the reserve and the consideration of surrounding areas to include a great number of species.

  16. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  17. Quality improvement in emergency service delivery: Assessment of knowledge and skills amongst emergency nurses at Connaught Hospital, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedda Bøe Nyhus

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study has identified key aspects of emergency nursing speciality training to be developed through theoretical and skill-based education provided by the nursing schools and hospital clinical facilities in Sierra Leone.

  18. Order of 13 December 1985 on the transfer to ENRESA of the Radioactive Waste Management Facility at Sierra Albarrana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Order provides for the transfer of the Radioactive Waste Management Facility at Sierra Albarrana from the Junta de Energia Nuclear to ENRESA, the National Enterprise for Radioactive Waste; it also organises all stages of the transfer. (NEA) [fr

  19. The bony labyrinth of the middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    We performed 3D virtual reconstructions based on CT scans to study the bony labyrinth morphology in 14 individuals from the large middle Pleistocene hominin sample from the site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins represent early members of the Neandertal clade and provide an opportunity to compare the data with the later in time Neandertals, as well as Pleistocene and recent humans more broadly. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins do not differ from the Neandertals in any of the variables related to the absolute and relative sizes and shape of the semicircular canals. Indeed, the entire Neandertal clade seems to be characterized by a derived pattern of canal proportions, including a relatively small posterior canal and a relatively large lateral canal. In contrast, one of the most distinctive features observed in Neandertals, the low placement of the posterior canal (i.e., high sagittal labyrinthine index), is generally not present in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins. This low placement is considered a derived feature in Neandertals and is correlated with a more vertical orientation of the ampullar line (LSCm  PPp), and third part of the facial canal (LSCm < FC3). Some variation is present within the Atapuerca (SH) sample, however, with a few individuals approaching the Neandertal condition more closely. In addition, the cochlear shape index in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins is low, indicating a reduction in the height of the cochlea. Although the phylogenetic polarity of this feature is less clear, the low shape index in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins may be a derived feature. Regardless, cochlear height subsequently increased in Neandertals. In contrast to previous suggestions, the expanded data in the present study indicate no difference across the genus Homo in the angle of inclination of the cochlear basal turn (COs < LSCm). Principal components analysis largely confirms these observations. While not

  20. Demography of the California spotted owl in the Sierra National Forest and Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    George N. Steger; Thomas E. Munton; Kenneth D. Johnson; Gary P. Eberlein

    2002-01-01

    Nine years (1990–1998) of demographic data on California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) in two study areas on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada—one in the Sierra National Forest (SNF), the other in Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks (SNP)—are summarized. Numbers of territorial owls fluctuated from 85 to 50 in SNF and 80 to 58...

  1. Preliminary assessment of the moth (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) fauna of Rincon de Guadalupe, Sierra de Bacadehuachi, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Palting

    2013-01-01

    The Sierra de Bacadéhuachi is a poorly sampled extension of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) located in east-central Sonora near the town of Bacadéhuachi. Sampling of moths using mercury vapor and ultraviolet lights occurred in summer and fall 2011, and spring 2012 at Rincón de Guadalupe, located in pine-oak forest at 1680 m elevation. Approximately 400 taxa of moths...

  2. Human calcanei from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Carlos; Sala, Nohemi; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2014-11-01

    The existence of calcanei in the fossil record prior to modern humans and Neandertals is very scarce. This skeletal element is fundamental to understanding the evolution of the morphology of the foot in human evolution. Here we present and metrically and comparatively describe 29 calcaneus remains from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (SH) (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). These calcanei belong to 15 individuals (nine adults, two adolescents and four immature individuals). The metric and morphological differences in the calcanei among Middle and Late Pleistocene hominins tend to be subtle. However, the calcanei from SH are broad and robust with large articular surfaces and most significantly, exhibit a very projected sustentaculum tali. A biomechanical and phylogenetic interpretation is proffered to explain the observed morphology of these calcanei. It has been possible to propose tentative sex assignments for the SH calcanei based on size, using methods similar to those used to establish sex from the talus bones from SH. The estimation of stature based on the calcaneus provides a mean of 175.3 cm for males and 160.6 for females, which is similar to that obtained using other skeletal parts from the site. In sum, the SH calcanei are robust with a proportionally long tubercle and a projected sustentaculum tali, which are traits shared by Neandertals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human talus bones from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Carlos; Gracia, Ana; Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2013-07-01

    Here we present and describe comparatively 25 talus bones from the Middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). These tali belong to 14 individuals (11 adult and three immature). Although variation among Middle and Late Pleistocene tali tends to be subtle, this study has identified unique morphological characteristics of the SH tali. They are vertically shorter than those of Late Pleistocene Homo sapiens, and show a shorter head and a broader lateral malleolar facet than all of the samples. Moreover, a few shared characters with Neanderthals are consistent with the hypothesis that the SH population and Neanderthals are sister groups. These shared characters are a broad lateral malleolar facet, a trochlear height intermediate between modern humans and Late Pleistocene H. sapiens, and a short middle calcaneal facet. It has been possible to propose sex assignment for the SH tali based on their size. Stature estimates based on these fossils give a mean stature of 174.4 cm for males and 161.9 cm for females, similar to that obtained based on the long bones from this same site. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Pleistocene human hand phalanx from the Sima del Elefante (TE) cave site in Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carlos; Pablos, Adrián; Carretero, José Miguel; Huguet, Rosa; Valverdú, Josep; Martinón-Torres, María; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carbonell, Eudald; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new Early Pleistocene proximal hand phalanx (ATE9-2) from the Sima del Elefante cave site (TE - Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain), ascribed to Homo sp., is presented and comparatively described in the context of the evolution of the genus Homo. The ATE9-2 specimen is especially important because of the paucity of hand bones in the human fossil record during the Early Pleistocene. The morphological and metrical analyses of the phalanx ATE9-2 indicate that there are no essential differences between it and comparator fossil specimens for the genus Homo after 1.3 Ma (millions of years ago). Similar to Sima de los Huesos and Neandertal specimens, ATE9-2 is a robust proximal hand phalanx, probably reflecting greater overall body robusticity in these populations or a higher gracility in modern humans. The age of level TE9 from Sima del Elefante and morphological and metrical studies of ATE9-2 suggest that the morphology of the proximal hand phalanges and, thus, the morphology of the hand could have remained stable over the last 1.2-1.3 Ma. Taking into account the evidence recently provided by a metacarpal from Kaitio (Kenya) from around 1.42 Ma, we argue that modern hand morphology is present in the genus Homo subsequent to Homo habilis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Resolving the Conflict Between Ecosystem Protection and Land Use in Protected Areas of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina-Villar, Sergio; Plascencia-Vargas, Héctor; Vaca, Raúl; Schroth, Götz; Zepeda, Yatziri; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Nahed-Toral, José

    2012-03-01

    Livelihoods of people living in many protected areas (PAs) around the world are in conflict with biodiversity conservation. In Mexico, the decrees of creation of biosphere reserves state that rural communities with the right to use buffer zones must avoid deforestation and their land uses must become sustainable, a task which is not easily accomplished. The objectives of this paper are: (a) to analyze the conflict between people's livelihoods and ecosystem protection in the PAs of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (SMC), paying special attention to the rates and causes of deforestation and (b) to review policy options to ensure forest and ecosystem conservation in these PAs, including the existing payments for environmental services system and improvements thereof as well as options for sustainable land management. We found that the three largest PAs in the SMC are still largely forested, and deforestation rates have decreased since 2000. Cases of forest conversion are located in specific zones and are related to agrarian and political conflicts as well as growing economic inequality and population numbers. These problems could cause an increase in forest loss in the near future. Payments for environmental services and access to carbon markets are identified as options to ensure forest permanence but still face problems. Challenges for the future are to integrate these incentive mechanisms with sustainable land management and a stronger involvement of land holders in conservation.

  6. Baseline health conditions in selected communities of northern Sierra Leone as revealed by the health impact assessment of a biofuel project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Mirko S; Knoblauch, Astrid M; Righetti, Aurélie A; Divall, Mark J; Koroma, Manso M; Fofanah, Ibrahim; Turay, Hamid; Hodges, Mary H; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-09-01

    As biofuel projects may be associated with positive and negative effects on people's health and wellbeing, a health impact assessment was performed for the Addax Bioenergy Sierra Leone (ABSL) project. We present data from the baseline health survey, which will provide a point of departure for future monitoring and evaluation activities. In December 2010, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in eight potentially affected communities. A broad set of clinical and parasitological indicators were assessed using standardised, quality-controlled procedures, including anthropometry and prevalence of anaemia, Plasmodium falciparum and helminth infections. Complete datasets were obtained from 1221 individuals of 194 households and eight schools. Of children aged biofuel project impacts on community health in a rural setting in sub-Saharan Africa. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Landsat-Derived Estimates of Mangrove Extents in the Sierra Leone Coastal Landscape Complex during 1990-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Pinki; Trzaska, Sylwia; de Sherbinin, Alex

    2017-12-21

    This study provides the first assessment of decadal changes in mangrove extents in Sierra Leone. While significant advances have been made in mangrove mapping using remote sensing, no study has documented long-term changes in mangrove extents in Sierra Leone-one of the most vulnerable countries in West Africa. Such understanding is critical for devising regional management strategies that can support local livelihoods. We utilize multi-date Landsat data and cloud computational techniques to quantify spatiotemporal changes in land cover, with focus on mangrove ecosystems, for 1990-2016 along the coast of Sierra Leone. We specifically focus on four estuaries-Scarcies, Sierra Leone, Yawri Bay, and Sherbro. We relied on the k-means approach for an unsupervised classification, and validated the classified map from 2016 using ground truth data collected from Sentinel-2 and high-resolution images and during field research (accuracy: 95%). Our findings indicate that the Scarcies river estuary witnessed the greatest mangrove loss since 1990 (45%), while the Sierra Leone river estuary experienced mangrove gain over the last 26 years (22%). Overall, the Sierra Leone coast lost 25% of its mangroves between 1990 and 2016, with the lowest coverage in 2000, during the period of civil war (1991-2002). However, natural mangrove dynamics, as supported by field observations, indicate the potential for regeneration and sustainability under carefully constructed management strategies.

  8. Evaluating potential overlap between pack stock and Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae) in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Robert C.; Few, Alexandra P.; Knox, Kathleen A.; Hatfield, Brian E.; Clark, Jonathan; German, David W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Pack stock (horses, mules, burros, llamas, and goats) are frequently assumed to have negative effects on public lands, but there is a general lack of data to be able to quantify the degree to which this is actually the case. Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks have received complaints that pack stock may affect Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae; SNBS), a federally endangered subspecies that occurs in largely disjunct herds in the Sierra Nevada Range of California. The potential effects are thought to be displacement of SNBS from meadows on their summer range (altered habitat use) or, more indirectly, through changes in SNBS habitat or forage quality. Our goals were to conduct an association analysis to quantify the degree of potential spatial overlap in meadow use between SNBS and pack stock and to compare differences in vegetation community composition, structure, and diversity among meadows with different levels of use by bighorn sheep and pack stock. For the association analysis, we used two approaches: (1) we quantified the proportion of meadows that were within the herd home ranges of bighorn sheep and were potentially open to pack stock, and, (2) we used Monte Carlo simulations and use-availability analyses to compare the proportion of meadows used by bighorn sheep relative to the proportional occurrence or area of meadows available to bighorn sheep that were used by pack stock. To evaluate potential effects of pack stock on meadow plant communities and SNBS forage, we sampled vegetation in 2011 and 2012 at 100 plots to generate data that allowed us to compare:

  9. Long-lived Control of Sierras Pampeanas Ranges on Andean Foreland Basin Evolution Revealed by Coupled Low-temperature Thermochronology and Sedimentology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens Goddard, A.; Carrapa, B.; Larrovere, M.; Aciar, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Sierras Pampeanas ranges of west-central Argentina (28º- 31ºS) are a classic example of thick-skinned style basement block uplifts. The style and timing of uplift in these mountain ranges has widely been attributed to the onset of flat-slab subduction in the middle to late Miocene. However, the majority of low-temperature thermochronometers in the Sierras Pampeanas have much older cooling dates. Thermal modeling derived from new low-temperature thermochronometers in Sierra de Velasco, one of the highest relief (> 4 km) mountains in the Sierras Pampeanas, suggest that the rocks in these ranges have been at near-surface temperatures (history of long-lived topography illustrated in Sierra de Velasco can be expanded to other ranges in the Sierras Pampeanas by integrating multiple data sets.

  10. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. DATACIONES ARQUEOMAGNÉTICAS EN LA CIUDADELA DE TEOTIHUACAN, SIERRA DE LAS NAVAJAS Y XALASCO (Archaeomagnetic Datings in the Citadel of Teotihuacan, Sierra de las Navajas, and Xalasco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Gabriel Terán Guerrero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El control cronoestratigráfico es fundamental para el desarrollo del trabajo arqueológico, por ello el arqueomagnetismo se ha constituido como una gran herramienta para las dataciones. En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de dataciones arqueomagnéticas mediante la determinación de la dirección de magnetización de pisos de estuco de tres sitios de la cultura teotihuacana: Ciudadela de Teotihuacan, Sierra de las Navajas y Xalasco, Tlaxcala. Esta cultura se desarrolló en el centro de México a partir del año 1 d. C., teniendo su mayor esplendor durante los siglos IV al VI d. C. Tres etapas constructivas fueron muestreadas en la ciudadela de Teotihuacan: la preciudadela, la pirámide de Quetzalcóatl y la pirámide adosada. La Sierra de las Navajas en Hidalgo, a 50 km de Teotihuacan, era su principal proveedor de obsidiana, por lo que es de interés conocer sus periodos de ocupación. El motivo del análisis de los pisos de Xalasco, Tlaxcala, sitio de la cultura teotihuacana, es por encontrarse en la ruta de comunicación con la zona del Golfo de México. Utilizando la metodología y el programa de Pavón-Carrasco et al. (2014 se infieren intervalos de tiempo que nos permiten comprender la dinámica ocupacional de estos sitios. ENGLISH: The chronostratigraphic control is fundamental during any archaeological survey. Recent studies over the Americas showed that archaeomagnetism emerges as a great tool for absolute dating purposes. In this paper, we report new archaeomagnetic datings obtained from stucco floors belonging to three sites of Teotihuacan: the Citadel of Teotihuacan, Sierra de las Navajas and Xalasco, Tlaxcala. This culture developed in central Mexico from AD 1, having its greatest splendor during the 4th to 6th centuries AD. Three construction phases were sampled in the citadel of Teotihuacan: the pre-Citadel, the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl and the terraced pyramid. The Sierra de la Navajas in Hidalgo, located 50 km from

  12. Reserves Represented by Random Walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipe, J A; Ferreira, M A M; Andrade, M

    2012-01-01

    The reserves problem is studied through models based on Random Walks. Random walks are a classical particular case in the analysis of stochastic processes. They do not appear only to study reserves evolution models. They are also used to build more complex systems and as analysis instruments, in a theoretical feature, of other kind of systems. In this work by studying the reserves, the main objective is to see and guarantee that pensions funds get sustainable. Being the use of these models considering this goal a classical approach in the study of pensions funds, this work concluded about the problematic of reserves. A concrete example is presented.

  13. Climate controls on forest productivity along the climate gradient of the western Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A. E.; Goulden, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The broad climate gradient of the slopes of the western Sierra Nevada mountains supports ecosystems spanning extremes of productivity, biomass, and function. We are using this natural environmental gradient to understand how climate controls NPP, aboveground biomass, species' range limits, and phenology. Our experimental approach combines eddy covariance, sap flow, dendrometer, and litterfall measurements in combination with soil and hydrological data from the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO). We have found that above about 2500 m, forest productivity is limited by winter cold, while below 1200 m, productivity is likely limited by summer drought. The sweet spot between these elevations has a nearly year-long growing season despite a snowpack that persists for as long as six months. Our results show that small differences in temperature can markedly alter the water balance and productivity of mixed conifer forests.

  14. Structure of Sierra Blanca (Alpujarride Complex, west of the Betic Cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreo, B.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Sierra Blanca, situated in the SW of Málaga, forms part of the Blanca unit, belonging to the Alpujarride Complex of the Betic Cordillera. Its lithologic sequences are made up of a group of migmatites, gneisses and schists and an upper formation of marbles (white dolomitic and the bottom and blue calcareous towards the top, linked with a transitional contact. The structure of Sierra Blanca is comprised of folds, generally isoclinal, with reversed limbs and with important tectonic transpositions, the direction of which is approximately E-W in the eastern area and N-S and E-W in the West. In both areas the folds present opposing vergences, consistently towards the interior of the sierra. The origin of these structures is explained with a model of westerly movements of the Blanca unit, in relation to the Los Reales unit, with the formation of frontal and lateral folds. In its advancement, the western part of Sierra Blanca underwent an important anti-clockwise rotation responsible for the co-existence of folds in N-S and E-W directions. These structures occurred under ductile conditions, owing to the presence of important overthrusting peridotitic masses of the Los Reales unit. This model of westerly displacement is inserted in the process undergone by the Betic-Rif Internal Zones (with Blanca and Los Reales units included which occurred at the end of the Oligocene-Early Miocene when the Gibraltar arch began to be formed.Sierra Blanca, situada al SW de Málaga, forma parte de la unidad de Blanca que pertenece al complejo Alpujárride de la Cordillera Bética. Su secuencia litológica está compuesta por un conjunto inferior de migmatitas, gneises y esquistos, y por una formación superior de mármoles, blancos dolomíticos en la base y mármoles calizos azules hacia la parte superior, entre los que existe un tránsito gradual. La estructura de Sierra Blanca está formada por pliegues, generalmente isoclinales, con flancos invertidos que muestran

  15. Innovation diffusion and development in a Third World setting: the cooperative movement in Sierra Leone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.A. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus); Schneider, R.; Harvey, M.E.; Riddell, J.B.

    1979-09-01

    The interface between innovation diffusion and economic development and social change in Third World settings is investigated. The paper first presents a conceptual framework linking diffusion processes and development and then exemplifies a portion of that framework by examining the diffusion of agricultural cooperatives in Sierra Leone from 1948 through 1967. Attention is then turned to elements of the historical development of a cooperative movement in Sierra Leone which are important for understanding the processes underlying that diffusion. The temporal and spatial patterns of diffusion are discussed and the statistical analyses that assess (1) which variables provide a basis for distinguishing political units with cooperatives from those without, and (2) which variables account for the differences in the time at which cooperatives were established are examined. The findings are integrated with the theory presented. 41 references.

  16. Thymus × pseudogranatensis (Labiatae, nuevo híbrido para Sierra Nevada (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorite, Juan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, a new spontaneous hybrid of Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis and Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, collected in the dolomitic areas of Sierra Nevada (SE Spain, is described. Morphological characters of the new nothospecies are analysed and its distribution and ecology are discussed.Se describe Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, un nuevo híbrido entre Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis y Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, colectado en la orla dolomítica de Sierra Nevada (SE de España. Se analizan los caracteres morfológicos de la nueva notoespecie y se aportan detalles sobre su hábitat y distribución.

  17. Late Quaternary offset of alluvial fan surfaces along the Central Sierra Madre Fault, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgette, Reed J.; Hanson, Austin; Scharer, Katherine M.; Midttun, Nikolas

    2016-01-01

    The Sierra Madre Fault is a reverse fault system along the southern flank of the San Gabriel Mountains near Los Angeles, California. This study focuses on the Central Sierra Madre Fault (CSMF) in an effort to provide numeric dating on surfaces with ages previously estimated from soil development alone. We have refined previous geomorphic mapping conducted in the western portion of the CSMF near Pasadena, CA, with the aid of new lidar data. This progress report focuses on our geochronology strategy employed in collecting samples and interpreting data to determine a robust suite of terrace surface ages. Sample sites for terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide and luminescence dating techniques were selected to be redundant and to be validated through relative geomorphic relationships between inset terrace levels. Additional sample sites were selected to evaluate the post-abandonment histories of terrace surfaces. We will combine lidar-derived displacement data with surface ages to estimate slip rates for the CSMF.

  18. Geology and petrography of the Socoscora Sierra . Province of San Luis. Republica Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carugno Duran, A.

    1998-01-01

    The following paper include an study geological and petrographic of the Sierra de Socoscora. San Luis, Argentina. This mountainas is a block with less elevation that the Sierra de San Luis, and it located in the west center of it. It' s formed by an crystalline basement composed by metamorphic haigh grade rocks, with a penetrative foliation of strike N-S. in this context is possible to define petrographicly the following units, migmatitic that fill a big part of the mountain, amphibolites, marbles, skarns, milonites and pegmatites. This units have amphibolitic facies assemblanges mineral and in some them, we can observe retrograde metamorphism of the greesnschist facies. The metamorphic structure is complex and evidence at least three deformation event

  19. Crop-Specific EU Aid and Smallholder Food Security in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Saravia-Matus

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the viability of promoting crop-specific programs as a mean to improve smallholder net farm income and food security. The case study explores the relevance of European Union Stabilisation of Export Earnings (STABEX funds in supporting Sierra Leone’s agricultural development agenda. By analysing the drivers of food security for a number of targeted smallholders in the two most important agricultural zones of Sierra Leone, it is possible to compare the suitability of crop-specific support (in rice, cocoa and coffee versus general aid programs (public infrastructure, on and off farm diversification opportunities, sustainable practices, access to productive assets, etc.. The results indicate that crop diversification strategies are widespread and closely related to risk minimisation and enhanced food security among smallholders. Similarly, crop-specific programs mainly focusing on commercialisation tend to overlook important constraints associated to self-consumption and productivity.

  20. Anfibios de las Sierras Pampeanas Centrales de Argentina: diversidad y distribución altitudinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián N. Lescano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians from Sierras Pampeanas Centrales of Argentina: diversity and altitudinal distribution. Sierras Pampeanas Centrales (SPC mountains are located in Córdoba and San Luis provinces (Argentina and represent an area of unique biogeographic importance. In this paper we provide a synthesis about the knowledge of diversity and altitudinal distribution of anurans that inhabit SPC mountains. We compiled a species list through different information sources (field data, biological collections and bibliography. Using this information we characterize altitudinal distribution range of each species and analyze associations between species richness and composition and altitude gradient. We recorded 24 amphibians species belonging to five families. These species are heterogeneously distributed over the altitude gradient of SPC. We detect a linear negative relationship between altitude and species richness and defined assemblages associated with different altitude sectors. The results obtained in the paper represent basic information that will be useful to evaluate anthropogenic impact on this particular and fragile mountain system.

  1. GPS Imaging of vertical land motion in California and Nevada: Implications for Sierra Nevada uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey; Kreemer, Corné

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We introduce Global Positioning System (GPS) Imaging, a new technique for robust estimation of the vertical velocity field of the Earth's surface, and apply it to the Sierra Nevada Mountain range in the western United States. Starting with vertical position time series from Global Positioning System (GPS) stations, we first estimate vertical velocities using the MIDAS robust trend estimator, which is insensitive to undocumented steps, outliers, seasonality, and heteroscedasticity. Using the Delaunay triangulation of station locations, we then apply a weighted median spatial filter to remove velocity outliers and enhance signals common to multiple stations. Finally, we interpolate the data using weighted median estimation on a grid. The resulting velocity field is temporally and spatially robust and edges in the field remain sharp. Results from data spanning 5–20 years show that the Sierra Nevada is the most rapid and extensive uplift feature in the western United States, rising up to 2 mm/yr along most of the range. The uplift is juxtaposed against domains of subsidence attributable to groundwater withdrawal in California's Central Valley. The uplift boundary is consistently stationary, although uplift is faster over the 2011–2016 period of drought. Uplift patterns are consistent with groundwater extraction and concomitant elastic bedrock uplift, plus slower background tectonic uplift. A discontinuity in the velocity field across the southeastern edge of the Sierra Nevada reveals a contrast in lithospheric strength, suggesting a relationship between late Cenozoic uplift of the southern Sierra Nevada and evolution of the southern Walker Lane. PMID:27917328

  2. Measuring work engagement among community health workers in Sierra Leone: Validating the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Vallières, Frédérique; McAuliffe, Eilish; Hyland, Philip; Galligan, Marie; Ghee, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the concept of volunteer work engagement in a sample of 334 community health workers in Bonthe District, Sierra Leone. Structural equation modelling was used to validate both the 9-item and the 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9 and UWES-17, respectively). Results assessing the UWES-17 invalidated the three-factor structure within this cohort of community health workers, as high correlations were found between latent factors. Findings for the validity of the UWE...

  3. Evaluating the PV potential of Miraflores de la Sierra (Madrid) via geographic information technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín Ávila, A.M.; Domínguez Bravo, J.; Amador Guerra, J.

    2016-01-01

    The study of the PV potential in Miraflores de la Sierra forms part of the development of strategies to promote renewables-based distributed generation. The importance of residents and their urban environment in the change of energy model is taking on a new role, as both consumer and energy producer. Facilitating this transition towards a new model, demonstrating the huge possibilities of this new agent, is one of the basic objectives of this article. (Author)

  4. Hydrologic response and watershed sensitivity to climate warming in California's Sierra Nevada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Null

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the differential hydrologic response of individual watersheds to climate warming within the Sierra Nevada mountain region of California. We describe climate warming models for 15 west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds in California under unimpaired conditions using WEAP21, a weekly one-dimensional rainfall-runoff model. Incremental climate warming alternatives increase air temperature uniformly by 2 degrees, 4 degrees, and 6 degrees C, but leave other climatic variables unchanged from observed values. Results are analyzed for changes in mean annual flow, peak runoff timing, and duration of low flow conditions to highlight which watersheds are most resilient to climate warming within a region, and how individual watersheds may be affected by changes to runoff quantity and timing. Results are compared with current water resources development and ecosystem services in each watershed to gain insight into how regional climate warming may affect water supply, hydropower generation, and montane ecosystems. Overall, watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada are most vulnerable to decreased mean annual flow, southern-central watersheds are most susceptible to runoff timing changes, and the central portion of the range is most affected by longer periods with low flow conditions. Modeling results suggest the American and Mokelumne Rivers are most vulnerable to all three metrics, and the Kern River is the most resilient, in part from the high elevations of the watershed. Our research seeks to bridge information gaps between climate change modeling and regional management planning, helping to incorporate climate change into the development of regional adaptation strategies for Sierra Nevada watersheds.

  5. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Jesús Pérez-Luque; Cristina Patricia Sánchez-Rojas; Regino Zamora; Ramón Pérez-Pérez; Francisco Javier Bonet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems...

  6. Searching pristine source of two gabbric plutons outcroping in Central Sierras Pampeanas Range, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daziano, C.; Ayala, R.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the study of two gabbric plutons outcrop ing throughout Central Sierras Pampeanas range (Cordoba province, Argentina). San Lorenzo hill gabbric plutons is in the Upper proterozoic age whereas Cañada del Puerto belongs to the Early proterozoic.They are stock-type igneous bodies and they are intrusive s in an Upper Precambrian crystalline basement; it is mainly composed by gneisses, migmatites, schistes, marbles, amphibolite s, tact's, serpentinites and related rocks

  7. Correlations and Areal Distribution of the Table Mountain Formation, Stanislaus Group; Central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrez, G.; Carlson, C. W.; Putirka, K. D.; Pluhar, C. J.; Sharma, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Late Cenozoic evolution of the western Cordillera is a matter of ongoing debate in geologic studies. Volcanic deposits within, and adjacent to the Sierra Nevada have played a significant role in many of these debates. With local faulting coincident with eruption of members of the Stanislaus Group at ca. 38°N, the composition and correlation of these volcanics can greatly aid our understanding of Sierra Nevada tectonics. At the crest of the central Sierra Nevada, 23 trachyandesite lava flows of the Table Mountain Formation, dated at ~10 Ma, cap Sonora Peak. These 23 flows compose the thickest and most complete known stratigraphic section of the Table Mountain Formation in the region. Located ~12 km east of Sonora Peak are 16 flows of trachyandesite at Grouse Meadow. We have collected a detailed set of geochemical and paleomagnetic data for flows of these two sections at Sonora Peak and Grouse Meadows in an attempt to correlate volcanic, paleomagnetic and structural events related to uplift and extension in the Sierra Nevada and the Walker Lane. Correlation of individual flows is possible based on: stratigraphic order, temporal gaps in deposition as determined by paleomagnetic remanence direction and nonconformities, and flow geochemistry. These correlations allow us to infer source localities, flow directions, and temporal changes in flow routes. The large number of flows present at Grouse Meadow provides an additional data set from which to correlate various localities in the region to those units not represented at Sonora Peak. Several flows which occur in the upper portions of the Sonora Peak and Grouse Meadow stratigraphic sections do not correlate between these localities. The causes of stratigraphic discontinuity potentially represent: tectonic isolation across the Sierran Crest, topographic isolation by the emplacement of younger flows, or the combination of the two. Additional to the correlation of individual flows at these localities, this study shows a

  8. Inversion for Eigenvalues and Modes Using Sierra-SD and ROL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aquino, Wilkins [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ridzal, Denis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kouri, Drew Philip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In this report we formulate eigenvalue-based methods for model calibration using a PDE-constrained optimization framework. We derive the abstract optimization operators from first principles and implement these methods using Sierra-SD and the Rapid Optimization Library (ROL). To demon- strate this approach, we use experimental measurements and an inverse solution to compute the joint and elastic foam properties of a low-fidelity unit (LFU) model.

  9. Distance, accessibility and costs. Decision-making during childbirth in rural Sierra Leone: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Treacy

    Full Text Available Sierra Leone has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world. Efforts to reduce maternal mortality have included initiatives to encourage more women to deliver at health facilities. Despite the introduction of the free health care initiative for pregnant women, many women still continue to deliver at home, with few having access to a skilled birth attendant. In addition, inequalities between rural and urban areas in accessing and utilising health facilities persist. Further insight into how and why women make decisions around childbirth will help guide future plans and initiatives in improving maternal health in Sierra Leone. The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions and decision-making processes of women and their communities during childbirth in rural Sierra Leone.Data were collected through seven focus group discussions and 22 in-depth interviews with recently pregnant women and their community members in two rural villages. Data were analysed using systematic text condensation. Findings revealed that decision-making processes during childbirth are dynamic, intricate and need to be understood within the broader social context that they take place. Factors such as distance and lack of transport, perceived negative behaviour of hospital staff, direct and indirect financial obstacles, as well as the position of women in society all interact and influence how and what decisions are made.Pregnant women face multiple interacting vulnerabilities that influence their healthcare-seeking decisions during pregnancy and childbirth. Future initiatives to improve access and utilisation of safe healthcare services for pregnant women need to be based on adequate knowledge of structural constraints and health inequities that affect women in rural Sierra Leone.

  10. Ten Years of Forest Cover Change in the Sierra Nevada Detected Using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed geographic record of recent vegetation regrowth and disturbance patterns in forests of the Sierra Nevada remains a gap that can be filled with remote sensing data. Landsat (TM) imagery was analyzed to detect 10 years of recent changes (between 2000 and 2009) in forest vegetation cover for areas burned by wildfires between years of 1995 to 1999 in the region. Results confirmed the prevalence of regrowing forest vegetation during the period 2000 and 2009 over 17% of the combined burned areas.

  11. Potential increase in floods in California's Sierra Nevada under future climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Hidalgo, H.G.

    2011-01-01

    California's mountainous topography, exposure to occasional heavily moisture-laden storm systems, and varied communities and infrastructures in low lying areas make it highly vulnerable to floods. An important question facing the state-in terms of protecting the public and formulating water management responses to climate change-is "how might future climate changes affect flood characteristics in California?" To help address this, we simulate floods on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the state's primary catchment, based on downscaled daily precipitation and temperature projections from three General Circulation Models (GCMs). These climate projections are fed into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, and the VIC-simulated streamflows and hydrologic conditions, from historical and from projected climate change runs, allow us to evaluate possible changes in annual maximum 3-day flood magnitudes and frequencies of floods. By the end of the 21st Century, all projections yield larger-than-historical floods, for both the Northern Sierra Nevada (NSN) and for the Southern Sierra Nevada (SSN). The increases in flood magnitude are statistically significant (at p models, while under the third scenario, GFDL CM2. 1, frequencies remain constant or decline slightly, owing to an overall drying trend. These increases appear to derive jointly from increases in heavy precipitation amount, storm frequencies, and days with more precipitation falling as rain and less as snow. Increases in antecedent winter soil moisture also play a role in some areas. Thus, a complex, as-yet unpredictable interplay of several different climatic influences threatens to cause increased flood hazards in California's complex western Sierra landscapes. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Family involvement in the reintegration of former child soldiers in Sierra Leone:A critical examination

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1980s Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) programmes have been an integral part of post-conflict reconstruction. This was especially true of Sierra Leone’s post-conflict reconstruction which has frequently been hailed a ‘multilateral success story’ by the international community. Nevertheless, within Western-authored DDR literature there is a widespread but little interrogated assertion that, in post-conflict contexts, resettling former child soldiers with their...

  13. Groundwater quality in the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and American River Watersheds, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2018-03-23

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. In the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and American River Watersheds of the Sierra Nevada, many rural households rely on private wells for their drinking-water supplies.

  14. Ecology of the Scorpion, Microtityus jaumei in Sierra de Canasta, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn; Colombo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the population dynamics of Microtityus jaumei Armas (Scorpiones: Buthidae) on the slopes south of Sierra de Canasta, Guantánamo Province, Cuba show an increase in activity over the year (≤ 0.05). The activity peak is related to the reproductive period from June to November. The abundance of scorpions was significantly related to density of the canopy and thickness of the substrate. PMID:21870972

  15. Resilience Through Disturbance: Effects of Wildfire on Vegetation and Water Balance in the Sierra Nevadas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisrame, G. F. S.; Thompson, S. E.; Stephens, S.; Collins, B.; Tague, N.

    2015-12-01

    A century of fire suppression in the Western United States has drastically altered the historically fire-adapated ecology in California's Sierra Nevada Mountains. Fire suppression is understood to have increased the forest cover, as well as the stem density, canopy cover and water demand of montane forests, reducing resilience of the forests to drought, and increasing the risk of catastrophic fire by drying the landscape and increasing fuel loads. The potential to reverse these trends by re-introducing fire into the Sierra Nevada is highly promising, but the likely effects on vegetation structure and water balance are poorly quantified. The Illilouette Creek Basin in Yosemite National Park represents a unique experiment in the Sierra Nevada, in which managers have moved from fire suppression to allowing a near-natural fire regime to prevail since 1972. Changes in vegetation structure in the Illilouette since the restoration of natural burning provides a unique opportunity to examine how frequent, mixed severity fires can reshape the Sierra Nevada landscape. We characterize these changes from 1969 to the present using a combination of Landsat products and high-resolution aerial imagery. We describe how the landscape structure has changed in terms of vegetation composition and its spatial organization, and explore the drivers of different post-fire vegetation type transitions (e.g. forest to shrubland vs. forest to meadow). By upscaling field data using vegetation maps and Landsat wetness indices, we explore how these vegetation transitions have impacted the water balance of the Illilouette Creek Basin, potentially increasing its resilience in the face of drought, climate change, and catastrophic fire. In a region that is adapted to frequent disturbance from fire, this work helps us understand how allowing such natural disturbances to take place can increase the sustainability of diverse landscapes in the long term.

  16. Good laboratory practices guarantee biosafety in the Sierra Leone-China friendship biosafety laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Zhou, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Du, Hai-Jun; Nie, Kai; Song, Jing-Dong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wen-Wen; Guo, Jian-Qiang; Wei, He-Jiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yan-Hai; Wu, Jiang; Kamara, Gerard; Kamara, Idrissa; Wei, Qiang; Liang, Mi-Fang; Wu, Gui-Zhen; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-06-23

    The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa between 2014 and 2015 was the largest EDV epidemic since the identification of Ebola virus (EBOV) in 1976, and the countries most strongly affected were Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. The Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab), a fixed Biosafety Level 3 laboratory in the capital city of Sierra Leone, was established by the Chinese government and has been active in EBOV detection since 11 March 2015. Complete management and program documents were created for the SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab, and it was divided into four zones (the green, yellow, brown, and red zones) based on the risk assessment. Different types of safe and appropriate personnel protection equipment (PPE) are used in different zones of the laboratory, and it fully meets the Biosafety Level 3 laboratory standards of the World Health Organization. Good preparedness, comprehensive risk assessment and operation documents, appropriate PPE, effective monitoring and intensive training, together with well-designed and reasonable laboratory sectioning are essential for guaranteeing biosafety.

  17. Magma mixing in granitic rocks of the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, John B.; Evans, Owen C.; Fates, Dailey G.

    1983-12-01

    The El Capitan alaskite exposed in the North American Wall, Yosemite National Park, was intruded by two sets of mafic dikes that interacted thermally and chemically with the host alaskite. Comparisons of petrographic and compositional data for these dikes and alaskite with published data for Sierra Nevada plutons lead us to suggest that mafic magmas were important in the generation of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Specifically, we conclude that: (1) intrusion of mafic magmas in the lower crust caused partial melting and generation of alaskite (rhyolitic) magmas; (2) interaction between the mafic and felsic magmas lead to the observed linear variation diagrams for major elements; (3) most mafic inclusions in Sierra Nevada plutons represent chilled pillows of mafic magmas, related by fractional crystallization and granitoid assimilation, that dissolve into their felsic host and contaminate it to intermediate (granodioritic) compositions; (4) vesiculation of hydrous mafic magma upon chilling may allow buoyant mafic inclusions and their disaggregation products to collect beneath a pluton's domed ceiling causing the zoning (mafic margins-to-felsic core) that these plutons exhibit.

  18. Experiences of providing prosthetic and orthotic services in Sierra Leone--the local staff's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Lina; Ahlström, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    In Sierra Leone, West Africa, there are many people with disabilities in need of rehabilitation services after a long civil war. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of prosthetic and orthotic service delivery in Sierra Leone from the local staff's perspective. Fifteen prosthetic and orthotic technicians working at all the rehabilitation centres providing prosthetic and orthotic services in Sierra Leone were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and subjected to latent content analysis. One main theme emerged: sense of inability to deliver high-quality prosthetic and orthotic services. This main theme was generated from eight sub-themes: Desire for professional development; appraisals of work satisfaction and norms; patients neglected by family; limited access to the prosthetic and orthotic services available; problems with materials and machines; low public awareness concerning disabilities; marginalisation in society and low priority on the part of government. The findings illustrated traditional beliefs about the causes of disability and that the public's attitude needs to change to include and value people with disabilities. Support from international organisations was considered necessary as well as educating more prosthetic and orthotic staff to a higher level.

  19. Espacio urbano, espacio del consumo en las crónicas norteamericanas de Justo Sierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Beatriz Fernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las crónicas de viaje de Justo Sierra, escritas en ocasión de su visita a los Estados Unidos a finales del siglo XIX, con énfasis en las dedicadas a la ciudad de Nueva York. En ellas, centramos nuestra atención en el registro textual de fenómenos relacionados con la forma en que Sierra percibe la modernidad norteamericana, especialmente significativa en lo que hace a la relación entre economía y sociedad. Por ello, atendemos particularmente la configuración del espacio urbano como un escenario del consumo, y procuramos demostrar cómo la constitución física y simbólica de las ciudades muestra rasgos de parentesco con esos eventos típicos de la época que fueron las ferias y exposiciones, las cuales también son objeto de la prosa de Sierra.

  20. Using machine learning to predict snow water equivalent in the Sierra Nevada USA and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, N.; Rittger, K.; Dozier, J.

    2017-12-01

    In many mountain regions, snowmelt provides most of the runoff. Ranges such as the Sierra Nevada USA benefit from hundreds of manual and automated snow measurement stations as well as basin-wide snow water equavalent (SWE) estimates from new platforms like the Airborne Snow Observatory. Thus, we have been able to use the Sierra Nevada as a testbed to validate an approach called SWE reconstruction, where the snowpack is built-up in reverse using downscaled energy balance forcings. Our past work has shown that SWE reconstruction produces some of the most accurate basin-wide SWE estimates, comparable in accuracy to a snow pillow/course interpolation, but requires no in situ measurements, which is its main advantage. The disadvantages are that reconstruction cannot be used for a forecast and is only valid during the ablation period. To address these shortcomings, we have used machine learning trained on reconstructed SWE in the Sierra Nevada and Afghanistan, where there are no accessible snowpack measurements. Predictors are physiographic and remotely-sensed variables, including brightness temperatures from a new enhanced resolution passive microwave dataset. Two machine learning techniques—bagged regression trees and feed-forward neural networks—were used. Results show little bias on average and training period, i.e. the ablation period.

  1. Mental health care during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, Stania; Walder, Anna; Duncan, Jennifer; Kabbedijk, Antoinet; Hughes, Peter; Muana, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Reported levels of mental health and psychosocial problems rose during the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone. As part of the emergency response, existing plans to create mental health units within the existing hospital framework were brought forward. A nurse-led mental health and psychosocial support service, with an inpatient liaison service and an outpatient clinic, was set up at the largest government hospital in the country. One mental health nurse trained general nurses in psychological first aid, case identification and referral pathways. Health-care staff attended mental well-being workshops on coping with stigma and stress. Mental health service provision in Sierra Leone is poor, with one specialist psychiatric hospital to serve the population of 7 million. From March 2015 to February 2016, 143 patients were seen at the clinic; 20 had survived or had relatives affected by Ebola virus disease. Half the patients (71) had mild distress or depression, anxiety disorders and grief or social problems, while 30 patients presented with psychosis requiring medication. Fourteen non-specialist nurses received mental health awareness training. Over 100 physicians, nurses and auxiliary staff participated in well-being workshops. A nurse-led approach within a non-specialist setting was a successful model for delivering mental health and psychosocial support services during the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone. Strong leadership and partnerships were essential for establishing a successful service. Lack of affordable psychotropic medications, limited human resources and weak social welfare structures remain challenges.

  2. Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulow, Matthew J.; Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Girty, Melissa S.; Harwood, David S.

    1998-01-01

    The northernmost occurrences of extensive, glaciated exposures of the Sierra Nevada batholith occur in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area of the northern Sierra Nevada. The plutonic rocks in this area, which are termed here the Castle Valley plutonic assemblage, crop out over an area of 225 km2 and for the most part are shown as a single undifferentiated mass on previously published geological maps. In the present work, the plutonic assemblage is divided into eight separate intrusive units or lithodemes, two of which each consist of two separate plutons. Compositions are dominantly granodiorite and tonalite, but diorite and granite form small plutons in places. Spectacular examples of comb layering and orbicular texture occur in the diorites. U-Pb zircon ages have been obtained for all but one of the main units and range from ~120 to 114 Ma, indicating that the entire assemblage was emplaced in a narrow time frame in the Early Cretaceous. This is consistent with abundant field evidence that many of the individual phases were intruded penecontemporaneously. The timing of emplacement correlates with onset of major Cretaceous plutonism in the main part of the Sierra Nevada batholith farther south. The emplacement ages also are similar to isotopic ages for gold-quartz mineralization in the Sierran foothills west of the study area, suggesting a direct genetic relationship between the voluminous Early Cretaceous plutonism and hydrothermal gold mineralization.

  3. Reservation wages and starting wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ophem, H.; Hartog, J.; Berkhout, P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse a unique data set that combines reservation wage and actually paid wage for a large sample of Dutch recent higher education graduates. On average, accepted wages are almost 8% higher than reservation wages, but there is no fixed proportionality. We find that the difference between

  4. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  5. Population, Rural Development, and Land Use Among Settler Households in an Agricultural Frontier in Guatemala’s Maya Biosphere Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    David Carr

    2009-01-01

    Guatemala was among the world’s leaders in deforestation during the 1990s at a rate of 2% per annum. Much of Guatemala’s recent forest loss has occurred in the emerging agricultural frontiers of the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR), the heart of the largest contiguous tropical forest in Central America—La Selva Maya. This paper presents data from 241 heads of households and 219 partners of household heads from a geographically stratified sample of eight (of 28) communities in the Sierra de Lacan...

  6. Securities issues in reserves reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legg, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Securities issues in oil and gas reserves reporting were discussed. Alberta requires specific information regarding important oil and gas properties, plants, facilities and installations. When preparing the reserves report, the following elements are important to consider: (1) the author of the report must be a registered professional engineer or registered professional geologist, (2) the report itself must be an engineering document, (3) the content of the report must be extensive, (4) it should be prepared in accordance with petroleum engineering and evaluation practices, and must include a summary of estimated net reserves

  7. Spatiotemporal patterns of fault slip rates across the Central Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Dylan H.; Burbank, Douglas W.; Finkel, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns in fault slip rates through time and space are examined across the transition from the Sierra Nevada to the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane belt. At each of four sites along the eastern Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone between 38 and 39° N latitude, geomorphic markers, such as glacial moraines and outwash terraces, are displaced by a suite of range-front normal faults. Using geomorphic mapping, surveying, and 10Be surface exposure dating, mean fault slip rates are defined, and by utilizing markers of different ages (generally, ~ 20 ka and ~ 150 ka), rates through time and interactions among multiple faults are examined over 10 4-10 5 year timescales. At each site for which data are available for the last ~ 150 ky, mean slip rates across the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone have probably not varied by more than a factor of two over time spans equal to half of the total time interval (~ 20 ky and ~ 150 ky timescales): 0.3 ± 0.1 mm year - 1 (mode and 95% CI) at both Buckeye Creek in the Bridgeport basin and Sonora Junction; and 0.4 + 0.3/-0.1 mm year - 1 along the West Fork of the Carson River at Woodfords. Data permit rates that are relatively constant over the time scales examined. In contrast, slip rates are highly variable in space over the last ~ 20 ky. Slip rates decrease by a factor of 3-5 northward over a distance of ~ 20 km between the northern Mono Basin (1.3 + 0.6/-0.3 mm year - 1 at Lundy Canyon site) to the Bridgeport Basin (0.3 ± 0.1 mm year - 1 ). The 3-fold decrease in the slip rate on the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone northward from Mono Basin is indicative of a change in the character of faulting north of the Mina Deflection as extension is transferred eastward onto normal faults between the Sierra Nevada and Walker Lane belt. A compilation of regional deformation rates reveals that the spatial pattern of extension rates changes along strike of the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane belt. South of the Mina Deflection

  8. High Compressive Stresses Near the Surface of the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, S. J.; Logan, J. M.; Stock, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Observations and stress measurements in granitic rocks of the Sierra Nevada, California reveal strong compressive stresses parallel to the surface of the range at shallow depths. New overcoring measurements show high compressive stresses at three locations along an east-west transect through Yosemite National Park. At the westernmost site (west end of Tenaya Lake), the mean compressive stress is 1.9. At the middle site (north shore of Tenaya Lake) the mean compressive stress is 6.8 MPa. At the easternmost site (south side of Lembert Dome) the mean compressive stress is 3.0 MPa. The trend of the most compressive stress at these sites is within ~30° of the strike of the local topographic surface. Previously published hydraulic fracturing measurements by others elsewhere in the Sierra Nevada indicate surface-parallel compressive stresses of several MPa within several tens of meters of the surface, with the stress magnitudes generally diminishing to the west. Both the new and the previously published compressive stress magnitudes are consistent with the presence of sheeting joints (i.e., "exfoliation joints") in the Sierra Nevada, which require lateral compressive stresses of several MPa to form. These fractures are widespread: they are distributed in granitic rocks from the north end of the range to its southern tip and across the width of the range. Uplift along the normal faults of the eastern escarpment, recently measured by others at ~1-2 mm/yr, probably contributes to these stresses substantially. Geodetic surveys reveal that normal faulting flexes a range concave upwards in response to fault slip, and this flexure is predicted by elastic dislocation models. The topographic relief of the eastern escarpment of the Sierra Nevada is 2-4 km, and since alluvial fill generally buries the bedrock east of the faults, the offset of granitic rocks is at least that much. Compressive stresses of several MPa are predicted by elastic dislocation models of the range front

  9. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  10. Shell trips over its reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    Some mistakes in the evaluation of the proven reserves of Royal Dutch Shell group, the second world petroleum leader, will oblige the other oil and gas companies to be more transparent and vigilant in the future. The proven reserves ('P90' in petroleum professionals' language) are the most important indicators of the mining patrimony of companies. These strategic data are reported each year in the annual reports of the companies and are examined by the security exchange commission. The evaluation of reserves is perfectly codified by the US energy policy and conservation act and its accountable translation using the FAS 69 standard allows to establish long-term cash-flow forecasts. The revision announced by Shell on January 9 leads to a 20% reduction of its proven reserves. Short paper. (J.S.)

  11. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  12. Professionalizing the Estonian Reserve Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Everett, William

    1998-01-01

    .... In particular, citizen-soldier reserves can allow nations that do not face immediate external threats, such as Estonia, to meet their security requirements for less money than required by standing forces...

  13. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  14. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  15. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  16. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  17. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  18. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  19. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  20. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  1. Provencance of the late Proterozoic to early Cambrian metaclastic sediments ot the Sierra de San Luis (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas) and Cordillera Oriental, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobe, M.; López de Luchi, M.; Steenken, A.

    2009-01-01

    Provenance studies have been performed utilising major and trace elements, Nd systematics, whole rock Pb-Pb isotopes and zircon U/Pb SHRIMP data on metasedimentary rocks of the Sierra de San Luis (Nogolí Metamorphic Complex, Pringles Metamorphic Complex, Conlara Metamorphic Complex and San Luis...... is depicted for all the complexes using major and trace elements. The Pringles Metamorphic Complex shows indications for crustal recycling, pointing to a bimodal provenance. Major volcanic input has to be rejected due to Th/Sc, Y/Ni and Cr/V ratios for all units. The eNd(540 Ma) data is lower for the San Luis...... Formation and higher for the Conlara Metamorphic Complex, as compared to the other units, in which a good consistency is given. This is similar to the TDM ages, where the metapsammitic samples of the San Luis Formation are slightly older. The spread of data is largest for the Pringles Metamorphic Complex...

  2. Patrones biogeográficos de la avifauna de la Sierra Madre del Sur Biogeographic patterns of the avifauna of the Sierra Madre del Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epifanio Blancas-Calva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos la avifauna de 26 subcuencas de la provincia biótica de la Sierra Madre del Sur y sus relaciones biogeográficas utilizando el análisis de parsimonia de endemismos (PAE. A partir de información distributional de las especies obtenida de la base de datos del Atlas de las aves de México y de la literatura disponible, construimos una matriz de datos para 26 subcuencas y 437 especies. Se obtuvo un cladograma que sugiere la existencia de 3 grupos de subcuencas: el primero agrupa subcuencas de climas áridos, ubicadas geográficamente de norte a sureste en el estado de Oaxaca; el segundo, otras subcuencas de ambientes climáticos subhúmedos, y el tercero, las restantes subcuencas de ambientes climáticos húmedos de mayor complejidad ambiental.We analyzed the avifauna of 26 sub-basins of the Sierra Madre del Sur biotic province and their biogeographical relationships applying a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE. Based on the distributional information of the species obtained from the Atlas de las aves de México and published literature, we built a data matrix for 26 sub-basins and 437 species. The single cladogram obtained suggests the existence of three groups of sub-basins:the first with 5 sub-basins from arid environments, geographically located in north-southeastern Oaxaca; the second with another 5 sub-basins form subhumid environments; and the third one with the remaining sub-basins, from humid and environmentally more complex habitats.

  3. El basamento de la sierra de San Luis: Nuevas evidencias magnéticas y sus implicancias tectónicas The basement of Sierra de San Luis: New magnetic evidence and tectonic implication

    OpenAIRE

    CJ Chernicoff; VA Ramos

    2003-01-01

    Los mapas aeromagnéticos disponibles de las sierras de San Luis y Comechingones en el sector sudoriental de las Sierras Pampeanas de Argentina, permiten examinar las características geológicas y estructurales de las unidades metamórficas e intrusivas del basamento de la región. A través de la aplicación del filtro de continuación ascendente a los datos del campo magnético total reducido al polo, se ha podido observar la configuración profunda de las distintas unidades. Entre ellas se destaca ...

  4. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  5. Uranium-lead isotopic ages from the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.

    1982-01-01

    This study provides new information on the timing and distribution of Mesozoic magmatic events in the Sierra Nevada batholithic complex chiefly between 36° and 37°N. latitude. U-Pb ages have been determined for 133 zircon and 7 sphene separates from 82 samples of granitoid rocks. Granitoid rocks in this area range in age from 217 to 80 m.y. Triassic intrusions are restricted to the east side of the batholith; Jurassic plutons occur south of the Triassic plutons east of the Sierra Nevada, as isolated masses within the Cretaceous batholith, and in the western foothills of the range; Cretaceous plutons form a continuous belt along the axis of the batholith and occur as isolated masses east of the Sierra Nevada. No granitic intrusions were emplaced for 37 m.y. east of the Sierra Nevada following the end of Jurassic plutonism. However, following emplacement of the eastern Jurassic granitoids, regional extension produced a fracture system at least 350 km long into which the dominantly mafic, calc-alkalic Independence dike swarm was intruded 148 m.y. ago. The dike fractures probably represents a period of regional crustal extension caused by a redistribution of the regional stress pattern accompanying the Nevadan orogeny. Intrusion of Cretaceous granitic plutons began in large volume about 120 m.y. ago in the western Sierra Nevada and migrated steadily eastward for 40 m.y. at a rate of 2.7 mm/y. This slow and constant migration indicates remarkably uniform conditions of subduction with perhaps downward migration of parent magma generation or a slight flattening of the subduction zone. Such steady conditions could be necessary for the production of large batholithic complexes such as the Sierra Nevada. The abrupt termination of plutonism 80 m.y. ago may have resulted from an increased rate of convergence of the American and eastern Pacific plates and dramatic flattening of the subduction zone. U-Pb ages of the Giant Forest-alaskite sequence in Sequoia National Park are

  6. Potential environmental effects of pack stock on meadow ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Moore, Peggy E.; Berlow, Eric L.; Robert Blank,; Roche, Jim; Chase, Jennifer T.; Sylvia Haultain,

    2014-01-01

    Pack and saddle stock, including, but not limited to domesticated horses, mules, and burros, are used to support commercial, private and administrative activities in the Sierra Nevada. The use of pack stock has become a contentious and litigious issue for land management agencies in the region inter alia due to concerns over effects on the environment. The potential environmental effects of pack stock on Sierra Nevada meadow ecosystems are reviewed and it is concluded that the use of pack stock has the potential to influence the following: (1) water nutrient dynamics, sedimentation, temperature, and microbial pathogen content; (2) soil chemistry, nutrient cycling, soil compaction and hydrology; (3) plant individuals, populations and community dynamics, non-native invasive species, and encroachment of woody species; and (4) wildlife individuals, populations and communities. It is considered from currently available information that management objectives of pack stock should include the following: minimise bare ground, maximise plant cover, maintain species composition of native plants, minimise trampling, especially on wet soils and stream banks, and minimise direct urination and defecation by pack stock into water. However, incomplete documentation of patterns of pack stock use and limited past research limits current understanding of the effects of pack stock, especially their effects on water, soils and wildlife. To improve management of pack stock in this region, research is needed on linking measurable monitoring variables (e.g. plant cover) with environmental relevancy (e.g. soil erosion processes, wildlife habitat use), and identifying specific environmental thresholds of degradation along gradients of pack stock use in Sierra Nevada meadows.

  7. Clinical illness and outcomes in patients with Ebola in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieffelin, John S; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Goba, Augustine; Gbakie, Michael; Gire, Stephen K; Colubri, Andres; Sealfon, Rachel S G; Kanneh, Lansana; Moigboi, Alex; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Moses, Lina M; Brown, Bethany L; Andersen, Kristian G; Winnicki, Sarah; Schaffner, Stephen F; Park, Daniel J; Yozwiak, Nathan L; Jiang, Pan-Pan; Kargbo, David; Jalloh, Simbirie; Fonnie, Mbalu; Sinnah, Vandi; French, Issa; Kovoma, Alice; Kamara, Fatima K; Tucker, Veronica; Konuwa, Edwin; Sellu, Josephine; Mustapha, Ibrahim; Foday, Momoh; Yillah, Mohamed; Kanneh, Franklyn; Saffa, Sidiki; Massally, James L B; Boisen, Matt L; Branco, Luis M; Vandi, Mohamed A; Grant, Donald S; Happi, Christian; Gevao, Sahr M; Fletcher, Thomas E; Fowler, Robert A; Bausch, Daniel G; Sabeti, Pardis C; Khan, S Humarr; Garry, Robert F

    2014-11-27

    Limited clinical and laboratory data are available on patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). The Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone, which had an existing infrastructure for research regarding viral hemorrhagic fever, has received and cared for patients with EVD since the beginning of the outbreak in Sierra Leone in May 2014. We reviewed available epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory records of patients in whom EVD was diagnosed between May 25 and June 18, 2014. We used quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays to assess the load of Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire species) in a subgroup of patients. Of 106 patients in whom EVD was diagnosed, 87 had a known outcome, and 44 had detailed clinical information available. The incubation period was estimated to be 6 to 12 days, and the case fatality rate was 74%. Common findings at presentation included fever (in 89% of the patients), headache (in 80%), weakness (in 66%), dizziness (in 60%), diarrhea (in 51%), abdominal pain (in 40%), and vomiting (in 34%). Clinical and laboratory factors at presentation that were associated with a fatal outcome included fever, weakness, dizziness, diarrhea, and elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine. Exploratory analyses indicated that patients under the age of 21 years had a lower case fatality rate than those over the age of 45 years (57% vs. 94%, P=0.03), and patients presenting with fewer than 100,000 EBOV copies per milliliter had a lower case fatality rate than those with 10 million EBOV copies per milliliter or more (33% vs. 94%, P=0.003). Bleeding occurred in only 1 patient. The incubation period and case fatality rate among patients with EVD in Sierra Leone are similar to those observed elsewhere in the 2014 outbreak and in previous outbreaks. Although bleeding was an infrequent finding, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal manifestations were common. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and

  8. Assessing the spatial variability of mountain precipitation in California's Sierra Nevada using the Airborne Snow Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, T.; Deems, J. S.; Painter, T. H.; Dozier, J.

    2016-12-01

    In California's Sierra Nevada, 10 or fewer winter storms are responsible for most of the annual precipitation, which falls mostly as snow. Presently, surface stations are used to measure the dynamics of mountain precipitation. However, even in places like the Sierra Nevada—one of the most gauged regions in the world—the paucity of surface stations can lead to large errors in precipitation thereby biasing both total water year and short-term streamflow forecasts. Remotely sensed snow depth and water equivalent, at a time scale that resolves storms, might provide a novel solution to the problems of: (1) quantifying the spatial variability of mountain precipitation; and (2) assessing gridded precipitation products that are mostly based on surface station interpolation. NASA's Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and LiDAR system, has measured snow in the Tuolumne River Basin in California's Sierra Nevada for the past four years, 2013-2016; and, measurements will continue. Principally, ASO monitors the progression of melt for water supply forecasting, nonetheless, a number of flights bracketed storms allowing for estimates of snow accumulation. In this study we examine a few of the ASO recorded storms to determine both the basin and subbasin orographic effect as well as the spatial patterns in total precipitation. We then compare these results to a number of gridded climate products and weather models including: Daymet, the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM), the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2), and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Finally, to put each ASO recorded storm into context, we use a climatology produced from snow pillows and the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) for 2014-2016 to examine key accumulation events, and classify storms based on their integrated water vapor flux.

  9. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL I SITE, SIERRA DE PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P.F. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Oliver; De La Garza; S. Harder

    2005-07-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area.

  10. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL I SITE, SIERRA DE PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Pineda, J.A.; Goodell, P.; Dobson, P.F.; Walton, J.; Oliver, R.; De La Garza; Harder, S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area

  11. Retention of health workers in rural Sierra Leone: findings from life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurie, Haja R; Samai, Mohamed; Witter, Sophie

    2016-02-01

    Sierra Leone has faced a shortage and maldistribution of staff in its post-conflict period. This long-standing challenge is now exacerbated by the systemic shock and damage wrought by Ebola. This study aimed to investigate the importance of different motivation factors in rural areas in Sierra Leone and thus to contribute to better decisions on financial and non-financial incentive packages, here and in similar contexts. This article is based on participatory life histories, conducted in 2013 with 23 health workers (doctors, nurses, midwives and Community Health Officers) in four regions of Sierra Leone who had worked in the sector since 2000. Although the interviews covered a wide range of themes, here we present findings on motivating and demotivating factors for staff, especially those in rural areas, based on thematic analysis of transcripts. Rural health workers face particular challenges, some of which stem from the difficult terrain, which add to common disadvantages of rural living (poor social amenities, etc.). Poor working conditions, emotional and financial costs of separation from families, limited access to training, longer working hours (due to staff shortages) and the inability to earn from other sources make working in rural areas less attractive. Moreover, rules on rotation which should protect staff from being left too long in rural areas are not reported to be respected. By contrast, poor management had more resonance in urban areas, with reports of poor delegation, favouritism and a lack of autonomy for staff. Tensions within the team over unclear roles and absenteeism are also significant demotivating factors in general. This study provides important policy-focused insights into motivation of health workers and can contribute towards building a resilient and responsive health system, incorporating the priorities and needs of health workers. Their voices and experiences should be taken into account as the post-Ebola landscape is shaped.

  12. Fumarole/plume and diffuse CO2 emission from Sierra Negra caldera, Galapagos archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Toulkeridis, Theofilos; Melián, Gladys; Barrancos, José; Virgili, Giorgio; Sumino, Hirochika; Notsu, Kenji

    2012-08-01

    Measurements of visible and diffuse gas emission were conducted in 2006 at the summit of Sierra Negra volcano, Galapagos, with the aim to better characterize degassing after the 2005 eruption. A total SO2 emission of 11 ± 2 t day-1 was derived from miniature differential optical absorption spectrometer (mini-DOAS) ground-based measurements of the plume emanating from the Mini Azufral fumarolic area, the most important site of visible degassing at Sierra Negra volcano. Using a portable multigas system, the H2S/SO2, CO2/SO2, and H2O/SO2 molar ratios in the Mina Azufral plume emissions were found to be 0.41, 52.2, and 867.9, respectively. The corresponding H2O, CO2, and H2S emission rates were 562, 394, and 3 t day-1, respectively. The total output of diffuse CO2 emissions from the summit of Sierra Negra volcano was 990 ± 85 t day-1, with 605 t day-1 being released by a deep source. The diffuse-to-plume CO2 emission ratio was about 1.5. Mina Azufral fumaroles released gasses containing 73.6 mol% of H2O; the main noncondensable components amounted to 97.4 mol% CO2, 1.5 mol% SO2, 0.6 mol% H2S, and 0.35 mol% N2. The higher H2S/SO2 ratio values found in 2006 as compared to those reported before the 2005 eruption reveal a significant hydrothermal contribution to the fumarolic emissions. 3He/4He ratios measured at Mina Azufral fumarolic discharges showed values of 17.88 ± 0.25 R A , indicating a mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and a Galapagos plume contribution of 53 and 47 %, respectively.

  13. Ozone distribution in remote ecologically vulnerable terrain of the southern Sierra Nevada, CA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, Jeanne; Saah, David; Esperanza, Annie; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Fraczek, Witold; Cisneros, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Ozone concentration spatial patterns remain largely uncharacterized across the extensive wilderness areas of the Sierra Nevada, CA, despite being downwind of major pollution sources. These natural areas, including four national parks and four national forests, contain forest species that are susceptible to ozone injury. Forests stressed by ozone are also more vulnerable to other agents of mortality, including insects, pathogens, climate change, and ultimately fire. Here we analyze three years of passive ozone monitor data from the southern Sierra Nevada and interpolate landscape-scale spatial and temporal patterns during the summer-through-fall high ozone concentration period. Segmentation analysis revealed three types of ozone exposure sub-regions: high, low, and variable. Consistently high ozone exposure regions are expected to be most vulnerable to forest mortality. One high exposure sub-region has been documented elsewhere as being further vulnerable to increased drought and fire potential. Identifying such hot-spots of forest vulnerability has utility for prioritizing management. -- Highlights: •Three years of passive ozone sampler data over 49,000 km 2 were analyzed spatially. •Spatial and temporal ozone patterns were mapped across the Sierra Nevada, CA. •Sub-regions of consistently high, low and variable ozone exposure were identified. •The 1700–2400 m elevation band delineated a distinct break in ozone concentration. •This approach has utility for prioritizing management across vulnerable landscapes. -- A passive ozone sampler network in combination with spatial analysis techniques was used to characterize landscape-scale ozone patterns and dynamics, identifying regions of consistently high and low ozone exposure for forest management prioritization

  14. Maternal health, war, and religious tradition: authoritative knowledge in Pujehun District, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambai, A; MacCormack, C

    1996-06-01

    In Sierra Leone constraints to ideal maternal health require a primary health care approach that includes collaboration with traditional midwives. They are authoritative figures embedded within local political structures and a powerful women's religion. The local causes of maternal risk are described, including civil war and refugee camp life. Traditional midwives provide vital services in the camp, are respected for their social status, and learn additional skills. Biomedical and traditional systems of authoritative knowledge, based on different kinds of legitimacy to heal, are in a complementary relationship.

  15. Time constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Central Argentina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegesmund, Siegfried; Steenken, A; Martino, R D

    2010-01-01

    The application of the SHRIMP U/Pb dating technique to zircon and monazite of different rock types of the Sierras de Córdoba provides an important insight into the metamorphic history of the basement domains. Additional constraints on the Pampean metamorphic episode were gained by Pb/Pb stepwise...... leaching (PbSL) experiments on two titanite and garnet separates. Results indicate that the metamorphic history recorded by Crd-free gneisses (M2) started in the latest Neoproterozoic/earliest Cambrian (553 and 543 Ma) followed by the M4 metamorphism at ~530 Ma that is documented in the diatexites. Zircon...

  16. Integration of the Watcher Telescope into the Sierra Stars Observatory Network – Lessons Learned for GLORIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Topinka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The UCD Watcher robotic telescope is planning to participate in the Sierra Stars Observatory Network (SSON, a US-based organisation that provides astronomical images upon request to subscribing users, who are typically either amateurs or university/college students. Implementing the tasks required for the integration of Watcher to SSON, such as remote scheduling, file transfer, image quality validation and the provision of meteorological information, have provided useful experience for the GLORIA project. It has also become apparent that managing user expectations will be important for GLORIA.

  17. The Ebola virus disease outbreak and the mineral sectors of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra; Menzie, William D.

    2015-01-01

    The mineral sector plays a key role in the economies of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The onset of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in early 2014, together with changes in mineral market conditions, raised questions regarding the status of mining operations and of mineral development and exploration projects in all three countries. Mineral projects were the underpinnings of World Bank short-term forecasts of increases in gross domestic product (GDP) for all three countries and were expected to be the basis of future economic growth. The significant delay or cancellation of these projects could result in a major economic setback for all three countries.

  18. Desastres, desplazamiento interno y migración laboral en la Sierra de Chiapas

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Velasco, Germán; López Ochoa, María Sonia; Álvarez Gordillo, Guadalupe; Schmook, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Derivado de un escenario global de cambio climático, el huracán Stan (2005) impactó severamente a la región Sierra en el estado de Chiapas y devino en el mayor desplazamiento interno de personas de la entidad. Una parte de la población de la región sufrió una repentina pérdida de sus bienes y fue reubicada en lugares circunvecinos en medio de acciones improvisadas por parte de organismos públicos, sin atender los protocolos internacionales en la materia. Para analizar el proceso de re...

  19. Desastres, desplazamiento interno y migración laboral en la Sierra de Chiapas

    OpenAIRE

    Germán MARTÍNEZ-VELASCO; María Sonia LOPEZ-OCHOA; Guadalupe ÁLVAREZ-GORDILLO; Birgit SCHMOOK

    2016-01-01

    Derivado de un escenario global de cambio climático, el huracán Stan (2005) impactó severa - mente a la región Sierra en el estado de Chiapas y devino en el mayor desplazamiento interno de personas de la entidad. Una parte de la población de la región sufrió una repentina pérdida de sus bienes y fue reubicada en lugares circunvecinos en medio de acciones improvisadas por parte de organismos públicos, sin atender los protocolos internacionales en la materia. Para analizar el proceso de reu...

  20. The Neotectonic and its relation with radioactive manifestations in the east of the Sierra Maestra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geler Roffe, T.; Leal Ramirez, R.; Orbera Hernandez, L.; Alcaide Orpi, J.; Sanchez Rumayor, J.; Olivera Acosta, J.; Matos Martinez, F.L.

    1996-01-01

    The neotectonic structures of the east of the Sierra Maestra were studied. A tectonic-structural analysis of relief was made, were morphometric methods and the joint analysis of the geological, geophysical and geomorphological information were applied to know its influence in the control of the radioactive mineralization. The meso blocks and micro blocks were determined and characterized. The diagram of neotectonic blocks to scale 1:100 000 was made. The link between radioactive anomalies and disyuntive structures was demonstrated. A methodology of work for the study of the mountainous zones of the country was obtained

  1. Superficial deposits in northeast flank of Sierras Australes (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Republica Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, R.; Fucks, E.; De Francesco, F.

    2004-01-01

    Pleistocene and Holocene superficial deposits, which have been recognized in an area of 1500 km2 in the northeast flank of Sierras Australes, are characterized. In divide they are underlain by silts and siltstone which are called Sediments Pampeanas. There, a lower sequence, consisting mainly of aeolian sediments (loess) with scarce fluvial deposits and diamictons, was recognized. In some places an upper sequence that is product of aeolian and anthropogenic activity, was also recognized. In the valley sequences, the loess deposits can not only be underlain by fluvial sediments but can also overlain them. The more recent fluvial deposits which have eroded loess sequences are of the post conquest age [es

  2. Data on snow chemistry of the Cascade-Sierra Nevada Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, L.B.; Taylor, Howard E.; Lombard, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Snow chemistry data were measured for solutes found in snow core samples collected from the Cascade-Sierra Nevada Mountains from late February to mid-March 1983. The data are part of a study to assess geographic variations in atmospheric deposition in Washington, Oregon, and California. The constituents and properties include pH and concentrations of hydrogen ion, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, fluoride, phosphate, ammonium, iron, aluminum, manganese, copper, cadmium, lead, and dissolved organic carbon. Concentrations of arsenic and bromide were below the detection limit. (USGS)

  3. Plant endemics to Sierra de Gredos (central Spain: taxonomic, distributional, and evolutionary aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Bernardo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Causes related to a low number of endemics to Sierra de Gredos (central Iberian Peninsula are poorly understood. Taxonomic, distributional and genetic aspects of the 12 endemic taxa (species and subspecies are herein discussed. New populations found in the last years provide new chorological reports and taxa to science. As a result, we extend the distribution range of Pseudomisopates rivas-martinezii and describe a new subspecies (Teucrium oxylepis subsp. Gredense. Genetic variation was investigated by sequencing the ITS (Internal Transcribed Sequence region, which is a widespread nuclear DNA region used to detect significant sequence divergence at the species and population levels. At the species level, only eight endemics to this large mountain range (c. 4,800 km2 indicates both limited speciation events coupled with their persistence, despite the high species richness of the flora of Sierra de Gredos (>2,500. According to the levels of ITS sequence divergence, significant isolation processes may have predated the Quaternary in Sierra de Gredos to account for divergence of the monotypic genus Pseudomisopates from its closest relatives (Misopates, Acanthorrhinum. Isolation of the other seven endemic species from their closest relatives has been a more recent process, as revealed by the limited ITS sequence variation obtained in this study. At the population level, no net nucleotide substitutions were observed between distant populations of the endemic species: Antirrhinum grosii, Astragalus devesae, Centaurea avilae, Dianthus gredensis, Echinospartum barnadesii, Pseudomisopates rivas-martinezii, Santolina oblongifolia. In contrast, the three populations of Sedum lagascae displayed a relatively high number (4 of nucleotide substitutions. These results, together with limited morphological differentiation, may reflect insufficient population isolation of seven of the eight endemic species of Sierra de Gredos in the Quaternary. Recurrent population

  4. Knowledge and use of edible mushrooms in two municipalities of the Sierra Tarahumara, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñónez-Martínez, Miroslava; Ruan-Soto, Felipe; Aguilar-Moreno, Ivonne Estela; Garza-Ocañas, Fortunato; Lebgue-Keleng, Toutcha; Lavín-Murcio, Pablo Antonio; Enríquez-Anchondo, Irma Delia

    2014-09-17

    The Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua in Northern Mexico is inhabited by indigenous Raramuris, mestizos, and other ethnic groups. The territory consists of canyons and ravines with pine, oak and pine-oak forests in the higher plateaus. A great diversity of potentially edible mushrooms is found in forests of the Municipalities of Bocoyna and Urique. Their residents are the only consumers of wild mushrooms in the Northern Mexico; they have a long tradition of collecting and eating these during the "rainy season." However, despite the wide diversity of edible mushrooms that grow in these areas, residents have a selective preference. This paper aims to record evidence of the knowledge and use of wild potentially edible mushroom species by inhabitants of towns in the Sierra Tarahumara of Chihuahua, Mexico. Using a semi-structured technique, we surveyed 197 habitants from seven locations in Urique, Bocoyna, and the Cusarare area from 2010 to 2012. Known fungi, local nomenclature, species consumed, preparation methods, appreciation of taste, forms of preservation, criteria for differentiating toxic and edible fungi, other uses, economic aspects, and traditional teaching were recorded. To identify the recognized species, photographic stimuli of 22 local edible species and two toxic species were used. The respondents reported preference for five species: Amanita rubescens, Agaricus campestris, Ustilago maydis, Hypomyces lactifluorum, and the Amanita caesarea complex. No apparent differences were found between ethnic groups in terms of preference, although mestizos used other species in Bocoyna (Boletus edulis and B. pinophilus). Some different uses of fungi are recognized by respondents, i.e. home decorations, medicine, as food in breeding rams, etc. The studied population shows a great appreciation towards five species, mainly the A. caesarea complex, and an apparent lack of knowledge of nearly 20 species which are used as food in other areas of Mexico. There are no

  5. Development of vegetation and solar radiation on hillside grounds of the Sierra de Bejar, Salamanca (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Regina Rodríguez, I.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed study was carried out about the vegetation and solar radiation on hillside grounds of the Sierra de Béjar according to its characteristic orientation and slope for a better exploitation of its ecological resources. Chorologically the area is located in carpetano-ibéico-leonesa province, bejarano-gredense ection, bejarano-tormantino subsector. Its topography presents great contrasts, alternating great ondulations with high slopes. For as, in this area there was a three bioclimatic gronds: supramediterranean, oromediterranean and crioromediterranean [es

  6. Making up for lost snow: lessons from a warming Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Snowpack- and glacier-dependent river basins are home to over 1.2 billion people, one-sixth of the world's current population. These areas face severe challenges in a warmer climate, as declines in snow resources put more pressure on dams and groundwater. Closer to home, the seasonal snowpacks in California's Sierra Nevada provide water storage to both sustain productive forests and support the world's 6th largest economy. Rivers draining the Sierra supply the state's large cities, plus agricultural areas that provide nearly half of the nation's fruits and vegetables. Water storage is central to water security, especially given California's hot dry summers and high interannual variability in precipitation. On average seasonal snowpacks store about half as much water as do dams on Sierra rivers; and both the magnitude and duration of snowpack storage are decreasing. Precipitation amount and snow accumulation across the mountains in any given day, month or year remain uncertain. As historical index-statistical methods for hydrologic forecasts give way to tools based on mass and energy balances distributed across the landscape, opportunities are arising to broadly implement spatial measurements of snowpack storage and the equally important regolith-water storage. Advances in applying satellite and aircraft remote sensing, plus spatially distributed wireless-sensor networks, are filling this need. These same unprecedented data are driving process understanding to improve knowledge of snow-energy-forest interactions, snowmelt estimates, and hydrologic forecasts for hydropower, water supply, and flood control. Estimating the value of snowpacks and how they are changing provides a baseline for evaluating investments in restoration of headwater forests that will affect snowmelt runoff, and in providing replacement storage as snow declines. With California facing billions of dollars of green and grey infrastructure improvements, which must be compatible with the state

  7. Groundwater quality in the Yuba River and Bear River Watersheds, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Jasper, Monica; Taylor, Kimberly A.

    2017-09-27

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. In the Yuba River and Bear River Watersheds of the Sierra Nevada, many rural households rely on private wells for their drinking water supplies. 

  8. Hacha de bronce hallada en la sierra de Béjar (Salamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Carlos JIMÉNEZ GONZÁLEZ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El útil objeto de nuestro estudio fue encontrado de manera casual durante el transcurso de las obras de construcción, a comienzos de los años ochenta, de un camino que enlaza la población de La Hoya con el sitio denominado «La Cobatilla» en plena Sierra de Béjar. El hacha fue encontrada por uno de los operarios aproximadamente a medio camino entre ambos lugares, durante los trabajos de terraplenado llevados a cabo por una máquina excavador

  9. Human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge and prevention practices among Sierra Sur, Oaxaca college students

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Ramos, Gisela Mayra; Martínez-Sánchez, Abisai; Tenahua-Quitl, Inés; Jiménez, Concepción; López Mendoza, Yarely

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: El virus del papiloma humano (VPH) ocasiona la infección de transmisión sexual más importante en el mundo y se le considera como el principal agente para el desarrollo del cáncer cervicouterino. Los jóvenes constituyen la población más vulnerable debido al inicio de las  relaciones sexuales usualmente sin métodos de protección. Objetivos: Describir el conocimiento para la prevención del virus del papiloma humano en universitarios de la sierra sur, Oaxaca. Diseño: Estudio cuantit...

  10. [Fertility of the Yanomami population of Sierra Parima (Amazonas Federal Territory, Venezuela)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schkolnik, S

    1983-08-01

    This article presents information on the age structure and level of female fertility obtained on the basis of a sample of the Yanomami population (653 individuals) residing in the Venezuelan margin of Sierra Parima. The population observed is very young, over 50% are less than age 15, and the mean age is 18. The total fertility rate reaches 7.76 children/woman while the age distribution of rates show that fertility begins at a very early age and begins to decrease only after age 30. (author's modified)

  11. Macronutrient cycling in mountain grasslands of Sierra de la Ventana, Argentina:

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Carolina Alejandra; Frangi, Jorge Luis

    2007-01-01

    Los pastizales serranos de Sierra de la Ventana no muestran variaciones en la productividad primaria neta (PPN) a lo largo de un gradiente altitudinal a pesar de que la elevación determine condiciones de clima y suelos menos favorables para el crecimiento. No obstante, a lo largo de ese gradiente aumentan el cociente entre la biomasa subterránea y aérea, y la fracción de la PPN asignada a los tejidos subterráneos. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en determinar si la falta de variación de...

  12. Automatización del proceso de curvado de flejes de acero para el conformado de sierras de corona

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero González, Edgar

    2004-01-01

    El documento que se presenta a continuación es la Memoria del Proyecto de Final de Carrera titulado “Automatización del curvado de flejes de acero para el conformado de sierras de corona”. Proyecto solicitado por la empresa SAEGEN IBERICA, dedicada a la fabricación de coronas de sierra entre otros productos, y motivada por la incapacidad de su sistema productivo y de los procesos existentes, de alcanzar la calidad y la producción exigidas por el mercado. El proyecto queda enmarcado d...

  13. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  14. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  15. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  16. Federal reservation of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Union Oil had developed or was seeking to develop wells on the land in Sonoma County, California in order to produce geothermal steam for generating electricity. The US Attorney General brought a quiet title action pursuant to 21(b) of the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 to determine whether geothermal resources are included in the mineral reservation under the Homestead Act. The US District Court granted Union Oil's motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. On appeal, the Ninth Circuit reversed and remanded. In summary, the court concluded on the basis of the legislative history of the Stock-Raising Homestead Act that sources of energy are intended to remain in the government's possession, and the purposes of the Act will be best served by including geothermal resources in the reservation of mineral interests. Noting the strictly agricultural purpose of the Act, the subsurface estate reservation was broadly interpreted, even though title passed to all rights that were not expressly reserved. The court left open on remand the question of estoppel of the government from interfering with private lessees by developing subsurface resources compensation.This is a unique and intriguing decision, as it opens wide the definition of ''mineral interest,'' construing it in the timely terms of a valuable natural resource that may be in great demand for future energy needs. The decision is being appealed to the United States Supreme Court, and it will be interesting to observe whether this liberal interpretation of mineral interests will be upheld.

  17. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS, as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound through the ovarian volume (OV calculation and counting the Antral follicles (AFC before and after chemotherapy treatment. There was decline in the AntiMullerian Hormone level after chemotherapy by 27 ± 11.19% and decrease in the Antral follicle counts by 21 ± 13.43%. In conclusion there was strong relation between AMH level and AFC which makes the use of transvaginal ultrasound is a reliable alternative method to the hormonal assay to detect the ovarian reserve.

  18. Evolution of the persistence of snow over Sierra Nevada Mountain (southern, Spain) in the last 55 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Rafael; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    Snow plays a crucial role in mountainous areas, not only as water resources for human supply, irrigation and energy production, but also for the ecosystem, flora and fauna, over these areas. Sierra Nevada Mountains, southern Spain, constitutes a rich reservoir of endemic wildlife species, and it is considered the most important center of biodiversity in the wester Mediterranean region. The highest regions of the range were declared UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, Natural and National Parks. Climate trends over the last decades put a lot of pressure on both snowfall occurrence and snow persistence; this poses a risk for biodiversity and has led to its inclusion in the Global Change Observatory Network. This work quantifies the evolution of the persistence of snow over the Sierra Nevada area during the last fifty-five years (1960-2015) as a basis to assess the vulnerability of its ecosystem services. For this, the spatial distribution of the annual number of days with snow, SDS, was analyzed over a study area of 4583 km2 (140-3479 m.a.s.l.), which comprises the head of the five basins in these mountains. The following indicator variables were studied over the whole area and each one of the five head regions identified: 1) the trend of SDS; 2) the annual area where SDS exceeded selected percentiles in its distribution; and 3) the annual minimum altitude where SDS exceeded those percentiles. SDS was obtained during the study period by means of the snow module in WiMMed (Watershed Integrated Model in Mediterranean Environment), a physically-based hydrological model developed, calibrated and validated in the area; the model is based on an energy-mass balance over the snowpack that is spatially distributed through the use of depletion curves, and is operational at hourly and daily scales. A general decreasing trend of SDS (0.25 days year-1) was found over the whole study area for the study period. This value is higher in the more humid basins (0.45 and 0.41 days year-1) than in

  19. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  20. Naval Reserve Annual Operating Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-29

    C. c ) CPi i 0 0 00 0 le C C.C~r In 1]1 In 00 It .- I to C-38 ’U2 WIX ’W~ - m u. -C-LC m4 C v , v ul FA ?w % -D 1 o r cl jc j, II t %c oK W)i Ir of... platform programs, while Program 11 contains 26 sub-programs each having a separate Reserve program sponsor. The distribution of Program 11 resources is...a mix of specific skills required to bring an active Navy oper-Iating platform to organizational manning. Each SRU is tailored to a specific ship

  1. Avistamientos recientes de águila real (Aquila chrysaetos en la sierra El Mechudo, Baja California Sur, México Recent sightings of Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos in the Sierra El Mechudo, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Guerrero-Cárdenas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan nuevos avistamientos de águila real durante 3 años consecutivos (2007-2010 en 2 localidades de la sierra El Mechudo (El Saucito y las Tarabillas, Baja California Sur. Los avistamientos, se realizaron con cámaras-trampa y por observación directa. En BCS, los registros más recientes son de la sierra de la Laguna en el 2000. Se han detectado al menos 4 individuos diferentes, entre juveniles y adultos. La importancia de estos nuevos avistamientos reside en que por primera vez se registra la presencia del águila real en cuerpos de agua dulce.We report new sightings of Golden Eagle for 3 consecutive years (2007-2010 at 2 localities of the Sierra El Mechudo (El Saucito and Tarabillas, Baja California Sur. These sightings were recorded with camera traps and by direct observation. Most recent records from BCS are for the Sierra de la Laguna in 2000. At least 4 different individuals, both juveniles and adults, have been recorded. The importance of these new sightings is that for the first time we registered Golden Eagles infresh water wetlands.

  2. Geology of the Sierra de los ajos (Laguna Merin basin, Rocha, Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, E.; Muzio, R.; Veroslavsky, G.

    2006-01-01

    The studied area is located between Lascano city and Sierra de los Ajos hills (department of Rocha, East Uruguay). It is represented by volcanic deposits correspondent to Puerto Gómez and Arequita Formations which are exposed as remarkable and preserved hills in areas recovered by Cenozoic sediments and wetlands. Detailed geological mapping allowed the descriptive characterization of eight volcanic facies: five coherent facies and three volcaniclastic facies. Several structural lineaments located in a constrictive framework, according to the transcurrent system represented by the northeastern portion of the Santa Lucía - Aiguá - Merín tectonic corridor (SaLAM), were identified. These lineaments (Bella Vista, India Muerta and Los Ajos) controlled the tecto-magmatic arrange in this portion of the basin, determining petrographic and structural differences in the area. Particularly, to the East of the India Muerta with structural trend Nº20 felsic lavas corrrespondent to the Sierra de los Ajos and related volcaniclastic deposits are present. On the other hand to the West, intermediate to felsic lavas occurred and no volcaniclastic deposits have been yet identified

  3. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Sánchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Zamora, Regino; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Bonet, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems in two periods: 1988–1990 and 2009–2013. A total of 11002 records of occurrences belonging to 19 orders, 28 families 52 genera were collected. 73 taxa were recorded with 29 threatened taxa. We also included data of cover-abundance and phenology attributes for the records. The dataset is included in the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:25878552

  4. IXTLAMATKI VERSUS NAHUALLI. CHAMANISMO, NAHUALISMO Y BRUJERÍA EN LA SIERRA NEGRA DE PUEBLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Fagetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las características de ixtlamatki y nahualli, como agentes del bien y del mal en el imaginario de los nahuas de Tlacotepec de Díaz, Puebla, constituyen el punto de partida de la reflexión sobre las relaciones que privan entre el chamanismo, el nahualismo y la brujería, como parte del sistema simbólico-mágico-religioso implicado en la trama de la vida y la muerte. El caso de los nahuas de la Sierra Negra nos permite establecer un conjunto de homologías y diferencias entre estas tres grandes categorías y distinguir los rasgos que podrían guiar el estudio de las mismas en otros contextos culturales.   ABSTRACT The characteristics of ixtlamatki and nahualli, as agents of good and evil in the imaginary of the Nahua people from Tlacotepc de Díaz, Puebla, constitute the starting point for reflecting upon the relationships between shamanism, nahualism and witchcraft as part of the symbolic-magic-religious system in the web of life and death. The case of the Nahuas from the Sierra Negra allows us to establish a set of similarities and differences between these three major categories and to distinguish the features that can potentially guide their study in other cultural contexts.

  5. Control of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: vaccine development and our Ebola project in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Since December 2013, West Africa has experienced the worst Ebola virus outbreak in recorded history. Of the 28,639 cases reported to the World Health Organization as of March 2016, nearly half (14,124) occurred in Sierra Leone. With a case fatality rate of approximately 40%, this outbreak has claimed the lives of 11,316 individuals. No FDA-approved vaccines or drugs are available to prevent or treat Ebola virus infection. Experimental vaccines and therapies are being developed; however, their safety and efficacy are still being evaluated. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop control measures to prevent or limit future Ebola virus outbreaks.Previously, we developed a replication-defective Ebola virus that lacks the coding region for the essential viral transcription activator VP30 (Ebola ΔVP30 virus). Here, we evaluated the vaccine efficacy of Ebola ΔVP30 virus in a non-human primate model and describe our collaborative Ebola project in Sierra Leone.

  6. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Sánchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Zamora, Regino; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Bonet, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems in two periods: 1988-1990 and 2009-2013. A total of 11002 records of occurrences belonging to 19 orders, 28 families 52 genera were collected. 73 taxa were recorded with 29 threatened taxa. We also included data of cover-abundance and phenology attributes for the records. The dataset is included in the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.

  7. Age of formation deposition Tunes, Sierra de la Ventana Foldbelt, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandretti, L.; Philipp, R.; Chemale, F.; Ramos, V.

    2010-01-01

    The Sierra de la Ventana, located in east-central Argentina, is the most important recharge area within the South American Plate, an extensive Paleozoic basin, which evolved from a passive margin basin to basin - ante country. The basin developed on the southwestern edge of the supercontinent Gondwana, where magmatic activity occurred in large areal and temporal scale during the Paleozoic, particularly during the Permian . Tufáceos horizons that occur in the Sierra de la Ventana and the Cape Foldbelt Basins and San Rafael, Paraná, Sauce Grande and Karoo can be correlated with this period of intense magmatic activity . Five igneous zircons in an interleaved tufácea layer with sandstones and mudstones of the Tunas Formation, through the U / Pb method were dated using LA - MC - ICP - MS . Yielded an age of 274.3 ± 4.8 Concord Ma for tuffs of the Tunas Formation . Inherited zircons with ages between 623 and 374 Ma, indicate provenance of Patagonian region. Analysis of x -ray diffraction allowed the identification of quartz, plagioclase, smectite and illite mineral constituents of the tufts . The presence of abundant quartz and plagioclase suggests a dacitic volcanism nature to volcanism of southwestern Gondwanan margin and smectite is interpreted as a product of alteration of volcanic material deposited in an aqueous environment

  8. Diamonds and development: A critical analysis of stereotypes about mineworkers in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo D’Angelo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the Sierra Leone’s diamond mines have been the focus of an intense debate among analysts and experts of the development. Two main interrelated issues have been at stake in this debate: first, to understand the economic and political reasons that had supported the civil war from 1991 to 2002 and, second, to understand how to convert a potential “conflict commodity” in a resource for peace and prosperity. In this paper, I intend to highlight some recurring stereotypes of this debate. In particular, I will focus on a constellation of representations that depict the artisanal miners either as workers poorly organized and prone to irrational economic behavior, or as workers subjected to forms of exploitation akin to slavery. Based on fieldwork conducted in the diamond mining areas of Sierra Leone (2007-2011, this article intends to analyze the main forms of working organization and distribution of earnings among the miners. By challenging some stereotypes characterizing the development discourse, my aim is to show the cultural complexity and the historical density of the practices through which the miners face the risks and uncertainties of their job.

  9. Treatment Seeking and Ebola Community Care Centers in Sierra Leone: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Simone E; O'Reilly, Marion; Frith-Powell, Jack; Umar Kargbo, Alpha; Byrne, Daniel; Niederberger, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Ebola Treatment Units were able to provide only 60% of necessary treatment beds in Sierra Leone. As a result, the Government of Sierra Leone decided to construct Community Care Centers. These were intended to increase treatment-seeking behavior and reduce the community-level spread of Ebola by facilitating access to care closer to communities. Through qualitative data collection in 3 districts, this study seeks to understand the perceived impact that proximity to such Centers had on treatment-seeking behavior. Feedback from community members and Community Health Volunteers indicates that proximity to treatment reduced fears, especially those arising from the use of ambulances, lack of familiarity with medical Centers, and loss of contact with family members taken for treatment. Participants report that having a Center close to their home enables them to walk to treatment and witness survivors being discharged. Living close to Centers also enables communities to be involved in their design and daily operation, helping to build trust in them as acceptable treatment facilities. Further research is required to understand the appropriate design, operation, and epidemiological impact of Centers. Further investigation should incorporate the effect of an outbreak's severity and the stage (duration) of the outbreak on potential acceptance of Centers.

  10. Training peers to treat Ebola centre workers with anxiety and depression in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Samantha; Hunter, Elaine Catherine Margaret; Cole, Charles L; Evans, Lauren Jayne; Greenberg, Neil; Rubin, G James; Beck, Alison

    2018-03-01

    Following the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, the UK Department for International Development funded South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) to develop a psychological intervention that ex-Ebola Treatment Centre (ETC) staff could be trained to deliver to their peers to improve mental health in Sierra Leone. The two key aims were to assess the feasibility of training a national team to deliver a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based group intervention, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the overall intervention within this population. UK clinicians travelled to Sierra Leone to train a small team of ex-ETC staff in a three-phased CBT-based intervention. Standardised clinical measures, as well as bespoke measures, were applied with participants through the intervention to assess changes in mental health symptomology, and the effectiveness of the intervention. The results found improvements across all factors of mental health in the bespoke measure from phase 1 to phase 3. Additionally, the majority of standardised clinical measures showed improvements between phase 2 and the start of phase 3, and pre- and post-phase 3. Overall, the findings suggest that it is possible to train staff from ETCs to deliver effective CBT interventions to peers. The implications of these results are discussed, including suggestions for future research and clinical intervention implementation within this population. The limitations of this research are also addressed.

  11. High-Elevation Sierra Nevada Conifers Reveal Increasing Reliance on Snow Water with Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepley, K. S.; Meko, D. M.; Touchan, R.; Shamir, E.; Graham, R.

    2017-12-01

    Snowpack in the Sierra Nevada Mountains accounts for around one third of California's water supply. Melting snow can provide water into dry summer months characteristic of the region's Mediterranean climate. As climate changes, understanding patterns of snowpack, snowmelt, and biological response are critical in this region of agricultural, recreational, and ecological value. Tree rings can act as proxy records to inform scientists and resource managers of past climate variability where instrumental data is unavailable. Here we investigate relationships between tree rings of high-elevation, snow-adapted conifer trees (Tsuga mertensiana, Abies magnifica) and April 1st snow-water equivalent (SWE) in the northern Sierra Nevada Mountains. The 1st principal component of 29 highly correlated regional SWE time series was modeled using multiple linear regression of four tree-ring chronologies including two lagged chronologies. Split-period verification analysis of this model revealed poor predictive skill in the early half (1929 - 1966) of the calibration period (1929 - 2003). Further analysis revealed a significant (p time. Snow water is becoming a more limiting resource to tree growth as average temperatures rise and the hydrologic regime shifts. These results highlight the need for resource managers and policy makers to consider that biological response to climate is not static.

  12. Factors Underlying Ebola Virus Infection Among Health Workers, Kenema, Sierra Leone, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senga, Mikiko; Pringle, Kimberly; Ramsay, Andrew; Brett-Major, David M; Fowler, Robert A; French, Issa; Vandi, Mohamed; Sellu, Josephine; Pratt, Christian; Saidu, Josephine; Shindo, Nahoko; Bausch, Daniel G

    2016-08-15

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) in health workers (HWs) has been a major challenge during the 2014-2015 outbreak. We examined factors associated with Ebola virus exposure and mortality in HWs in Kenema District, Sierra Leone. We analyzed data from the Sierra Leone National Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Database, contact tracing records, Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) staff and Ebola Treatment Unit (ETU) rosters, and burial logs. From May 2014 through January 2015, 600 cases of EVD originated in Kenema District, including 92 (15%) HWs, 66 (72%) of whom worked at KGH. Among KGH medical staff and international volunteers, 18 of 62 (29%) who worked in the ETU developed EVD, compared with 48 of 83 (58%) who worked elsewhere in the hospital. Thirteen percent of HWs with EVD reported contact with EVD patients, while 27% reported contact with other infected HWs. The number of HW EVD cases at KGH declined roughly 1 month after implementation of a new triage system at KGH and the opening of a second ETU within the district. The case fatality ratio for HWs and non-HWs with EVD was 69% and 74%, respectively. The cluster of HW EVD cases in Kenema District is one of the largest ever reported. Most HWs with EVD had potential virus exposure both inside and outside of hospitals. Prevention measures for HWs must address a spectrum of infection risks in both formal and informal care settings as well as in the community. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  13. Ecofeminismo, mujeres y desarrollo sustentable: el caso de la Sierra de Santa Rosa en Guanajuato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abril Saldaña Tejeda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available en este artículo se explora la participación de las mujeres en el Programa de Desarrollo Sustentable Sierra de Santa Rosa, en Guanajuato, de 2001 a 2011. Se expone la aportación del ecofeminismo para la noción de desarrollo sustentable, y para entender el vínculo entre la naturaleza y las mujeres. Se argumenta que la historia de la región, en específico el auge de la industria minera durante la Colonia, es un buen punto de partida para entender los problemas ambientales de la sierra y para visualizar el vínculo entre las estructuras que funcionan en detrimento del medio ambiente y de las mujeres. Así como también que dicho programa tuvo un efecto positivo en la participación social de las mujeres. Sin embargo, existen todavía retos importantes que se manifiestan en estructuras ideológicas, que impiden la participación de las mujeres como líderes y no sólo como trabajadoras, en las condiciones de pobreza que obstaculizan un verdadero compromiso con la sustentabilidad.

  14. Susceptibility to mass movement processes in the municipality of Tlatlauquitepec, Sierra Norte de Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos Borja Baeza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since historical times, mass movement processes have taken place in the Mexican territory as a result of its topography, heterogeneous lithology, intense rainfall and the impact of anthropic activity, particularly in mountainous areas such as the Sierra Norte de Puebla. In this region, as a result of extremely high rainfall, a large number of landslides occurred in October 1999. These were mainly slides and flows; they affected economic, structural and environmental aspects and caused the loss of dozens of human lives. Among the various approaches to analysis of this type of hazard, cartography is of considerable importance since it allows the understanding and assessment of spatial distribution, as well as of the interactions of elements of the terrain that determine slope instability. Hence, some studies of landslide hazard cartography have been carried out in Mexico; these have mainly been based on the overlaying, against a background of geographic information systems, of layers of information concerning the parameters that are involved in slope instability. However, there is a tendency for this approach to establish similar degrees of influence for all factors, regardless of specific local conditions. The present aim was to consider the influence of the five most important parameters controlling regional slope instability in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (slope, morphogenesis, relief dissection, deforestation and roads, and to validate the results by means of a recurrence index. Multicriteria analysis has allowed a map of susceptibility to mass movement processes to be produced for the municipality of Tlatlauquitepec.

  15. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Cliff, S.S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-01-12

    Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  16. Vertical Distribution of Ozone and Nitric Acid Vapor on the Mammoth Mountain, Eastern Sierra Nevada, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In August and September 1999 and 2000, concentrations of ozone (O3 and nitric acid vapor (HNO3 were monitored at an elevation gradient (2184–3325 m on the Mammoth Mountain, eastern Sierra Nevada, California. Passive samplers were used for monitoring exposure to tropospheric O3 and HNO3 vapor. The 2-week average O3 concentrations ranged between 45 and 72 ppb, while HNO3 concentrations ranged between 0.06 and 0.52 μg/m3. Similar ranges of O3 and HNO3 were determined for 2 years of the study. No clear effects of elevation on concentrations of the two pollutants were detected. Concentrations of HNO3 were low and at the background levels expected for the eastern Sierra Nevada, while the measured concentrations of O3 were elevated. High concentrations of ozone in the study area were confirmed with an active UV absorption O3 monitor placed at the Mammoth Mountain Peak (September 5–14, 2000, average 24-h concentration of 56 ppb.

  17. Technical efficiency of primary health units in Kailahun and Kenema districts of Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of the study reported in this paper were to (i estimate the technical efficiency of samples of community health centres (CHCs, community health posts (CHPs and maternal and child health posts (MCHPs in Kailahun and Kenema districts of Sierra Leone, (ii estimate the output increases needed to make inefficient MCHPs, CHCs and CHPs efficient, and (iii explore strategies for increasing technical efficiency of these institutions. Methods This study applies the data envelopment analysis (DEA approach to analyse technical efficiency of random samples of 36 MCHPs, 22 CHCs and 21 CHPs using input and output data for 2008. Results The findings indicate that 77.8% of the MCHPs, 59.1% of the CHCs and 66.7% of the CHPs were variable returns to scale technically inefficient. The average variable returns to scale technical efficiency was 68.2% (SD = 27.2 among the MCHPs, 69.2% (SD = 33.2 among the CHCs and 59% (SD = 34.7 among the CHPs. Conclusion This study reveals significant technical inefficiencies in the use of health system resources among peripheral health units in Kailahun and Kenema districts of Sierra Leone. There is need to strengthen national and district health information systems to routinely track the quantities and prices of resources injected into the health care systems and health service outcomes (indicators of coverage, quality and health status to facilitate regular efficiency analyses.

  18. Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.: Maas (Zingiberaceae: planta comestible de la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macía, Manuel J.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The edible fruits of Renealmia alpinia are highly valued in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (México where they are managed at a household level. The plant is wild in the región, although a rare species. The aril of the fruit is the edible part. After harvesting, the aril is extracted fresh and processed for local consumption. Sometimes the fruits are commercialized in tradicional markets. Only 19% of the total weight of the fruits is used for food.Los frutos comestibles de Renealmia alpinia son muy apreciados en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México, en donde son manejados a nivel familiar. La planta crece silvestre en la región, aunque es una especie poco frecuente. La parte comestible es el arilo de los frutos. Tras la cosecha, se extrae en fresco el arilo y se procesa para su consumo familiar. Ocasionalmente los frutos se comercializan en los mercados tradicionales. Solamente el 19 % del peso total de los frutos se aprovecha para alimentación.

  19. Anfibios y reptiles de la sierra de Cuatro Venados, Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Regalado, N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians and reptiles of the Sierra de Cuatro Venados, Oaxaca, Mexico We surveyed amphibian and reptile communities in temperate forest in the Sierra de Cuatro Venados to increase knowledge of the Oaxacan herpetofauna. We obtained 193 visual and 106 voucher records during 38 days of fieldwork. During the study, we recorded 36 of the 40 species predicted to occur in this mountain range: nine amphibians and 27 reptiles, five of which represent new records at the regional scale. Pine-oak and oak-pine forest habitats were most similar in terms of taxonomic composition (70%, and together contributed a total of 29 species (79%. Species richness was greatest in the altitudinal range 2,001-2,500 m a.m.s l. (72% and terrestrial microhabitat (89%. Fifteen of the observed species (42% are considered to be threatened nationally or internationally, twelve are endemic to Mexico, and one is locally endemic. The total number of reptile and amphibian species known to inhabit the Montañas y Valles del Occidente physiographic region is increased to 122.

  20. Cenozoic thermal evolution of the central Sierra Nevada, California, from (U sbnd Th)/He thermochronometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, M. A.; Wernicke, B. P.; Farley, K. A.; Dumitru, T. A.

    1997-10-01

    Apatite(U sbnd Th)/He cooling ages are reported for igneous apatite samples from the central Sierra Nevada and compared to published apatite fission track ages and track length data from the same mineral separates. Helium ages are youngest at low elevations and increase systematically toward higher elevations, ranging from 43 to 84 Ma at Yosemite Valley, 32 to 74 Ma at Kings River Canyon, and 23 to 75 Ma at Mt. Whitney. Helium ages from high elevation samples are generally concordant with corresponding fission track ages, while lower elevation helium ages are substantially younger. Cooling histories inferred from present laboratory derived fission track annealing and helium diffusion models do not match well, suggesting that either helium diffusion rates or fission track annealing rates are miscalibrated at temperatures below about 60°C for geologic exposure periods. Unlike the fission track results, the helium data do not indicate a very low geothermal gradient in the Sierra Nevada during early to middle Tertiary time.

  1. A new population record and conservation assessment of the Santa Marta Poison Arrow Frog Colostethus ruthveni Kaplan, 1997 (Anura: Dendrobatidae from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.G. Maya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Colombia possesses important amphibian species richness that is threatened by several factors. Here we report a new population of the Santa Marta Poison Arrow Frog Colostethus ruthveni, an endangered endemic species from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range. During intensive surveys across Námaku Reserve, 22 C. ruthveni individuals (mean abundance 0.28 plus or minus 0.09 ind/km were observed along creeks between 737 and 923m above sea level near downtown Minca. This record represents a new locality for the species, increasing the number of known sites and expanding its extent of occurrence. We suggest the reassessment of the conservation status of the species from EN B1ab(iii to VU B1ab(iii, due to this and other recent findings. Currently, the species is present in three protected areas; this new record represents another reserve area where the species is distributed, ensuring the habitat and reducing some of its most important threats such as habitat loss and degradation from agricultural activities, logging, pollution and infrastructure development. This finding represents new critical information for the species and defines the need to understand the real status of its populations for future conservation strategies in the region.

  2. Fluid mixing and ore deposition during the geodynamic evolution of the Sierra Almagrera (Betics, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyja, Vanessa; Tarantola, Alexandre; Hibsch, Christian; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cathelineau, Michel

    2013-04-01

    Marine and continental intramountaineous basins developed during the Neogene orographic evolution of the Betico-rifan orogenic wedge, as well as the related uplifted ranges within the Sierra Almagrera Metamorphic Core Complexes (MCC). The NNE-SSW striking trans-Alboran transcurrent fault system crosscuts the MCC post-dating the extensional exhumation stages recorded in the metamorphic fabric. Iron ores (± Pb, Cu, Zn) are encountered either as stratabound ore deposits in the Neogene basins or as vein networks crosscutting the metamorphic fabric of graphitic phyllites from the Sierra Almagrera. These Late Miocene ore deposits are related to the activity of the N-S striking Palomares fault segment of the Trans-Alboran fault system. Three sets of quartz veins (Vα, Vαβ and Vβ) and one set of mineralized vein (Vγ, siderite, barite) are distinguished. The Vα and Vαβ respectively are totally or partially transposed into the foliation. The Vβ and Vγ veins are discordant to the foliation. The problem addressed in this study concerns the nature of the fluids involved in the metal deposits and their relationships with the main reservoir fluids, e.g. the deep metamorphic fluids, the basinal fluids, and eventually the recharge meteoric fluids. This study focuses thus on the evolution of the fluids at different stages of ductile-brittle exhumation of the metamorphic ranges (Sierras) and their role during the exhumation and later on in relation with the hydrothermalism and metal deposition at a regional scale. Paleofluids were studied as inclusions in quartz, siderite and barite from veins by microthermometry and Raman spectroscopy, and a stable isotope study is in progress. Earliest fluids recorded in (Vαβ) quartz veins are H2O- NaCl + CaCl2 (17 wt. %) - (traces of CO2, CH4, N2) metamorphic brines trapped at the ductile brittle transition at a minimum trapping temperatures (Th) of 340 °C. Older metamorphic fluids in (Vα) veins were lost during the complete

  3. Chemical and isotopic study of thermal springs and gas discharges from Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nencetti, A; Tassi, F; Vaselli, O [Department of Earth Sciences, Florence (Italy); Macias, J. L [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Magro, G [CNR-Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Pisa (Italy); Capaccioni, B [Institute of Volcanology and Geochemistry, Urbino (Italy); Minissale, A [CNR-Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Florence (Italy); Mora, J. C [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-15

    Thermal water and gas discharges south-east of El Chichon volcano, Mexico are associated mainly with NW-SE oriented fault systems. Spring discharges include i) waters with Na-Cl composition and TDS>3000 mg/L; ii) waters with Ca-SO{sub 4} composition and TDS values between 1400 and 2300 mg/L; iii) waters with Na-Cl composition and TDS of 800 to 2400 mg/L and sulphate content up to 650 mg/L and iv) waters with Ca-HCO{sub 3} composition and low salinity (TDS <250mg/L). Most of these waters are associated with free-gas discharges of N{sub 2} (up to 93 % by vol.), CO{sub 2} (2.4 to 31.2 % by vol.) and Ar (up to 1.25 % by vol.) with a predominant meteoric origin. H{sub 2}S is present only in gas samplers collected at El Azufre (up to 1.1 % by vol.). The {delta}13C CO{sub 2} values are always below -9.7% (PDB) and suggest a partially biogenic origin for CO{sub 2}. Chemical and isotopic features of spring discharges indicate that fluid circulation in the Sierra de Chiapas is mainly regulated by meteoric waters that tend to infiltrate the upper and middle-Cretaceous carbonate units up to the lower Cretaceous-upper Jurassic evaporitic formations (by Lopez-Ramos, 1982). The latter provide the main source of the species in solution. No evidence for high-to-medium enthalpy systems at depth beneath the Sierra de Chiapas has been found. [Spanish] La Sierra de Chiapas localizada en el Sureste de Mexico, se caracteriza por la presencia de descargas de gas y agua. La mayoria de los manantiales termales se asocian a rocas volcanicas Terciarias a lo largo de fallas regionales con orientacion NOSE. Las descargas termales se dividen en cuatro grupos: i) aguas con composicion Na-Cl y Solidos Disueltos Totales (SDT) >3000 mg/L; ii) aguas con composicion Ca-SO{sub 4} y valores de SDT entre 1400 y 2300 mg/L; iii) aguas con composicion Na-Cl, bajos contenidos de SDT (800 2400 mg/L) y un contenido de sulfato alto (hasta 650 mg/L) y iv) aguas con una composicion Ca-HCO{sub 3} y salinidad baja

  4. Temporal constraints on the tectonic evolution of Sierra De Famatina, northwestern Argentina, using the fission-track method to date tuffs interbedded in synorogenic clastic sedimentary strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabbutt, K.D. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Fission-track dates from seven volcaniclastic units allow time constraints to be placed on synorogenic clastic strata exposed along the flanks of Sierra de Famatina, northwest Argentina. Four formations are exposed along the western margin of Sierra de Famatina. The El Abra conglomerate is composed of clasts eroded from the basement exposed just to the west of Cadena de Paiman. The El Buey Formation contains sediments probably derived from the Precordillera fold and thrust belt to the west. Fission-track dates give a maximum age of 6 Ma for the deposition of both of these formations. The El Durazno Formation, deposited between 6 and 4 Ma, contains proximal volcaniclastic and other clastic rocks derived from the core of Sierra de Famatina. The Santa Florentina conglomerate was derived from the rising Sierra de Famatina and deposited in the past 4 m.y. Sierra de Famatima probably became a positive topographic feature approximately 6 Ma. Prior to that time this region was receiving fine-grained sediments from a distal fold and thrust belt and conglomerates from local basement uplifts. Minor extrusive events (Mogote Formation) coincide both spatially and temporally with deformation along the major reverse faults that control the uplift of Sierra de Famatina. Minimum mean uplift rates calculated for Sierra de Famatina are 0.8 {plus minus} 0.1 mm/yr over a 6.8 m.y. interval.

  5. A dendrochronology based fire history of Jeffry pine-mixed conifer forests in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Stephens; Carl N. Skinner; Samantha J. Gill

    2003-01-01

    Conifer forests in northwestern Mexico have not experienced systematic fire suppression or logging, making them unique in western North America. Fire regimes of Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf. mixed conifer forests in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico, were determined by identifying 105 fire dates from 1034 fire scars in 105 specimens. Fires were...

  6. 77 FR 45 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Sierra Nevada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... them at risk of attack, death, or diseases such as rabies, sarcoptic mange, canine distemper, and... canine distemper, rabies, and sarcoptic mange to Sierra Nevada red fox (Perrine et al. 2010, p. 28... 2011, pp. 54-60), an outbreak of canine distemper or other lethal disease, as well as predation by...

  7. Mastication and prescribed fire impacts on fuels in a 25-year old ponderosa pine plantation, southern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia L. Reiner; Nicole M. Vaillant; JoAnn Fites-Kaufman; Scott N. Dailey

    2009-01-01

    Due to increases in tree density and hazardous fuel loading in Sierra Nevadan forests, land management is focusing on fuel reduction treatments to moderate the risk of catastrophic fires. Fuel treatments involving mechanical and prescribed fire methods can reduce surface as well as canopy fuel loads. Mastication is a mechanical method which shreds smaller trees and...

  8. Influence of climate and land use on historical surface fires in pine-oak forests, Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Ernesto Alvarado

    2003-01-01

    The rugged mountains of the Sierra Madre Occidental, in north-central Mexico, support a mosaic of diverse ecosystems. Of these, the high-elevation, temperate pine-oak forests are ecologically significant for their extensiveness and biodiversity. They cover nearly half the land area in the states of Durango and Chihuahua (42%), and comprise a similar percentage of the...

  9. REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN YIELD AND RETENTION IN HIGH-ELEVATION ECOSYSTEMS OF THE SIERRA NEVADA AND ROCKY MOUNTAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yields and retention of inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and nitrate concentrations in surface runoff are summarized for 28 high elevation watersheds in the Sierra Nevada, California and Rocky Mountains of Wyoming and Colorado. Catchments ranged in elevation from 2475 to 3603 m and from...

  10. Assessment of post-fire forest structural diversity using neighborhood parameter in the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana Yemilet Avila Flores; Marco Aurelio González Tagle; Javier Jiménez Pérez; Oscar Aguirre Calderón; Eduardo Treviño Garza

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the spatial structure patterns of a Pinus hartwegii forest in the Sierra Madre Oriental, affected by a fire in 1998. Sampling was stratified by fire severity. A total of three fire severity classes (low, medium and high) were defined. Three sample plots of 40m x 40m were established for each...

  11. Impacts of rodenticide and insecticide toxicants from marijuana cultivation on fisher survival rates in the Sierra National Forest, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Thompson; Kathryn Purcell

    2013-01-01

    Secondary exposure of wildlife to pesticides has been well documented, yet exposure is typically associated with agricultural or wildland-urban interface areas. Wildlife in undeveloped areas is generally presumed free from risk. In 2009, a male fisher was found dead in the Sierra National Forest and subsequent necropsy revealed that the animal died of acute rodenticide...

  12. Ozone, nitric acid, and ammonia air pollution is unhealthy for people and ecosystems in southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Cisneros; A. Bytnerowicz; D. Schweizer; S. Zhong; S. Traina; D.H. Bennett

    2010-01-01

    Two-week average concentrations of ozone (O3), nitric acid vapor (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3) were measured with passive samplers during the 2002 summer season across the central Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, along the San Joaquin River drainage. Elevated concentrations of the pollutants were...

  13. Modeling the influence of precipitation and nitrogen deposition on forest understory fuel connectivity in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Hurteau; M. North; T. Foines

    2009-01-01

    Climate change models for California’s Sierra Nevada predict greater inter-annual variability in precipitation over the next 50 years. These increases in precipitation variability coupled with increases in nitrogen deposition fromfossil fuel consumption are likely to result in increased productivity levels and significant increases in...

  14. Reproduction, abundance, and population growth for a fisher (Pekania pennanti) population in the Sierra National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick A. Sweitzer; Viorel D. Popescu; Reginald H. Barrett; Kathryn L. Purcell; Craig M. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    In the west coast region of the United States, fishers (Pekania pennanti) exist in 2 remnant populations—1 in northern California and 1 in the southern Sierra Nevada, California—and 3 reintroduced populations (western Washington, southern Oregon, and northeastern California). The West Coast Distinct Population Segment of fishers encompassing all of...

  15. First record for the river turtle Kinosternon leucostomum (DUMERIL & BIBRON 1851, from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta foothills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mendoza Roldan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The river turtle (Kinosternon leucostomum, was first reported for the department of Guajira in 2011, found in the foothills of the Serranía de Perijá (GALVIS-PEÑUELA et al., 2011. Our observations constitute the first record for the Sierra Nevada de Santamarta Massif and the second distribution record within the department of Guajira, Colombian Caribbean.

  16. Multi-scale evaluation of the environmental controls on burn probability in a southern Sierra Nevada landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Marc-Andre Parisien; Carol Miller

    2011-01-01

    We examined the scale-dependent relationship between spatial fire likelihood or burn probability (BP) and some key environmental controls in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Continuous BP estimates were generated using a fire simulation model. The correspondence between BP (dependent variable) and elevation, ignition density, fuels and aspect was evaluated...

  17. Using the MicroASAR on the NASA SIERRA UAS in the Characterization of Arctic Sea Ice Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    such that the dechirped signal is at an intermediate frequency. Feedthrough rejection is done by a surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter with its first...Fig. 3. NASA SIERRA UAS 3-View and Specifications • Up-looking and down-looking shortwave spectrometers. • Down-looking temperature sensors ( pyrometers

  18. Content of chemical elements in tree rings of lodgepole pine and whitebark pine from a subalpine Sierra Nevada forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; Darren R. Anderson

    1990-01-01

    The wood of lodgepole pines and whitebark pines from a high elevation site in the east central Sierra Nevada of California was analyzed for chemical content to determine whether there were any temporal patterns of chemical distribution in tree rings. Cores were taken from 10 trees of each species and divided into 5-year increments for chemical analysis. Correlation...

  19. Let's Begin Again: Sierra On-Line and the Origins of the Graphical Adventure Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooney, Laine

    2017-01-01

    The author retells the origin story of Sierra On-Line and its historic first product, the graphical adventure game "Mystery House." She reviews the academic and journalistic writing that placed the story almost exclusively inside a narrative about early computer games, treating it as a saga of the competition between the graphic…

  20. Comer y dar de comer a los dioses : conocimiento, el costumbre y la nutricion en La Sierra Huichola, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fajardo Santana, H.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis derives from a four-year period of anthropological research and practice as a medical doctor among the Huichol indigenous people in the western Sierra Madre of Mexico.

    The main focus is an analysis of contrasting (and often conflicting) knowledge and belief systems, as

  1. A Century in Reserve and Beyond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monagle, James P

    2008-01-01

    ... Reserve, this Strategy Research Project (SRP) describes the role of the Army Reserve from its beginning as a reserve corps of medical doctors to that of a strategic reserve force, and then to its current operational role...

  2. Flora útil de los cafetales en la Sierra Norte de Puebla, México Useful plants of the Sierra Norte de Puebla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Martínez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cafetales de la Sierra Norte de Puebla son agroecosistemas variados en composición y estructura, donde se pueden encontrar especies vegetales cultivadas y silvestres, nativas e introducidas, y cuya diversidad florística está estrechamente ligada a las condiciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas en las que se inserta la producción del café. En la última década el cultivo de esta planta ha estado en crisis debido a los bajos precios del producto; sin embargo,los agricultores mantienen los cafetales como fuente de ingreso adoptando nuevas estrategias para obtener recursos económicos mediante la introducción o incremento de cultivos de importancia económica, como pimienta, mamey o plantas medicinales, aprovechando la versatilidad y posibilidades de reorganización de estos agroecosistemas. En este trabajo se presenta el inventario de la flora útil encontrada en cafetales de la SNP. A la fecha están registradas 319 especies pertenecientes a 238 géneros y 99 familias; 90 especies son objeto de comercio y pueden representar nuevas fuentes de ingreso; 256 son nativas y 63 introducidas y se han agrupado en 13 categorías antropocéntricas, de las cuales las medicinales y comestibles son las más numerosas.Coffee plantations in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (SNP are agroecosystems with variable composition and structure. These agroecosystems include native and introduced plant species, as well as cultivated and wild ones. Plant diversity in coffee plantations is closely related to the social, economic, and ecological context into which coffee production is inserted. In the last decade, coffee cultivation has been in crisis due to low prices. Nevertheless, farmers of the SNP maintain their plantations as a source of income, with new strategies such as the introduction or increase of plants with economic value, like allspice (Pimenta dioica, mamey (Pouteria sapota, and medicinal plants, taking advantage of the versatility and possibilities

  3. Diet of Agonostomus monticola (Pisces: Mugilidae in the Río Ayuquila, Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Isela Torres-Navarro

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available We quantified the diet of Agonostomus monticola during the wet and dry seasons of 1990 in a 15 km reach of the Río Ayuquila, a Pacific tributary of west-central México. The species consumed 32 animal and 9 plant families, with aquatic insects (mainly Diptera, Ephemeroptera, and Trichoptera and algae (mainly Chlorophyta as primary prey. Animal material dominated the diet in the wet season but was only slightly more important than plant material in the dry season. Animal material increased in importance with fish size for specimens 151-300 mm total length. Río Ayuquila A. monticola ate fewer shrimp, Odonate insects, fish, and fruit than other studied populations. The broad diet of A. monticola suggests that it is an opportunistic feeder.Se cuantificó la dieta del pez Agonostomus monticola en 1990 en México. La dieta es oportunista e incluyó 32 familias de animales y nueve de plantas, pero dominó el alimento de origen animal, especialmente en individuos de 151-300 mm de longitud

  4. Plan for a Sierra Nevada Hydrologic Observatory: Science Aims, Measurement Priorities, Research Opportunities and Expected Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, R.; Dozier, J.; Famiglietti, J.; Fogg, G.; Hopmans, J.; Kirchner, J.; Meixner, T.; Molotch, N.; Redmond, K.; Rice, R.; Sickman, J.; Warwick, J.

    2004-12-01

    In response to NSF's plans to establish a network of hydrologic observatories, a planning group is proposing a Sierra Nevada Hydrologic Observatory (SNHO). As argued in multiple consensus planning documents, the semi-arid mountain West is perhaps the highest priority for new hydrologic understanding. Based on input from over 100 individuals, it is proposed to initiate a mountain-range-scale study of the snow-dominated hydrology of the region, focusing on representative 1,000-5,000 km2 river basins originating in the Sierra Nevada and tributary to the Sacramento-San-Joaquin Delta. The SNHO objective is to provide the necessary infrastructure for improved understanding of surface-water and ground-water systems, their interactions and their linkages with ecosystems, biogeochemistry, agriculture, urban areas and water resources in semi-arid regions. The SNHO will include east-west transects of hydrological observations across the Sierra Nevada and into the basin and range system, in four distinct latitude bands that span much of the variability found in the semi-arid West. At least one transect will include agricultural and urban landscapes of the Great Central Valley. Investments in measurement systems will address scales from the mountain range down to the basin, headwater catchment and study plot. The intent is to provide representative measurements that will yield general knowledge as opposed to site-specific problem solving of a unique system. The broader, general science question posed by the planning group is: How do mountain hydrologic processes vary across landscapes, spanning a range of latitudes, elevations and thus climate, soils, geology and vegetation zones?\\" Embodied are additional broad questions for the hydrologic science community as a whole: (i) How do hydrologic systems that are subjected to multiple perturbations respond? (ii) How do pulses and changes propagate through the hydrologic system? (iii) What are the time lags and delays of stresses in

  5. Sierra Nevada serpentinites. An important element in the architectonic heritage of Granada (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; Pereira, Dolores; Rodríguez-Navarro, Carlos; Sebastián-Pardo, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Serpentinites are widely used in historic buildings in the whole world, from Ancient Greek or Egypt to more recent colonial buildings in the USA. Serpentinites from Sierra Nevada (S of Spain) have been traditionally used as ornamental elements in historic buildings of Granada city, both indoors and outdoors. The Cathedral, Carlos V Palace, Royal Chancery and some others are good examples of their use. Some other important cases can be found outside Granada, like El Escorial monastery, Las Salesas Reales convent, etc… all of them part of Madrid architectonic heritage. There are two quarries located in Sierra Nevada that supplied all the material to make the different elements in the cited buildings. In this work, a thorough characterization of the main serpentinites from Sierra Nevada, their uses, and their state of conservation in selected buildings from Granada has been performed. Samples from the main original quarry and from one historical building (Real Chancillería) have been analysed, determining the mineralogical and geochemical composition, texture, water parameters (absorption, porosity, density) and possible alteration by salt formation. It has been observed that the mineralogical and geochemical compositions are similar in both sets of samples, although the ones coming from the historical building show a highly advanced state of alteration. Regarding physical and mechanical parameters, samples from the quarry have very low water absorption values, while the porosity of serpentinites sampled from the Real Chancillería is comparatively much higher. We explain this difference as due to the weathering of the emplaced serpentinites by salt crystallization processes (mainly gypsum or epsomite), that generate strong internal pressures causing the disintegration of the whole natural stone. In addition, the increase of the porosity can be caused by dissolution processes related to the presence of acid solutions related to oxidation and hydrolysis of iron

  6. Diversidad de maiz en la sierra sur de Oaxaca, México: conocimiento y manejo tradicional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rendón-Aguilar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Oaxaca representa un importante acervo de maíz en México. Estudios previos han indicado la presencia de muchas variedades locales y razas agronómicas en la Sierra Norte y Valles Centrales. La Sierra Sur ha sido poco estudiada a pesar de la presencia de comunidades indígenas zapotecas, las cuales cultivan maíz, entre otras especies, y han preservado las variedades locales. El presente estudio responde a las siguientes preguntas: ¿cuál es la diversidad de maíz en términos de variedades tradicionales y razas agronómicas en la región zapoteca de Los Loxicha?, ¿la diversidad de maíz sigue un patrón de distribución a lo largo de un gradiente altitudinal?, ¿cuáles prácticas promueven y mantienen esta diversidad? Para contestar estas preguntas se realizó un estudio en cinco municipios de la Sierra Sur de Oaxaca. Durante 2007 se aplicaron entrevistas estructuradas a 930 agricultores para describir el proceso de manejo de semilla. La caracterización morfológica de las razas agronómicas se basó en muestras de mazorcas obtenidas en 375 milpas, con 20 plantas por milpa. Se encontraron altos niveles de diversidad local de maíz, con 36 variedades tradicionales correspondientes a 10 razas agronómicas. Las razas exhibieron diferencias en términos de variación fenotípica, distribución altitudinal y algunas muestran adaptación local. Los agricultores practican algunas formas de manejo ancestral para la selección de mazorcas y semillas, manteniendo, así, ciertos niveles de diferenciación entre las variedades y las razas agronómicas. Sin embargo, al sembrar diferentes variedades dentro de la misma parcela, se promueve el flujo génico y la introgresión entre ellas, manteniendo y promoviendo la diversidad fenotípica y genética.

  7. Potential Exposure to Ebola Virus from Body Fluids due to Ambulance Compartment Permeability in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Megan L; Nguyen, Duong T; Idriss, Barrie; Bennett, Sarah; Dunn, Angela; Martin, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Prehospital care, including patient transport, is integral in the patient care process during the Ebola response. Transporting ill persons from the community to Ebola care facilities can stop community spread. Vehicles used for patient transport in infectious disease outbreaks should be evaluated for adequate infection prevention and control. An ambulance driver in Sierra Leone attributed his Ebola infection to exposure to body fluids that leaked from the patient compartment to the driver cabin of the ambulance. A convenience sample of 14 vehicles used to transport patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola in Sierra Leone were assessed. The walls separating the patient compartment and driver cabin in these vehicles were evaluated for structural integrity and potential pathways for body fluid leakage. Ambulance drivers and other staff were asked to describe their cleaning and decontamination practices. Ambulance construction and design standards from the National Fire Protection Association, US General Services Administration, and European Committee on Standardization (CEN) were reviewed. Many vehicles used by ambulance staff in Sierra Leone were not traditional ambulances, but were pick-up trucks or sport-utility vehicles that had been assembled or modified for patient transport. The wall separating the patient compartment and driver cabin in many vehicles did not have a waterproof seal around the edges. Staff responsible for cleaning and disinfection did not thoroughly clean bulk body fluids with disposable towels before disinfection of the patient compartment. Pressure from chlorine sprayers used in the decontamination process may have pushed body fluids from the patient compartment into the driver cabin through gaps around the wall. Ambulance design standards do not require a waterproof seal between the patient compartment and driver cabin. Sealing the wall by tightening or replacing existing bolts is recommended, followed by caulking of all seams with a

  8. Mineralogy and geochemistry of two metamorphosed sedimentary manganese deposits, Sierra Nevada, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, M.J.K.; Huebner, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Laminated to massive rhodochrosite, hausmannite, and Mn-silicates from the Smith prospect and Manga-Chrome mine, Sierra Nevada, California were deposited as ocean floor sediments associated with chert and shale. The principal lithologies at Smith are chert, argillite, rhodochrosite-, hausmannite- and chlorite-rich layers, and relatively uncommon layers of jacobsite. The Manga-Chrome mine also contains layers rich in manganoan calcite and caryopilite. Tephroite, rhodonite, spessartine, and accessory alleghanyite and sonolite formed during metamorphism. Volcaniclastic components are present at Manga-Chrome as metavolcanic clasts and as Mn-poor, red, garnet- and hematite-rich layers. There is no evidence, such as relict lithologies, that Mn was introduced into Mn-poor lithologies such as chert, limestone or mudstone. Replacement of Mn-poor phases by Mn-rich phases is observed only in the groundmass of volcanic clasts that appear to have fallen into soft Mn-rich mud. Manganiferous samples from the Smith prospect and Manga-Chrome mine have high Mn Fe and low concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, Co, U, Th and the rare-earth elements that are similar to concentrations reported from other ancient Mn deposits found in chert-greenstone complexes and from manganiferous sediments and crusts that are forming near modern sea floor vents. The Sierra Nevada deposits formed as precipitates of Mn-rich sediments on the sea floor, probably from mixtures of circulating hydrothermal fluids and seawater. The composition of a metabasalt from the Smith prospect is consistent with those of island-arc tholeiites. Metavolcanic clasts from the Manga-Chrome mine are compositionally distinct from the Smith metabasalt and have alkaline to calc-alkaline affinities. A back-arc basin is considered to be the most likely paleoenvironment for the formation of the Mn-rich lenses at the Manga-Chrome mine and, by association, the Smith prospect. Layers of rhodochrosite, hausmannite and chert preserve the

  9. Banco de semillas en ambientes de las sierras de Azul (Buenos Aires, Argentina con distinta intensidad de disturbios Seed bank in environments of the Azul sierras (Buenos Aires, Argentina with different disturbance intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gianaccini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A fin de evaluar el impacto de la agricultura sobre la flora potencial de pastizales serranos en el Partido de Azul (Buenos Aires, Argentina, se comparó el banco de semillas en los 20 cm superficiales del suelo entre dos sectores adyacentes en las primeras estribaciones serranas. Uno de ellos está sometido a agricultura permanente y el otro conserva un pastizal natural bajo pastoreo y quemas no programados. Este último sector presentó en promedio una densidad de 70.000 sem m-2 contra 36.720 sem m-2 en el primero. La representación de semillas de especies nativas se redujo notablemente en el ambiente agrícola. Stipa caudata con 31360 sem m-2 resultó la especie más abundante en el pastizal. En el ambiente de cultivo, su densidad se redujo a 9940 sem m-2 y fue superada por Chenopodium album con 10560 sem m-2. La similitud en la composición del banco fue de 55% en términos cualitativos y 27% en términos cuantitativos. Estos resultados evidencian que, en el área de estudio, el reemplazo del pastizal natural por agricultura reduce notoriamente las reservas de semillas y modifica la composición cualitativa y cuantitativa del banco con una elevada pérdida en la proporción de especies nativas.In order to evaluate the impact of agriculture on the potential flora of grasslands of the sierras of Azul (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, the soil seed bank in the top 20 cm from two adjacent areas on the first foothill spurs were compared. One is submitted to continuous agriculture. The other area has grasslands under grazing and non programmed burning. The latter showed a mean density of 70.000 seeds m-2 against a mean density of 36.720 seeds m-2 in the first area. The proportional representation of native species seeds decreased strongly in the agricultural environment. The most abundant species in the grasslands was Stipa caudata (31.360 seeds m-2. In the agricultural environment, its density decreased to 9940 seeds m-2. It was surpassed by

  10. Cacao 3 (Cc 3, Arte rupestre del formativo temprano en Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Rodrigo Martel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo hemos abordado el estudio de la producción del arte rupestre del sitio Cacao 3 –Cc3- (Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca con relación a las prácticas socioculturales de grupos agropastoriles del periodo Formativo Temprano en la Puna meridional argentina, haciendo hincapié en el emplazamiento del sitio y su asociación contextual con las demás evidencias arqueológicas conocidas para el área de estudio y estableciendo las relaciones entre las manifestaciones rupestres de Cc3 con las de otros sitios, a nivel micro y macrorregional, a través de indicadores estilísticos

  11. Estudio climático y bioclimático del Parque Natural Sierra de Grazalema

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo Barea, Alfonso Jesús

    2016-01-01

    El Parque Natural Sierra de Grazalema, uno de los ámbitos más interesantes desde el punto de vista climático y bioclimático de la península, no está lo suficientemente estudiado. Por ello, en primer lugar, afrontamos un estudio climático de detalle, donde se analizan en profundidad las dos variables climáticas más relevantes (temperatura y precipitación). En vista de que la cartografía climática pública es muy general, hemos elaborado, con los valores térmicos y pluviométricos anuales disponi...

  12. The scrub as protector of the land water resources in the Sierra de Enguera. Valencia. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerda, A.; Gimenez-Morera, A.; Bodi, M. B.

    2009-01-01

    John Thornes found that srubland (matorral was a key factor to control soil erosion on Mediterranean mountains. His research works inspired many scientist that researched the impact of scrubland changes and management on semiarid ecosystems. An experiment carried out on the El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera experimental station in 2004 show the erosion rates on a 30 years abandoned orchard with dense vegetation cover of Ulex parviflorus and Cistus albidus and a 20-year old fire affected Maquia with Quercus coccifera. Pistacia lentiscus and Juniperus oxycedrus. The 8 (4 at each treatment) plots (1,2,4 and 16 m 2 ) under 715 mm of natural rainfall contributed with low runoff, sediment concentration and soil erosion. These measurements confirm the John Thornes idea matorral is an efficient vegetation cover protection on Mediterranean ecosystems. (Author)

  13. Global health business: the production and performativity of statistics in Sierra Leone and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Susan L

    2012-01-01

    The global push for health statistics and electronic digital health information systems is about more than tracking health incidence and prevalence. It is also experienced on the ground as means to develop and maintain particular norms of health business, knowledge, and decision- and profit-making that are not innocent. Statistics make possible audit and accountability logics that undergird the management of health at a distance and that are increasingly necessary to the business of health. Health statistics are inextricable from their social milieus, yet as business artifacts they operate as if they are freely formed, objectively originated, and accurate. This article explicates health statistics as cultural forms and shows how they have been produced and performed in two very different countries: Sierra Leone and Germany. In both familiar and surprising ways, this article shows how statistics and their pursuit organize and discipline human behavior, constitute subject positions, and reify existing relations of power.

  14. Mineralización de uranio en la Sierra de Velasco, La Rioja

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morello, O.; Aparicio González, P.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution describes an uranium mineralization found in the Sierra de Velasco, La Rioja Province, Northwest of Ar¬gentina. In the study area crop out granites, pegmatites and metamorphic rocks. The host rocks of the mineralization are the La Chinchilla Granite (Carboniferous) and the La Cébila metamorphic Complex (Precambrian-Ordovician). The mine¬ralization is perigranitic and occurs disseminated, in fractures and in the contact between the granite and the metamorphic rocks. In the La Chinchilla Granite was identified a U-Nb-Ta oxide, and in the metamorphic rocks U-silicates (uranophane, uranophane-beta), U-phosphates (phurcalite and meta-autunite) and uranium oxides (pitchblende and coffinite) were found. (authors) [es

  15. Illegal logging in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan van der Ploeg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Illegal logging is a threat to biodiversity and rural livelihoods in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, the largest protected area in the Philippines. Every year between 20,000 and 35,000 cu. m wood is extracted from the park. The forestry service and municipal governments tolerate illegal logging in the protected area; government officials argue that banning an important livelihood activity of households along the forest frontier will aggravate rural poverty. However this reasoning underestimates the scale of timber extraction, and masks resource capture and collusive corruption. Illegal logging in fact forms an obstacle for sustainable rural development in and around the protected area by destroying ecosystems, distorting markets, and subverting the rule of law. Strengthening law enforcement and controlling corruption are prerequisites for sustainable forest management in and around protected areas in insular southeast Asia.

  16. Education Programs in Post-Conflict Environments: a Review from Liberia, Sierra Leone, and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Barrios-Tao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Education should be considered as one of the mechanisms for governments and nations to succeed in a post-conflict process. The purpose of this Review Article is twofold: to explain the importance of education in a post-conflict setting, and to describe a few strategies that post-conflict societies have implemented. In terms of research design, a multiple case study approach has been implemented. The paper reviews a unique topic with specific reference to education plans implemented in post-conflict societies such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, and South Africa. Each of them has experienced violent conflicts and has used education as a tool to succeed in their post-conflict process. In sum, there are several educational programs that involve children, young people, survivors, parents, teachers, and local communities as well as curriculums focused on teaching of cultural values and technical skills to improve the quality of life in a post-conflict setting.

  17. Source identification in acoustics and structural mechanics using Sierra/SD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Aquino, Wilkins [Duke University Durham, NC; Ross, Michael

    2013-03-01

    In this report we derive both time and frequency-domain methods for inverse identification of sources in elastodynamics and acoustics. The inverse/design problem is cast in a PDE-constrained optimization framework with efficient computation of gradients using the adjoint method. The implementation of source inversion in Sierra/SD is described, and results from both time and frequency domain source inversion are compared to actual experimental data for a weapon store used in captive carry on a military aircraft. The inverse methodology is advantageous in that it provides a method for creating ground based acoustic and vibration tests that can reduce the actual number of flight tests, and thus, saving costs and time for the program.

  18. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Sierra Leone, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $1.1 million of Agency support received, Sierra Leone ranks 70th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. Almost equal shares of the assistance during the past ten years have been provided in the form of equipment (40%) and expert services (37%), while the share of the training component was 23%. The best part of the resources was provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (96%), the remaining 4% was made available through assistance in kind. During the past ten years, project activities - and disbursements - have concentrated exclusively on three major areas: nuclear medicine (52%), general atomic energy development (25%) and agriculture (23%)

  19. Some additional observations on inclusions in the granitic rocks of the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, F.C.W.; Kistler, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Microgranular quartz diorite and diorite inclusions are widespread in central Sierra Nevada granitoid rocks and are almost exclusively restricted to hornblende-bearing rocks, most commonly felsic tonalites and mafic granodiorites. The Nd-Sm and Rb-Sr systematics indicate that most inclusions were in isotopic equilibrium with enclosing materials at the time of formation. Silica contents of inclusions and granitoids are contiguous, but inclusions generally contain less than, and granitoids more than, 60% SiO2. Ferric oxide and H2O+ trends relative to SiO2 suggests many inclusions formed as concentrations of hydrous mafic minerals. Variation of other major element oxides and trace elements support this inference. Most inclusions represent fragmented crystal accumulations of early-formed, near-liquidus minerals generated from these previously mixed magmas. -from Authors

  20. Evaluation of the benefits and risks of introducing Ebola community care centers, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Adam J; Camacho, Anton; Checchi, Francesco; Waldman, Ron; Grais, Rebecca F; Cabrol, Jean-Clement; Briand, Sylvie; Baguelin, Marc; Flasche, Stefan; Funk, Sebastian; Edmunds, W John

    2015-03-01

    In some parts of western Africa, Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) have reached capacity. Unless capacity is rapidly scaled up, the chance to avoid a generalized Ebola epidemic will soon diminish. The World Health Organization and partners are considering additional Ebola patient care options, including community care centers (CCCs), small, lightly staffed units that could be used to isolate patients outside the home and get them into care sooner than otherwise possible. Using a transmission model, we evaluated the benefits and risks of introducing CCCs into Sierra Leone's Western Area, where most ETCs are at capacity. We found that use of CCCs could lead to a decline in cases, even if virus transmission occurs between CCC patients and the community. However, to prevent CCC amplification of the epidemic, the risk of Ebola virus-negative persons being exposed to virus within CCCs would have to be offset by a reduction in community transmission resulting from CCC use.

  1. Radiation balances of melting snow covers at an open site in the Central Sierra Nevada, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado, E.

    1985-01-01

    The radiation balances of melting snow packs for three seasons at an open site at the Central Sierra Snow Laboratory near Soda Springs, California were examined. The snow covers were examples of below-normal, near-normal and much-above-normal water equivalents. Two of the snow covers melted under generally clear skies in late spring while the other melted under cloudier conditions and at a time when less extraterrestrial radiation was available. Moreover, the snow covers were of very different densities, thereby allowing examination of a possible relationship between that characteristic and albedo. No such relationship was observed. Despite the dissimilarities in the conditions under which melt occurred, the disposition of solar radiation was similar for the three melt seasons. Albedos and their rates of decline through the melt season were similar for the three seasons. Absorbed solar radiation and a cloudiness index were useful predictors for daily net radiation, accounting for 71% of the total variance. (author)

  2. Inevitable changes in snowpack and water resources over California's Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A. D.; Sun, F.; Walton, D.; Berg, N.; Schwartz, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Here we use a downscaling technique incorporating both dynamical and statistical methods to project end-of-century changes in spring snow water equivalent in California's Sierra Nevada. The technique produces outcomes for all Global Climate Models (GCMs) and the four greenhouse gas forcing scenarios adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For all GCMs and forcing scenarios, significant snow loss occurs at elevations below 2500 meters, despite increasing precipitation in many GCMs. The loss is significantly enhanced by snow albedo feedback. The approximate intermodel range in percent of total snow remaining in the entire region is 60-85% for a likely "mitigation" scenario, and 35-55% for the "business-as-usual" scenario. Thus significant snowpack decrease by century's end is inevitable, even if the loss can be cushioned through greenhouse gas emissions reductions over the coming decades. The snowpack loss also leads to significant changes in runoff timing, which are also inevitable.

  3. Las lecturas múltiples de una frontera: Huehuetenango y la Sierra de los Cuchumatanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Garay Herrera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se pretende analizar la región de Huehuetenango en general, y la Sierra de los Cuchumatanes en particular, como una zona de múltiples transformaciones e identidades que se traslapan entre sí a lo largo del tiempo y el espacio. Al realizar diversas lecturas (históricas, culturales, lingüísticas de esta región, se constata que el concepto de frontera se puede aplicar en diferentes formas y momentos a este espacio geográfico, y no solo en referencia a la moderna frontera política que marca los límites entre dos estados soberanos, como son Guatemala y México.

  4. Geology and petrography of basement in south extreme in Sierra Grande de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morosini, A.; Ortiz Suarez, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the south of the Sierra de San Luis is recognized a basement composed by La Escalerilla and Los Puquios granites, accompanied by schist, mylonite s and mafic-ultramafic rocks. The schists, La Escalerilla granite and the mafic -ultramafic rocks are affected by a regional metamorphism in anphibolites facies, the two first present a N-S foliation di ping to east. The mylonite s correspond to a second event of deformation, distributed in thin belts of NNE-SSO direction and inclination to east, developed in green schist to anphibolites facies. Los Puquios granite represents the more young of the basement rocks and the intrusion was associated with a shear zone. Los Puquios granite forms dikes and small plutons cutting La Escalerilla granite and micas chits in high cortical levels

  5. Soil moisture datasets at five sites in the central Sierra Nevada and northern Coast Ranges, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michelle A.; Anderson, Frank A.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2018-05-03

    In situ soil moisture datasets are important inputs used to calibrate and validate watershed, regional, or statewide modeled and satellite-based soil moisture estimates. The soil moisture dataset presented in this report includes hourly time series of the following: soil temperature, volumetric water content, water potential, and total soil water content. Data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at five locations in California: three sites in the central Sierra Nevada and two sites in the northern Coast Ranges. This report provides a description of each of the study areas, procedures and equipment used, processing steps, and time series data from each site in the form of comma-separated values (.csv) tables.

  6. Paleozoic-involving thrust array in the central Sierras Interiores (South Pyrenean Zone, Central Pyrenees): regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    This work deals with the structural evolution of the Sierras Interiores between the Tena and Aragon valleys. The Sierras Interiores is a WNW-trending mountain range that bounds the South Pyrenean Zone to the north and that is characterized by a thrust-fold system with a strong lithological control that places preferably decollements in Triassic evaporites. In the studied area of the Sierras Interiores Cenomanian limestones cover discordantly the Paleozoic rocks of the Axial Zone because there is a stratigraphic lacuna developed from Triassic to Late Cretaceous times. A simple lithostratigraphy of the study area is made up of Late Cenomanian to Early Campanian limestones with grey colour and massive aspect in landscape (170 m, Lower calcareous section), Campanian to Maastrichtian brown coloured sandstones (400-600 m, Marboré sandstones) and, finally, Paleocene light-coloured massive limestones (130-230 m), that often generate the higher topographic levels of the Sierras Interiores due to their greater resistance to erosion. Above the sedimentary sequence of the Sierras Interiores, the Jaca Basin flysch succession crops out discordantly. Based on a detailed mapping of the studied area of the Sierras Interiores, together with well and structural data of the Jaca Basin (Lanaja, 1987; Rodríguez and Cuevas, 2008) we have constructed a 12 km long NS cross section, approximately parallel to the movement direction deduced for this region (Rodríguez et al., 2011). The main structure is a thrust array made up of at least four Paleozoic-involving thrusts (the deeper thrust system) of similar thickness in a probably piggyback sequence, some of which are blind thrusts that generate fold-propagation-folds in upper levels. The higher thrust of the thrust array crops out duplicating the lower calcareous section all over the Sierras Interiores. The emplacement of the deeper thrust system generated the tightness of previous structures: south directed piggyback duplexes (the upper

  7. NOAA ESRI Grid - 10m Bathymetry around Abrir La Sierra Bank, Puerto Rico, Project NF-07-06, 2007, UTM 19 NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 10 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of selected portions of seafloor around Abrir La Sierra Bank in Puerto Rico,...

  8. NOAA ESRI Geotiff - 10m Bathymetry around Abrir La Sierra Bank, Puerto Rico, Project NF-07-06, 2007, UTM 19 NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 10 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of selected portions of seafloor around Abrir La Sierra Bank in Puerto...

  9. NOAA ESRI Grid - 5m Bathymetry around Abrir La Sierra Bank, Puerto Rico, Project NF-07-06, 2007, UTM 19 NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 5 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of selected portions of seafloor around Abrir La Sierra Bank in Puerto Rico,...

  10. Análisis comparativo de la composición de tres comunidades de Squamata de la Sierra Grande de Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martori, Ricardo

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The differences and similarities of lizard assemblages can be explaned by historical or ecological factors or by the interaction of both. To examine these hypothesis we selected three communities with similar environmental influences in the Sierra Grande de Córdoba (Argentina. The sites selected where: Villa Las Rosas (31°56', 65°03', dep. San Javier on the west side of the Sierra, Tanti (310,22, 64°36' dep. Punilla on the east side of the Sierra and Achiras (33°10', 64°59' dep. Rio Cuarto on the southem extreme of the Sierra. All these sites have more than eight species of lizards. The diversity of each site is described and the novelties, sustitutions and absences for each locality are discussed and compared with three external communities. A phylogenetic hypothesis of the species involved in this study is need to resolve the biogeographic problems.

  11. The post-Laramide clastic deposits of the Sierra de Guanajuato: Compositional implications on the tectono-sedimentary and paleographic evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda-Aviles, R.; Puy-Alquiza, M.J.; OmaNa, L.; Loza-Aguirre, I.

    2016-07-01

    This article presents the results of the study on sedimentation, sedimentary environments, tectono-sedimentary and paleogeographic evolution of post-Laramide clastic deposits and pre-volcanism of the Sierra Madre Occidental in the Sierra de Guanajuato, central Mexico. The Eocene Duarte Conglomerate and Guanajuato Conglomerate were deposited in the middle and distal parts of alluvial fans. The studied rocks are composed of limestone clasts, granite, andesite, metasediments, diorite, and pyroxenite, indicating the erosion of uplifted blocks of the basal complex of the Sierra de Guanajuato (Arperos basin). The petrographic and compositional analysis of limestone shows a textural variation from basin limestones and shallow platform limestones. The shallow platform limestone contain bivalves, brachiopods, gastropods, echinoderms and benthic foraminifera from the Berriasian-Valanginian. The shallow-water limestone corresponds to the boundary of the Arperos basin whose original outcrops currently not outcrop in the Sierra de Guanajuato. (Author)

  12. Cosmogenic helium and volatile-rich fluid in Sierra leone alluvial diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConville, P.; Reynolds, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Pursuant to the discovery elsewhere of cosmogenic 10 Be in alluvial diamond fragments from Zaire, noble gas measurements were made on two identical splits of a finely powdered, harshly acid-washed sample derived from selected (for clarity) fragments of a single alluvial diamond from Sierra Leone (sample LJA → L4 and L5). Essentially identical results were obtained for both splits. Isotopic ratios for Ar, Kr, and Xe were atmospheric and their elemental abundances were high relative to published data, owing to shock implantation in the crushing as verified in a supplementary experiment. No neon was detected above blank level. 3 He was exceptionally abundant, 4 He exceptionally depleted, possibly from the acid wash, and the ratio 3 He/ 4 He almost unprecedentedly high at an R/R a value of 246 ± 16. The results support the hypothesis that excess 3 He in diamonds is cosmogenic, although a cosmic-ray exposure of 5, 35, or (impossibly) 152 Ma for cyclic gardening of the sample to a maximum depth of 0, 4.6 m, or 20 m, respectively, is required. Troublesome for the cosmogenic hypothesis is a sample from very deep in the Finsch mine, South Africa, found by Zadnik et al (1987) to have an R/R a value of 1,000. This paper includes histograms of noble gas data published prior to mid-1988 for diamonds of known provenance. The Sierra Leone diamond studied in the supplementary experiment belongs to a distinct population of 40* Ar-rich diamonds consisting mostly of cubic diamonds for Zaire

  13. Detecting Drought-Induced Tree Mortality in Sierra Nevada Forests with Time Series of Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Byer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A five-year drought in California led to a significant increase in tree mortality in the Sierra Nevada forests from 2012 to 2016. Landscape level monitoring of forest health and tree dieback is critical for vegetation and disaster management strategies. We examined the capability of multispectral imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in detecting and explaining the impacts of the recent severe drought in Sierra Nevada forests. Remote sensing metrics were developed to represent baseline forest health conditions and drought stress using time series of MODIS vegetation indices (VIs and a water index. We used Random Forest algorithms, trained with forest aerial detection surveys data, to detect tree mortality based on the remote sensing metrics and topographical variables. Map estimates of tree mortality demonstrated that our two-stage Random Forest models were capable of detecting the spatial patterns and severity of tree mortality, with an overall producer’s accuracy of 96.3% for the classification Random Forest (CRF and a RMSE of 7.19 dead trees per acre for the regression Random Forest (RRF. The overall omission errors of the CRF ranged from 19% for the severe mortality class to 27% for the low mortality class. Interpretations of the models revealed that forests with higher productivity preceding the onset of drought were more vulnerable to drought stress and, consequently, more likely to experience tree mortality. This method highlights the importance of incorporating baseline forest health data and measurements of drought stress in understanding forest response to severe drought.

  14. Patterns of Tree Species Diversity in Relation to Climatic Factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Flores, Ramón; Pérez-Verdín, Gustavo; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different species of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole), 54 species of Quercus (ca. 9–14%), 7 species of Arbutus (ca. 50%) and many other trees species. The objectives of this study were to model how tree species diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum tree species diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of tree species are generally higher in cold

  15. Onset and Multiple Fluctuations of Holocene Glaciation in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, N. D.; Clark, D. H.

    2004-12-01

    Multiple sediment cores from two paternoster tarns (First and Second lakes) in North Fork Big Pine Creek, Sierra Nevada, preserve the most detailed and complete record of Holocene glaciation yet recovered in the range; they indicate that the glacier was absent during the early Holocene, reformed in the late Holocene, and experienced several expansions and contractions, culminating with the Matthes maximum during the last ˜200 years. The lakes are fed by outwash from the Palisade Glacier, the largest ( ˜1.3 km2) and presumably longest-lived glacier in the Sierra Nevada, and capture essentially all of the rock flour produced by the glacier. Distinct late-Holocene (Matthes) and late-Pleistocene (Recess Peak) moraines lie between the modern glacier and the lakes. Thus, the lakes have received continuous sedimentation since the retreat of the Tioga glacier ( ˜15,000 yr B.P.), and therefore capture rock flour related to all subsequent advances. First and Second lakes occupy relatively deep bedrock basins at 3036 m and 3066 m asl., respectively. Third Lake, a shallow (rock flour (outwash) from the upstream Palisade Glacier, most likely related to formation and expansions of the glacier in the late Holocene. The maximum peak at the top of the cores confirms the moraine record, which indicates that the maximum Holocene advance of Sierran glaciers occurred during the late Little Ice Age (last ˜200 yr) At least one tephra layer, possibly related to the Mono/Inyo dome complexes, occurs in the middle depths of the First Lake cores. Other narrow peaks in MS may also be associated with tephra deposits. Ongoing detailed analyses of the sediments, including AMS radiocarbon dating, visual and x-ray imaging, particle size analysis, organic content, tephrochronology, diatom assemblages, and palynology will constrain the timing and character of the environmental fluctuations related to the rock-flour flux. We will present results of these analyses at the meeting.

  16. Context matters: community characteristics and mental health among war-affected youth in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Brennan, Robert T

    2014-03-01

    Worldwide, over one billion children and adolescents live in war-affected settings. At present, only limited research has investigated linkages between disrupted social ecology and adverse mental health outcomes among war-affected youth. In this study, we examine three community-level characteristics - social disorder and collective efficacy within the community, as reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma as reported by youth - in relation to externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms among male and female former child soldiers in postconflict Sierra Leone. A total of 243 former child soldiers (30% female, mean age at baseline: 16.6 years) and their primary caregivers participated in interviews in 2004 and 2008, as part of a larger prospective cohort study of war-affected youth in Sierra Leone. Two-point growth models were estimated to examine the relationship between community-level characteristics and externalizing and internalizing outcomes across the time points. Both social disorder within the community, reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma, reported by youth, positively covaried with youths' externalizing and internalizing scores - indicating that higher levels of each at baseline and follow-up were associated with higher levels of mental health problems at both time points (p mental health outcomes was nonsignificant (p > .05). This study offers a rare glimpse into the role that the postconflict social context plays in shaping the mental health among former child soldiers. Results indicate that both social disorder and perceived stigma within the community demonstrate an important relationship to externalizing and internalizing problems among adolescent ex-combatants. Moreover, these relationships persisted over a 4-year period of follow-up. These results underscore the importance of the postconflict social environment and the need to develop postconflict interventions that address community-level processes in addition to the needs

  17. Patterns of tree species diversity in relation to climatic factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Flores, Ramón; Pérez-Verdín, Gustavo; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different species of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole), 54 species of Quercus (ca. 9-14%), 7 species of Arbutus (ca. 50%) and many other trees species. The objectives of this study were to model how tree species diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum tree species diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of tree species are generally higher in cold

  18. Geologic Map of the Tower Peak Quadrangle, Central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrhaftig, Clyde

    2000-01-01

    Introduction The Tower Peak quadrangle, which includes northernmost Yosemite National Park, is located astride the glaciated crest of the central Sierra Nevada and covers an exceptionally well-exposed part of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Granitic plutonic rocks of the batholith dominate the geology of the Tower Peak quadrangle, and at least 18 separate pre-Tertiary intrusive events have been identified. Pre-Cretaceous metamorphic rocks crop out in the quadrangle in isolated roof pendants and septa. Tertiary volcanic rocks cover granitic rocks in the northern part of the quadrangle, but are not considered in this brief summary. Potassium-argon (K-Ar) age determinations for plutonic rocks in the quadrangle range from 83 to 96 million years (Ma), including one of 86 Ma for the granodiorite of Lake Harriet (Robinson and Kistler, 1986). However, a rubidium-strontium whole-rock isochron age of 129 Ma has been obtained for the Lake Harriet pluton (Robinson and Kistler, 1986), which field evidence indicates is the oldest plutonic body within the quadrangle. This suggests that some of the K-Ar ages record an episode of resetting during later thermal events and are too young. The evidence indicates that all the plutonic rocks are of Cretaceous age, with the youngest being the Cathedral Peak Granodiorite at about 83 Ma. The pre-Tertiary rocks of the Tower Peak quadrangle fall into two groups: (1) an L-shaped area of older plutonic and metamorphic rocks, 3 to 10 km wide, that extends diagonally both northeast and southeast from near the center of the quadrangle; and (2) a younger group of large, probably composite intrusions that cover large areas in adjacent quadrangles and extend into the Tower Peak quadrangle from the east, north, and southwest.

  19. Principal Hydrologic Responses to Climatic and Geologic Variability in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Peterson

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sierra Nevada snowpack is a critical water source for California’s growing population and agricultural industry. However, because mountain winters and springs are warming, on average, precipitation as snowfall relative to rain is decreasing, and snowmelt is earlier. The changes are stronger at mid-elevations than at higher elevations. The result is that the water supply provided by snowpack is diminishing. In this paper, we describe principal hydrologic responses to climatic and spatial geologic variations as gleaned from a series of observations including snowpack, stream-flow, and bedrock geology. Our analysis focused on peak (maximum and base (minimum daily discharge of the annual snowmelt-driven hydrographs from 18 Sierra Nevada watersheds and 24 stream gage locations using standard correlation methods. Insights into the importance of the relative magnitudes of peak flow and soil water storage led us to develop a hydrologic classification of mountain watersheds based on runoff versus base flow as a percentage of peak flow. Our findings suggest that watersheds with a stronger base flow response store more soil water than watersheds with a stronger peak-flow response. Further, the influence of antecedent wet or dry years is greater in watersheds with high base flow, measured as a percentage of peak flow. The strong correlation between 1 the magnitude of peak flow, and 2 snow water equivalent can be used to predict peak flow weeks in advance. A weaker but similar correlation can be used to predict the magnitude of base flow months in advance. Most of the watersheds show a trend that peak flow is occurring earlier in the year.

  20. Modeling Multi-Reservoir Hydropower Systems in the Sierra Nevada with Environmental Requirements and Climate Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinheimer, David Emmanuel

    Hydropower systems and other river regulation often harm instream ecosystems, partly by altering the natural flow and temperature regimes that ecosystems have historically depended on. These effects are compounded at regional scales. As hydropower and ecosystems are increasingly valued globally due to growing values for clean energy and native species as well as and new threats from climate warming, it is important to understand how climate warming might affect these systems, to identify tradeoffs between different water uses for different climate conditions, and to identify promising water management solutions. This research uses traditional simulation and optimization to explore these issues in California's upper west slope Sierra Nevada mountains. The Sierra Nevada provides most of the water for California's vast water supply system, supporting high-elevation hydropower generation, ecosystems, recreation, and some local municipal and agricultural water supply along the way. However, regional climate warming is expected to reduce snowmelt and shift runoff to earlier in the year, affecting all water uses. This dissertation begins by reviewing important literature related to the broader motivations of this study, including river regulation, freshwater conservation, and climate change. It then describes three substantial studies. First, a weekly time step water resources management model spanning the Feather River watershed in the north to the Kern River watershed in the south is developed. The model, which uses the Water Evaluation And Planning System (WEAP), includes reservoirs, run-of-river hydropower, variable head hydropower, water supply demand, and instream flow requirements. The model is applied with a runoff dataset that considers regional air temperature increases of 0, 2, 4 and 6 °C to represent historical, near-term, mid-term and far-term (end-of-century) warming. Most major hydropower turbine flows are simulated well. Reservoir storage is also

  1. Viraemia and Ebola virus secretion in survivors of Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone: a cross-sectional cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Edward; Hunt, Luke; Ross, J C Gareth; Nissen, Nina Marie; Curran, Tanya; Badhan, Anjna; Sutherland, Katherine A; Richards, Jade; Lee, James S; Allen, Samuel H; Laird, Steven; Blackman, Mandy; Collacott, Ian; Parker, Paul A; Walbridge, Andrew; Phillips, Rebecca; Sellu, Sia Jammie; Dama, Agnes; Sheriff, Alpha Karim; Zombo, Joseph; Ngegba, Doris; Wurie, Alieh H; Checchi, Francesco; Brooks, Timothy J

    2016-09-01

    In survivors of Ebola virus disease, clinical sequelae including uveitis, arthralgia, and fatigue are common and necessitate systematic follow-up. However, the infection risk to health-care providers is poorly defined. Here we report Ebola virus RT-PCR data for body site and fluid samples from a large cohort of Ebola virus survivors at clinic follow-up. In this cross-sectional cohort study, consecutive survivors of Ebola virus disease attending Kerry Town survivor clinic (Freetown, Sierra Leone), who had been discharged from the Kerry Town Ebola treatment unit, were invited to participate. We collected and tested axillary, blood, conjunctival, forehead, mouth, rectal, semen, urine, and vaginal specimens for presence of Ebola virus using RT-PCR. We regarded samples to be positive for Ebola virus disease if the cycle threshold was 40 or lower. We collected demographic data from survivors of their age, sex, time since discharge from the treatment unit, and length of acute admission in the Ebola treatment unit using anonymised standard forms. Between April 2, and June 16, 2015, of 151 survivors of Ebola virus disease invited to participate, 112 (74%) provided consent. The median age of participants was 21·5 years (IQR 14-31·5) with 34 (30%) participants younger than 16 years. 50 (45%) of 112 participants were male. We tested a total of 555 specimens: 103 from the axilla, 93 from blood, 92 from conjunctiva, 54 from forehead, 105 from mouth, 17 from the rectum, one from semen, 69 from urine, and 21 from the vagina. The median time from Ebola treatment unit discharge to specimen collection was 142 days (IQR 127-159). 15 participants had a total of 74 swabs taken less than 100 days from discharge. The semen sample from one participant tested positive for Ebola virus at 114 days after discharge from the treatment unit; specimens taken from the axilla, blood, conjunctiva, forehead, mouth, rectum, and urine of the same participant tested negative. All specimens from the

  2. Estudio de la biodegradación de bolsas oxo - biodegradables en agua dulce y salada, simulando condiciones ambientales de Costa, Sierra y Oriente Ecuatoriano.

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Silva, Nelly Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    This work allowed the study of biodegradation of four types of oxo-biodegradable bags by environmental conditions simulated in fresh and salt water of the Costa, Sierra and Oriente regions. El presente trabajo permitió el estudio de la biodegradación de cuatro tipos de bolsas oxo-biodegradables mediante condiciones ambientales simuladas en el agua dulce y salada de las regiones Costa, Sierra y Oriente ecuatoriano.

  3. Understanding the Causes of Civil Wars in Post-Colonial Sub-Saharan Africa. Case study: Sierra Leone and the Role of women in the Search for Peace

    OpenAIRE

    Sesay, Adama

    2013-01-01

    It is widely understood or assumed among scholars like Thomas Weiss, that civil wars in Africa are mainly wars for natural resources. This statement needs careful evaluation, and it is for this reason that this study will use Weiss`s theories on the causes of wars in sub-Sahara Africa as a background for understanding the Sierra Leone conflict. In addition, as the title implies, this paper further aims to investigate the war in Sierra Leone and most...

  4. Capra alba Moyà-Solà, 1987 del Pleistoceno Inferior de la Sierra de Quibas (Albanilla, Murcia, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero, G.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The first palaeontological study of the locality of Quibas dates from the end of the 1990ties (Montoya et al., 1999, describing over 60 vertebrate taxa. One of these was a caprine assigned to Capra sp. aff. Capra alba. Recent excavations yielded new remains of this taxon, which permits a more profound study of its affinities and an assignation to Capra alba, without reservation. This assignation is based on the morphological and metrical comparison of the skulls, horn cores, dentition and metapodials from Quibas with those of Capra alba from Venta Micena (Orce Granada.A finales de la década de los 90 se realizó el primer estudio paleontológico del yacimiento de la Sierra de Quibas (Montoya et al., 1999 en el que se describieron más de 60 taxones de vertebrados. Uno de ellos fue el de un caprino asignado como Capra sp. aff Capra alba. Las últimas campañas de excavación han librado nuevos restos de este taxón, lo que ha permitido poder estudiarlo con mayor profundidad y asignarlo a Capra alba. Esta atribución se basa en la comparación morfológica y métrica de los cráneos, núcleos óseos, dentición y metápodos con los ejemplares de C. alba de Venta Micena (Orce, Granada.

  5. Stature estimation from complete long bones in the Middle Pleistocene humans from the Sima de los Huesos, Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, José-Miguel; Rodríguez, Laura; García-González, Rebeca; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Lorenzo, Carlos; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Gracia, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf

    2012-02-01

    Systematic excavations at the site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) have allowed us to reconstruct 27 complete long bones of the human species Homo heidelbergensis. The SH sample is used here, together with a sample of 39 complete Homo neanderthalensis long bones and 17 complete early Homo sapiens (Skhul/Qafzeh) long bones, to compare the stature of these three different human species. Stature is estimated for each bone using race- and sex-independent regression formulae, yielding an average stature for each bone within each taxon. The mean length of each long bone from SH is significantly greater (p Huesos hominins nor the Neandertals should be considered 'short' people. In fact, the average stature within the genus Homo seems to have changed little over the course of the last two million years, since the appearance of Homo ergaster in East Africa. It is only with the emergence of H. sapiens, whose earliest representatives were 'very tall', that a significant increase in stature can be documented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of rhizobial endosymbionts of Vicia, Lathyrus and Trifolium species used to maintain mountain firewalls in Sierra Nevada National Park (South Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadas, Pablo J; Lasa, Ana V; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Flores-Félix, José David; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Toro, Nicolás; Velázquez, Encarna; Fernández-López, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Forest fires lead to the annual disappearance of many natural formations that require the creation of firewall areas. They can be maintained by enriching their pastures with attractive plants for grazing livestock, mainly legumes, which have a high protein content and low dependence on N fertilizers due to their ability to establish nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with rhizobia. In this study, the rhizobia isolated from the nodules of six legumes from the genera Vicia, Lathyrus and Trifolium were analysed in a firewall zone established in Lanjarón (Granada) close to the Sierra Nevada National Park (Spain). The results showed a high genetic diversity of the isolated strains that had 3, 16, 14 and 13 different types of rrs, recA, atpD and glnII genes, respectively. All strains were phylogenetically close to the species from the Rhizobium leguminosarum group, although they were not identified as any of them. The isolated strains belonged to the symbiovars viciae and trifolii but high phylogenetic diversity was found within both symbiovars, since there were 16 and 14 nodC gene types, respectively. Some of these strains clustered with strains isolated in other countries and continents, but others formed atpD, recA, glnII and nodC clusters and lineages only found to date in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of air mass trajectories to explain observed variability of tritium in precipitation at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Ate; Thaw, Melissa; Esser, Brad

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, in the environment is important to evaluate the exposure risk of anthropogenic releases, and for its application as a tracer in hydrology and oceanography. To understand and predict the variability of tritium in precipitation, HYSPLIT air mass trajectories were analyzed for 16 aggregate precipitation samples collected over a 2 year period at irregular intervals at a research site located at 2000 m elevation in the southern Sierra Nevada (California, USA). Attributing the variation in tritium to specific source areas confirms the hypothesis that higher latitude or inland sources bring higher tritium levels in precipitation than precipitation originating in the lower latitude Pacific Ocean. In this case, the source of precipitation accounts for 79% of the variation observed in tritium concentrations. Air mass trajectory analysis is a promising tool to improve the predictions of tritium in precipitation at unmonitored locations and thoroughly understand the processes controlling transport of tritium in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Petroleum Systems and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Raton Basin - Sierra Grande Uplift Province, Colorado and New Mexico - USGS Province 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province of southeastern Colorado and northeastern New Mexico (USGS Province 41). The Cretaceous Vermejo Formation and Cretaceous-Tertiary Raton Formation have production and undiscovered resources of coalbed methane. Other formations in the province exhibit potential for gas resources and limited production. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define two total petroleum systems and five assessment units. All five assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered gas resources. Oil resources were not assessed because of the limited potential due to levels of thermal maturity of petroleum source rocks.

  9. Effects of Climate and Fuels Management on Wildfire Occurrence, Size, Severity and Emissions in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerling, A. L.; Fites, J. A.; Keyser, A.

    2015-12-01

    Annual wildfire burned area in federally managed Sierra Nevada forests has increased by more than 10,000 ha per decade since the early 1970s. At the same time, recent years have seen some extremely large fires compared to the historical record, with significant areas of moderate to high severity fire (e.g., McNally 2002, Rim 2013, King 2014 fires). Changes to fuels and fire regimes due to fire suppression and land use, as well as warming temperatures and the occurrence of drought, are thought to be significant factors contributing to increased risks of large, severe fires in Sierra Nevada forests. Over 70% of the vegetated area in federally managed forests in the Sierra Nevada is classified as having altered fuels and fire regimes, while average annual temperature in the Sierra Nevada has been above the long term mean for all but four years in the past two decades. As climate is expected to continue warming for decades to come, we explored fuels management scenarios as the primary tools available to modify risks of large, severe wildfires. We developed experimental statistical models of fire occurrence, fire size, and high severity burned area, to explore the interaction between climate and altered fuels conditions. These models were applied to historical climate conditions, a sample of future climate projections, and to both current fuels conditions and a range of scenarios for fuels treatments. Emissions from wildfires were estimated using the Fire Inventory from the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Our models project that average annual burned area in the Sierra Nevada will more than double by mid-century. Similarly, particulate and other pollution emissions from Sierra Nevada wildfires are projected to more than double, even if future fire severity does not change. Fuels treatment scenarios significantly reduced simulated future burned area and emissions below untreated projections. High severity burned area responded to both climate and fuels

  10. Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and K-Ar age constraints of the El Molle and Barroso plutons, western Sierra de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, A.M.; Gonzalez, P.D; Petronilho, L.A; Llambias, E.J.; Varela, R; Basei, M.A.S

    2001-01-01

    Within the Early Paleozoic Famatinian orogeny of Southern Sierras Pampeanas (Sierra de San Luis and Sierra de Cordoba), the post-orogenic granitoids are characterized by circular intrusions. The published Rb-Sr and K-Ar ages from plutons in the Sierra de San Luis range between 408 and 320 Ma (see synthesis in Llambias et al., 1998). The El Molle and Barroso plutons (Sims et al., 1997; Gonzalez and Sato, 2000) are the two main exposures of a post-orogenic intrusive complex located in the western area of the Sierra de San Luis basement. They also exhibit an overall circular map view of almost 8 km in diameter, and are emplaced in a metamorphic complex developed through pre-Famatinian (Proterozoic? to Early Paleozoic) to Famatinian (Early Paleozoic) orogenies (Gonzalez and Llambias, 1998; von Gosen and Prozzi, 1998). We are carrying out isotopic datings of the El Molle and Barroso plutons in order to contribute to the understanding of the magmatic and metamorphic evolution of the final stages of the Famatinian orogenic cycle in the Sierra de San Luis. The first results of the Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and K-Ar dates are here presented (au)

  11. Effect of previous chilling storage on quality loss in frozen (–20 °C sierra (Scomberomorus sierra muscle packed with a low-density polyethylene film containing butylated hydroxytoluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlinda Soto-Valdez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rancidity development during frozen storage (–20 °C of sierra fish (Scomberomorus sierra was studied. Fillets were packed in low-density polyethylene films with and without butylated hydroxytoluene added (BHT-LDPE and LDPE respectively. Fillets stored with no package were used as control. Special attention was given to the effect of previous ice storage (0, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days on the quality of the frozen fish. Physical (pH and texture and chemical (peroxide value, PV and thiobarbituric acid index, TBA-i analyses were carried out. Lipid oxidation increased with ice storage time in fish muscle without film packing, being greater than the film packed muscle (with and without antioxidant. An effect of previous ice storage time was observed on the frozen product (in all treatments. However, fish muscle with film packing containing antioxidant showed less lipid deterioration. Under the conditions applied in this study, the plastic films with antioxidant prevented the lipids oxidation during the cold handling of the sierra muscle.

  12. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada Regional study unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada Regional (SNR) study unit was investigated as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program Priority Basin Project. The study was designed to provide statistically unbiased assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater within the primary aquifer system of the Sierra Nevada. The primary aquifer system for the SNR study unit was delineated by the depth intervals over which wells in the State of California’s database of public drinking-water supply wells are open or screened. Two types of assessments were made: (1) a status assessment that described the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) an evaluation of relations between groundwater quality and potential explanatory factors that represent characteristics of the primary aquifer system. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, rather than the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.

  13. Search for an annual modulation of dark-matter signals with a germanium spectrometer at the Sierra Grande Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Abriola, D.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Collar, J.I.; Di Gregorio, D.E.; Farach, H.A.; Garcia, E.; Gattone, A.O.; Guerard, C.K.; Hasenbalg, F.; Huck, H.; Miley, H.S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Puimedon, J.; Reeves, J.H.; Salinas, A.; Sarsa, M.L.; Villar, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Data collected during three years with a germanium spectrometer at the Sierra Grande underground laboratory have been analyzed for distinctive features of annual modulation of the signal induced by WIMP dark matter candidates. The main motivation for this analysis was the recent suggestion by the DAMA/NaI Collaboration that a yearly modulation signal could not be rejected at the 90% confidence level when analyzing data obtained with a high-mass low-background scintillator detector. We performed two different analyses of the data: First, the statistical distribution of modulation-significance variables (expected from an experiment running under the conditions of Sierra Grande) was compared with the same variables obtained from the data. Second, the data were analyzed in energy bins as an independent check of the first result and to allow for the possibility of a crossover in the expected signal. In both cases no statistically significant deviation from the null result was found, which could support the hypothe...

  14. Hydrological conditions and evaluation of sustainable groundwater use in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungle, Bruce; Callegary, James B.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Eastoe, Christopher J.; Turner, Dale S.; Dickinson, Jesse; Levick, Lainie R.; Sugg, Zachary P.

    2016-08-18

    This study assessed progress toward achieving sustainable groundwater use in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona, through evaluation of 14 indicators of sustainable use. Sustainable use of groundwater in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed requires, at a minimum, a stable rate of groundwater discharge to, and thus base flow in, the San Pedro River. Many of the 14 indicators are therefore related to long-term or short-term effects on base flow and provide us with a means to evaluate groundwater discharge to and base flow in the San Pedro River. The indicators were based primarily on 10 to 20 years of data monitoring in the subwatershed, ending in 2012, and included subwatershedwide indicators, riparian-system indicators, San Pedro River indicators, and springs indicators.

  15. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...

  16. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...

  17. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

  18. Calculation program development for spinning reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This study is about optimal holding of spinning reserve and optimal operation for it. It deals with the purpose and contents of the study, introduction of the spinning reserve electricity, speciality of the spinning reserve power, the result of calculation, analysis for limited method of optimum load, calculation of requirement for spinning reserve, analysis on measurement of system stability with summary, purpose of the analysis, cause of impact of the accident, basics on measurement of spinning reserve and conclusion. It has the reference on explanation for design of spinning reserve power program and using and trend about spinning reserve power in Korea.

  19. Lassa hemorrhagic fever in a late term pregnancy from northern sierra leone with a positive maternal outcome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangura James J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lassa fever (LF is a devastating viral disease prevalent in West Africa. Efforts to take on this public health crisis have been hindered by lack of infrastructure and rapid field deployable diagnosis in areas where the disease is prevalent. Recent capacity building at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward (KGH LFW in Sierra Leone has lead to a major turning point in the diagnosis, treatment and study of LF. Herein we present the first comprehensive rapid diagnosis and real time characterization of an acute hemorrhagic LF case at KGH LFW. This case report focuses on a third trimester pregnant Sierra Leonean woman from the historically non-endemic Northern district of Tonkolili who survived the illness despite fetal demise. Employed in this study were newly developed recombinant LASV Antigen Rapid Test cassettes and dipstick lateral flow immunoassays (LFI that enabled the diagnosis of LF within twenty minutes of sample collection. Deregulation of overall homeostasis, significant hepatic and renal system involvement, and immunity profiles were extensively characterized during the course of hospitalization. Rapid diagnosis, prompt treatment with a full course of intravenous (IV ribavirin, IV fluids management, and real time monitoring of clinical parameters resulted in a positive maternal outcome despite admission to the LFW seven days post onset of symptoms, fetal demise, and a natural still birth delivery. These studies solidify the growing rapid diagnostic, treatment, and surveillance capabilities at the KGH LF Laboratory, and the potential to significantly improve the current high mortality rate caused by LF. As a result of the growing capacity, we were also able to isolate Lassa virus (LASV RNA from the patient and perform Sanger sequencing where we found significant genetic divergence from commonly circulating Sierra Leonean strains, showing potential for the discovery of a newly emerged LASV strain with expanded geographic

  20. Fire-scar formation in Jeffrey pine - mixed conifer forests in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Stephens; Danny L. Fry; Brandon M. Collins; Carl N. Skinner; Ernesto Franco-Vizcaino; Travis J. Freed

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the probability of fire-scar formation. In this study, we examined all mixed conifer trees for fire-scar formation in a 16 ha watershed that burned as part of a 2003 wildfire in Sierra San Pedro Ma´rtir National Park (SSPM), Mexico. In addition, we examine the probability of fire-scar formation in relation to the previous fire interval in forests...

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Syphilis Infections Among Military Personnel in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    sponses (n=10). 3.5. Factors Associated with Syphilis Status Syphilis seropositivity was increased by older age , HIV in- fection and the...multiple sexual partnerships in the same week and HIV testing outside of military facilities (pɘ.05). Increasing age , positive HIV status and rural...population (15-49 years of age ) of Sierra Leone, and the estimated syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% to 5.2% based on regional studies. We examined the

  2. Remote Sensing Analysis of the Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Hudspeth County, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMone, D. V.; Dodge, R.; Xie, H.; Langford, R. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    Remote sensing images provide useful physical information, revealing such features as geological structure, vegetation, drainage patterns, and variations in consolidated and unconsolidated lithologies. That technology has been applied to the failed Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) shallow burial low-level radioactive waste disposal site selected by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority. It has been re-examined using data from LANDSAT satellite series. The comparison of the earlier LANDSAT V (5/20/86) (30-m resolution) with the later new, higher resolution ETM imagery (10/23/99) LANDSAT VII data (15-m resolution) clearly shows the superiority of the LANDSAT VII data. The search for surficial indications of evidence of fatal flaws at the Sierra Blanca site utilizing was not successful, as it had been in the case of the earlier remote sensing analysis of the failed Fort Hancock site utilizing LANDSAT V data. The authors conclude that the tectonic activity at the Sierra Blanca site is much less recent and active than in the previously studied Fort Hancock site. The Sierra Blanca site failed primarily on the further needed documentation concerning a subsurface fault underneath the site and environmental justice issues. The presence of this fault was not revealed using the newer LANDSAT VII data. Despite this fact, it must be remembered that remote sensing provides baseline documentation for determining future physical and financial remediation responsibilities. On the basis of the two sites examined by LANDSAT remote sensing imaging, it is concluded that it is an essential, cost-effective tool that should be utilized not only in site examination but also in all nuclear-related facilities

  3. Interface between the biophysical environment in informal settlements and poverty in developing countries : the case for Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, William Lewis

    2005-01-01

    The socio-economic problems of developing countries, especially Sub-Saharan African cities are the result of rapid growth, increasing poverty, unequal distribution of resources, civil conflicts and poor governance. These problems have been exacerbated by perennial incidence of civil wars. In Sierra Leone, eleven years of protracted civil war has exacerbated the problems of rural-urban migration, increased poverty, dislocation of urban governance, severe unemployment and lost in...

  4. Sierra Army Depot, Phase 1, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Lassen County, California. Appendices G-Q

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Oeco: Page IS Anatytical Results for Chemical SciL From: 01-jan-75 To: 09107/90 (IceOeaSO LT &M~ NO are exCtt.dea) site: lSE 0010-SS (continued) ISA1MPLE...9999.0 SPI SCil 02 92.0 10.0 -9999.0 SIO * -3- I I ?-AUG- 1990 GEOTICNICAL ILL CONSTRUCTION (i) 6:08: .; mnetaLLation: Sierra Ordnance Deot (SA

  5. Sierra Pacific Power Company Alturas Transmission Line Project, Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Sierra Pacific Power Company has proposed the construction and operation of a 345,000 volt overhead electric power transmission line from Alturas, California to Reno, Nevada. This Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement will assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project and alternatives. This report contains Appendices A--I which contain the following: glossary/abbreviations; scoping report; structure coordinate summary; air quality; biological resources; geology; noise; visual contrast rating forms; and cultural resources

  6. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  7. Floristic and structural characterization of the main forest types in the Taraira Sierra (Department of the Vaupes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Javier

    1999-01-01

    The Floristic and structural characterization of the main forest types in the Taraira Sierra, it was carried out to give to know the forests that exist there, since there were not preliminary studies on this ecosystem, and to enlarge the knowledge on the forests of the Colombian Guayana. For the composition study and it structures of the vegetation, three parcels of study of 0.05 hectares settled down, 10m x 50m each one; two in high Catinga and one in the Arbustiva; likewise they were traveled by different places of the Sierra to collect vegetable material. According to the floristic composition, to the covering analysis, and to the Sorensen index (Cordoba, 1995) they were defined three communities, the first of them in Catinga arbustiva, Clusia spathulaefolia - Retiniphyllum truncatum that is characterized to reach heights until of 10 meters, on sandy soils with inferior slope to 7%. In the high Catinga they were two communities, Micrandra sprucei - amazon Poecilanthe and Micrandra sprucei - Tovomita clarkii, which are characterized to present a superior stratum that reaches the 20 meters high. The Taraira Sierra, makes part of the high-priority of conservation areas due to its wealth of species as much animals as vegetables, to its high endemism that is developed on poor and fragile soils of the Guianese shield and to that this ecosystem is in risk, due to the mining exploitation

  8. Effect of Tree-to-Shrub Type Conversion in Lower Montane Forests of the Sierra Nevada (USA) on Streamflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Ryan R; Tague, Christina L; Moritz, Max A

    2016-01-01

    Higher global temperatures and increased levels of disturbance are contributing to greater tree mortality in many forest ecosystems. These same drivers can also limit forest regeneration, leading to vegetation type conversion. For the Sierra Nevada of California, little is known about how type conversion may affect streamflow, a critical source of water supply for urban, agriculture and environmental purposes. In this paper, we examined the effects of tree-to-shrub type conversion, in combination with climate change, on streamflow in two lower montane forest watersheds in the Sierra Nevada. A spatially distributed ecohydrologic model was used to simulate changes in streamflow, evaporation, and transpiration following type conversion, with an explicit focus on the role of vegetation size and aspect. Model results indicated that streamflow may show negligible change or small decreases following type conversion when the difference between tree and shrub leaf areas is small, partly due to the higher stomatal conductivity and the deep rooting depth of shrubs. In contrast, streamflow may increase when post-conversion shrubs have a small leaf area relative to trees. Model estimates also suggested that vegetation change could have a greater impact on streamflow magnitude than the direct hydrologic impacts of increased temperatures. Temperature increases, however, may have a greater impact on streamflow timing. Tree-to-shrub type conversion increased streamflow only marginally during dry years (annual precipitation importance of accounting for changes in vegetation communities to accurately characterize future hydrologic regimes for the Sierra Nevada.

  9. Population mobility reductions associated with travel restrictions during the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone: use of mobile phone data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, Corey M; Wesolowski, Amy; Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Tatem, Andrew J; Wetter, Erik; Lu, Xin; Power, Daniel; Weidman-Grunewald, Elaine; Ramos, Sergio; Moritz, Simon; Buckee, Caroline O; Bengtsson, Linus

    2018-06-26

    Travel restrictions were implementeded on an unprecedented scale in 2015 in Sierra Leone to contain and eliminate Ebola virus disease. However, the impact of epidemic travel restrictions on mobility itself remains difficult to measure with traditional methods. New 'big data' approaches using mobile phone data can provide, in near real-time, the type of information needed to guide and evaluate control measures. We analysed anonymous mobile phone call detail records (CDRs) from a leading operator in Sierra Leone between 20 March and 1 July in 2015. We used an anomaly detection algorithm to assess changes in travel during a national 'stay at home' lockdown from 27 to 29 March. To measure the magnitude of these changes and to assess effect modification by region and historical Ebola burden, we performed a time series analysis and a crossover analysis. Routinely collected mobile phone data revealed a dramatic reduction in human mobility during a 3-day lockdown in Sierra Leone. The number of individuals relocating between chiefdoms decreased by 31% within 15 km, by 46% for 15-30 km and by 76% for distances greater than 30 km. This effect was highly heterogeneous in space, with higher impact in regions with higher Ebola incidence. Travel quickly returned to normal patterns after the restrictions were lifted. The effects of travel restrictions on mobility can be large, targeted and measurable in near real-time. With appropriate anonymization protocols, mobile phone data should play a central role in guiding and monitoring interventions for epidemic containment.

  10. Paleozoic subduction complex and Paleozoic-Mesozoic island-arc volcano-plutonic assemblages in the northern Sierra terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Harwood, David S.; Schweickert, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    This field trip provides an overview of the stratigraphic and structural evolution of the northern Sierra terrane, which forms a significant part of the wall rocks on the western side of the later Mesozoic Sierra Nevada batholith in California. The terrane consists of a pre-Late Devonian subduction complex (Shoo Fly Complex) overlain by submarine arc-related deposits that record the evolution of three separate island-arc systems in the Late Sevonian-Early Mississippian, Permian, and Late Triassic-Jurassic. The two Paleozoic are packages and the underlying Shoo Fly Complex have an important bearing on plate-tectonic processes affecting the convergent margin outboard of the Paleozoic Cordilleran miogeocline, although their original paleogeographic relations to North America are controversial. The third arc package represents an overlap assemblage that ties the terrane to North America by the Late Triassic and helps constrain the nature and timing of Mesozoic orogenesis. Several of the field-trip stops examine the record of pre-Late Devonian subduction contained in the Shoo Fly Complex, as well as the paleovolcanology of the overlying Devonian to Jurassic arc rocks. Excellent glaciated exposures provide the opportunity to study a cross section through a tilted Devonian volcano-plutonic association. Additional stops focus on plutonic rocks emplaced during the Middle Jurassic arc magmatism in the terrane, and during the main pulse of Cretaceous magmatism in the Sierra Nevada batholith to the east.

  11. Simulating 3-D radiative transfer effects over the Sierra Nevada Mountains using WRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A surface solar radiation parameterization based on deviations between 3-D and conventional plane-parallel radiative transfer models has been incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to understand the solar insolation over mountain/snow areas and to investigate the impact of the spatial and temporal distribution and variation of surface solar fluxes on land-surface processes. Using the Sierra-Nevada in the western United States as a testbed, we show that mountain effect could produce up to −50 to + 50 W m−2 deviations in the surface solar fluxes over the mountain areas, resulting in a temperature increase of up to 1 °C on the sunny side. Upward surface sensible and latent heat fluxes are modulated accordingly to compensate for the change in surface solar fluxes. Snow water equivalent and surface albedo both show decreases on the sunny side of the mountains, indicating more snowmelt and hence reduced snow albedo associated with more solar insolation due to mountain effect. Soil moisture increases on the sunny side of the mountains due to enhanced snowmelt, while decreases on the shaded side. Substantial differences are found in the morning hours from 8–10 a.m. and in the afternoon around 3–5 p.m., while differences around noon and in the early morning and late afternoon are comparatively smaller. Variation in the surface energy balance can also affect atmospheric processes, such as cloud fields, through the modulation of vertical thermal structure. Negative changes of up to −40 g m−2 are found in the cloud water path, associated with reductions in the surface insolation over the cloud region. The day-averaged deviations in the surface solar flux are positive over the mountain areas and negative in the valleys, with a range between −12~12 W m−2. Changes in sensible and latent heat fluxes and surface skin temperature follow the solar insolation pattern. Differences in the

  12. Timing the evolution of a monogenetic volcanic field: Sierra Chichinautzin, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes-Viera, M. C.; Martin Del Pozzo, A. L.; Layer, P. W.; Benowitz, J. A.; Nieto-Torres, A.

    2018-05-01

    The unique nature of monogenetic volcanism has always raised questions about its origin, longevity and spatial distribution. Detailed temporal and spatial boundaries resulted from a morphometric study, mapping, relative dating, twenty-four new 40Ar/39Ar dates, and chemical analyses for the Sierra Chichinautzin, Central Mexico. Based on these results the monogenetic cones were divided into four groups: (1) Peñón Monogenetic Volcanic Group (PMVG); (2) Older Chichinautzin Monogenetic Volcanic Group (Older CMVG); (3) Younger Chichinautzin Monogenetic Volcanic Group (Younger CMVG) and (4) Sierra Santa Catarina Monogenetic Volcanic Group (SSC). The PMVG cover the largest area and marks the northern and southern boundaries of this field. The oldest monogenetic volcanism (PMVG; 1294 ± 36 to 765 ± 30 ka) started in the northern part of the area and the last eruption of this group occurred in the south. These basaltic-andesite cones are widely spaced and are aligned NE-SW (N60°E). After this activity, monogenetic volcanism stopped for 527 ka. Monogenetic volcanism was reactivated with the birth of the Tezoyuca 1 Volcano, marking the beginning of the second volcanic group (Older CMVG; 238 ± 51 to 95 ± 12 ka) in the southern part of the area. These andesitic to basaltic andesite cones plot into two groups, one with high MgO and Nb, and the other with low MgO and Nb, suggesting diverse magma sources. The eruption of the Older CMVG ended with the eruption of Malacatepec volcano and then monogenetic volcanism stopped again for 60 ka. At 35 ka, monogenetic volcanism started again, this time in the eastern part of the area, close to Popocatépetl volcano, forming the Younger CMVG (<35 ± 4 ka). These cones are aligned in an E-W direction. Geochemical composition of eruptive products of measured samples varies from basalts to dacites with low and high MgO. The Younger CMVG is considered still active since the last eruptions took place <2 ka. The SSC (132 ± 70 to 2 ± 56 ka

  13. Anthropogenic Warming Impacts on Today's Sierra Nevada Snowpack and Flood Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Hall, A. D.; Berg, N.

    2017-12-01

    Focusing on this recent extreme wet year over California, this study investigates the warming impacts on the snowpack and the flood severity over the Sierra Nevada (SN), where the majority of the precipitation occurs during the winter season and early spring. One of our goals is to quantify anthropogenic warming impacts on the snow water equivalent (SWE) including recent historical warming and prescribed future projected warming scenarios; This work also explores to what extent flooding risk has increased under those warming cases. With a good representation of the historical precipitation and snowpack over the Sierra Nevada from the historical reference run at 9km (using WRF), the results from the offline Noah-MP simulations with perturbed near-surface temperatures reveal magnificent impacts of warming to the loss of the average snowpack. The reduction of the SWE under warming mainly results from the decreased rain-to-snow conversion with a weaker effect from increased snowmelt. Compared to the natural case, the past industrial warming decreased the maximum SWE by about one-fifth averaged over the study area. Future continuing warming can result in around one-third reduction of current maximum SWE under RCP4.5 emissions scenario, and the loss can reach to two-thirds under RCP8.5 as a "business-as-usual" condition. The impact of past warming is particularly outstanding over the North SN region where precipitation dominates and over the middle elevation regions where the snow mainly distributes. In the future, the warming impact on SWE progresses to higher regions, and so to the south and east. Under the business-as-usual scenario, the projected mid-elevation snowpack almost disappears by April 1st with even high-elevation snow reduced by about half. Along with the loss of the snowpack, as the temperature warms, floods can also intensify with increased early season runoff especially under heavy-rainy days caused by the weakened rain-to-snow processes and

  14. Observations of the diurnal and seasonal trends in nitrogen oxides in the western Sierra Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Murphy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of speciated nitrogen oxides, namely NO2, total peroxy nitrates (ΣPNs, total alkyl nitrates (ΣANs, and HNO3 by thermal dissociation laser induced fluorescence (TD-LIF, and supporting chemical and meteorological measurements at Big Hill (1860 m, a high elevation site in California's Sierra Nevada Mountains, are described. From May through October, terrain-driven winds in the region routinely bring air from Sacramento, 100 km southwest of the site, upslope over oak and pine forests to Big Hill during the day, while at night, the site often samples clean, dry air characteristic of the free troposphere. Winter differs mainly in that the meteorology does not favour the buildup of Sacramento's pollution over the Sierra Nevada range, and the urban-influenced air that is seen has been less affected by biogenic VOC emissions, resulting in longer lifetime for NO2 and a predominance of the inorganic forms of nitrogen oxides. Summertime observations at Big Hill can be compared with those from Granite Bay, a Sacramento suburb, and from the University of California's Blodgett Forest Research Station to examine the evolution of nitrogen oxides and ozone within the urban plume. Nitrogen oxide radicals (NO and NO2, which dominate total nitrogen oxides (NOy at Granite Bay, are rapidly converted into HNO3, ΣPNs, and ΣANs, such that these compounds contribute 29, 30, and 21% respectively to the NOy budget in the plume at Big Hill. Nevertheless, the decreasing concentrations of NO2 as the plume is advected to Big Hill lead to decreases in the production rate of HNO3 and ozone. The data also demonstrate the role that temperature plays in sequestering NO2 into peroxy nitrates, effectively decreasing the rate of ozone production. The important contribution of ΣANs to NOy in the region suggests that they should be considered with regards to export of NOy from the boundary layer. Nocturnal observations of airmasses characteristic of the

  15. Structure of the Alpujarrides on the southern and eastern border of the Sierra de Lújar

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    Tubía, J. M.

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available The Alpujarride complex located to the South of the Sierra Nevada and extending between Motril and Adra is formed of five nappes, which in ascending order are: Lújar, Cástaras, Alcázar, Murtas and Adra. These five nappes display a structure that is the result of several overlapping events. Firstly, they reflect a process of ductile shearing associated with a mylonitic foliation and a mylonitic lineation with a N4üo E average orientation. Following this, an episode of translation towards the North has been recorded; this occurred under more superficial conditions and developed gouges and fault breccias. Associated with this episode are locally developed folds, which did not give rise to a mineral blastesis. Afterwards, the late deformations occurred, affecting the whole ofthe ensemble. Of these, the most important are those that originated folds with a N-S axis, verging towards the West and the normal faults. The extensional faults towards the South would be encompassed in this sectionEl Complejo Alpujárride situado al Sur de Sierra Nevada y comprendido entre Motril y Adra, está formado por cinco mantos que son, en orden ascendente: Lújar, Cástaras, Alcázar, Murtas y Adra. Estos cinco mantos presentan una estructuración que es el resultado de varios acontecimientos superpuestos. En primer lugar, reflejan un proceso de cizallamiento dúctil hacia el NE, que lleva asociado una foliación milonítica, de orientación media N4üo E. A continuación se ha registrado un episodio de traslaciones hacia el Norte, en condiciones más superficiales, que desarrolla brechas y harinas de falla. Asociado a este episodio se desarrollan localmente pliegues, que no dan lugar a una blastesis mineral. Con posterioridad se producen las deformaciones tardías, que afectan a todo el conjunto. De ellas, las más sobresalientes son las que originan pliegues de eje N-S, vergentes al Oeste y las fallas normales. Las fallas extensionales hacia el Sur quedar

  16. Wireless sensor networks to assess the impacts of global change in Sierra Nevada (Spain) mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cano, Francisco M.; Bonet-García, Francisco J.; Pérez-Luque, Antonio J.; Suárez-Muñoz, María

    2017-04-01

    Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory (southern Spain) aims to improve the ability of ecosystems to address the impacts of global change. To this end, a monitoring program has been implemented based on the collection of long time series on a multitude of biophysical variables. This initiative is part of the Long Term Ecological Research network and is connected to similar ones at national and international level. One of the specific objectives of this LTER site is to improve understanding of the relationships between abiotic factors and ecosystem functioning / structure. Wireless sensor networks are a key instrument for achieving this aim. This contribution describes the design and management of a sensor network that is intended to monitor several biophysical variables with high temporal and spatial resolution in Quercus pyrenaica forests located in this mountain region. The following solution has been adopted in order to obtain the observational data (physical and biological variables). The biological variables will be monitored by PAR sensors (photosynthetically active radiation), and the physical variables will be acquired by a meteorological station and a sensor network composed of temperature and soil moisture sensors, as well as air temperature and humidity ones. To complete the monitoring of the biological variables, a NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) camera will be deployed focusing to a Quercus pyrenaica forest from the opposite slope. It should be noted that all monitoring systems exposed will be powered by solar energy. The management of the sensor network covers the deployment of more than 100 sensors, guaranteeing both remote accessibility and reliability of the data. The chosen solution is provided by the company Adevice whose ONE-GO communication system ensures a consistent and efficient sending of those values read by the different sensors towards a central point, from where the information (RAW data) is accessible through WiFi/3G

  17. Significado de las deformaciones internas en las peridotitas de Sierra Alpujata (Málaga

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    Tubía, J. M.

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ronda peridotites rest at the base of the Los Reales nappe (Alpujarride Complex, Betic Chain. Two successive plastic deformations are imprinted in the Sierra Alpujata peridotites. The first one is a high temperature (> 1000º C -low stress (0.3-0.5 Kb deformation as show by coarse-grained porphyroclastic lherzolites. This deformation can take place by mantle flow in a spreading zone related to continental rifting. The second deformation. at low temperature (~8000º C and high stress (1-2 Kb, erase the last one at the edge rones of the peridotite sheet, giving the mylonitisation of peridotites and the development of dynamothermal aureoles in the wall rocks, This deformation is due to the thrusting of a mantle slab over the continental crust. The kinematic analysis of the high and low-temperature ultrabasic tectonites provides, in the present position of the Betic Chain a N 70º E direction for the paleorift. The peridotite thrusting is practically realized in the same direction, from the WSW to the ENE.

    Las peridotitas de Ronda (Málaga forman la base del manto de Los Reales (Alpujárrides, Cordilleras Béticas. Las rocas ultrabásicas del macizo de Sierra Alpujata permiten reconocer dos deformaciones plásticas sucesivas. La primera es una deformación de altas temperaturas (> 1.000ºC y bajos esfuerzos (0.3-0.5 Kb que se conserva en lherzolitas con textura porfiroclástica de grano grueso. Esta deformación puede atribuirse al flujo del manto en una zona de expansión relacionada a procesos de "rifting" continental. La segunda deformación, de bajas temperaturas (~800ºC y altos esfuerzos (1-2 Kb, oblitera a la anterior en las zonas de borde de la lámina peridotítica, produciendo la milonitización de las peridotitas y el desarrollo de aureolas dinamotérmicas en los materiales encajantes. Esta deformación se debe al cabalgamiento de una escama del manto sobre la corteza continental. El análisis cinemático de las tectonitas

  18. Diamonds, a resource curse? The case of Kono District in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sigismond Ayodele

    Using an actor-oriented approach to political ecology integrated with theory on the social production of scale, this dissertation examines the extent to which diamond exploitation constitutes a resource curse in Sierra Leone, with Kono District as a case-study. It uses social survey methods and remote sensing analysis of Landsat images to (1) evaluate the role of Sierra Leone's diamonds in economic development from a historical lens, (2) examine the extent to which a weak regulatory state apparatus makes a rich diamond endowment more of a curse than a blessing, (3) determine whether geographically diffuse and remotely-located diamonds are more a liability than an asset, and (4) assess whether environmental conditions are worse in diamond than in non-diamond chiefdoms. Results of the study showed that the contribution of diamonds to national economic growth declined precipitously following the politicization of diamonds and growing informalization of mining under the leadership of Siaka Stevens. Growing disenchantment combined with grievances over access to diamond resources and rights, culminating in a civil war fuelled by conflict diamonds. Findings indicated that actors capitalized on a weak regulatory state to fulfill their agendas. Illicit diamond exploitation was mainly driven by corruption, economic constraints and perverse economic incentives. Preferential land allocation to industrial mining following World Bank Group-directed national mining policy reforms and the weakness of the state in ensuring companies' adherence to mining clauses precipitated corporation-community conflicts. Study findings showed that the resource curse was acute on diggers who received less than 1 a day unlike their South American counterparts who made at least 7 daily. Results from the study demonstrate that the spatiality of diamonds also contributed to the resource curse. Illicit diamond mining was more acute in remotely located mining sites than in extractive sites closer to

  19. Spatial Patterns between Regolith Thickness and Forest Productivity in the Southern Sierra CZO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, R. M.; Ferrell, D. F.; Hartsough, P. C.; O'Geen, T. T.

    2015-12-01

    Soil in conjunction with underlying weathered bedrock make up what is referred to as regolith, which can be thought of as the substrate that actively contributes water and nutrients to above ground biomass. As a result, regolith thickness is an important regulating factor of forest health and drought tolerance in the Sierra Nevada. Our project examined the relationships between landscape position, regolith thickness, and tree productivity within a sub watershed of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory. We hypothesized that tree productivity will increase with increasing regolith thickness. Data was collected in the summer of 2015 at sixty-five sites within a 522-ha watershed averaging 1180m in elevation with a MAP of 80cm and a MAT of 11C. Sites were randomly selected from a grid and then stratified in the field to capture representative samples from different landscape positions. Regolith was sampled using a hand auger with attachable extensions. At each site we augered to hard bedrock or a maximum depth of 7.56 m, which ever was shallower. Biomass measurements were made for all conifer species (DBH>20cm) within a 10m radius of the primary auger hole. Tree age was measured from a representative tree for all species in the plots. Preliminary findings suggest that there is a weak correlation between landscape position/slope and regolith thickness, likely due to differences in lithology. It also appears that terrain shape can result in conflicting outcomes: 1. It can focus water to promote physical and chemical weathering and thick regolith; or, 2. water focusing can result in landscape scouring, removing soil and weathered bedrock to create shallow regolith. Productivity appears to be a function of regolith thickness, effective precipitation and landscape position. Water collecting areas in the lower watershed are shallow to bedrock, but typically receive high amounts of effective precipitation resulting in greater tree productivity. Moreover, thick regolith

  20. Estimating soil erosion on hiking trails in the Sierra Mariola Natural Park in southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Warter, Maria; Peeters, Mattias; Kuppen, Emiel; Blok, Kas; Dilly, Lina

    2017-04-01

    Natural parks and protected natural areas provide excellent recreational opportunities for outdoor activities through the richness of the natural environment and the abundance of walking trails. Hiking, mountain biking and running have rapidly gained popularity over recent years increasing concerns about the erosion and degradation of hiking trails caused by (over)use. This is also the case in the Sierra Mariola Natural Park in southeast Spain, which is a popular destination for tourists due to its diverse fauna and flora. The increasing number of tourists together with the negative impacts of climate change necessitates a better understanding of the key soil erosion processes impacting hiking trails. There are 4 scenic trail routes in the Natural Park amounting to 21 km plus an additional network of unofficial trails. Apart from the heavy touristic traffic on the trails there are large trail running events with up to 1000 participants becoming increasingly popular, however local park authorities have voiced concerns about the impacts of these activities on the trails. Despite the popularity of walking trails around the world, there is a paucity of research exploring soil erosion from these features. Therefore, the aims of this study are: 1) to ascertain the amount of erosion that occurs on trails in the Sierra Mariola Natural Park, and 2) determine the key factors that influence soil erosion. Some 100 km of trails were evaluated (both official and unmarked trails), with route segments ranging between 2 and 10 km. A trail classification system was developed to group trail segments based on their surface characteristics (bedrock, gravel, mixed sediment, soil or man-made) and specific erosion features (rills, ditch-shaped, tilted). For each class, the average erosion rate was calculated which ranged from 262 t/ha for soil-based trails to 2006 t/ha for heavily eroded, ditch-shaped trails. The spatial distribution of the different erosion rates and trail types were

  1. The quality of free antenatal and delivery services in Northern Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroma, Manso M; Kamara, Samuel S; Bangura, Evelyn A; Kamara, Mohamed A; Lokossou, Virgil; Keita, Namoudou

    2017-07-12

    The number of maternal deaths in sub-Saharan Africa continues to be overwhelmingly high. In West Africa, Sierra Leone leads the list, with the highest maternal mortality ratio. In 2010, financial barriers were removed as an incentive for more women to use available antenatal, delivery and postnatal services. Few published studies have examined the quality of free antenatal services and access to emergency obstetric care in Sierra Leone. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 in all 97 peripheral health facilities and three hospitals in Bombali District, Northern Region. One hundred antenatal care providers were interviewed, 276 observations were made and 486 pregnant women were interviewed. We assessed the adequacy of antenatal and delivery services provided using national standards. The distance was calculated between each facility providing delivery services and the nearest comprehensive emergency obstetric care (CEOC) facility, and the proportion of facilities in a chiefdom within 15 km of each CEOC facility was also calculated. A thematic map was developed to show inequities. The quality of services was poor. Based on national standards, only 27% of women were examined, 2% were screened on their first antenatal visit and 47% received interventions as recommended. Although 94% of facilities provided delivery services, a minority had delivery rooms (40%), delivery kits (42%) or portable water (46%). Skilled attendants supervised 35% of deliveries, and in only 35% of these were processes adequately documented. None of the five basic emergency obstetric care facilities were fully compliant with national standards, and the central and northernmost parts of the district had the least access to comprehensive emergency obstetric care. The health sector needs to monitor the quality of antenatal interventions in addition to measuring coverage. The quality of delivery services is compromised by poor infrastructure, inadequate skilled staff, stock-outs of

  2. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  3. A new species of Trachymyrmex (Hymenoptera, Formicidae fungus-growing ant from the Sierra Madre Oriental of northeastern Mexico

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    Sergio R. Sánchez-Peña

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a new species of Trachymyrmex, T. pakawa sp. n., from the Gran Sierra Plegada range of the Sierra Madre Oriental, in the states of Coahuila and Nuevo Leon, northeastern Mexico. Trachymyrmex pakawa is a large-sized species compared to other North American Trachymyrmex. Its geographic distribution includes the piedmont of the Gran Sierra Plegada at La Estanzuela, Monterrey, as well as peripheral mountains segregated from the Sierra Madre Oriental (Cerro de las Mitras, Sierra de Zapalinamé, Cañon de San Lorenzo, Cerro de las Letras. The preferred habitats of T. pakawa include oak-pine forest at La Estanzuela, xeric oak forest at Zapalinamé and mesic Chihuahuan desert scrub with sotol (Dasylirion at other sites. All localities are on slopes, on very rocky, shallow lithosols overlaying large boulders. This species nests under and between large boulders and rocks. It has not been observed on alluvial or better developed, deeper soils, and it is absent from sites with human activity (urban, disturbed, and landscaped areas. It is closely related to and morphologically similar to Trachymyrmex smithi. The known distribution ranges of T. pakawa and T. smithi almost overlap in Saltillo, Coahuila state. The main character that distinguishes the new species from T. smithi is longer antennal scapes in T. pakawa; also, different nesting habits (rocky slopes vs. alluvial sites or deep sand in T. smithi, and geographic distribution. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from the mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and the first intron of the F1 copy of the nuclear protein-coding gene Elongation Factor 1- α (EF1-α-F1 confirm a sister-species relationship between T. pakawa and T. smithi. Bayesian coalescent analyses indicate a divergence time of about 8.00 million years before present (95% confidence interval: 4.8–11.5 mya between T. pakawa and T. smithi. The divergence of the lineages of T. pakawa and T. smithi could

  4. A new species of Trachymyrmex (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) fungus-growing ant from the Sierra Madre Oriental of northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R.; Chacón-Cardosa, Manuela Citlali; Canales-del-Castillo, Ricardo; Ward, Lauren; Resendez-Pérez, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Here we describe a new species of Trachymyrmex, T. pakawa sp. n., from the Gran Sierra Plegada range of the Sierra Madre Oriental, in the states of Coahuila and Nuevo Leon, northeastern Mexico. Trachymyrmex pakawa is a large-sized species compared to other North American Trachymyrmex. Its geographic distribution includes the piedmont of the Gran Sierra Plegada at La Estanzuela, Monterrey, as well as peripheral mountains segregated from the Sierra Madre Oriental (Cerro de las Mitras, Sierra de Zapalinamé, Cañon de San Lorenzo, Cerro de las Letras). The preferred habitats of T. pakawa include oak-pine forest at La Estanzuela, xeric oak forest at Zapalinamé and mesic Chihuahuan desert scrub with sotol (Dasylirion) at other sites. All localities are on slopes, on very rocky, shallow lithosols overlaying large boulders. This species nests under and between large boulders and rocks. It has not been observed on alluvial or better developed, deeper soils, and it is absent from sites with human activity (urban, disturbed, and landscaped areas). It is closely related to and morphologically similar to Trachymyrmex smithi. The known distribution ranges of T. pakawa and T. smithi almost overlap in Saltillo, Coahuila state. The main character that distinguishes the new species from T. smithi is longer antennal scapes in T. pakawa; also, different nesting habits (rocky slopes vs. alluvial sites or deep sand in T. smithi), and geographic distribution. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from the mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and the first intron of the F1 copy of the nuclear protein-coding gene Elongation Factor 1- α (EF1-α-F1) confirm a sister-species relationship between T. pakawa and T. smithi. Bayesian coalescent analyses indicate a divergence time of about 8.00 million years before present (95% confidence interval: 4.8–11.5 mya) between T. pakawa and T. smithi. The divergence of the lineages of T. pakawa and T. smithi could have

  5. New constraints on the origin of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (south Mexico) from sediment provenance and apatite thermochronometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, C.; Brichau, S.; Carter, A.

    2012-12-01

    The timing and source of deformation responsible for formation of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (south Mexico) are unclear. To address this, apatite fission track and U-Th-He thermochronometry, combined with zircon U-Pb dating, were performed on bedrock and sedimentary samples of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas to discern timing of exhumation and identify sediment source areas. The U-Pb results show that Paleocene-Eocene terrigenous units outcropping at the northern section of the Sierra were mostly derived from Grenville (˜1 Ga) basement whereas the internal sections of the chain yield mainly Permian to Triassic ages (circa 270-230 Ma) typical of the Chiapas massif complex. Grenville-sourced sediments are most probably sourced by the Oaxacan block or the Guichicovi complex and were deposited to the north of the Sierra in a foreland setting related to a Laramide deformation front. Other possibly source areas may be related to metasedimentary units widely documented at the south Maya block such as the Baldi unit. The apatite fission track and U-Th-He data combined with previously published results record three main stages in exhumation history: (1) slow exhumation between 35 and 25 Ma affecting mainly the Chiapas massif complex; (2) fast exhumation between 16 and 9 Ma related to the onset of major strike-slip deformation affecting both the Chiapas massif complex and Chiapas fold-and-thrust belt; and (3) a 6 to 5 Ma period of rapid cooling that affected the Chiapas fold-and-thrust belt, coincident with the landward migration of the Caribbean-North America plate boundaries. These data suggest that most of the topographic growth of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas took place in the middle to late Miocene. The new thermochronological evidence combined with stratigraphic and kinematic information suggests that the left-lateral strike-slip faults bounding the Chiapas fold-and-thrust belt to the west may have accommodated most of the displacement between the North American and

  6. Seismicity patterns during a period of inflation at Sierra Negra volcano, Galápagos Ocean Island Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidge, Lindsey; Ebinger, Cynthia; Ruiz, Mario; Tepp, Gabrielle; Amelung, Falk; Geist, Dennis; Coté, Dustin; Anzieta, Juan

    2017-03-01

    Basaltic shield volcanoes of the western Galápagos islands are among the most rapidly deforming volcanoes worldwide, but little was known of the internal structure and brittle deformation processes accompanying inflation and deflation cycles. A 15-station broadband seismic array was deployed on and surrounding Sierra Negra volcano, Galápagos from July 2009 through June 2011 to characterize seismic strain patterns during an inter-eruption inflation period and to evaluate single and layered magma chamber models for ocean island volcanoes. We compare precise earthquake locations determined from a 3D velocity model and from a double difference cluster method. Using first-motion of P-arrivals, we determine focal mechanisms for 8 of the largest earthquakes (ML ≤ 1.5) located within the array. Most of the 2382 earthquakes detected by the array occurred beneath the broad (∼9 km-wide) Sierra Negra caldera, at depths from surface to about 8 km below sea level. Although outside our array, frequent and larger magnitude (ML ≤ 3.4) earthquakes occurred at Alcedo and Fernandina volcano, and in a spatial cluster beneath the shallow marine platform between Fernandina and Sierra Negra volcanoes. The time-space relations and focal mechanism solutions from a 4-day long period of intense seismicity June 4-9, 2010 along the southeastern flank of Sierra Negra suggests that the upward-migrating earthquake swarm occurred during a small volume intrusion at depths 5-8 km subsurface, but there was no detectable signal in InSAR data to further constrain geometry and volume. Focal mechanisms of earthquakes beneath the steep intra-caldera faults and along the ring fault system are reverse and strike-slip. These new seismicity data integrated with tomographic, geodetic, and petrological models indicate a stratified magmatic plumbing system: a shallow sill beneath the large caldera that is supplied by magma from a large volume deeper feeding system. The large amplitude inter

  7. Regional polyphase deformation of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina Andean foreland): strengths and weaknesses of paleostress inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traforti, Anna; Zampieri, Dario; Massironi, Matteo; Viola, Giulio; Alvarado, Patricia; Di Toro, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampeanas of central Argentina are composed of a series of basement-cored ranges, located in the Andean foreland c. 600 km east of the Andean Cordillera. Although uplift of the ranges is partly attributed to the regional Neogene evolution (Ramos et al. 2002), many questions remain as to the timing and style of deformation. In fact, the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas show compelling evidence of a long lasting brittle history (spanning the Early Carboniferous to Present time), characterised by several deformation events reflecting different tectonic regimes. Each deformation phase resulted in further strain increments accommodated by reactivation of inherited structures and rheological anisotropies (Martino 2003). In the framework of such a polyphase brittle tectonic evolution affecting highly anisotropic basement rocks, the application of paleostress inversion methods, though powerful, suffers from some shortcomings, such as the likely heterogeneous character of fault slip datasets and the possible reactivation of even highly misoriented structures, and thus requires careful analysis. The challenge is to gather sufficient fault-slip data, to develop a proper understanding of the regional evolution. This is done by the identification of internally consistent fault and fracture subsets (associated to distinct stress states on the basis of their geometric and kinematic compatibility) in order to generate a chronologically-constrained evolutionary conceptual model. Based on large fault-slip datasets collected in the Sierras de Cordoba (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas), reduced stress tensors have been generated and interpreted as part of an evolutionary model by considering the obtained results against: (i) existing K-Ar illite ages of fault gouges in the study area (Bense et al. 2013), (ii) the nature and orientation of pre-existing anisotropies and (iii) the present-day stress field due to the convergence of the Nazca and South America plates (main shortening

  8. Reservation wages, expected wages and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S; Taylor, K

    2013-01-01

    We model unemployment duration, reservation and expected wages simultaneously for individuals not in work, where wage expectations are identified via an exogenous policy shock. The policy shock increased expected wages, which were found to be positively associated with reservation wages.

  9. Transforming the Reserve Component: Four Essays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binnendijk, Hans; Baranick, Michael J; Bell, Raymond E., Jr; Cordero, Gina; Duncan, Stephen M; Holshek, Christopher; Wentz, Larry

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains four essays on various aspects of the Reserve Component. We publish it at a time when Reserves are serving overseas at historically high rates and when new missions like homeland security demand their attention...

  10. 47 CFR 25.219 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.219 Section 25.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.219 [Reserved] ...

  11. 47 CFR 25.402 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.402 Section 25.402 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.402 [Reserved] ...

  12. Reservation system with graphical user interface

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid; Jamjoom, Hani T.; Podlaseck, Mark E.; Qu, Huiming; Shae, Zon-Yin; Sheopuri, Anshul

    2012-01-01

    Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting

  13. 47 CFR 80.146 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Shipboard General Purpose Watches § 80.146 [Reserved] ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 80.146 Section 80.146...

  14. 47 CFR 80.145 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.145 [Reserved] Shipboard General Purpose Watches ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 80.145 Section 80.145...

  15. 5 CFR 330.610 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.610 Section 330.610 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.610 [Reserved] ...

  16. 5 CFR 330.603 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.603 Section 330.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.603 [Reserved] ...

  17. 40 CFR 405.73 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 405.73 Section 405.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY... § 405.73 [Reserved] ...

  18. 40 CFR 408.73 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 408.73 Section 408.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS... Processing Subcategory § 408.73 [Reserved] ...

  19. 40 CFR 407.73 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 407.73 Section 407.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS... Vegetables Subcategory § 407.73 [Reserved] ...

  20. Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana

    2017-03-01

    The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.