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Sample records for reserve sichuan china

  1. Factors Affecting Tufa Degradation in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China

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    Lixia Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Water and tufa samples were collected from Arrow Bamboo Lake, the stream from Panda Lake to Five-Color Lake, Pearl Shoal and Shuzheng Lakes in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China, between October 2013 and September 2014, to investigate tufa growth rate and water environment (water temperature, pH, electric conductivity, major ions and nutrients, and analyzed to explore the main causes of tufa degradation. The mean annual rate of tufa growth was low and varied within lakes, with the maximum deposit thickness of 332 μm/y. The calcite saturation index ranged from 0.65 to 0.83. Scanning electron microscope images showed that the tufa deposits had non-isopachous structures, and diatoms were the dominant microorganisms that participated in tufa deposition. Porous and crystalline structures of deposits were linked with a high tufa growth and small amounts of diatoms. Conversely, tufa deposits with amorphous and loose structures showed a low crystal growth rate and a high number of diatoms. A one-way analysis of variance and a least significant difference test were applied to identify site differences in water chemistry. Linear correlations indicated that nitrate, phosphate and sulfate inhibit tufa growth (p < 0.05. Increased nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations that originate mainly from atmospheric pollution and tourist activities at scenic attractions could trigger excessive diatom growth, which inhibits tufa precipitation. A series of measures should be implemented (e.g., the visitor number and vehicles should be regulated and controlled to minimize tufa degradation in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve.

  2. Water Availability for Shale Gas Development in Sichuan Basin, China.

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    Yu, Mengjun; Weinthal, Erika; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Deshusses, Marc A; Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-03-15

    Unconventional shale gas development holds promise for reducing the predominant consumption of coal and increasing the utilization of natural gas in China. While China possesses some of the most abundant technically recoverable shale gas resources in the world, water availability could still be a limiting factor for hydraulic fracturing operations, in addition to geological, infrastructural, and technological barriers. Here, we project the baseline water availability for the next 15 years in Sichuan Basin, one of the most promising shale gas basins in China. Our projection shows that continued water demand for the domestic sector in Sichuan Basin could result in high to extremely high water stress in certain areas. By simulating shale gas development and using information from current water use for hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin (20,000-30,000 m(3) per well), we project that during the next decade water use for shale gas development could reach 20-30 million m(3)/year, when shale gas well development is projected to be most active. While this volume is negligible relative to the projected overall domestic water use of ∼36 billion m(3)/year, we posit that intensification of hydraulic fracturing and water use might compete with other water utilization in local water-stress areas in Sichuan Basin.

  3. The water footprint of hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin, China.

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    Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Li, Jian; Kondash, Andrew; Coyte, Rachel; Lauer, Nancy; Cui, Huiying; Liao, Fengrong; Vengosh, Avner

    2018-02-23

    Shale gas is likely to play a major role in China's transition away from coal. In addition to technological and infrastructural constraints, the main challenges to China's sustainable shale gas development are sufficient shale gas production, water availability, and adequate wastewater management. Here we present, for the first time, actual data of shale gas production and its water footprint from the Weiyuan gas field, one of the major gas fields in Sichuan Basin. We show that shale gas production rates during the first 12 months (24 million m 3 per well) are similar to gas production rates in U.S. shale basins. The amount of water used for hydraulic fracturing (34,000 m 3 per well) and the volume of flowback and produced (FP) water in the first 12 months (19,800 m 3 per well) in Sichuan Basin are also similar to the current water footprints of hydraulic fracturing in U.S. basins. We present salinity data of the FP water (5000 to 40,000 mgCl/L) in Sichuan Basin and the treatment operations, which include sedimentation, dilution with fresh water, and recycling of the FP water for hydraulic fracturing. We utilize the water use data, empirical decline rates of shale gas and FP water productions in Sichuan Basin to generate two prediction models for water use for hydraulic fracturing and FP water production upon achieving China's goals to generate 100 billion m 3 of shale gas by 2030. The first model utilizes the current water use and FP production data, and the second assumes a yearly 5% intensification of the hydraulic fracturing process. The predicted water use for hydraulic fracturing in 2030 (50-65 million m 3 per year), FP water production (50-55 million m 3 per year), and fresh water dilution of FP water (25 million m 3 per year) constitute a water footprint that is much smaller than current water consumption and wastewater generation for coal mining, but higher than those of conventional gas production in China. Given estimates

  4. Technical status and challenges of shale gas development in Sichuan Basin, China

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    Pingli Liu

    2015-03-01

    This paper begins with the introduction of shale gas reserve distribution in China and the identified shale gas formation in Sichuan Basin. The following paper reviews the methodology employed in the geophysical prospecting, drilling and completion, and hydraulic fracturing process. Since China is in the early stage of shale gas development, there is a great technical gap between China and North America. Based on literature review, the major challenges faced in the exploration and production process are identified. What presented in this paper should be of particular interest to the personnels involved in shale gas production in China and countries that are about to set foot in shale gas business. It will also be of interest to researchers who are dedicated to developing these technologies to unlock unconventional gas resources in China.

  5. Physicomechanical parameters of sedimentary rocks in eastern Sichuan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jian; Sun, Yan; Shu, Liangshu; Zhu, Wenbin; Wang, Feng; Li, Benliang; Liu, Deliang

    2009-01-01

    Rock samples were collected and selected from the sedimentary covering strata from Cambrian to Jurassic in eastern Sichuan, China, which belongs to the Upper Yangtze plate. Physicomechanical parameters were measured systematically. Based on parametric texture characteristics and observation data of geology, five regional layer-slip systems are derived. The five layer-slip systems correspond to five reservoir–cover systems, as the incompetent beds correspond to cover beds and the competent beds to reservoir beds. In comparison with the Middle and Lower Yangtze plates, the physicomechanical parameters, lithologic composition and structural characteristics are basically similar to the Upper Yangtze plate. This comparison offers some insight into the oil and gas reservoir–cover systems in the region

  6. Gammarus emeiensis, a new species of amphipod crustacean from Sichuan Province, China

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    Hou, Zhong-E; Li, Shuqiang; Koenemann, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Specimens of a new species of gammarid Amphipoda, Gammarus emeiensis n. sp., were found on Emei Mt., Sichuan Province, China. A detailed description of this freshwater amphipod is given and differences to related species are discussed.

  7. Assessment of Paleozoic shale gas resources in the Sichuan Basin of China, 2015

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    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2015-10-14

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 23.9 trillion cubic feet of technically recoverable shale gas resources in Paleozoic formations in the Sichuan Basin of China.

  8. Two new species of the genus Gonioctena Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Chrysomelinae) from Sichuan, China.

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    Cho, Hee-Wook; Borowiec, Lech

    2014-02-18

    Two new species of Gonioctena Chevrolat, G. sichuana sp. n. and G. metallica sp. n., are described from Sichuan Province, China. Diagnostic characters and illustrations are provided. Ovoviviparity is recorded in G. metallica sp. n.

  9. Women's preferences for children in Shifang County, Sichuan, China.

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    Wang, J

    1990-01-01

    Fertility preference being related to government policy in China, women generally understate their desired family size when questioned directly. A binomial probit model is, therefore, presented to estimate the probability that family-size preferences in Shifang County, Sichuan, China, are understated. The model provides estimates on the percentage of respondent understatement along with the number of children, women of different ages and social characteristics truly desire. Women's preferences for sons versus daughters are also examined. The study found that women desire on average 1/2 more children than that which they state. Understating was in greatest evidence among urban, educated, and younger women more sensitive to the government's 1-child policy. Preference for sons was found to be weaker than expected, yet strong nonetheless in rural areas among women desiring only 1 child. Sons are considered to cause more worry for parents in China due to an aggressive, risk-taking nature. Possible explanations for the decline of son preference include increasing familial costs for sons' betrothment and marriage, changing household structures, and increasing status of and job opportunities for women in Chinese society. In closing, the paper highlights that couples restrict marital fertility out of interest for national prosperity and the welfare of future generations, not personal preference for small families. Were government policy to relax, fertility would rise to preferred levels.

  10. AHP 21: Review: China's Last Imperial Frontier and The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet

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    Robert Entenmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, historians have not paid much attention to Qing China's Tibetan frontier, but two excellent new studies address this neglect. One is Yingcong Dai's The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet: Imperial Strategy in the Early Qing, which examines the Qing conquest of the Khams region up to the end of the eighteenth century and its effect on Sichuan. The other is China's Last Imperial Frontier: Late Qing Expansion in Sichuan's Tibetan Borderlands by Xiuyu Wang, in which he describes Qing efforts to impose direct administration on the Khams region in the last years of the dynasty. ...

  11. The vegetable cultivation system in two villages in Sichuan Province, China

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    Lin Chaowen,; Everaarts, A.P.

    2008-01-01

    A qualitative description was made of the agronomic characteristics of the vegetable cultivation system in two villages, Shengli and Xibei, in the peri-urban area of Pengzhou County, Sichuan Province, China. A great number of different vegetable species are cultivated, of which garlic and lettuce

  12. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Sichuan province, China

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    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zuqin; Xie, Yue; Hou, Rong; Wu, Qidun; Gu, Xiaobing; Lai, Weiming; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidium spp. have been extensively reported to cause significant diarrheal disease in humans and domestic animals. On the contrary, little information is available on the prevalence and characterization of Cryptosporidium in wild animals in China, especially in giant pandas. The aim of the present study was to detect Cryptosporidium infections and identify Cryptosporidium species at the molecular level in both captive and wild giant pandas in Sichuan province, China. Findin...

  13. Acinetobacter pittii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis among clinical isolates of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex in Sichuan, China.

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    Wang, Xiaohui; Chen, Tao; Yu, Rujia; Lü, Xiaojü; Zong, Zhiyong

    2013-07-01

    Among 82 clinical isolates of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex recovered in 13 hospitals of Sichuan, China, in 2011, 13 were Acinetobacter pittii and 2 were Acinetobacter nosocomialis. Multilocus sequence typing revealed a novel sequence type (ST) of A. nosocomialis and 7 novel STs of A. pittii. Most isolates were hospital-acquired and colonized in the respiratory tract, while 6 cases with pneumonia due to A. pittii were identified. This study provided a snapshot of the local incidence of A. pittii and A. nosocomialis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing the spatial accessibility of hospital care in Sichuan Province, China

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    Jay Pan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Regional disparities in geographical access to hospital care are found throughout China. Understanding variations in the spatial accessibility of hospital care has the potential to provide decision support in healthcare planning. This study examines the hospital system in the Sichuan Province in China, which provides healthcare for more than 80 million people. We examine the impacts of accessibility characterisation via the conventional measurement approach by comparing the results to those derived using a floating catchment area approach. Employing a geographical information system based on population and hospital administrative data, we conducted a provincewide study of the spatial accessibility of hospital care in Sichuan Province, China. A shortest-path analysis and the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA method were implemented. Substantial differences between these two approaches were found, including a roughly 15% difference in the total number of under-served areas. Generally, spatial accessibility was higher in the eastern regions of Sichuan. More than 5.5 million people were found to have limited access, with large variations across the province. These results indicate that the official method used by policy makers in China may not capture the true nature of spatial accessibility throughout the region. We recommend that the E2SFCA method be implemented for health services research in China, providing decision makers with more accurate information when setting healthcare policies.

  15. Ethno-veterinary survey of medicinal plants in Ruoergai region, Sichuan province, China.

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    Shang, Xiaofei; Tao, Cuixiang; Miao, Xiaolou; Wang, Dongsheng; Tangmuke; Dawa; Wang, Yu; Yang, Yaoguang; Pan, Hu

    2012-07-13

    In this study we aimed to survey and investigate the medicinal plants which are used to treat the veterinary diseases in Ruoergai region, Sichuan province, China. Meanwhile, the important medicinal plants were collected and identified for the further study. Twenty folk veterinary practitioners from 8 township animal husbandry and veterinary stations in Ruoergai region were investigated and interviewed. The important local medicinal materials, including plants, animals and mineral drugs, were collected by scientific methods and identified by the pharmacognosist of Lanzhou University, China. According to the investigation, only 20 folk veterinary practitioners still used 129 species of traditional medicine to treat the livestock`s diseases. In these medicine, 93 species were native and Ranunculaceae (12, 12.90%), Compositae (11, 11.83%), Papaveraceae (7, 7.53%) were the predominant families. At the same time, herbs (36.56%) are the most widely used part of plant, and respiratory diseases (21.02%) and gastrointestinal diseases (19.89%) were the main animal's diseases in this region. Ethno-veterinary medicine made an extraordinary contribution to the sound development of animal husbandry in Ruoergai. But the inherit, protect and development should be paid more attentions in the future, and the species which have not been studied should be developed priority to find biological activities and new bioactive compounds further. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diversity, bioactivities, and metabolic potentials of endophytic actinomycetes isolated from traditional medicinal plants in Sichuan, China.

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    Qiu, Peng; Feng, Zhi-Xiang; Tian, Jie-Wei; Lei, Zu-Chao; Wang, Lei; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chu, Yi-Wen; Tian, Yong-Qiang

    2015-12-01

    The present study was designed to determine the taxonomic diversity and metabolic activity of the actinomycetes community, including 13 traditional medicinal plants collected in Sichuan province, China, using multiple approaches such as morphological and molecular identification methods, bioactivity assays, and PCR screening for genes involved in antibiotics biosynthesis. 119 endophytic actinomycetes were recovered; 80 representative strains were chosen for 16S rRNA gene partial sequence analyses, with 66 of them being affiliated to genus Streptomyces and the remaining 14 strains being rare actinomycetes. Antimicrobial tests showed that 12 (15%) of the 80 endophytic actinomycetes displayed inhibitory effects against at least one indicator pathogens, which were all assigned to the genus Streptomyces. In addition, 87.5% and 58.8% of the isolates showed anticancer and anti-diabetic activities, respectively. Meanwhile, the anticancer activities of the isolates negatively correlated with their anti-diabetic activities. Based on the results of PCR screening, five genes, PKS-I, PKS-II, NRPS, ANSA, and oxyB, were detected in 55.0%, 58.8%, 90.0%, 18.8% and 8.8% of the 80 actinomycetes, respectively. In conclusion, the PCR screening method employed in the present study was conducive for screening and selection of potential actinomycetes and predicting potential secondary metabolites, which could overcome the limitations of traditional activity screening models. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Accumulation conditions of Lower Paleozoic shale gas from the southern Sichuan Basin, China

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    Xianqing Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the raw data of the organic-rich shale in the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation and Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation which were collected from the drilling core, we investigated the accumulation conditions of the Lower Paleozoic marine shale gas in the southern Sichuan Basin, China. The results indicate that the Qiongzhusi and the Longmaxi Formations' black shales in this region are mainly deposited in the deep water shelf sedimentary environment. Both the Qiongzhusi and Longmaxi Formations in the southern Sichuan Basin have great organic-rich shale thickness (mainly 50–300 m. The marine shales of the Qiongzhusi and the Longmaxi Formations are characterized by high total organic carbon contents (average TOC>2%, I–II1 kerogen types, highthermal maturity level (equivalent RO>1.9%, abundant rich brittle mineral (average > 50%, micro- and nanometer pore development, as well as high gas content of shale (average > 1.8 m3/t. All these features are favorable for marine shale gas generation and enrichment in the southern Sichuan Basin. Compared to the Barnett shale in North America, in which shale gas has been explored and developed successfully, it is suggested that the Lower Paleozoic in the southern Sichuan Basin would possess good conditions for shale gas accumulation. Therefore, the Qiongzhusi and the Longmaxi Formations are considered as potential targets for marine shale gas exploration, and favorable areas for shale gas enrichment are also purposed. The favorable areas for shale gas enrichment for the Qiongzhusi Formation in the southern Sichuan Basin are the Zhigong-Yibin, Changning-Gongxian, Jianwei-Muchuan, and Weiyuan areas. The favorable areas for shale gas enrichment for the Longmaxi Formation in the southern Sichuan Basin are the Longchang-Rongchang, Yibin-Luzhou-Changning, and Weiyuan areas.

  18. Clinical analysis of 1629 newly diagnosed malignant lymphomas in current residents of Sichuan province, China.

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    Wang, Xue-Mei; Bassig, Bryan A; Wen, Jing-Jing; Li, Gan-di; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Yao, Wen-Xiu; Hu, Wei; Wang, Ying; Li, Ji-Man; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Gan, Mao-Zhou; Wang, Chun-Sen; Xu, Gang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Xu, Cai-Gang

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies in other provinces of China (Beijing, Xinjiang, Shanxi, Jiangxi, Shanghai, Guangdong, and Taiwan) suggest that the distributions of lymphoma subtypes differ compared with Western populations. In order to evaluate the characteristics of malignant lymphoma in Sichuan, China, we analyzed case series data from incident lymphoma patients diagnosed in 2008 from three hospitals, including a total of 1629 cases and including only current residents of Sichuan. The median age of diagnosis for cases was 54 years, with a higher proportion of male cases compared with female cases. The most commonly diagnosed subtypes included diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (40.4%), NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL; 11.8%), mixed cellularity Hodgkin lymphoma (7.0%), mantle cell lymphoma (4.8%), and marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (3.9%). Differences in demographic characteristics between Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cases were apparent for median age at diagnosis (HL: 34 years; NHL: 57 years), and NHLs accounted for nearly all (99.3%) of the 931 cases of extranodal lymphoma. These findings indicate a higher proportion of NKTCL cases and a lower proportion of follicular lymphoma cases (2.3%) in these hospitals in Sichuan, relative to reports from some other provinces within China (e.g., Shanghai and Shanxi) and the USA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Petroleum geology of the Puguang sour gas field in the Sichuan Basin, SW China

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    Ma, Yongsheng; Guo, Tonglou; Zhu, Guangyou; Cai, Xunyu [SINOPEC Southern Exploration and Development Company, Kunming, Yunnan 650200 (China); Zhang, Shuichang [PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Maowen [Geological Survey of (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    The Puguang sour gas field in northeastern Sichuan Basin is the largest gas discovery in the Paleozoic marine strata in China, with at least 9 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of proven gas reserves. It is one of the many anticlinal structures formed during the Indo-Sinian orogeny, with gas being trapped in a composite structure-lithology pool. The presence of the Upper Permian coal measures, Lower Silurian and Lower Cambrian marine shales provided excellent hydrocarbon source rocks. The Lower Triassic and Upper Permian oolitic dolomites serve as high quality reservoir rocks, with 10-25% porosity and 1-1000 mD permeability, largely due to diagenetically produced secondary porosity. The Lower and Middle Triassic evaporate beds have acted as the direct top seal for the large Lower Triassic-Upper Permian gas accumulation. The thick Upper Triassic and Jurassic mudstone beds regionally cap the underlying marine carbonate strata. The deep-seated basement faults acted as vertical hydrocarbon migration conduits during faulting, and became effective flow barriers when the faulting ceased. The deep burial of a paleo-oil accumulation in reservoirs rich in sulfate resulted in extensive thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). This, together with the new gas injection and structural reconfiguration, transformed a paleo-oil pool to a large sour gas pool. (author)

  20. Preliminary investigation of some large landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan Province, China

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    Wang, F.; Cheng, Q.; Highland, L.; Miyajima, M.; Wang, Hongfang; Yan, C.

    2009-01-01

    The M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake or "Great Sichuan Earthquake" occurred at 14:28 p.m. local time on 12 May 2008 in Sichuan Province, China. Damage by earthquake-induced landslides was an important part of the total earthquake damage. This report presents preliminary observations on the Hongyan Resort slide located southwest of the main epicenter, shallow mountain surface failures in Xuankou village of Yingxiu Town, the Jiufengchun slide near Longmenshan Town, the Hongsong Hydro-power Station slide near Hongbai Town, the Xiaojiaqiao slide in Chaping Town, two landslides in Beichuan County-town which destroyed a large part of the town, and the Donghekou and Shibangou slides in Qingchuan County which formed the second biggest landslide lake formed in this earthquake. The influences of seismic, topographic, geologic, and hydro-geologic conditions are discussed. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Assessing spatial access to public and private hospitals in Sichuan, China: The influence of the private sector on the healthcare geography in China.

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    Pan, Jay; Zhao, Hanqing; Wang, Xiuli; Shi, Xun

    2016-12-01

    In 2009, the Chinese government launched a new round of healthcare reform, which encourages development of private hospitals. Meanwhile, many public hospitals in China also became increasingly profit-oriented. These trends have led to concerns about social justice and regional disparity. However, there is a lack of empirical scientific analysis to support the debate. We started to fill this gap by conducting a regional-level analysis of spatial variation in spatial access to hospitals in the Sichuan Province. Such variation is an important indication of (in) equity in healthcare resource allocation. Using data of 2012, we intended to provide a snapshot of the situation that was a few years later since the new policies had set out. We employed two methods to quantify the spatial access: the nearest-neighbor method and the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method. We recognized two sub-regions of Sichuan: the rural West Sichuan and the well-developed East Sichuan. We classified the hospitals using both ownership and level. We applied the analysis to the resulting groups of hospitals and their combinations in the two sub-regions. The two sub-regions have a high contrast in the spatial access to hospitals, in terms of both quantity and spatial pattern. Public hospitals still dominated the service in the province, especially in the West Sichuan, which had been solely relying on public hospitals. Private hospitals only occurred in the East Sichuan, and at the primary level, they had surpassed public hospitals in terms of spatial accessibility. However, the governmental health expenditures seemed to be disconnected with the actual situation of the spatial access to hospitals. The government should continue carrying on its responsibility in allocating healthcare resources, be cautious about marketizing public hospitals, and encourage private hospitals to expand into rural areas. Methodologically, the results from the two methods are concurring but not

  2. Optimizing MPBSM Resource Allocation Based on Revenue Management: A China Mobile Sichuan Case

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    Xu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The key to determining the network service level of telecom operators is resource allocation for mobile phone base station maintenance (MPBSM. Given intense market competition and higher consumer requirements for network service levels, an increasing proportion of resources have been allocated to MPBSM. Maintenance costs account for the rising fraction of direct costs, and the management of MPBSM resource allocation presents special challenges to telecom operators. China Mobile is the largest telecom operator in the world. Its subsidiary, China Mobile Sichuan, is the first in China to use revenue management in improving MPBSM resource allocation. On the basis of comprehensive revenue (including both economic revenue and social revenue, the subsidiary established a classification model of its base stations. The model scientifically classifies more than 25,000 base stations according to comprehensive revenue. China Mobile Sichuan also conducted differentiation allocation of MPBSM resources on the basis of the classification results. Furthermore, it optimized the assessment system of the telecom base stations to establish an assurance system for the use of MPBSM resources. After half-year implementation, the cell availability of both VIP base stations and total base stations significantly improved. The optimization also reduced economic losses to RMB 10.134 million, and enhanced customer satisfaction with network service by 3.2%.

  3. A Case-control Study on Non-smoking Primary Lung Cancers in Sichuan, China

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    Feifei LIU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The incidence of lung cancer in non-smokers is increasing in recent years. The aim of this investigation is to explore main risk factors of non-smoking primary lung cancers in Sichuan province in order to provide more accurate data for clinical. Methods One hundred and fourty-five non-smoking pairs of cases and 145 of controls were matched by age and sex. The patients were newly-diagnosed definitely as primary lung cancer at West China Hospital of Sichuan University from March to December 2009. Results Seventeen exposure factors were explored as epidemic agents for non-smoking lung cancer in Sichuan by using univariate analysis; mutivariate conditional Logistic regression analysis showed that passive smoking, moved into newly renovated homes over the past 10 years, family cancer history from second/third-degree relatives, lack of emotion regulation, heavy work pressure and poor quality of sleep were main risk agents for the non-smoking lung cancer incidence with OR 2.267 (95%CI: 1.231-4.177, 5.080 (95%CI: 1.632-15.817, 7.937 (95%CI: 1.815-34.705, 2.491 (95%CI: 1.230-4.738, 5.769 (95%CI: 2.030-16.396, 2.538 (95%CI: 1.277-4.861, respectively. While higher body mass index, eating fruit and vegetable and regular participating in physical exercise might be protective factors with OR 0.419 (95%CI: 0.226-0.779, 0.344 (95%CI: 0.155-0.762, 0.507 (95%CI: 0.274-0.937, respectively. Conclusion The occurrence of non-smoking primary lung cancer associated with a variety of exposure factors including passive smoking, history of exposure to harmful environmental, family cancer history, mental and psychological factors in Sichuan Province.

  4. An ion beam facility based on a 3 MV tandetron accelerator in Sichuan University, China

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    Han, Jifeng; An, Zhu; Zheng, Gaoqun; Bai, Fan; Li, Zhihui; Wang, Peng; Liao, Xiaodong; Liu, Mantian; Chen, Shunli; Song, Mingjiang; Zhang, Jun

    2018-03-01

    A new ion beam facility based on a 3 MV tandetron accelerator system has been installed in Sichuan University, China. The facility was developed by High Voltage Engineering Europa and consists of three high-energy beam lines including the ion beam analysis, ion implantation and nuclear physics experiment end stations, respectively. The terminal voltage stability of the accelerator is better than ±30 V, and the brightness of the proton beam is approximately 5.06 A/rad2/m2/eV. The system demonstrates a great application potential in fields such as nuclear, material and environmental studies.

  5. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Sichuan province, China.

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    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zuqin; Xie, Yue; Hou, Rong; Wu, Qidun; Gu, Xiaobing; Lai, Weiming; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-06-25

    Cryptosporidium spp. have been extensively reported to cause significant diarrheal disease in humans and domestic animals. On the contrary, little information is available on the prevalence and characterization of Cryptosporidium in wild animals in China, especially in giant pandas. The aim of the present study was to detect Cryptosporidium infections and identify Cryptosporidium species at the molecular level in both captive and wild giant pandas in Sichuan province, China. Using a PCR approach, we amplified and sequenced the 18S rRNA gene from 322 giant pandas fecal samples (122 from 122 captive individuals and 200 collected from four habitats) in Sichuan province, China. The Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified via a BLAST comparison against published Cryptosporidium sequences available in GenBank followed by phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that both captive and wild giant pandas were infected with a single Cryptosporidium species, C. andersoni, at a prevalence of 15.6% (19/122) and 0.5% (1/200) in captive and wild giant pandas, respectively. The present study revealed the existence of C. andersoni in both captive and wild giant panda fecal samples for the first time, and also provided useful fundamental data for further research on the molecular epidemiology and control of Cryptosporidium infection in giant pandas.

  6. Characteristics of air pollution in different zones of Sichuan Basin, China.

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    Ning, Guicai; Wang, Shigong; Ma, Minjin; Ni, Changjian; Shang, Ziwei; Wang, Jiaxin; Li, Jingxin

    2018-01-15

    Sichuan Basin, located in southwest China, has been ranked as the fourth of heavily air polluted regions in China partly due to its deep mountain-basin topography. However, spatial-temporal distribution of air pollution over the basin is still unclear due to the lack of monitoring data and poor knowledge. Since January 2015, six criteria air pollutants began to be monitored in 20 cities across the basin. The measured data enable us to analyze the basin-wide spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of these air pollutants. Results revealed heavy air pollution in the bottom zone, medium in the slope zone, and light pollution in the edge zone of the Basin in terms of the altitudes of air quality monitoring stations across the Basin. The average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were 55.87μg/m 3 and 86.49μg/m 3 in the bottom, 33.76μg/m 3 and 63.33μg/m 3 in the slope, and 19.71μg/m 3 and 35.06μg/m 3 in the edge, respectively. In the bottom and slope of the basin, high PM 2.5 concentration events occurred most frequently in winter . While in summer, ozone became primary pollutant. Among the six air pollutants, concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 decrease dramatically with increasing altitude which was fitted by a nonlinear relationship between particulate matter (PM) concentrations and altitude. This relationship was validated by extinction coefficient profiles from CALIPSO observations and EV-lidar data, and hence used to reflect vertical distribution of air PM concentrations. It has been found that the thickness of higher PM concentrations is less than 500m in the basin. In the bottom of the basin, PM concentrations exhibited stronger horizontal homogeneities as compared with those in the North China Plain and Yangtze River Delta. However, gaseous pollutants seemed not to show clear relationships between their concentrations and altitudes in the basin. Their horizontal homogeneities were less significant compared to PM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  7. Limited and localized outbreak of newly emergent type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongmei; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shuangli; Chen, Na; Li, Xiaolei; Wang, Dongyan; Ma, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Hui; Tong, Wenbin; Xu, Wenbo

    2014-07-01

    From August 2011 to February 2012, an outbreak caused by type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in Aba County, Sichuan, China. During the outbreak, four type 2 VDPVs (≥0.6% nucleotide divergence in the VP1 region relative to the Sabin 2 strain) were isolated from 3 patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and one close contact. In addition, a type 2 pre-VDPV (0.3% to 0.5% divergence from Sabin 2) that was genetically related to these type 2 VDPVs was isolated from another AFP patient. These 4 patients were all unimmunized children 0.7 to 1.1 years old. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the 4 VDPV isolates differed from Sabin 2 by 0.7% to 1.2% in nucleotides in the VP1 region and shared 5 nucleotide substitutions with the pre-VDPV. All 5 isolates were closely related, and all were S2/S3/S2/S3 recombinants sharing common recombination crossover sites. Although the two major determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity phenotype of Sabin 2 (A481 in the 5' untranslated region and Ile143 in the VP1 protein) had reverted in all 5 isolates, one VDPV (strain CHN16017) still retained the temperature sensitivity phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the third coding position of the complete P1 coding region suggested that the cVDPVs circulated locally for about 7 months following the initiating oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) dose. Our findings reinforce the point that cVDPVs can emerge and spread in isolated communities with immunity gaps and highlight the emergence risks of type 2 cVDPVs accompanying the trivalent OPV used. To solve this issue, it is recommended that type 2 OPV be removed from the trivalent OPV or that inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) be used instead. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Infant formula crisis in china: a cohort study in sichuan province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2015-03-01

    China has become the largest market of infant formula in the world. The consumption of infant formula is widespread across the country. This study investigated the opinions of Chinese mothers on infant formula. A prospective cohort study (n=695) was undertaken in 2011 in Sichuan province of China two years after the melamine scandal. Infant-feeding practices and mothers' opinions on infant formula-use were documented in detail. A total of 674 mothers (97%) had initiated breastfeeding by discharge. Of the 21 mothers who did not commence breastfeeding, 13 made a decision to exclusively feed their babies with infant formula because of hepatitis B virus infection. Nearly 70% of newborns received infant formula as their first feed, and the prevalence increased to 88% within one month. Having insufficient breastmilk was perceived by the majority (77%) of mothers as the reason behind infant formula feeding. About half (46%) of the mothers agreed with or were ambivalent that infant formula feeding does not reduce their breastmilk production. More than one-third (38%) of women thought that formulafed infants sleep longer at night than those who are breastfed. In addition, this perception was positively associated with the use of formula within one month postpartum (p=0.003). In conclusion, mothers' opinions appear to influence the use of infant formula in China. There is a need for further education on breastfeeding and infant-feeding options to maintain and improve breastfeeding outcomes in China.

  9. PTSD in a one year old girl after the Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Z J; Deng, Hong; Hsu, L K George

    2011-01-01

    On May 12, 2008, at 2:28 PM, an earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter Scale struck Southwest China, with the epicenter in Wenchuan, a county about 92 km (about 58 miles) north-west of the Sichuan provincial capital of Chengdu. The earthquake destroyed about 6.5 million homes, leaving 4.8 million people homeless. Official figures stated that 69,196 are confirmed dead, including some 5,335 school children, while an additional 18,379 are listed as missing (Sina.com, 2009). An epidemiological survey conducted 2.5 months after the earthquake in two counties affected by the earthquake found the prevalence of post-traumatic disorder (PTSD) to be 45.5% in the heavily damaged county and 9.4% in the moderately damaged one (Kun et al., 2009).

  10. Compositional, mechanical and transport properties of carbonate fault rocks and the seismic cycle in limestone terrains : A case study of surface exposures on the Longmenshan Fault, Sichuan, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jianye

    2015-01-01

    Destructive earthquakes are common in tectonically active regions dominated by carbonate cover rocks. The catastrophic Wenchuan earthquake that struck Sichuan, China, also affected a section of carbonate cover terrain. Numerous studies have focused on characterizing the compositional, transport and

  11. Genetic diversity of 21 autosomal STR loci in the Han population from Sichuan province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guanglin; Li, Ye; Wang, Zheng; Liang, Weibo; Luo, Haibo; Liao, Miao; Zhang, Ji; Yan, Jing; Li, Yingbi; Hou, Yiping; Wu, Jin

    2017-11-01

    Exploration of the ethnic origin and genetic differentiation of 56 Chinese officially recognized nationalities populations played a fundamental role in the research field of population genetics, forensic science, linguistics, anthropology, and archaeology. In the present study, population data of 21 autosomal STR loci (CSF1PO, D10S1248, D12S391, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, D2S1338, D2S441, D3S1358, D5S818, D6S1043, D7S820, D8S1179, FGA, Penta D, Penta E, TH01, TPOX, and vWA) included in the AGCU EX22 kit in 2793 Southwest Han Chinese individuals was obtained and population genetic relationships among 28 Chinese populations were investigated. Our study indicated that the twenty-one autosomal STRs are highly polymorphic in the Sichuan Han population and can be used as a powerful tool in the routine forensic usage. MDS and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Sichuan Han population kept a close genetic relationship with the southwest populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Virulence Types of Magnaporthe oryzae to Hybrid Rice in Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-lian BAI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 638 isolates of rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae were isolated in 2002–2009 from different rice varieties in different regions of Sichuan, China and inoculated onto seven rice varieties (Lijiangxintuanheigu, IR24, Minghui 63, Duohui 1, Chenghui 448, Neihui 99-14 and RHR-1 to differentiate the virulence types of the fungus and trace the changes. The virulence to the seven varieties was respectively scored at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64. The total scores of individual M. grisea isolates which were the sum of scores infecting differential varieties could, in turn, be used for the nomenclature of the virulence types due to their accordance to the special virulence patterns. The 638 tested isolates were then differentiated into 56 different virulence types. Type 15 virulent to Lijiangxintuanheigu, IR24 and Minghui 63, and Type 127 virulent to all of the seven varieties were the most dominant virulence types respectively with the occurrence frequencies of 15.99% and 15.83%. Type 19 and other seven virulence types were not monitored during 2002–2009. Type 15 was the predominant virulence type in 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2007, whereas Type 127 had been the most dominant virulence type after 2005 except for the year 2007 when the province underwent severe drought. Five hundred and seven out of the 638 tested isolates were virulent to Minghui 63, and 89.58% of the 384 isolates virulent to either Duohui 1, Chenghui 448 or Neihui 99-14 were virulent to Minghui 63, which indicated the impact of the extensive plantation of hybrid rice Minghui 63 as the restorer line on the virulence evolution of M. oryzae in Sichuan. The virulence pattern of the dominant virulence types suggested that the acquiring of virulence to all the major resistant restorer lines was the main routes of the evolution in virulence of M. oryzae to hybrid rice in Sichuan. The virulence frequencies of the 638 tested isolates to IR24, Minghui 63, Duohui 1, Chenghui 448, Neihui 99

  13. Probabilistic Analysis of Earthquake-Led Water Contamination: A Case of Sichuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Lin; Benjamin Zhan, F.; Zhuang, Yanhua

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate seismic-led point source and non-point source water pollution, under the seismic hazard of 10 % probability of exceedance in 50 years, and with the minimum value of the water quality standard in Sichuan, China. The soil conservation service curve number method of calculating the runoff depth in the single rainfall event combined with the seismic damage index were applied to estimate the potential degree of non-point source water pollution. To estimate the potential impact of point source water pollution, a comprehensive water pollution evaluation framework is constructed using a combination of Water Quality Index and Seismic Damage Index methods. The four key findings of this paper are: (1) The water catchment that has the highest factory concentration does not have the highest risk of non-point source water contamination induced by the outbreak of potential earthquake. (2) The water catchment that has the highest numbers of cumulative water pollutants types are typically located in the south western parts of Sichuan where the main river basins in the regions flow through. (3) The most common pollutants in sample factories studied is COD and NH3-N which are found in all catchments. The least common pollutant is pathogen—found present in W1 catchment which has the best rating in the water quality index. (4) Using water quality index as a standardization parameter, parallel comparisons is made among the 16 water catchments. Only catchment W1 reaches level II water quality status which has the rating of moderately polluted in events of earthquake induced water contamination. All other areas suffer from severe water contamination with multiple pollution sources. The results from the data model are significant to urban planning commissions and businesses to strategically choose their factory locations in order to minimize potential hazardous impact during the outbreak of earthquake.

  14. Household biomass energy choice and its policy implications on improving rural livelihoods in Sichuan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qiu; Yang, Haoran; Liu, Tianbiao; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    It is widely known that a switch from traditional biomass energy to modern clean, safe and efficient energy could improve local rural livelihoods by enhancing the access to ‘high quality’ energy and reducing the negative impacts of traditional biomass energy on health, environment and living standards. Hence, in this paper, we used alternative-specific conditional logit model (ASCLM) to examine the rural household energy choice behaviors in Sichuan Province of China from the perspective of revealed and stated preferences. The results show that the fuel switching in our study region is not a simple unidirectional process from traditional biomass energy to modern fuels as incomes improve. Household energy choice behaviors could be not only affected by energy-specific characteristics such as fuel price, smoky level and safety risk, but also influenced by household-specific factors such as income level, age and educational level of the decision maker, household demographic structure, number of people frequently eating at home, distance to the nearest biomass collecting spot and household location, suggesting that government should attach more importance to simultaneously improve energy quality, control energy price and enhance household socio-economic status. - Highlights: •McFadden's choice model was applied to analyze household energy choice in Sichuan. •We examined household revealed and stated preferences for different fuels. •Household fuel switching is not a simple or unidirectional process. •Households prefer to use fuel with lower cost, higher safety and lower indoor pollution. •Household fuel choice is affected by interactions among multiple factors.

  15. Fertility dynamics of three types of tea garden soils in western sichuan, china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaun, D.; Zhang, Q.; Chen, X.; Peng, W.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the seasonal dynamics of soil fertility is a key to providing decision support for rational use of fertilizers in tea gardens. In this study, seasonal variation in fertility parameters and the comprehensive fertility of 3 types of tea garden soils in western Sichuan, China, were investigated using a field survey and laboratory analysis. The results showed that pH, available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK) in yellow earth remained low regardless of season; the lowest levels (among all soils) of total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) occurred in yellow earth during spring and summer. Higher TOC, TN, and AP content occurred in spring due to basal fertilizer application; TOC was lower in summer due to higher decomposition rates and extensive soil erosion; lower TN and AP contents in summer were attributed to absorption by tea plants and to soil erosion; higher TOC and TN in autumn occurred as litter returned to the soil. Seasonal variation in AK was less obvious than that of the other fertility parameters. The comprehensive fertility of tea garden soils, ranked in order from higher to lower by season and soil type, was as follows: spring > autumn > summer for bleached paddy soil and yellow earth; but spring > summer > autumn for acid purple soil. Among the 3 tea garden soils, the fertility of acid purple soil was highest, and that of yellow earth was lowest in every season. Fertility was highest in spring for all soils. These results can provide a theoretical basis for scientific management of tea plantations in western Sichuan and similar regions. (author)

  16. Should the Endangered Status of the Giant Panda Really Be Reduced? The Case of Giant Panda Conservation in Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN reduced the threat status of the giant panda from “endangered” to “vulnerable” in September 2016. In this study, we analyzed current practices for giant panda conservation at regional and local environmental scales, based on recent reports of giant panda protection efforts in Sichuan Province, China, combined with the survey results from 927 households within and adjacent to the giant panda reserves in this area. The results showed that household attitudes were very positive regarding giant panda protection efforts. Over the last 10 years, farmers’ dependence on the natural resources provided by giant panda reserves significantly decreased. However, socio-economic development increased resource consumption, and led to climate change, habitat fragmentation, environmental pollution, and other issues that placed increased pressure on giant panda populations. This difference between local and regional scales must be considered when evaluating the IUCN status of giant pandas. While the status of this species has improved in the short-term due to positive local attitudes, large-scale socio-economic development pressure could have long-term negative impacts. Consequently, the IUCN assessment leading to the classification of giant panda as “vulnerable” instead of “endangered”, should not affect its conservation intensity and effort, as such actions could negatively impact population recovery efforts, leading to the extinction of this charismatic species.

  17. Accumulation conditions and exploration potential of Wufeng-Longmaxi Formations shale gas in Wuxi area, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wu; Xuewen Shi; Jia Liu; Du Li; Jun Xie; Shengxian Zhao; Chunhai Ji; Ying Hu; Yanbo Guo

    2017-01-01

    Wufeng-Longmaxi Formations shale gas is a new exploration field in Wuxi area, Sichuan Basin, China. Some geological parameters related to shale gas evaluation of the new exploration wells in Wuxi area have been studied, including shale reservoir, gas-bearing, geochemical and paleontological characteristics. The study suggests that the original shale gas generation conditions of the area were good, but later this area went through serious and multi-phase tectonic damage. The major evidences in...

  18. Seismic fracture detection of shale gas reservoir in Longmaxi formation, Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yujia; Cao, Junxing; Jiang, Xudong

    2017-11-01

    In the shale reservoirs, fractures play an important role, which not only provide space for the oil and gas, but also offer favorable petroleum migration channel. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the fractures characteristics in shale reservoirs for the exploration and development of shale gas. In this paper, four analysis technologies involving coherence, curvature attribute, structural stress field simulation and pre-stack P-wave azimuthal anisotropy have been applied to predict the fractures distribution in the Longmaxi formation, Silurian, southeast of Sichuan Basin, China. By using the coherence and curvature attribute, we got the spatial distribution characteristics of fractures in the study area. Structural stress field simulation can help us obtain distribution characteristics of structural fractures. And using the azimuth P-wave fracture detection technology, we got the characteristics about the fracture orientation and density of this region. Application results show that there are NW and NE fractures in the study block, which is basically consistent with the result of log interpretation. The results also provide reliable geological basis for shale gas sweet spots prediction.

  19. Geothermal constraints on Emeishan mantle plume magmatism: paleotemperature reconstruction of the Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuanqing; Hu, Shengbiao; Qiu, Nansheng; Jiang, Qiang; Rao, Song; Liu, Shuai

    2018-01-01

    The Middle-Late Permian Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP) in southwestern China represents a classic example of a mantle plume origin. To constrain the thermal regime of the ELIP and contemporaneous magmatic activity in the northeastern Sichuan Basin, maximum paleotemperature profiles of deep boreholes were reconstructed using vitrinite reflectance (Ro) and apatite fission track data. Two heating patterns were identified: (1) heating of the overlying lithosphere by magma storage regions and/or magmatic activity related to the mantle plume, which resulted in a relatively strong geothermal field and (2) direct heating of country rock by stock or basalt. Borehole Ro data and reconstructed maximum paleotemperature profiles near the ELIP exhibit abrupt tectonothermal unconformities between the Middle and Late Permian. The profiles in the lower subsections (i.e., pre-Middle Permian) exhibited significantly higher gradients than those in the upper subsections. Distal to the basalt province, high paleo-geotemperatures (hereafter, paleotemperatures) were inferred, despite deformation of the paleogeothermal curve due to deep faults and igneous rocks within the boreholes. In contrast, Ro profiles from boreholes without igneous rocks (i.e., Late Permian) contained no break at the unconformity. Paleotemperature gradients of the upper and the lower subsections and erosion at the Middle/Late Permian unconformity revealed variations in the thermal regime. The inferred spatial distribution of the paleothermal regime and the erosion magnitudes record the magmatic and tectonic-thermal response to the Emeishan mantle plume.

  20. Landslides and dam damage resulting from the Jiuzhaigou earthquake (8 August 2017), Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Wang, Yun-Sheng; Luo, Yong-Hong; Li, Jia; Zhang, Xin; Shen, Tong

    2018-03-01

    At 21.19 on 8 August 2017, an Ms 7.0 earthquake struck the Jiuzhaigou scenic spot in northwestern Sichuan Province, China. The Jiuzhaigou earthquake is a strike-slip earthquake with a focal depth of 20 km at 33.20° N and 103.82° E, and was caused by two concealed faults. According to emergency investigations and remote sensing interpretations, the Jiuzhaigou earthquake triggered 1780 landslides, damaged one dam (Nuorilang Waterfall) and broke one dam (Huohua Lake). The landslides mainly occurred in the Rize Valley and Shuzheng Valley and in Jiuzhai Paradise. The landslides involved hanging wall and back-slope effects, and the slope angle, slope aspect, seismic faults and valley trend were obviously related to the occurrence of the landslides. Specifically, most of the landslides were shallow landslides, rockfalls and rock avalanches and were small in scale. The failure modes of landslides mainly include wedge rock mass failure, residual deposit failure, relaxed rock mass failure and weathered rock mass failure. The initial low stability of the dam coupled with the topographic effect, back-slope effect and excess pore water pressure led to damage to the Nuorilang Waterfall dam.

  1. Use of mobile phones in an emergency reporting system for infectious disease surveillance after the Sichuan earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changhong; Yang, Jun; Luo, Xiangshu; Gong, Peng

    2009-08-01

    Quick detection and response were essential for preventing outbreaks of infectious diseases after the Sichuan earthquake. However, the existing public health communication system in Sichuan province, China, was severely damaged by the earthquake. The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention set up a mobile phone emergency reporting system. In total, 495 light-powered mobile phones were delivered to local health-care agencies in earthquake affected areas. All phones were loaded with software designed for inputting and transmitting cases of infectious disease directly to a national database for further analysis. The emergency reporting system was set up in 14 counties hit hardest by the earthquake in Sichuan province, China. One week after delivering mobile phones to earthquake-affected areas, the number of health-care agencies at the township level that had filed reports returned to the normal level. The number of cases reported by using mobile phones accounted for as much as 52.9% of the total cases reported weekly from 19 May to 13 July in those areas The mobile phone is a useful communication tool for infectious disease surveillance in areas hit by natural disasters. Nevertheless, plans must be made ahead of time and be included in emergency preparedness programmes.

  2. Topographical Factors in the Formation of Gully Type Debris Flow By Landslides in Dechang, Sichuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B.; Zhu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    A rain storm occurred in the Cida River catchment, Dechang County, Sichuan, China during August 20 - 24, 2004. There were 10 gully type debris flows by landslides were triggered while no debris flow was triggered in the 12 neighboring catchments. The hydrological conditions in the different sub-catchments within short distance were almost identical during this large range rainfall event. Neighboring catchments with similar geological conditions were available and could be selected. Therefore the only decisive factors for debris flow formation which differ in these sub-catchments must be related to topography. The gradient range of 25 - 45 degrees shows to be most sensitive for the triggering of debris flows. The catchment size A, the average gradient of a stream J, and the percentage (S) of catchment area with hill terrain gradient (25° - 45°) are selected as the topographical parameters. A new factor T = SJ0.8(A/A0)0.15 (A0 is unit catchment size = 1km2) is proposed as a single topographical indicator, which may be used as a threshold for the formation of gully type debris flows by landslides. The probability of debris flow formation increases with increasing T-values. The role of the slope gradient and the average gradient of a stream are far more important than the role of catchment size. The T-factor was successfully validated in debris flow gullies with the same initiation mechanism in the Dayi area, Guizhou, China. It may be used for other areas with the geological factor and rainfall factor because the relationship is partly from the formation mechanism of gully type debris flow by landslides.

  3. Public health status and influence factors after 2008 Wenchuan earthquake among survivors in Sichuan province, China: cross-sectional trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, P; Wang, Z; Chen, X; Le, H; Gong, X; Zhang, L; Yao, L

    2010-10-01

    On 12 May 2008, an earthquake with a magnitude of 8.0 on the Richter scale struck in Sichuan province, China. After the disaster, approximately 5 million people were living in temporary shelters. The objectives of this study were: (1) to provide the basic information on public health outcomes among the survivors; (2) to compare these outcomes between counties affected to differing extents by the earthquake; and (3) to identify important policies and programmes associated with public health outcomes. Cross-sectional multicluster sample surveys were employed using data collected from two counties. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in August 2008 in two counties in Sichuan province. The study outcomes [physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS)] were measured using Short Form-12. Independent demographic, socio-economic and trauma exposure variables were also measured. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to investigate associations between the independent variables and PCS and MCS outcomes. In total, 3862 interviews were completed in the two counties. The mean PCS score was 37.6 [95% confidence interval (95% CI 35.13-41.97) in Beichuan county and 45.4 (95% CI 44.30-45.95) in Langzhong county. MCS scores were 36.8 (95% CI 33.61-40.71) in Beichuan county and 49.6 (95% CI 49.69-50.01) in Langzhong county, well below the instrument norm of 50. Variables with negative associations with physical or mental health included: female gender, living in a temporary shelter, higher income, deaths among family/friends, family property damaged and illness within the past 2 weeks. Higher frequencies of trauma exposure (more than six trauma exposure events) showed a strong significant negative association with PCS and MCS in both counties. Interventions should be designed to focus on people without a household income (or a lower income), living in shelters or temporary houses. Governments should support income-generating activities and improve

  4. Fission track dating of mesozoic sandstones and its tectonic significance in the Eastern Sichuan Basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Chuanbo; Mei Lianfu; Xu Sihuang

    2009-01-01

    To establish the tectonic evolution of the eastern Sichuan basin, apatite fission track dating and time-temperature thermal history modeling were carried to analyze on 11 samples collected from Jurassic sandstones. The results indicate that the cooling and exhumation process of the eastern Sichuan basin can be divided into three stages since Cretaceous, (1) a rapid cooling phase between ∼100 and ∼70 Ma, (2) following by a period of relative thermal stability phase between ∼70 and ∼15 Ma, (3) and then a new rapid cooling stage after ∼15 Ma. Two rapid cooling events imply that the eastern Sichuan basin once underwent two tectonic movements since Cretaceous. The first rapid cooling is associated with Mesozoic tectonic reactivation beginning at 100 Ma, which result in folds and faults of the eastern Sichuan basin. The second tectonic movement occurred at 15 Ma, which is related to denudation by compression resulting from the eastward growth of Tibetan plateau uplift.

  5. Depression and its risk factors among pregnant women in 2008 Sichuan earthquake area and non-earthquake struck area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xuehan; Qu, Zhiyong; Liu, Fangnan; Jiang, Xiaoing; Wang, Yang; Chui, Cheryl Hiu Kwan; Wang, Xiaohua; Tian, Donghua; Zhang, Xiulan

    2013-11-01

    On May 12, 2008, a powerful 8.0 magnitude earthquake struck China's Sichuan province. While some studies have assessed the mental and physical wellbeing of disaster victims, few have examined the long-term impact of natural disasters on pregnant women's mental health. As such, this study aims to assess whether the Sichuan earthquake continues to negatively affect women's mental health, 4 years since its occurrence. In addition, predictive and protective risk factors of depressive symptoms among pregnant women were also identified. From June 2012 to October 2012, 520 pregnant women were interviewed, of whom 253 were from an earthquake struck area and 267 were from a non-earthquake struck area. Symptoms of antenatal depression were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with a cutoff of≥10. The prevalence rate of depression among pregnant women in the earthquake area was 34.5% (95% CI, 28.9-40.6), while the rate in the non-earthquake area was 39.6% (95% CI, 33.9-45.5). The perceived stresses associated with pregnancy and social support from husbands are significantly correlated with antenatal depression. Lack of diagnosis for antenatal depression and it is a self-report evaluation. This study found that the Sichuan earthquake does not necessarily have a long-lasting effect on pregnant women who were once victims of the disaster. It was found that pregnant women who experience high levels of pressures from the pregnancy and receive medium support from husbands are more susceptible to experience antenatal depression than pregnant women who perceive higher levels of support from husbands. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Formation of the Saline or Salty Springs in Eastern Sichuan Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.

    2017-12-01

    Saline or salty springs provide important information on the hydrogeochemical processes and hydrology within subsurface aquifers. More than 20 saline and salty springs occur in the core of anticlines in the eastern Sichuan Basin in southwestern China where the Lower and Middle Triassic carbonates outcrop. Water samples of 8 saline and salty springs (including one saline hot spring) were collected for analyses of the major and minor constituents, trace elements and stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. The TDS of the springs range from 4 to 83 g/L, and they are mainly of Cl-Na type. Sr, Ba and Li are the predominant trace elements. The δ2H and δ18O of the water samples indicate that they are of meteoric origin. The source of salinity of the springs originates from dissolution of minerals in the carbonates, including halite, gypsum, calcite and dolomite. The formation mechanism of the springs is that groundwater receives recharge from infiltration of precipitation, undergoes shallow or deep circulation in the core of the anticline and incongruent dissolution of the salt-bearing carbonates occurs, and emerges in the river valley in the form of springs with relatively high TDS. The 8 springs can be classified into 4 springs of shallow groundwater circulation and 4 springs of deep groundwater circulation according to the depth of groundwater circulation, 7 springs of normal temperature and 1 hot spring according to temperature. There are also 2 up-flow springs: the carbonate aquifers are overlain by relatively impervious sandstone and shale, groundwater may flows up to the ground surface through the local portion of the overlying aquiclude where fractures were relatively well developed, and emerges as an up-flow spring. Knowledge of the hydrochemical characteristics and the geneses of the saline and salty springs are of important significance for the utilization and preservation of the springs.

  7. Geothermic analysis of high temperature hydrothermal activities area in Western plateau of Sichuan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is a high temperature hydrothermal activity area in the western plateau of Sichuan. More than 200 hot springs points have been found in the region, including 11 hot spring water temperature above local boiling point. Most of these distribute along Jinshajjiang fracture, Dege-Xiangcheng fracture, Ganzi-Litang fracture as well as Xianshuihe fracture, and form three high-temperature hydrothermal activity strips in the NW-SE direction. Using gravity, magnetic, seismic and helium isotope data, this paper analyzed the crust-mantle heat flow structure, crustal heat source distribution and water heating system. The results show that the geothermal activity mainly controlled by the "hot" crust. The ratio of crustal heat flow and surface heat flow is higher than 60%. In the high temperature hydrothermal activities area, there is lower S wave velocity zone with Vshot source, and circulation to surface become high temperature hot water. Geothermal water mainly reserve in the Triassic strata of the containing water good carbonate rocks, and in the intrusive granite which is along the fault zone. The thermal energy of Surface heat thermal activities mainly comes from the high-temperature hot source which is located in the middle and lower crust. Being in the deep crustal fracture, the groundwater infiltrated to the deep crust and absorbed heat, then, quickly got back to the surface and formed high hot springs.

  8. A Preliminary Analysis on the Dynamics of the Ms8.0 Great Wenchuan, Sichuan, China Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.

    2008-12-01

    On May 12, 2008, a huge earthquake with magnitude Ms8.0 occurred in the Wenhuan, Sichuan Province of China. This event was the most devastating earthquake in the mainland of China since the 1976 M7.8 Tangshan earthquake. It resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. So far, there are 69,181 persons killed, and 18,522 still missing. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and "quake lakes" which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. This earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan fault, as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin. The earthquake's epicenter and focal-mechanism are consistent with it having occurred as the result of movement on the Longmenshan fault or a tectonically related fault. The earthquake reflects tectonic stresses resulting from the convergence of crustal material slowly moving from the high Tibetan Plateau, to the west, against strong crust underlying the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of the stress on the fault plane of this great earthquake is estimated from the inversion results (Chen Ji, 2008) by solving the elastodynamic equations. Then, the dynamic source parameters are determined and the relations between the shear stress and the slip, the shear stress and the slip-rate for all grid positions on the fault are investigated. Finally, the frictional law for the source rupture is inferred from the dynamic source parameters. Based on the obtained dynamic source parameters, we try to rebuild the dynamic rupture process of this event and discuss the characteristics of this great earthquake.

  9. Ecological niches and blood sources of sand fly in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huiying; Li, Kaili; Shi, Hua; Zhang, Yong; Ha, Yu; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Jinjin; Wang, Yubin; Yang, Zhenzhou; Xu, Jiannong; Ma, Yajun

    2016-04-13

    Sand fly Phlebotomus chinensis is a principle vector for the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in China with a wide geographic distribution. Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan is a mountain type endemic area of VL in China. Long term effective control efforts in the region have successfully reduced VL transmission. To assess the current status of the sand flies and their ecological aspects in the region, a survey was conducted in the summer of 2014 and 2015. Sand fly specimens were collected by light traps in a village and blood sources were identified by PCR and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. In a rock cave, 65.2 %-79.8 % of collected sand flies were male. On a rabbit farm, 92.9 %-98.8 % of specimens were female. In pig pens, 61.1 % of specimens were female. Some females had visible blood residues. The feeding rate was 49.4 % from the pig pens, 12.3 % from the cave, and only 1.7 % from the rabbit farm. Pig, rabbit, chicken, dog, and human blood were detected in the fed specimens. Swine blood, present in all tested samples, was a preferred blood source, while chicken and dog blood were present in a third of the samples. In Jiuzhaigou County, Sichuan Province of China, the considerable sandfly density and the peridomestic feeding behavior all increases the risk of VL transmission, and insecticide spraying in animal sheds could be exploited to reduce sand fly populations in human surroundings.

  10. China's gas market under new situations: Trends and countermeasures – Taking Sichuan and Chongqing gas provinces as an example

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    Zi'ang Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The world oil and gas market has entered a new period of low oil prices, which has inevitably affected the natural gas market in China. So, it is urgent to timely study the market trends and to actively seek for appropriate countermeasures. In this paper, the development trends of China's gas market under the situations of New Normal and low oil prices were analyzed from the perspective of sustainable development of the natural gas industrial chain and market, by taking the Sichuan and Chongqing gas provinces as an example, which are of representative and of great significance to China in its natural gas market. The following trends were identified. First, the gas market reform will be deepened. Second, the competition among major market players will be intensified. Third, supply will exceed demand. Fourth, export tasks will be difficult. Fifth, higher demand of “guarantees of the minimum GDP, tax and profit” will be raised for local government. And sixth, low-cost strategy will be indispensable to oil and gas enterprises. In order to cater to these trends, some countermeasures were presented during the 13th Five-Year Plan. First, to improve the natural gas market system, to strengthen the supply-side reform, to complete market development modes, and to promote the introduction of governmental policies for relevant industries. Second, to develop the efficient gas-consuming clusters such as industrial parks, LNG-fueled vehicles and vessels, and distributed energy sources system, to establish innovative marketing strategy systems, and to boost the localization of resource consumption, through the establishment of strategic alliances for natural gas terminal markets in partnership with local governments and competitive enterprises, while the Chinese government is intensifying efforts in promoting energy conservation and pollution reduction and haze control. Third, to improve the cobweb pipeline network system, and to establish the strategic

  11. Media exposure related to the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake predicted probable PTSD among Chinese adolescents in Kunming, China: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Nelson C Y; Lau, Joseph T F; Yu, Nancy Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianping; Xu, Zhening; Choi, Kai Chow; Zhang, Qi; Mak, Winnie W S; Lui, Wacy W S

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence and the psychosocial predictors of probable PTSD among Chinese adolescents in Kunming (approximately 444 miles from the epicenter), China, who were indirectly exposed to the Sichuan Earthquake in 2008. Using a longitudinal study design, primary and secondary school students (N = 3577) in Kunming completed questionnaires at baseline (June 2008) and 6 months afterward (December 2008) in classroom settings. Participants' exposure to earthquake-related imagery and content, perceptions and emotional reactions related to the earthquake, and posttraumatic stress symptoms were measured. Univariate and forward stepwise multivariable logistic regression models were fit to identify significant predictors of probable PTSD at the 6-month follow-up. Prevalences of probable PTSD (with a Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale score ≥30) among the participants at baseline and 6-month follow-up were 16.9% and 11.1% respectively. In the multivariable analysis, those who were frequently exposed to distressful imagery had experienced at least two types of negative life events, perceived that teachers were distressed due to the earthquake, believed that the earthquake resulted from damages to the ecosystem, and felt apprehensive and emotionally disturbed due to the earthquake reported a higher risk of probable PTSD at 6-month follow-up (all ps < .05). Exposure to distressful media images, emotional responses, and disaster-related perceptions at baseline were found to be predictive of probable PTSD several months after indirect exposure to the event. Parents, teachers, and the mass media should be aware of the negative impacts of disaster-related media exposure on adolescents' psychological health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Whole-genome analyses of human adenovirus type 55 emerged in Tibet, Sichuan and Yunnan in China, in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Yifan; Gu, Liangqi; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xuelian; Chen, Maomao; Zou, Ziying; Qiu, Wei; Hu, Xiaobing; Fan, Quanshui

    2017-01-01

    Three outbreaks of acute respiratory disease occurred at military camps in 2016 at Tibet, Sichuan and Yunnan province, China. The pathogen induced these three outbreaks were all confirmed as HAdV-55 by genotype-specific PCR. The outbreak in Tibet was the first report that HAdV-55 occurred in the high altitude (HA, above sea level 3658 m). This study aims to determine the gene variation and evolution characteristics of these viral strains. Three strains of adenoviruses, LS89/Tibet/2016 (GenBank accession no. KY002683), SF04/SC/2016 (GenBank accession no. KY002684) and KM03/YN/2016 (GenBank accession no. KY002685) were obtained and confirmed by wholegenome sequencing. No multi-gene fragments recombination were found in these isolated HAdV-55 virus compared with previous reported HAdV-55 strains in China. The outbreaks in Tibet and in Sichuan continuously occurred. Virus isolated from Tibet (LS89/Tibet/2016) and Sichuan (SF04/SC/2016) had a similar mutation pattern and had a closer genetic evolutionary distance than KM03/YN/2016 strain, which indicates that the pathogens causing these two outbreaks may be of the same origin. Moreover, we found that heating was an effective way to inactive these viruses, which provide valuable information for the development of HAdV-55 vaccines. Our data provide new information for genetic evolution of HAdV-55, and contribute to the prevention and control of HAdV-55 infection in the future.

  13. Geochemical characteristics and implications of shale gas from the Longmaxi Formation, Sichuan Basin, China

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    Chunhui Cao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gas geochemical analysis was conducted on the shale gas from the Longmaxi Formation in the Weiyuan-Changning areas, Sichuan Basin, China. Chemical composition was measured using an integrated method of gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. The results show that the Longmaxi shale gas, after hydraulic fracturing, is primarily dominated by methane (94.0%–98.6% with low humidity (0.3%–0.6% and minor non-hydrocarbon gasses which are primarily comprised of CO2, N2, as well as trace He. δ13CCO2 = −2.5‰−6.0‰3He/4He = 0.01–0.03Ra.The shale gas in the Weiyuan and Changning areas display carbon isotopes reversal pattern with a carbon number (δ13C1 > δ13C2 and distinct carbon isotopic composition. The shale gas from the Weiyuan pilot has heavier carbon isotopic compositions for methane (δ13C1: from −34.5‰ to −36.8‰, ethane (δ13C2: −37.6‰ to −41.9‰, and CO2 (δ13CCO2: −4.5‰ to −6.0‰ than those in the Changning pilot (δ13C1: −27.2‰ to −27.3‰, δ13C2: −33.7‰ to −34.1‰, δ13CCO2: −2.5‰ to −4.6‰. The Longmaxi shale was thermally high and the organic matter was in over mature stage with good sealing conditions. The shale gas, after hydraulic fracturing, could possibly originate from the thermal decomposition of kerogen and the secondary cracking of liquid hydrocarbons which caused the reversal pattern of carbon isotopes. Some CO2 could be derived from the decomposition of carbonate. The difference in carbon isotopes between the Weiyuan and Changning areas could be derived from the different mixing proportion of gas from the secondary cracking of liquid hydrocarbons caused by specific geological and geochemical conditions.

  14. Hemlock woolly adelgid and its natural enemies in Sichuan Province, China, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianhua Zhou; Yinbo Xiao; Yugui Xiao; Wenhua Lu; Michael Montgomery; Roy Van Driesche; Scott Salom

    2007-01-01

    A partnership of Chinese and American institutions was formed in 2005 to obtain natural enemies for biological control of Adelges tsugae Annand, the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), in the eastern United States. We report here the first 6 months (June-November) of studies done at three sites in Kangding and Baoxing Counties in Sichuan Province.

  15. The Early Cambrian Mianyang-Changning Intracratonic Sag and Its Control on Petroleum Accumulation in the Sichuan Basin, China

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    Shugen Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The older and deeper hydrocarbon accumulations receive increasing attention across the world, providing more technical and commercial challenges to hydrocarbon exploration. We present a study of an asymmetrical, N-S striking intracratonic sag which developed across the Sichuan basin, south China, from Late Ediacaran to Early Cambrian times. The Mianyang-Changning intracratonic sag is ~50 km wide, with its steepest part in the basin center. In particular the eastern margin shows its greatest steepness. Five episodes in the evolutions of the sag can be recognized. It begins in the Late Ediacaran with an uplift and erosion correlated to Tongwan movement. Initial extension occurred during the Early Cambrian Maidiping period, when more strata of the Maidiping Formation were deposited across the sag. Subsequently, maximum extension occurred during the Early Cambrian Qiongzhusi period that resulted in 450–1700 m thick Maidiping-Canglangpu Formations being deposited in the sag. Then, the sag disappeared at the Longwangmiao period, as it was infilled by the sediments. The intracratonic sag has significant influence on the development of high-quality reservoirs in the Dengying and Longwangmiao Formations and source-rock of the Niutitang Formation. It thus indicates that a high probability for oil/gas accumulation exists along the intracratonic sag, across the central Sichuan basin.

  16. Hot Spring Gas Geochemistry in Western Sichuan Province, China After the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake

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    Xiaocheng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical components, He, Ne, and C isotropic ratios of gas samples collected thrice from 32 hot springs in western Sichuan Province, southwestern China in June and October 2008 and June 2009 were investigated in order to discuss the relationship between hot spring gas geochemistry and the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake. The data showed that the 3He/4He and Δ13CCO2Δ13CCO2 values in spring gases in the Longmenshan fault (LMSF, Xianshuihe fault (XSHF, and Minjiang fault (MJF zones increased obviously after the great earthquake. It was estimated that up to 62% of mantle helium contributed to the spring gas in the Kangding region based on the maximum 3He/4He (7.42 ×× 10-6 in June 2008. Over time the mantle derived fluid contribution to the hot springs gradually decreased, but the crustal gas components: CO2 and CH4 derived from organic matter and radiogenic He increased. The gas geochemical data suggested that more mantle fluids migrated into the crust in western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake.

  17. Review and prospect on the botryoidal structures from the Sinian Dengying Formation, Sichuan Basin, China

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    Chengbo Lian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fabric of carbonate rock is the important foundation and one of main research contents for study on carbonate sedimentology, and has always been the attention of the academic circles. Botryoidal structures from the Sinian Dengying Formation in the Sichuan Basin is a kind of special carbonate fabric, the fabric is named after the shape of a grape. In this paper, from four aspects of the research status, the definition of the botryoidal structures and the related terms, the construction characteristics of the botryoidal structures, the component of the botryoidal structures, geochemical characteristics and the genesis of the botryoidal structures are reviewed. It points out the current research issues of botryoidal structures from the Sinian Dengying Formation in the Sichuan Basin, and put forward that future research should focus on the accurate analysis of its internal construction, precipitation mechanism of the major components, and the construction mechanism of botryoidal structures.

  18. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in captive non-human primates in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, Southwestern China.

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    Zhijun Zhong

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is a common human and animal pathogen. It has been increasingly reported in wild and captive non-human primates (NHPs in recent years. However, multilocus genotyping information for G. duodenalis infecting NHPs in southwestern China is limited. In the present study, the prevalence and multilocus genotypes (MLGs of G. duodenalis in captive NHPs in southwestern China were determined. We examined 207 fecal samples from NHPs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, and 16 specimens were positive for G. duodenalis. The overall infection rate was 7.7%, and only assemblage B was identified. G. duodenalis was detect positive in northern white-cheeked gibbon (14/36, 38.9%, crab-eating macaque (1/60, 1.7% and rhesus macaques (1/101, 0.9%. Multilocus sequence typing based on beta-giardin (bg, triose phosphate isomerase (tpi and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh revealed nine different assemblage B MLGs (five known genotypes and four novel genotypes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, one potentially zoonotic genotype of MLG SW7 was identified in a northern white-cheeked gibbon. A high degree of genetic diversity within assemblage B was observed in captive northern white-cheeked gibbons in Southwestern China, including a potentially zoonotic genotype, MLG SW7. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report using a MLGs approach to identify G. duodenalis in captive NHPs in Southwestern China.

  19. Analysis of 1856 inpatients and 33 deaths in the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from the Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Juan; Du, Liang; Xia, Tian; Wang, Miye; Diao, Xiang; Li, Youping

    2008-11-01

    To describe the 1861 injured inpatients and deaths in the West China Hospital of Sichuan University after the Wenchuan earthquake, to provide evidence to help improve emergency plans for earthquake, and the establishment of state-level regional medical centers. The analyses use, data provided by the Department of Information of the hospital up until 23 July 2008. Microsoft Excel for data input and SPSS 11.5 for statistical analysis were used. By 23 July, 2728 people from the disaster areas had been treated in the hospital, of whom 872 were admitted to the emergency department and 1856 to the inpatient department (974 men, median age 43 years; 882 women, median age 46 years). Most (82.4%) patients were sent to the hospital within the first two weeks after the earthquake, and the number of inpatients reached its peak on day 8 (976 cases). Most (60.2%) of the inpatients were discharged between day 9 and day 18. The injured patients came mainly from Deyang, Aba Prefecture and Dujiangyan. On admission, the diagnoses were mainly fracture (54.8%), craniocerebral injury (9.8%), and thoracoabdominal injury (7.5%). Thirty-three patients died, including five who were dead on arrival at the hospital, one death in the emergency department, and 27 inpatient deaths. The development of an emergency plan for medical rescue after an earthquake disaster is an essential step to enhance emergency response capability, to improve the scientific process of field triage, transport and transfer, and to ensure the rational allocation and application of healthcare resources after large disasters in the future. © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  20. [Relationship between complementary feeding behaviors and anemia for infants and young children in Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou province of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingzhe; Rui, Li; Li, Ming; Sun, Xiaohong; Pang, Xuehong; Zhou, Lan; Zeng, Guo

    2014-07-01

    To examine the relationship between complementary feeding behaviors (CFB) and anemia for infants and young children in Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou province of China. A total 3 410 children aged 6-24 months were recruited from 12 survey sites in the urban and rural areas of Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou provinces by stratified random cluster sampling in 3 age groups (6-8 months, 9-11 months and 12-24 months) from March to July in 2011. The information of CFB for them was collected through a specific questionnaire. According to the comprehensive evaluation method of CFB(including content of food preparation and selection, caregivers' behavior, infants' behavior, feeding environment and environmental hygiene), the scores of CFB were calculated and grouped as low ( 80% of total score). Twenty microliter of fingertip blood was extracted to measure the hemoglobin concentration and anemia rate was calculated. Distribution of CFB level and rate of anemia were compared between urban/rural areas and different age groups. Difference of anemia rate for infants and young children between low/moderate/high CFB level groups was compared. 8.0% (273/3 410) of the children were in low CFB level group, and 56.9% (1 940/3 410) and 35.1% (1 197/3 410) in moderate and high CFB level group respectively. The difference of CFB levels between urban and rural areas was significant (Z = -21.17, P infants was (119.3 ± 13.8)g/L, and the total anemia rate was 22.4% (765/3 410) . The hemoglobin concentration for infants in urban area ( (123.3 ± 11.3) g/L) was higher than rural area ((115.9 ± 14.8) g/L) (t = 16.75, P anemia in urban area (10.5% (165/1 565)) was lower than that in rural area (32.5% (600/1845) ) (χ² = 235.03, P anemia was decreased by increasing CFB level(χ² = 73.94, P anemia in the low CFB level group was the highest (33.7% (92/273) ) while in the high CFB level group was 14.5% (174/1 197), which was the lowest. The level of complementary feeding behavior for infants and young

  1. Pore characteristics of shale gas reservoirs from the Lower Paleozoic in the southern Sichuan Basin, China

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    Xianqing Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data was acquired from both the drillings and core samples of the Lower Paleozoic Qiongzhusi and Longmaxi Formations' marine shale gas reservoirs in the southern Sichuan Basin by means of numerous specific experimental methods such as organic geochemistry, organic petrology, and pore analyses. Findings helped determine the characteristics of organic matter, total porosity, microscopic pore, and pore structure. The results show that the Lower Paleozoic marine shale in the south of the Sichuan Basin are characterized by high total organic carbon content (most TOC>2.0%, high thermal maturity level (RO = 2.3%–3.8%, and low total porosity (1.16%–6.87%. The total organic carbon content and thermal maturity level of the Qiongzhusi Formation shale are higher than those of the Longmaxi Formation shale, while the total porosity of the Qiongzhusi Formation shale is lower than that of the Longmaxi Formation shale. There exists intergranular pore, dissolved pore, crystal particle pore, particle edge pore, and organic matter pore in the Lower Paleozoic Qiongzhusi Formation and Longmaxi Formation shale. There are more micro-nano pores developed in the Longmaxi Formation shales than those in the Qiongzhusi Formation shales. Intergranular pores, dissolved pores, as well as organic matter pores, are the most abundant, these are primary storage spaces for shale gas. The microscopic pores in the Lower Paleozoic shales are mainly composed of micropores, mesopores, and a small amount of macropores. The micropore and mesopore in the Qiongzhusi Formation shale account for 83.92% of the total pore volume. The micropore and mesopore in the Longmaxi Formation shale accounts for 78.17% of the total pore volume. Thus, the micropores and mesopores are the chief components of microscopic pores in the Lower Paleozoic shale gas reservoirs in the southern Sichuan Basin.

  2. A Prediction Model of Oil Cracked Gas Resources and Its Application in the Gas Pools of Feixianguan Formation in NE Sichuan Basin, SW China

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    Tongshan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of oil cracked gas resources is necessary and urgent in the gas exploration of these basins at high to over stage in China. A marine crude oil sample was pyrolyzed using sealed gold tubes system in our study. The pyrolysates including gas, liquid, and solid were quantitatively analyzed. Based on the pyrolysis data and kinetic calculation, the yield correlativity among gas, liquid, and solid products was regressed with high correlative coefficients to establish a prediction model suitable for the resource estimation of oil cracked gas. The verification formula for this model was also established on the principle of mass conservation. The affecting factors and the application preconditions of this model were discussed. Finally the model was extrapolated to the prediction of oil cracked gas resources of Feixianguan formation in NE Sichuan basin, SW China. The prediction value of oil cracked resources is about 6.84×1012 m3, and generation intensity of oil cracked gas is about 97.5×108 m3/km2, and the paleo-oil reserves is about 97×108 t. The verifying value for this prediction is approximately equal to 1, indicating the model is reliable in the resource estimation of oil cracked gas.

  3. On the Lathrobium fauna of the Emei Shan, Sichuan, China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

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    Volker Assing

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Six species of Lathrobium Gravenhorst, 1802 from the Emei Shan, Sichuan, are described and illustrated: L. iunctum Assing & Peng sp. n., L. coniunctum Assing & Peng sp. n., L. conexum Assing & Peng sp. n., L. ensigerum Assing & Peng sp. n., L. hastatum Assing & Peng sp. n., and L. bisinuatum Assing & Peng sp. n. Based on their primary and secondary sexual characters, they represent two distinct lineages, each of them comprising three species. A key to the species recorded from the Emei Shan is provided.

  4. Interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in mountainous and hilly regions with an integrated strategy: a longitudinal case study in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhong, Bo; Wu, Zi-Song; Liang, Song; Qiu, Dong-Chuan; Ma, Xiao

    2017-04-07

    Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in China. Since 2004, an integrated strategy was developed to control the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in China. However, the long-term effectiveness of this integrated strategy for the interruption of schistosomiasis transmission remains unknown in the mountainous and hilly regions of China until now. This longitudinal study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated strategy on transmission interruption of schistosomiasis in Sichuan Province from 2005 through 2014. The data regarding replacement of bovines with machines, improved sanitation, access to clean water, construction of public toilets and household latrines, snail control, chemotherapy, and health education were captured from the annual report of the schistosomiasis control programmes in Sichuan Province from 2005 to 2014, and S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines and snails were estimated to evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated strategy. During the 10-year period from 2005 through 2014, a total of 536 568 machines were used to replace bovines, and 3 284 333 household lavatories and 15 523 public latrines were built. Tap water was supplied to 19 116 344 residents living in the endemic villages. A total of 230 098 hm 2 snail habitats were given molluscicide treatment, and 357 233 hm 2 snail habitats received environmental improvements. There were 7 268 138 humans and 840 845 bovines given praziquantel chemotherapy. During the 10-year study period, information, education and communication (IEC) materials were provided to village officers, teachers and schoolchildren. The 10-year implementation of the integrated strategy resulted in a great reduction in S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines and snails. Since 2007, no acute infection was detected, and no schistosomiasis cases or infected bovines were identified since 2012. In addition, the snail habitats reduced by 62.39% in 2014 as compared to that in 2005, and no S

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among adult survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan; Wang, Chong-Wen; Qu, Zhiyong; Lu, Ben Qibin; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Ho, Andy Hau Yan; Yuan, Yin; Zhang, Braven Qiang; Wang, Xiying; Zhang, Xiulan

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the estimated prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and associated risk factors among Chinese adult survivors 7 to 8 months after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The sample was recruited from 2 areas close to the epicenter but of different distances. The estimated rate of PTSD symptoms was 55.6% and 26.4% respectively in the two areas. Loss of a child was a strong predictive factor for PTSD symptoms for the parents. Other predictive factors included female gender, loss of a parent, loss of friends or neighbors, residential house damage or collapse, and proximity to the epicenter. Effective and sustainable mental health services are needed and should be directed particularly to bereaved survivors. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  6. Active tectonic characteristics of river terraces along the Tianquan River, Sichuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y. M.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Chang, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Longmenshan fold-and-thrust belt at the western edge of the Sichuan Basin has long been identified as an active tectonic belt. This has been clearly illustrated by the disastrous Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in the recent decade. The two earthquakes, however, have distinctive characters. In the north, the Wenchuan event occurred on major fault zones identified previously. But in the south, the Lushan event was not accompanied by surface ruptures, and the seismogenic structure is still under debate. In order to further understand the neotectonic characteristics of the Lushan earthquake region, we analyzed fluvial terraces, in the hope that such geomorphic features would provide information of active structures of the area. Along the Tianquan River, river terraces are particularly well developed near two cities, Tianquan and Shiyang. Since the terraces appear to be very wide and limited in these two basin-like areas, we suspected that they formed as filled-up lakes. However, after detailed field investigations, we found that underneath these terraces, early Tertiary bedrocks crop out below river sediments that are only several meters thick. This indicates that the Tianquan River has incised into bedrocks. The slope of the terrace surfaces is similar to that of the present-day riverbed, and the river sediments in the terrace outcrops have similar grain size distribution as current riverbed sediments. Therefore, we suggest that the terraces along the Tianquan River are not related to dammed lake, but were produced by tectonic uplift. Combining the age of terrace sediments dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and detailed topography of the terrace surfaces, we aim to establish a model for the formation mechanism of these two terrace groups. We hope the results of this study would provide more information of neotectonic characteristics of the southwestern Sichuan Basin, as well as future earthquake hazards in this densely populated region.

  7. Characterization of mutations in streptomycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Sichuan, China and the association between Beijing-lineage and dual-mutation in gidB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Honghu; Zhang, Congcong; Xiang, Ling; Pi, Rui; Guo, Zhen; Zheng, Chao; Li, Song; Zhao, Yuding; Tang, Ke; Luo, Mei; Rastogi, Nalin; Li, Yuqing; Sun, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in rpsL, rrs, and gidB are well linked to streptomycin (STR) resistance, some of which are suggested to be potentially associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypic lineages in certain geographic regions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mutation characteristics of streptomycin resistance and the relationship between the polymorphism of drug-resistant genes and the lineage of M. tuberculosis isolates in Sichuan, China. A total of 227 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, including 180 STR-resistant and 47 pan-susceptible isolates, were analyzed for presence of mutations in the rpsL, rrs and gidB loci. Mutation K43R in rpsL was strongly associated with high-level streptomycin resistance (P resistance (P resistance and Beijing genotype, however, in STR-resistant strains, Beijing genotype was significantly correlated with high-level STR resistance, as well as the rpsL mutation K43R (P streptomycin pressure. Notably, in all isolates of Beijing genotype, a dual mutation E92D (a276c) and A205A (a615g) in gidB was detected, suggesting a highly significant association between this dual mutation and Beijing genotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reservoir diagenesis research of Silurian Longmaxi Formation in Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingming Kong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The reservoir diagenesis of Silurian Longmaxi Formation in Sichuan Basin was studied based on a large number of thin section identification, scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction tests, and some other experiments. Seven diagenetic processes were identified, including compaction, cementation, clay mineral transformation, replacement, dissolution, organic matter thermal maturation, and tectonic disruption. Three kinds of cements (quartz, carbonate and sulfide were recognized, while the source material of quartz cements and the main factor of forming abundant carbonate cements were summed up. According to the single well analysis of the Well N3, it shows that the best, the suboptimal and the none shale reservoir sections were subjected to different diagenetic transformations. As to best shale reservoir, except for compaction, all the main inorganic diagenesis were significantly related to organic matter maturation. Through comprehensive analysis of diagenetic indicators, it is observed that the reservoir has already been in period B of middle diagenetic stage to late diagenetic stage. The inorganic diagenesis has a significant impact on shale reservoir, because it not only controls the conservation, development, and evolution of porosity, but also the mechanical property and the adsorption capacity of rocks. The organic diagenesis is the source material of shale gas, and it generates a large number of nanoporosity in organic matter, which increases the total porosity and the adsorption capacity of the reservoir.

  9. Spatial patterns and temporal variations of six criteria air pollutants during 2015 to 2017 in the city clusters of Sichuan Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Yin, Daiying; Qin, Dahe; He, Jianjun; Dong, Longxiang

    2018-05-15

    Spatiotemporal variations of six criteria air pollutants and influencing factors in the city clusters of Sichuan Basin were studied based on real-time hourly concentrations of PM 2.5 (the particles with diameters smaller than 2.5μm), PM 10 (the particles with diameters smaller than 10μm), SO 2 , NO 2 , CO and O 3 and routine meteorological data during the years from 2015 to 2017. The Sichuan Basin was further categorized into four regions: West, south, northeast Sichuan Basin (WSB, SSB and NESB) and plateau of west Sichuan Basin (PWSB) to better understand regional air pollution characteristics. Heavy air pollution was mainly induced by high PM 2.5 or ozone concentrations in the cities clusters of Sichuan Basin. The compound air pollution characteristics existed in WSB with simultaneously high concentrations of PM 2.5 and ozone, while PM 2.5 concentrations in SSB were the highest among the four regions and especially in the city of Zigong with maximum PM 2.5 concentration of 109.3μgm -3 in winter. The MDA8 (daily maximum 8-hour average surface O 3 concentrations) more frequently exceeded CAAQS (Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards) Grade I and II standards in Ziyang, Guang'an and Liangshan than the other cities maybe due to joint effects of industry emissions and regional transportation from surrounding cities. Annual (diurnal) variations of the pollutants with the exception of ozone showed "U" (flat "W") shape, while the ozone exhibited the opposite trends inside Sichuan Basin (WSB, SSB and NESB). Ozone pollution was more dependent on vehicle emissions inside Sichuan Basin, and industry had more important effects on ozone in the cities of PWSB with less vehicles. Severe ozone pollution can be formed easily under the weather conditions of high temperature, long sunshine duration and low RH (relative humidity) inside Sichuan Basin. High ozone concentrations in winter in PWSB may be partly transported from the other surrounding cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  10. New constraints on the variation of the geomagnetic field during the late Neolithic period: Archaeointensity results from Sichuan, southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Wei; Tauxe, Lisa; Deng, Chenglong; Qin, Huafeng; Pan, Yongxin; Yi, Liang; Zhu, Rixiang

    2015-04-01

    We have carried out an archaeomagnetic study on a late Neolithic locality (Liujiazhai) in Sichuan, southwestern China. We pull together various dating techniques, including radiocarbon analysis, optically stimulated luminescence dating, stratigraphic information as well as archaeological and archaeomagnetic estimations, to constrain the age of the studied samples. Rock magnetic results indicate thermally stable fine-grained magnetite or titanomagnetite as the dominant magnetic carriers. More than half of the specimens (141/246) in the paleointensity experiment pass the selection criteria and are considered to record robust intensity values. The virtual axial dipole moments range from approximately (2.8 to 7.8) × 1022 Am2 with an average of 5.9 × 1022 Am2, indicating that the geomagnetic intensity around 3000 before the Common Era (B.C.E.) is overall lower than the present field intensity (9.8 × 1022 Am2) of this area. The new results from Liujiazhai are generally consistent with the published data of similar age but deviate from the only available model of CALS10k.1b at certain time periods, making them important for future improvements of the model. Those data are significant for constraining the variation of geomagnetic field intensity between ~3100 and 2600 B.C.E. and improving the regional model of eastern Asia.

  11. Origin of marine sour natural gas and gas-filling model for the Wolonghe Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanyou; Jin, Zhijun; Li, Jian; Hu, Anping; Bi, Changchun

    2012-09-01

    The chemical and isotopic composition of natural gases from the Wolonghe Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, Southwest China, was investigated to assess the potential gas sources and reconstruct the gas-filling history of the reservoirs. All natural gases in this field are dominated by gaseous hydrocarbons (C1-C3) with varied amounts of non-hydrocarbon components (CO2, H2S and N2). The H2S content varies with reservoir intervals. It ranges from zero to 1.84% with an average of 0.37% in the Carboniferous reservoir, from 0.05% to 0.76% with an average of 0.30% in the Permian reservoir, and from 1.09% to 18.83% with an average of 5.39% in the Lower Triassic reservoir. The gas dryness coefficient (C1/C1-3) ranges from 0.97 to 1.0 with an average of 0.99. The carbon isotopic compositions of methane and its homologues in the Wolonghe Gas Field vary widely, with δ13C1 ⩾ δ13C2 rocks migrated into the Carboniferous reservoir through faults and fractures and was trapped beneath the Permian Liangshan Formation shale, whereas the natural gas in the Permian and Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation was generated and preserved in its own formations with the overlying gypsum acting as a cap rock.

  12. Evaluation Criteria for Implementation of a Sustainable Sanitation and Wastewater Treatment System at Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulke, Linda S.; Weiyang, Xiao; Scanlon, Andrew; Henck, Amanda; Hinckley, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The administration of Jiuzhaigou National Park in Sichuan Province, China, is in the process of considering a range of upgrades to their sanitation and wastewater treatment systems. Their case history involves an ongoing series of engineering design flaws and management failures. The administration of the Park identified sustainability, environmental protection, and education goals for their sanitation and wastewater treatment system. To meet the goal of sustainability, environmental and economic concerns of the Park’s administration had to be balanced with socio-cultural needs. An advanced reconnaissance method was developed that identified reasons for previous failures, conducted stakeholder analysis and interviews, determined evaluation criteria, and introduced innovative alternatives with records of successful global implementations. This evaluation also helped the Park to better define their goals . To prevent future failures, the administration of the Park must commit to a balanced and thorough evaluation process for selection of a final alternative and institute effective long-term management and monitoring of systems. In addition, to meet goals and achieve energy efficient, cost-effective use of resources, the Park must shift their thinking from one of waste disposal to resource recovery. The method and criteria developed for this case study provides a framework to aid in the successful implementation of sanitation projects in both underdeveloped and developed areas of the world, incorporating socio-cultural values and resource recovery for a complex group of stakeholders.

  13. Accumulation conditions and exploration potential of Wufeng-Longmaxi Formations shale gas in Wuxi area, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wufeng-Longmaxi Formations shale gas is a new exploration field in Wuxi area, Sichuan Basin, China. Some geological parameters related to shale gas evaluation of the new exploration wells in Wuxi area have been studied, including shale reservoir, gas-bearing, geochemical and paleontological characteristics. The study suggests that the original shale gas generation conditions of the area were good, but later this area went through serious and multi-phase tectonic damage. The major evidences include that: the δ13C2 value of shale gas is obviously higher than that in areas with the same maturity, indicating the shale gas is mainly late kerogen cracking gas and high hydrocarbon expulsion efficiency; the porosity of shale in Wuxi area is very low because of strong tectonic movements and lack of retained oil in the shale; some shale cores near faults even show very weak metamorphic characteristics with intense cleavage, and the epidermis of graptolite fossils was pyrolyzed. The comprehensive study shows shale gas in Wuxi area has prospective resources, but the possibility to get scale commercial production in recent time is very low.

  14. The prevalence of sexually transmitted and other lower reproductive tract infections among rural women in Sichuan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongjun, Tang; Samuelson, Julia; Qingsheng, Dong; Ali, Mohamed Mahmoud; Li, Xie; Yanjian, Meng; Xiaoqing, Cheng; Jun, Lan; Jian, Cheng; Bi, Luo

    2009-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and lower reproductive tract infections (RTI) and determine risk factors for STI among rural women in Sichuan Province, China, a cross-sectional, community-based cluster sample of 2,000 rural, married women were interviewed, examined and clinical specimens collected to assess for six STI and two non-sexually transmitted RTI. The overall prevalence of any STI was 10.9% (95% CI 9.5-12.3); of any STI or RTI was 30.8% (95% CI 28.7-32.8). Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 6.4% of women, Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 1.7%, Treponema pallidum in 0.5%, human papilloma virus in 0.6%, herpes simplex virus type-2 in 2.0%, Candida albicans in 8.8%, Trichomonas vaginalis in 0.7% and bacterial vaginosis in 15.4%. The reported low risk sexual behavior was corroborated by the prevalence of STIbased on laboratory findings. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis alone and the combined prevalence rates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis were high enough (7.9%) to consider interventions for the control of cervical infections. Health promotion messages regarding safe sexual and health care seeking behavior is important. Routine STI surveillance, including prevalence studies, which provide accurate information for decision-making should be continued as an essential component of good STI control.

  15. Characterizations of geothermal springs along the Moxi deep fault in the western Sichuan plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jihong; Xu, Mo; An, Chengjiao; Wu, Mingliang; Zhang, Yunhui; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Guoping

    2017-02-01

    Abundant geothermal springs occur along the Moxi fault located in western Sichuan Province (the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau), highlighted by geothermal water outflow with an unusually high temperature of 218 °C at 21.5 MPa from a 2010-m borehole in Laoyulin, Kangding. Earthquake activity occurs relatively more frequently in the region and is considered to be related to the strong hydrothermal activity. Geothermal waters hosted by a deep fault may provide evidence regarding the deep underground; their aqueous chemistry and isotopic information can indicate the mechanism of thermal springs. Cyclical variations of geothermal water outflows are thought to work under the effect of solid earth tides and can contribute to understanding conditions and processes in underground geo-environments. This paper studies the origin and variations of the geothermal spring group controlled by the Moxi fault and discusses conditions in the deep ground. Flow variation monitoring of a series of parameters was performed to study the geothermal responses to solid tides. Geothermal reservoir temperatures are evaluated with Na-K-Mg data. The abundant sulfite content, dissolved oxygen (DO) and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) data are discussed to study the oxidation-reduction states. Strontium isotopes are used to trace the water source. The results demonstrate that geothermal water could flow quickly through the Moxi fault the depth of the geothermal reservoir influences the thermal reservoir temperature, where supercritical hot water is mixed with circulating groundwater and can reach 380 °C. To the southward along the fault, the circulation of geothermal waters becomes shallower, and the waters may have reacted with metamorphic rock to some extent. Our results provide a conceptual deep heat source model for geothermal flow and the reservoir characteristics of the Moxi fault and indicate that the faulting may well connect the deep heat source to shallower depths. The

  16. Predicting the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease in Sichuan province, China using the ARIMA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Luan, R S; Yin, F; Zhu, X P; Lü, Q

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease caused by enteroviruses, which usually occurs in children aged <5 years. In China, the HFMD situation is worsening, with increasing number of cases nationwide. Therefore, monitoring and predicting HFMD incidence are urgently needed to make control measures more effective. In this study, we applied an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to forecast HFMD incidence in Sichuan province, China. HFMD infection data from January 2010 to June 2014 were used to fit the ARIMA model. The coefficient of determination (R 2), normalized Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and mean absolute percentage of error (MAPE) were used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the constructed models. The fitted ARIMA model was applied to forecast the incidence of HMFD from April to June 2014. The goodness-of-fit test generated the optimum general multiplicative seasonal ARIMA (1,0,1) × (0,1,0)12 model (R 2 = 0·692, MAPE = 15·982, BIC = 5·265), which also showed non-significant autocorrelations in the residuals of the model (P = 0·893). The forecast incidence values of the ARIMA (1,0,1) × (0,1,0)12 model from July to December 2014 were 4103-9987, which were proximate forecasts. The ARIMA model could be applied to forecast HMFD incidence trend and provide support for HMFD prevention and control. Further observations should be carried out continually into the time sequence, and the parameters of the models could be adjusted because HMFD incidence will not be absolutely stationary in the future.

  17. Cross-sectional survey of the relationship of symptomatology, disability and family burden among patients with schizophrenia in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuoqiu; Deng, Hong; Chen, Ying; Li, Shuiying; Zhou, Qian; Lai, Hua; Liu, Lifang; Liu, Ling; Shen, Wenwu

    2014-02-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that leads to high rates of disability and high levels of family burden but the interactive relationship between these variables remains unclear, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where the vast majority of patients live with their families. Assess the symptom severity, level of disability, and family burden among clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia in Sichuan, China. A total of 101 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia who had a median duration of illness of five years were assessed using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale 2.0 (WHODAS II), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection and Resolve Index scale (APGAR); and their caregivers were surveyed using the Family Burden Interview Schedule (FBIS). Among the 101 patients, 92 lived with their immediate family members, 74 had clinically significant disability, and 73 were unemployed. The level of disability was associated with the severity of symptoms (r=0.50, pDisability was also associated with the overall level of family burden (r=0.40, pdisability in the stepwise multivariate linear regression: duration of illness, severity of symptoms, patient satisfaction with family support, and the overall burden of the illness on the family. Even after adjusting for the severity of patients' symptoms, patient disability is independently associated with family burden. This highlights the importance of targeting both symptoms and disability in treatment strategies for this severe, often lifelong, condition. In countries like China where most individuals with schizophrenia live with their families, family burden is an important component of the impact of the illness on the community that should be included in measures of the relative social and economic importance of the condition.

  18. China: to invest in energy management. Proceedings of the French-Chinese seminar, Chengdu (Sichuan), 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguinat, Elisabeth; Gromard, Christian de; Breton, Herve; Francoz, Eric J.F.; Richard, Christophe; Henry, Alain; Xuhong, Liu; Henry, Alain; Yaping, Li; Dumasy, Jacques; Fabre, Thibaut; Lopez, Jose; Yazhong, Liu; Wenbin, Lu; Huang, Zhou; Plazy, Jean-Louis; Irigoin, Michel; Raoust, Michel; Devillier, Thierry; Jianping, Chen; Mezghani, Mohamed; Delcroix, Jean; Gerbeaux, Jean-Marie; Yande, Dai; Mulet, Jean-Charles; Junfeng, Li; Crepon, Olivier; Tournaye, Dominique; Thornald Decrop, Louis

    2008-01-01

    Energy management encompasses demand regulation (energy sobriety), efficiency improvements (energy efficiency), and the promotion of renewable energies. After opening speeches, a first set of contributions addressed methodological issues and status of energy management, with notably a characterisation of investments in energy efficiency (organisation per sector, economic elaboration combining regulative and financial measures, combination of incentive measures to correct market insufficiencies), an overview of R and D activities in France, a discussion of lessons learned for emerging countries for the experience of energy efficiency in Europe, an overview of actions and investments in China, and of the Chinese policy for renewable energies. The next sessions addressed various themes like urban organisation (energy efficient cities, actions by the AFD, twenty years of energy efficiency in Montpellier in France), the building sector (thermal rehabilitation, equipment and training in China, heat pumps and energy storage), the transport sector (urban transport, reduction of emissions by urban transport, railways), the industrial sector, the production of renewable or efficient energy (promotion of renewable energies in European grids, market perspectives in China). Some case studies are then reported: tri-generation in Montpellier, the revival of small hydraulic plants, development of geothermal energy in France and opportunities in China, coal-bagasse co-generation in France and Maurice Island. The last part addressed financial tools for a high energy quality in China

  19. Spatial-temporal mapping of hand foot and mouth disease and the long-term effects associated with climate and socio-economic variables in Sichuan Province, China from 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jiaqiang; Qin, Zhengji; Zuo, Zongli; Yu, Shicheng; Zhang, Juying

    2016-09-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease caused by enteroviruses. The annual HFMD incidence increased from 37.6/100,000 in 2008 to 139.6/100,000 in 2014 in mainland China. In this study, we try to model spatial-temporal association between HFMD incidence and climate and socio-economic variables. The annual numbers of reported cases of HFMD and populations from 2009 to 2013 were obtained from the Chinese infectious disease surveillance system. The climate data were obtained from a data sharing website hosted by the China Meteorological Administration. The socio-economic data were obtained from the statistic Yearbook of Sichuan province. Moran's I statistics were used to detect the counties' global spatial clusters. The hierarchical Bayesian spatial temporal interactive models were used to analyze the association between the annual HFMD incidence rate and climate variables. An increasing trend in the annual HFMD incidence was detected in south-western counties. Spatial temporal clusters existed in Sichuan Province. A highly county level spatial structured RR (relative risk, RR) of HFMD incidence was detected in the northern and central of Sichuan Province. Annual HFMD incidence of counties were positively associated with the average annual temperature (RR:1.171, 95%CI:1.0435-1.3134), the second quartile of the per capital of GDP (reference: the first quartile of GDP, RR: 1.258, 95%CI: 1.0418-1.5200), the third quartile of per capital of GDP (RR:1.7726, 95%CI:1.3709-2.2907) and the fourth quartile of the per capital GDP (RR:1.9026, 95%CI1.3318-2.7086). The HFMD incidence exhibited a heterogeneous spatial-temporal distribution in Sichuan Province. In the counties with greater wealth, the temperature was the primary risk factor, whereas in the counties with less wealth, GDP was the primary risk factor attributed to the spatial structured of HFMD incidence. Different preventive measures should be implemented in counties with different economic

  20. Suitability of IS6110-RFLP and MIRU-VNTR for Differentiating Spoligotyped Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates from Sichuan in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC vary with the geographic origin of the patients and can affect tuberculosis (TB transmission. This study was aimed to further differentiate spoligotype-defined clusters of drug-resistant MTBC clinical isolates split in Beijing (n=190 versus non-Beijing isolates (n=84 from Sichuan region, the second high-burden province in China, by IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs. Among 274 spoligotyped isolates, the clustering ratio of Beijing family was 5.3% by 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs versus 2.1% by IS6110-RFLP, while none of the non-Beijing isolates were clustered by 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs versus 9.5% by IS6110-RFLP. Hence, neither the 24-locus MIRU-VNTR was sufficient enough to fully discriminate the Beijing family, nor the IS6110-RFLP for the non-Beijing isolates. A region adjusted scheme combining 12 highly discriminatory VNTR loci with IS6110-RFLP was a better alternative for typing Beijing strains in Sichuan than 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs alone. IS6110-RFLP was for the first time introduced to systematically genotype MTBC in Sichuan and we conclude that the region-adjusted scheme of 12 highly discriminative VNTRs might be a suitable alternative to 24-locus MIRU-VNTR scheme for non-Beijing strains, while the clusters of the Beijing isolates should be further subtyped using IS6110-RFLP for optimal discrimination.

  1. Suitability of IS6110-RFLP and MIRU-VNTR for Differentiating Spoligotyped Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates from Sichuan in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Yuding; Zhu, Guoqiang; Li, Song; Sun, Honghu; Feng, Qin; Luo, Mei; Wu, Fanzi; Li, Xuefeng; Hill, Véronique; Rastogi, Nalin; Sun, Qun

    2014-01-01

    Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) vary with the geographic origin of the patients and can affect tuberculosis (TB) transmission. This study was aimed to further differentiate spoligotype-defined clusters of drug-resistant MTBC clinical isolates split in Beijing (n = 190) versus non-Beijing isolates (n = 84) from Sichuan region, the second high-burden province in China, by IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs. Among 274 spoligotyped isolates, the clustering ratio of Beijing family was 5.3% by 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs versus 2.1% by IS6110-RFLP, while none of the non-Beijing isolates were clustered by 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs versus 9.5% by IS6110-RFLP. Hence, neither the 24-locus MIRU-VNTR was sufficient enough to fully discriminate the Beijing family, nor the IS6110-RFLP for the non-Beijing isolates. A region adjusted scheme combining 12 highly discriminatory VNTR loci with IS6110-RFLP was a better alternative for typing Beijing strains in Sichuan than 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs alone. IS6110-RFLP was for the first time introduced to systematically genotype MTBC in Sichuan and we conclude that the region-adjusted scheme of 12 highly discriminative VNTRs might be a suitable alternative to 24-locus MIRU-VNTR scheme for non-Beijing strains, while the clusters of the Beijing isolates should be further subtyped using IS6110-RFLP for optimal discrimination. PMID:24724099

  2. Seasonal characteristics, formation mechanisms and source origins of PM2.5 in two megacities in Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanbo; Tian, Mi; Chen, Yang; Shi, Guangming; Liu, Yuan; Yang, Fumo; Zhang, Leiming; Deng, Liqun; Yu, Jiayan; Peng, Chao; Cao, Xuyao

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of PM2.5 and its major chemical components, formation mechanisms, and geographical origins in the two megacities, Chengdu (CD) and Chongqing (CQ), in Sichuan Basin of southwest China, daily PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously at one urban site in each city for four consecutive seasons from autumn 2014 to summer 2015. Annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 were 67.0 ± 43.4 and 70.9 ± 41.4 µg m-3 at CD and CQ, respectively. Secondary inorganic aerosol (SNA) and organic matter (OM) accounted for 41.1 and 26.1 % of PM2.5 mass at CD, and 37.4 and 29.6 % at CQ, respectively. Seasonal variations of PM2.5 and major chemical components were significant, usually with the highest mass concentration in winter and the lowest in summer. Daily PM2.5 concentration exceeded the national air quality standard on 30 % of the sampling days at both sites, and most of the pollution events were at the regional scale within the basin formed under stagnant meteorological conditions. The concentrations of carbonaceous components were higher at CQ than CD, likely partially caused by emissions from the large number of motorcycles and the spraying processes used during automobile production in CQ. Heterogeneous reactions probably played an important role in the formation of SO42-, while both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions contributed to the formation of NO3-. Geographical origins of emissions sources contributing to high PM2.5 masses at both sites were identified to be mainly distributed within the basin based on potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis.

  3. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and sources of salinity of the springs near Wenquanzhen in the eastern Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juan; Zhou, Xun; Wang, Lidong; Zhang, Yuqi; Shen, Xiaowei; Zhou, Haiyan; Ye, Shen; Fang, Bin

    2017-12-01

    Natural springs have the potential to provide important information on hydrogeochemical processes within aquifers. This study used traditional and classic technical methods and procedures to determine the characteristics and evolution of springs to gain further knowledge on the differences between hot saline springs and cold fresh springs. In a short river segment near Wenquanzhen in the eastern Sichuan Basin, southwest China, several natural springs coexist with total dissolved solids (TDS) ranging from less than 1 to 15 g/L and temperatures from 15 to 40 °C. The springs emanate from the outcropping Lower and Middle Triassic carbonates in the river valley cutting the core of an anticline. The cold springs are of Cl·HCO3-Na·Ca and Cl·SO4-Na types, and the hot saline springs are mainly of Cl-Na type. The chemistry of the springs has undergone some changes with time. The stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes indicate that the spring waters are of a meteoric origin. The salinity of the springs originates from dissolution of minerals, including halite, gypsum, calcite and dolomite. The evolution of the springs involves the following mechanisms: the groundwater receives recharge from infiltration of precipitation, then undergoes deep circulation in the core of the anticline (incongruent dissolution of the salt-bearing strata occurs), and emerges in the river valley in the form of hot springs with high TDS. Groundwater also undergoes shallow circulation in the northern and southern flanks of the anticline and appears in the river valley in the form of cold springs with low TDS.

  4. Seasonal characteristics, formation mechanisms and source origins of PM2.5 in two megacities in Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the characteristics of PM2.5 and its major chemical components, formation mechanisms, and geographical origins in the two megacities, Chengdu (CD and Chongqing (CQ, in Sichuan Basin of southwest China, daily PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously at one urban site in each city for four consecutive seasons from autumn 2014 to summer 2015. Annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 were 67.0 ± 43.4 and 70.9 ± 41.4 µg m−3 at CD and CQ, respectively. Secondary inorganic aerosol (SNA and organic matter (OM accounted for 41.1 and 26.1 % of PM2.5 mass at CD, and 37.4 and 29.6 % at CQ, respectively. Seasonal variations of PM2.5 and major chemical components were significant, usually with the highest mass concentration in winter and the lowest in summer. Daily PM2.5 concentration exceeded the national air quality standard on 30 % of the sampling days at both sites, and most of the pollution events were at the regional scale within the basin formed under stagnant meteorological conditions. The concentrations of carbonaceous components were higher at CQ than CD, likely partially caused by emissions from the large number of motorcycles and the spraying processes used during automobile production in CQ. Heterogeneous reactions probably played an important role in the formation of SO42−, while both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions contributed to the formation of NO3−. Geographical origins of emissions sources contributing to high PM2.5 masses at both sites were identified to be mainly distributed within the basin based on potential source contribution function (PSCF analysis.

  5. Establishment of Stereo Multi-sensor Network for Giant Landslide Monitoring and its Deploy in Xishan landslide, Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Lu, P.; WU, H.

    2015-12-01

    Landslide is one of the most destructive natural disasters, which severely affects human lives as well as the safety of personal properties and public infrastructures. Monitoring and predicting landslide movements can keep an adequate safety level for human beings in those situations. This paper indicated a newly developed Stereo Multi-sensor Landslide Monitoring Network (SMSLMN) based on a uniform temporal geo-reference. Actually, early in 2003, SAMOA (Surveillance et Auscultation des Mouvements de Terrain Alpins, French) project was put forwarded as a plan for landslide movements monitoring. However, SAMOA project did not establish a stereo observation network to fully cover the surface and internal part of landslide. SMSLMN integrated various sensors, including space-borne, airborne, in-situ and underground sensors, which can quantitatively monitor the slide-body and obtain portent information of movement in high frequency with high resolution. The whole network has been deployed at the Xishan landslide, Sichuan, P.R.China. According to various characteristic of stereo monitoring sensors, observation capabilities indicators for different sensors were proposed in order to obtain the optimal sensors combination groups and observation strategy. Meanwhile, adaptive networking and reliable data communication methods were developed to apply intelligent observation and sensor data transmission. Some key technologies, such as signal amplification and intelligence extraction technology, data access frequency adaptive adjustment technology, different sensor synchronization control technology were developed to overcome the problems in complex observation environment. The collaboratively observation data have been transferred to the remote data center where is thousands miles away from the giant landslide spot. These data were introduced into the landslide stability analysis model, and some primary conclusion will be achieved at the end of paper.

  6. Lithofacies paleogeography mapping and reservoir prediction in tight sandstone strata: A case study from central Sichuan Basin, China

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    Yuan Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sand-rich tight sandstone reservoirs are potential areas for oil and gas exploration. However, the high ratio of sandstone thickness to that of the strata in the formation poses many challenges and uncertainties to traditional lithofacies paleogeography mapping. Therefore, the prediction of reservoir sweet spots has remained problematic in the field of petroleum exploration. This study provides new insight into resolving this problem, based on the analyses of depositional characteristics of a typical modern sand-rich formation in a shallow braided river delta of the central Sichuan Basin, China. The varieties of sand-rich strata in the braided river delta environment include primary braided channels, secondary distributary channels and the distribution of sediments is controlled by the successive superposed strata deposited in paleogeomorphic valleys. The primary distributary channels have stronger hydrodynamic forces with higher proportions of coarse sand deposits than the secondary distributary channels. Therefore, lithofacies paleogeography mapping is controlled by the geomorphology, valley locations, and the migration of channels. We reconstructed the paleogeomorphology and valley systems that existed prior to the deposition of the Xujiahe Formation. Following this, rock-electro identification model for coarse skeletal sand bodies was constructed based on coring data. The results suggest that skeletal sand bodies in primary distributary channels occur mainly in the valleys and low-lying areas, whereas secondary distributary channels and fine deposits generally occur in the highland areas. The thickness distribution of skeletal sand bodies and lithofacies paleogeography map indicate a positive correlation in primary distributary channels and reservoir thickness. A significant correlation exists between different sedimentary facies and petrophysical properties. In addition, the degree of reservoir development in different sedimentary facies

  7. Mental health problems among children one-year after Sichuan earthquake in China: a follow-up study.

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    Liu, Mingxin; Wang, Li; Shi, Zhanbiao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Kan; Shen, Jianhua

    2011-02-23

    On May 12, 2008, a destructive earthquake registering 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Sichuan Province, southwest China. Beichuan County was the epicenter which was one of the areas nearly completely destroyed by the earthquake. In Beichuan, about 15000 people died and 3000 people were missing. Specially, the earthquake took 1587 students' and 214 teachers' lives from the elementary and middle schools there. The main purpose of the study was to provide a better understanding of mental health problems and associated risk factors among children after earthquake. Three hundred and thirty grades 3-5 children completed the questionnaire of disaster -related experience and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A). The first survey was carried out six months after the earthquake, and the second one was carried out six months later. The measurements and methodology applied in the two sessions were identical. The prevalence rates of the problems at two time-points were 23.3% and 22.7% for anxiety, 14.5% and 16.1% for depression, and 11.2% and 13.4% for PTSD, respectively. Among demographic variables, no significant age difference existed, while it was found that 6 months after the earthquake, symptoms of anxiety, depression and PTSD were significantly more common among students in grades 4 and 5 than those in grade 3, Initial exposure to death, bereavement and extreme fear were significant predictive factors for the occurrence of anxiety, depression and PTSD. Findings of this study suggest that posttraumatic mental health problems after natural disaster in children may have reached epidemic proportions and remain high for a long period. Psychologist and social workers should pay more attention to children who experienced more traumatic stresses and provide appropriate mental health interventions. Implications and limitations of these findings were discussed.

  8. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

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    Elizabeth Hormann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25, 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas, while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%, was low in carbohydrates (49.6%, and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%. Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%, fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%, protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%, vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%, Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%, Fe (56.3% vs. 48%, Ca (55.1% vs. 41% and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%. The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80% than in urban (65.1% areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  9. Influence of human activities on the historical and current distribution of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in the Qinling Mountains, China.

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    Wang, Chengliang; Wang, Xiaowei; Qi, Xiaoguang; Guo, Songtao; Zhao, Haitao; Wei, Wei; Li, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Due to their rich animal diversity and the presence of rare and endemic species, the Qinling Mountains are listed as a significant global biodiversity area. The Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) has been distributed in this area since the Middle Pleistocene. Due to the gradual encroachment of humans into their habitat, both the distribution range and population sizes of R. roxellana have significantly decreased. Based on literature research as well as field and questionnaires, we investigated the influence of human activities on R. roxellana distribution in the Qinling Mountains. Human activity within the habitat of R. roxellana began in the Stone and Bronze Ages, though initially it had no significant influence on its populations. When China entered the Iron Age, however, different historical and social periods had a considerable impact on R. roxellana distribution. Although national and provincial level governments introduced strict protection policies with the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, human activities continued to influence R. roxellana distribution. Since the launch of the Natural Forest Protection Project across the Qinling Mountains in 1999, the quality of R. roxellana habitat has shown marked improvement. This research will help promote the survival and conservation of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey in the Qinling Mountains. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Unintended Side Effects of Conservation: A Case Study of Changing Land Use in Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan, China

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    Amanda H. Schmidt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Toward the goals of returning the landscape of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve to a perceived “natural” state and protecting the environment, the Reserve in 1998–2002 implemented forest preservation policies that included restrictions on forestry, agriculture, and animal herding practiced by resident Tibetans. To document the effects of these land use changes on landscape diversity and on human vulnerability to natural hazards, we mapped and characterized topographic parameters of anthropogenic treeless areas from 1973, 2004, and 2013 satellite images. Results showed that, in addition to a previously documented overall loss of cleared land, the distribution of treeless area elevation, aspect, and slope has changed. In 1973, treeless areas were distributed approximately uniformly across all elevations and a wide range of slopes, but now they are concentrated on relatively flat slopes in the valley bottoms (∼2400 m and high, subalpine elevations (∼3800 m. These changes are decreasing the topographic diversity of landscapes people use and likely also decreasing the biodiversity of the Reserve, where plant communities are highly stratified based on both elevation and aspect. In addition, many 1973 treeless areas were located on deep-seated landslides, while many 2004 and 2013 treeless areas were located on landslide deposits and alluvial fans, suggesting that relocation may not be reducing the risk of natural hazards for residents. These effects combine with the previously documented decline in overall area of montane meadows and associated losses to cultural heritage, ecosystem services, and biodiversity.

  11. Effectiveness of a smartphone app on improving immunization of children in rural Sichuan Province, China: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

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    Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Lin; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Wu, Qiong; Yang, Ruikan; Cao, Ying; Wang, Wei; Xie, Lihui; Rao, Xiuqin; Zhang, Yanfeng; Koepsell, Jeanne Catherine

    2016-08-31

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an EPI smartphone application (EPI app) on improving vaccination coverage in rural Sichuan Province, China. This matched-pair cluster randomized controlled study included 32 village doctors, matched in 16 pairs, and took place from 2013 to 2015. Village doctors in the intervention group used the EPI app and reminder text messages while village doctors in the control group used their usual procedures and text messages. The primary outcome was full vaccination coverage with all five vaccines (1 dose of BCG, 3 doses of hepatitis B, 3 doses of OPV, 3 doses of DPT and 1 dose of measles vaccine), and the secondary outcome was coverage with each dose of the five individual vaccines. We also conducted qualitative interviews with village doctors to understand perceptions on using the EPI app and how this changed their vaccination work. The full vaccination coverage increased statistically significant from baseline to end-line in both the intervention (67 % [95 % CI:58-75 %] to 84 % [95 % CI:76-90 %], P = 0.028) and control group (71 % [95 % CI:62-79 %] to 82 % [95 % CI:74-88 %], P = 0.014). The intervention group had higher increase in full vaccination coverage from baseline to end-line compared to the control group (17 % vs 10 %), but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.164). Village doctors found it more convenient to use the EPI app to manage child vaccination and also reported saving time by looking up information of caregivers and contacting caregivers for overdue vaccinations quicker. However, village doctors found it hard to manage children who migrated out of the counties. This study showed that an app and text messages can be used by village doctors to improve full vaccination coverage, though no significant increase in vaccination coverage was found when assessing the effect of the app on its own. Village doctors using EPI app reported having improved their working

  12. Effectiveness of a smartphone app on improving immunization of children in rural Sichuan Province, China: a cluster randomized controlled trial

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    Li Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an EPI smartphone application (EPI app on improving vaccination coverage in rural Sichuan Province, China. Methods This matched-pair cluster randomized controlled study included 32 village doctors, matched in 16 pairs, and took place from 2013 to 2015. Village doctors in the intervention group used the EPI app and reminder text messages while village doctors in the control group used their usual procedures and text messages. The primary outcome was full vaccination coverage with all five vaccines (1 dose of BCG, 3 doses of hepatitis B, 3 doses of OPV, 3 doses of DPT and 1 dose of measles vaccine, and the secondary outcome was coverage with each dose of the five individual vaccines. We also conducted qualitative interviews with village doctors to understand perceptions on using the EPI app and how this changed their vaccination work. Results The full vaccination coverage increased statistically significant from baseline to end-line in both the intervention (67 % [95 % CI:58-75 %] to 84 % [95 % CI:76-90 %], P = 0.028 and control group (71 % [95 % CI:62-79 %] to 82 % [95 % CI:74-88 %], P = 0.014. The intervention group had higher increase in full vaccination coverage from baseline to end-line compared to the control group (17 % vs 10 %, but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.164. Village doctors found it more convenient to use the EPI app to manage child vaccination and also reported saving time by looking up information of caregivers and contacting caregivers for overdue vaccinations quicker. However, village doctors found it hard to manage children who migrated out of the counties. Conclusions This study showed that an app and text messages can be used by village doctors to improve full vaccination coverage, though no significant increase in vaccination coverage was found when assessing the effect of the app on its own. Village

  13. Main factors for large accumulations of natural gas in the marine carbonate strata of the Eastern Sichuan Basin, China

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    Quanyou Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The natural gas accumulation zone, where the marine carbonate rock strata are developed, was formed in the eastern Sichuan Basin under the influence of several main tectonic movements (Caledonian Movement, Indosinian Movement, Yanshanian Movement, and Himalayan Movement. Most natural gas reservoirs exhibit the structural-stratigraphic traps together with multistage accumulation, late-stage adjustment and reformation, et cetera. The natural gas accumulation zone (or so-called gas reservoir groups is controlled by the following main factors: multi-sourced and multi-formed hydrocarbons for marine source rocks (i.e. Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation, Lower Permian, Upper Permian Longtan Formation, paleo-uplift, paleoslope, and the hinge belt controlled by the steep dip structures, namely the Lower and Middle Triassic high-quality gypsum. Three sets of high-quality source rocks (i.e. S1l, P1, P2l account for the abundant hydrocarbon supply for natural gas accumulation in the eastern Sichuan area, especially in the destructed oil reservoir formed earlier. The said destructed oil reservoir not only provides the preservation space for natural gas reservoir that will take place later, but it also provides the hydrocarbon source for thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR. Although the gas reservoirs in the eastern part of the Sichuan Basin experienced multi-stage adjustment and reformation at later times, the thick and high-quality gypsum as well as the mudstone, as available caprocks, have offered a good preservation condition for the underlying gas reservoirs. The paleohighs (e.g. Luzhou paleohigh and Kaijiang paleohigh, the Permian platform margin slope, and the structurally transformed slope under the function of the steep dip anticline in the eastern Sichuan not only form the high-quality carbonate reservoir, but they also became favorable for oil and gas accumulation. The difference in hydrocarbon generation

  14. Rapid sea-level change in the Late Guadalupian (Permian) on the Tethyan side of South China: litho- and biostratigraphy of the Chaotian section in Sichuan.

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    Isozaki, Yukio; Yao, Jianxin; Ji, Zhangshen; Saitoh, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Noritada; Sakai, Harutaka

    2008-01-01

    The Capitanian (Late Guadalupian) Maokou Formation at Chaotian in northern Sichuan, South China, is composed mainly of shallow marine shelf carbonates deposited on the Tethyan side of South China. By detailed field mapping and scientific drilling, we newly found out unique fossil assemblages and a sharp lithologic change in the upper part of the Maokou Formation. The main part of the Maokou Formation (over 130 m thick) is composed of algal packstone with Wordian-Capitanian large-tested fusulines, rugose corals and other sessile benthos, whereas the Uppermost Member (13 m thick) is composed of black limy mudstone/chert with Capitanian offshore biota (ammonoids, radiolarians, and conodonts). The topmost Capitanian conodont zones are missing; however, the Maokou Formation is disconformably overlain by 260+/-4 Ma volcanic ash (Wangpo bed) and the Early Lopingian Wujiaping Formation with plant-bearing coaly mudstone and shallow marine carbonates (packstone). The newly identified facies change indicates that northern Sichuan has experienced rapid sea-level changes in the late Guadalupian, i.e., first a transgression in the mid-Capitanian and then a regression across the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary. As the end-Guadalupian is characterized by a global regression, such a volatile sea-level fluctuation, in particular the sea-level rise, is unique to the Tethyan side of South China. The newly recognized relatively deep-water late Guadalupian sequence adds new paleo-environmental information and further provides a paleotectonic interpretation of the low-latitude eastern Tethyan margin immediately before the end-Guadalupian mass extinction.

  15. Satisfaction with economic and social rights and quality of life in a post-disaster zone in China: evidence from earthquake-prone Sichuan.

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    Liang, Ying

    2015-04-01

    This study explored the influence of satisfaction with economic and social rights (ESR) on the quality of life (QOL) of people in post-disaster zones in Sichuan, China. Data from a survey conducted in 2013 in the 5 hardest hit counties in the earthquake-prone area of Sichuan were used. QOL was measured by use of the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF). Structural equation models were developed to determine the specific features of the influence of satisfaction with ESR on QOL. The mean values of both the WHOQOL-BREF scale and the ESR satisfaction scale were lower than the midpoint of the scales. Satisfaction with ESR had a significant effect on psychological health, social relationships, and environment, apart from physical health. Satisfaction with the right to food had the greatest effect on QOL, followed by the rights to education, work, health, social security, and housing. Satisfaction with ESR had a significant positive influence on the QOL of people in a post-disaster zone, particularly satisfaction with the right to food. Policies on food and education guarantees and mental health intervention are highlighted.

  16. Diagenesis of clay minerals and K-bentonites in Late Permian/Early Triassic sediments of the Sichuan Basin (Chaotian section, Central China)

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    Deconinck, J. F.; Crasquin, S.; Bruneau, L.; Pellenard, P.; Baudin, F.; Feng, Q.

    2014-02-01

    Detailed clay mineralogical analyses were carried out on Late Permian/Early Triassic carbonate sediments exposed on the Chaotian section (Sichuan Basin, Central China). The clay assemblages are dominantly composed of illite in platform carbonates and clay seams, and illite-smectite mixed-layers (I/S) in tuff layers (K-bentonites) intercalated in the carbonate succession. Detrital and authigenic volcanogenic clay minerals have been partially replaced through illitisation processes during burial, raising questions about diagenetic effects. The precise determination of I/S occurring in K-bentonites shows that the sediments reached a temperature of about 180 °C, which is consistent with (1) previous estimates based on fluid-inclusion homogenisation temperature analysis, (2) the burial depth of the sedimentary series deduced from the post-Palaeozoic geological history of the Sichuan Basin and (3) the new data (Tmax) obtained on organic matter indicating the transition between oil and gas windows. The Wangpo Bed, located close to the Guadalupian-Lopingian Boundary, is interpreted either as a volcanic acidic tuff or as a clastic horizon. This controversial origin probably results from mixed volcanogenic and detrital influences. The Wangpo Bed is therefore interpreted as a reworked bentonite as revealed by the occurrence of I/S similar to those found in tuff layers, together with preserved detrital kaolinite.

  17. An outbreak of type π vaccine-derived poliovirus in Sichuan province, China: emergence and circulation in an under-immunized population.

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    Wang, Hai-Bo; Fang, Gang; Yu, Wen-Zhou; Du, Fei; Fan, Chun-Xiang; Liu, Qing-Lian; Hao, Li-Xin; Liu, Yu; Zheng, Jing-Shan; Qin, Zhi-Ying; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Shi-Yue; Yin, Zun-Dong; Jing, Qiong; Zhang, Yan-Xia; Huang, Rong-Na; Yang, Ru-Pei; Tong, Wen-Bin; Qi, Qi; Guan, Xu-Jing; Jing, Yu-Lin; Ma, Qian-Li; Wang, Jin; Ma, Xiao-Zhen; Chen, Na; Zheng, Hong-Ru; Li, Yin-Qiao; Ma, Chao; Su, Qi-Ru; Reilly, Kathleen H; Luo, Hui-Ming; Wu, Xian-Ping; Wen, Ning; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    During August 2011-February 2012, an outbreak of type Π circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPVs) occurred in Sichuan Province, China. A field investigation of the outbreak was conducted to characterize outbreak isolates and to guide emergency response. Sequence analysis of poliovirus capsid protein VP1 was performed to determine the viral propagation, and a coverage survey was carried out for risk assessment. One clinical compatible polio case and three VDPV cases were determined in Ngawa County, Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province. Case patients were unimmunized children, 0.8-1 years old. Genetic sequencing showed that the isolates diverged from the VP1 region of the type Π Sabin strain by 5-12 nucleotides (nt) and shared the same 5 nt VP1 substitutions, which indicate single lineage of cVDPVs. Of the 7 acute flaccid paralysis cases (all>6 months) reported in Ngawa Prefecture in 2011, 4 (57.1%) cases (including 2 polio cases) did not receive oral attenuated poliovirus vaccine. Supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted in February-May, 2012, and the strain has not been isolated since. High coverage of routine immunization should be maintained among children until WPV transmission is globally eradicated. Risk assessments should be conducted regularly to pinpoint high risk areas or subpopulations, with SIAs developed if necessary.

  18. [Prediction model of meteorological grade of wheat stripe rust in winter-reproductive area, Sichuan Basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Wang, Ming Tian; Zhang, Guo Zhi

    2017-12-01

    The winter reproductive areas of Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis in Sichuan Basin are often the places mostly affected by wheat stripe rust. With data on the meteorological condition and stripe rust situation at typical stations in the winter reproductive area in Sichuan Basin from 1999 to 2016, this paper classified the meteorological conditions inducing wheat stripe rust into 5 grades, based on the incidence area ratio of the disease. The meteorological factors which were biologically related to wheat stripe rust were determined through multiple analytical methods, and a meteorological grade model for forecasting wheat stripe rust was created. The result showed that wheat stripe rust in Sichuan Basin was significantly correlated with many meteorological factors, such as the ave-rage (maximum and minimum) temperature, precipitation and its anomaly percentage, relative humidity and its anomaly percentage, average wind speed and sunshine duration. Among these, the average temperature and the anomaly percentage of relative humidity were the determining factors. According to a historical retrospective test, the accuracy of the forecast based on the model was 64% for samples in the county-level test, and 89% for samples in the municipal-level test. In a meteorological grade forecast of wheat stripe rust in the winter reproductive areas in Sichuan Basin in 2017, the prediction was accurate for 62.8% of the samples, with 27.9% error by one grade and only 9.3% error by two or more grades. As a result, the model could deliver satisfactory forecast results, and predicate future wheat stripe rust from a meteorological point of view.

  19. Establishment of nature reserves in administrative regions of mainland China.

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    Ziliang Guo

    Full Text Available Nature reserves are widely considered as one available strategy for protecting biodiversity, which is threatened by habitat fragmentation, and wildlife extinction. The Chinese government has established a goal of protecting 15% of its land area by 2015. We quantitated the characteristics and distribution of nature reserves in mainland China and evaluated the expansion process for national nature reserves. National nature reserves occupy 64.15% of the total area of nature reserves. Steppe and meadow ecosystem, ocean and seacoast ecosystem, and wild plant nature reserves represent lower percentages, particularly in national nature reserves, in which they comprised 0.76%, 0.54%, and 0.69%, respectively, of the area. Furthermore, medium and small nature reserves compose 92.32% of all nature reserves. The land area under any legal protection has reached 14.80%, although only 9.78% is strictly protected. However, if 9 super-large national nature reserves, located in Southwest and Northwest China were removed, the percentage of strictly protected area decreases to 2.66% of the land area of China. The areas contained in nature reserves in each province are not proportional to the areas of the provinces, particularly for national nature reserves, with higher protection rates in Southwest and Northwest China than in other regions. Of the 31 provinces, 22 provinces feature strict protection of less than 4% of their areas by national nature reserves; these provinces are mainly located in East, Central, South, and North China. Moreover, the unevenness indexes of the distribution of nature reserves and national nature reserves are 0.39 and 0.58, respectively. The construction of nature reserves has entered a steady development stage after a period of rapid expansion in mainland China. In recent years, the total area of national nature reserves has increased slowly, while the total area of nature reserves has not increased, although the number of nature

  20. Late Triassic sauropodomorph and Middle Jurassic theropod tracks from the Xichang Basin, Sichuan Province, southwestern China: First report of the ichnogenus Carmelopodus

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    Li-Da Xing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Upper Triassic and Middle Jurassic strata of the Xichang Basin in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, yielded important dinosaur ichnofossils. From the Xujiahe Formation of the Yiguojiao tracksite, we report a Late Triassic footprint assemblage in China and the first discovery of diagnostic Triassic sauropodomorph tracks in this region. The tracks share a number of features in common with the ichnogenera Eosauropus (Late Triassic and Liujianpus (Early Jurassic. The neighboring Bingtu tracksite is stratigraphically younger (Shaximiao Formation, Middle Jurassic and preserves small tridactyl theropod tracks that represent the first occurrence of the ichnotaxon Carmelopodus in China and Asia. While these tracks are morphologically comparable to those from the Middle Jurassic type locality in North America, the specimens from China show the proximal margin of the digit IV impression in a more cranial position, which may indicate a trackmaker with a relatively short metatarsal IV. In addition to the skeletal record, the Carmelopodus footprints document the presence of small theropods in the dinosaur fauna of the Middle Jurassic Shaximiao Formation.

  1. Analysis of Structural Styles in the High-dipping Tectonic Belts in the Eastern Sichuan area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D.; Wu, X.; Guo, Q.; Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Eastern Sichuan area, referred to here as the eastern part of the Sichuan Basin, is receiving increasing attention from the geologists and oil finders. At present, several structural models have been proposed for interpreting the complicated structures in the Eastern Sichuan area. One model considered the Eastern Sichuan structures as a result of progressive deformation along the basement detachments from wide-spaced to box-type to trough-like structures in the NE-SW trending compression. The other model based on regional structural evolution correlated them to fold styles that were built in earlier extension, middle inversion and later compression, and another model interpreted them as the double detachment-modification structures under such a structural context. The tectonic stress fields and main stress directions that these three models were established based on do not change, but the stress-propagation direction and structural styles are different significantly. The first model shows that the anticlines became narrow upward during the progressive detachment deformation along Middle-Upper Cambrian gypsum-mudstone layers, Lower Silurian mudstone layers and Lower Triassic gypsum-mudstone layers. The second model suggests that there were abundant thrust faults formed along the duplex thrusting front, constituting multiple flower-type faults with less development upward but more dipping folds. The third model is that the Middle-Upper Cambrian gypsum-mudstone layers, Lower Silurian mudstone layers and Lower Triassic gypsum-mudstone layers were controlled by SE-trending compression in the Indosinian period (T2-J1), forming sandwich structure and deforming along the three detachments. During the late Yanshanian to Himalayan periods (K2-N2), these structures developed further in SW-trending compression. The deep gypsum layer as detachment layer began to material transition in the buckling from wing to core part of the folds, triggering the formation of the wide

  2. Origins of natural gases from marine strata in Northeastern Sichuan Basin (China) from carbon molecular moieties and isotopic data

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    Wang, Yunpeng; Zhao, Changyi; Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Zhaoyun; Wang, Zecheng

    2013-03-01

    To determine the origin, maturity, formation mechanism and secondary process of marine natural gases in Northeastern Sichuan area, molecular moieties and carbon isotopic data of the Carboniferous and Triassic gases have been analyzed. Typical samples of marine gas precursors including low-maturity kerogen, dispersed liquid hydrocarbons (DLHs) in source rocks, residual kerogen and oil have been examined in a closed system, and several published geochemical diagrams of gas origins have been calibrated by using laboratory data. Results show that both Carboniferous and Triassic gases in the study area have a thermogenic origin. Migration leads to stronger compositional and weak isotopic fractionation, and is path dependent. Carboniferous gases and low-H2S gases are mainly formed by secondary cracking of oil, whereas high-H2S gases are clearly related to the TSR (Thermal Sulfate Reduction) process. Gases in NE Sichuan show a mixture of heavy (13C-enriched) methane in comparison to the lower maturated ethane of Triassic gas samples, suggesting a similar source and maturity for ethane and propane of Carboniferous gases, and a mixture of heavy ethane to the propane for Triassic gases. Based on the data plotted in the diagram of Chung et al. (1988), the residual kerogen from Silurian marine shale and palaeo oil reservoirs are the main source for Carboniferous gases, and that the residual kerogen from Silurian and Permian marine rocks and Permian paleao oil reservoirs constitute the principal source of Triassic gases.

  3. Fast Nonlinear Generalized Inversion of Gravity Data with Application to the Three-Dimensional Crustal Density Structure of Sichuan Basin, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Meng, Xiaohong; Li, Fang

    2017-11-01

    Generalized inversion is one of the important steps in the quantitative interpretation of gravity data. With appropriate algorithm and parameters, it gives a view of the subsurface which characterizes different geological bodies. However, generalized inversion of gravity data is time consuming due to the large amount of data points and model cells adopted. Incorporating of various prior information as constraints deteriorates the above situation. In the work discussed in this paper, a method for fast nonlinear generalized inversion of gravity data is proposed. The fast multipole method is employed for forward modelling. The inversion objective function is established with weighted data misfit function along with model objective function. The total objective function is solved by a dataspace algorithm. Moreover, depth weighing factor is used to improve depth resolution of the result, and bound constraint is incorporated by a transfer function to limit the model parameters in a reliable range. The matrix inversion is accomplished by a preconditioned conjugate gradient method. With the above algorithm, equivalent density vectors can be obtained, and interpolation is performed to get the finally density model on the fine mesh in the model domain. Testing on synthetic gravity data demonstrated that the proposed method is faster than conventional generalized inversion algorithm to produce an acceptable solution for gravity inversion problem. The new developed inversion method was also applied for inversion of the gravity data collected over Sichuan basin, southwest China. The established density structure in this study helps understanding the crustal structure of Sichuan basin and provides reference for further oil and gas exploration in this area.

  4. Empirical analysis of optimal strategic petroleum reserve in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yi-Ming; Wu, Gang; Liu, Lan-Cui; Fan, Ying

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese government began to prepare for the establishment of strategic petroleum reserve in March 2004. Therefore, answering the question of what level of strategic petroleum reserve would be suitable for China's future economic development becomes essential. Using a decision tree model based on a cost function, this paper quantifies China's optimal strategic petroleum reserve for the period 2005-2020. This approach provides a methodology reference for further quantified discussion on China's SPR. Our results show that: for economic development and security of the energy supply, the strategic petroleum reserve should be the equivalent of 30-60 days of net oil import for an optimal solution, when the oil price is $ 50/bbl; with a reserve of an equivalent of 60-90 days of net oil import to have an optimal solution when oil price is $20-35/bbl. (author)

  5. Human papillomavirus types 16 and 33, herpes simplex virus type 2 and other risk factors for cervical cancer in Sichuan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H Q; Liu, S L; Mann, V; Rohan, T; Rawls, W

    1991-03-12

    Cancer of the cervix is relatively common in China, but has been investigated epidemiologically in only a few studies. In the hospital-based case-control study reported here, we investigated the role of various lifestyle and dietary factors, as well as infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 33 and herpes simplex virus type 2 in the aetiology of invasive cervical cancer. The study was conducted in Sichuan province, and involved 101 cases with histologically-confirmed cervical cancer recruited from the gynaecological oncology clinic of the West China University Hospital, and 146 controls recruited from patients attending the gynaecology clinic of the same hospital. Risk of cervical cancer was greatly increased in association with infection with HPV 16/33, the adjusted odds ratio for those with evidence of infection being 32.9 (95% CI 7.7-141.1). In contrast, infection with HSV 2 was not associated with a significantly altered risk of cervical cancer. Indices of sexual history and of dietary habits also showed no association with risk of cervical cancer, while good personal and genital hygiene were associated with markedly reduced risk. Although the results of this study are consistent with a causal role for HPV in the aetiology of cervical cancer, bias or increased viral expression following malignant transformation cannot be excluded as explanations for the strong positive association.

  6. Coupling relationship between reservoir diagenesis and gas accumulation in Xujiahe Formation of Yuanba–Tongnanba area, Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between reservoir tightening time and gas charge period are the key subjects that have not been well solved considering the studies on the tight sand gas accumulation mechanism and enrichment regularity. The diagenetic evolution history, interaction sequence of organic–inorganic in aquiferous rock, gas charge history, the tightening mechanism of tight sandstone reservoir and the relationship between reservoir tightening time and gas accumulation period of the Xujiahe Formation have been analyzed in the Yuanba–Tongnanba area of the Sichuan Basin. It has been confirmed that the main reason for the tight sandstone reservoir formation is the intensive mechanical compaction which has dramatically reduced the sandstone reservoir quality, and it resulted to a semi-closed to a closed diagenetic fluid system formation at the early diagenetic stage. In the semi-closed to a closed diagenetic fluid system, at the later part of the diagenetic stage, the fluid circulation is not smooth, and the migration of the dissolution products are blocked, hence, the dissolution products mainly undergo the in situ precipitation and cementation. Such dissolution products block the dissolution pores and the residual primary pores; and the stronger the dissolution is, the higher the cement content is, which makes the reservoir further tightened. The hydrocarbon generation and expulsion history of source rocks and reservoir fluid inclusion characteristics in the Xujiahe Formation show that the charge of natural gas occurs in the Middle Jurassic–Early Cretaceous (mainly Early Cretaceous. A comprehensive analysis of the reservoir tightening history, gas charge history, and interaction sequence of organic–inorganic aquiferous in rock indicate that the sandstone reservoir experienced a tightening process when gas charging took place in the Xujiahe Formation in the Yuanba–Tongnanba area of the Sichuan Basin.

  7. Impacts of climate change on the distribution of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhenhua; Zhou, Surong; Yu, Wendi; Yu, Huiliang; Yang, Jingyuan; Tian, Yanhong; Zhao, Mian; Wu, Hua

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effects of climate change on primate ranging patterns is crucial for conservation planning. Rhinopithecus roxellana is an endangered primate species distributed in mountainous forests at the elevation of 1500-3500 m a.s.l. in China. Our study site, the Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, represents the eastern-most distribution of this species. This area has experienced significant habitat loss and fragmentation because of human population growth, increased farming and logging, and climate change. To estimate how changes in temperature and rainfall will affect the presumed future distribution of this species, we examined eco-geographic factors including bioclimate, habitat (vegetation type, landcover, etc.), topography, and human impact (human population, gross domestic product, etc.), and provide suggestions for management and conservation. We used a maximum entropy approach to predict the location and distribution of habitats suitable for R. roxellana in the present, 2020, 2050, and 2080 based on 33 environmental parameters, three general circulation models, three emissions scenarios, and two dispersal hypotheses. According to the ensemble modeling, we found range reductions of almost 30% by 2020, 70% by 2050, and over 80% by 2080. Although no obvious differences were found in distribution change based on full and zero dispersal assumptions, our results revealed range reductions in response to elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal gradients, with the monkeys forced to migrate to higher elevations over time. Bioclimte factors, such as temperature, precipitation, evapo-transpiration, and aridity condition, were dominant contributors to range shifting. As habitat loss due to human influence and climate change is likely to be even more severe in the future, we considered three conservation hot-spots in the Shennongjia area and recommended: (i) securing existing reserves and establishing new reserves, (ii) re-designing management systems to

  8. HPV prevalence, E6 sequence variation and physical state of HPV16 isolates from patients with cervical cancer in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ai-Dong; Wu, En-Qi; Yu, Xiang-Hui; Jiang, Chun-Lai; Jin, Ying-Hua; Wu, Yong-Ge; Chen, Yue; Chen, Yan; Shan, Ya-Ming; Zhang, Guo-Nan; Fan, Ying; Zha, Xiao; Kong, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) is an important factor associated with cervical cancer. The genetic mutation of HPV16 E6 and integration of HPV16 DNA in the cervical carcinoma tissues are considered important genetic changes in cervical lesion progression. But the studies of hr-HPV epidemiology are relatively less in the area of Sichuan, China. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of 9 high-risk subtypes and analyzed the genetic mutation characteristic of HPV16 E6 and physical state of HPV16 DNA. The fragments of L1 and E6 genes were amplified by PCR or nested PCR and then directly sequenced. Further, the multiplex PCR for HPV16 E2 and E6 genes was performed for detection of integration. HPV16, 58 and 18 were prominent, accounting for 78.6%, 20.0% and 9.7%, respectively in 145 isolates. E6 variants revealed that the European (EP) prototype and East Asia (EA) strain were 26 (23.0%) and 34 (30.1%), respectively. Furthermore, there were 14 base substitutions in E6 regions of the study group, of which 12 resulted in amino acid changes and the rest was silent mutation. Significantly, the 240G substitution exactly located the P53 degradation site. Overall, 8 of 114 (7.0%) isolates only contained integrated HPV16 DNA, 43 (37.7%) only contained episomal DNA and 63 (55.3%) contained both integrated and episomal DNA. The proportion of disruption of an intact E2 gene in the patients with cervical cancer is much lower than that in the previous studies. HPV16, 58 and 18 were mainly prevailing subtypes in patients with cervical cancer from Sichuan areas, China and EP/EA strains were predominant in these areas. Some mutations of E6 gene, which lead to the amino acid changes, may be more potentially carcinogenic and the proportion of disruption of an intact E2 gene is much lower.

  9. A gravity study along a profile across the Sichuan Basin, the Qinling Mountains and the Ordos Basin (central China): Density, isostasy and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqian; Teng, Jiwen; Wang, Qianshen; Lü, Qingtian; Si, Xiang; Xu, Tao; Badal, José; Yan, Jiayong; Hao, Zhaobing

    2017-10-01

    In order to investigate the structure of the crust beneath the Middle Qinling Mountains (MQL) and neighboring areas in the North China Block and South China Block, a north-south gravity profile from Yuquan in the Sichuan Basin to Yulin in the Ordos Basin was conducted in 2011. The Bouguer gravity anomaly is determined from a high-quality gravity dataset collected between 31°N and 36°N of latitude, and varies between -200 and -110 mGal in the study region. Using accredited velocity density relationships, an initial crust-mantle density model is constructed for MQL and adjacent areas, which is later refined interactively to simulate the observed gravity anomaly. The present study reveals the features of the density and Bouguer gravity with respect to the tectonic units sampled by the profile. The lithosphere density model shows typical density values that depict a layered structure and allow differentiate the blocks that extend along the reference profile. The gravity field calculated by forward modeling from the final density distribution model correlates well with the measured gravity field within a standard deviation of 1.26 mGal. The density in the crystalline crust increases with depth from 2.65 g/cm3 up to the highest value of 2.95 g/cm3 near the bottom of the crust. The Conrad interface is identified as a density jump of about 0.05 g/cm3. The average density of the crust in MQL is clearly lower than the density in the formations on both sides. Starting from a combined Airy-Pratt isostatic compensation model, a partly compensated crust is found below MQL, suggesting future growth of the crust, unlike the Ordos and Sichuan basins that will remain stable. On the basis of the density and isostatic state of the crust and additional seismological research, such as the P-wave velocity model and Poisson's ratio, it is concluded that the lower crust delamination is a reasonable interpretation for the geophysical characteristics below the Qinling Orogen.

  10. Comparison of Three Key Marine Shale Reservoirs in the Southeastern Margin of the Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study performs a comprehensive comparison of three key marine shale reservoirs in the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin, and explains why commercial gas production was only achieved in the Lower Silurian Longmaxi (LSL and Upper Ordovician Wufeng (UOW formations, but not in the Lower Cambrian Niutitang (LCN formation. The experimental methods included in situ gas content and gas composition tests, methane adsorption analysis, low-pressure N2 adsorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, and total organic carbon (TOC and vitrinite reflectance (Ro analyses to evaluate the lithology, mineralogy, physical properties of the reservoir, organic geochemistry, in situ gas content and methane adsorption capacity characteristics of the three shales. The LCN shale has lower quartz and clay mineral contents and a low brittleness index, but higher contents of feldspar, pyrite and carbonate minerals than the LSL and UOW shales. The porosity and permeability of the LSL and UOW shales are higher than those of the LCN shale. The primary contributions to the high permeability in the LSL shale are its well-developed fractures and organic matter pores. In contrast, the over-mature LCN shale is unfavorable for the development of organic pores and fractures. Although the LCN shale has a higher methane sorption capacity than the LSL and UOW shales, the gas content and methane saturation of the LCN shale are distinctly lower than those of the LSL and UOW shales. This is primarily due to gas migration from the LCN shale, resulting from the activities of tectonic uplift and the unconformable contact between the LCN shale and the Dengying formation. When compared with gas shale in North America, the LSL shale is the most favorable shale reservoir out of the three Sichuan shales, while the combination of the LSL and UOW shales is also potentially productive. However, the individual single layer production of the UOW or LCN shales is still

  11. Assessing policy options for increasing the use of renewable energy for sustainable development: Modelling energy scenarios for Sichuan, China. A UN-ENERGY demonstration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    UN-Energy was created in 2004 as the United Nations' principal interagency mechanism in the field of energy. Its creation responds to a request in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, adopted by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, for a new collaborative mechanism between UN agencies, programmes and institutions. UN-Energy has published several reports. The first was prepared for the September 2005 World Summit, 'The Energy Challenge for Achieving the Millennium Development Goals', showing the key role energy access plays for countries to achieve the MDGs. A second report was presented at the May 2006 session of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-14), 'Energy in the United Nations: An Overview of UN-Energy Activities'. For the May 2007 CSD-15 UN-Energy brought forward 'Sustainable Bio-Energy: A Framework for Decision-Makers' to help inform dialogue in one critical area of future energy policy choice. Another critical energy policy issue is how renewable energy can be promoted as countries plan for sustainable development. UN-Energy therefore decided to look at how the tools for energy modelling could be evolved. In May 2006, for CSD-14, UN-Energy presented 'Assessing Policy Options for Increasing the Use of Renewable Energy for Sustainable Development: Modelling Energy Scenarios for Ghana'. The Ghana study was carried out by five UN organizations and the Energy Commission of Ghana. It was led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and included the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) in the UN Secretariat, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). UN-Energy now presents a similar study for Sichuan, China. Together these two reports are the first UN-Energy reports to present analytic results from interagency cooperation that, without UN-Energy, would not have happened. This report analyzes alternative provincial

  12. Agricultural marketing in a country in transition : case of sweetpotato products in Sichuan, P.R. China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.

    1999-01-01

    China's achievements in its reform from a centrally planned economy toward a marketing economy during the last two decades are substantial. Although it still has a long way to go to reach its targeted aims, half of China's economy is now 'marketised, or is responsive to market forces

  13. Association of polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 with idiopathic azoospermia or oligospermia in Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Ke Xiong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reported effects of the glutathione S-transferase (GSTs genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 on male factor infertility have been inconsistent and even contradictory. Here, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between functionally important polymorphisms in GST genes and idiopathic male infertility. The study group consisted of 361 men with idiopathic azoospermia, 118 men with idiopathic oligospermia, and 234 age-matched healthy fertile male controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. There was a significant association between the GSTP1 variant genotype (Ile/Val + Val/Val with idiopathic infertility risk (odds ratio [OR]: 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-2.11; P = 0.009. Similarly, a higher risk of infertility was noted in individuals carrying a genotype combination of GSTT1-null and GSTP1 (Ile/Val + Val/Val (OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.43-3.31; P = 0.0002. These results suggest an increased risk of the GSTP1 variant genotype (Ile/Val + Val/Val for developing male factor infertility. Our findings also underrate the significance of the effect of GSTM1 and/or GSTT1 (especially the former in modulating the risk of male infertility in males from Sichuan, southwest China.

  14. Bamboo Classification Using WorldView-2 Imagery of Giant Panda Habitat in a Large Shaded Area in Wolong, Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunwei Tang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the ability of WorldView-2 (WV-2 imagery for bamboo mapping in a mountainous region in Sichuan Province, China. A large area of this place is covered by shadows in the image, and only a few sampled points derived were useful. In order to identify bamboos based on sparse training data, the sample size was expanded according to the reflectance of multispectral bands selected using the principal component analysis (PCA. Then, class separability based on the training data was calculated using a feature space optimization method to select the features for classification. Four regular object-based classification methods were applied based on both sets of training data. The results show that the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN method produced the greatest accuracy. A geostatistically-weighted k-NN classifier, accounting for the spatial correlation between classes, was then applied to further increase the accuracy. It achieved 82.65% and 93.10% of the producer’s and user’s accuracies respectively for the bamboo class. The canopy densities were estimated to explain the result. This study demonstrates that the WV-2 image can be used to identify small patches of understory bamboos given limited known samples, and the resulting bamboo distribution facilitates the assessments of the habitats of giant pandas.

  15. Large-Area Landslides Monitoring Using Advanced Multi-Temporal InSAR Technique over the Giant Panda Habitat, Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The region near Dujiangyan City and Wenchuan County, Sichuan China, including significant giant panda habitats, was severely impacted by the Wenchuan earthquake. Large-area landslides occurred and seriously threatened the lives of people and giant pandas. In this paper, we report the development of an enhanced multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (MTInSAR methodology to monitor potential post-seismic landslides by analyzing coherent scatterers (CS and distributed scatterers (DS points extracted from multi-temporal l-band ALOS/PALSAR data in an integrated manner. Through the integration of phase optimization and mitigation of the orbit and topography-related phase errors, surface deformations in the study area were derived: the rates in the line of sight (LOS direction ranged from −7 to 1.5 cm/a. Dozens of potential landslides, distributed mainly along the Minjiang River, Longmenshan Fault, and in other the high-altitude areas were detected. These findings matched the distribution of previous landslides. InSAR-derived results demonstrated that some previous landslides were still active; many unstable slopes have developed, and there are significant probabilities of future massive failures. The impact of landslides on the giant panda habitat, however ranged from low to moderate, would continue to be a concern for conservationists for some time in the future.

  16. A cross-sectional survey on the health status and the health-related quality of life of the elderly after flood disaster in Bazhong city, Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Xiao, Jian; Li, Tong; Li, Xiaoshan; Sun, Huamin; Chow, Eric P F; Lu, Yihua; Tian, Tian; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Qi; Zhuang, Xun; Zhang, Lei

    2015-02-19

    Flood is common in China and causes extensive loss of property and human lives. Elderly is a vulnerable population prone to the detrimental impacts of floods. This survey aims to investigate the health status and the HRQoL of the elderly in Bazhong city after a major flood in 2011. A total of 1183 elderly (aged > 60) were surveyed through random sampling from eight villages in Bazhong city. Two-week healthcare-seeking rate and chronic diseases prevalence were recorded anonymously. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36). Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to determine the associated factors of poor HRQoL. The two-week healthcare-seeking rate among post-flood Bazhong elderly was significantly higher than the references rate among rural elderly in Sichuan province (59.3% versus 55.7%, χ2 = 5.134, p = 0.013), but Bazhong elderly demonstrated a significantly lower prevalence of chronic disease (33.2% versus 44.4%, χ2 = 48.847, p singlehood, poor sleep patterns, and chronic diseases and so on. A marked decline in health status among elderly in Bazhong after the 2011 flood. Post-flood management targeting elderly need to be sensitive to their age, gender, married status and status of chronic diseases.

  17. Frequency of Polycythemia and Other Abnormalities in a Tibetan Herdsmen Population Residing in the Kham Area of Sichuan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Lin; Chen, Jie; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Cao, Mei; Yie, Shang-Mian; Yang, Hua; Yao, Xiao-Qin; Zeng, Yi; Yang, Yong-Chang; Xie, Chun-Bao; Zhao, Tai-Qiang

    2018-03-01

    The Kham Tibetans are one of several Tibetan ethnic subgroups living in the Kham area of China. Because studies on the high-altitude adaptation of the Kham people are scant, the main aim of this study is to investigate whether the response to hypoxia, especially polycythemia status, in the Kham Tibetans is different from other Tibetan ethnic subgroups. The primary investigation was conducted on 346 native Kham Tibetan adults (268 men and 78 women) from 3 herdsmen villages located in Hongyuan County situated at an altitude of greater than 3600 m. The participants were aged 46.2±14.1 (21-82; mean±SD with range) years. Anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index, and blood pressure, as well as laboratory blood tests such as glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and uric acid were analyzed. The concentrations of hemoglobin were 171.3±12.9 (66-229) mg·L -1 and 151.4±16.4 (86-190) mg·L -1 in men and women, respectively. The frequency of polycythemia was found to be 25.5 and 21.8% in men and women, respectively. Polycythemia was found to be significantly associated with glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations, hypertension, and hyperuricemia (P=0.002, 0.023, and 0.009, respectively). There is a higher frequency of polycythemia in the Kham Tibetans when compared with reported studies from other Tibetan ethnic subgroups living on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Giant Panda habitat selection in the Foping Nature Reserve, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Skidmore, A.K.; Shao, X.; Dang, D.; Wang, T.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about habitat selection of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), especially about the relationship between giant panda presence and bamboo and tree structures. We presented data on giant panda habitat use and selection in Foping Nature Reserve (NR), China. We used 1,066

  19. Giant Panda movement patterns in the Foping Nature Reserve, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Skidmore, A.K.; Wang, T.; Yong, Y.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2002-01-01

    Observing the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in the remote mountains of Foping Nature Reserve (NR), China, is difficult due to the dense vegetation and steep terrain. Radiotracking is an effective way to study this animal and understand its behavior and habitat use. We used radiotracking data

  20. Crustal deformation characteristics of Sichuan-Yunnan region in China on the constraint of multi-periods of GPS velocity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Caiya; Dang, Yamin; Dai, Huayang; Yang, Qiang; Wang, Xiankai

    2018-04-01

    In order to obtain deformation parameters in each block of Sichuan-Yunnan Region (SYG) in China by stages and establish a dynamic model about the variation of the strain rate fields and the surface expansion in this area, we taken the Global Positioning System (GPS) sites velocity in the region as constrained condition and taken advantage of the block strain calculation model based on spherical surface. We also analyzed the deformation of the active blocks in the whole SYG before and after the Wenchuan earthquake, and analyzed the deformation of active blocks near the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake in detail. The results show that, (1) Under the effects of the carving from India plate and the crimping from the potential energy of Tibetan Plateau for a long time, there is a certain periodicity in crustal deformation in SYG. And the period change and the earthquake occurrence have a good agreement. (2) The differences in GPS velocity fields relative Eurasian reference frame shows that the Wenchuan earthquake and the Ya'an earthquake mainly affect the crustal movement in the central and southern part of SYG, and the average velocity difference is about 4-8 mm/a for the Wenchuan earthquake and 2-4 mm/a for the Ya'an earthquake. (3) For the Wenchuan earthquake, the average strain changed from 10 to 20 nanostrian/a before earthquake to 40-50 nanostrian/a after the earthquake, but before and after the Ya'an earthquake, the strain value increased from about 15 nanostrian/a to about 30 nanostrian/a. (4) The Wenchuan earthquake has changed the strain parameter of each active block more or less. Especially, the Longmen block and Chengdu block near the epicenter. The research provides fundamental material for the study of the dynamic mechanism of the push extrusion from the north-east of the India plate and the crimp from Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and it also provides support for the study of crustal stress variation and earthquake prediction in Sichuan Yunnan region.

  1. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Satellite-Retrieved Ground-Level PM2.5 and Near Real-Time Daily Retrieval Algorithm Development in Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Gao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based monitoring can retrieve ground-level PM2.5 concentrations with higher-resolution and continuous spatial coverage to assist in making management strategies and estimating health exposures. The Sichuan Basin has a complex terrain and several city clusters that differ from other regions in China: it has an enclosed air basin with a unique planetary boundary layer dynamic which accumulates air pollution. The spatiotemporal distribution of 1-km resolution Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD in the Sichuan Basin was retrieved using the improved dark pixel method and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data in this study. The retrieved seasonal AOD reached its highest values in spring and had the lowest values in autumn. The higher correlation (r = 0.84, N = 171 between the ground-based Lidar AOD and 1-km resolution MODIS AOD indicated that the high-resolution MODIS AOD could be used to retrieve the ground-level PM2.5 concentration. The Lidar-measured annual average extinction coefficient increased linearly with the Planetary Boundary Layer Height (PBLH in the range of 100~670 m, but exponentially decreased between the heights of 670~1800 m. Both the correlation and the variation tendency of simulated PBLH from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model & Shin-Hong (SHIN/California Meteorological (CALMET model (WRF_SHIN/CALMET were closer to the Lidar observation than that of three other Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL schemes (the Grenier-Bretherton-McCaa (GBM scheme, the Total Energy-Mass Flux (TEMF scheme and the University of Washington (UW scheme, which suggested that the simulated the Planetary Boundary Layer Height (PBLH could be used in the vertical correction of retrieval PM2.5. Four seasonal fitting functions were also obtained for further humidity correction. The correlation coefficient between the aerosol extinction coefficient and the fitted surface-level PM2.5 concentration at the benchmark station of Southwest

  2. Post-treatment follow-up study of abdominal cystic echinococcosis in tibetan communities of northwest Sichuan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiaoying Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cystic echinococcosis (CE, caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, with the liver as the most frequently affected organ, is known to be highly endemic in Tibetan communities of northwest Sichuan Province. Antiparasitic treatment with albendazole remains the primary choice for the great majority of patients in this resource-poor remote area, though surgery is the most common approach for CE therapy that has the potential to remove cysts and lead to complete cure. The current prospective study aimed to assess the effectiveness of community based use of cyclic albendazole treatment in Tibetan CE cases, and concurrently monitor the changes of serum specific antibody levels during treatment.Ultrasonography was applied for diagnosis and follow-up of CE cases after cyclic albendazole treatment in Tibetan communities of Sichuan Province during 2006 to 2008, and serum specific IgG antibody levels against Echinococcus granulosus recombinant antigen B in ELISA was concurrently monitored in these cases. A total of 196 CE cases were identified by ultrasound, of which 37 (18.9% showed evidence of spontaneous healing/involution of hepatic cyst(s with CE4 or CE5 presentations. Of 49 enrolled CE cases for treatment follow-up, 32.7% (16 were considered to be cured based on B-ultrasound after 6 months to 30 months regular albendazole treatment, 49.0% (24 were improved, 14.3% (7 remained unchanged, and 4.1% (2 became aggravated. In general, patients with CE2 type cysts (daughter cysts present needed a longer treatment course for cure (26.4 months, compared to cases with CE1 (univesicular cysts (20.4 months or CE3 type (detached cyst membrane or partial degeneration of daughter cysts (9 months. In addition, the curative duration was longer in patients with large (>10 cm cysts (22.3 months, compared to cases with medium (5-10 cm cysts (17.3 months or patients with small (<5 cm cysts (6 months. At diagnosis, seven (53.8% of 13 cases with CE1 type

  3. Echinococcus granulosus infection and options for control of cystic echinococcosis in Tibetan communities of Western Sichuan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu Rong; McManus, Donald P; Huang, Yan; Heath, David D

    2009-01-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is highly endemic in the Tibetan regions of Sichuan where most families keep guard dogs and where there are considerable numbers of ownerless/stray dogs. Strong Buddhist beliefs do not allow for elimination of stray dogs, and many strays are actually fed and adopted by households or monasteries. On account of the high altitude (3900-5000 m), pasturage is the major agricultural activity in this area. The harsh mountainous climate often leads to many grazing animals dying on the pasture at the end of a hard winter. The skin and some meat are taken, and the rest of the animal is left for scavenging birds and animals. The poor sanitation and hygiene, the Buddhist doctrine of allowing old livestock to die naturally, plus the unrestricted disposal of animal viscera post-slaughter may be responsible for the high prevalence of human CE in this setting. As part of a large collaborative control program for CE in Ganzi County, situated in the west of Sichuan Province, surveillance for Echinococcus infection in domestic dogs using a coproantigen method and necropsy of unwanted dogs was carried out prior to (in 2000) and after (in 2005) dog anthelminthic treatment (5 mg/kg oral praziquantal at 6 month intervals) to determine the efficacy of the treatment for control. The prevalence of E. granulosus only in dogs by necropsy was 27% and 22%, and prevalence of both Echinococcus spp. by necropsy was 63% and 38%; prevalence of both Echinococcus spp. by coproantigen analysis was 50% and 17%. Necropsy of sheep/goats (age <1 to 12 years) (prevalence of E. granulosus in 1-6-year-old animals was 38% and in 10-12-year-old animals was 70%) and yaks (age 4 years) (prevalence of E. granulosus was 38%) was undertaken to determine the baseline transmission pressure. Protoscoleces were only found in very old sheep/goats and yaks. Necropsy of dogs in the Datangma district indicated that there was no apparent significant change in the overall prevalence of E

  4. Echinococcus granulosus infection and options for control of cystic echinococcosis in Tibetan communities of Western Sichuan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Rong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cystic echinococcosis (CE is highly endemic in the Tibetan regions of Sichuan where most families keep guard dogs and where there are considerable numbers of ownerless/stray dogs. Strong Buddhist beliefs do not allow for elimination of stray dogs, and many strays are actually fed and adopted by households or monasteries. On account of the high altitude (3900-5000 m, pasturage is the major agricultural activity in this area. The harsh mountainous climate often leads to many grazing animals dying on the pasture at the end of a hard winter. The skin and some meat are taken, and the rest of the animal is left for scavenging birds and animals. The poor sanitation and hygiene, the Buddhist doctrine of allowing old livestock to die naturally, plus the unrestricted disposal of animal viscera post-slaughter may be responsible for the high prevalence of human CE in this setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: As part of a large collaborative control program for CE in Ganzi County, situated in the west of Sichuan Province, surveillance for Echinococcus infection in domestic dogs using a coproantigen method and necropsy of unwanted dogs was carried out prior to (in 2000 and after (in 2005 dog anthelminthic treatment (5 mg/kg oral praziquantal at 6 month intervals to determine the efficacy of the treatment for control. The prevalence of E. granulosus only in dogs by necropsy was 27% and 22%, and prevalence of both Echinococcus spp. by necropsy was 63% and 38%; prevalence of both Echinococcus spp. by coproantigen analysis was 50% and 17%. Necropsy of sheep/goats (age <1 to 12 years (prevalence of E. granulosus in 1-6-year-old animals was 38% and in 10-12-year-old animals was 70% and yaks (age 4 years (prevalence of E. granulosus was 38% was undertaken to determine the baseline transmission pressure. Protoscoleces were only found in very old sheep/goats and yaks. Necropsy of dogs in the Datangma district indicated that there was no apparent

  5. Agricultural marketing in a country in transition : case of sweetpotato products in Sichuan, P.R. China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, X.

    1999-01-01

    China's achievements in its reform from a centrally planned economy toward a marketing economy during the last two decades are substantial. Although it still has a long way to go to reach its targeted aims, half of China's economy is now 'marketised, or is responsive to market forces (Lawrence, 1998). The influence of the transition on agricultural marketing is significant, particularly when the reforms were initiated by farmers and started in rural areas. The sweetpotato sector, one...

  6. Structures of Xishan village landslide in Li County, Sichuan, China, inferred from high-frequency receiver functions of local earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z.; Chu, R.

    2017-12-01

    Teleseismic receiver function methods are widely used to study the deep structural information beneath the seismic station. However, teleseismic waveforms are difficult to extract the high-frequency receiver function, which are insufficient to constrain the shallow structure because of the inelastic attenuation effect of the earth. In this study, using the local earthquake waveforms collected from 3 broadband stations deployed on the Xishan village landslide in Li County in Sichuan Province, we used the high-frequency receiver function method to study the shallow structure beneath the landslide. We developed the Vp-k (Vp/Vs) staking method of receiver functions, and combined with the H-k stacking and waveform inversion methods of receiver functions to invert the landslide's thickness, S-wave velocity and average Vp/Vs ratio beneath these stations, and compared the thickness with the borehole results. Our results show small-scale lateral variety of velocity structure, a 78-143m/s lower S-wave velocity in the bottom layer and 2.4-3.1 Vp/Vs ratio in the landslide. The observed high Vp/Vs ratio and low S-wave velocity in the bottom layer of the landslide are consistent with low electrical resistivity and water-rich in the bottom layer, suggesting a weak shear strength and potential danger zone in landslide h1. Our study suggest that the local earthquake receiver function can obtain the shallow velocity structural information and supply some seismic constrains for the landslide catastrophe mitigation.

  7. [Psychological resilience features of urban migrant children and rural left-behind children in Sichuan province of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-jiang; Gao, Wen-bin; Sun, Xin-ying; Luo, Jing

    2011-06-18

    To explore the characteristics of resilience of urban migrant children and rural left-behind children of Chinese farmer workers and to figure out the discrepancy between them. The samples consisted of 1 391 primary students and middle school students from Chengdu, Guangyuan, Yibin, and Mianyang in Sichuan Province. The revised version of the Healthy Kids Resilience Assessment was used for the measurement of resilience. And ANOVA was performed for data analysis. The results of the present study indicated that among all the junior high students, urban migrant children got a significantly lower score of resilience (128.11±21.70) than rural left-behind children (135.61±22.77) and the control group (132.87±23.22), F(0.05 (2, 884))=8.076, Presilience-family, school, community as well as on resilience traits than left-behind children and the control group (Family: F(0.05(2, 884))=7.820, PResilience traits: F(0.05(2, 884))=3.510, P=0.030). No significant difference was noted between left-behind children and control group. Gender difference and grade difference were noted for each group. The resilience of migrant children was not so good as non-migrant children. Migrant children were enjoying less intimate interpersonal relationship in their schools, their families as well as their community, and they could get less psychological support from the external environment, so that migrant children could not develop some resilience traits to promote the sound development of themselves. Suggestions for intervention were also discussed.

  8. Investigating impact of waste reuse on the sustainability of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration industry using emergy approach: A case study from Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Liao, Wenjie; Wu, Jun; Yang, Xiangdong; Shui, Wei; Deng, Shihuai; Zhang, Yanzong; Lin, Lili; Xiao, Yinlong; Yu, Xiaoyu; Peng, Hong

    2018-04-25

    China has become the largest generator of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the world with its rapid urbanization, population growth and raising living standard. Among diverse solid waste disposal technologies, MSW incineration has been becoming an attractive choice. In terms of systematic point, an integrated MSW incineration system should include an incineration subsystem and a bottom ash (BA) disposal subsystem. This paper employed an extend emergy assessment method with several improved indicators, which considers the emissions' impact, to evaluate the comprehensive performances of an integrated MSW incineration system. One existing incineration plant in Yibin City, Sichuan Province, China, as a case study, is evaluated using the proposed method. Three alternative scenarios (scenario A: the incineration subsystem + the BA landfill subsystem; scenario B: the incineration subsystem + the concrete paving brick production subsystem using BA as raw material; scenario C: the incineration subsystem + the non-burnt wall brick production subsystem using BA as raw material) were compared. The study results reveal that the ratio of positive output is 1.225, 2.861 and 1.230, the improved environmental loading ratio is 2.715, 2.742 and 1.533, and the improved environmental sustainability index is 0.451, 1.043 and 0.803 for scenario A, B and C respectively. Therefore, reuse of BA can enhance the sustainability level of this integrated system greatly. Comparatively, scenario B has the best comprehensive performance among the three scenarios. Finally, some targeted recommendations are put forward for decision-making. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Cross-sectional study of craniocerebral trauma in a tertiary hospital after 2008 Sichuan earthquake: a brief report of 242 cases and experiences from West China Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Yang, Chao-Hua; Xu, Jian-Guo; Chen, Jing; You, Chao

    2011-06-01

    We aim to analyze clinical features of patients with craniocerebral trauma after 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China. Medical records of patients with craniocerebral trauma admitted to Department of Neurosurgery in West China Hospital within 30 days after earthquake were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis were reviewed. Patients' data from peripheral hospitals were also analyzed. Two hundred forty-two patients with craniocerebral injuries were included in the study. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1, and more than half of the patients were between 20 and 60 years. Majority of patients suffered from mild to moderate injuries (88.4%). Scalp wound was the leading type, followed by skull fractures and brain contusion and laceration. Fifty patients (20.7%) underwent craniotomy. Overall mortality was 5.4% (n = 13). In survivors, 186 patients had good outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score ≥4, 76.9%). Staphylococcus aureus (n = 74, 44.6%), Aerobacter cloacae (n = 37, 22.3%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 33, 19.9%) were most frequently isolated bacteria in wound smear. Over 85% (n=6) of patients with infectious wound (n=7) obtained delayed first stage healing. Mortality of patients in local hospitals ranged from 3.8% to 8.9%. Most patients admitted to tertiary hospitals are mildly or moderately injured. Cooperation among different departments is critical to shorten delay in emergency room. First stage wound healing or delayed first stage healing can be achieved in most patients after treatment. More than 76% of seismic injury patients in a tertiary medical center have good outcome.

  10. Evaluation of surface water and groundwater contamination in a MSW landfill area using hydrochemical analysis and electrical resistivity tomography: a case study in Sichuan province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chengpeng; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    As a primary disposal mean of municipal solid waste in China, the landfill has been recognized as one of the major threats to the surrounding surface water and groundwater environment due to the emission of leachate. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of leachate on the surface water and groundwater environment of the region of the Chang'an landfill, which is located in Sichuan province, China. The surface water and groundwater were sampled for hydrochemical analysis. Three electrical resistivity tomography profiles were conducted to evaluate the impact of leachate on the groundwater environment, and several laboratory tests were carried out to build the relationship between the soil bulk resistivity and the void fluid resistivity. The results showed that a seasonal creek named Longfeng creek, which crosses the landfill site, was contaminated by the leachate. The concentrations of COD, BOD5, and chlorides (Cl) of surface water samples increased by 12.3-105.7 times. The groundwater quality in the surface loose sediments along the valley deteriorated obviously from the landfill to 500 m downstream area. The laboratory tests of soil samples indicated that the resistivity value of 13 Ωm is a critical value whether the groundwater in the loose sediments is polluted. The groundwater at the site adjacent to the spillway in the landfill was partially contaminated by the emission of leachate. The groundwater contamination zones at 580 m downstream of the landfill were recognized at the shallow zones from 60 m left bank to 30 m right bank of Longfeng creek. The improved understanding of groundwater contamination around the landfill is beneficial for the landfill operation and groundwater environment remediation.

  11. Intestinal disease of scattered mirror carp Cyprinus carpio caused by Thelohanellus kitauei and notes on the morphology and phylogeny of the myxosporean from Sichuan Province, southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingtong; Lu, Mingmiao; Quan, Keyan; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong; Wu, Shangong; Wang, Jiangyong; Wang, Guitang

    2017-05-01

    The mass mortality of pond-reared scattered mirror carp, Cyprinus carpio, caused by Thelohanellus kitauei, occurred at fish farms in Sichuan Province, southwest China. Morphological and molecular analyses were supplemented with histological evaluation of infected tissues to better understand the route of infection and the pathological effects of T. kitauei on the fish host. The intestine of the diseased host was full of large cysts of the myxosporean. The cysts range from 2 cm to 3.6 cm in diameter. Histopathology indicated that T. kitaue i first invaded the submucosa of the host intestine and then moved into the mucosa layers with the development of their spores, finally entering into the enteric cavity of the hosts after the disruption of mucosa layers. The pyriform spores of T. kitauei were surrounded by the transparent spore sheath, measuring 25.98 μm±0.95 μm in body length, 8.72 μm±0.51 μm in body width, and 7.86 μm±0.26 μm in body thickness. The single polar capsule was pyriform, measuring 14.73 μm±0.92 μm in length and 6.82 μm±0.45 μm in width, with eight to 10 turns of filament coils winding inside. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences indicated that minimal genetic differences were present between T. kitauei samples from South Korea and from China. Close affinity was found between the genus Thelohanellus and Myxobolus. Additionally, two polar capsule nuclei were found at the anterior end of the single polar capsule in spores of T. kitauei stained with hematoxylin and eosin, which suggested the separation of the genus Thelohanellus from Myxobolus.

  12. Geochemical characteristics of natural gas in the hydrocarbon accumulation history, and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin, China

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    Peng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of hydrocarbon generation, trap formation, inclusion homogenization temperature, authigenic illite dating, and ESR dating were used to understand the history of hydrocarbon accumulation and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin. The results show the hydrocarbon accumulation mainly occurred during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods; they could also be classified into three stages: (1 early hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage, (2 mass hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage before the Himalayan Epoch, (3 and parts of hydrocarbon adjustment and re-accumulation during Himalayan Epoch. The second stage is more important than the other two. The Hydrocarbon accumulation histories are obviously dissimilar in different regions. In western Sichuan Basin, the gas accumulation began at the deposition period of member 5 of Xujiahe Formation, and mass accumulation occurred during the early Middle Jurassic up to the end of the Late Cretaceous. In central Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the early Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle Early Cretaceous till the end of the Late Cretaceous. In southern Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the middle Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle of the Late Cretaceous to the end of the Later Cretaceous. The accumulation history of the western Sichuan Basin is the earliest, and the southern Sichuan Basin is the latest. This paper will help to understand the accumulation process, accumulation mechanism, and gas reservoir distribution of the Triassic gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin better. Meanwhile, it is found that the authigenic illite in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin origin of deep-burial and its dating is a record of the later accumulation. This suggests that the illite dating needs to fully consider illite origin; otherwise the dating results may not accurately

  13. Geochemical characteristics and geological significance of shale gas from the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation in Sichuan Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The shale of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation has become a key target for shale gas exploration and development in China recently. The origin of carbon and hydrogen isotopic reversal in shale gas is discussed in this paper based on the analysis of the chemical components and stable isotope composition of natural gas in the Carboniferous Huanglong Formation sourced from Longmaxi Formation and Longmaxi shale gas. The shale gas was mainly composed of hydrocarbon gas in which the content of ...

  14. Retrospective cohort analysis of chest injury characteristics and concurrent injuries in patients admitted to hospital in the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xi; Hu, Yang; Yuan, Yong; Zhao, Yong-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries.

  15. Spatial distribution of soil cadmium and its influencing factors in peri-urban farmland: a case study in the Jingyang District, Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Xiao, Rui; Wang, Changquan; Cao, Linhai; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Shunqiang; Yang, Lan; Guo, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Semi-agricultural ecosystems in peri-urban areas are susceptible to contamination. The spatial distribution and influencing factors of such pollution are unclear and poorly constrained in many areas worldwide. Therefore, studying the problems of soil pollution in peri-urban areas is critical for environmental management and agricultural production. In this paper, with cadmium (Cd) as the target pollutant, the spatiotemporal variations of soil cadmium pollution and the relative importance of the affecting factors were analyzed at a peri-urban area from the Jingyang District, Sichuan, China. Statistical results showed that the farmland in the study area could be considered moderately soil Cd-polluted, under the dual influence of natural factors and human activity. In particular, the soil Cd concentration in Tianyuan and Bajiaojing exceeded 0.5 mg kg -1 , for intensive industrial enterprises are distributed in these areas. Correspondingly, the geoaccumulation index also showed that the contamination of Cd in this area was moderately polluted. Moreover, the ecological risk index was 80% in the study area, indicating that the soil Cd pollution potential risk was moderate to high. High geological background values (soil Cd = 0.29 mg kg -1 ), river migration, industrial enterprises, and traffic significantly influenced soil Cd pollution, with natural geological factors playing greater roles. The significant horizontal-spatial effective distances away from Shiting River, Deyang-Aba Highway, and chemical plants were 200, 400, and 100 m, respectively. These results will be useful in guiding farmland cultivation and pollution remediation effectively in the peri-urban areas.

  16. Characterization of shale gas enrichment in the Wufeng Formation–Longmaxi Formation in the Sichuan Basin of China and evaluation of its geological construction–transformation evolution sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas in Upper Ordovician Wufeng Formation–Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation in the Sichuan Basin is one of the key strata being explored and developed in China, where shale gas reservoirs have been found in Fuling, Weiyuan, Changning and Zhaotong. Characteristics of shale gas enrichment in the formation shown by detailed profiling and analysis are summarized as “high, handsome and rich”. “High” mainly refers to the high quality of original materials for the formation of shale with excellent key parameters, including the good type and high abundance of organic matters, high content of brittle minerals and moderate thermal evolution. “Handsome” means late and weak deformation, favorable deformation mode and structure, and appropriate uplift and current burial depth. “Rich” includes high gas content, high formation pressure coefficient, good reservoir property, favorable reservoir scale transformation and high initial and final output, with relative ease of development and obvious economic benefit. For shale gas enrichment and high yield, it is important that the combination of shale was deposited and formed in excellent conditions (geological construction, and then underwent appropriate tectonic deformation, uplift, and erosion (geological transformation. Evaluation based on geological construction (evolution sequence from formation to the reservoir includes sequence stratigraphy and sediment, hydrocarbon generation and formation of reservoir pores. Based on geological transformation (evolution sequence from the reservoir to preservation, the strata should be evaluated for structural deformation, the formation of reservoir fracture and preservation of shale gas. The evaluation of the “construction - transformation” sequence is to cover the whole process of shale gas formation and preservation. This way, both positive and negative effects of the formation-transformation sequence on shale gas are assessed. The evaluation

  17. Retrospective cohort analysis of chest injury characteristics and concurrent injuries in patients admitted to hospital in the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. METHODS: We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. RESULTS: The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake

  18. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Based on Particle Swarm Optimization of Multiple Kernel Relevance Vector Machines: Case of a Low Hill Area in Sichuan Province, China

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    Yongliang Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a multiple kernel relevance vector machine (RVM method based on the adaptive cloud particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to map landslide susceptibility in the low hill area of Sichuan Province, China. In the multi-kernel structure, the kernel selection problem can be solved by adjusting the kernel weight, which determines the single kernel contribution of the final kernel mapping. The weights and parameters of the multi-kernel function were optimized using the PSO algorithm. In addition, the convergence speed of the PSO algorithm was increased using cloud theory. To ensure the stability of the prediction model, the result of a five-fold cross-validation method was used as the fitness of the PSO algorithm. To verify the results, receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC and landslide dot density (LDD were used. The results show that the model that used a heterogeneous kernel (a combination of two different kernel functions had a larger area under the ROC curve (0.7616 and a lower prediction error ratio (0.28% than did the other types of kernel models employed in this study. In addition, both the sum of two high susceptibility zone LDDs (6.71/100 km2 and the sum of two low susceptibility zone LDDs (0.82/100 km2 demonstrated that the landslide susceptibility map based on the heterogeneous kernel model was closest to the historical landslide distribution. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study can provide very useful information for disaster prevention and land-use planning in the study area.

  19. Transport of semivolatile organic compounds to the Tibetan plateau: spatial and temporal variation in air concentrations in mountainous Western Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjie; Chen, Dazhou; Liu, Xiande; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Yang, Wen; Westgate, John N; Wania, Frank

    2010-03-01

    The distribution of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air along an altitudinal transect on Balang Mountain in western China was measured by deploying XAD-2 resin based passive air samplers in duplicate at seven sites with elevations ranging from 1242 to 4485 m above sea level for five consecutive six-month periods between 2005 and 2008. Analyzed by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, concentrations of hexachlorobenzene were highest, followed by hexachlorocyclohexanes, DDT-related compounds and PCB congeners 28 and 52. Except for hexachlorobenzene, which had largely uniform concentrations in space and time, there were clear seasonal variations with concentrations in summer being higher than in winter. With a few exceptions, concentrations that vary little with altitude suggest that the presence of these chemicals in the area is almost entirely due to atmospheric transport, most likely from the Chengdu plain. This is supported by similarities in the relative abundance of different compounds and in the differences between summer and winter concentrations measured in the city of Chengdu and in the mountains. Furthermore, air mass trajectories during the sampling period often originate to the East, passing over the Western part of the Sichuan basin, including the Chengdu plain, prior to arriving at the sampling sites. Higher summer time values in the mountains are due to more contaminated air being blown into the region, presumably due either to higher pesticide usage in summer or due to higher temperatures leading to higher evaporation in source regions. Air and soil from the region are in equilibrium with respect to alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, and HCB, whereas a situation of net deposition prevails for p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT.

  20. Effect of Slope, Rainfall Intensity and Mulch on Erosion and Infiltration under Simulated Rain on Purple Soil of South-Western Sichuan Province, China

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    Muhammad Naeem Khan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purple soil is widely distributed in the hilly areas of the Sichuan basin, southwest China, and is highly susceptible to water erosion. The triggering of this process is related to slope, rainfall intensity and surface cover. Therefore, this study assesses the effects of different simulated rainfall intensities with different slopes on hydrological and erosional processes in un-mulched and mulched purple soils. Results show that the sediment and water losses increased with an increase of rainfall intensity and slope steepness. Generally, the slope contribution (Sc on water and sediment losses decreased with increasing rainfall intensity and slope steepness under both un-mulched and mulched soil. In un-mulched conditions, water losses were independent of slope steepness (Sc < 50% during the highest rainfall intensity. However, in mulched soil, the higher contributions of slope (Sc and rainfall (Rc were found for water and sediment losses, respectively, i.e., >50%, except during the increase in slope steepness from 15° to 25° under the highest rainfall intensity (120 mm·h−1. The effectiveness of mulch was more pronounced in reducing sediment losses (81%–100% compared with water losses (14%–100%. The conservation effectiveness of mulch both decreased and increased with slope steepness for water and sediment losses, respectively, under higher rainfall intensities. Water infiltration and recharge coefficient (RC decreased with an increase of slope steepness, while with an increase in rainfall intensity, the water infiltration and RC were increased and decreased, respectively, in both un-mulched and mulched soil. On the other hand, mulched soil maintained a significantly (α = 0.05 higher infiltration capacity and RC compared to that of the un-mulched soil.

  1. Mineralogical compositions of fault rocks from surface ruptures of Wenchuan earthquake and implication of mineral transformation during the seismic cycle along Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, Sichuan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jiaxiang; Zhou, Yongsheng; He, Changrong; Ma, Shengli

    2017-11-01

    There are two co-seismic bedrock surface ruptures from the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the northern and central parts of the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault, Sichuan Province, southwest China. In this study, we report on the macrostructure of the fault rocks and results from X-ray powder diffraction analysis of minerals from rocks in the fault zone. The most recent fault gouge (the gouge produced by the most recent co-seismic fault movement) in all the studied outcrops is dark or grayish-black, totally unconsolidated and ultrafine-grained. Older fault gouges in the same outcrops are grayish or yellowish and weakly consolidated. X-ray powder diffraction analysis results show that mineral assemblages in both the old fault gouge and the new fault gouge are more complicated than the mineral assemblages in the bedrock as the fault gouge is rich in clay minerals. The fault gouge inherited its major rock-forming minerals from the parent rocks, but the clay minerals in the fault gouge were generated in the fault zone and are therefore authigenic and synkinematic. In profiles across the fault, clay mineral abundances increase as one traverses from the bedrock to the breccia to the old gouge and from the old gouge to the new gouge. Quartz and illite are found in all collected gouge samples. The dominant clay minerals in the new fault gouge are illite and smectite along the northern part of the surface rupture and illite/smectite mixed-layer clay in the middle part of the rupture. Illite/smectite mixed-layer clay found in the middle part of the rupture indicates that fault slip was accompanied by K-rich fluid circulation. The existence of siderite, anhydrite, and barite in the northern part of the rupture suggests that fault slip at this locality was accompanied by acidic fluids containing ions of Fe, Ca, and Ba.

  2. Effectiveness of China's National Forest Protection Program and nature reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guopeng; Young, Stephen S; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Long, Yongcheng; Wu, Ruidong; Li, Junsheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Yu, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    There is profound interest in knowing the degree to which China's institutions are capable of protecting its natural forests and biodiversity in the face of economic and political change. China's 2 most important forest-protection policies are its National Forest Protection Program (NFPP) and its national-level nature reserves (NNRs). The NFPP was implemented in 2000 in response to deforestation-caused flooding. We undertook the first national, quantitative assessment of the NFPP and NNRs to examine whether the NFPP achieved its deforestation-reduction target and whether the NNRs deter deforestation altogether. We used MODIS data to estimate forest cover and loss across mainland China (2000-2010). We also assembled the first-ever polygon dataset for China's forested NNRs (n = 237, 74,030 km(2) in 2000) and used both conventional and covariate-matching approaches to compare deforestation rates inside and outside NNRs (2000-2010). In 2000, 1.765 million km(2) or 18.7% of mainland China was forested (12.3% with canopy cover of ≥70%)) or woodland (6.4% with canopy cover forest and woodland had been lost, an annual deforestation rate of 2.7%. Forest-only loss was 127,473 km(2) (1.05% annually). In the NFPP provinces, the forest-only loss rate was 0.62%, which was 3.3 times lower than in the non-NFPP provinces. Moreover, the Landsat data suggest that these loss rates are overestimates due to large MODIS pixel size. Thus, China appears to have achieved, and even exceeded, its target of reducing deforestation to 1.1% annually in the NFPP provinces. About two-thirds of China's NNRs were effective in protecting forest cover (prevented loss 4073 km(2) unmatched approach; 3148 km(2) matched approach), and within-NNR deforestation rates were higher in provinces with higher overall deforestation. Our results indicate that China's existing institutions can protect domestic forest cover. © 2015 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of

  3. Can private management compensate the ineffective marine reserves in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Wen, Colin Kuo-Chang; Li, Xiubao; Tao, Yuan; Lian, Jainshen; Yang, Jianhui; Cherh, Kah-Leng

    2017-02-01

    Marine reserves (MRs) have emerged as a preferred method to protect coral reefs from overfishing and human disturbance. However, due to ineffective enforcement by governments, many MRs have been reduced to mere "paper parks" which fail to achieve conservation goals. This is especially true in countries such as China where compliance is low and resources dedicated to enforcement may be scarce. Privately managed marine reserves (PMMRs) may be effective in areas where government enforcement is lacking. To determine if PMMRs are a viable alternative strategy to protect coral reefs, we surveyed and compared fish assemblages and coral coverage in national MRs in Sanya, China to areas of reef privately leased to and managed by dive operators and hospitality industries. We found higher fish abundances and fish sizes in PMMR sites than in MR sites. However, while PMMRs are protected from fishing, other human impacts such as marine debris and illegal coral collection were evident in most tourist sites. Despite protection, long-term monitoring data of PMMRs revealed that in recent years, fish abundances have slightly recovered but species richness has not, indicating the need for a more comprehensive coral reef management plan. We strongly recommend coupling PMMRs with expertise supported regulations as an alternative coral reef management strategy in China.

  4. Condom Use During Commercial Sex Among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Sichuan China: A Social Cognitive Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl A; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad E

    2016-10-01

    There has been little theory-based research focusing on condom use among male clients of female sex workers (CFSW) in China. The current study applied social cognitive theory to condom use behaviors of CFSW in China. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted among 584 CFSW recruited through snowball sampling. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to examine factors associated with consistent condom use. A minority (30.65 %) of respondents reported using condoms consistently with FSW, and 7 of 12 social cognitive dimensions/subdimensions were found to be significantly influential. The most significant factors were self-efficacy [adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) = 2.11, 95 %, CI = 1.74-2.43] and personal pleasure reduction (APR = 0.3, 95 % CI = 0.15-0.6). HIV-related knowledge, perceived HIV susceptibility, condom cost, condom efficacy, and embarrassment of carrying condoms were not associated with consistent condom uses with FSW. Findings from the current study suggest future prevention programs should target sex venues, and condom access should ensure both quantity and quality. Peer education should focus on knowledge education and peer norms, and knowledge education should include information on HIV infection severity and how to increase pleasure with condom use.

  5. Radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation for the identification of debris flow occurrence over earthquake-affected regions in Sichuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhao; Wei, Fangqiang; Chandrasekar, Venkatachalam

    2018-03-01

    Both Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake on 12 May 2008 and Ms 7.0 Lushan earthquake on 20 April 2013 occurred in the province of Sichuan, China. In the earthquake-affected mountainous area, a large amount of loose material caused a high occurrence of debris flow during the rainy season. In order to evaluate the rainfall intensity-duration (I-D) threshold of the debris flow in the earthquake-affected area, and to fill up the observational gaps caused by the relatively scarce and low-altitude deployment of rain gauges in this area, raw data from two S-band China New Generation Doppler Weather Radar (CINRAD) were captured for six rainfall events that triggered 519 debris flows between 2012 and 2014. Due to the challenges of radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) over mountainous areas, a series of improvement measures are considered: a hybrid scan mode, a vertical reflectivity profile (VPR) correction, a mosaic of reflectivity, a merged rainfall-reflectivity (R - Z) relationship for convective and stratiform rainfall, and rainfall bias adjustment with Kalman filter (KF). For validating rainfall accumulation over complex terrains, the study areas are divided into two kinds of regions by the height threshold of 1.5 km from the ground. Three kinds of radar rainfall estimates are compared with rain gauge measurements. It is observed that the normalized mean bias (NMB) is decreased by 39 % and the fitted linear ratio between radar and rain gauge observation reaches at 0.98. Furthermore, the radar-based I-D threshold derived by the frequentist method is I = 10.1D-0.52 and is underestimated by uncorrected raw radar data. In order to verify the impacts on observations due to spatial variation, I-D thresholds are identified from the nearest rain gauge observations and radar observations at the rain gauge locations. It is found that both kinds of observations have similar I-D thresholds and likewise underestimate I-D thresholds due to undershooting at the core of convective

  6. Geochemical characteristics and geological significance of shale gas from the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation in Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The shale of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation has become a key target for shale gas exploration and development in China recently. The origin of carbon and hydrogen isotopic reversal in shale gas is discussed in this paper based on the analysis of the chemical components and stable isotope composition of natural gas in the Carboniferous Huanglong Formation sourced from Longmaxi Formation and Longmaxi shale gas. The shale gas was mainly composed of hydrocarbon gas in which the content of CH4 was in the range of 95.52%–99.59%, C2H6 0.23%–0.72%, and C3H8 0.0%–0.03%. The drying coefficient (Cl/Cl–5 was more than 0.99, indicating typical dry gas. The values of δ13C1, δ13C2 and δ13C3 ranged from −37.3‰ to −26.7‰, −42.8‰ to −31.6‰, and −43.5‰ to −33.1‰, respectively. The carbon isotope values indicated that the hydrocarbon gas was an oil-type gas. However, the reversal of carbon and hydrogen isotopes of hydrocarbon gases in shale gas occurred, i.e., δ13C1 > δ13C2, δD1 > δD2. The geochemical characteristic of high thermal maturity and carbon isotope reversal in the Longmaxi shale gas was similar to those of the Fayetteville shale gas in U.S. The Longmaxi shale gas is a mixture of gases from decomposition of kerogen at high thermal maturity and cracking of soluble organic matter retained within the shale, suggesting there is an abundance of shale gas to support high productivity.

  7. Response of Oncomelania snail distribution on land use in Sichuan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of Oncomelania snail distribution on land use in Sichuan, China. Q Sun, Z Peng, J Zhang, J Jiang. Abstract. Schistosomiasis is one of the four major infectious diseases that require prevention and control in China. It is mainly distributed along the middle and downstream areas of the Yangtze River and some hilly ...

  8. Developing a new perspective to study the health of survivors of Sichuan earthquakes in China: a study on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on survivors' health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Wang, Xiukun

    2013-10-29

    Sichuan is a province in China with an extensive history of earthquakes. Recent earthquakes, including the Lushan earthquake in 2013, have resulted in thousands of people losing their homes and their families. However, there is a research gap on the efficiency of government support policies. Therefore, this study develops a new perspective to study the health of earthquake survivors, based on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of survivors of the Sichuan earthquake. This study uses data from a survey conducted in five hard-hit counties (Wenchuan, Qingchuan, Mianzhu, Lushan, and Dujiangyan) in Sichuan in 2013. A total of 2,000 questionnaires were distributed, and 1,672 were returned; the response rate was 83.6%. Results of the rescue policies scale and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) scale passed the reliability test. The confirmatory factor analysis model showed that the physical component summary (PCS) directly affected the mental component summary (MCS). The results of structural equation model regarding the effects of rescue policies on HRQOL showed that the path coefficients of six policies (education, orphans, employment, poverty, legal, and social rescue policies) to the PCS of survivors were all positive and passed the test of significance. Finally, although only the path coefficient of the educational rescue policy to the MCS of survivors was positive and passed the test of significance, the other five policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. The general HRQOL of survivors is not ideal; the survivors showed a low satisfaction with the post-earthquake rescue policies. Further, the six post-earthquake rescue policies significantly improved the HRQOL of survivors and directly affected the promotion of the PCS of survivors. Aside from the educational rescue policy, all other policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. This finding indicates relatively large differences in

  9. The Long-term deformation of the Longmen Shan (Sichuan, China), a key to understand the present structure of the eastern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaghi, Laura; de Sigoyer, Julia; Guillot, Stéphane; Lanari, Pierre; Warren, Clare J.; Robert, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    The Longmen Shan thrust belt, at the eastern border of Tibetan plateau, is a tectonically active region as demonstrated by the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan (2008) and Mw 6.6 Lushan (2013) earthquakes. The Moho discontinuity deepens across the Longmen Shan (below the along-strike Wenchuan fault) from ˜40 km beneath the Sichuan basin to more than 60 km beneath the Songpan-Ganze block. Such a thickness is not compatible with the only ˜35 km of shortening estimated at the front of the belt during the Cenozoic-Quaternary compressive reactivation. The geological inheritance may thus play a key role in the present structure of the Longmen Shan. However the long-term history of the belt is still poorly documented. The major Wenchuan fault separates medium-grade metamorphic rocks to the West (internal domain of the Longmen Shan) to the greenschist metamorphic rocks to the East (external domain). In the hanging and footwall of the fault the South China basement also crops out. Metamorphic rocks, exhumed from depth, offer the opportunity to investigate the deep processes occurred in the Longmen Shan. We have characterized and dated the metamorphism in the central part of the belt by combining structural and microstructural observations with high-resolution X-ray mapping and chemical analyses of metamorphic minerals related to the different stages of deformation. In situ 40Ar/39Ar dating on mica and in situ U-Pb/Th dating on allanite (REE-rich epidote) allowed the different phases of metamorphism and deformation to be dated. Our results show that the Longmen Shan underwent a complex Mesozoic tectono-metamorphic history, articulated in a succession of pulses of deformation (burial or uplifting) and periods of quiescence. A first phase of rapid thin-skinned deformation occurred about 200 Ma ago. Internal sedimentary units were strongly deformed and buried down to 11±1 kbar, 550±30˚ C. This phase was followed by a period of slow exhumation between 200 and 170 Ma. A second pulse of

  10. Excavating the Nation: Archaeology and Control of the Past and Present in Republican Sichuan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyong-McClain, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation considers whether or not archaeology was an effective tool for nation-building elites in Republican China (1912-1949), by looking at the discipline's fortunes in the off-center locale of Sichuan province. Through consideration of the multiplicity of agents and motives involved in archaeological enterprise in Republican Sichuan,…

  11. The role of Mesozoic sedimentary basin tapers on the formation of Cenozoic crustal shortening structures and foredeep in the western Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.

    2017-12-01

    The foreland basin records important clues of tectonic and sedimentary process of mountain-building, thus to explore its dynamic mechanism on the formation is an important issue of the mountain-basin interaction. The Longmen Shan fold-and-thrust belt and its adjacent Sichuan basin located in the eastern margin of Tibetan Plateau, are one of the most-concerned regions of studying modern mountain-building and seismic process, and are also a natural laboratory of studying the dynamics of the formation and development of foreland basin. However, it still need further explore on the mechanics of the development of the Cenozoic foreland basin and thrust-belts in the western Sichuan Basin. The Longmen Shan thrust belt has experienced multi-stages of tectonics evolution, foreland basin formation and topography growth since Late Triassic, and whether the early formed basin architecture and large Mesozoic sedimentary basin taper can influence the formation and development of the Cenozoic foreland basin and thrust belts? To solve these issues, this project aim to focus on the Cenozoic foreland basin and internal crustal shortening structures in the western Sichuan basin, on the basis of growth critical wedge taper theory. We will reconstruct the shape of multi-phases of sedimentary basin tapers, the temporal-spatial distribution of crustal shortening and thrusting sequences, and analyze the control mechanism of Mesozoic sedimentary basin taper on the formation of Cenozoic foreland basins, and final explore the interaction between the tectonics geomorphology, stress field and dynamic propagation of foreland basin.

  12. Role of nature reserves in giant panda protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwei; Li, Junqing

    2018-02-01

    Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a flagship species in nature conservation of the world; to protect this species, 67 nature reserves have been established in China. To evaluate the protection effect of giant panda nature reserves, we analyzed the variation of giant panda number and habitat area of 23 giant panda nature reserves of Sichuan province based on the national survey data released by State Forestry Administration and Sichuan Forestry Department. Results showed that from the third national survey to the fourth, giant panda number and habitat area of 23 giant panda nature reserves of Sichuan province failed to realize the significant increase. Furthermore, we found that the total population growth rate of 23 nature reserves in the last 12 years was lower than those of the province total of Sichuan and the national total of China, and the total habitat area of the 23 nature reserves was decreasing in the last 12 years, but the province total and national total were all increasing. We propose that giant panda protection should pay more attention to how to improve the protective effects of nature reserves.

  13. The pore size distribution and its relationship with shale gas capacity in organic-rich mudstone of Wufeng-Longmaxi Formations, Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The pore size distribution for the 23 fresh outcrop shale samples collected from Shuanghe Town and Changning County, as well as the 14 core samples collected from the Qianqian 1 core well in southeast Chongqing, Sichuan Basin were investigated by means of low-pressure nitrogen adsorption. The main factors controlling pore development and gas accumulation in shales were discussed by integrating total organic carbon (TOC, mineralogy, and shale gas content. The results showed that open, slit-like, and parallel plate structure are major pore types that posses an average pore diameter of 3.76–8.53 nm; chiefly 2–30 nm for mesopores. The BET surface area and total pore volume are high in the Wufeng Formation and in the lower part of the Longmaxi Formation, and it's a bit lower in the upper part of the Longmaxi Formation. Consistent with the trends of TOC, that organic matter is the key controlling factor in the shale pore development. In addition, samples with higher content of clay minerals, but comparative TOC content have a larger specific surface area where clay mineral hosted pores are present. The Wufeng Formation and lower part of the Longmaxi Formation in the Sichuan Basin are preferred layers of shale reservoir fracturing due to high TOC, high rock brittleness, and high gas content.

  14. [The relationships between the single nueleotide polymorphisms of CACNA1S gene 11 exon and thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis in the people of Han Nationality in Sichuan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhu; Li, Li; Li, Sheyu; Yao, Yu; Liu, Yuping; Tian, Haoming

    2011-06-01

    The present research was aimed to investigate the relationships between the single nueleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CACNA1S gene 11 exon and thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (THPP)in the people of Han Nationality in Sichuan China. 100 male subjects were divided into four groups in this study, i.e., 22 patients with THPP, 23 patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP), 33 patients with thyrotoxicosis but without hypokalemic periodic paralysis (NTHPP), and 22 healthy (control group) subjects. The sequences of the CACNA1S gene exon 11 polymorphisms, for the four groups respectively, were analysed by the SNPs method with polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA direct sequencing. A meta-analysis of three additional studies was also performed. Three SNPs of exon 11 of the CACNA1S gene (C1491T, T1551C, C1564T) were present in all the four groups. The polymorphisms C1491T and T1551C were present in both homozygotes and heterozygotes, while the C1564T polymorphism was present only in heterozygotes. The genotype frequencies of variants at C1491T and T1551C were not significantly associated with TPP (dominant model: P=0.530 and P=0.568; allele frequency model: P=0.563 and P=0.568). A Meta-analysis yielded combined odds ratio (OR) for TPP of 2. 12 (95% CI: 0.80-5.60) at C1491T, 2.90 (95% CI: 0.71-11.78) at T1551C, and 1.61 (95% CI: 0.36-7.26) at C1564T with the dominant model. These results suggested that three SNPs of CACNA1S gene exon 11 definitely could exist but could not be associated with TPP people of Han Nationality in Sichuan.

  15. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W; Dolanc, Christopher R; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y; Schwartz, Ari C; Williams, John N; Tang, Ya

    2013-01-01

    Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th) century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth.

  16. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Schwartz

    Full Text Available Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1 whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2 if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3 how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth.

  17. Formation and destruction mechanism as well as major controlling factors of the Silurian shale gas overpressure in the Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangjian Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking the Well JY1 and Well PY1 in the Eastern Sichuan Basin as examples, the formation mechanism of shale gas overpressure was studied by using the cross plot of acoustic versus density logging data. During the processes of hydrocarbon generation and the uplifting, the pressure evolution of fluids in shale gas layers was reconstructed by fluid inclusions and PVTSIM software. The major factors controlling the evolution of shale gas overpressure were established according to the study of fracture, the timing of the uplifting, and episodes of tectonic deformation. Our results showed that the main mechanism of overpressure in the Silurian shale gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin was the fluid expansion, which was caused by hydrocarbon generation. Since the Yanshanian, the strata were uplifted and fluid pressure generally showed a decreasing trend. However, due to the low compression rebound ratio of shale gas reservoir rocks, poor connectivity of reservoir rocks, and low content of formation water and so on, such factors made fluid pressure decrease, but these would not be enough to make up the effects of strata erosion resulting in a further increase in fluid pressure in shale gas reservoirs during the whole uplifting processes. Since the Yanshanian, the Well PY1 zone had been reconstructed by at least three episodes of tectonic movement. The initial timing of the uplifting is 130 Ma. Compared to the former, the Well JY1 zone was firstly uplifted at 90 Ma, which was weakly reconstructed. As a result, low-angle fractures and few high resistance fractures developed in the Well JY1, while high-angle fractures and many high resistance fractures developed in the Well PY1. In totality, the factors controlling the overpressure preservation in shale gas reservoirs during the late periods include timing of late uplifting, superposition and reconstruction of stress fields, and development of high-angle fractures.

  18. Landslide-dammed lake at Tangjiashan, Sichuan province, China (triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake, May 12, 2008): Risk assessment, mitigation strategy, and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Zhuang, J.; You, Y.; Chen, X.; Scott, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides and rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake produced 257 landslide dams, mainly situated along the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where rivers descend approximately 3,000 m into the Sichuan Basin. The largest of these dams blocked the Tongkou River (a tributary of the Fujiang River) at Tangjiashan. The blockage, consisting of 2. 04 ?? 10 7 m 3 of landslide debris, impounded a lake with a projected maximum volume of 3. 15 ?? 10 8 m 3, potentially inundating 8. 92 km 2 of terrain. Its creation during the rainy season and the possibility of an uncontrolled release posed a serious, impending threat to at least 1. 3 million people downstream that could add substantially to the total of 69,200 individuals directly killed by the earthquake. Risk assessment of the blockage indicated that it was unlikely to collapse suddenly, and that eventual overtopping could be mitigated by notching the structure in order to create an engineered breach and achieve safe drainage of the lake. In addition to the installation of monitoring and warning instrumentation, for emergency planning we estimated several outburst scenarios equivalent to 20, 25, 33, and 50% of the dam failing suddenly, creating, respectively, 3. 35, 3. 84, 4. 22, and 4. 65 km 2 of flooded area, and overbank water depths of 4. 6, 5. 1, 5. 7, and 6. 2 m, respectively, in Mianyang, the second largest city in Sichuan Province, 48 km downstream from the blockage. Based on these scenarios, recommendations and plans for excavating a sluiceway, draining the lake, and downstream evacuation were proposed and later were implemented successfully, with the blockage breached by overtopping on June 10, less than a month after dam emplacement. The peak discharge of the release only slightly exceeded the flood of record at Mianyang City. No lives were lost, and significant property damage was avoided. Post-breaching evaluation reveals how future similar mitigation can be improved. Although

  19. Two novel Fusarium species that cause canker disease of Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.) in northern China form a novel clade with F. torreyae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canker disease of prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum) has caused a decline in the production of this economically important spice in northern China in the past 25 y. To identify the etiological agent, 38 fungal isolates were recovered from symptomatic tissues from trees in five provinces in China. T...

  20. Formation mechanisms and sequence response of authigenic grain-coating chlorite: evidence from the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in the southern Sichuan Basin, China

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    Yu Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Authigenic grain-coating chlorite is widely distributed in the clastic rocks of many sedimentary basins around the world. These iron minerals were mainly derived from flocculent precipitates formed when rivers flow into the ocean, especially in deltaic environments with high hydrodynamic conditions. At the same time, sandstone sequences with grain-coating chlorites also tend to have relatively high glauconite and pyrite content. EPMA composition analysis shows that glauconites with “high Al and low Fe” content indicate slightly to semi-saline marine environments with weak alkaline and weakly reducing conditions. By analyzing the chlorite-containing sandstone bodies of the southern Sichuan Xujiahe Formation, this study found that chlorite was mainly distributed in sedimentary microfacies, including underwater distributary channels, distributary channels, shallow lake sandstone dams, and mouth bars. Chlorite had a tendency to form in the upper parts of sandstone bodies with signs of increased base level, representing the influence of marine (lacustrine transgression. This is believed to be influenced by megamonsoons in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region during the Late Triassic Epoch. During periods of abundant precipitation, river discharges increased and more Fe particulates flowed into the ocean (lake. In the meantime, increases or decreases in lake level were only affected by precipitation for short periods of time. The sedimentary environment shifted from weakly oxidizing to weak alkaline, weakly reducing conditions as sea level increased, and Fe-rich minerals as authigenic chlorite and glauconite began to form and deposit.

  1. Status and development of nuclear techniques for commercial application in Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao; Pan Pingchuan; Chen Zhuping; Zhu Yun; Chao Xiaochuan

    2001-01-01

    This article presents information on fields of radiation techniques in Sichuan and their potential development in future. Sichuan is one of biggest provinces and is a center of economy and art in the southwest of China. Research of nuclear technology began from 1960. The studies at the beginning had focused on agriculture, radiation chemistry industry and radiation medicine. Over the past 30 years, nuclear techniques are used in a wide range of applications, from food preservation to crosslinking. They play an increasingly valuable and often unique role in Sichuan economy. (J.P.N.)

  2. Status and development of nuclear techniques for commercial application in Sichuan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hao; Pan Pingchuan; Chen Zhuping; Zhu Yun; Chao Xiaochuan [Sichuan Province Institute of Nuclear Technology Application, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2001-03-01

    This article presents information on fields of radiation techniques in Sichuan and their potential development in future. Sichuan is one of biggest provinces and is a center of economy and art in the southwest of China. Research of nuclear technology began from 1960. The studies at the beginning had focused on agriculture, radiation chemistry industry and radiation medicine. Over the past 30 years, nuclear techniques are used in a wide range of applications, from food preservation to crosslinking. They play an increasingly valuable and often unique role in Sichuan economy. (J.P.N.)

  3. The Disconnection of Physical Reconstruction and Living Mode Restoration amongst Resettled Rural Households: A Case Study on The 2008 Sichuan Earthquake Recovery Program, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L.; Aitchison, J. C.; Hussey, K.

    2017-12-01

    Population resettlement has been a customary strategy to protect people's lives following natural disasters. While there is plenty research evaluating the consequences of population resettlement programs, evidence of its long-term effects on post-disaster recovery is lacking. Using data from 60 in-depth household interviews, two focus group discussions and field observations, this research examines the recovery among resettled rural households in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake-impacted areas. Results suggest that most households considered themselves worse-off after being resettled, and a large proportion of the resettled population is struggling to meet their basic needs as their living expenses are barely covered by income. This research highlights two original findings: First, the resettled rural households have not recovered from impacts of the earthquake in spite of living in a secure place. Second, the unachieved restoration of familiar living mode amongst the resettled largely contributes to this perception, which is further attributed to the lagging restitution of agricultural assets and the absence of off-job opportunities at the resettled communities. Completing mature recovery is subject to the availability of these resources. Resettlement and reconstruction practice should not be isolated from the consideration of restoring previous livelihood assets and replenishing new income-generating activities. This enables restoration of a familiar living mode for the relocated population in which they are able to recover and develop with their own ability in post-disaster life. Findings in this research can be translated to recovery practice involving rural circumstances in disaster-prone areas. Future work will include the post-earthquake population resettlement programs in Nepal and New Zealand for a comparative study on the effects of these practices in different countries.

  4. The origin of gas in the Changxing–Feixianguan gas pools in the Longgang gas field in the Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengfei Qin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the origin of natural gas in the formations of the Changxing–Feixianguan within the Longgang gas field was studied in detail using geochemical methods. The gas discovered has a very high dryness coefficient, yet low ethane and other less heavy hydrocarbons content. Apart from a small amount of N2 and CO2 gasses it generally contains H2S. In the field location, the Changxing–Feixianguan formations itself does not have a hydrocarbon generation potential. Nearing the edge of the Kaijiang-Liangping Trough, there developed the Dalong Formation. However, it also has a very low TOC content in the area of the Longgang gas field, and it cannot act as an effective source rock. The geochemistry of natural gas is much different from the gasses generated by the Silurian and Cambrian source rocks. Therefore, it is impossible that the gas in the Longgang gas field is from the Silurian and Cambrian source rocks. Gas reservoirs generally contain bitumen which is considered a product of crude oil cracking. The carbon isotope fractionation between the bitumen and methane is not distinct, and it indicates that the gas is not directly from oil cracking. The carbon of methane and ethane has isotopically less negative value, which is considered to be in a high-overmature coal-formed gas, mainly from the Longtan Formation coal measures. In comparison to the gas from high overmature stage obtained from the Xujiahe coal measure source rock in the Western Sichuan Depression. The methane in the Longgang gas field has abnormal less negative carbon isotopic value. It is due to the superposition of these two factors together: higher evolution of source rocks and mixing of gas degassing from the water. It is not caused by TSR that most researchers believed at present because the methane carbon isotopic values have no relationship with H2S content.

  5. Evaluation of source rocks in the 5th member of the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in the Xinchang Gas Field, the Western Sichuan Depression, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqi Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5th member of the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation (T3x5 is one of the important targets for terrigenous natural gas exploration in the Xinchang Gas Field in the Western Sichuan Depression, however, the quality of the T3x5 source rocks is poorly studied and the understanding of it is controversial. Studies have been conducted on the development and organic geochemical characteristics of the T3x5 mudstone in the Xinchang Gas Field, and the results indicate that, the T3x5 mudstone in the Xinchang Gas Field display an average thickness of 285.3 m, and the thickness of each submember increases from north to south. The average TOC content, hydrocarbon potential (S1+S2 and chloroform bitumen “A” content of T3x5 mudstone are 2.17%, 2.26 mg/g and 0.264‰, respectively, with the organic abundance mainly reaching the standard of medium source rocks. The kerogen type index (TI is lower than 0 with the mean δ13C value of −25.0‰, indicating mainly humic and sapropelic-humic types of organic matters. The average vitrinite reflectance (RO value is 1.17%, indicating the stage after the peak of oil generation. The gas generation intensity of T3x5 mudstone is generally in the range of (3–16 × 108 m3/km2, which suggests the resource basis for the generation of medium-small gas fields. The total amount of natural gas generated by T3x5 mudstone in the Xinchang Gas Field is relatively low, and the generated gas cannot completely displace the water in the formation, therefore, the fullness of gas in the reservoirs is generally low, which causes the simultaneous production of gas and water and the low gas production in the process of production test.

  6. Resting site use of giant pandas in Wanglang Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Li, Junqing

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the resting sites used by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), which restricts our understanding of their resting habits and limits conservation efforts. To enhance our understanding of resting site requirements and factors affecting the resting time of giant pandas, we investigated the characteristics of resting sites in the Wanglang Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. The results indicated that the resting sites of giant pandas were characterised by a mean sl...

  7. Characterization of the pore system in an over-mature marine shale reservoir: A case study of a successful shale gas well in Southern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past two years the shale gas exploration in Southern Sichuan basin received some exciting achievements. Data of a new appraisal well showed that the gas producrtions of vertical well and horizontal well are ∼1.5 × 104 m3/day/well (with maximum ∼3.5 × 104 m3/day/well and ∼12.5 × 104 m3/day/well (with maximum ∼40 × 104 m3/day/well, respectively, indicating a good gas potential in this area. Eight core samples from the reservoir were investigated by using a carbon sulfur analyzer, microphotometry, x-ray diffractometry, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, mercury injection porosimetry (MIP, and low-pressure nitrogen adsorption to obtain a better understanding of the reservoir characteristics of the Upper Ordovician–Lower Silurian organic-rich shale. Results show that the total organic carbon (TOC content ranges from 0.5% to 5.9%, whereas the equivalent vitrinite reflectance (VRr is between 2.8% and 3.0%. Pores in the studied samples were observed in three modes of occurrence, namely, interparticle pores, intraparticle pores, and intraparticle organic pores. The total porosity (P ranges from 1.6% to 5.3%, and MIP data sets suggest that pores with throats larger than 20 nm contribute little to the pore volume. Low-pressure N2 adsorption isotherms indicate that the total specific surface area (SBET ranges from 9.6 m2/g to 18.9 m2/g, and the pore volume (V ranges from 0.011 cm3/g to 0.020 cm3/g. The plot of dV/dW versus W shows that the fine mesopores (pore size(BJH 2% are more than 3.0 m3/ton. The observation can be a good reference for the future exploration and evaluation of reservoir in this area.

  8. The Study of the Teaching Models and Prospects of Bilingual Teaching in Local Universities of China-- A Case Study of Leshan Normal University, Sichuan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In present China, bilingual teaching, as an education model, can meet an urgent demand for increasing interdisciplinary talents who have high levels of professional knowledge as well as competent foreign language abilities to deal with the ever-increasing global social, economic, scientific and technological exchanges, and international…

  9. TSR versus non-TSR processes and their impact on gas geochemistry and carbon stable isotopes in Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic marine carbonate gas reservoirs in the Eastern Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q. Y.; Worden, R. H.; Jin, Z. J.; Liu, W. H.; Li, J.; Gao, B.; Zhang, D. W.; Hu, A. P.; Yang, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Palaeozoic and lowermost Mesozoic marine carbonate reservoirs of the Sichuan Basin in China contain variably sour and very dry gas. The source of the gas in the Carboniferous, Permian and Lower Triassic reservoirs is not known for certain and it has proved difficult to discriminate and differentiate the effects of thermal cracking- and TSR-related processes for these gases. Sixty-three gas samples were collected and analysed for their composition and carbon stable isotope values. The gases are all typically very dry (alkane gases being >97.5% methane), with low (kerogen-derived oil and primary gas and is highly mature. Carboniferous (and non-sour Triassic and Permian) gas has unusual carbon isotopes with methane and propane being isotopically heavier than ethane (a reversal of typical low- to moderate-maturity patterns). The gas in the non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs has the same geochemical and isotopic characteristics (and therefore the same source) as the Carboniferous gas. TSR in the deepest Triassic reservoirs altered the gas composition reaching 100% dryness in the deepest, most sour reservoirs showing that ethane and propane react faster than methane during TSR. Ethane evolves to heavier carbon isotope values than methane during TSR leading to removal of the reversed alkane gas isotope trend found in the Carboniferous and non-sour Triassic and Permian reservoirs. However, methane was directly involved in TSR as shown by the progressive increase in its carbon isotope ratio as gas souring proceeded. CO2 increased in concentration as gas souring proceeded, but typical CO2 carbon isotope ratios in sour gases remained about -4‰ V-PDB showing that it was not solely derived from the oxidation of alkanes. Instead CO2 may partly result from reaction of sour gas with carbonate reservoir minerals, such as Fe-rich dolomite or calcite, resulting in pyrite growth as well as CO2-generation.

  10. A model based on stochastic dynamic programming for determining China's optimal strategic petroleum reserve policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaobing; Fan Ying; Wei Yiming

    2009-01-01

    China's Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is currently being prepared. But how large the optimal stockpile size for China should be, what the best acquisition strategies are, how to release the reserve if a disruption occurs, and other related issues still need to be studied in detail. In this paper, we develop a stochastic dynamic programming model based on a total potential cost function of establishing SPRs to evaluate the optimal SPR policy for China. Using this model, empirical results are presented for the optimal size of China's SPR and the best acquisition and drawdown strategies for a few specific cases. The results show that with comprehensive consideration, the optimal SPR size for China is around 320 million barrels. This size is equivalent to about 90 days of net oil import amount in 2006 and should be reached in the year 2017, three years earlier than the national goal, which implies that the need for China to fill the SPR is probably more pressing; the best stockpile release action in a disruption is related to the disruption levels and expected continuation probabilities. The information provided by the results will be useful for decision makers.

  11. Influence of a tectonically active mountain belt on its foreland basin: Evidence from detrital zircon dating of bedrocks and sediments from the eastern Tibetan Plateau and Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ning; Song, Xiangsuo; Xu, Hongyan; Jiang, Hanchao

    2017-09-01

    The tectonically active eastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) impacts the populous Sichuan Basin in the form of dust and exhumed detrital materials. To better understand a detailed transport process of detrital material from the eastern TP to the Sichuan Basin, eight samples were collected from the upper reaches of the Min River in the eastern TP to the Sichuan Basin, for zircon U-Pb chronological and grain-size analysis. The results are compared with those of previously studies. Zircon grains are comparatively coarse in three bedrock samples, one fluvial sand sample and one dust sample, but are distinctly fine in three lacustrine samples. Intriguingly, the zircon grain-size parameters from the fluvial sand and dust samples are similar to each other. Consistent with previous studies of this area, the analysis of our U-Pb zircon ages indicates five major age populations at 180-350 Ma, 350-550 Ma, 700-1000 Ma, 1600-2000 Ma, and 2200-2600 Ma, which broadly correspond to five known granitoid magmatic events within the Yangtze Block. The Min River links lacustrine sediments from Lixian, fluvial sands from Wenchuan, Leshan, Yibin, and from the Dadu River and the Dayi conglomerate, implying the Dayi conglomerate was transported by fluvial rather than glacial processes. The denuded detrital material, mainly generated by seismic events in the eastern TP, was transported by water flow into the western Sichuan Basin, where two thick sedimentary depocenters developed, and the relatively fine grains were then transported by wind to the northern Sichuan Basin. Thus, the thick sediments in the western Sichuan Basin mainly transported by the Min River probably exerted a major influence on dust deposition in the northern Sichuan Basin. In contrast, the Jialing and Dadu rivers made a minor contribution.

  12. Case history: high density weighted polymer drilling fluid used in the deepest horizontal well Dan no. 21 in Sichuan basin of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Luo, P.; Xiao, Y.; He, L. [East China Petroleum Inst., Dongying, SD (China)

    1996-12-31

    Hole cleaning, borehole stability, gas formation protection, and torque and drag program developed with high density weighted polymer drilling fluid for the horizontal well Dan no. 21 (China) was described. By using amphoteric polymer, improved rheology and inhibition performance were observed in weighted drilling fluid. The special rheological properties at low shear rate and initial structure yield stress were shown to prevent cutting bed form and barite sag. Wellbore stability had been achieved by use of amphoteric polymer in combination with soft particles to seal minifractures. The drilling fluid demonstrated a lower coefficient of friction and performed more effectively at lower torque and drag. This system proved to protect the formation from damage by limiting fluid loss, fine particles migration and solids invasion. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs.

  13. Effect of lifestyle on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among farmers, migrants with Yi ethnicity and Han population in Sichuan province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiu; Wei, Daying; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Konglai; Ma, Mingju; Pan, Li; Yu, Tao; Xue, Fang; Shan, Guangliang

    2010-01-01

    Yi people are the most primitive society in China. Little information on the metabolic syndrome (MS) is available in Yi people. We explored whether differing lifestyle affected the prevalence of MS among farmers and migrants of Yi ethnicity and Han population in one of the Southwestern parts of China. The prevalence of MS among the three populations was described under the same International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. The study populations comprised of 1,535 Yi farmers, 1,306 Yi migrants and 2,130 Han people. The effects of physical activity, obesity and other risk factor on MS were evaluated. Results showed that the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of MS was 9.9 times higher in Yi migrants (23.8%) and 6.3 times higher in Han people (15.2%) than in Yi farmers (2.4%). In addition, the prevalence of MS increased significantly with age in both sexes, except for a slight increase in Yi farmers. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was much lower in Yi farmers (9.3% in men and 16.5% in women) than that in Yi migrants (46.2% in men and 34.8% in women) and Han people (40.6% in men and 31.9% in women). Levels of physical activity were much greater in Yi farmers than in Yi migrants and Han people. These results indicated that lifestyle had strongly influenced the development of MS in Han and Yi Chinese and our study provided one more piece of evidence imputing that high prevalence of MS might be related to a change in lifestyle associated with urbanization.

  14. Mobile emergency (surgical hospital: Development and application in medical relief of “4.20” Lushan earthquake in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Bin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, natural disasters and emergencies occur frequently worldwide, which leads to the loss of hundreds of thousands of lives as well as the direct and indirect economic losses. China has a vast territory frequently struck by natural disasters. However, the reality is not optimistic. Poor organization and management during the rescue actions, the lack of large-scale, systematic medical rescue equipment were all great barriers to the outcomes. Mobile hospitals are expected to provide better health care. We were inspired by the concept of mobile hospital. Chongqing Emergency Medical Center, has set up trauma care system since 1988, in which prehospital care, intensive care, and in-hospital treatment is fully integrated. As a major advantage, such a system provided assurance of “golden hour” rescue treatment. Providing mobile intensive care and prehospital surgical service for severe trauma patients could reduce mortality significantly. Based on the civilian experiences in Chongqing Emergency Medical Center, the mobile emergency (surgical hospital was developed.

  15. Geochemical characteristics and genetic types of natural gas in the Changxing-Feixianguan Formations from the Yuanba Gas Field in the Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqi Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Yuanba Gas Field is a large gas field in the marine strata with the largest burial depth in China up to date. The studies performed on the mentioned gas field have achieved significant progress made possible by determining the characteristics of reef flat reservoirs in the marine strata and the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon accumulation. However, there is no consensus on the origin of natural gases stored in the reservoir in the Changxing-Feixianguan Formations in the Yuanba and its adjacent area. The study on geochemical characteristics indicates that natural gases in the reservoir in the Changxing-Feixianguan Formations in the Yuanba Gas Field are mainly composed of alkane gases which are dominated by methane with dryness coefficients generally higher than 0.995. The CO2 and H2S display an average content of 8.55% and 6.47%, respectively. The δ13C1 and δ13C2 values are from −31.2‰ to −27.9‰, and from −29.9‰ to −25.0‰, respectively, displaying the positive carbon isotopic series. The δ13CCO2 values are generally higher than −8‰, and the δD1 values are from −156‰ to −107‰. The identification of gas origin and gas–source correlation indicate that the natural gases reservoired in the Changxing-Feixianguan Formations in the Yuanba Gas Field have been altered by thermochemical sulfate reduction, and they are mainly composed of oil cracking gases derived from the secondary cracking of oil generated by the sapropelic-prone source rocks in the Permian Longtan Formation. The CO2 in the gas pools are mainly inorganic and were derived from the interaction between the acidic fluid and carbonate reservoirs.

  16. The experimental modeling of gas percolation mechanisms in a coal-measure tight sandstone reservoir: A case study on the coal-measure tight sandstone gas in the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation, Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizhen Tao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tight sandstone gas from coal-measure source rock is widespread in China, and it is represented by the Xujiahe Formation of the Sichuan Basin and the Upper Paleozoic of the Ordos Basin. It is affected by planar evaporative hydrocarbon expulsion of coal-measure source rock and the gentle structural background; hydrodynamics and buoyancy play a limited role in the gas migration-accumulation in tight sandstone. Under the conditions of low permeability and speed, non-Darcy flow is quite apparent, it gives rise to gas-water mixed gas zone. In the gas displacing water experiment, the shape of percolation flow curve is mainly influenced by core permeability. The lower the permeability, the higher the starting pressure gradient as well as the more evident the non-Darcy phenomenon will be. In the gas displacing water experiment of tight sandstone, the maximum gas saturation of the core is generally less than 50% (ranging from 30% to 40% and averaging at 38%; it is similar to the actual gas saturation of the gas zone in the subsurface core. The gas saturation and permeability of the core have a logarithm correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.8915. In the single-phase flow of tight sandstone gas, low-velocity non-Darcy percolation is apparent; the initial flow velocity (Vd exists due to the slippage effect of gas flow. The shape of percolation flow curve of a single-phase gas is primarily controlled by core permeability and confining pressure; the lower the permeability or the higher the confining pressure, the higher the starting pressure (0.02–0.08 MPa/cm, whereas, the higher the quasi-initial flow speed, the longer the nonlinear section and the more obvious the non-Darcy flow will be. The tight sandstone gas seepage mechanism study shows that the lower the reservoir permeability, the higher the starting pressure and the slower the flow velocity will be, this results in the low efficiency of natural gas migration and accumulation as well as

  17. Paleo-ocean environments before and after the Ordovician glaciation and the correlation with heterogeneous marine black shale: a stratigraphic case study of Wufeng-Longmaxi formation in Fuling, Sichuan basin, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yangbo; Hao, Fang; Lu, Yongchao

    2017-04-01

    The discovery of Fuling gas field in the Sichuan basin led China shale gas exploration to an unprecedented boom. The most important shale gas plays are the upper Ordovician Wufeng formation and Lower Silurian Longmaxi formation which demonstrate intriguing characteristics which are comprising of stable regional distribution, high abundance of organic matter, high thermal maturity and high brittle mineral content etc. As the Ordovician-Silurian transition was a critical interval in Earth's history marked by dramatic climatic, oceanic, and biological turnovers; these two advantageous organic rich shale deposited before and after Hirnantian glaciation are showing differences in many aspects. In this study, the stratigraphy and lithofacies within the stratigraphy framework of the upper Ordovician Wufeng formation and Lower Silurian Longmaxi formation in Fuling were quantitatively analyzed based on outcrops, cores, well logs data, and geochemical proxies. A total of three third-order sequences were divided based on the recognition of four third-order boundaries. The Wufeng Formation is equivalent to a third-order sequence and is subdivided into a transgressive system tract (TST) (black shale of lower Wufeng Formation) and a highstand system tract (HST) (Guanyinqiao Member of upper Wufeng Formation). Long-1 Member is equivalent to a third-order sequence and is subdivided into a TST, an early highstand system tract (EHST) and a late highstand system tract (LHST); Long-2 and Long-3 Member are combined to be one third-order sequence and is subdivided into a lowstand system tract (LST), a TST and a HST. Sequence development and sedimentary environment characteristics were analyzed within each system tract unit. TOC% was correlated to V/Cr and EF-Ni respectively within each system tract unit, suggesting paleoproductivity and water redox condition are the main controlling factors of organic enrichment and its preservation. The heterogeneity in shale lithofacies throughout the

  18. Assessing Ecotourism from a Multi-stakeholder Perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Ma, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Ecotourism development is closely associated with the sustainability of protected natural areas. When facilitated by appropriate management, ecotourism can contribute to conservation and development, as well as the well-being of local communities. As such, ecotourism has been proposed and practiced in different forms in many places, including China. This study assesses ecotourism development at Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province, China. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from the provincial Forestry Department, the Nature Reserve, and the local community. Observation was undertaken on three site visits and secondary data were collected. The potential for providing quality natural experiences is high and tourism development is occurring rapidly. However, current relationships between people, resources, and tourism have yet to provide mutual benefits necessary for successful ecotourism. The multi-stakeholder management style and the ambiguity of landownership within the nature reserve constitute structural difficulties for ecotourism management and operation. Although participation in ecotourism could provide a livelihood opportunity and interests in involvement in tourism have been identified among the local fishing community, current involvement is limited mainly due to the lack of mechanisms for participation. Therefore, it is recommended that management programs and government policies should be established to provide a platform for community participation in ecotourism. Then, a positive synergistic relationship between tourism, environment, and community could be developed. Planning and policy requirements are discussed for ecotourism development in protected areas in China.

  19. Shale Gas Exploration and Development Progress in China and the Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianghua

    2018-02-01

    Shale gas exploration in China started late but is progressing very quickly with the strong support from Central Government. China has 21.8 tcm technically recoverable shale gas resources and 764.3 bcm proved shale gas reserve, mainly in marine facies in Sichuan basin. In 2016, overall shale gas production in China is around 7.9 bcm, while it is set to reach 10 bcm in 2017 and 30 bcm in 2020. BP is the only remaining IOC actor in shale gas exploration in China partnering with CNPC in 2 blocks in Sichuan basin. China is encouraging shale gas business both at Central level and at Provincial level through establishing development plan, continuation of subsidies and research funding. Engineering services for shale gas development and infrastructures are developing, while the overall cost and gas marketing conditions will be key factors for the success in shale gas industry.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Sichuan Digging Frog, Kaloula rugifera (Anura: Microhylidae) and its phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lichun; Zhao, Li; Cheng, Dongmei; Zhu, Lilan; Zhang, Min; Ruan, Qiping; Chen, Wei

    2017-08-30

    The Sichuan Digging Frog (Kaloula rugifera) belongs to the family Dicroglossidae, which is endemic to northeastern Sichuan and southernmost Gansu provinces, in southwestern China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of K. rugifera was sequenced. The mitogenome was 17,074bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a non-coding control region. As in other vertebrates, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition of the K. rugifera is 30.32% A, 25.76% C, 29.72% T, and 14.20% G, which is consistent with the lowest frequency for G content in typical amphibian animals' mitochondrial genomes. The alignment of the Kaloula species control regions exhibited high genetic variability and rich A+T content. Besides, 3 types of tandem repeat units were also identified in the control region. Phylogenetic tree demonstrated that K. rugifera was clustered together with K. borealis and K. verrucosa and they had a close relationship with each other. The complete mitogenome of K. rugifera can provide an important data for the studies on phylogenetic relationship to further explore the taxonomic status of Kaloula species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes in Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhan-Hong; Zhang, Jin-Tun

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes is analyzed for the Luya Mountain Nature Reserve (LMNR), Shanxi, China, in this study. Indices such as Sensitive Level (SL), Landscape Importance Value (LIV), information index of biodiversity (H'), Shade-tolerant Species Proportion (SSP), and Tourism Influencing Index (TII) are used to characterize vegetated landscapes, the impact of tourism, and their relationship. Their relationship is studied by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). TWINSPAN gives correct and rapid partition to the classification, and DCA ordination shows the changing tendency of all vegetation types based on tourism development. These results reflect the ecological relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes. In Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, most plant communities are in good or medium condition, which shows that these vegetated landscapes can support more tourism. However, the occurrence of the bad condition shows that there is a severe contradiction between tourism development and vegetated landscapes.

  2. Entangling the complexity of protected area management: the case of Wolong Biosphere Reserve, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bojie; Wang, Kelin; Lu, Yihe; Liu, Shiliang; Keming, Ma; Chen, Liding; Liu, Guohua

    2004-06-01

    Protected Area (PA) management is a complex issue that requires the consideration of many factors and relationships. A conceptual framework for the analysis of biodiversity change, local human communities, and PA management was put forward, accordingly. Under the framework, we investigated the economic status, livelihood activities, biodiversity use and perceptions of local communities, and the land use history in Wolong Biosphere Reserve, southwestern China through household survey and document review in order to gain a better understanding of the complexity of PA management. According to the land use history, the preservation of agro-biodiversity, and the raising of productivity, ecological rehabilitation and the regulation of the human pressures are indispensable in the management of the reserve. Livelihood activities and the perceptions of local communities were largely determined by the socioeconomic background, which has important implications in solving the conflicts or incompatibilities in the reserve. In Wolong Biosphere Reserve, it is beneficial to support local farmers in solving their socioeconomic problems such as the overabundance of labor force and the lack of livelihood alternatives. Without this, there will be scarcely any effective biodiversity conservation and successful reserve management in the long term.

  3. Baylisascaris schroederi Infection in Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Foping National Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Changsheng; Shen, Meiying; Bao, Heng; Hou, Zhijun; He, Shaowen; Hua, Yuping

    2017-10-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is the most iconic endangered species in the world, but there is little information about the spatial and temporal distribution of parasites in the wild giant panda population. In total, 193 fecal samples from giant pandas in the Foping National Nature Reserve, People's Republic of China, were analyzed for parasite eggs using a modification of the McMaster technique. The morphology and size of Baylisascaris schroederi eggs were observed under an optical microscope. The prevalence and intensity of B. schroederi infection during the sampling year 2012 were 52.3% (101/193) and 89 eggs/g of feces, respectively, among giant pandas in this population. The prevalence of B. schroederi in the pandas varied during different months of the year, from 7% to 100%, and the prevalences in spring, summer, autumn, and winter were 71, 77, 23, and 18%, respectively. The prevalence was not significantly different between giant pandas that ate two different types of bamboo, but the intensity of infection was higher in the group eating Arundinaria fargesii (P=0.043). Altitude, temperature, and dew point were correlated with the infection intensity (r=-0.224, Pgiant pandas in Foping National Nature, China.

  4. Plant micro-reserves in Valencia (E. Spain: A model to preserve threatened flora in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Fos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Valencian Community (eastern Spain was the pioneer territory establishing plant micro-reserves (PMRs. Its model to protect small sites for endemic and endangered plants has been exported to several countries around the globe. This paper highlights 1 the role of PMRs to complement the protection provided by large protected areas, 2 how the establishment of PMRs fosters the increase of floristic knowledge, and 3 the fact that continuous monitoring of PMRs also yields new records of endangered species found within the same PMRs. The flexibility of the PMR approach -it can be adapted to other national and regional legislations- allows its transfer to other rich-biodiversity regions and countries such as China.

  5. Value Assessment of Ecosystem Services in Nature Reserves in Ningxia, China: A Response to Ecological Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Gao, Jixi; Wang, Jinsheng; Qiu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Changes in land use can cause significant changes in the ecosystem structure and process variation of ecosystem services. This study presents a detailed spatial, quantitative assessment of the variation in the value of ecosystem services based on land use change in national nature reserves of the Ningxia autonomous region in China. We used areas of land use types calculated from the remote sensing data and the adjusted value coefficients to assess the value of ecosystem services for the years 2000, 2005, and 2010, analyzing the fluctuations in the valuation of ecosystem services in response to land use change. With increases in the areas of forest land and water bodies, the value of ecosystem services increased from 182.3×107 to 223.8×107 US$ during 2000–2010. Grassland and forest land accounted for 90% of this increase. The values of all ecosystem services increased during this period, especially the value of ecosystem services for biodiversity protection and soil formation and protection. Ecological restoration in the reserves had a positive effect on the value of ecosystem services during 2000–2010. PMID:24586571

  6. The efficacy of landscape-level conservation in Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Fangzheng; Cui, Guofa

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape alteration is rather common in many protected areas (PAs), jeopardizing the efficacy of PAs conservation. However, the general consensus is that PAs still remain effective in habitat conservation. To assess the efficacy of landscape-level conservation, we examined landscape alterations in the Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve (CMBR), which was established in 1960 as a "flagship" protected area in China. Based on analyses of high-resolution satellite images and data of forest inventory, field survey and interview, we developed two new indexes to assess the efficacy of landscape conservation, i.e. the quality index of protected landscape and the interference index of anthropogenic landscape. From 1993 to 2012, the quality index increased from 74.48 to 75.50, and the interference index decreased from 0.49 to 0.06, suggesting that the overall quality of protected landscape improved and the degree of anthropogenic interference decreased in CMBR. The increase in landscape quality was mainly due to the progressive vegetation recovery of previous cutover land in the windthrow area, the cease of the use of the cultivated land, and the amelioration of spatial pattern of protected landscape. We conclude that the current landscape conservation methods used in CMBR are effective, and the method we developed has the potential to be used to assess the efficacy of landscape-level conservation in nature reserves worldwide.

  7. [Influence of surface water availability on mammal distributions in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tian-Bo; Sung, Yik-Hei; Bosco Chan, Pui-Lok; Meng, Yuan-Jun; Wan, Pak-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Surface water is a major limiting factor affecting animal activities in karst ecosystems. From March, 2006 to June, 2007 and from October, 2010 to May, 2011, infra-red camera traps were installed along animal trails and temporary rain pools in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China, to monitor mammal diversity and relative abundance. In total, 19 species from 17 genera, 12 families, and 5 orders were recorded, including two State Key Protection Class I species, the François' langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) and Assam macaque (Macaca assamensis). Although 42% of species only occurred in one of the microhabitats, differences in species assemblages between trails and pools were not significant. The results of our observation indicated that camera trapping was effective in monitoring medium to large sized mammals, and for recording illegal hunting. In addition, our results suggest that authorities should reinforce patrolling, especially at water pools during the dry season, and eradicate unsustainable extraction of underground water. Moreover, based on the advantages of large inhibited environments to animal species, especially to large predators, we also recommend connecting the three isolated sections of the reserve to promote species recovery and dispersal.

  8. The Efficacy of Landscape-Level Conservation in Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Fangzheng; Cui, Guofa

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape alteration is rather common in many protected areas (PAs), jeopardizing the efficacy of PAs conservation. However, the general consensus is that PAs still remain effective in habitat conservation. To assess the efficacy of landscape-level conservation, we examined landscape alterations in the Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve (CMBR), which was established in 1960 as a “flagship” protected area in China. Based on analyses of high-resolution satellite images and data of forest inventory, field survey and interview, we developed two new indexes to assess the efficacy of landscape conservation, i.e. the quality index of protected landscape and the interference index of anthropogenic landscape. From 1993 to 2012, the quality index increased from 74.48 to 75.50, and the interference index decreased from 0.49 to 0.06, suggesting that the overall quality of protected landscape improved and the degree of anthropogenic interference decreased in CMBR. The increase in landscape quality was mainly due to the progressive vegetation recovery of previous cutover land in the windthrow area, the cease of the use of the cultivated land, and the amelioration of spatial pattern of protected landscape. We conclude that the current landscape conservation methods used in CMBR are effective, and the method we developed has the potential to be used to assess the efficacy of landscape-level conservation in nature reserves worldwide. PMID:24743693

  9. Optimal extraction parameters of Theabrownin from Sichuan Dark Tea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sichuan Dark Tea is a popular beverage with hypolipidemic and lifting greasy properties in the minority neighborhoods of Sichuan and Tibet regions. The theabrownin, an important pigment of dark tea, has been proven for the role of the hypolipidemic property in Sichuan Dark Tea. The objective of the study ...

  10. Impact of Wenchuan earthquake on the giant panda habitat in Wolong National Nature Reserve, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Cheng; Xu, Yu-Yue; Ke, Chang-Qing; He, Yu-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the change of the giant panda habitat is essential to protect this endangered species. The Wolong National Nature Reserve (WNNR) of China, the giant panda habitat, was struck by the Wenchuan earthquake (M=8.0) on May 12, 2008, and was seriously damaged. Landsat images covering the WNNR on four dates, one before and three after the earthquake, are classified using support vector machines to generate land cover maps (with an overall accuracy of ˜90% and Kappa coefficients of ˜0.86). The habitat suitability index and weighted usable area (WUA) are calculated to evaluate the changes of the habitat suitability of the WNNR. The results indicate that the forest area dropped by ˜10% due to the earthquake. The forest located in the east of Wolong town, the home of numerous giant pandas, suffered the most. The WUA decreased significantly after the earthquake, and was showing improvement in 2013, although still not fully recovered to the level of priori earthquake. The habitat between 1200 and 1300 m above sea level (m a.s.l.) was particularly vulnerable and was slowly recovering. Further effective management is necessary to restore and protect the giant panda habitat.

  11. Wild Ungulate Distribution in the Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Treydte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia´s tropical forests harbour a unique diversity of wildlife but species and numbers are rapidly declining under current land use. To improve conservation strategies in these biodiversity hotspots, knowledge of animal species present and their distribution is crucial. We wanted to identify the ungulate community composition and distribution of a ‘Man and Biosphere’ reserve, the Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve (NRWNNR, Yunnan, Southwest China. Using camera traps, transects, and spoor-plots we identified wild ungulate species and corresponding habitat properties. We compared two study sites of different protection status – the buffer and experimental zones – on an overall transect length of 32 km and analysed relationships between wildlife activity, forest vegetation structure, and human disturbance. We documented six ungulate species, all of which occurred in the buffer zone while only three species were found in the experimental zone. Wild boar sign density was about 10 times higher in the buffer than in the experimental zone. Overall wildlife sign density increased with distance away from human settlements and closer to the core zone. Hence, human disturbance strongly influenced wild ungulate abundance but the NRWNNR was found to host a diverse ungulate community, considering its small size and compared to other conservation areas in the region. The combination of various methods proved to be successful in identifying and locating forest wildlife. The NRWNNR, particularly the more strongly protected zones, could greatly contribute to future ecotourism activities in Yunnan if a strict preservation of buffer and core zones can be maintained.

  12. Effects of the Interest Rate and Reserve Requirement Ratio on Bank Risk in China: A Panel Smooth Transition Regression Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyuan Geng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the Panel Smooth Transition Regression (PSTR model to simulate the effects of the interest rate and reserve requirement ratio on bank risk in China. The results reveal the nonlinearity embedded in the interest rate, reserve requirement ratio, and bank risk nexus. Both the interest rate and reserve requirement ratio exert a positive impact on bank risk for the low regime and a negative impact for the high regime. The interest rate performs a significant effect while the reserve requirement ratio shows an insignificant effect on bank risk on a statistical basis for both the high and low regimes.

  13. Summer regional climate over East Asia affected by soil moisture modification at the Sichuan basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, S.; Takahashi, H. G.; Sekiyama, H.

    2016-12-01

    An artificial land-use change is a factor to modify the regional-scale climate. For example, double cropping over the eastern coastal area of China controls the East Asian monsoon circulation, not only the local-scale temperature over the cropland area (Jeong et al. 2014). The Sichuan Basin is also major cropland in China (Liu et al. 2005) and a key region to form convective systems with a zone of active cloud convection (Ueno et al. 2011; Sugimoto and Ueno 2012). Therefore, we investigated an effect of the soil moisture over the Sichuan Basin on the regional-scale climate modification over the surrounding regions. Two kinds of numerical simulation were conducted using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF; Skamarock et al. 2008) model between April 1 and September 30 for 8 years (during 2003-2010). One is an experiment that soil moisture is calculated in the land surface scheme (Control run; it assumes natural soil moisture variation affecting rainfall), and other is an experiment including a phase with soil moisture increase (between May 6 and June 10 for each year) which is estimated by AMSR-E dataset but cannot calculate in the Control run (Sensitivity run). At the Sichuan Basin in the Control run, monthly mean of atmospheric surface temperature at 2m is higher than the observation during the whole analysis period. A frequency distribution in daily mean temperature also shifts to warm. Meanwhile, the Sensitivity run simulates a decrease of daily atmospheric surface temperature at the Sichuan basin relative to that in the Control run especially during May, June, and July, and its frequency distribution was consistent with the observation. The increase of soil moisture over the Sichuan Basin (i.e., in the Sensitivity run) tended to enhance a cloud convective activity over the eastern-central China, which decreased a downward shortwave radiation and daily maximum of surface temperature. Meanwhile, the active cloud convection induced a northward moisture flow which

  14. Mechanism of crustal deformation in the Sichuan-Yunnan region, southeastern Tibetan Plateau: Insights from numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujiang; Liu, Shaofeng; Chen, Lianwang; Du, Yi; Li, Hong; Liu, Dongying

    2017-09-01

    The characteristics of crustal deformation and its dynamical mechanisms in the Sichuan-Yunnan region are of interest to many researchers because they can help explain the deformation pattern of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. In this paper, we employ a precise three-dimensional viscoelastic finite element model to simulate the crustal deformation in the Sichuan-Yunnan region, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. We investigate the influence of lower crustal flow and rheological variations by comparing the modeled results with GPS observations. The results demonstrate that lower crustal flow plays an important role in crustal deformation in the Sichuan-Yunnan region. The best fitting is achieved when the flow velocity of the lower crust is approximately 10-11 mm/a faster than that of the upper crust. Additionally, crustal rheological properties affect regional crustal deformation. When the viscosity of the middle and lower crust in the South China block reaches 1022 and 1023 Pa·s, respectively, the modeled results match observations well, especially for the magnitude of crustal motion within the South China block. Finally, our dynamic model shows that the maximum principal stress field of the Sichuan-Yunnan region exhibits clear zoning, gradually shifting from an approximately east-west orientation in the northern Bayan Har block to southeast in the South China block, southwest in the western Yunnan block, and a radially divergent distribution in the Middle Yunnan and Southern Yunnan blocks.

  15. Psychological distress among adolescents in Chengdu, Sichuan at 1 month after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Yu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Mak, Winnie W S; Choi, Kai Chow; Lui, Wacy W S; Zhang, Jianxin; Chan, Emily Y Y

    2010-05-01

    A devastating earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China. This study investigated the prevalence and factors in association with psychological problems among secondary school students living in Chengdu (90 km away from the disaster epicenter) in June 2008. In a cross-sectional survey, 3,324 secondary students self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom setting. Validated scales were used in this study. Among all respondents, 22.3% reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); 22.6% were probable depression cases; 10.6% reported suicidal ideation; and 14.1% would like to receive psychological counseling. No gender differences were found. While social/emotional support from teachers or peers (OR from 0.40 to 0.78) and exposure to positive news reports (OR from 0.59 to 0.62) were found protective, prior experience of severe mental distress (OR from 1.60 to 2.68) and corporal punishment (OR from 1.31 to 1.58), worry about future aftershocks (OR from 1.64 to 3.11), absence from school when it was not closed (OR from 1.38 to 1.48), exposures to scary or sorrowful disaster media coverage (OR from 1.39 to 2.07), post-disaster visits to affected sites (OR from 1.51 to 1.59), separation from parents (OR = 1.61), etc., were risk factors predictive of some of the aforementioned psychological problems. Negative mental health impacts were prevalent among the respondents. Teachers, parents, and the mass media are all important in maintaining good mental health among adolescents that are indirectly affected by the severe earthquake. The results have important implications for earthquake preparedness and relief work in the future.

  16. Hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics and enrichment laws of multi-layered reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sichuan Basin represents the earliest area where natural gas is explored, developed and comprehensively utilized in China. After over 50 years of oil and gas exploration, oil and gas reservoirs have been discovered in 24 gas-dominant layers in this basin. For the purpose of predicting natural gas exploration direction and target of each layer in the Sichuan Basin, the sedimentary characteristics of marine and continental strata in this basin were summarized and the forms of multi-cycled tectonic movement and their controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation were analyzed. Based on the analysis, the following characteristics were identified. First, the Sichuan Basin has experienced the transformation from marine sedimentation to continental sedimentation since the Sinian with the former being dominant. Second, multiple source–reservoir assemblages are formed based on multi-rhythmed deposition, and multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics are vertically presented. And third, multi-cycled tectonic movement appears in many forms and has a significant controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation. Then, oil and gas reservoir characteristics and enrichment laws were investigated. It is indicated that the Sichuan Basin is characterized by coexistence of conventional and unconventional oil and gas reservoirs, multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon supply, multiple reservoir types, multiple trap types, multi-staged hydrocarbon accumulation and multiple hydrocarbon accumulation models. Besides, its natural gas enrichment is affected by hydrocarbon source intensity, large paleo-uplift, favorable sedimentary facies belt, sedimentary–structural discontinuity plane and structural fracture development. Finally, the natural gas exploration and research targets of each layer in the Sichuan Basin were predicted according to the basic petroleum geologic conditions

  17. Increased stress in Asiatic black bears relates to food limitation, crop raiding, and foraging beyond nature reserve boundaries in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl D. Malcolm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus are declining throughout much of their range. In China they are partially protected by a nature reserve system and rely heavily on hard mast as a food source prior to winter denning. Bears may compensate for mast shortages by raiding agricultural crops and killing livestock, mainly outside reserves where they are exposed to increased threats of poaching. We hypothesized that stress would vary with availability of high-quality refugia and fluctuations in mast abundance. We collected fecal samples from free-ranging bears in and around nature reserves in southwestern China, recorded habitat characteristics at each fecal sample location, and quantified abundance of hard mast. We used feces for genetic and endocrine analysis and identified 106 individuals. Feces collected outside reserves, or in agricultural fields within reserves, contained elevated concentrations of glucocorticoid metabolites compared to samples collected in intact, mast-producing forests within reserves. Relationships with habitat variables indicated that the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis of the Asiatic black bear is responsive to human activity, abundance of hard mast, extent of forest cover, and quality of diet. Our findings demonstrate biological reactions of a large mammal to variable forest quality, human threats, and foraging relative to boundaries of protected areas. Keywords: Agriculture, Fecal glucocorticoids, Mast, Poaching, Protected areas, Stress

  18. Mapping and modelling the habitat of giant pandas in Foping Nature Reserve, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.

    2001-01-01

    The fact that only about 1000 giant pandas and 29500 km2 of panda habitat are left in the west part of China makes it an urgent issue to save this endangered animal species and protect its habitat. For effective conservation of the giant panda and its habitat, a thorough evaluation of panda habitat

  19. Thinking on Sichuan-Chongqing gas pipeline transportation system reform under market-oriented conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yanzhi

    2017-01-01

    The gas pipeline networks in Sichuan and Chongqing (Sichuan-Chongqing) region have formed a fully-fledged gas pipeline transportation system in China, which supports and promotes the rapid development of gas market in Sichuan-Chongqing region. In the circumstances of further developed market-oriented economy, it is necessary to carry out further the pipeline system reform in the areas of investment/financing system, operation system and pricing system to lay a solid foundation for improving future gas production and marketing capability and adapting itself to the national gas system reform, and to achieve the objectives of multiparty participated pipeline construction, improved pipeline transportation efficiency and fair and rational pipeline transportation prices. In this article, main thinking on reform in the three areas and major deployment are addressed, and corresponding measures on developing shared pipeline economy, providing financial support to pipeline construction, setting up independent regulatory agency to enhance the industrial supervision for gas pipeline transportation, and promoting the construction of regional gas trade market are recommended.

  20. Evaluating the Sustainability of Nature Reserves Using an Ecological Footprint Method: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoman Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature reserves are established to protect ecosystems and rare flora and fauna. However, with the rapid development of the social economy, many nature reserves are facing enormous pressures from human activities. The assessment of the sustainability of nature reserves is a fundamental task for the planning and management of such areas. In this study, the sustainability of China’s 319 national nature reserves (NRRs was evaluated based on an ecological footprint (EF method. The results indicated that the per capita ecological footprints of all national nature reserves increased 85.86% from 2000 to 2010. Meanwhile, the per capita biocapacity (BC of all national nature reserves increased slightly, with a rate of increase of 1.79%. The ‘traffic light’ method was adopted to identify the sustainability status of those national nature reserves. It was found that currently (2010 45% of NRRs were in the condition of ecological deficit. In terms of dynamic changes in EF and BC, only 16% of NRRs were sustainable. The 124 national nature reserves that were in the red light state were mainly distributed in Anhui Province, Chongqing City, Hunan, Guizhou, Fujian, Shandong Province, and Inner Mongolia. The percentage of nature reserves at the red light state in these areas were 83.3%, 66.7%, 64.7%, 62.5%, 58.3%, 57.1%, and 56.5%, respectively. The reserves in the red light state should be included in the priority concern level and should be strictly controlled in terms of population growth and the intensity of exploitation. The results of this study will provide more effective data for reference and for decision making support in nature reserve protection.

  1. An empirical analysis of the dynamic programming model of stockpile acquisition strategies for China's strategic petroleum reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Fan, Ying; Wei, Yi-Ming; Liu, Lan-Cui

    2008-01-01

    The world's future oil price is affected by many factors. The challenge, therefore, is how to select optimal stockpile acquisition strategies to minimize the cost of maintaining a reserve. This paper provides a new method for analyzing this problem using an uncertain dynamic programming model to analyze stockpile acquisition strategies for strategic petroleum reserve. Using this model, we quantify the impact of uncertain world oil price on optimal stockpile acquisition strategies of China's strategic petroleum reserve for the period 2007-2010 and 2011-2020. Our results show that the future stockpile acquisition is related to oil prices and their probability and, if not considering the occurrence of oil supply shortage, China should at least purchase 25 million barrels when world oil price is at an optimal level. The optimal price of stockpile acquisition of every year has a stronger relationship with the probability of high price; and the optimal expected price and size of stockpile acquisition is different in each year. (author)

  2. Interpretation of earthquake-induced landslides triggered by the 12 May 2008, M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the Beichuan area, Sichuan Province, China using satellite imagery and Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H.P.; Harp, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    The 12 May 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the People's Republic of China represented a unique opportunity for the international community to use commonly available GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, like Google Earth (GE), to rapidly evaluate and assess landslide hazards triggered by the destructive earthquake and its aftershocks. In order to map earthquake-triggered landslides, we provide details on the applicability and limitations of publicly available 3-day-post- and pre-earthquake imagery provided by GE from the FORMOSAT-2 (formerly ROCSAT-2; Republic of China Satellite 2). We interpreted landslides on the 8-m-resolution FORMOSAT-2 image by GE; as a result, 257 large landslides were mapped with the highest concentration along the Beichuan fault. An estimated density of 0.3 landslides/km2 represents a minimum bound on density given the resolution of available imagery; higher resolution data would have identified more landslides. This is a preliminary study, and further study is needed to understand the landslide characteristics in detail. Although it is best to obtain landslide locations and measurements from satellite imagery having high resolution, it was found that GE is an effective and rapid reconnaissance tool. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  3. The dynamics of land cover change pattern and landscape fragmentation in Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yunqing; Wang, Jinxi; Jiang, Hong

    2009-10-01

    Nature reserves are facing a very challenging conflict between conservation and development today. The protection effect of Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve has received considerable attention, especially in view of its stimulating tourism after the 1990s. Remote sensing data from 1974, 1994 and 2002 were chosen for the analysis of this reserve, since they closely represented the vegetation situation before and after felling, as well as the disturbance from the flush of tourism. We find that the quality and quantity of the forest in Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve continues to decline, owing to the conifer area and whole forest area constantly shrinking, as well as the landscape fragmentation increasing. The rate of loss of forest in the second period (1994-2002) had showed down much than that in the first period (1974-1994), due to nature protection. Shrubland area continued to increase throughout the two periods, with an increased speed in the second period which was about 3.5 times that in the first period. The treeline was consistently retreating, contributing a total of 467.96 ha of conifer forest lost. However, the causes involved in tree mortality and the resulting regression of the treeline are not clear. In any case, under the general background of global warming, human impact undoubtedly should have direct or indirect cause dramatic consequences for the forest in this very sensitive zone, while there are many uncertainties in the behaviour of high mountain ecosystems. Keywords: Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve, Vegetation, Habitats fragment,

  4. Innovation-driven efficient development of the Longwangmiao Fm large-scale sulfur gas reservoir in Moxi block, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Moxi block of the Anyue Gas field, Sichuan Basin, is the largest single-sandbody integrated carbonate gas reservoir proved so far in China. Notwithstanding this reservoir's advantages like large-scale reserves and high single-well productivity, there are multiple complicated factors restricting its efficient development, such as a median content of hydrogen sulfide, low porosity and strong heterogeneity of fracture–cave formation, various modes of gas–water occurrences, and close relation between overpressure and stress sensitivity. Up till now, since only a few Cambrian large-scale carbonate gas reservoirs have ever been developed in the world, there still exists some blind spots especially about its exploration and production rules. Besides, as for large-scale sulfur gas reservoirs, the exploration and construction is costly, and production test in the early evaluation stage is severely limited, all of which will bring about great challenges in productivity construction and high potential risks. In this regard, combining with Chinese strategic demand of strengthening clean energy supply security, the PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gas Field Company has carried out researches and field tests for the purpose of providing high-production wells, optimizing development design, rapidly constructing high-quality productivity and upgrading HSE security in the Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Moxi block. Through the innovations of technology and management mode within 3 years, this gas reservoir has been built into a modern large-scale gas field with high quality, high efficiency and high benefit, and its annual capacity is now up to over 100 × 108 m3, with a desirable production capacity and development indexes gained as originally anticipated. It has become a new model of large-scale gas reservoirs with efficient development, providing a reference for other types of gas reservoirs in China.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of complicated grief among Sichuan earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chow, Amy Y M; Shi, Zhanbiao; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2015-04-01

    Disasters usually involves massive casualties, yet few post-disaster studies explore the prevalence of complicated grief (CG) among survivors. Complicated grief is a distinct psychological disorder, and is associated with impaired physical and psychological functions. Given such gap in the literature and the significance of this topic, this study is hoped to offer more information of complicated grief among survivors who lost their loved ones in disaster. Adopting a large scale survey, the prevalence and risk factors of CG among bereaved survivors one year after the Sichuan earthquake in China were explored. In total 803 bereaved survivors participated the study by filling a questionnaire on measuring CG symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, intrapersonal factors, earthquake related factors, bereavement related factors, and an interpersonal factor. There were 71.1% of the participants scored higher than the cutoff point of CG symptoms. Close relationship with the deceased, PTSD symptoms, losing means of livelihood, physical injury, and terrifying experience in the earthquake, were identified to be risk factors for CG. The study was cross-sectional and the data was collected through a self-reported questionnaire. The sample was recruited from one of the most severely affected counties, thus the generalizability of the results should be interpreted with caution. A large portion of bereaved earthquake survivors suffered from CG symptoms one year after the disaster. Risk factors found in this study can be used to identify high risk groups, who need special care, support, and bereavement interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Net Energy, CO2 Emission and Land-Based Cost-Benefit Analyses of Jatropha Biodiesel: A Case Study of the Panzhihua Region of Sichuan Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzheng Deng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy is currently regarded as a renewable energy source with a high growth potential. Forest-based biodiesel, with the significant advantage of not competing with grain production on cultivated land, has been considered as a promising substitute for diesel fuel by many countries, including China. Consequently, extracting biodiesel from Jatropha curcas has become a growing industry. However, many key issues related to the development of this industry are still not fully resolved and the prospects for this industry are complicated. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the net energy, CO2 emission, and cost efficiency of Jatropha biodiesel as a substitute fuel in China to help resolve some of the key issues by studying data from this region of China that is well suited to growing Jatropha. Our results show that: (1 Jatropha biodiesel is preferable for global warming mitigation over diesel fuel in terms of the carbon sink during Jatropha tree growth. (2 The net energy yield of Jatropha biodiesel is much lower than that of fossil fuel, induced by the high energy consumption during Jatropha plantation establishment and the conversion from seed oil to diesel fuel step. Therefore, the energy efficiencies of the production of Jatropha and its conversion to biodiesel need to be improved. (3 Due to current low profit and high risk in the study area, farmers have little incentive to continue or increase Jatropha production. (4 It is necessary to provide more subsidies and preferential policies for Jatropha plantations if this industry is to grow. It is also necessary for local government to set realistic objectives and make rational plans to choose proper sites for Jatropha biodiesel development and the work reported here should assist that effort. Future research focused on breading high-yield varieties, development of efficient field

  7. Space-ecology set covering problem for modeling Daiyun Mountain Reserve, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Wei; Liu, Jinfu; Huang, Jiahang; Zhang, Huiguang; Lan, Siren; Hong, Wei; Li, Wenzhou

    2018-02-01

    Site selection is an important issue in designing the nature reserve that has been studied over the years. However, a well-balanced relationship between preservation of biodiversity and site selection is still challenging. Unlike the existing methods, we consider three critical components, the spatial continuity, spatial compactness and ecological information to address the problem of designing the reserve. In this paper, we propose a new mathematical model of set covering problem called Space-ecology Set Covering Problem (SeSCP) for designing a reserve network. First, we generate the ecological information by forest resource investigation. Then, we split the landscape into elementary cells and calculate the ecological score of each cell. Next, we associate the ecological information with the spatial properties to select a set of cells to form a nature reserve for improving the ability of protecting the biodiversity. Two spatial constraints, continuity and compactability, are given in SeSCP. The continuity is to ensure that any selected site has to be connected with adjacent sites and the compactability is to minimize the perimeter of the selected sites. In computational experiments, we take Daiyun Mountain as a study area to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model.

  8. Long-term protection effects of National Reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Sang, WeiGuo; Li, GuangQi; Liu, RuiGang; Chen, LingZhi; Wang, Kun

    2008-10-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic studies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for example, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turnover in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern in

  9. Characteristics of paediatric burns in Sichuan province: epidemiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Cen, Ying; Chen, Jun-Jie; Xu, Xue-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Xue

    2012-02-01

    This study analysed the epidemiology of paediatric burns in Sichuan province, China, for the formulation of prevention programmes for this population. A retrospective review was performed of paediatric patients admitted to the Burn Centre of West China Hospital during 2003-2009, including patient demographics, burn aetiology, time and place of burn, rural or urban population, and education level and burn knowledge of the patients' guardians. A total of 1387 paediatric burn patients, mean age 3.21 years (range 0-14 years) were admitted. The majority (72.1%) were 0-3 years old, and the male/female ratio was 2.39:1. Most common aetiologies were scalds (81.3%), flames (17.1%), and electricity (1.3%), while chemical burns were rare. The ratio of indoor versus outdoor location was 4.93:1, and the rural/urban ratio was 4.03:1. Burns were classified as: total burn surface area (TBSA) ranging from 0% to 5%, (23.9% of patients); TBSA between 5% and 15% (33.2%); TBSA between 15% and 25% (29.8%); TBSA greater than 25% (13.1%). There was a higher prevalence from April to September, and the peak times were mealtime and bathtime. The education level was lower in the rural group. Both urban and rural groups had little knowledge of first aid for burns. Burn prevention programmes should promote improved living conditions, with prevention education addressed directly to the guardians of children. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. [Sichuan People's Government stresses planned parenthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-12

    A recent provincial conference on planned parenthood work convened by the Sichuan Provincial People's Government proposed: It is necessary to further strengthen party committee leadership, persistently grasp together the 2 kinds of production, and, while carrying out propaganda and education with great fanfare, adopt legal, administrative, and economic measures to fulfill this year's population plan and unswervingly do a good job of insuring that each couple has only 1 child. A new situation has appeared in the province's planned parenthood work since last year. Some 1,466,000 couples have insured that they will only have 1 child, accounting for 78.8% of the couples of childbearing age who presently have only 1 child. Although the province was facing a peak birth last year, the natural population growth rate actually fell to 6.7/1000. The population growth rate in Mianyang Prefecture has greatly decreased. The population growth rate has now fallen below 5/1000 in 62 counties, municipalities and districts. Mianyang is the largest prefecture in Sichuan. Last year its natural population growth rate fell to 3.5%. Its primary experience is that the leading cadres at all levels must personally and repeatedly grasp the work and grasp together the 2 kinds of production. It is worth noting that, to control the population, it is necessary to strengthen leadership over large and backward counties. If the population growth declines in these counties, it can also decline very fast in a whole prefecture and in the whole province. The conference demanded that the province step up propaganda work and patiently and meticulously carry out persuasive education. The emphasis should be on commendation and reward. It is necessary to take legal, administrative and economic measures against those who refuse to practice planned parenthood despite education and persuasion, in order to stimulate them to mend their ways. After discussion, the meeting put forward a number of views on amending

  11. Sediment transfer at different spatial and temporal scales in the Sichuan Hilly Basin, China: Synthesizing data from multiple approaches and preliminary interpretation in the context of climatic and anthropogenic drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosov, Valentin; Collins, Adrian L; Tang, Qiang; Zhang, Xinbao; Zhou, Ping; He, Xiubin; Wen, Anbang

    2017-11-15

    Quantifying sediment production and transfer at different spatial and temporal scales in a changing environment is critical in understanding the potential effects of climatic and anthropogenic drivers. Accordingly, estimates of soil erosion and sediment production at hillslope field, first-order small catchment (reforestation practices over recent decades. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Response of Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) Assemblages to Lower Subtropical Forest Succession: A Case Study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ke, Yun-Ling; Zeng, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Wu, Wen-Jing

    2016-02-01

    Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) assemblages have important ecological functions and vary in structure between habitats, but have not been studied in lower subtropical forests. To examine whether differences in the richness and relative abundance of termite species and functional groups occur in lower subtropical regions, termite assemblages were sampled in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China, among pine forest, pine and broad-leaved mixed forest (mixed forest), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (monsoon forest). The dominant functional group was wood-feeding termites (family Termitidae), and the mixed forest hosted the greatest richness and relative abundance. Soil-feeding termites were absent from the lower subtropical system, while humus-feeding termites were sporadically distributed in mixed forest and monsoon forest. The species richness and functional group abundance of termites in our site may be linked to the forest succession. Altitude, soil temperature, air temperature, surface air relative humidity, and litter depth were significant influences on species and functional group diversity.

  13. Habitat use by giant panda in relation to man-made forest in Wanglang Nature Reserve of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Yang, Hongwei; Duan, Lijuan; Li, Junqing

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of human restoration in species conservation, in this study, we undertook a field survey of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat and man-made forest habitat in Wanglang Nature Reserve of China. Our results revealed that giant panda did not use the man-made forest in this area so far, and that there were significant differences between the giant panda habitat and the man-made forest habitat. Compared with giant panda habitat, the man-made forest habitat was characterized by lower shrub coverage, thinner trees and lower bamboo density. To improve the effectiveness of human restoration, the habitat requirement of giant panda should be fully consider in the whole process of habitat restoration.

  14. Climate-dependence of ecosystem services in a nature reserve in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiaohui; Song, Huali; Zhang, Yiran; Li, Yanran; Liu, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of ecosystem services has become a hotspot in terms of research focus, but uncertainties over appropriate methods remain. Evaluation can be based on the unit price of services (services value method) or the unit price of the area (area value method). The former takes meteorological factors into account, while the latter does not. This study uses Kunyu Mountain Nature Reserve as a study site at which to test the effects of climate on the ecosystem services. Measured data and remote sensing imagery processed in a geographic information system were combined to evaluate gas regulation and soil conservation, and the influence of meteorological factors on ecosystem services. Results were used to analyze the appropriateness of the area value method. Our results show that the value of ecosystem services is significantly affected by meteorological factors, especially precipitation. Use of the area value method (which ignores the impacts of meteorological factors) could considerably impede the accuracy of ecosystem services evaluation. Results were also compared with the valuation obtained using the modified equivalent value factor (MEVF) method, which is a modified area value method that considers changes in meteorological conditions. We found that MEVF still underestimates the value of ecosystem services, although it can reflect to some extent the annual variation in meteorological factors. Our findings contribute to increasing the accuracy of evaluation of ecosystem services.

  15. Hiking trails and tourism impact assessment in protected area: Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Ge, Xiaodong; Liu, Chunyan

    2005-09-01

    More and more visitors are attracted to protected areas nowadays, which not only bring about economic increase but also seriously adverse impacts on the ecological environment. In protected areas, trails are linkage between visitors and natural ecosystem, so they concentrate most of the adverse impacts caused by visitors. The trampling problems on the trails have been received attentions in the tremendous researches. However, few of them have correlated the environmental impacts to trail spatial patterns. In this project, the trails were selected as assessment objective, the trampling problems trail widening, multiple trail, and root exposure were taken as assessment indicators to assess ecological impacts in the case study area Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, and two spatial index, connectivity and circularity, were taken to indicate the trail network spatial patterns. The research results showed that the appearing frequency of the trampling problems had inverse correlation with the circularity and connectivity of the trail network, while the problem extent had no correlation with the spatial pattern. Comparing with the pristine trails, the artificial maintenance for the trails such as wooden trails and flagstone trails could prohibit vegetation root from exposure effectively. The research finds will be useful for the future trail design and tourism management.

  16. Local people's perceptions as decision support for protected area management in Wolong Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianying; Chen, Liding; Lu, Yihe; Fu, Bojie

    2006-03-01

    This paper examines local people's knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards Wolong Biosphere Reserve (WBR) and its management policies. Pertinent data were collected through a questionnaire survey and group discussions. This study revealed that local people's perceptions were affected by many factors, including education, gender, residence location, household size and acreage of land owned. Although most respondents had limited knowledge about WBR because of their absence in WBR management, they held a positive attitude towards WBR. An in-depth analysis of their attitudes and perceptions showed that two potential conflicts might affect biodiversity conservation and protected area management. One of them was the imbalance between the limited cropland holding and the oversupply of the labor force, and the other one was the increase in electricity price versus the decrease in economic incentives for the Natural Forest Protection Project. The study also revealed that relocation was considered unacceptable to most respondents. However, those residing far from the main road were willing to relocate more than those near the main road. Based on our studies, some recommendations are given for improvement of WBR management.

  17. Quantifying the effects of geographical and environmental factors on distribution of stream bacterioplankton within nature reserves of Fujian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongming; Yang, Jun; Liu, Lemian; Yu, Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Bacterioplankton are important components of freshwater ecosystems and play essential roles in ecological functions and processes; however, little is known about their geographical distribution and the factors influencing their ecology, especially in stream ecosystems. To examine how geographical and environmental factors affect the composition of bacterioplankton communities, we used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone sequencing to survey bacterioplankton communities in 31 samples of streamwater from seven nature reserves in Fujian province, southeast China. Our results revealed that dominant bacterioplankton communities exhibited a distinct geographical pattern. Further, we provided evidence for distance decay relationships in bacterioplankton community similarity and found similar community gradients in response to elevation and latitude. Both redundancy analyses and Mantel tests showed that bacterioplankton community composition was significantly correlated with both environmental (electrical conductivity, total phosphorus, and PO4-P) and geographical factors (latitude, longitude, and elevation). Variance partitioning further showed that the joint effect of geographical and environmental factors explained the largest proportion of the variation in distribution of bacterioplankton communities (13.6 %), followed by purely geographical factors (11.2 %), and purely environmental factors (0.6 %). The Betaproteobacteria were the most common taxa in the streams, followed by Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria. Therefore, our results suggest that the biogeographical patterns of stream bacterioplankton communities across the Fujian nature reserves are more influenced by geographical factors than by local physicochemical properties.

  18. Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  19. First report of Echinococcus shiquicus in dogs from eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau region, China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boufana, B.; Qui, J.; Chen, X.; Budke, C.; Campos Ponce, M.; Craig, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Echinococcus shiquicus was discovered in foxes and pika wildlife hosts in Sichuan Province, China in 2005. Faecal samples from dogs collected in a previous echinococcosis purgation survey from Shiqu County, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Sichuan) were screened by coproPCR to investigate the

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Sichuan digging frog Kaloula rugifera (Anura: Microhylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lichun; Zhao, Li; Shuai, Xiaoling; Ren, Zhilin; Shen, Han; Liu, Fuchun; Ruan, Qiping; Chen, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The Sichuan Digging Frog (Kaloula rugifera) belongs to the family Dicroglossidae, which is endemic to northeastern Sichuan and southernmost Gansu provinces, in southwestern China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of K. rugifera was sequenced. The mitogenome was 17 074 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a non-coding control region. As in other vertebrates, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition of the K. rugifera is 29.7% A, 30.3% T, 25.8% C, and 14.2% G. The alignment of the Kaloula species control regions exhibited high genetic variability and rich A + T content. Phylogenetic tree demonstrated that K. rugifera was clustered together with K. borealis and K. verrucosa and they had a close relationship with each other. The complete mitogenome of K. rugifera can provide an important data for the studies on phylogenetic relationship to further explore the taxonomic status of Kaloula species.

  1. Mesoscale Assessment of CO2 Storage Potential and Geological Suitability for Target Area Selection in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Diao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, south of the Yangtze River, there are a large number of carbon sources, while the Sichuan Basin is the largest sedimentary basin; it makes sense to select the targets for CO2 geological storage (CGUS early demonstration. For CO2 enhanced oil and gas, coal bed methane recovery (CO2-EOR, EGR, and ECBM, or storage in these depleted fields, the existing oil, gas fields, or coal seams could be the target areas in the mesoscale. This paper proposed a methodology of GIS superimposed multisource information assessment of geological suitability for CO2 enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR or only storage in deep saline aquifers. The potential per unit area of deep saline aquifers CO2 storage in Central Sichuan is generally greater than 50 × 104 t/km2 at P50 probability level, with Xujiahe group being the main reservoir. CO2 storage potential of depleted gas fields is 53.73 × 108 t, while it is 33.85 × 108 t by using CO2-EGR technology. This paper recommended that early implementation of CGUS could be carried out in the deep saline aquifers and depleted gas fields in the Sichuan Basin, especially that of the latter because of excellent traps, rich geological data, and well-run infrastructures.

  2. Mianningite, (□,Pb,Ce,Na) (U{sup 4+},Mn,U{sup 6+}) Fe{sup 3+}{sub 2}(Ti,Fe{sup 3+}){sub 18}O{sub 38}, a new member of the crichtonite group from Maoniuping REE deposit, Mianning county, southwest Sichuan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Xiangkun; Fan, Guang; Chen, Zhangru; Ai, Yujie [Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology, Beijing (China); Li, Guowu [China Univ. of Geosciences, Beijing (China). Lab. of Crystal Structure; Shen, Ganfu [Chengdu Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Chengdu (China)

    2017-05-15

    Mianningite (IMA 2014-072), ideally (□,Pb,Ce,Na)(U{sup 4+},Mn,U{sup 6+}) Fe{sup 3+}{sub 2}(Ti,Fe{sup 3+}){sub 18}O{sub 38}, is a new member of the crichtonite group from the Maoniuping REE deposit, Mianning county, Sichuan province, China. It was found in fractures of lamprophyre veins and in the contact between lamprophyre and a later quartz-alkali feldspar syenite dyke with REE mineralization, and is named after its type locality. Associated minerals are microcline, albite, quartz, iron-rich phlogopite, augite, muscovite, calcite, baryte, fluorite, epidote, pyrite, magnetite, hematite, galena, hydroxylapatite, titanite, ilmenite, rutile, garnet-group minerals, zircon, allanite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce), bastnaesite-(Ce), parisite-(Ce), maoniupingite-(Ce), thorite, pyrochlore-group minerals and chlorite. Mianningite occurs as opaque subhedral to euhedral tabular crystals, up to 1-2 mm in size, black in color and streak, and with a submetallic luster. Mianningite is brittle, with a conchoidal fracture. Its average micro-indentation hardness is 83.8 kg/mm{sup 2} (load 0.2 kg), which is equivalent to ∝6 on the Mohs hardness scale. Its measured and calculated densities are 4.62 (8) g/cm{sup 3} and 4.77 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively. Under reflected light, mianningite is grayish white, with no internal reflections. It appears isotropic and exhibits neither bireflectance nor pleochroism. The empirical formula, calculated on the basis of 38 O atoms per formula unit (apfu), is [□{sub 0.322}(Pb{sub 0.215}Ba{sub 0.037}Sr{sub 0.036}Ca{sub 0.010}){sub Σ0.298}(Ce{sub 0.128}La{sub 0.077}Nd{sub 0.012}){sub Σ0.217} (Na{sub 0.127}K{sub 0.036}){sub Σ0.163}]{sub Σ01.000}(U{sup 4+}{sub 0.447}Mn{sub 00.293}U{sup 6} {sup +}{sub 0.112}Y{sub 0.091}Zr{sub 0.023}Th{sub 0.011}){sub Σ0.977}(Fe{sup 3+}{sub 1.224}Fe{sup 2+}{sub 0.243}Mg{sub 0.023}P{sub 0.008}Si{sub 0.006} □{sub 0.496}){sub Σ2.000}(Ti{sub 12.464}Fe{sup 3+}{sub 5.292}V{sup 5+}{sub 0.118}Nb{sub 0.083}Al{sub 0.026}Cr{sup 3

  3. Long-term distribution and habitat changes of protected wildlife: giant pandas in Wolong Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wenke; Connor, Thomas; Zhang, Jindong; Yang, Hongbo; Dong, Xin; Gu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Caiquan

    2018-02-08

    Changes in wildlife habitat across space and time, and corresponding changes in wildlife space use, are increasingly common phenomenon. It is critical to study and understand these spatio-temporal changes to accurately inform conservation strategy and manage wildlife populations. These changes can be particularly large and complex in areas that face pressure from human development and disturbance but are also under protection and/or restoration regimes. We analyzed changes in space use and habitat suitability of giant pandas in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, over three decades using kernel density, spatio-temporal analysis of moving polygons (STAMP), and MaxEnt methods, and data from three national censuses. Between 2001 and 2012, there was a slight retraction in total range, and more area of significant space use decreases than increases. Habitat suitability varied spatially and temporally, with a 4.1% decrease in average suitability between 1987 and 2001 and a 3.5% increase in average suitability in between 2001 and 2012. Elevation and bamboo were the most important habitat predictors across the three censuses. Human and natural disturbance variables such as distance to household and the distance to landslide variable in the 4th census were also important predictors, and likely also negatively influenced important habitat variables such as bamboo and forest cover. We were able to measure changes in space utilization and habitat suitability over a large time scale, highlighting the achievements and challenges of giant panda conservation. Long-term monitoring of the changes in distribution and habitat of threatened species, and an analysis of the drivers behind these changes such as undergone here, are important to inform the management and conservation of the world's remaining wildlife populations.

  4. Paracrossidius radekcervenkai (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae), a new species from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Červenka, Radek; Nakládal, Oto

    2017-05-18

    A new species of Paracrossidius Balthasar, 1932 (Coleoptera Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) from China is described and compared with similar species. Paracrossidius was originally described as a monotypic subgenus based on the type species Aphodius (Paracrossidius) instigator Balthasar, 1932 from Sichuan Province, China. Paracrossidius is currently considered a genus with 10 previously described species, most of which inhabit various parts of China (Dellacasa et al. 2016).

  5. Spatial Variability and Ecological Effects of Anthropogenic Activities in a Nature Reserve: A Case Study in the Baijitan National Nature Reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Song

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nature reserves play an essential role in protecting natural resources and maintaining an ecological balance. However, certain nature reserves are increasingly disturbed by human activities in the form of settlements, roads, farmland, etc. How to monitor the status of nature reserves by using remote sensing methods has been a focus of scholars for a long time. In this study, remote sensing satellite images from 2009 and 2014 were used to extract and analyze the distribution of anthropogenic activities, such as agriculture, industry, residency, traffic, and other human activities. On this basis, the Nature Reserve Human Interference (NRHI and landscape indices (LI were calculated to describe the intensity of anthropogenic disturbance; in addition, the slope and aspect were analyzed to describe the regularity in the distribution of anthropogenic activities. The results showed that more than 90% of the anthropogenic activity occurred in the experimental and buffer zones. Likewise, the NRHI increased from 0.0901 in 2009 to 0.1127 in 2014. The NRHI was proportional to the patch density (PD, landscape shape index (LSI, landscape division index (DIVISION, Shannon’s diversity index (SHDI, and Shannon′s evenness index (SHEI, and it was inversely proportional to the contagion index (CONTAG. Moreover, 84.54% of the anthropogenic activity occurred in a range from 0 to 3.6 degrees, and 14.44% of the activity occurred in a range from 3.6 to 7.2 degrees. More than 60% of the anthropogenic activity occurred on sunny slopes because of the human adaptability to the environment and the possibility for humans to fulfill their physical needs (warmth and comfort. Thus, the monitoring of this nature reserve needs to be further strengthened and focused on the area with a range of 0–7.2 degrees and on the sunny slopes.

  6. The study on the spatial-temporal changes of land use pattern in eastern Sichuan basin based on RS/GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Siqi; Xiao, Yi; Guo, Luo

    2018-02-01

    Eastern Sichuan Basin is one of the areas sensitive to global climate change. Due to impacts from human disturbance, the farmland in the study area has been degrading, and the desertification of land has been expanding rapidly. Based on the data of Landsat TM/ETM image in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010, this thesis analysed the spatial characteristics and dynamic trends of land use pattern in eastern Sichuan basin using software for remote sense and geographical information system. The driving factors of land-use change in study area were also discussed. The results indicated that: (i) the area of farmland has significantly decreased because of degradation and conversion from grassland into building land; (ii) farmland patches have changed into fragmented and isolated ones; (iii) the main landscapes in study area, are farmland and forests; (iv) land-use change is significantly associated with the human activities. This study provides a strong theoretical and technical basis for the policy-making of environmental protection and management in Eastern Sichuan Basin of Sichuan Province in china.

  7. The public health system response to the 2008 Sichuan province earthquake: a literature review and interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Leesa; Ashkenazi, Isaac; Dorn, Barry C; Savoia, Elena

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes and analyses the public health system response to the deadly earthquake in Sichuan province, China, in May 2008. Drawing on an experiential learning project consisting of a literature review and field research, including a series of interviews with medical and public health professionals, policy-makers and first responders, a conceptual framework was developed to describe the response. This approach emphasises the pre-existing preparedness level of the medical and public health systems, as well as social, economic and geo-political factors that had an impact on mitigation efforts. This framework was used to conduct post-disaster analyses addressing major response issues and examining methods employed during the public health response to the disaster. This framework could be used to describe and analyse the emergency response to other disasters. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  8. Bilateral transtibial amputation with concomitant thoracolumbar vertebral collapse in a Sichuan earthquake survivor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Herman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The devastating earthquake in Sichuan, China on 12 May 2008 left thousands of survivors requiring medical care and intensive rehabilitation. In view of this great demand, the Chinese Speaking Orthopaedic Society established the "Stand Tall" project to provide voluntary services to aid amputee victims in achieving total rehabilitation and social integration. This case report highlights the multidisciplinary rehabilitation of a girl who suffered thoracolumbar vertebral collapse and underwent bilateral transtibial amputation. The rehabilitation team was involved in all stages of the care process from the pre-operative phase, through amputation, into prosthetic training, and during her life thereafter. Despite this catastrophic event, early rehabilitation and specially designed bilateral prostheses allowed her a high level of functional ability. The joint efforts of the multidisciplinary team and the advancement of new technology have revolutionized the care process for amputees.

  9. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 95; Issue 3. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan domestic and Tibetan chicken populations. YUAN SU DIYAN LI UMA GAUR YAN WANG NAN WU BINLONG CHEN HONGXIAN XU HUADONG YIN YAODONG HU QING ZHU. RESEARCH ARTICLE ...

  10. Changing Perceptions of Forest Value and Attitudes toward Management of a Recently Established Nature Reserve: A Case Study in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the main sources of conflict and understanding the relationships between protected areas and local communities are critical to conflict resolution related to protected area management. We surveyed and assessed the perceptions of local people related to forest values of the Bulong Nature Reserve (BNR, Yunnan, China, and their attitudes toward forest management of the recently-established nature reserve. Factors influencing the differences in perceptions and attitudes were investigated. Our results indicated local residents preferred the economic value of forests, and they perceived more forest values after reserve establishment than before, especially for ecological services. Interviewees believed the value of the forests have increased, and predicted that the forest will have increased importance to their livelihoods and health in the future. Nonetheless, the majority of interviewees were dissatisfied with current reserve management. Variation in these perceptions and attitudes were related to several social variables: age, gender, education, and distance from the reserve. Embedding the findings of the present study, specifically the perceptions and attitudes of local people, into management guidelines for mitigation of potential conflicts is proposed and should help managers to achieve biodiversity-related goals. This study offers new insights related to the identification of the underlying sources of conflict in forest management and provides a better understanding of the relationship between local people and protected areas. The study also contributes to the literature on forest values of indigenous populations by examining those of remote, rural populations in China.

  11. Underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heshengc

    2012-09-01

    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.

  12. Feasibility of high-helium natural gas exploration in the Presinian strata, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helium in China highly depends on import at present, so the most practical way to change the situation is searching for medium-to-large natural gas fields with high helium content. Therefore, the hydrocarbon accumulation mechanism and the helium origin of the Weiyuan high-helium natural gas reservoir have been analyzed to find out the feasibility of finding natural gas field with high helium content in the Presinian strata of the Sichuan Basin. Based on twelve outcrop sections and drilling data of four wells encountering the Presinian strata, the petrological features, sedimentary facies and source rocks of Presinian strata were systematically analyzed, which shows that the sedimentary formation developed in the Presinian is the Nanhua system, and the stratigraphic sequence revealed by outcrop section in the eastern margin includes the Nantuo, Datangpo, Gucheng and Liantuo Fms, and it is inferred that the same stratigraphic sequence may occur inside the basin. The Nantuo, Gucheng and Liantuo Fms are mainly glacial deposits of glutenite interbedded with mudstone; the Datangpo Fm is interglacial deposits of sandstone and shale, the lower part shale, rich in organic matter, is fairly good source rock. Further study showed that the Nantuo coarse-grained clastic reservoir, Datangpo source rock and the intruded granite “helium source rock” make up a good high-helium gas system. Controlled by the early rift, the thick Presinian sedimentary rocks occur primarily inside the rift. The distribution of sedimentary rocks and granite in the basin was predicted by use of the seismic data, which shows that the feasibility of finding high-helium gas reservoirs in Ziyang area of the Sichuan Basin is great.

  13. A research on industrial development of radiation sterilization in Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xun; Zhu Rong; Chen Jigang

    2010-01-01

    Radiation sterilization is widely applied in food processing, Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and medical instrumentation producing. As this industry offers service to related corporations, its development depends largely on the market scale of the relevant industries. This article mainly discusses the balance point between the capacity of radiation sterilization and the requirement of its market. There are less than 1% of the companies in Sichuan which using radiation sterilization for its products, broad prospects has shown in this field. The output value of radiation sterilization industry reached 0.1% of the GDP in some advanced countries (America and Japan...), under this standard, its output value in Sichuan province would be RMB1.2 hundred million, but now our capacity and scale of this industry is less than RMB40million.Research shows: there are 3 key points to make its output value reach 0.1% of the GDP in Sichuan: 1. Breaking the 'bottleneck' restrictions of capacity and Inappropriate resources distribution. 2. Promoting the technique of radiation sterilization, guiding corporation to reduce their dependence on food additive from the perspective of food safety, make effective implantation of radiation sterilization into their manufacture processes. 3. Increasing publicity for radiation sterilization, eliminating scared mentality among customer on nuclear technology, helping manufacturing corporations to establish green environmental protection brand, directing our customer to a more healthy awareness. (authors)

  14. [Monitoring the Microtus fuscus plague epidemic in Sichuan province during 2000 - 2008.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li-Mao; Song, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Xiao-Ping

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemic tendency of Microtus fuscus plague during 2000 - 2008 in Sichuan province. METHODS: To investigate the plague each year according to "overall Plan of the Plague in the Whole Nation" and "Surveillance Program of Sichuan Province Plague". RESULTS: There were plague...... of fleas, Callopsylla sparsilis, Amphipsylla tutua tutua and Rhadinopsylla dahurica vicina, with the overall infection rate as 0.054%. CONCLUSION: Plague among Microtus fuscus showed a continuous epidemic in Sichuan province during 2000 - 2008....

  15. Some rapid and long traveled landslides triggered by the May 12, 2008 Sichuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.; Kamai, T.; Chigira, M.; Wu, X. Y.; Zhang, D. X.

    2009-04-01

    On May 12, 2008, a 7.9M earthquake struck Sichuan province of China, causing a huge number of death and injuries, and great loss of properties, becoming the most damaging earthquake since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake, in China. The collapse of buildings during the earthquake is the main reason for the casualties. There are a huge number of landslides that had been triggered by this earthquake. Almost all the roads to the mountainous areas had been blocked and many dams were formed by the displaced landslide materials, resulting in great difficulties for the aftershock rescue activities. Also a big portion of the casualties was directly caused by the landslides. The authors had reconnaissance field trips of the landslides, and performed preliminary investigation on some of the catastrophic ones. In this report, four landslides, i.e., Xiejiadian landslide in Pengzhou city, Donghekou landslide and Magongxiang landslide in Qingchuan County, and Niujuangou landslide on the epicenter area of Yingxiu Town, are introduced. The characteristics of deposited landslide masses in Donghekou landslide were investigated by means of a multichannel surface wave technique. Two earthquake recorders were installed at the upper part and deposit area of Donghekou landslide. The seismic responses of different parts of the landslides were monitored, and recorded successfully during the aftershocks that occurred in Qingchuan County on July 24, 2008. Also the drained and undrained dynamic shear behaviors of samples from the landslide areas were examined. Some preliminary analyzing results will be presented in this report.

  16. Asphalt features and gas accumulation mechanism of Sinian reservoirs in the Tongwan Palaeo-uplift, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Breakthroughs have been made in natural gas exploration in Sinian reservoirs in the Tongwan Palaeo-uplift, Sichuan Basin, recently. However, there are disputes with regard to the genetic mechanisms of natural gas reservoirs. The development law of asphalts in the Sinian reservoirs may play an extremely important role in the study of the relationships between palaeo oil and gas reservoirs. Accordingly, researches were conducted on the features and development patterns of asphalts in the Sinian reservoirs in this area. The following research results were obtained. (1 Asphalts in the Sinian reservoirs were developed after the important hydrothermal event in the Sichuan Basin, namely the well-known Emei Taphrogeny in the mid-late Permian Period. (2 Distribution of asphalts is related to palaeo oil reservoirs under the control of palaeo-structures of Indosinian-Yanshanian Period, when the palaeo-structures contained high content of asphalts in the high positions of the palaeo-uplift. (3 Large-scale oil and gas accumulations in the Sinian reservoirs occurred in the Indosinian-Yanshanian Period to generate the Leshan-Ziyang and Gaoshiti-Moxi-Guang'an palaeo oil reservoirs. Cracking of crude oil in the major parts of these palaeo oil reservoirs controlled the development of the present natural gas reservoirs. (4 The development of asphalts in the Sinian reservoirs indicates that hydrocarbons in the Dengying Formation originated from Cambrian source rocks and natural gas accumulated in the Sinian reservoirs are products of late-stage cracking of the Sinian reservoirs. (5 The Sinian palaeo-structures of Indosinian-Yanshanian Period in the Sichuan Basin are favorable regions for the development of the Sinian reservoirs, where discoveries and exploration practices will play an important role in the era of Sinian natural gas development in China.

  17. Using the kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) as a bioindicator of PCBs and PBDEs in the dinghushan biosphere reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ling; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Li, Ke-Lin; Peng, Ying; Feng, An-Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Zou, Fa-Sheng; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-07-01

    The Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve is a nature reserve and a site for the study of tropical and subtropical forest ecosystems. Rapid industrialization and intensive electronic waste-recycling activities around the biosphere reserve have resulted in elevated levels of industrial organic contaminants in the local environment that may cause adverse effects on wildlife that inhabits this area. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 2 alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs)-decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE)-were investigated in the biosphere reserve and a reference site by using the kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) as a bioindicator. Residue concentrations in kingfishers from the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve ranged from 490 ng/g to 3000 ng/g, 51 ng/g to 420 ng/g, 0.44 ng/g to 90 ng/g, and 0.04 ng/g to 0.87 ng/g lipid weight for ∑PCBs, ∑PBDEs, DBDPE, and BTBPE, respectively. With the exception of the BTBPE, these levels were 2 to 5 times higher than those detected in kingfishers from the reference site. The contaminant patterns from the biosphere reserve were also different, with larger PCB contributions in comparison with the reference site. The estimated predator-prey biomagnification factors (BMFs) showed that most of the PCB and PBDE congeners and BTBPE were biomagnified in kingfishers from the biosphere reserve. The calculated toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) concentrations of major coplanar PCB congeners in kingfishers from the biosphere reserve ranged from 18 pg/g to 66 pg/g wet weight, with some of these TEQ concentrations reaching or exceeding the levels known to impair bird reproduction and survival. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  18. Physical function, pain, quality of life and life satisfaction of amputees from the 2008 Sichuan earthquake: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Reinhardt, Jan D; Zhang, Xia; Pennycott, Andrew; Zhao, Zhengen; Zeng, Xianmen; Li, Jianan

    2015-05-01

    To examine the development and determinants of long-term outcomes for earthquake victims with amputations, including physical function, pain, quality of life and life satisfaction. Prospective cohort study with 2-3 measurement points. A total of 72 people who underwent amputations following the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake and resided in Mianzhu County, Sichuan Province, China were enrolled in the study. Of these, 27 people were lost to follow-up. Data on pain (visual analogue scale) and physical function (Barthel Index) were collected at 3 measurement points (2009, 2010 and 2012), and data on quality of life (Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36) and life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire-11) were collected at 2 measurement points (2010 and 2012). Data were analysed with mixed effects regression. Pain severity declined significantly and physical function increased by 2012. Quality of life and life satisfaction remained relatively stable between 2010 and 2012, while quality of life was significantly lower than reference values from the general population. Illiteracy and lower extremity amputations were associated with lower quality of life and life satisfaction in several domains. While amputees' functioning and pain were improved over time, quality of life and life satisfaction did not change. Illiterate earthquake survivors and those with lower extremity amputations are at particular risk of low quality of life and life satisfaction, and may require additional attention in future earthquake rehabilitation programs.

  19. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  20. Role of New Nature Reserve in Assisting Endangered Species Conservation - Case Study of Giant Pandas in the Northern Qionglai Mountains, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Pei Guan

    Full Text Available The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network. We utilized data from national giant panda surveys conducted in 2000 and 2012 to compare the size, spatial use, and distribution of panda populations, as well as the habitat suitability and connectivity in the Northern Qionglai Mountains between the two survey years. Our results show that although the total giant panda population in the study area did not change remarkably, local changes did occur. Most notably, the population in Wolong Nature Reserve declined by 27.3% (N = 39 and the population in Caopo Nature Reserve increased by 71.4% (N = 29 over the 12-year study period. We also found habitat suitability and availability decreased in both Wolong (12.4% and Caopo (7.4%, but that the relative density of giant pandas declined (19.2% and increased (84.6% at each site, respectively. The distance between centers of high IUA were more distant in 2012 (14.1±1.9km than that in 2000 (6.1±0.9km; t = -7.4, df = 5, p = 0.001, showing a scattered spatial pattern. Habitat availability decreased by 42% within the corridor between the two reserves, however panda occurrences in the corridor increased 24.6%. Compared to the total number of encounters, the proportion of the corridor increased 45.76%. Our results show the importance and success of the newly established Caopo to the conservation of giant pandas, and how crucial it is to identify and repair

  1. Role of New Nature Reserve in Assisting Endangered Species Conservation - Case Study of Giant Pandas in the Northern Qionglai Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Tian-Pei; Owens, Jacob R; Gong, Ming-Hao; Liu, Gang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Song, Yan-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network. We utilized data from national giant panda surveys conducted in 2000 and 2012 to compare the size, spatial use, and distribution of panda populations, as well as the habitat suitability and connectivity in the Northern Qionglai Mountains between the two survey years. Our results show that although the total giant panda population in the study area did not change remarkably, local changes did occur. Most notably, the population in Wolong Nature Reserve declined by 27.3% (N = 39) and the population in Caopo Nature Reserve increased by 71.4% (N = 29) over the 12-year study period. We also found habitat suitability and availability decreased in both Wolong (12.4%) and Caopo (7.4%), but that the relative density of giant pandas declined (19.2%) and increased (84.6%) at each site, respectively. The distance between centers of high IUA were more distant in 2012 (14.1±1.9km) than that in 2000 (6.1±0.9km; t = -7.4, df = 5, p = 0.001), showing a scattered spatial pattern. Habitat availability decreased by 42% within the corridor between the two reserves, however panda occurrences in the corridor increased 24.6%. Compared to the total number of encounters, the proportion of the corridor increased 45.76%. Our results show the importance and success of the newly established Caopo to the conservation of giant pandas, and how crucial it is to identify and repair reserve

  2. Isolation, Screening, and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from Natural Reserves in the Subtropical Region of China and Optimization of Cellulase Production by Paenibacillus terrae ME27-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ling Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From different natural reserves in the subtropical region of China, a total of 245 aerobic bacterial strains were isolated on agar plates containing sugarcane bagasse pulp as the sole carbon source. Of the 245 strains, 22 showed hydrolyzing zones on agar plates containing carboxymethyl cellulose after Congo-red staining. Molecular identification showed that the 22 strains belonged to 10 different genera, with the Burkholderia genus exhibiting the highest strain diversity and accounting for 36.36% of all the 22 strains. Three isolates among the 22 strains showed higher carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase activity, and isolate ME27-1 exhibited the highest CMCase activity in liquid culture. The strain ME27-1 was identified as Paenibacillus terrae on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as well as physiological and biochemical properties. The optimum pH and temperature for CMCase activity produced by the strain ME27-1 were 5.5 and 50°C, respectively, and the enzyme was stable at a wide pH range of 5.0–9.5. A 12-fold improvement in the CMCase activity (2.08 U/mL of ME27-1 was obtained under optimal conditions for CMCase production. Thus, this study provided further information about the diversity of cellulose-degrading bacteria in the subtropical region of China and found P. terrae ME27-1 to be highly cellulolytic.

  3. New characteristics of intensity assessment of Sichuan Lushan "4.20" M s7.0 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baitao; Yan, Peilei; Chen, Xiangzhao

    2014-08-01

    The post-earthquake rapid accurate assessment of macro influence of seismic ground motion is of significance for earthquake emergency relief, post-earthquake reconstruction and scientific research. The seismic intensity distribution map released by the Lushan earthquake field team of the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) five days after the strong earthquake ( M7.0) occurred in Lushan County of Sichuan Ya'an City at 8:02 on April 20, 2013 provides a scientific basis for emergency relief, economic loss assessment and post-earthquake reconstruction. In this paper, the means for blind estimation of macroscopic intensity, field estimation of macro intensity, and review of intensity, as well as corresponding problems are discussed in detail, and the intensity distribution characteristics of the Lushan "4.20" M7.0 earthquake and its influential factors are analyzed, providing a reference for future seismic intensity assessments.

  4. Research on industrial development of radiation sterilization in Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xun; Zhu Rong; Chen Jigang; Ouyang Qiongli

    2010-01-01

    Radiation sterilization is widely applied in food processing, pharmaceutical manufacturing and medical instrumentation producing. As this industry offers service to related corporations, its development depends largely on the market scale of the relevant industries. This article mainly discusses the balance point between the capacity of radiation sterilization and the requirement of its market. There are less than 1% of the companies in Sichuan which using radiation sterilization for its products, broad prospects has shown in this field. There are 3 key points to make its output value reach 0.1% of the GDP in Sichuan: 1. Breaking the restrictions of capacity and inappropriate resources distribution. 2. Promoting the technique of radiation sterilization, guiding corporation to reduce their dependence on food additive from the perspective of food safety, make effective implantation of radiation sterilization into their manufacture processes. 3. Increasing publicity, eliminating scared mentality among customer on nuclear technology, helping manufacturing corporations to establish green environmental protection brand, directing our customer to a more healthy awareness. (authors)

  5. Analysis of some ancient glass samples unearthed in Sichuan area by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fei; Li Qinghui; Gan Fuxi

    2007-01-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique is an effective method for the chemical composition analysis of ancient glass samples without destruction. Chemical composition of the ancient glass samples dated from the Warring States Period (770-476 B.C.) to the Six Dynasties Period (220-589 A.D.), which were unearthed in Sichuan area, was quantitatively determined by the PIXE technique. The results show that the glass Bi (disc) and the glass eye beads of the Warring States Period all belong to the PbO-BaO-SiO 2 system. According to the composition and shape, we infer that these glass Bi and eye beads were made in China. Whereas, the chemical compositions of the glass ear pendants and beads of the Six Dynasties Period are varied, including K 2 O-CaO-SiO 2 , K 2 O-SiO 2 and other glass systems, Based on the obtained results and those from literatures, some questions related to the technical propagation of the ancient Chinese glass are discussed. (authors)

  6. Comparison of two large earthquakes: the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake and the 2011 East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Yuki; Ando, Takayuki; Atobe, Kaori; Haiden, Akina; Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Saito, Kohei; Shimanuki, Marie; Yoshimoto, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Between August 15th and 19th, 2011, eight 5th-year medical students from the Keio University School of Medicine had the opportunity to visit the Peking University School of Medicine and hold a discussion session titled "What is the most effective way to educate people for survival in an acute disaster situation (before the mental health care stage)?" During the session, we discussed the following six points: basic information regarding the Sichuan Earthquake and the East Japan Earthquake, differences in preparedness for earthquakes, government actions, acceptance of medical rescue teams, earthquake-induced secondary effects, and media restrictions. Although comparison of the two earthquakes was not simple, we concluded that three major points should be emphasized to facilitate the most effective course of disaster planning and action. First, all relevant agencies should formulate emergency plans and should supply information regarding the emergency to the general public and health professionals on a normal basis. Second, each citizen should be educated and trained in how to minimize the risks from earthquake-induced secondary effects. Finally, the central government should establish a single headquarters responsible for command, control, and coordination during a natural disaster emergency and should centralize all powers in this single authority. We hope this discussion may be of some use in future natural disasters in China, Japan, and worldwide.

  7. Measuring co-seismic deformation of the Sichuan earthquake by satellite differential INSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghong; Gong, Wenyu; Zhang, Jixian

    2008-12-01

    The Sichuan Earthquake, occurred on May 12, 2008, is the strongest earthquake to hit China since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. The earthquake had a magnitude of M 8.0, and caused surface deformation greater than 3 meters. This paper presents the research work of measuring the co-seismic deformations of the earthquake with satellite differential interferometric SAR technique. Four L-band SAR images were used to form the interferogram with 2 pre- scenes imaged on Feb 17, 2008 and 2 post- scenes on May 19, 2008. The Digital Elevation Models extracted from 1:50,000-scale national geo-spatial database were used to remove the topographic contribution and form a differential interferogram. The interferogram presents very high coherence in most areas, although the pre- and post- images were acquired with time interval of 92 days. This indicates that the L-band PALSAR sensor is very powerful for interferometry applications. The baseline error is regarded as the main phase error source in the differential interferogram. Due to the difficulties of doing field works immediately after the earthquake, only one deformation measurement recorded by a permanent GPS station is obtained for this research. An approximation method is proposed to eliminate the orbital phase error with one control point. The derived deformation map shows similar spatial pattern and deformation magnitude compared with deformation field generated by seismic inversion method.

  8. Vegetation types and climate conditions reflected by the modern phytolith assemblages in the subalpine Dalaoling Forest Reserve, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Djakanibé Désiré; Gu, Yansheng; Liu, Humei; Shemsanga, Ceven; Ge, Jiwen

    2015-06-01

    This research describes modern phytolith records and distributions from subalpine surface soils in the Dalaoling Forest Reserve, and reveals its implications for local climate conditions with respect to the altitude gradient. Well-preserved phytolith morpho-types, assemblages, and climatic indices were used to study the relationship between local vegetation and climate conditions. The phytolith classification system is mainly based on the characteristics of detailed morpho-types described for anatomical terms, which are divided into seven groups: long cells, short cells, bulliform cells, hair cells, pteridophyte type, broad-leaved type, and gymnosperm type. Phytoliths originating from the Poaceae are composed of Pooideae (rondel and trapeziform), Panicoideae (bilobate, cross, and polylobate), Chloridoideae (short/square saddle), and Bambusoideae (oblong concave saddle). Based on the altitudinal distribution of the phytolith assemblages and the indices of aridity (Iph), climate (Ic), and tree cover density (D/P), five phytolith assemblage zones have revealed the five types of climatic conditions ranging from 1,169 m to 2,005 m in turn: warm-wet, warm-xeric to warm-mesic, warm-xeric to cool-mesic, cool-xeric, and cool-mesic to cool-xeric. The Bambusoideae, Panicoideae, and Chloridoideae are the dominant vegetation at the lower-middle of the mountains, while Pooideae is mainly distributed in the higher mountains. The close relationship between phytolith assembleages and changes of altitude gradient suggest that vegetation distribution patterns and plant ecology in the Dalaoling mountains are controlled by temperature and humidity conditions. Our results highlight the importance of phytolith records as reliable ecoclimatic indicators for vegetation ecology in subtropical regions.

  9. Resting site use of giant pandas in Wanglang Nature Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Li, Junqing

    2017-10-23

    Little is known about the resting sites used by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), which restricts our understanding of their resting habits and limits conservation efforts. To enhance our understanding of resting site requirements and factors affecting the resting time of giant pandas, we investigated the characteristics of resting sites in the Wanglang Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. The results indicated that the resting sites of giant pandas were characterised by a mean slope of 21°, mean nearest tree size of 53.75 cm, mean nearest shrub size of 2.82 cm, and mean nearest bamboo number of 56. We found that the resting sites were closer to bamboo than to trees and shrubs, suggesting that the resting site use of giant pandas is closely related to the presence of bamboo. Considering that giant pandas typically rest near a large-sized tree, protection of large trees in the forests is of considerable importance for the conservation of this species. Furthermore, slope was found to be an important factor affecting the resting time of giant pandas, as they tended to rest for a relatively longer time in sites with a smaller degree of slope.

  10. Characteristics of source rocks of the Datangpo Fm, Nanhua System, at the southeastern margin of Sichuan Basin and their significance to oil and gas exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengye Xie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much attention has been paid to the development environment, biogenetic compositions and hydrocarbon generation characteristics of ancient source rocks in the deep strata of the Sichuan Basin because oil and gas exploration extends continuously to the deep and ultra-deep strata and a giant gas field with the explored reserves of more than 1 × 1012 m3 was discovered in the Middle and Upper Proterozoic–Lower Paleozoic strata in the stable inherited paleo-uplift of the central Sichuan Basin. Based on the previous geological research results, outcrop section of the Datangpo Fm, Nanhua System, at the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin was observed and the samples taken from the source rocks were tested and analyzed in terms of their organic geochemistry and organic petrology. It is shown that high-quality black shale source rocks of the Datangpo Fm are developed in the tensional background at the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin between two glacial ages, i.e., Gucheng and Nantuo ages in the Nanhua Period. Their thickness is 16–180 m and mineral compositions are mainly clay minerals and clastic quartz. Besides, shale in the Datangpo Fm is of high-quality sapropel type source rock with high abundance at an over-mature stage, and it is characterized by low pristane/phytane ratios (0.32–0.83, low gammacerane abundance, high-abundance tricyclic terpane and higher-content C27 and C29 gonane, indicating that biogenetic compositions are mainly algae and microbes in a strong reducing environment with low salinity. It is concluded that the Datangpo Fm source rocks may be developed in the rift of Nanhua System in central Sichuan Basin. Paleo-uplifts and paleo-slopes before the Caledonian are the favorable locations for the accumulation of dispersed liquid hydrocarbons and paleo-reservoirs derived from the Datangpo Fm source rocks. In addition, scale accumulation zones of dispersed organic matter cracking gas and paleo

  11. Assessment of Land-Cover/Land-Use Change and Landscape Patterns in the Two National Nature Reserves of Ebinur Lake Watershed, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Land-cover and land-use change (LCLUC alters landscape patterns and affects regional ecosystems. The objective of this study was to examine LCLUC and landscape patterns in Ebinur Lake Wetland National Nature Reserve (ELWNNR and Ganjia Lake Haloxylon Forest National Nature Reserve (GLHFNNR, two biodiversity-rich national nature reserves in the Ebinur Lake Watershed (ELW, Xinjiang, China. Landsat satellite images from 1972, 1998, 2007 and 2013 were used to calculate the dynamics of a land-cover and land-use (LCLU transition matrix and landscape pattern index using ENVI 5.1 and FRAGSTATS 3.3. The results showed drastic land use modifications have occurred in ELWNNR during the past four decades. Between 1972 and 1998, 1998 and 2007, and 2007 and 2013, approximately 251.50 km2 (7.93%, 122.70 km2 (3.87%, and 195.40 km2 (6.16% of wetland were turned into salinized land. In GLHFNNR both low and medium density Haloxylon forest area declined while high density Haloxylon forest area increased. This contribution presents a method for characterizing LCLUC using one or more cross-tabulation matrices based on Sankey diagrams, demonstrating the depiction of flows of energy or materials through ecosystem network. The ecological landscape index displayed that a unique landscape patches have shrunk in size, scattered, and fragmented. It becomes a more diverse landscape. Human activities like farming were negatively correlated with the landscape diversity of wetlands. Furthermore, evidence of degraded wetlands caused by air temperature and annual precipitation, was also observed. We conclude that national and regional policies related to agriculture and water use have significantly contributed to the extensive changes; the ELWNNR and GLHFNNR are highly susceptible to LCLUC in the surrounding Ebinur Lake Watershed.

  12. Environmental and Ecological Risk Assessment of Trace Metal Contamination in Mangrove Ecosystems: A Case from Zhangjiangkou Mangrove National Nature Reserve, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Du, Huihong; Xu, Ye; Chen, Kai; Liang, Junhua; Ke, Hongwei; Cheng, Sha-Yen; Liu, Mengyang; Deng, Hengxiang; He, Tong; Wang, Wenqing

    2016-01-01

    Zhangjiangkou Mangrove National Nature Reserve is a subtropical wetland ecosystem in southeast coast of China, which is of dense population and rapid development. The concentrations, sources, and pollution assessment of trace metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, and Hg) in surface sediment from 29 sites and the biota specimen were investigated for better ecological risk assessment and environmental management. The ranges of trace metals in mg/kg sediment were as follows: Cu (10.79–26.66), Cd (0.03–0.19), Pb (36.71–59.86), Cr (9.67–134.51), Zn (119.69–157.84), As (15.65–31.60), and Hg (0.00–0.08). The sequences of the bioaccumulation of studied metals are Zn > Cu > As > Cr > Pb > Cd > Hg with few exceptions. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis revealed that the trace metals in the studied area mainly derived from anthropogenic activities, such as industrial effluents, agricultural waste, and domestic sewage. Pollution load index and geoaccumulation index were calculated for trace metals in surface sediments, which indicated unpolluted status in general except Pb, Cr, and As. PMID:27795956

  13. Accumulation of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: The influences of biological and chemical variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jiang-Ping, E-mail: jpwu@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tao, Lin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Mo, Ling [Hainan Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Haikou 571126 (China); Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Although a number of studies have addressed the bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife, few data are available on terrestrial organisms. This study examined the presence of DP isomers in the muscle tissue of seven terrestrial resident passerine species, i.e., the great tit (Parus major), the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis), the red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), the light-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis), the streak-breasted scimitar babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis), the long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach), and the orange-headed thrush (Zoothera citrina), from a national nature reserve located in South China. The ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 104 ng/g lipid weight, with significantly higher levels in insectivorous birds than in omnivorous birds. The overall exposure to DP isomers of the current passerines may be attributed to the intensive release of this pollutant from electronic waste recycling sites and industrial zones in the vicinity of the nature reserve. Species-specific DP isomeric profiles were also found, with significantly greater f{sub anti} values (the isomer fractions of anti-DP) in the red-whiskered bulbul and the oriental magpie-robin. Additionally, the f{sub anti} values were significantly negatively correlated to ∑DP concentrations for the individual bird samples, suggesting the influence of DP concentrations on the isomeric profiles. - Highlights: • We investigated the occurrence of DP in seven species of terrestrial passerines. • Insectivorous birds accumulated higher ∑DP concentrations than omnivorous birds. • Inter-species differences in the f{sub anti} values were observed. • The f{sub anti} values were significantly correlated to DP concentrations.

  14. Contributions of air pollution and climate warming to tufa wetland degradation in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, eastern rim of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X.; Tang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Massive deposition of calcium carbonate in ambient temperature waters forms magnificent tufa wetlands, many of which are designated as protected areas and are popular tourist destinations. There is a tufa wetland belt along the Eastern Rim of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (ERQTP), and many of them are experiencing degradation, such as nutrient enrichment and tufa degradation. Meanwhile, there is also an air pollution belt in the ERQTP. This study was made to understand the correlation of tufa wetland degradation with climate change and air pollution for Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (hereafter Jiuzhaigou). Atmospheric changes were first studied. The results show that annual mean air temperature increased by 1.2oC from 1951 to 2014. Anthropogenic emissions contributed to over 90% annual wet deposition fluxes of reactive sulfur and nitrogen and caused acid rain (pHair pollutants. Then, the impacts of air pollution and climate warming on tufa wetlands were further investigated. We found that precipitation was calcite-unsaturated so it could dissolve exposed tufa and considerably reduce tufa deposition rate and even cause tufa dissolution in shallow waters. These effects enhanced as precipitation pH decreased. Annual volume-weighted mean concentration of reactive nitrogen in wet deposition and runoff were 26.1 and 14.8 µmol L-1, respectively, both exceeding China's national standard of total nitrogen in runoff for nature reserves (14.3 µmol L-1) and this suggested a nitrogen fertilization effect of wet deposition on green algae. As water temperature is the limiting factor of algal growth in Jiuzhaigou and temperature in the top layer (0-5 cm) of runoff (with a depthair pollutants have contributed to tufa wetland degradation in Jiuzhaigou, but in order to better quantify the contributions, further studies are needed, as many other anthropogenic and natural processes also influence tufa wetland evolution.

  15. Research status of geothermal resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincheng; Li, Guang

    2017-08-01

    As the representative of the new green energy, geothermal resources are characterized by large reserve, wide distribution, cleanness and environmental protection, good stability, high utilization factor and other advantages. According to the characteristics of exploitation and utilization, they can be divided into high-temperature, medium-temperature and low-temperature geothermal resources. The abundant and widely distributed geothermal resources in China have a broad prospect for development. The medium and low temperature geothermal resources are broadly distributed in the continental crustal uplift and subsidence areas inside the plate, represented by the geothermal belt on the southeast coast, while the high temperature geothermal resources concentrate on Southern Tibet-Western Sichuan-Western Yunnan Geothermal Belt and Taiwan Geothermal Belt. Currently, the geothermal resources in China are mainly used for bathing, recuperation, heating and power generation. It is a country that directly makes maximum use of geothermal energy in the world. However, China’s geothermal power generation, including installed generating capacity and power generation capacity, are far behind those of Western European countries and the USA. Studies on exploitation and development of geothermal resources are still weak.

  16. River capture by earthquake caused the transition of ancient Sichuan civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, N.; Wu, B.; Nie, R.; Liu, X.; Cao, S.

    2014-12-01

    About three thousand years ago, Sanxingdui Civilization in Sichuan, China suddenly disappeared in its flourishing stage, following by a new Civilization called Jinsha locates about 40 kilometers southwest of Sanxingdui. The previous reasons such as flood or war was not so convincing to explain the sudden extinction of Sanxingdui and the heritage of Jinsha. Nevertheless, no sufficient attention has been paid to the special geomorphologic characters of Yanmen Ravine (a tributary of Minjiang River), Jianjiang River and Baishui River (a tributary of Jianjiang River), either. Based on field investigation conducted in the relevant areas, in addition with 3S (Remote Sensing RS, Geographical information System GIS and Global Positioning System GPS) technologies, it is found that Yanmen Ravine, Baishui River and Jianjiang River (all are bed rock rivers) are too wide in according with the small flow discharge. Some cirques locate in high areas of Mount Gauangguang, which is the divide of the current Yanmen Ravine and Baishui River, but no cirques exist near the proposed old channel. As a result, it proves that Baishui River and Jianjiang River are beheaded rivers and Yanmen Ravine is a reversed river. All the demonstrations above prove that Minjiang River used to flow southeast into Tuojiang River through Mount Guangguang along Baishui River and Jianjiang River. The profiles of Minjing River, Zagunao River, Yanmen Ravine and Wenzheng Ravine also demonstrate that river capture once happened. Combining historic records and archaeological materials, it is concluded that a strong earthquake happened in 1099B.C. triggered rock avalanches and landslides, the old Minjiang River was dammed in Mount Guangguang and river capture happened. The avulsion of river resulted in sharp decreasing of the flow discharge of the river flowing by Sanxingdui Civilization. As a result, for the short of water resources, Sanxingdui Civilization was forced to migrate and finally found the big river in

  17. Astronomical Site Survey for Mountain Wumingshan Area in Western Sichuan Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, H. M.

    2016-11-01

    In the Western-China Astronomical Site Survey project, we utilize the Geographic Information System (GIS) for the collection of long-term data, in order to investigate and study the Wumingshan (WMS) mountain and its surrounding areas for their geography, geology, climate, meteorology, social and demographic trends. Data analysis results show that the WMS mountain is located in the eastern fold belt of the Tibet Plateau--the typical region of the Hengduan Mountains, which leads to its large elevation, gently trended ridge, and stable geological structure. The highest altitude above the sea level at the WMS is more than 5000 m, but there are population settlements nearby with the low altitude of only 2000-3000 m, which are important for realizing low-level cost logistics conditions for the future headquarter or logistic base. Earthquake landslides and other geological disasters were rarely recorded. The other facts are such as the dry and clean atmosphere, the sparse vegetation, the semi-dry-state land, the perennial prevailing southwest wind, the rain-less winter, and the relatively short rainy-season summer, the location in the heartland of the large Shangri-La, no records of dust storms and the other inclement weather, low cloud coverage, the stability of wind direction, the small wind speed, the high possibility of clear sky, the far distance away from the developed areas in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, and Tibet Autonomous Region, the sparsely populated people, the slowly developed economy, the peaceful and stable social environment, etc. Specially, in recent years, with the development of the local tourist resources, the traffic conditions in Daocheng have been significantly improved. With high quality highway maintenance and daily air transport capacity, the transportation of land and aviation is rarely interrupted due to snowing, which often happens in high plateau regions. Therefore, the WMS area possesses the potential conditions to establish the future

  18. How do similarities in spatial distributions and interspecific associations affect the coexistence ofQuercusspecies in the Baotianman National Nature Reserve, Henan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhiliang; Wei, Boliang; Chen, Yun; Jia, Hongru; Wei, Qingning; Ye, Yongzhong

    2018-03-01

    Congeneric species often have similar ecological characteristics and use similar resources. These similarities may make it easier for them to co-occur in a similar habitat but may also lead to strong competitions that limit their coexistence. Hence, how do similarities in congeneric species affect their coexistence exactly? This study mainly used spatial point pattern analysis in two 1 hm 2 plots in the Baotianman National Nature Reserve, Henan, China, to compare the similarities in spatial distributions and interspecific associations of Quercus species. Results revealed that Quercus species were all aggregated under the complete spatial randomness null model, and aggregations were weaker under the heterogeneous Poisson process null model in each plot. The interspecific associations of Quercus species to non- Quercus species were very similar in Plot 1. However, they can be either positive or negative in different plots between the co-occurring Quercus species. The spatial distributions of congeneric species, interspecific associations with non- Quercus species, neighborhood richness around species, and species diversity were all different between the two plots. We found that congeneric species did have some similarities, and the closely related congeneric species can positive or negative associate with each other in different plots. The co-occurring congeneric species may have different survival strategies in different habitats. On the one hand, competition among congenerics may lead to differentiation in resource utilization. On the other hand, their similar interspecific associations can strengthen their competitive ability and promote local exclusion to noncongeneric species to obtain more living space. Our results provide new knowledge for us to better understand the coexistence mechanisms of species.

  19. Prevalence and Years of Life Lost due to Disability from Dental Caries among Children and Adolescents in Western China, 1990-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Deng, Ying; Liu, Shi Wei; He, Jun; Ji, Kui; Zeng, Xin Ying; Yang, Shu Juan; Xu, Xin Yin; Luo, Yu; Zhou, Mai Geng; Zhang, Jian Xin

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence and years lived with disability (YLD) from dental caries among children and adolescents and the time trends over the past two decades in Sichuan province, the largest province in west China. Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD2015), which systematically assessed the epidemiological characteristics of major diseases and their transitions by country and region from 1990 to 2015, we extracted the estimated results for China. We then used the Bayesian meta-regression method to estimate the sex- and age-specific prevalences and YLDs from dental caries among children and adolescents under 15 years old in Sichuan province and compared them with global and national indicators for the same period. In 2015, there were almost 6 million cases of dental caries in children and adolescents (aged caries was 55.9%, and the YLDs value was 10.8 per 100,000, while it was 24.3% and 5.1 per 100,000 respectively among 5- to 14-year-olds; for those aged 5 to 14 years, the prevalence of permanent caries was 21.5%, and the YLDs value was 11.5 per 100,000. From 1990 to 2015, the prevalence of dental caries for children under 5 years increased substantially, by 16.2%, and the YLDs increased by 8.7%. Among those aged 5 to 14 years, the prevalence increased and the YLDs decreased. Dental caries remains a huge health burden in Western China. In contrast to the global and national data, the trend has increased rapidly over the past 25 years in this region. This work provides suggestions for the prevention and control for oral health in China with the policy of two-child. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  20. Two new Lamiogethes Audisio & Cline from China (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae, Meligethinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Lamiogethes Audisio & Cline, 2009 are described from China (Sichuan: L. forcipenis sp. n., and L. convexistrigosus sp. n., based on a series of recently collected specimens. The new species are both likely morphologically related to L. potanini (Kirejtshuk, 1979 from Sichuan and to L. conjungens (Grouvelle, 1910 from Yunnan. These new species clearly differ from their related taxa by details of the body shape and color, and the distinct shape of the male and female genitalia. Both new species are likely associated as larvae with a member of the genus Phlomoides Moench (Lamiaceae.

  1. Carolyn Hsu, Social Entrepreneurship and Citizenship in China: The rise of NGOs in the PRC,

    OpenAIRE

    Arantes, Virginie

    2017-01-01

    Carolyn Hsu’s Social Entrepreneurship and Citizenship in China: The rise of NGOs in the PRC starts with an expected question: “Was the 2008 Sichuan earthquake a major turning point for Chinese citizens?” In fact, the Sichuan earthquake is widely seen as one of the most important events that contributed to a rising level of social awareness, and more importantly, in recognising the potential of NGOs in China. However, this book shows that such interest in social issues goes back before the 200...

  2. Absence of population genetic structure in Heterakis gallinarum of chicken from Sichuan, inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaobin; Zhu, Jun-Yang; Jian, Ke-Ling; Wang, Bao-Jian; Peng, Xue-Rong; Yang, Guang-You; Wang, Tao; Zhong, Zhi-Jun; Peng, Ke-Yun

    2016-09-01

    Population genetics information provides a foundation for understanding the transmission and epidemiology of parasite and, therefore, may be used to assist in the control of parasitosis. However, limited available sequence information in Heterakis gallinarum has greatly impeded the study in this area. In this study, we first investigated the genetic variability and genetic structure of H. gallinarum. The 1325 bp fragments of the mitochondrial COX1 gene were amplified in 56 isolates of H. gallinarum from seven different geographical regions in Sichuan province, China. The 56 sequences were classified into 22 haplotypes (H1-H22). The values of haplotype diversity (0.712) and nucleotide diversity (0.00158) in Sichuan population indicate a rapid expansion occurred from a relatively small, short-term effective population in the past. The haplotype network formed a distribution around H1 in a star-like topology, and the haplotypes did not cluster according to their geographical location. Similar conclusions could be made from MP phylogenetic tree. The Fst value (Fstexpansion in the past. Our results indicated that H. gallinarum experienced a rapid population expansion in the past, and there was a low genetic diversity and an absence of population structure across the population.

  3. Systematic Environmental Impact Assessment for Non-natural Reserve Areas: A Case Study of the Chaishitan Water Conservancy Project on Land Use and Plant Diversity in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xin Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment (EIA before and after the establishment of a Water Conservancy Project (WCP is of great theoretical and practical importance for assessing the effectiveness of ecological restoration efforts. WCPs rehabilitate flood-damaged areas or other regions hit by disasters by controlling and redistributing surface water and groundwater. Using Geographic Information System (GIS and Composite Evaluation Index (CEI in predictive modeling, we studied the degree to which a WCP could change land use, plant communities, and species diversity in Yunnan, China. Via modeling, we quantified likely landscape pattern changes and linked them to naturality (i.e., the percentage of secondary vegetation types, diversity, and stability together with the human interferences (e.g., conservation or restoration project of an ecosystem. The value of each index was determined by the evaluation system, and the weight percentage was decided through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. We found that minor land-use changes would occur after the Chaishitan WCP was theoretically established. The greatest decline was farmland (0.079%, followed by forest (0.066%, with the least decline in water bodies (0.020%. We found 1,076 vascular plant species (including subspecies, varieties and form belonging to 165 families and 647 genera in Chaishitan irrigation area before the water conservancy establishment. The naturality and diversity decreased 11.18 and 10.16% respectively. The CEI was 0.92, which indicated that Chaishitan WCP will enhance local landscape heterogeneity, and it will not deteriorate local ecological quality. Our study proposes a comprehensive ecological evaluation system for this WCP and further suggests the importance of including the ecological and environmental consequences of the WCP, along with the well-established socioeconomic evaluation systems for non-natural reserve areas. We conclude that the Chaishitan WCP will have minor

  4. Current status and associated human health risk of vanadium in soil in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Teng, Yanguo; Wu, Jin; Chen, Haiyang; Wang, Guoqiang; Song, Liuting; Yue, Weifeng; Zuo, Rui; Zhai, Yuanzheng

    2017-03-01

    A detailed assessment of vanadium contamination characteristics in China was conducted based on the first national soil pollution survey. The map overlay analysis was used to evaluate the contamination level of vanadium and the non-carcinogenic risk assessment model was calculated to quantify the vanadium exposure risks to human health. The results showed that, due to the drastically increased mining and smelting activities, 26.49% of soils were contaminated by vanadium scattered in southwest of China. According to Canadian soil quality guidelines, about 8.6% of the national soil pollution survey samples were polluted, and pose high non-carcinogenic risks to the public, especially to children living in the vicinity of heavily polluted mining areas. We propose the area near the boundary of Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, and Sichuan provinces as priority control areas due to their higher geochemical background or higher health risks posed to the public. Finally, recommendations for management are proposed, including minimization of contaminant inputs, establishing stringent monitoring program, using phytoremediation, and strengthening the enforcement of relevant laws. Therefore, this study provides a comprehensive assessment of soil vanadium contamination in China, and the results will provide valuable information for China's soil vanadium management and risk avoidance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sedimentary features and exploration targets of Middle Permian reservoirs in the SW Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploration direction and targets for the large-scale Middle Permian gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are hot spots and challenges in current exploration researches. The exploration successes of large gas field of Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation in Gaoshiti-Moxi region, Central Sichuan Basin, indicated that prospective sedimentary facies belt was the basis for the formation of large gas fields. In this paper, based on seismic data, outcrop data and drilling data, the tectonic framework and sedimentary features of the Middle Permian in the SW Sichuan Basin were comprehensively studied. The following conclusions were reached from the perspective of sedimentary facies control: (1 during the Middle Permian, this region was in shallow water gentle slope belts with high energy, where thick reef flat facies were deposited; (2 the basement was uplifted during Middle Permian, resulting in the unconformity weathering crust at the top of Maokou Formation due to erosion; the SW Sichuan Basin was located in the karst slope belt, where epigenic karstification was intense; and (3 reef flat deposits superimposed by karst weathering crust was favorable for the formation of large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs. Based on the combination of the resources conditions and hydrocarbon accumulation conditions in this region, it was pointed out that the Middle Permian has great potential of large-scale reef flat karst gas reservoir due to its advantageous geological conditions; the Middle Permian traps with good hydrocarbon accumulation conditions were developed in the Longmen Mountain front closed structural belt in the SW Sichuan Basin and Western Sichuan Basin depression slope belt, which are favorable targets for large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs.

  6. First nationwide study regarding ceftriaxone resistance and molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Chun; Yin, Yue-Ping; Dai, Xiu-Qin; Unemo, Magnus; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major public health concern worldwide. This is the first nationwide study, performed within the China Gonococcal Antimicrobial Susceptibility Programme (China-GASP), regarding AMR, including ceftriaxone genetic resistance determinants, and molecular epidemiology of gonococci in China. Gonococcal isolates (n = 1257) from consecutive patients were collected at 11 sentinel sites distributed across China during 2012-13. Susceptibility to ceftriaxone, spectinomycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline was determined using the agar dilution method. Ceftriaxone resistance determinants penA and penB were examined using sequencing. N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) was performed for molecular epidemiology. Among isolates, 0.2% were resistant to spectinomycin, 4.4% to ceftriaxone, 42.9% to tetracyclines (high-level resistance) and 99.8% to ciprofloxacin. Among 890 sequenced isolates, 16 (1.8%) possessed a penA mosaic allele; 4 of these isolates belonged to the MDR internationally spread NG-MAST genogroup G1407 (first description in China). Non-mosaic penA alleles with an A501T mutation and an A102D alteration in porB1b were statistically associated with decreased susceptibility/resistance to ceftriaxone. NG-MAST G10339, G1424 and G1053 were associated with decreased susceptibility/resistance to ceftriaxone. In China, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin can continue to be recommended for gonorrhoea treatment, with the possible exception of Hainan and Sichuan provinces where ceftriaxone resistance exceeded 5% and AMR surveillance needs to be strengthened. Molecular approaches including genotyping and AMR determinant analysis can be valuable to supplement and enhance conventional surveillance of gonococcal AMR in China. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Geochemical evidence of water-soluble gas accumulation in the Weiyuan gas field, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengfei Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are several different opinions on the formation process of the Weiyuan gas field in the Sichuan Basin and the source of its natural gas. In view of the fact that the methane carbon isotope of the natural gas in the Weiyuan gas field is abnormally heavy, the geologic characteristics of gas reservoirs and the geochemical characteristics of natural gas were first analyzed. In the Weiyuan gas field, the principal gas reservoirs belong to Sinian Dengying Fm. The natural gas is mainly composed of methane, with slight ethane and trace propane. The gas reservoirs are higher in water saturation, with well preserved primary water. Then, it was discriminated from the relationship of H2S content vs. methane carbon isotope that the heavier methane carbon isotope of natural gas in this area is not caused by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR. Based on the comparison of methane carbon isotope in this area with that in adjacent areas, and combined with the tectonic evolution background, it is regarded that the natural gas in the Weiyuan gas field is mainly derived from water-soluble gas rather than be migrated laterally from adjacent areas. Some conclusions are made. First, since methane released from water is carbon isotopically heavier, the water-soluble gas accumulation after degasification results in the heavy methane carbon isotope of the gas produced from Weiyuan gas field. Second, along with Himalayan movement, great uplift occurred in the Weiyuan area and structural traps were formed. Under high temperature and high pressure, the gas dissolved in water experienced decompression precipitation, and the released natural gas accumulated in traps, consequently leading to the formation of Weiyuan gas field. Third, based on calculation, the amount of natural gas released from water which is entrapped in the Weiyuan gas field after the tectonic uplift is basically equal to the proved reserves of this field, confirming the opinion of water

  8. Dominant Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation Systems for the Extreme Precipitation over the Western Sichuan Basin in Summer 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamin Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The western Sichuan Basin (WSB is a rainstorm center influenced by complicated factors such as topography and circulation. Based on multivariable empirical orthogonal function technique for extreme precipitation processes (EPP in WSB in 2013, this study reveals the dominant circulation patterns. Results indicate that the leading modes are characterized by “Saddle” and “Sandwich” structures, respectively. In one mode, a TC from the South China Sea (SCS converts into the inverted trough and steers warm moist airflow northward into the WSB. At the same time, WPSH extends westward over the Yangtze River and conveys a southeasterly warm humid flow. In the other case, WPSH is pushed westward by TC in the Western Pacific and then merges with an anomalous anticyclone over SCS. The anomalous anticyclone and WPSH form a conjunction belt and convey the warm moist southwesterly airflow to meet with the cold flow over the WSB. The configurations of WPSH and TC in the tropic and the blocking and trough in the midhigh latitudes play important roles during the EPPs over the WSB. The persistence of EPPs depends on the long-lived large-scale circulation configuration steady over the suitable positions.

  9. Application of high-precision 3D seismic technology to shale gas exploration: A case study of the large Jiaoshiba shale gas field in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuqing Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation pattern of the marine shale gas in South China is different from that in North America. The former has generally thin reservoirs and complex preservation conditions, so it is difficult to make a fine description of the structural features of shale formations and to reflect accurately the distribution pattern of high-quality shale by using the conventional 2D and 3D seismic exploration technology, which has an adverse effect on the successful deployment of horizontal wells. In view of this, high-precision 3D seismic prospecting focusing on lithological survey was implemented to make an accurate description of the distribution of shale gas sweet spots so that commercial shale gas production can be obtained. Therefore, due to the complex seismic geological condition of Jiaoshiba area in Fuling, SE Sichuan Basin, the observation system of high-precision 3D seismic acquisition should have such features as wide-azimuth angles, small trace intervals, high folds, uniform vertical and horizontal coverage and long spread to meet the needs of the shale gas exploration in terms of structural interpretation, lithological interpretation and fracture prediction. Based on this idea, the first implemented high-precision 3D seismic exploration project in Jiaoshiba area played an important role in the discovery of the large Jiaoshiba shale gas field. Considering that the high-quality marine shale in the Sichuan Basin shows the characteristics of multi-layer development from the Silurian system to the Cambrian system, the strategy of shale gas stereoscopic exploration should be implemented to fully obtain the oil and gas information of the shallow, medium and deep strata from the high-precision 3D seismic data, and ultimately to expand the prospecting achievements in an all-round way to balance the high upstream exploration cost, and to continue to push the efficient shale gas exploration and development process in China.

  10. China's endemic vertebrates sheltering under the protective umbrella of the giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin V; Pimm, Stuart L

    2016-04-01

    The giant panda attracts disproportionate conservation resources. How well does this emphasis protect other endemic species? Detailed data on geographical ranges are not available for plants or invertebrates, so we restrict our analyses to 3 vertebrate taxa: birds, mammals, and amphibians. There are gaps in their protection, and we recommend practical actions to fill them. We identified patterns of species richness, then identified which species are endemic to China, and then which, like the panda, live in forests. After refining each species' range by its known elevational range and remaining forest habitats as determined from remote sensing, we identified the top 5% richest areas as the centers of endemism. Southern mountains, especially the eastern Hengduan Mountains, were centers for all 3 taxa. Over 96% of the panda habitat overlapped the endemic centers. Thus, investing in almost any panda habitat will benefit many other endemics. Existing panda national nature reserves cover all but one of the endemic species that overlap with the panda's distribution. Of particular interest are 14 mammal, 20 bird, and 82 amphibian species that are inadequately protected. Most of these species the International Union for Conservation of Nature currently deems threatened. But 7 mammal, 3 bird, and 20 amphibian species are currently nonthreatened, yet their geographical ranges are <20,000 km(2) after accounting for elevational restriction and remaining habitats. These species concentrate mainly in Sichuan, Yunnan, Nan Mountains, and Hainan. There is a high concentration in the east Daxiang and Xiaoxiang Mountains of Sichuan, where pandas are absent and where there are no national nature reserves. The others concentrate in Yunnan, Nan Mountains, and Hainan. Here, 10 prefectures might establish new protected areas or upgrade local nature reserves to national status. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. research notes and comments: Regional density functions and growth patterns in major plains of China, 1982-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Fahui Wang

    2001-01-01

    This research analyzes the spatial patterns of regional development in China through the change of population density functions from 1982 to 1990, using several online digital data sets. To minimize the influence of physical environment on population densities, the study areas are limited to four major plains of China: the Northeast (Dongbei), North China (Huabei) and Hubei-Hunan (Lianghu) Plains, and the Sichuan Basin. A gravity-based delineation approach is used to delineate the influen ce ...

  12. Control of Eospalax baileyi (Plateau Zokor) with arrow traps in western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, Yang; Xidong, Li; Gaowei, Xu; Wei, Liu; Meerburg, B.G.

    2016-01-01

    In order to manage Eospalax (Myospalax) baileyi (Plateau zokors) pests with physical method, the efficacy of four different arrow traps was tested to control the plateau zokor in Sichuan Northwest Prairie, China. Population densities of 39.7-42.1 ha-1 were found in the test plots. Such densities

  13. Parental absence, child victimization, and psychological well-being in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengtong; Chan, Ko Ling

    2016-09-01

    Using cross-sectional data regarding 793 rural children aged 10-16 in Sichuan Province of China, the present study examined the preceding-year rates of seven forms of child victimization (physical assault, property crime, peer/sibling victimization, child maltreatment, sexual victimization, witnessing family violence, and exposure to community violence) and poly-victimization, and found children's victimization experiences increased as the degree of parental absence increased (from the presence of two biological parents, to parental migration and parental separation and divorce). Elevated levels of depression were also found among left-behind children and children of separated or divorced parents, compared to children living with both biological parents; and child poly-victimization added to the risk of child depression. Certain demographic characteristics (being a boy and younger) and parental factors were associated with child victimization in rural China. This study highlights the need for child protection in rural China, and in particular for parent-absent children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Assistance to Beichuan Reconstruction: Creating and Designing Low- to Zero-carbon Communities in New Beichuan, Sichuan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Wang, Chuang; Hong, Tianzhen; Levine, Mark

    2009-10-29

    Beichuan county, located in north of Sichuan Province, was the most severely damaged township in last May's Sichuan earthquake. Reconstruction of a new Beichuan is a high-profiled project by the governments. In addition to constructing structurally-sound, quake-safe buildings in the new development, rebuilding Beichuan presents an opportunity for constructing new low- to zero-carbon communities in the region. In fact, building up greener communities in the reconstruction has become a top priority for the county, which, at an estimated 7 square km, is expected to have 50,000 residents in 2015 and 70,000 in 2020. The recent focus of construction projects is on the east side of the river, while land on its west bank will be reserved for development in the mid- to long-term. In the near term, a number of new public buildings are scheduled to be constructed starting in November 2009. As indicated by the deputy county chief, Mr. He Wang, the construction timeframe is unusually tight. Many buildings, although in various stages of planning and design, will be constructed starting in November 2009. Timely expert advice on design improvement and planning considerations will benefit the integration of energy efficiency and environmental benign elements in Beichuan's reconstruction, and will help promoting integrated development of green communities with low- to zero-carbon emission from the region.

  15. Considerations of breakthrough orientation on prospecting uranium resources in southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zexuan; Kang Youchun

    2010-01-01

    Based on the study of metallogenic environment, ore control factors, and metallogenic genesis of uranium deposits, combining with regional geological background, 5 uranium metallogenic belts including Gangdise-Tengchong, Sanjiang, northwest of Sichuan, north of Sichuan, middle of Guizhou and 4 uranium metallogenic prospective belts including Gangdise, Changdu, Changtai-Daocheng and Xikang-Yunnan Axis can be classified in southwestern China. The thought of prospecting uranium resources should aim at strengthening regional geological investigation, selecting favorable metallogenic areas, accelerating regional evaluation and implementing uranium resources survey gradually. The breakthrough orientation includes expanding old mining areas, opening up new bases, prospecting new types, and raising comprehensive value for unconventional uranium resources. (authors)

  16. [Effects of different storage methods on germination and physiological indexes of seed-stem of Pinellia ternata from Sichuan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hao; Wu, Wei; Tang, Liuhua; Pan, Hongmei; Li, Min

    2010-06-01

    To study the optimum storage methods of Pinellia ternata from Sichuan. Nine methods were used to overwintering storage of the seed-stem of P. ternata from Sichuan. The germination of seed-stem was observed through the following year after planting, then the germination percentage, vigor of germination and germination index were calculated. At the seedling stage, the physiological indexes like rooting number, root length, root activity, chlorophyll content and catalase activity etc. were determined. Under the different storage conditions, all the tested indexes of P. ternata from Sichuan were significantly different between each other (P seed-stem of P. ternata from Sichuan should be preserved in the wet sand (or in soil) in a greenhouse or 4 degrees C refrigerator. Under these conditions, the germinating vigor and growth activity of seed-stem performed the best.

  17. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure in China and their significances on the natural gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchen Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coal measure gas sources of coal-derived gas fields in the Late Paleozoic China are the Lower Carboniferous Dishuiquan Formation, the Upper Carboniferous Batamayineishan Formation and Benxi Formation, the Lower Permian Taiyuan Formation and Shanxi Formation, and the Upper Permian Longtan Formation. The coal-derived gas accumulates in Ordovician, Carboniferous, Permian, and Paleocene reservoirs and are distributed in Ordos Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, Junggar Basin, and Sichuan Basin. There are 16 gas fields and 12 of them are large gas fields such as the Sulige large gas field which is China's largest reserve with the highest annual output. According to component and alkane carbon isotope data of 99 gas samples, they are distinguished to be coal-derived gas from coal-derived gas with δ13C2 > −28.5‰ and δ13C1 -δ13C2 -δ13C3 identification chart. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure are significant for the Chinese natural gas industry: proven natural gas geological reserves and annual output of them account for 1/3 in China, and the gas source of three significant large gas fields is coal-derived, which of five significant large gas fields supporting China to be a great gas producing country. The average reserves of the gas fields and the large gas fields formed from the late Paleozoic coal measure are 5.3 and 1.7 times that of the gas fields and the large gas fields in China.

  18. Diffusion of new technology, health services and information after a crisis: a focus group study of the Sichuan "5.12" Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Shi, Lu; Mao, Yuping; Tang, Juan; Zeng, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The Sichuan "5.12" Earthquake in 2008 occurred in a relatively underdeveloped area in China. The rainy weather, the mountainous environment and the local languages all posed major challenges to the dissemination of information and services after the disaster. By adopting a communication perspective, this study applies the diffusion of innovations theory to investigate how healthcare professionals diffused health technologies, health information and services during the rescue and relief operation. The authors conducted three focus group sessions with the health professionals who had attended to the rescue and relief work of the Sichuan "5.12" Earthquake in 2008. A range of questions regarding the diffusion of innovations were asked during these sessions. The health professionals used their cell phones to communicate with other healthcare providers, disseminated knowledge of health risks and injuries to affected residents with pamphlets and posters and attended daily meetings at the local government offices. They reported on the shortage of maritime satellite cell phones and large-size tents for medical use, and the absence of fully equipped ambulances. Volunteers, local health professionals and local officials provided health information and services in different ways. However, the diffusion of health information and services was less likely to reach those living next to transportation centers, in remote areas and in disaster areas neglected by the media. New communication devices such as cell phones and the mobile Internet enabled medical professionals to coordinate the rescue and relief work after this major natural disaster, at a time when the country's emergency response system still had plenty of room for improvement. In future, the mobile Internet should be used as a means of collecting bottom-up disaster reports so that the media will not neglect any disaster areas as they did during the Sichuan Earthquake. Rescue relief work would have been substantially

  19. The PLA and Chinas Rejuvenation: National Security and Military Strategies, Deterrence Concepts, and Combat Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    domestic stability. To that end, the PLA is expected to perform a range of operations, including HADR. During the 2008 Sichuan earth - quake , for...to Congress on China’s military power notes that U.S.-China military-to-military rela- tions have increased in frequency , and the types of activities...cyber- attacks from China on U.S. government institutions occur with increasing frequency , with no 52 The PLA and China’s Rejuvenation clear

  20. Comparison of injury epidemiology between the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Zheng, Xi; Yuan, Yong; Pu, Qiang; Liu, Lunxu; Zhao, Yongfan

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to compare injury characteristics and the timing of admissions and surgeries in the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 and the Lushan earthquake in 2013. We retrospectively compared the admission and operating times and injury profiles of patients admitted to our medical center during both earthquakes. We also explored the relationship between seismic intensity and injury type. The time from earthquake onset to the peak in patient admissions and surgeries differed between the 2 earthquakes. In the Wenchuan earthquake, injuries due to being struck by objects or being buried were more frequent than other types of injuries, and more patients suffered injuries of the extremities than thoracic injuries or brain trauma. In the Lushan earthquake, falls were the most common injury, and more patients suffered thoracic trauma or brain injuries. The types of injury seemed to vary with seismic intensity, whereas the anatomical location of the injury did not. Greater seismic intensity of an earthquake is associated with longer delay between the event and the peak in patient admissions and surgeries, higher frequencies of injuries due to being struck or buried, and lower frequencies of injuries due to falls and injuries to the chest and brain. These insights may prove useful for planning rescue interventions in trauma centers near the epicenter.

  1. [An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by poisonous Boletus mushroom in Sichuan, China, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-jun; Yuan, Wei; Liu, Lun-guang; Zhang, Li-jie; Shi, Guo-qing; Wang, Qi-xing

    2012-12-01

    To identify the source of infection and risk factors and to provide control measures regarding an outbreak of gastroenteritis involving 30 villagers. Who attended the same wedding party held on March 5(th), 2012, a survey was carried out. Case was defined as having onset of vomiting, nausea, stomachache or diarrhea among the attendees of a wedding party. We randomly selected and interviewed 140 from 470 attendees on their symptoms and food exposures at the wedding. We compared food-specific attack rates (AR) for gastroenteritis in a retrospective cohort study. The leftover foods were tested for Salmonella, Shigella, and Staphylococcus aureus. The leftover Boletus mushrooms were examined and species determined by the Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Of the 140 attendees 61% (85) developed gastroenteritis. Case-attendees had vomiting (94%), nausea (89%), stomachache (53%), and diarrhea (51%). The AR among attendees who ate Boletus mushroom was 69% (81/118), compared to 18% (4/22) of those who did not (RR = 3.8, 95%CI: 1.5 - 9.2). When comparing the ARs between the attendees on consumption of other foods, data did not show statistically significant differences. Among the 7 species of Boletus identified from the leftover mushrooms, 3 (B. venenatus, B. sinicus and B. magnificus) were toxic. Store keepers bought dried or fresh mushrooms from local villagers who had picked up them from the mountains. Salmonella, Shigella, and Staphylococcus aureus tests on those leftover food showed negative results. Poisonous Boletus mushroom contributed to this outbreak. We recommended that education should be targeted on mushroom-pickers regarding how to recognize the poisonous mushrooms. Regulations and laws should also be developed to facilitate the necessary process.

  2. Social-ecological Resilience of a Nuosu Community-linked Watershed, Southwest Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren S. Urgenson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Farmers of the Nuosu Yi ethnic group in the Upper Baiwu watershed report reductions in the availability of local forest resources. A team of interdisciplinary scientists worked in partnership with this community to assess the type and extent of social-ecological change in the watershed and to identify key drivers of those changes. Here, we combine a framework for institutional analysis with resilience concepts to assess system dynamics and interactions among resource users, resources, and institutions over the past century. The current state of this system reflects a legacy of past responses to institutional disturbances initiated at the larger, national system scale. Beginning with the Communist Revolution in 1957 and continuing through the next two decades, centralized forest regulations imposed a mismatch between the scale of management and the scale of the ecological processes being managed. A newly implemented forest property rights policy is shifting greater control over the management of forest resources to individuals in rural communities. Collective forest users will be allowed to manage commodity forests for profit through the transfer of long-term leases to private contractors. Villagers are seeking guidance on how to develop sustainable and resilient forest management practices under the new policy, a responsibility returned to them after half a century and with less abundant and fewer natural resources, a larger and aggregated population, and greater influence from external forces. We assess the watershed's current state in light of the past and identify future opportunities to strengthen local institutions for governance of forest resources.

  3. Prevalence of Mental Disorders in 6–16-Year-Old Students in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Qu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the point prevalence of mental disorders in school students, multistage cluster stratified random sampling and two-phase survey methods were used to identify 40 primary and middle schools. The students were screened using the Chinese version of the Child Behavior Checklist and diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The prevalence of behavioral problems was 19.13%. The prevalence of behavioral problems significantly differed by sex, age, city of residence, and caretaker. The six-month prevalence of any mental disorder was 15.24% (95% CI: 15.49%–16.97%. Psychiatric disorders were more prevalent in boys (17.33% relative to girls (13.11%; p < 0.01. The prevalence of mental disorders significantly differed by community and caretaker, and 36.46% of students exhibited comorbidity. Results demonstrated important mental health issues, with a high incidence of comorbidities, in this population. Students’ mental health requires increased attention, particularly in poverty-stricken areas and left-behind children and adolescents.

  4. Prevalence of Mental Disorders in 6–16-Year-Old Students in Sichuan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yuan; Jiang, Hongyun; Zhang, Ni; Wang, Dahai; Guo, Lanting

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the point prevalence of mental disorders in school students, multistage cluster stratified random sampling and two-phase survey methods were used to identify 40 primary and middle schools. The students were screened using the Chinese version of the Child Behavior Checklist and diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The prevalence of behavioral problems was 19.13%. The prevalence of behavioral problems significantly differed by sex, age, city of residence, and caretaker. The six-month prevalence of any mental disorder was 15.24% (95% CI: 15.49%–16.97%). Psychiatric disorders were more prevalent in boys (17.33%) relative to girls (13.11%; p mental disorders significantly differed by community and caretaker, and 36.46% of students exhibited comorbidity. Results demonstrated important mental health issues, with a high incidence of comorbidities, in this population. Students’ mental health requires increased attention, particularly in poverty-stricken areas and left-behind children and adolescents. PMID:25985310

  5. Groundwater pollution of post-mined phosphate rock in Tuojiang watershed (Sichuan, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    changwen, ye

    2014-05-01

    Phosphate rock is the source of phosphorus used to make phosphatic fertilizers, essential for growing the food needed by humans in the world today and in the future. The erosion and eluviation on exposed phosphrite layer and overburden in the phosphate rock areas result in the releasing of fluoride and phosphorus and groundwater polluting. Meanwhile, the waste water and untreated mineral waste residue in the beneficiation and mining operations are also main source of pollution. The un-restored post-mined phosphate rock areas in Tuojiang watershed is large scale. The investigation of the amounts of pollutants releasing from mined lands and transporting by runoffs was conducted. The releasing and transporting amounts of pollutants were calculated according to the results of column leaching studies and acreages of exposed phosphrite layers and overburdens. In conclusion, phosphorus mining activity is an important non-point source of groundwater contamination of Tuojiang watershed.Study about the management and engineering measurement can be carried out according to the non-point source: agriculture, Pollution, Phosphorous mine and chemical plant. The study can provide the practical consultation and help making the decision about the management and treatment of groundwater resource in Tuojiang watershed. Keywords: Tuojiang watershed; Groundwater pollution; Losing process; Fluorine; Phosphorus

  6. Prevalence of mental disorders in 6-16-year-old students in Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yuan; Jiang, Hongyun; Zhang, Ni; Wang, Dahai; Guo, Lanting

    2015-05-13

    To investigate the point prevalence of mental disorders in school students, multistage cluster stratified random sampling and two-phase survey methods were used to identify 40 primary and middle schools. The students were screened using the Chinese version of the Child Behavior Checklist and diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The prevalence of behavioral problems was 19.13%. The prevalence of behavioral problems significantly differed by sex, age, city of residence, and caretaker. The six-month prevalence of any mental disorder was 15.24% (95% CI: 15.49%-16.97%). Psychiatric disorders were more prevalent in boys (17.33%) relative to girls (13.11%; p students exhibited comorbidity. Results demonstrated important mental health issues, with a high incidence of comorbidities, in this population. Students' mental health requires increased attention, particularly in poverty-stricken areas and left-behind children and adolescents.

  7. Litter accumulation and nutrient content of roadside plant communities in Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is widely recognized that plant community composition strongly influences plant litter, but this relationship is difficult to interpret over heterogeneous conditions typical of modified environments such as roadways. We characterized litter accumulation and nutrient content (i.e., organic C, tota...

  8. Management reference for nature reserve networks based on MaxEnt modeling and gap analysis: a case study of the brown–eared pheasant in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Cui, B.; Qiu, X.; Ding, C.; Batool, I.

    2016-07-01

    Nature reserve designs and networks are important for wildlife and habitat conservation. Gap analyses are efficient and reliable tools for prioritizing habitat conservation efforts, especially when considering endangered species. We propose a conservation plan for the brown–eared pheasant, Crossoptilon mantchuricum, by identifying protection gap areas based on 14 existing nature reserves. A total of 45 locality sites and 11 environmental variables were selected according to the characteristics of habitat use of the brown–eared pheasant and applied to a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model to obtain the species distribution. The MaxEnt model results showed a high prediction accuracy. The gap analysis results revealed that the Luliang Mountains in Shanxi and the Xiaowutai Mountains in Hebei had protection gaps. We found 458 km2 of optimum habitat and 1,390 km2 of moderately suitable habitat within the national nature reserve range. However, almost 1,861 km2 of the optimum habitat and 17,035 km2 of the moderately suitable habitat were unprotected, equivalent to 9.0% and 82.1%, respectively, of the total suitable habitat. Most of the unprotected area comprised moderately suitable habitat for brown–eared pheasant and should be prioritized in future conservation efforts. There are nine nature reserves along a north–to–south range in the Luliang Mountains that form a wildlife habitat corridor. To maintain the integrity, originality, and continuity of these habitats and thus protect brown–eared pheasants, local conservation departments should be strengthened to improve provincial nature reserve management and successfully carry out conservation efforts. (Author)

  9. Management reference for nature reserve networks based on MaxEnt modeling and gap analysis: a case study of the brown–eared pheasant in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature reserve designs and networks are important for wildlife and habitat conservation. Gap analyses are efficient and reliable tools for prioritizing habitat conservation efforts, especially when considering endangered species. We propose a conservation plan for the brown–eared pheasant, Crossoptilon mantchuricum, by identifying protection gap areas based on 14 existing nature reserves. A total of 45 locality sites and 11 environmental variables were selected according to the characteristics of habitat use of the brown–eared pheasant and applied to a maximum entropy (MaxEnt model to obtain the species distribution. The MaxEnt model results showed a high prediction accuracy. The gap analysis results revealed that the Luliang Mountains in Shanxi and the Xiaowutai Mountains in Hebei had protection gaps. We found 458 km2 of optimum habitat and 1,390 km2 of moderately suitable habitat within the national nature reserve range. However, almost 1,861 km2 of the optimum habitat and 17,035 km2 of the moderately suitable habitat were unprotected, equivalent to 9.0% and 82.1%, respectively, of the total suitable habitat. Most of the unprotected area comprised moderately suitable habitat for brown–eared pheasant and should be prioritized in future conservation efforts. There are nine nature reserves along a north–to–south range in the Luliang Mountains that form a wildlife habitat corridor. To maintain the integrity, originality, and continuity of these habitats and thus protect brown–eared pheasants, local conservation departments should be strengthened to improve provincial nature reserve management and successfully carry out conservation efforts.

  10. Modeling the transmission dynamics and control of rabies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Shigui

    2017-04-01

    Human rabies was first recorded in ancient China in about 556 BC and is still one of the major public-health problems in China. From 1950 to 2015, 130,494 human rabies cases were reported in Mainland China with an average of 1977 cases per year. It is estimated that 95% of these human rabies cases are due to dog bites. The purpose of this article is to provide a review about the models, results, and simulations that we have obtained recently on studying the transmission of rabies in China. We first construct a basic susceptible, exposed, infectious, and recovered (SEIR) type model for the spread of rabies virus among dogs and from dogs to humans and use the model to simulate the human rabies data in China from 1996 to 2010. Then we modify the basic model by including both domestic and stray dogs and apply the model to simulate the human rabies data from Guangdong Province, China. To study the seasonality of rabies, in Section 4 we further propose a SEIR model with periodic transmission rates and employ the model to simulate the monthly data of human rabies cases reported by the Chinese Ministry of Health from January 2004 to December 2010. To understand the spatial spread of rabies, in Section 5 we add diffusion to the dog population in the basic SEIR model to obtain a reaction-diffusion equation model and determine the minimum wave speed connecting the disease-free equilibrium to the endemic equilibrium. Finally, in order to investigate how the movement of dogs affects the geographically inter-provincial spread of rabies in Mainland China, in Section 6 we propose a multi-patch model to describe the transmission dynamics of rabies between dogs and humans and use the two-patch submodel to investigate the rabies virus clades lineages and to simulate the human rabies data from Guizhou and Guangxi, Hebei and Fujian, and Sichuan and Shaanxi, respectively. Some discussions are provided in Section 7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regional Sustainable Development Analysis Based on Information Entropy-Sichuan Province as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuedong; Si, Dongyang; Zhang, Xinli

    2017-10-13

    According to the implementation of a scientific development perspective, sustainable development needs to consider regional development, economic and social development, and the harmonious development of society and nature, but regional sustainable development is often difficult to quantify. Through an analysis of the structure and functions of a regional system, this paper establishes an evaluation index system, which includes an economic subsystem, an ecological environmental subsystem and a social subsystem, to study regional sustainable development capacity. A sustainable development capacity measure model for Sichuan Province was established by applying the information entropy calculation principle and the Brusselator principle. Each subsystem and entropy change in a calendar year in Sichuan Province were analyzed to evaluate Sichuan Province's sustainable development capacity. It was found that the established model could effectively show actual changes in sustainable development levels through the entropy change reaction system, at the same time this model could clearly demonstrate how those forty-six indicators from the three subsystems impact on the regional sustainable development, which could make up for the lack of sustainable development research.

  12. Regional Sustainable Development Analysis Based on Information Entropy—Sichuan Province as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuedong; Si, Dongyang; Zhang, Xinli

    2017-01-01

    According to the implementation of a scientific development perspective, sustainable development needs to consider regional development, economic and social development, and the harmonious development of society and nature, but regional sustainable development is often difficult to quantify. Through an analysis of the structure and functions of a regional system, this paper establishes an evaluation index system, which includes an economic subsystem, an ecological environmental subsystem and a social subsystem, to study regional sustainable development capacity. A sustainable development capacity measure model for Sichuan Province was established by applying the information entropy calculation principle and the Brusselator principle. Each subsystem and entropy change in a calendar year in Sichuan Province were analyzed to evaluate Sichuan Province’s sustainable development capacity. It was found that the established model could effectively show actual changes in sustainable development levels through the entropy change reaction system, at the same time this model could clearly demonstrate how those forty-six indicators from the three subsystems impact on the regional sustainable development, which could make up for the lack of sustainable development research. PMID:29027982

  13. Landquake dynamics inferred from seismic source inversion: Greenland and Sichuan events of 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    In June 2017 two catastrophic landquake events occurred in Greenland and Sichuan. The Greenland event leads to tsunami hazard in the small town of Nuugaarsiaq. A landquake in Sichuan hit the town, which resulted in over 100 death. Both two events generated the strong seismic signals recorded by the real-time global seismic network. I adopt an inversion algorithm to derive the landquake force time history (LFH) using the long-period waveforms, and the landslide volume ( 76 million m3) can be rapidly estimated, facilitating the tsunami-wave modeling for early warning purpose. Based on an integrated approach involving tsunami forward simulation and seismic waveform inversion, this study has significant implications to issuing actionable warnings before hazardous tsunami waves strike populated areas. Two single-forces (SFs) mechanism (two block model) yields the best explanation for Sichuan event, which demonstrates that secondary event (seismic inferred volume: 8.2 million m3) may be mobilized by collapse-mass hitting from initial rock avalanches ( 5.8 million m3), likely causing a catastrophic disaster. The later source with a force magnitude of 0.9967×1011 N occurred 70 seconds after first mass-movement occurrence. In contrast, first event has the smaller force magnitude of 0.8116×1011 N. In conclusion, seismically inferred physical parameters will substantially contribute to improving our understanding of landquake source mechanisms and mitigating similar hazards in other parts of the world.

  14. Cluster analysis of the biochemical composition in 53 Sichuan EGCG3"Me tea resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. H.; Chen, S. X.; Zhu, M. Z.; Meng, X. L.

    2017-09-01

    The EGCG3"Me contents in the young tea leaves of 102 tea resources in sichuan were analyzed accurately using HPLC-DAD. The results revealed that there was a wide variation in EGCG3"Me levels among different tea resources. The EGCG3"Me content in different tea resources was in a range from 0 to 11.04 mg/g, mean was 2.33 mg/g.53 tea resources contained EGCG3"Me, accounting for 51.96% of the total number of resources survey. Shucha5, Jinguanyin, Chengxi11, Fenghuang-dancong, Chongpi 71-1 were found to contain higher EGCG3"Me content (>10mg/g).Cluster analysis showed that: 53 Sichuan EGCG3"Me tea resources were divided into six groups and the difference was obvious between their biochemical composition; tea resources rich in EGCG3"Me were mainly distributed in Sichuan, Chongqing and Fujian Province, mostly were shrub and mid-leaf, mainly existed in tea resources which were suitable to make green tea, oolong tea. The morphological and biochemical distribution provided a good theoretical basis for selecting and utilizing higher EGCG3"Me resources.

  15. Inhibitory effects of Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum) and sanshoamide extract on heterocyclic amine formation in grilled ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Maomao; Wang, Junhui; Zhang, Mengru; Chen, Jing; He, Zhiyong; Qin, Fang; Xu, Zhimin; Cao, Dongsheng; Chen, Jie

    2018-01-15

    This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum) and sanshoamide extract on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in grilled beef patties. The following major HAs were detected and quantified: imidazopyridine (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, PhIP), imidazoquinoxalines (2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, IQx; 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, MeIOx; 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, 4,8-DiMeIQx) and β-carbolines (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole, norharman; 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole, harman). The rates of PhIP, IQx, MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx were inhibited significantly by 82%, 61%, 28% and 79%, respectively, in patties treated with a low-concentration of pepper (0.5%), and by 27%, 45%, 44% and 26%, respectively, following treatment with a low-concentration sanshoamide extract (0.005%). All inhibition rates exceeded 70% at pepper and sanshoamide extract concentrations of 1.0% and 0.010%, respectively. Harman and norharman could be significantly (p0.05) effect on them, although 0.005% of the extract could slightly increase the formation of them. Notably, significant correlations were observed between the HA inhibition rates and pepper or sanshoamide extract concentrations, especially for PhIP (r=0.87, p=2.30E-3), IQx (r=0.99, p=5.04E-7) and 4,8-DiMeIQx (r=0.88, p=1.96E-3). These results indicate that Sichuan pepper and sanshoamide extract could inhibit the formation of carcinogenic HAs during thermal preparation of protein-rich foods, and therefore might reduce the risk of chronic diseases associated with the long-term intake of HA-containing food products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A randomised controlled pilot study: the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy with adult survivors of the Sichuan earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zang Yinyin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a common psychological reaction after large-scale natural disasters. Given the number of people involved and shortage of resources in any major disaster, brief, pragmatic and easily trainable interventions are needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET as a short-term treatment for PTSD using Chinese earthquake survivors. Methods A randomized waiting-list control pilot study was conducted between December 2009 and March 2010, at the site of the Sichuan earthquake in Beichuan County, China. Adult participants with newly diagnosed Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD were randomly allocated to Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET or a Waiting-List (WL condition. The latter received NET treatment after a two-week waiting period. To compare the effectiveness of NET in traumatised earthquake survivors, both groups were assessed on PTSD symptoms, general mental health, anxiety and depression, social support, coping style and posttraumatic change before and after treatment and two months post treatment. Results Adult participants (n=22 were randomly allocated to receive NET (n=11 or WL (n=11. Twenty two participants (11 in NET group, 11 in WL were included in the analysis of primary outcomes. Compared with WL, NET showed significant reductions in PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression, general mental stress and increased posttraumatic growth. The WL group later showed similar improvements after treatment. These changes remained stable for a two-month follow-up. Measures of social support and coping showed no stable effects. Conclusions NET is effective in treating post-earthquake traumatic symptoms in adult Chinese earthquake survivors. The findings help advance current knowledge in the management of PTSD after natural disasters and inform future research. Larger sample sizes are needed to extend the present findings. Trial registration Chinese

  17. Sichuan earthquake and emergency relief care for children: report from the firstly arrived pediatricians in the epicenter zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinning; Shi, Yuan; Hu, Zhangxue; Li, Huaqiang

    2011-01-01

    An 8.0-magnitude earthquake struck Sichuan province of China on May 12, 2008. Over the next 10 days, the firstly arrived uniformed pediatricians in the epicenter zone took part in emergency relief care for children. The investigations of major injuries and diseases in children were taken. Demographic data collected included (if possible) age, date of presentation, injury, disease, and surgery performed. Total casualties were estimated to be more than 80,000, and much more were injured. Eight hundred eighty-two inpatients were treated by the relief team during the first 10 days. Of 882 inpatients, 192 (21.8%) were younger than 18 years. Children's ages were not evenly distributed. Twenty-seven patients were neonates, infants, and toddlers (14%), 105 were school-aged (55%), and were 60 adolescents (31%). The admitted children had 256 injuries. Limb (106 cases, 55.2%) and body surface (67 cases, 34.9%) were the majorly injured locations. One hundred twenty-seven cases (66.2%) had simple open injuries, and 106 (55.2% had fractures. The children's conditions were evaluated as mild (121 cases, 63.0%), moderate (56 cases, 29.7%), severe (8 cases, 4.2%), and fatal (7 cases, 3.7%). More than 20% of patients requiring hospitalization were children. School-aged children were heavily injured. The increase in infectious diseases followed on. The data show that there is an immediate need for orthopedic and general surgery skills, and pediatricians should play an important role in early rescue and subsequent control of infectious diseases in a huge earthquake hazard.

  18. Prospects of and challenges to natural gas industry development in China

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    Jia Chengzao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented breakthrough has been made over the past decades in natural gas industry, which helps improve energy mix and promote the low-carbon economy in China. With such abundant hydrocarbon resources, China owns two intensive oil and gas producing blocks in the Ordos Basin and Xinjiang province and two other concentrated gas producing blocks in Sichuan and Western South Sea. In addition, arterial gas lines have been connected as a gas grid all over China and natural gas market has become more and more mature and expanded. Thus, a natural gas industry system has come into being. However, with natural gas unevenly scattering all across China, the remnant resources mainly are distributed in the stratigraphic strata, deep strata in superimposed basins or in mature exploration zones, foreland basin thrust belts, marine gas fields, and so on. In reality, the future gas exploration should focus on such domains as the weathered crust karst reservoirs or carbonate and stratigraphic traps, deep clastic gas layers, and unconventional oil and gas plays. Achievements have been made in marine shale gas exploration, CBM gas steady development, and other unconventional natural gas resources. From the perspective of exploration potential, more giant oil and gas fields will be possibly discovered in deep strata or deep sea water, and stratigraphic hydrocarbon reservoirs and tight oil and gas reservoirs will also be the exploration focus. With the increase of exploration depth and degree, the overall oil and gas exploration cost will be significantly rising in general. New discoveries or reserves increase in natural gas exploration will highly depend upon research theory and technology progress, and such development technologies as 3D seismic survey, horizontal drilling and fracturing treatment will be more highlighted. Through enhancing the cost in natural gas exploration and development and strengthening the research of core technologies, natural gas

  19. Dynamics in mangroves assessed by high-resolution and multi-temporal satellite data: a case study in Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve (ZMNNR, P. R. China

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    K. Leempoel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests are declining across the globe, mainly because of human intervention, and therefore require an evaluation of their past and present status (e.g. areal extent, species-level distribution, etc. to implement better conservation and management strategies. In this paper, mangrove cover dynamics at Gaoqiao (P. R. China were assessed through time using 1967, 2000 and 2009 satellite imagery (sensors Corona KH-4B, Landsat ETM+, GeoEye-1 respectively. Firstly, multi-temporal analysis of satellite data was undertaken, and secondly biotic and abiotic differences were analysed between the different mangrove stands, assessed through a supervised classification of a high-resolution satellite image. A major decline in mangrove cover (−36% was observed between 1967 and 2009 due to rice cultivation and aquaculture practices. Moreover, dike construction has prevented mangroves from expanding landward. Although a small increase of mangrove area was observed between 2000 and 2009 (+24%, the ratio mangrove / aquaculture kept decreasing due to increased aquaculture at the expense of rice cultivation in the vicinity. From the land-use/cover map based on ground-truth data (5 × 5 m plot-based tree measurements (August–September, 2009 as well as spectral reflectance values (obtained from pansharpened GeoEye-1, both Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and small Aegiceras corniculatum are distinguishable at 73–100% accuracy, whereas tall A. corniculatum was correctly classified at only 53% due to its mixed vegetation stands with B. gymnorrhiza (overall classification accuracy: 85%. In the case of sediments, sand proportion was significantly different between the three mangrove classes. Overall, the advantage of very high resolution satellite images like GeoEye-1 (0.5 m for mangrove spatial heterogeneity assessment and/or species-level discrimination was well demonstrated, along with the complexity to provide a precise classification for non-dominant species (e

  20. Long-term trend and spatial pattern of PM2.5induced premature mortality in China.

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    Xie, Rong; Sabel, Clive E; Lu, Xi; Zhu, Weimo; Kan, Haidong; Nielsen, Chris P; Wang, Haikun

    2016-12-01

    With rapid economic growth, China has witnessed increasingly frequent and severe haze and smog episodes over the past decade, posing serious health impacts to the Chinese population, especially those in densely populated city clusters. Quantification of the spatial and temporal variation of health impacts attributable to ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) has important implications for China's policies on air pollution control. In this study, we evaluated the spatial distribution of premature deaths in China between 2000 and 2010 attributable to ambient PM 2.5 in accord with the Global Burden of Disease based on a high resolution population density map of China, satellite retrieved PM 2.5 concentrations, and provincial health data. Our results suggest that China's anthropogenic ambient PM 2.5 led to 1,255,400 premature deaths in 2010, 42% higher than the level in 2000. Besides increased PM 2.5 concentration, rapid urbanization has attracted large population migration into the more developed eastern coastal urban areas, intensifying the overall health impact. In addition, our analysis implies that health burdens were exacerbated in some developing inner provinces with high population density (e.g. Henan, Anhui, Sichuan) because of the relocation of more polluting and resource-intensive industries into these regions. In order to avoid such national level environmental inequities, China's regulations on PM 2.5 should not be loosened in inner provinces. Furthermore policies should create incentive mechanisms that can promote transfer of advanced production and emissions control technologies from the coastal regions to the interior regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. HNA-3a and HNA-3b antigens among 9 ethnic populations and the Han population in Southwest China.

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    Ou, Guo-Jin; Su, Pin-Can; Yu, Hao; Ji, Xin; Liu, Fan; Wang, Sheng-Lan; Kong, Yu-Jie; Li, Ling; Wang, Jue; Liu, Zhong; Flegel, Willy Albert

    2018-03-14

    Human neutrophil antigen 3 (HNA-3) is encoded by the SLC44A2 gene. Antibodies against HNAs can cause severe, often fatal, transfusion reactions, known as transfusion-related acute lung injury, and neonatal neutropenia. We explored the 2 common HNA-3 variants in 9 ethnic populations residing in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of China as compared to the Han population. We genotyped for SLC44A2 (rs2288904) by polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing among blood donors, for a total of 2206 individuals in Yunnan and 376 in Sichuan. The SLC44A2*02 allele (HNA-3b antigen) frequency varied between 0.24 and 0.33 for all 9 ethnic populations in Yunnan, including Zhuang, Derung, Hani, Lisu, Bai, Miao, Dai, Naxi, and Yi. Specifically, the Yi ethnicity did not present an unusually great SLC44A2*02 frequency at any of the 4 locations examined in Yunnan. Except of the Yi ethnicity in Sichuan (0.40), the Han ethnicity, as the majority population group, had the greatest SLC44A2*02 frequency with 0.39 in Yunnan and 0.35 in Sichuan. The ethnic populations in Southwest China are not at an increased risk for anti-HNA3a compared to the Han population, with the possible exception of Yi in Sichuan. Our data, however, corroborated the known high prevalence of SLC44A2*02 in Han populations. Hence, the Han populations in Yunnan, Sichuan and elsewhere in China are at a comparatively great risk for developing HNA-3a antibodies.

  2. Effects of Human-Nature Interactions on Wildlife Habitat Dynamics: The Case of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina, A.; Tuanmu, M.; Yang, W.; Liu, J.

    2012-12-01

    Human activities continue to induce the degradation of natural ecosystems, thus threatening not only the long-term survival of many wildlife species around the world, but also the resilience of natural ecosystems to global environmental changes. In response, many conservation efforts are emerging as adaptive strategies for coping with the degradation of natural ecosystems. Among them, the establishment of nature reserves is considered to be the most effective. However the effectiveness of nature reserves depends on the type and intensity of human activities occurring within their boundaries. But many of these activities constitute important livelihood systems for local human populations. Therefore, to enhance the effectiveness of conservation actions without significantly affecting local livelihood systems, it is essential to understand the complexity of human-nature interactions and their effects on the spatio-temporal dynamics of natural ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the relation between giant panda habitat dynamics, conservation efforts and human activities in Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas, Sichuan Province, China. This reserve supports ca. 10% of the entire wild giant panda population but is also home to ca. 4,900 local residents. The spatio-temporal dynamics of giant panda habitat over the last four decades were analyzed using a time series of remotely sensed imagery acquired by different satellite sensor systems, including the Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner, the Landsat Thematic Mapper and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Our assessment suggests that when local residents were actively involved in conservation efforts (through a payment for ecosystem services scheme established since around 2000) panda habitat started to recover, thus enhancing the resilience capacity of natural ecosystems in the Reserve. This reversed a long-term (> 30 years) trend of panda habitat degradation. The study not only has direct

  3. A Multi-Scale Approach to Investigating the Red-Crowned Crane-Habitat Relationship in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve, China: Implications for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mingchang; Xu, Haigen; Le, Zhifang; Zhu, Mingchang; Cao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis (Statius Müller, 1776)) is a rare and endangered species that lives in wetlands. In this study, we used variance partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods to explore the red-crowned crane-habitat relationship at multiple scales in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (YRDNR). In addition, we used habitat modeling to identify the cranes' habitat distribution pattern and protection gaps in the YRDNR. The variance partitioning results showed that habitat variables accounted for a substantially larger total and pure variation in crane occupancy than the variation accounted for by spatial variables at the first level. Landscape factors had the largest total (45.13%) and independent effects (17.42%) at the second level. The hierarchical partitioning results showed that the percentage of seepweed tidal flats were the main limiting factor at the landscape scale. Vegetation coverage contributed the greatest independent explanatory power at the plot scale, and patch area was the predominant factor at the patch scale. Our habitat modeling results showed that crane suitable habitat covered more than 26% of the reserve area and that there remained a large protection gap with an area of 20,455 ha, which accounted for 69.51% of the total suitable habitat of cranes. Our study indicates that landscape and plot factors make a relatively large contribution to crane occupancy and that the focus of conservation effects should be directed toward landscape- and plot-level factors by enhancing the protection of seepweed tidal flats, tamarisk-seepweed tidal flats, reed marshes and other natural wetlands. We propose that efforts should be made to strengthen wetland restoration, adjust functional zoning maps, and improve the management of human disturbance in the YRDNR.

  4. Quantifying Streamflow Variations in Ungauged Lake Basins by Integrating Remote Sensing and Water Balance Modelling: A Case Study of the Erdos Larus relictus National Nature Reserve, China

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    Kang Liang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological predictions in ungauged lakes are one of the most important issues in hydrological sciences. The habitat of the Relict Gull (Larus relictus in the Erdos Larus relictus National Nature Reserve (ELRNNR has been seriously endangered by lake shrinkage, yet the hydrological processes in the catchment are poorly understood due to the lack of in-situ observations. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the variation in lake streamflow and its drivers. In this study, we employed the remote sensing technique and empirical equation to quantify the time series of lake water budgets, and integrated a water balance model and climate elasticity method to further examine ELRNNR basin streamflow variations from1974 to 2013. The results show that lake variations went through three phases with significant differences: The rapidly expanding sub-period (1974–1979, the relatively stable sub-period (1980–1999, and the dramatically shrinking sub-period (2000–2013. Both climate variation (expressed by precipitation and evapotranspiration and human activities were quantified as drivers of streamflow variation, and the driving forces in the three phases had different contributions. As human activities gradually intensified, the contributions of human disturbances on streamflow variation obviously increased, accounting for 22.3% during 1980–1999 and up to 59.2% during 2000–2013. Intensified human interferences and climate warming have jointly led to the lake shrinkage since 1999. This study provides a useful reference to quantify lake streamflow and its drivers in ungauged basins.

  5. Diversity and activity patterns of sympatric animals among four types of forest habitat in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve in the Qinling Mountains, China.

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    Liu, Xuehua; Wu, Pengfeng; Shao, Xiaoming; Songer, Melissa; Cai, Qiong; He, Xiangbo; Zhu, Yun

    2017-07-01

    Environmental heterogeneity contributes to various habitats and may influence the diversity and activity patterns of wildlife among habitats. We used camera traps to assess wildlife habitat use in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve from 2009 to 2012. We focused on four types of habitat including open areas with gentle slope (wildlife migration passages (Type4). We analyzed the differences in species richness, relative abundance index (RAI), species diversity, and animals' activity pattern among habitats. Total six species were analyzed on activity pattern, which are Takin (Budorcas taxicolor), tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus), Himalayan goral (Naemorhedus goral), wild boar (Sus scrofa), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus), and porcupine (Hystrix hodgsoni). The results are (1) that there were significant differences in richness and RAI t among habitats; (2) Type4 habitat had the highest richness and RAI t while Type2 had the highest species diversity; giant pandas were found in these two habitats; (3) there were significant differences in species' activity during daytime and nighttime; and (4) differences appeared in habitat preference of the most abundant species. Takin and tufted deer preferred Type1, Himalayan goral preferred Type2, and golden pheasant preferred Type3. Type4 habitat was used by most animals. All these revealed that habitat heterogeneity plays an important role in species diversity and the importance for conservation.

  6. Determinants of differences in the activity budgets of Rhinopithecus bieti by age/sex class at Xiangguqing in the Baimaxueshan nature reserve, China

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    Li Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological factors are known to influence the activity budgets of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti. However, little is known about how activity budgets vary between age/sex classes, because the species is difficult to observe in the wild. This study provides the first detailed activity budgets subdivided by age/sex classes based on observations of the largest habituated group at Xiangguqing in Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve. This study was conducted from June 2008 to May 2009. We found that adult females spent more time feeding (44.8% than adult males (39.5%, juveniles (39.1%, and infants (14.2%. Adult males allocated more time to miscellaneous activities (12.5% than did adult females (3.8%. Infants were being groomed 6.9% of the time, which was the highest proportion among all age/sex classes. Adults spent more time feeding, while immature individuals allocated more time to moving and other activities. There are several reasons activity budgets may vary by age/sex class: 1 differential reproductive investment between males and females; 2 developmental differences among the age categories; 3 social relationships between members of different age/sex classes, particularly dominance. In addition, group size and adult sex ratio may also impact activity budgets. These variations in activity budgets among the different age/sex classes may become a selective pressure that shapes the development and growth pattern in this species.

  7. Calamagrostis nyingchiensis, a new combination for Deyeuxia nyingchiensis (Poaceae: Agrostidinae, and its first record from Yunnan Province, SW China

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    Paszko Beata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Deyeuxia nyingchiensis is here recombined as Calamagrostis nyingchiensis comb. nov. as a result of recent studies of worldwide Agrostidinae. A new record of C. nyingchiensis is reported from Shangri-la (Zhongdian County in Yunnan Province, SW China. Previously, C. nyingchiensis was noted from eastern Xizang and southern Sichuan, SW China. It is compared with the morphologically similar species C. scabrescens. A map with all known geographic records of C. nyingchiensis is presented.

  8. A comparison of the wild food plant use knowledge of ethnic minorities in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve, Yunnan, SW China

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    Ghorbani Abdolbaset

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wild food plants (WFPs contribute to the nutrition, economy and even cultural identity of people in many parts of the world. Different factors determine the preference and use of WFPs such as abundance, availability, cultural preference, economic conditions, shortage periods or unsecure food production systems. Understanding these factors and knowing the patterns of selection, use and cultural significance and value of wild food plants for local communities is helpful in setting priorities for conservation and/or domestication of these plants. Thus in this study knowledge of wild food plant use among four groups namely Dai, Lahu, Hani and Mountain Han in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve ((NRWNNR, Xishuangbanna were documented and analyzed to find the similarity and difference among their plant use. Methods Data on wild food plant use was collected through freelisting and semi-structured interviews and participatory field collection and direct observation. Botanical plant sample specimens were collected, prepared, dried and identified. Results A total of 173 species and subspecies from 64 families and one species of lichen (Ramalina sp. are used as WFP. There were differences on the saliency of wild food plant species among four ethnic groups. Consensus analysis revealed that knowledge of wild food plant use for each ethnic group differs from others with some variation in each group. Among informant attributes only age was related with the knowledge of wild food plant use, whereas no significant relationship was found between gender and age*gender and informants knowledge of wild food plant use. Conclusion Wild food plants are still used extensively by local people in the NRWNNR, some of them on a daily base. This diversity of wild food plants provide important source of nutrients for the local communities which much of their caloric intake comes from one or few crops. The results also show the role of ethnicity

  9. A comparison of the wild food plant use knowledge of ethnic minorities in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve, Yunnan, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Abdolbaset; Langenberger, Gerhard; Sauerborn, Joachim

    2012-05-05

    Wild food plants (WFPs) contribute to the nutrition, economy and even cultural identity of people in many parts of the world. Different factors determine the preference and use of WFPs such as abundance, availability, cultural preference, economic conditions, shortage periods or unsecure food production systems. Understanding these factors and knowing the patterns of selection, use and cultural significance and value of wild food plants for local communities is helpful in setting priorities for conservation and/or domestication of these plants. Thus in this study knowledge of wild food plant use among four groups namely Dai, Lahu, Hani and Mountain Han in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve ((NRWNNR), Xishuangbanna were documented and analyzed to find the similarity and difference among their plant use. Data on wild food plant use was collected through freelisting and semi-structured interviews and participatory field collection and direct observation. Botanical plant sample specimens were collected, prepared, dried and identified. A total of 173 species and subspecies from 64 families and one species of lichen (Ramalina sp.) are used as WFP. There were differences on the saliency of wild food plant species among four ethnic groups. Consensus analysis revealed that knowledge of wild food plant use for each ethnic group differs from others with some variation in each group. Among informant attributes only age was related with the knowledge of wild food plant use, whereas no significant relationship was found between gender and age*gender and informants knowledge of wild food plant use. Wild food plants are still used extensively by local people in the NRWNNR, some of them on a daily base. This diversity of wild food plants provide important source of nutrients for the local communities which much of their caloric intake comes from one or few crops. The results also show the role of ethnicity on the preference and use of wild food plants. There is a big

  10. [How to launch the activity of propaganda month of family planning in Sichuan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, C; Tan, S S

    1983-01-29

    In mid-July to the end of August 1982, the Sichuan Provincial Party Committee and the Sichuan Provincial People's Government launched a 1-time family planning propaganda month in all of its cities and villages. The purpose was to promote and to carry out consistently and thoroughly the "Going a Step Further in Family Planning Work Directive" of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and the State Council. Through the propaganda efforts, cadres and masses of Sichuan became familiar with the Party's family planning policy and the basis for population theory, thereby benefitting the nation, its people and future generations. In addition, people sensed the urgency, glory, and responsibility of population control. Based on incomplete data, during the month of propaganda, there were 174,182 new applications for 1 Child Certificates, which was 94.82% of the certificates applied for in the 1st half of 1982; 419,696 cases of contraceptive use, or 43.32% of those using them in the 1st 6 months of the year; 247,808 cases of those taking remedial measures, or 35.62% of those doing so in the 1st half of the year. The 1 child rate rose from a June 1982 figure of 68.21% to 68.71%; the multiple child rate dropped from 8.24% to 8%. The projected birthrate for 1982 is 16-17/1000. The success of the propaganda month was attained through: 1) organized responsibility, clearly defined goals and complete preparations that existed at all provincial Party and provincial Governmental levels; 2) the propaganda effort that was a priority of all governmental leaders, who utilized every propaganda tool available; At every level, propaganda sessions of every kind were convened, the entire propaganda machine was mobilized, and propaganda was brought into the home and to individuals; 3) propaganda, experience, and implementation that were all utilized simultaneously; and 4) the organization and administration of propaganda work that was systematized.

  11. Chemical characteristics of rainwater in Sichuan basin, a case study of Ya'an.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Chun; Zhang, Meng; Shu, Man; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Liu, Zi-Fang; Wang, Xian-Xiang; Zhao, Xiao-Qing

    2016-07-01

    Rainwater chemistry was investigated at a semi-rural site in Ya'an, Sichuan basin with rain samples collected from May 2013 to July 2014. The rainwater pH values ranged from 3.25 to 6.86, with an annual volume-weighted mean (VWM) of 4.38, and the acid rain frequency was 74 %. Such severe acidification, 15 % of the total events showed a pH below 4.0, attributed to the deficiency of Ca(2+), significant anthropogenic pollution contribution, and rainy pattern to this area. The annual VWM of total ions concentration was 477.19 μeq/L. NH4 (+) was the most abundant ionic species, followed by SO4 (2-), NO3 (-), Ca(2+), Cl(-), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and F(-) in a descending order. The total ionic concentrations presented a seasonal trend of lower values in autumn and summer but higher ones in winter and spring. Based on enrichment factor, correlation analysis and principle component analysis, three factors were identified: factor 1 (NH4 (+), SO4 (2-), NO3 (-), K(+), and Cl(-), 47.45 % of the total variance) related to anthropogenic sources (coal/fuel combustion, biomass burning and agriculture), factor 2 (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and Cl(-), 34.01 % of the total variance) associated with natural sources, and factor 3 (H(+), 11.78 % of the total variance) related to free acidity. Back trajectory analysis indicates that the rainwater chemistry in Ya'an was mainly affected by regional air masses from Sichuan basin. Long-range transported air masses from southwest with heavy anthropogenic pollution increased the total ion concentration and acidity of rainwater. Considering its special topography, anthropogenic emissions from regional and long-range transport (especially from southwest) must be controlled effectively to improve the acid rain condition of non-urban areas in Sichuan basin.

  12. A Strength-Based Arts and Play Support Program for Young Survivors in Post-Quake China: Effects on Self-Efficacy, Peer Support, and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rainbow T. H.; Lai, Angel H. Y.; Lo, Phyllis H. Y.; Nan, Joshua K. M.; Pon, Alicia K. L.

    2017-01-01

    A year after the earthquake in Sichuan, China, a strength-based arts and play support program was launched to promote the well-being of young survivors, and this study was designed to examine its effectiveness. It was hypothesized that participation in the program would have direct positive effects on general self-efficacy and peer support, and…

  13. AHP 6: Matrilineal Marriage in Tibetan Areas In Western Sichuan Province

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    Féng Mǐn 冯敏

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The marriage and family organization of the Zhaba 扎巴 people in Western Sichuan 四川 Province is similar to that practiced by the Naxi Mosuo 纳西摩梭 during the 1960s. The Zhaba2 Region is another matrilineal culture region in addition to the Lugu 泸沽 Region in Yunnan 云南 Province. The area has only recently begun modernizing because of its isolation. 'Visiting marriages' and matrilineal family organization continue to play an important role in Zhaba culture. This research contributes new material to the anthropological study of matrilineal societies.

  14. AHP 6: Matrilineal Marriage in Tibetan Areas In Western Sichuan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Féng Mǐn 冯敏; Mtsho mo skyid; Gerald Roche

    2010-01-01

    The marriage and family organization of the Zhaba 扎巴 people in Western Sichuan 四川 Province is similar to that practiced by the Naxi Mosuo 纳西摩梭 during the 1960s. The Zhaba2 Region is another matrilineal culture region in addition to the Lugu 泸沽 Region in Yunnan 云南 Province. The area has only recently begun modernizing because of its isolation. 'Visiting marriages' and matrilineal family organization continue to play an important role in Zhaba culture. This research contributes new material to ...

  15. In Brief: China shaken by magnitude 7.9 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-05-01

    A magnitude 7.9 earthquake that struck the eastern Sichuan region of China on 12 May 2008 at 0628 UTC has caused more than 22,000 fatalities as of press time, and Chinese government officials have indiciated that this figure could increase to 50,000. The quake also caused severe damage including landslides and cracks to 391 mostly small dams, according to an Associated Press report that cited the Xinhua News Agency and CCTV news. China's Ministry of Water Resources has dispatched several work teams to quake-hit localities ``to prevent dams that were damaged by the earthquake from bursting and endangering the lives of residents,'' the ministry stated.

  16. Bulk deposition of organic and inorganic nitrogen in southwest China from 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ling; Kuang, Fuhong; Skiba, Ute; Zhu, Bo; Liu, Xuejun; Levy, Peter; Dore, Anthony; Fowler, David

    2017-08-01

    China is regarded as one of the nitrogen deposition hotspots in the world. Measurements to-date have focused mainly on the North China Plain, ignoring the fact that atmospheric chemical and physical properties vary across the country and that there may be other hotspots regions that should be investigated. For this reason we have conducted a six year study, measuring the bulk deposition of reduced (NH 4 -N), oxidized (NO 3 -N), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) at three contrasting sites in the Sichuan province, southwest China. The study sites were a high altitude forest in the Gongga Mountains (GG), an agriculture dominated region in Yanting (YT) and an urban site in the mega city Chengdu (CD). The annual average bulk deposition fluxes of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) were 7.4, 23.1 and 36.6 kg N ha -1 yr -1 at GG, YT and CD sites, respectively, during the study period 2008 to 2013. The contributions of NH 4 -N, NO 3 -N and DON to the TDN were in the range of 48.4-57.8%, 28.8-43.7%, and 8.0-15.6%, respectively. DON bulk deposition was mainly dominated by agricultural activities. TDN bulk deposition fluxes showed increasing trends at the agricultural and urban sites from 2008 to 2013, but there was little change at the remote forest (GG) site. While reduced N dominated bulk N deposition at all the three sites, its contribution showed a decreasing trend, suggesting a gradual increase in the importance of oxidized N. These results reveal the value of long term monitoring in detecting changes in the atmospheric chemical composition of this rapidly changing region, and their inclusion in the policy debate regarding which sources should be controlled in order to reduce the long term impacts of N deposition, especially for southwest China, where there are few measurements of N deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part I. Base case model results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Jingyi; Kota, Sri Harsha; Wu, Li; Gao, Huilin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. The model performance is evaluated in this paper and the source contribution analyses are presented in a companion paper. The results show that WRF is capable of reproducing the observed precipitation rates with a Mean Normalized Gross Error (MNGE) of 8.1%. Predicted wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) at the Long Lake (LL) site (3100 m a.s.l.) during the three-month episode are 2.75 and 0.34 kg S(N) ha(-1), which agree well with the observed wet deposition fluxes of 2.42 and 0.39 kg S(N) ha(-1), respectively. Temporal variations in the weekly deposition fluxes at LL are also well predicted. Wet deposition flux of NH4(+) at LL is over-predicted by approximately a factor of 3 (1.60 kg N ha(-1)vs. 0.56 kg N ha(-1)), likely due to missing alkaline earth cations such as Ca(2+) in the current CMAQ simulations. Predicted wet deposition fluxes are also in general agreement with observations at four Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) sites in western China. Predicted dry deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) (including gas deposition of SO2) and NO3(-) (including gas deposition of HNO3) are 0.12 and 0.12 kg S(N) h a(-1) at LL and 0.07 and 0.08 kg S(N) ha(-1) at Jiuzhaigou Bureau (JB) in JNNR, respectively, which are much lower than the corresponding wet deposition fluxes. Dry deposition flux of NH4(+) (including gas deposition of NH3) is 0.21 kg N ha(-1) at LL, and is also much lower than the predicted wet deposition flux. For both dry and wet deposition fluxes, predictions

  18. Hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies in the Sinian Dengying Fm, central Sichuan Basin

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    Yuqiang Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Sinian Dengying Fm is the focus of natural gas exploration in the central part of the Sichuan Basin (central Sichuan Basin in recent years. Especially, epigenic karstification and its resulted reservoir-seepage spaces have always been the focal points in researches. Based on the petrographic characteristics of drilling cuttings and core samples, and through experimental analysis by using trace elements, isotopes, and cathodoluminescence, the Dengying Fm dolomite was demonstrated to have matrix recrystallized dolomite (MRD, filled saddle dolomite (FSD (the mean homogenization temperature of inclusion: 178.5 °C, high concentrations of Fe & Mn, slightly positive 87Sr/86Sr value and hydrothermal minerals combination (including sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and quartz, etc.. Thus, it was proposed that hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies (HDRF exist in the Dengying Fm dolomite, in other words, the dolomite reservoir is composed of hydrothermal dissolved pores, intercrystalline pores of hydrothermal origin, hydrothermal caverns and expanded fractures, and was formed due to the reworking of hydrothermal fluid on tight matrix dolomite. Identification marks are presented in terms of petrography and geochemistry so that hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies can be effectively recognized and identified. It is concluded that the development of hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies in this area are preliminary controlled by deep and large basement faults and the strength of hydrothermal fluids.

  19. Comparison of Catechins and Antioxidant Activity in Four kinds of Sichuan tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Chen, Shengxiang; Zhu, Mingzhu; Meng, Xueli

    2017-11-01

    Absract:Catechins of the nine representative teas produced in Sichuan, which belonged to green tea, yellow tea, dark tea and black tea, were determined by UHPLC. Their antioxidant activity was determined by the hydroxyl radical scavenging. The results showed that: the total amount of their catechins was between 0.45(Qingzhuan) ˜ 121.21 mg/g (Mengding ganlu), and the order for theirs was green tea > yellow tea > dark tea (black tea); except Qingzhuan, their EGCG contents were between 1.07 ± 0.01 (Chuanhong gongfu) ˜ 76.16 ±0.43 mg/g (Mengding ganlu), and the order for theirs was green tea > yellow tea> dark tea (black tea); EGCG3“Me, which only remained in green and yellow tea, their contents were between 0.05±0.02 (Mengding Huangya) ˜ 0.39±0.04 mg/g (Mengding ganlu); their hydroxyl radical scavenging was between 48.37±0.20 (Fuzhuan) ˜75.51±0.63% (Mengding Huangya) and their IC50 was between 3.31±0.028 ˜5.18±0.012 mg/mL, the order for their clear rates was yellow tea> green tea> dark tea (black tea). Mengding Huangya showed the highest antioxidant activity in sichuan tea.

  20. [Diversity and bioactivity of cultured actinomycetes in Sichuan and Yunnan area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanru; Jiang, Yi; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Lixing; Jin, Rongxian; Jiang, Chenglin

    2010-08-01

    In order to discover new leader compounds, the diversity and some bioactivities of cultured actinomycetes from Sichuan and Yunnan were studied. In total 250 soil samples were collected from forest of Huangjin, Emei and Qingcheng Mountains, Jiuzhaigou in Sichuan, and Xishuangbanna in Yunnan. Actinomycetes in these samples were isolated and identified. Bioactivities of isolated strains were determined. In total 2676 strains of actinomycetes were isolated from these samples. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 98 selected strains were determined, and the phylogenetic analysis was carried out. 13, 5, 9 and 20 genera were identified from Forest of Huangjin, Emei and Qingcheng Mountains (one sample area), Jiuzhaigou, and Xishuangbanna respectively. The diversity of Xishuangbanna was the richest. That of Emei and Qingcheng Mountains was monotone, and only five genera were isolated. Antimicrobial activities of 169 selected strains against 11 bacteria and fungi were tested using agar well diffusion method, and genes of type I and II polyketide synthases (PKS I, PKS II), non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) and polygene cytochrome P450 hydroxylase (CYP) were detected by PCR. High rate of antimicrobial activity and the synthesis genes of four antibiotic existed in these actinomyctes. In sample-collecting areas, the poorer human beings disturbance, the richer the diversity of actinomycetes. For isolation of actinomycetes, author advocate using of " extreme" conditions, although it may got small number of actinomycetes, but the proportion of unknown actinomycetes was greater. Gram-negative bacteria and fungi could be inhibited by adding inhibitors in media.

  1. Key technologies for well drilling and completion in ultra-deep sour gas reservoirs, Yuanba Gasfield, Sichuan Basin

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    Jiaxiang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Yuanba Gasfield is a large gas field discovered by Sinopec in the Sichuan Basin in recent years, and another main exploration area for natural gas reserves and production increase after the Puguang Gasfield. The ultra-deep sour gas reservoir in the Yuanba Gasfield is characterized by complicated geologic structure, deep reservoirs and complex drilled formation, especially in the continental deep strata which are highly abrasive with low ROP (rate of penetration and long drilling period. After many years of drilling practice and technical research, the following six key drilling and completion technologies for this type reservoir are established by introducing new tools and technologies, developing specialized drill bits and optimizing drilling design. They are: casing program optimization technology for ROP increasing and safe well completion; gas drilling technology for shallow continental strata and high-efficiency drilling technology for deep high-abrasion continental strata; drilling fluid support technologies of gas–liquid conversion, ultra-deep highly-deviated wells and horizontal-well lubrication and drag reduction, hole stability control and sour gas contamination prevention; well cementing technologies for gas medium, deep-well long cementing intervals and ultra-high pressure small space; horizontal-well trajectory control technologies for measuring instrument, downhole motor optimization and bottom hole assembly design; and liner completion modes and completion string optimization technologies suitable for this gas reservoir. Field application shows that these key technologies are contributive to ROP increase and efficiency improvement of 7000 m deep horizontal wells and to significant operational cycle shortening.

  2. Construction of Agricultural University Students’ Entrepreneurship Incubation Base – Taking Sichuan Agricultural University as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Yao; Jianping Xie; Linchun He

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, as an effective practice in university students’ entrepreneurship education, construction of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base has been rapidly developed in different universities. This paper takes construction of the entrepreneurship incubation base in Sichuan Agricultural University as a case study, analyzes the current status of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base and makes a discussion on establishment of management institution, f...

  3. Optimization techniques for the secondary development of old gas fields in the Sichuan Basin and their application

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    Chongshuang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available After nearly 60 years of development, many old gas fields in the Sichuan Basin have come to middle–late development stages with low pressure and low yield, and some are even on the verge of abandonment, but there are plenty remaining gas resources still undeveloped. Analysis shows that gas fields which have the conditions for the secondary development are faced with many difficulties. For example, it is difficult to produce low permeable reserves and to unset the hydraulic seal which is formed by active formation water. In this paper, therefore, the technical route and selection conditions of old gas fields for the secondary development were comprehensively elaborated with its definition as the beginning. Firstly, geological model forward modeling and production performance inversion characteristic curve diagnosis are performed by using the pressure normalization curve and the identification and quantitative description method for multiple sets of storage–seepage body of complex karst fracture–cavity systems is put forward, after the multiple storage–seepage body mode of fracture–cavity systems is established. Combined with the new occurrence mode of gas and water in U-shape pipes, a new calculation technology for natural gas reserves of multiple fracture–cavity systems with strong water invasion is developed. Secondly, a numerical model of pore–cavity–fracture triple media is built, and simulation and result evaluation technology for the production pattern of “drainage by horizontal wells + gas production by vertical wells” in bottom-water fracture and cavity gas reservoirs with strong water invasion is developed. Thirdly, the geological model of gas reservoirs is reconstructed with the support of the integration technologies which are formed based on fine gas reservoir description. Low permeable reserves of gas reservoirs are evaluated based on each classification. The effective producing ratio is increased further by

  4. Crustal Structure and Deformation of the Sichuan-Yunnan Region Revealed by receiver Function Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, S.; Zheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Sichuan-Yunnan and its surrounding areas locates in the southeast side to the Tibetan Plateau, due to the intrusion of the Indian Plate under the Tibetan Plateau, materials escape from the Tibetan Plateau and flow southward to southeastward. Because of such tectonic environment, the Sichuan-Yunnan region is experiencing high tectonic movement, and is capable of highly diffused seismicity. Based on dynamic simulation and field survey investigations, tectonic and geological studies proposed a decoupling model in this region and lower crustal flow may inflate in the crust. However, this idea needs more evidences, especially anisotropic structures to support it, since the anisotropic structures are usually directly related to the movement of materials, or to the tectonic distributions. In the past several years, a number of works have been done on the anisotropic structures in the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings. In usually, previous studies were mainly carried out by two kinds of methods. First, the shear wave splitting of SKS, which mainly reflects the accumulation effect of the anisotropy of the crust to the mantle; the other way is use surface wave to investigate the anisotropic features at different azimuths and depths. In the recent years, receiver function is used to determine the inclination and anisotropy of the subsurface structure, comparing with the other two methods, receiver functions can provide higher resolution and reliable anisotropic features in the crust. Following the method of Liu and Niu(2012), we collected teleseismic data from the Himalayan first term network, and picked out high quality data based on the waveform SNR ratio, as well as the azimuthal distributions. Comparing with previous work (e.g., Sun et al.,2012), our work can provide more receiver functions results with higher reliability. We find that the crust beneath the Sichuan-Yunnan region has a thickness of 30-60 km and Vp/Vs ratio of 1.70-1.80. The Moho depth from northwest to

  5. Regional danger assessment of Debris flow and its engineering mitigation practice in Sichuan-Tibet highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pengcheng; Sun, Zhengchao; li, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Luding-Kangding highway cross the eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where belong to the most deep canyon area of plateau and mountains in western Sichuan with high mountain and steep slope. This area belongs to the intersection among Xianshuihe, Longmenshan and Anninghe fault zones which are best known in Sichuan province. In the region, seismic intensity is with high frequency and strength, new tectonic movement is strong, rock is cracked, there are much loose solid materials. Debris flow disaster is well developed under the multiple effects of the earthquake, strong rainfall and human activity which poses a great threat to the local people's life and property security. So this paper chooses Kangding and LuDing as the study area to do the debris flow hazard assessment through the in-depth analysis of development characteristics and formation mechanism of debris flow. Which can provide important evidence for local disaster assessment and early warning forecast. It also has the important scientific significance and practical value to safeguard the people's life and property safety and the security implementation of the national major project. In this article, occurrence mechanism of debris flow disasters in the study area is explored, factor of evaluation with high impact to debris flow hazards is identified, the database of initial evaluation factors is made by the evaluation unit of basin. The factors with high impact to hazards occurrence are selected by using the stepwise regression method of logistic regression model, at the same time the factors with low impact are eliminated, then the hazard evaluation factor system of debris flow is determined in the study area. Then every factors of evaluation factor system are quantified, and the weights of all evaluation factors are determined by using the analysis of stepwise regression. The debris flows hazard assessment and regionalization of all the whole study area are achieved eventually after establishing the

  6. Lower Devonian trace fossils and their paleoenvironmental significance from the western Yangtze Plate, South China

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, LI-JUN; ZHAO, ZHAO

    2015-01-01

    Abundant and diverse trace fossils occur in the littoral-neritic sediments recording an Early Devonian transgression in South China. The well-exposed Ganxi section is located in the Longmen Mountain 100 km northwest of Chendu, Sichuan. The Lower Devonian strata are dominated by sandstones, siltstones, muddy shales, limestones, bioclastic limestones, and muddy limestones. About thirteen ichnogenera were systematically described, including Arenicolites, ?Balanoglossites, Chondrites, Cylindrichn...

  7. Comparative analysis of genotypic diversity in Entamoeba nuttalli isolates from Tibetan macaques and rhesus macaques in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yue; Feng, Meng; Cai, Junlong; Min, Xiangyang; Zhou, Xingyu; Xu, Qing; Tan, Ning; Cheng, Xunjia; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated the potentially virulent species Entamoeba nuttalli as one of the highly prevalent parasites in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Mount Long-hu and Gui-yang in China. Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) is a unique species living in China. To evaluate the prevalence of Entamoeba species in wild Tibetan macaques, we obtained 89 stool samples in Mount E-mei of Si-chuan Province in China. PCR analysis detected E. nuttalli, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba polecki ST2 in 17%, 42%, and 66% of the samples, respectively, whereas Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar were undetected. This study is the first to report on the detection of E. nuttalli from Tibetan macaques. Six E. nuttalli isolates were obtained, 18S rRNA gene and six tRNA-linked short tandem repeat (STR) loci of the isolates were sequenced. The Mantel test results gave an r value of 0.97 of relationships between geographical distance and genetic diversity of Chinese E. nuttalli populations, indicating a significant isolation-by-distance effect in Chinese E. nuttalli according to the tRNA-STR loci sequences. Structural analysis of E. nuttalli isolates based on tRNA-linked STR loci demonstrated three Chinese E. nuttalli populations with their respective features, but the Gui-yang population was located in the middle. In the distance-based NJ tree, E. nuttalli isolates were divided into five different branches, and E-mei isolates were attributed to an independent branch to distinguish them from Gui-yang and Long-hu isolates. Genetic analysis in this study provided clues of the genetic differences between E. nuttalli isolates from Tibetan macaques and rhesus macaques in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Age structure and biomass accumulation of Acanthopanax giraldii population in west Sichuan plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Rui; Zhong, Shihong; He, Biao; Li, Guihong; Keri, Muxia

    2010-07-01

    To study age structure and medicinal parts biomass accumulation of Acanthopanax giraldii population in West Sichuan Plateau. The methods of plant population ecology were applied to the study. The ramets of A. giraldii were collected in sample plot, survey the age, height, basal diameter and biomass of ramets,and also survey the number,stem bark height and length of the one-year-shoot growing in clonal ramets. Then statistically analyzed the survey data. The article revealed growth rule of A. giraldii population. The mortality rate of clonal ramets reached a peak after six years growth. The power exponential fuction could reflect the correlation of age to the height, basal diameter and biomass of ramets. The production of medicinal parts was stable between two to six years growth of clonal ramets. Suggested to harvest medicinal parts after three years growth of the clonal ramets. The study could provide biologic basis to population management and sustainable harvest of A. giraldii.

  9. Lithofacies paleogeography and favorable gas exploration zones of Qixia and Maokou Fms in the Sichuan Basin

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    Jingao Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Sichuan Basin, the Middle Permian marine carbonate rocks are important natural gas pay zones with immense exploration potential, but the facies belts and distribution situations of layered dolomite reservoirs are not clear, which hinders the progress in natural gas exploration. In view of the sedimentary background of the Sichuan Basin, field outcrop section, drilling data and seismic data were comprehensively analyzed with the favorable reservoir intervals in the framework of sequence stratigraphy as the key research units. Research results about its lithofacies paleogeography were obtained as follows. First, a gentle slope SW high and NE low was presented during the sedimentation of the Qixia Fm in the Middle Permian. In the Maokou Fm of the Middle Permian, however, a series of the N–W trending intra-platform rifts were developed in this setting, and eventually a paleogeographic pattern of NE-dipping alternative uplift and depression was evolved. Second, in the Qixia Fm, the transgressive tract was in an open platform environment and the highstand system tract evolved into a rimmed platform. And the platform margin beach in the area of Jiange–Ya'an is the favorable reservoir facies belt. And third, in the Maokou Fm, the transgressive tract was in the carbonate shelf environment and the highstand system tract evolved into a rimmed platform. And the platform margin reef flat in the area of Jiange–Ya'an and the syneclise margin beach in the area of Yanting–Guang'an are favorable reservoir facies belts. It is concluded that the two grain beach facies belts in the areas of Jiange–Ya'an and Yanting–Guang'an were the favorable zones for the large-scale development of Middle Permian layered dolomite reservoirs and they are the main target of subsequent natural gas exploration.

  10. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan domestic and Tibetan chicken populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuan; Li, Diyan; Gaur, Uma; Wang, Yan; Wu, Nan; Chen, Binlong; Xu, Zhongxian; Yin, Huadong; Hu, Yaodong; Zhu, Qing

    2016-09-01

    The sense of bitter taste plays a critical role in animals as it can help them to avoid intake of toxic and harmful substances. Previous research had revealed that chicken has only three bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2r1, Tas2r2 and Tas2r7). To better understand the genetic polymorphisms and importance of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) in chicken, here, we sequenced Tas2rs of 30 Sichuan domestic chickens and 30 Tibetan chickens. Thirteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including three nonsynonymous mutations (m.359G>C, m.503C>A and m.583A>G) were detected in Tas2r1 (m. is the abbreviation for mutation); three SNPs were detected in Tas2r2, but none of them were missense mutation; eight SNPs were detected in Tas2r7 including six nonsynonymous substitutions (m.178G>A, m.421A>C, m.787C>T, m.832G>T, m.907A>T and m.943G>A). Tajima's D neutral test indicates that there is no population expansion in both populations, and the size of the population is relatively stable. All the three networks indicate that red jungle fowls share haplotypes with domestic chickens. In addition, we found that haplotypes H1 and HE1 were positively associated with high-altitude adaptation, whereas haplotypes H4 and HE4 showed a negative correlation with high-altitude adaptation in Tas2rs. Although, chicken has only three Tas2rs, our results showed that both Sichuan domestic chickens and Tibetan chickens have abundant haplotypes in Tas2rs, especially in Tas2r7, which might help chickens to recognize a wide variety of bitter-tasting compounds.

  11. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Distinct genetic diversity of Oncomelania hupensis, intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in mainland China as revealed by ITS sequences.

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    Qin Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oncomelania hupensis is the unique intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes schistosomiasis endemic in the Far East, and especially in mainland China. O. hupensis largely determines the parasite's geographical range. How O. hupensis's genetic diversity is distributed geographically in mainland China has never been well examined with DNA sequence data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigate the genetic variation among O. hupensis from different geographical origins using the combined complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 and ITS2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. 165 O. hupensis isolates were obtained in 29 localities from 7 provinces across mainland China: lake/marshland and hill regions in Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Jiangsu provinces, located along the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, and mountainous regions in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. Phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses showed distinct genetic diversity and no shared haplotypes between populations from lake/marshland regions of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and populations from mountainous regions of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. The genetic distance between these two groups is up to 0.81 based on Fst, and branch time was estimated as 2-6 Ma. As revealed in the phylogenetic tree, snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces were also clustered separately. Geographical separation appears to be an important factor accounting for the diversification of the two groups of O. hupensis in mainland China, and probably for the separate clades between snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. In lake/marshland and hill regions along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, three clades were identified in the phylogenetic tree, but without any obvious clustering of snails from different provinces. CONCLUSIONS: O. hupensis in mainland China may have considerable genetic diversity, and a more

  13. Spatiotemporal prediction of daily ambient ozone levels across China using random forest for human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yu; Luo, Yuzhou; Deng, Xunfei; Grieneisen, Michael L; Zhang, Minghua; Di, Baofeng

    2018-02-01

    In China, ozone pollution shows an increasing trend and becomes the primary air pollutant in warm seasons. Leveraging the air quality monitoring network, a random forest model is developed to predict the daily maximum 8-h average ozone concentrations ([O 3 ] MDA8 ) across China in 2015 for human exposure assessment. This model captures the observed spatiotemporal variations of [O 3 ] MDA8 by using the data of meteorology, elevation, and recent-year emission inventories (cross-validation R 2  = 0.69 and RMSE = 26 μg/m 3 ). Compared with chemical transport models that require a plenty of variables and expensive computation, the random forest model shows comparable or higher predictive performance based on only a handful of readily-available variables at much lower computational cost. The nationwide population-weighted [O 3 ] MDA8 is predicted to be 84 ± 23 μg/m 3 annually, with the highest seasonal mean in the summer (103 ± 8 μg/m 3 ). The summer [O 3 ] MDA8 is predicted to be the highest in North China (125 ± 17 μg/m 3 ). Approximately 58% of the population lives in areas with more than 100 nonattainment days ([O 3 ] MDA8 >100 μg/m 3 ), and 12% of the population are exposed to [O 3 ] MDA8 >160 μg/m 3 (WHO Interim Target 1) for more than 30 days. As the most populous zones in China, the Beijing-Tianjin Metro, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Sichuan Basin are predicted to be at 154, 141, 124, and 98 nonattainment days, respectively. Effective controls of O 3 pollution are urgently needed for the highly-populated zones, especially the Beijing-Tianjin Metro with seasonal [O 3 ] MDA8 of 140 ± 29 μg/m 3 in summer. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first statistical modeling work of ambient O 3 for China at the national level. This timely and extensively validated [O 3 ] MDA8 dataset is valuable for refining epidemiological analyses on O 3 pollution in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Evaluating China's Slope Land Conversion Program as sustainable management in Tianquan and Wuqi Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Allison; King, Brian

    2011-08-01

    Increased soil erosion on sloped land has become a significant environmental concern in China that has been attributed to human activities such as deforestation, over-cultivation, and over-grazing of livestock. In order to reduce soil erosion on sloped lands, the Chinese government has responded by implementing large-scale, ecological rehabilitation programs, including the "Grain for Green" reforestation project. This program involves financial incentives to transition farmers into other economic activities with the goal of reducing ecological pressures and degradation. Because of the scope and potential impacts from these programs, detailed research is needed to understand their social and ecological effects. This paper reports on research conducted in Tianquan County, Sichuan Province, and Wuqi County, Shaanxi Province, that evaluates the effects of the program upon local economies and household livelihood systems. The paper argues that the successful conversion of farmland under "Grain for Green" depends upon local government involvement, local economic development, and funding for local projects. Without economic development within rural economies, we conclude that farmers will remain dependent upon continued subsidy assistance to meet the policy's ambitious environmental restrictions, thereby undermining the program's long-term sustainability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A new genotype of Cryptosporidium from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuehan; He, Tingmei; Zhong, Zhijun; Zhang, Hemin; Wang, Rongjun; Dong, Haiju; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Deng, Jiabo; Peng, Guangneng; Zhang, Longxian

    2013-10-01

    Fifty-seven fecal samples were collected from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in the China Conservation and Research Centre for the Giant Panda (CCRCGP) in Sichuan and examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts by Sheather's sugar flotation technique. An 18-year-old male giant panda was Cryptosporidium positive, with oocysts of an average size of 4.60×3.99 μm (n=50). The isolate was genetically analyzed using the partial 18S rRNA, 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and actin genes. Multi-locus genetic characterization indicated that the present isolate was different from known Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. The closest relative was the Cryptosporidium bear genotype, with 11, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the 18S rRNA, HSP70, and actin genes, respectively. Significant differences were also observed in the COWP gene compared to Cryptosporidium mongoose genotype. The homology to the bear genotype at the 18S rRNA locus was 98.6%, which is comparable to that between Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis (99.2%), or between Cryptosporidium muris and Cryptosporidium andersoni (99.4%). Therefore, the Cryptosporidium in giant pandas in this study is considered as a new genotype: the Cryptosporidium giant panda genotype. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Co-seismic ruptures of the 12 May 2008, Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan: East-west crustal shortening on oblique, parallel thrusts along the eastern edge of Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Zeng, J.; Zhang, Z.; Wen, L.; Tapponnier, P.; Sun, Jielun; Xing, X.; Hu, G.; Xu, Q.; Zeng, L.; Ding, L.; Ji, C.; Hudnut, K.W.; van der Woerd, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Ms 8.0, Wenchuan earthquake, which devastated the mountainous western rim of the Sichuan basin in central China, produced a surface rupture over 200??km-long with oblique thrust/dextral slip and maximum scarp heights of ~ 10??m. It thus ranks as one of the world's largest continental mega-thrust events in the last 150??yrs. Field investigation shows clear surface breaks along two of the main branches of the NE-trending Longmen Shan thrust fault system. The principal rupture, on the NW-dipping Beichuan fault, displays nearly equal amounts of thrust and right-lateral slip. Basin-ward of this rupture, another continuous surface break is observed for over 70??km on the parallel, more shallowly NW-dipping Pengguan fault. Slip on this latter fault was pure thrusting, with a maximum scarp height of ~ 3.5??m. This is one of the very few reported instances of crustal-scale co-seismic slip partitioning on parallel thrusts. This out-of-sequence event, with distributed surface breaks on crustal mega-thrusts, highlights regional, ~ EW-directed, present day crustal shortening oblique to the Longmen Shan margin of Tibet. The long rupture and large offsets with strong horizontal shortening that characterize the Wenchuan earthquake herald a re-evaluation of tectonic models anticipating little or no active shortening of the upper crust along this edge of the plateau, and require a re-assessment of seismic hazard along potentially under-rated active faults across the densely populated western Sichuan basin and mountains. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Mothers' Grief Experiences of Losing Their Only Child in the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Fang; Chen, Lin; Sha, Wei; Chan, Cecilia L W; Chow, Amy Y M; Lou, Vivian W Q

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore bereaved mothers' 2-year experiences of losing their only child in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. Taking an interpretative phenomenological approach, this study interviewed six bereaved mothers four times (6 months, 12 months, 18 months, and 24 months) in Dujiangyan area in Sichuan Province. The findings suggest that these mothers' personal grief experiences evolved: initially, anger toward the cause of their children's deaths, following despair of meaningless life, guilt and regret, and finally yearning. Although their yearning and missing ebbed after 2 years, these mothers still had unresolved grief. These mothers also faced strained marital relationships and additional pressure from social interactions. This study illuminates that these mothers' personal grief experiences and their coping strategies corresponded to Chinese family and sociocultural context.

  18. Quantitative characterization of fractures and pores in shale beds of the Lower Silurian, Longmaxi Formation, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuman Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractures and pores are important storage and percolation spaces in tight reservoirs, and the identification, characterization and quantitative evaluation on them are the key aspects and difficulties in shale gas reservoir evaluation. In view of this, quantitative evaluation was performed on the fracture porosity of organic-rich shale intervals of Longmaxi Fm, Lower Silurian, Sichuan Basin (Wufeng Fm, Upper Ordovician included, after a dual-porosity medium porosity interpretation model was built on the basis of drilling data of Fuling Gasfield and Changning gas block in the Sichuan Basin. And then, the following conclusions are reached. First, shale fracture porosity interpretation by using dual-porosity medium model is the effective method to evaluate quantitatively the fracture porosity of shale reservoirs, and the development of quantitative characterization techniques of marine shale reservoir spaces. Second, the matrix pore volume of the principal pay zones in this area and its constitution regions are stably distributed with matrix porosity generally in the range of 4.6%–5.4%. And third, the development characteristics of fracture porosity vary largely in different tectonic regions and indifferent wellblocks and intervals even in the same tectonic region, presenting strong heterogeneity in terms of shale reservoir storage and percolation properties. It is indicated by quantitative characterization of fractures and pores that there are two types of shale gas reservoirs in Wufeng Fm – Longmaxi Fm, Sichuan Basin, including matrix porosity + fracture type and matrix porosity type. The former are mainly developed in the areas with special structure settings and they are characterized by developed fracture pores, high gas content, high free gas content, thick pay zones and high single-well production rate. And in the Sichuan Basin, its distribution is possibly in a restricted range. The latter are characterized by high matrix porosity

  19. [Application of remote sensing and GIS in study of suitability distribution of Swertia mussotii, a Tibetan medicine in Sichuan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yong-Bo; Luo, Yao; Zhu, Cong; Peng, Wen-Fu; Xu, Xin-Liang; Fang, Qing-Mao

    2017-11-01

    Swertia mussotii is a kind of rare medicinal materials, the relevant researches are mainly concentrated on its medicinal efficacy and medicinal value till now, researches of adaptive distribution by applying remote sensing and GIS are relatively less. This study is to analyze the adaptive distribution of S.mussotii in Sichuan province by applying remote sensing and GIS technology, and provide scientific basis for the protection and development of wild resources, artificial cultivation and adjustment of Chinese medicine industrial distribution in Sichuan province. Based on literature review and ecological factors such as altitude, annual precipitation and annual average temperature, this study extracted ecological factors, overlay analysis in GIS, as well as combining GPS field validation data by means of remote sensing and GIS, discusses the adaptive distribution of SMF sin Sichuan province. ①The area of adaptive distribution of S. mussotii in Sichuan province is 1 543.749 km², mainly in Dege county, Ganzi county, Daofu county, Kangding county, Barkam, Jinchuan county, Xiaojin county, Danba county, Daocheng county, Xiangcheng county, Xinlong county, Aba county, Muli county and other counties and cities, accounts for about 7.25% in total area. ② Combining statistical information and field validation, this study found that S. mussotii adaptive distribution gained by remote sensing and GIS is in conformity with its actual distribution. The study shows that remote sensing and GIS technology are feasible to obtain the S. mussotii adaptive distribution, they can further be applied to studies on adaptive distributions of other rare Chinese medicinal herb. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Assessment of secondary aluminum reserves of nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maung, Kyaw Nyunt; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    A classification framework of the secondary resources was applied to evaluate the framework's applicability and to assess secondary aluminum reserves for 19 countries. Estimated amounts of secondary aluminum reserves in 2010 were 85 million tonnes in the United States, 65 million tonnes in China......, 29 million tonnes in Japan, and 413 million tonnes globally. For the United States, its secondary reserves are larger than its primary reserves, although the global primary reserves (28,000 million tonnes) are much larger than the estimated secondary reserves. Considerable amounts of secondary...

  1. Identification of differentially expressed genes between hepatocytes of Landes geese (Anser anser) and Sichuan White geese (Anser cygnoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhixiong; Wang, Jiwen; Han, Chunchun; Zhai, Ningfeng; Lv, Jia; Zhou, Zehui; Tang, Hui; Xiang, Shuxia; Wang, Jing; Li, Liang

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we examined gene expression in order to identify genes that are differentially expressed between the hepatocytes of Sichuan White geese and Landes geese. We hypothesized that such genes may be involved in the different predispositions between these two species to develop hepatic steatosis. RNA was isolated from primary hepatocytes of the two species, and suppression subtractive hybridization was employed to screen for genes that showed differences in mRNA expression. We built and characterized two reciprocal cDNA libraries that were enriched in genes up-regulated in Landes geese or Sichuan White geese. Using dot blot analysis we identified 128 of 600 randomly selected sequences that demonstrated differential expression between the two species. Of these differentially expressed genes, 115 sequences shared high homology with 46 known genes and 13 sequences corresponded to eight novel expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Based on functional clustering, up and down-regulated genes were mostly related to lipid metabolism, nuclear mRNA splicing, enzyme activity and transcription control. The expression of 18 selected clones was further studied by quantitative PCR. The data showed that eight clones similar to the genes ACSL5, CTGF, CIDEA, PPARγ, PCK, GSTS1, RPS4X, and THBS1 had significantly higher expression levels in the hepatocytes of Landes geese. In contrast, seven clones similar to the genes ADH5, YBX1, ASAH1, UCB, AOPVLDL, SCD-1, and ELOVL-6 had significantly higher expression levels in the hepatocytes of Sichuan White geese.

  2. Further studies on the Pselaphodes complex of genera from China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Hlaváč, Peter; Li, Li-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    New data on the Pselaphodes complex of genera (Pselaphitae: Tyrini) from China is presented. The generic limits of Labomimus Sharp and Pselaphodes Westwood are discussed and expanded. A revised key to the genera of the Pselaphodes complex is provided. New geographic evidence suggests that previously believed wide-spread species Pselaphodes tianmuensis Yin, Li & Zhao contains a number of related species, resulting in a division of the species to nine separate taxa. Fourteen new species belonging to three genera are diagnosed, described and illustrated: Dayao emeiensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan), Labomimus fimbriatus Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Yunnan), Labomimus jizuensis Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Yunnan), Labomimus simplicipalpus Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes anhuianus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Anhui), Pselaphodes daii Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes grebennikovi Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Yunnan), Pselaphodes hainanensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Hainan), Pselaphodes kuankuoshuiensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Guizhou), Pselaphodes longilobus Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Hunbei, Yunnan), Pselaphodes monoceros Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Xizang), Pselaphodes pengi Yin & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes tiantongensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Zhejiang) and Pselaphodes wrasei Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan). Labomimus sichuanicus Hlaváč, Nomura & Zhou (Sichuan) is redescribed and illustrated based on a paratype and the material from the type locality. Two recently described species, Pselaphodes tibialis Yin & Li (Yunnan), and Pselaphodes venustus Yin & Li (Yunnan), are transferred to Labomimus (comb. n.) due to the presence of a median metaventral fovea. New locality data is provided for Pselaphodes aculeus Yin, Li & Zhao (Anhui, Fujian, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), Pselaphodes maoershanus Yin & Li (Guangxi, Guizhou), Pselaphodes tianmuensis (Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi) and Pselaphodes pectinatus Yin, Li & Zhao (Hainan), with the aedeagus newly illustrated for the latter species.

  3. Natural gas exploration prospect in the Upper Paleozoic strata, NW Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Shen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Progress of natural gas exploration has recently been made in the Upper Paleozoic marine-facies reservoirs in the NW Sichuan Basin. It has been proved that the Middle Permian Qixia Fm pore-type dolomite reservoirs may be distributed continuously in a large area, besides, for the first time favorable gas-bearing Devonian dolomite reservoirs in great thickness were discovered in the downhole there. Recent research achievements indicate that: (1 The Lower Cambrian quality source rocks in huge thickness were found in the study sedimentary area with advantageous hydrocarbon source conditions. (2 Influenced by the Caledonian movement, the whole NW Sichuan Basin was lifted up to form a massive box-like NS-trending plunging uplift low steep in the west but high sluggish in the east, laying a robust foundation for the inheritance of Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian platform margin reef large-scale sedimentation and dolomitization. (3 In the Upper Paleozoic strata, there were multiple planes of unconformity and multi-stage supergene karst occurred, improving the preservation and seeping capacity of reservoirs. (4 Tectonic deformations resulted from the nappe structure in the Longmenshan Mountain provided good hydrocarbon source fractures and sealing conditions for oil and gas reservoirs, which is conductive to the formation of a giant gas pool. It is concluded that the back-thrust anticline belt east to Hidden fault I in this study area has favorable conditions for large-scale structural–stratigraphic and structural–lithologic combination traps. As suggested in this study, relatively strong dolomitization was found in the Qixia Fm in the Shejianhe River–Zhongba higher palaeogeomorphic deposit area, so the most favorable exploration target of the Qixia Fm will be around the central axis of Caledonian paleo-uplift to the east ridgeline, and the most favorable prospect of the Upper Palaeozoic will be the central axis to the west of Hidden fault I

  4. Impact of Natural Disasters on Livelihood Resilience of Sichuan Rural Residents and Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yiping

    2017-04-01

    Livelihood resilience is defined as the capacity of all people across generations to sustain and improve their livelihood opportunities and well-being despite environmental, economic, social and political disturbances. Livelihood resilience has become a popular research and policy concept in the context of climate change. In this paper, we employ the structural dynamics method to describe livelihood resilience of Sichuan rural residents based on four components of livelihood quality, livelihood promotion, livelihood provision, and natural disasters pressure. Results indicate that: (i) The livelihood resilience of rural residents was significantly positively correlated with livelihood quality, livelihood promotion and livelihood provision, but there was a strong negative correlation with the natural disaster pressure. In the past 30 years, both livelihood promotion and livelihood provision declined, and the increase in disasters pressure offset the significant increase in the quality of livelihoods in Sichuan Province. The change curve of the livelihood resilience of rural residents showed the characteristics of first rising and then descending. (ii) The impact of different natural disasters on the resilience of livelihood is different. The contribution rates of earthquake, drought and flood disaster to the resilience of livelihood were -0.9 percent, -0.8 percent, and -0.3percent respectively. Due to the fact that the research area is not divided into earthquake-stricken area, non-earthquake-stricken area, heavy stricken area and light stricken area, to a certain extent, this has weakened the negative effect of earthquake disaster on the livelihood resilience of rural residents. (iii) From central government perspective, the reform of income distribution, tax system, and to change the reality of the income growth of rural residents behind national economic development are shown to be associated with highly significant and positive impact on livelihood resilience of

  5. Sedimentary mode and reservoir distribution of the Cambrian carbonate & evaporate paragenesis system in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cambrian carbonate & evaporite paragenesis system in the Sichuan Basin is made up of the Longwangmiao, Gaotai and Xixiangchi Fms. So far, great breakthrough has been made only in the Longwangmiao Fm instead of the latter two, and the Anyue Gasfield was discovered in the center of this basin. In this paper, therefore, the Cambrian carbonate & evaporite paragenesis system in the Sichuan Basin was analyzed in terms of its structural–sedimentary setting, sequence stratigraphic framework, sedimentary facies and the distribution of evaporites by using various geologic, logging and seismic data. Then, the geological model of sedimentary facies was established and the distribution range of favorable reservoirs was predicted. Based on these studies, the following results are obtained. Firstly, the palaeotectonic framework is characterized by the style of “one depression between two uplifts” in the setting of a large SE dipping slope, and the stratigraphic filling is in the structure of “onlapping at the bottom and truncation at the top” which is thin in the west and thick in the east. Secondly, three third-order sequence cycles which, on the whole, become shallow upward are developed from bottom to top, and gypsum-salt rocks are mainly located at the high system tract (HST of third-order sequences and concentrated in the Wanzhou–Yibin sag. Thirdly, the geological model of sedimentary facies is composed of three major sedimentary structural layers from bottom to top, namely the evaporative carbonate ramp, the evaporative diamictic restricted platform and the evaporative restricted platform. The sedimentary environment changes from the open to the closed and the penesaline for a long time, and then back to the open. The distribution of shoals changes from the pattern of “dual banks” in a large area to more scattered shoals and banded shoals, while the evaporative lagoon and tidal flat shrink. Fourthly, the reservoir distribution is

  6. A Comprehensive Study of Agricultural Drought Resistance and Background Drought Levels in Five Main Grain-Producing Regions of China

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Kang; Hongqi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Drought control and resistance affect national food security. With this in mind, we studied five main grain-producing regions of China: Sanjiang Plain, Songnen Plain, Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the middle Yangtze River and Jianghuai region and Sichuan Basin. Using GIS technology, we evaluated the comprehensive agricultural drought situation based on major crops, the basic drought resistance by integrating multiple indicators and the comprehensive drought resistance against background agricultural ...

  7. Differential accumulation and distribution of natural gas and its main controlling factors in the Sinian Dengying Fm, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to disclose the genetic relationship between the hydrocarbon reservoirs and the transformation mechanism between ancient and modern gas reservoirs in the Sinian Dengying Fm in the Sichuan Basin, by using the drilling data, and geologic, geophysical and geochemical methods together, the differential accumulation and distribution of natural gas and its main controlling factors in this study area were identified following the idea of corroborating macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic results each other. The results demonstrate as follows. (1 The crude oil in the paleo-oil reservoirs of the Dengying Fm cracked into gas to form the early overpressure paleo-gas reservoirs 100 Ma. From 100 Ma to 20 Ma, the constant uplifting of the Sichuan Basin coupled with the shift of structural highs and the initial occurrence of Weiyuan anticline caused the adjustment of the early overpressure paleo-gas reservoirs into the late overpressure paleo-gas reservoirs. (2 With the increase of uplifting magnitude since 20 Ma, the formations overlying the Dengying Fm in Weiyuan structure experienced rapid erosion, resulting in decline of the caprock sealing ability and damage to the preservation conditions. Therefore, the natural gas in the Dengying Fm started to leak and dissipate from the eroded window of the Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Fm located on the top of the Weiyuan anticline, which is the beginning of the differential accumulation and dissipation of the natural gas in the Dengying Fm across the Sichuan Basin. During the process of the differential accumulation and dissipation, the gas below the spill point of the structural gas traps in Ziyang, Jinshi and Longnüsi–Moxi–Anpingdian–Gaoshiti areas migrated to the Weiyuan anticline along the unconformity of the Dengying Fm, and dissipated through the eroded window of the Jialingjiang Fm on the top of the Weiyuan anticline, resulting in a transformation of abnormal high pressure of gas reservoir

  8. Sedimentary tectonic evolution and reservoir-forming conditions of the Dazhou–Kaijiang paleo-uplift, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Great breakthrough recently achieved in the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic gas exploration in the Leshan–Longnüsi paleo-uplift, Sichuan Basin, has also made a common view reached, i.e., large-scale paleo-uplifts will be the most potential gas exploration target in the deep strata of this basin. Apart from the above-mentioned one, the other huge paleo-uplifts are all considered to be the ones formed in the post-Caledonian period, the impact of which, however, has rarely ever been discussed on the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic oil and gas reservoir formation. In view of this, based on outcrops, drilling and geophysical data, we analyzed the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic tectonic setting and sedimentary background in the East Sichuan Basin, studied the distribution rules of reservoirs and source rocks under the control of paleo-uplifts, and finally discussed, on the basis of structural evolution analysis, the conditions for the formation of Sinian–Lower Paleozoic gas reservoirs in this study area. The following findings were achieved. (1 The Dazhou–Kaijiang inherited uplift in NE Sichuan Basin which was developed before the Middle Cambrian controlled a large area of Sinian and Cambrian beach-facies development. (2 Beach-facies reservoirs were developed in the upper part of the paleo-uplift, while in the peripheral depression belts thick source rocks were developed like the Upper Sinian Doushantuo Fm and Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm, so there is a good source–reservoir assemblage. (3 Since the Permian epoch, the Dazhou–Kaijiang paleo-uplift had gradually become elevated from the slope zone, where the Permian oil generation peak occurred in the slope or lower and gentle uplift belts, while the Triassic gas generation peak occurred in the higher uplift belts, both with a favorable condition for hydrocarbon accumulation. (4 The lower structural layers, including the Lower Cambrian and its underlying strata, in the East Sichuan Basin, are now equipped with a

  9. China’s Second World of Poetry : The Sichuan Avant-Garde, 1982-1992

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Day, Michael

    2005-01-01

    China's Second World of Poetry remedies a deficiency in scholarship to date. In post-Mao China, types of poetry variously dubbed underground, unofficial, experimental, avant-garde, non-mainstream and so on have outshined texts produced by a state-sanctioned politico-cultural establishment that

  10. Provincial Chinese actors in Africa: The case of Sichuan in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, X.

    2016-01-01

    In 2001, the Chinese government began a strong, sustained push for Chinese companies to increase their outgoing investment. The expansion of China's "Going Out" or "Going Global" strategy has brought an increasing number of new domestic and international actors in China-Africa relations. Although

  11. [Characteristics of blood type irregular antibodies in Han population of Chinese Sichuan area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui-Ying; Li, Yun-Ming; Huang, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Hong

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the distribution of irregular antibody of red blood cells in Han population of Chinese Sichuan area, so as to provide valuable information for the safety of transfusion and decrease of immune hemolytic transfusion reaction. Blood samples from June 2006 to May 2013 were tested for irregular antibody screening and identification, calculating the composition rate, group characteristics and the positive detection rate of irregular antibody. A total of 36287 blood samples were tested, out of them 571 samples were the irregular antibody positive, the positive rate was 1.574%(571/36 287), specific alloantibodies were found in 312 samples, the positive rate was 0.860%(312/36287). And autoantibody was found in 259 samples, the positive rate was 0.714%(259/36 287). The specific alloantibodies ratio in Rh system was the highest, reaching to 73.72%(230/312) with the positive rate of 0.634%;36 cases in Lewis system, account for 11.54%(36/312) with the positive rate of 0.099%; 34 cases in MNS system account for 10.89%(34/312) with the positive rate of 0.094%; direct coomb test showed positive result in 284 samples, the rate was 0.78%. The detected rate of positive irregular antibody in female is obviously higher than that in male patients (Pirregular antibody screening and identification are very important in blood transfusion, especially for female and people with transfusion or pregnant history.

  12. Genetic structure of Qiangic populations residing in the western Sichuan corridor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Chao Wang

    Full Text Available The Qiangic languages in western Sichuan (WSC are believed to be the oldest branch of the Sino-Tibetan linguistic family, and therefore, all Sino-Tibetan populations might have originated in WSC. However, very few genetic investigations have been done on Qiangic populations and no genetic evidences for the origin of Sino-Tibetan populations have been provided. By using the informative Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA markers, we analyzed the genetic structure of Qiangic populations. Our results revealed a predominantly Northern Asian-specific component in Qiangic populations, especially in maternal lineages. The Qiangic populations are an admixture of the northward migrations of East Asian initial settlers with Y chromosome haplogroup D (D1-M15 and the later originated D3a-P47 in the late Paleolithic age, and the southward Di-Qiang people with dominant haplogroup O3a2c1*-M134 and O3a2c1a-M117 in the Neolithic Age.

  13. Origin of the yellow brine and the black brine in Sichuan Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongsheng

    1988-01-01

    The spring water, geothermal water and Cretaceous brine in the outer zone of the Sichuan Basin has the Craig relationship, and they are cycling waters. The brine in the inner zone is mainly metasedimentary water. A basic feature of them is poor in 2 H, but rich in 18 O. The δD-values of the yellow brine in Jurassic and Upper Triassic aquifer of continental facies varies from -62.25 to -22.4, and the δ 18 O-values are -6.72 - +6.02. The δD-values of the black brine in marine aquifer (T 2 ,T 1 ,P,C,O and so on) varies from -49 to -25.1, and the 18 O values are +3.89 - +6.14. The δD of yellow brine is similar to that of meteoric water, and the δD of the black brine is around that of crystallization water expelled from gypsum by anhydritization. Increases of salinity in Jurassic yellow brine result primarily from the evapotranspiration process. The salinity in Upper Triassic yellow brine in Aa sub-area originated from underlying rock salt which was leached by paleometeoric water. Triassic black brine derived from the mixing of the crystallization water leached from rock salt with the residual sea water after salt crystallization. In Zhigong, the composition of yellow brine has mainly been changed by the mixing of the yellow brine with the black brine. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Hydrocarbon origin and reservoir forming model research of Longwangmiao Formation, Moxi-Gaoshiti area, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindong Jin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Longwangmiao gas reservoir in Moxi-Gaoshiti area, Sichuan Basin. Starting from the tectonic evolution perspective, though comparing biological marker compound and analyzing fluid inclusions, the oil & gas origin and accumulation evolution of Longwangmiao Formation are systematic studied with reference to the burial-thermal evolution of single well geological history in the study area. It is suggested that the oil & gas reservoir is generally characterized by early accumulation, multi-stage filling, late cracking and later adjustment. The oil and gas were mainly sourced from lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation, partly from the Permian source rock. During the geological period, 3 major oil & gas fillings occurred in the Longwangmiao Formation, namely Caledonian-Hercynian filling that was small in scale and produced the first phase of paleo-oil reservoir that soon destroyed by Caledonian movement uplift, large-scale Permian filling that gave rise to the second-phase of paleo-oil reservoir and the Triassic-Jurassic filling that enriched the second phase of paleo-oil reservoir. Finally, the paleo-oil reservoir experienced an in-situ cracking during the cretaceous period that gave rise to a natural gas reservoir and left behind carbonaceous bitumen and oily bitumen in the holes of the Longwangmiao Formation.

  15. Processing Mineralogy Study on Lead and Zinc Oxide Ore in Sichuan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The processing mineralogy characteristics of an oxidized lead-zinc ore from Sichuan were studied systematically using numerous modern instruments. Results showed that lead and zinc oxide content in the ore exceeded the minimum industrial grade, and also included a relatively high concentration of silver and iron. This ore is composed of many different minerals. Major zinc-containing minerals include sphalerite, hemimorphite, smithsonite, hydrozincite, zinc-containing baileychlore, and zinc-containing dolomite and calcite. Lead-containing minerals are primarily galena and cerussite with small amounts of dechenite, cesaronite, anglesite, limonite and coronadite. Gangue minerals include dolomite and calcite. Dissemination size for the main minerals ranges from medium (0.04 mm to fine (0.02 mm. All the valuable minerals are well liberated, including galena, sphalerite, cerussite, calamine, and smithsonite. However, the dissemination relationships are complex. Lead is concentrated mainly in galena and cerussite, while zinc occurs primarily in sphalerite, calamine, and smithsonite. The theoretical recovery for lead and zinc were estimated at 72% and 67%, respectively.

  16. Development potentials and policy options of biomass in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to10(6) tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts' energy distribution also varies from province to province in China

  17. Application of UTCI in China from tourism perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Quansheng; Kong, Qinqin; Xi, Jianchao; Zheng, Jingyun

    2017-05-01

    This study uses ERA-Interim reanalysis data and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) to investigate the spatial pattern of thermal bioclimatic conditions in China. Our results show that the annual UTCI increases with decreasing latitude throughout most of China. Areas that experience "no thermal stress" are located southeast of the line formed by the Yanshan Mountains, Taihang Mountains, the southern edge of the Loess Plateau, and the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, with an area of 312.83e4 km2. During spring and autumn, the UTCI distribution is similar to the annual distribution. During summer, areas with "no thermal stress" cover the largest area (563.55e4 km2), including northern and southwestern China; in contrast, during winter, areas with "no thermal stress" only occur south of the Nanling Mountains. The annual number of days with "no thermal stress" increases from north to south in central and eastern China, exceeding 200 days in the Sichuan Basin, the southeastern coastal regions and the Yungui Plateau. The minimum and maximum values occur on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (≤10 days) and the southern Yungui Plateau (>280 days). Seasonal analysis indicates that there are over 70 days with "no thermal stress" in the Sichuan Basin, the Yungui Plateau and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River during spring and autumn, while there are more than 80 days in northern and southwestern China during summer and over 80 days in areas south of the Nanling Mountains during winter. The results of this study can be helpful for optimization of the tourism industry and tourism destinations development in China.

  18. New species and records of Awas Löbl (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) from China, with notes on the biology of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi-Wei

    2017-10-24

    A new species of the arnylliine ant-loving beetle genus Awas Löbl, A. helii Yin, sp. n., collected with Ectomomyrmex ants in Sichuan, SW China, is described and illustrated. The new taxon externally resembles A. kayan Yin & Li from Hunan, central China, but can be readily separated by the different forms of the pronotum and elytra, and details of the aedeagal structures. New collecting data for Awas loebli Yin & Li in eastern China, as well as some notes on the biology of the genus are provided.

  19. Bamboo vs. crops: An integrated emergy and economic evaluation of using bamboo to replace crops in south Sichuan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on long-term monitoring conducted in Chang-ning county, a pilot site of the ‘Grain for Green Program’ (GFGP), an integrated emergy and economic method was applied to evaluate the dynamic ecological-economic performance of 3 kinds of bamboo systems planted on slo...

  20. Geometric and kinematics of West Segment of South Dabashan Foreland Fold-and-Thrust Belt, Northeast Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dengfa

    2017-04-01

    The west segment of South Daba Shan (WSD) foreland thrust belt is an ideal area to disclose the intra-continental tectonic processes. Based on the latest pre-stack depth migration of 3-D seismic data, 2-D seismic profile, well data and geological outcrop, the paper explore the structural geometric and kinematic features of WSD with the application of fault-related folding theories. WSD is characterized by multi-level detachment deformation due to the three predominant sets of weak layers, Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation gypsum interval, Silurian mudstone beds and Cambrian shale zone. It is accordingly subdivided vertically into three tectonic systems. The upper one is above the Jialingjiang Formation gypsolith layer and presents a Jura-like fold-and-thrust belt. The middle one takes Silurian shale as the base and Jialingjiang Formation gypsolith interval as the passive roof, in which imbricate thrusts developed. The lower one is bounded to Cambrian and Silurian detachment layers, in which duplex dominated. The Sinian and Proterozoic basements below Cambrian have not been involved in deformation. WSD underwent four periods of tectonic evolution: Late Jurassic -Cretaceous (150-110Ma); Late Cretaceous (110-70Ma); Latest Cretaceous to Paleogene (70-30Ma); Oligocene to Quaternary (30-0 Ma). The deformation propagated southward as an imbricate style, which results in the passive uplifting of overlying structural layer. WSD exhibits a rather low taper tectonic wedge. According to the magnetotelluric and deep seismic profiles, it is inferred that the WSD tectonic processes is mainly controlled by the Yangtze continental block subduction northward under the Qingling Mountains and the pro-wedge multi-level thrusting during late Jurassic to Cretaceous. The Upper Paleozoic carbonates in the middle tectonic deformation system are favorable for gas exploration in thea area.

  1. Impact of overgrazing on the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Tibetan pastoral communities of Sichuan Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qian; Xiao, Yong-fu; Vuitton, Dominique A; Schantz, Peter M; Raoul, Francis; Budke, Christine M; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Craig, Philip S; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overgrazing was assumed to increase the population density of small mammals that are the intermediate hosts of Echinococcus multilocularis, the pathogen of alveolar echinococcosis in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. This research tested the hypothesis that overgrazing might promote

  2. A tree-ring and GIS assessment of mass-movement hazard in the Moxi basin (Sichuan, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ireneusz; Wistuba, Małgorzata; Tie, Yongbo; Owczarek, Piotr; Woskowicz-Ślezak, Beata; Łuszczyńska, Katarzyna; Absalon, Damian

    2017-11-01

    The goal of our study is to estimate the frequencies and magnitudes of mass movements of differing origin and scale endangering the population of the Moxi basin. The ages of 30 trees were determined indicating the date of the last large debris flow. In addition we determined the dates of smaller debris flows wounding the stems of 43 trees and the dates of rockfalls injuring the stems of 15 trees. The results allowed the recurrence intervals of the mass movements observed in each study site to be calculated. Based on the results from three study sites representing typical mass-movement hazards, the densely inhabited main valley of the Moxi basin is affected by 40 large debris flows, hundreds of smaller debris flows and thousands of single rockfalls per century. The GIS-based survey indicates that the hazard affects as much as 27.07% of developed area of the Moxi basin. However, thanks to sustainable land use, the majority is affected by manageable, high frequency, but middle- to low-magnitude phenomena.

  3. Particle flow and segregation in a giant landslide event triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, a large landslide of approximately 30 million m3 occurred at Donghekou with a particle run-out distance of over 2000 m. This paper presents fascinating particle flow and segregation characteristics in the landslide process found through field investigation of changes in the soil particle size, density, and fabric along the particle movement paths. The soil particles experienced projection, long-distance flying, sliding, and rolling. Trajectory segregation, inverse grading, and particle crushing were found in the landslide event, which contributed to the heterogeneity of the soil deposits. In the initial deposition area, particles with larger diameters appeared to have flown longer. Materials from different sources mixed, forming more uniform debris. In the run-out area, the particle flow tended to cause large particles to travel further. However, particle disintegration and crushing led to more small particles along the movement paths and the observed characteristic flow distances of very large particles did not increase with the particle diameter, which is different from observations of an idealized granular mass flow.

  4. Experimental study on hydration damage mechanism of shale from the Longmaxi Formation in southern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjun Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a serious problem in drilling operation, wellbore instability restricts efficient development of shale gas. The interaction between the drilling fluid and shale with hydration swelling property would have impact on the generation and propagation mechanism of cracks in shale formation, leading to wellbore instability. In order to investigate the influence of the hydration swelling on the crack propagation, mineral components and physicochemical properties of shale from the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation (LF were investigated by using the XRD analysis, cation exchange capabilities (CEC analysis, and SEM observation, and we researched the hydration mechanism of LF shale. Results show that quartz and clay mineral are dominated in mineral composition, and illite content averaged 67% in clay mineral. Meanwhile, CEC of the LF shale are 94.4 mmol/kg. The process of water intruding inside shale along microcracks was able to be observed through high power microscope, meanwhile, the hydration swelling stress would concentrate at the crack tip. The microcracks would propagate, bifurcate and connect with each other, with increase of water immersing time, and it would ultimately develop into macro-fracture. Moreover, the macrocracks extend and coalesce along the bedding, resulting in the rock failure into blocks. Hydration swelling is one of the major causes that lead to wellbore instability of the LF shale, and therefore improving sealing capacity and inhibition of drilling fluid system is an effective measure to stabilize a borehole.

  5. Effects of healing on the seismogenic potential of carbonate fault rocks : Experiments on samples from the Longmenshan Fault, Sichuan, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jianye; Verberne, Berend A.; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Fault slip and healing history may crucially affect the fault seismogenic potential in the earthquake nucleation regime. Here we report direct shear friction tests on simulated gouges derived from a carbonate fault breccia, and from a clay/carbonate fault-core gouge, retrieved from a surface

  6. Analysis of the monitoring status of residual nitrite in meat products in China from 2000 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongchao; Sun, Changbao; Han, Wanjun; Zhang, Jiaxiu; Hou, Juncai

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this article was to analyze the monitoring status of nitrite in meat products consumed from 2000 to 2011 in 24 provinces, autonomous regions or direct-controlled municipalities in China. Statistical analyses were performed on the monitoring status including number, proportion, and distribution of 13,316 samples, of which 11,320 (85%) contained up to 2808.2mg/kg nitrite and 1996 (15%) contained no nitrite. A total of 10,299 samples (77%) qualified for GB/T 5009.33-2003, 2003; however, 3017 samples (23%) contained nitrite at levels higher than the national standard. The districts with high percentage of samples with no nitrite were Shanghai (49%), Beijing (47%), and Liaoning (30%). While the districts with high percentage of meat products containing nitrite at levels exceeding the national standard were Jiangxi (49%), Jiangsu (33%), Shandong (29%) and Sichuan (29%). Therefore, the status of residue nitrite in meat products is of concern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on

  8. Tectonic evolution of Caledonian Palaeohigh in the Sichuan Basin and its relationship with hydrocarbon accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian Palaeohigh is an important gas exploration domain of Sinian and Lower Paleozoic in western Central Sichuan Basin where gas discoveries have been made successively in recent years. In order to sort out the relationship between the tectonic evolution of this Palaeohigh and hydrocarbon accumulation there, we carried out a new round of research based on previous study results. The evolution history of this Palaeohigh can be divided into seven episodes: the Late Sinian overall tilting and the youth form development of this Palaeohigh, the Cambrian-Ordovician syndepositional uplifting, the Silurian joint uplifting, the Devonian-Carboniferous uplifting and erosion, the Permian overall subsidence and deposition of regional caprock, the Triassic-Jurassic migration of structural high of the eastern segment of this Palaeohigh, and Cretaceous-Neogene strong deformation of the western segment of this Palaeohigh. The hydrocarbon accumulation in the Sinian-Lower Paleozoic experienced three evolution stages, namely the formation of ancient oil reservoirs in the Silurian-Triassic period, the development of the paleo-gas reservoirs in the Jurassic-Oligocene period, and differential evolution of gas reservoirs since the Miocene era. The Sinian-Lower Paleozoic paleo-reservoirs mainly occur in the Leshan-Ziyang-Gaoshiti-Longnǚsi zone and in the area to its north. The tectonic movement of the western segment of the Palaeohigh was strong, while its eastern segment was relatively stable since the later Himalayan epoch, which is favorable for gas accumulation and preservation. It is believed that the Gaoshiti-Moxi-Longnǚsi structural belt and its northern flank are not only favorable for the development of structural gas reservoirs in the Lower Paleozoic but also for gas reservoirs of karstic-lithologic type on the top of the Cambrian and Ordovician. The later type will be the major exploration target of this area in the future.

  9. Stimulation technologies for Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin and their application results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yongqiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Longwangmiao Fm group gas reservoirs in the Moxi structure in central Sichuan Basin feature high temperature, high pressure and high H2S content. The thickness of such high permeable reservoirs with great homogeneity is a geologic basis for a high-productivity gas well, and good match of natural fractures and vugs is the key factor to high well productivity. Overbalance drilling is likely to cause the opening-up of natural fractures, which will lead to the leakage of drilling fluid and severe damage to the reservoir. Experimental evaluation results show that the damage rate of the drilling fluid to the rock sample is between 82.2% and 89.2%, which severely restricts the productivity of gas wells. Therefore, it is necessary to deepen the experimental evaluation technologies and methods to promote the design pertinence of technical parameters. The study shows: first, the optimized gelling acid and steering acid are effective in slowing down speed and removing blockage, forming acidizing wormholes and effectively eliminating the blockage effect caused by drilling liquid pollution; second, the self-developed fiber steering agent and soluble temporary blocking ball can divert the acid, increasing the processing pressure at the well bottom by 5–15 MPa, realizing the even stimulation of heterogeneous reservoirs; third, based on experimental evaluation such as the acid penetration and acid rock reaction, it is recommended that the pumping rate be 3.0–3.5 m3/min in acidizing treatment and the acid intensity for blockage removal be 3.0–5.0 m3/m; fourth, the established blockage removal and steering acidizing technology have been applied in more than 20 wells with a remarkable productivity-increase effect, which gives full play to the natural productivity of gas wells and decreases the acid application scale. All these technologies and measures effectively enhance the development quality and profit of the gas reservoir.

  10. Modularization for ground engineering construction in the Anyue Gasfield, Sichuan Basin, with the designed annual gas processing capacity of six billion m3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoming Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Anyue Gasfield, Sichuan Basin, the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Moxi Block has enormous natural gas reserves, and it is a typical three-high (high temperature, high pressure, and high flow rate sour gas field. Its ground engineering project (with the designed gas processing capacity of 60 × 108 m3/a is characterized by high processing rate of each unit, complex process control, large construction load, restricted construction site and tight schedule. Based on the traditional engineering construction mode, however, it is difficult to complete the project design and construction within 16 months. In view of this, the design concept of unit large-scale modularization was introduced to implement “normalized design, scale purchase, factory-like prefabrication and modularized construction” and develop the modularization technology of large-scale surface engineering construction. This modularization technology is performed as follows. First, the modularized units are laid out reasonably according to the technological process. Second, the layout of modularized units is usually superimposed in the multi-layer framework. Third, those equipments with the same or similar operational modes, medium properties, functional characteristics and installation requirements are concentrated in the pattern of a module. Fourth, escape passageway is specially set up. Fifth, room for installation, maintenance and repair of large equipments is reserved. And sixth, transportation and hoisting requirements of modules are taken into consideration sufficiently. This technology is contributive to the improvement of design quality, effective shortening of design period, reduction of field working load, decrease of safety management risk of on-site installation, increase of production efficiency, conservation of land occupation and diminishment of construction investment. It plays a reference role in the modularized construction of surface

  11. Spatiotemporal variation of PM1 pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gongbo; Morawska, Lidia; Zhang, Wenyi; Li, Shanshan; Cao, Wei; Ren, Hongyan; Wang, Boguang; Wang, Hao; Knibbs, Luke D.; Williams, Gail; Guo, Jianping; Guo, Yuming

    2018-04-01

    Understanding spatiotemporal variation of PM1 (mass concentrations of particles with aerodynamic diameter pollution in China. Ground-based monitoring PM1 and PM2.5 measurements, along with collocated meteorological data, were obtained from 96 stations in China for the period from November 2013 to December 2014. Generalized additive models were employed to examine the relationships between PM1 and meteorological parameters. We showed that PM1 concentrations were the lowest in summer and the highest in winter. Across China, the PM1/PM2.5 ratios ranged from 0.75-0.88, reaching higher levels in January and lower in August. For spatial distribution, higher PM1/PM2.5 ratios (>0.9) were observed in North-Eastern China, North China Plain, coastal areas of Eastern China and Sichuan Basin while lower ratios (polluted days and lower ratios on clean days. The high PM1/PM2.5 ratios observed in China suggest that smaller particles, PM1 fraction, are key drivers of air pollution, and that they effectively account for the majority of PM2.5 concentrations. This emphasised the role of combustion process and secondary particle formation, the sources of PM1, and the significance of controlling them.

  12. Bilateral cooperation and technology transfer between France and China at Daya-Bay, Qinshan II and Yibin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Fubanf; Zenf Wenxing; He Jiacheng; Charbonneau, S.; Darolles, J.F.; Ellia, G.; Freslon, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Daya-Bay nuclear power station in Guangdong Province, The Qinshan phase II nuclear power station in Zhejiang Province, and the fuel manufacturing facility at Yibin in Sichuan Province have all afforded Framatome the opportunity to develop wide-ranging bilateral cooperation and technology transfer with the People's Republic of china. These projects are all good examples of how a country with some nuclear power experience, such as the now-operating Qinshan 1 (300 M We) nuclear power unit designed and build by China itself, can make much more rapid progress in its civil nuclear power program through cooperation with an industry leader, such as Framatome

  13. International experiences of promoting generics use and its implications to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing

    2013-05-01

    To summarize international experiences in promoting use of generics and to extract essence for China's reference. This is a commentary of two systematic reviews about policies to promote use of generics and its implications to China. Price, reimbursement, and generic substitution policies in European countries, and approaches in low and middle income countries in promoting market competition, appropriate intellectual property right protection strategy, and necessary demand side incentives, are all meaningful for China to contain soaring pharmaceutical expenditures, and to maintain the achievements and outcomes of the national health system reform. Effective promotion of generics use must be practice based on the real situation. Tailor-made and comprehensive measures are needed to address both demand and supply sides barriers before achieving tangible cost containment effect without unexpected side effects. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  14. Economic impacts from PM2.5 pollution-related health effects in China's road transport sector: A provincial-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xu; Dai, Hancheng; Geng, Yong; Wilson, Jeffrey; Wu, Rui; Xie, Yang; Hao, Han

    2018-03-28

    Economic impact assessments of air pollution-related health effects from a sectoral perspective in China is still deficient. This study evaluates the PM 2.5 pollution-related health impacts of the road transport sector on China's economy at both national and provincial levels in 2030 under various air mitigation technologies scenarios. Health impacts are estimated using an integrated approach that combines the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model, a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and a health model. Results show that at a national level, the road transport sector leads to 163.64 thousand deaths per year, increases the per capita risk of morbidity by 0.37% and accounts for 1.43 billion Yuan in health care expenditures. We estimate 442.90 billion Yuan of the value of statistical life loss and 2.09 h/capita of work time loss in 2015. Without additional control measures, air pollution related to the transport sector will cause 177.50 thousand deaths in 2030, a 0.40% per capita increase in the risk of morbidity, accounting for 4.12 billion Yuan in health care expenditures, 737.15 billion Yuan of statistical life loss and 2.23 h/capita of work time loss. Based on our model, implementing the most strict control strategy scenario would decrease mortality by 42.14%, morbidity risk by 42.14%, health care expenditures by 41.94%, statistical life loss by 26.22% and hours of work time loss by 42.65%, comparing with the no control measure scenario. In addition, PM 2.5 pollution from the road transport sector will cause 0.68% GDP loss in 2030. At a provincial level, GDP losses in 14 out of 30 provinces far exceed the national rate. Henan (1.20%), Sichuan (1.07%), Chongqing (0.99%), Hubei (0.94%), and Shandong (0.90%) would experience the highest GDP loss in 2030. Implementing control strategies to reduce PM 2.5 pollution in the road transport sector could bring positive benefits in half of the Chinese provinces especially in

  15. Structural Risk Assessment and Mitigation for Low- to Mid-Rise Residential Buildings in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim A. Korkmaz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available China has experienced major earthquakes recently. The 2014 Ludian earthquake struck Ludian County, Yunnan, (Mw = 6.1 on 3 August, 2014. On April 20th 2013, Ya’an earthquake (Mw = 6.9, on April 14th 2010, Qinghai earthquake (Mw = 7.1, on July 9th 2009, Yunnan earthquake (Mw = 6.0, and on May 12th 2008, Sichuan earthquake (Mw = 7.9 struck China. Among these disasters, the most devastating, the Sichuan earthquake, resulted in the collapse of 5 million buildings and damage to more than 21 million. Human loss was also high with over 60,000 people dead, 360,000 injured, and more than 14 million people displaced. South-west China lies in an area that is prone to earthquakes. In 1970, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake in Yunnan with 15,000 lost. This study presents a detailed risk assessment for a structural risk assessment and mitigation for low- to mid-rise residential buildings for China. The risk assessment, through seismic hazard assessment approaches, evaluates the impact of the disasters for integrated structural health monitoring. Among the results of the investigation, relations and links between safety and risk are defined.

  16. Diversity of bacteriome associated with Phlebotomus chinensis (Diptera: Psychodidae) sand flies in two wild populations from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaili; Chen, Huiying; Jiang, Jinjin; Li, Xiangyu; Xu, Jiannong; Ma, Yajun

    2016-11-07

    Sand fly Phlebotomus chinensis is a primary vector of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in China. The sand flies have adapted to various ecological niches in distinct ecosystems. Characterization of the microbial structure and function will greatly facilitate the understanding of the sand fly ecology, which would provide critical information for developing intervention strategy for sand fly control. In this study we compared the bacterial composition between two populations of Ph. chinensis from Henan and Sichuan, China. The phylotypes were taxonomically assigned to 29 genera of 19 families in 9 classes of 5 phyla. The core bacteria include Pseudomonas and enterobacteria, both are shared in the sand flies in the two regions. Interestingly, the endosymbionts Wolbachia and Rickettsia were detected only in Henan, while the Rickettsiella and Diplorickettsia only in Sichuan. The intracellular bacteria Rickettsia, Rickettsiella and Diplorickettsia were reported for the first time in sand flies. The influence of sex and feeding status on the microbial structure was also detected in the two populations. The findings suggest that the ecological diversity of sand fly in Sichuan and Henan may contribute to shaping the structure of associated microbiota. The structural classification paves the way to function characterization of the sand fly associated microbiome.

  17. Selection of strategic replacement areas for CBM exploration and development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longyi Shao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the increase in proved reserves and production of coalbed methane (CBM in China depends mainly on several CBM bases in the southern Qinshui Basin and in the eastern margin of the Ordos Basin. Therefore, it is urgent to find new batches of exploration and development strategic replacement areas. For this purpose, we investigated the resources, reservoir properties, preservation conditions, and development conditions of CBM in China, and put forward eight general factors and four critical factors that can be used in establishing selection criteria of strategic replacement areas for affecting the CBM exploration and development in China. The eight general factors are resource abundance, coalbed thickness, gas content, original permeability, burial depth, hydrogeological conditions, coalbed depositional environment, and landforms, and the four critical factors include genetic type, stability type, later reservoir reformation, and damage degree of coal structure. Comparison shows that the low-rank coal area in the northwestern area, the northeastern medium-low rank coal area, and the southwestern medium-high rank and structurally-complex coal area are the major replacement areas for CBM following the northern area of China. Key factors affecting CBM enrichment in each of the three key areas, respectively, are: a genetic type and stability of coal seams, b genetic type and reconstruction of the reservoir by volcanic intrusion, and c stability of coal seams and damage degree of coal structure. Based on these factors, a system for selection and evaluation of strategic replacement areas for CBM development was established. Fifteen blocks in the above three areas were evaluated by using multi-layered fuzzy mathematics, selecting eight favorable areas and seven relatively favorable areas that contain 1.8 trillion m3 of predicted CBM geological resources. The eight favorable areas include the Wucaiwan-Dajing coal exploration area in the Zhundong

  18. China’s Second World of Poetry: The Sichuan Avant-Garde, 1982-1992

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Michael

    2005-01-01

    China's Second World of Poetry remedies a deficiency in scholarship to date. In post-Mao China, types of poetry variously dubbed underground, unofficial, experimental, avant-garde, non-mainstream and so on have outshined texts produced by a state-sanctioned politico-cultural establishment that continues to pay lip service to maoist literary doctrine. For the 1980s and the early 1990s, most foreign-language scholarship has Beijing - and exile poetry scenes - as its focus, failing to do justice...

  19. Different characteristics of cryptococcal meningitis between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients in the Southwest of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Kang, Mei; Wu, Si-Ying; Ma, Ying; Chen, Zhi-Xing; Xie, Yi; Tang, Jiang-Tao

    2017-04-01

    Cryptococcus is the major pathogen that causes fungal meningitis. In the People's Republic of China, especially in the Southwest area, cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in HIV-uninfected patients is more common than in HIV-infected patients. We compared clinical features and laboratory data pertaining to CM in patients with different immunological statuses. Demographic data, clinical manifestations, and laboratory data from inpatients in West China Hospital Sichuan University were collected from June 2009 to June 2014. Patients were grouped according to HIV status. Continuous variables were evaluated by Student t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Categorical variables were analyzed by χ2 test. Among 85 patients with CM were identified, 53 (62.4%) were HIV-uninfected patients. CM occurred more frequently in males in the HIV-infected group. Compared with HIV-infected patients, HIV-uninfected patients had more leukocytes in their blood and more leukocytes and protein in cerebrospinal fluid. More HIV-uninfected patients had increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/serum albumin ratios, while intrathecal immunoglobulin G (IgG) synthesis was significantly increased. The rate of in-hospital mortality of HIV-infected CM patients was higher. Clinical signs are similar between HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected CM patients. Fewer leukocytes and protein was detected in the CSF and lower local synthesis of IgG in the central nervous system in HIV-infected patients, which reflects their diminished immune response. These characteristics should be noted in order to avoid misdiagnosis. Meningeal enhancement and intrathecal IgG synthesis in the HIV-uninfected group was significantly higher, that may be performance of aggressive inflammatory response and might contribute to a better outcome. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. [Statistics on notification of pneumoconiosis in China in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhang, Min

    2012-11-01

    To describe the reported incidence of pneumoconiosis in China in 2010, and to investigate the reasons for increase in the number of new cases. Descriptive analysis was performed on the new cases of pneumoconiosis reported by the "Monitoring System of Health Hazard Factors" under "China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention" in China in 2010. A total of 23812 new cases of pneumoconiosis were reported in all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities except Tibet, Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan, as well as Production and Construction Corps of Xinjiang, increased by 64.28% compared with the number in 2009. There were 12 564 cases of coal-workers' pneumoconiosis and 9870 cases of silicosis, accounting for 94.21% of all new cases. The cases of silicosis were distributed mainly in Sichuan, Liaoning, and Jiangsu, from which 52.21% of all new silicosis cases were reported; most of the cases were in railway, nonferrous metal, and coal industries, and the majority of them were drillers. The cases of coal-workers' pneumoconiosis were distributed mainly in Hunan, Chongqing, Sichuan, Shanxi, and Beijing; most of the cases were in coal industry, and the majority of them were coal-getters. The main reasons for increase in the number of new cases were as follows: increased numbers of reporting agencies and diagnosis agencies, expanded coverage of occupational health surveillance and occupational insurance, closing down and integration of small coal mines, solution of untreated problems, enhanced legal awareness of employers and employees, and investigation into omission of pneumoconiosis case reporting. Coal-workers' pneumoconiosis and silicosis are the most serious occupational diseases in China, and specific measurements for prevention and control should be taken according to the geographic, industrial, and occupational distributions.

  1. Health Care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, David S

    2016-11-01

    China has recently emerged as an important global partner. However, like other developing nations, China has experienced dramatic demographic and epidemiologic changes in the past few decades. Population discontent with the health care system has led to major reforms. China's distinctive health care system, including its unique history, vast infrastructure, the speed of health reform, and economic capacity to make important advances in health care, nonetheless, has incomplete insurance coverage for urban and rural dwellers, uneven access, mixed quality of health care, increasing costs, and risk of catastrophic health expenditures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive reserve in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A M; Stern, Y

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.

  3. Short-term effects of floods on Japanese encephalitis in Nanchong, China, 2007-2012: A time-stratified case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Caixia; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-09-01

    This time-stratified case-crossover study aimed to quantify the impact of floods on daily Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases from 2007 to 2012 in Nanchong city of Sichuan Province, China. Using conditional logistic regression analysis, we calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at different lagged days, adjusting for daily average temperature (AT) and daily average relative humidity (ARH). A total of 370 JE cases were notified during the study period, with the median patient age being 4.2years. The seasonal pattern of JE cases clustered in July and August during the study period. Floods were significantly associated with an increased number of JE cases from lag 23 to lag 24, with the strongest lag effect at lag 23 (OR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.14-3.52). Similarly, AT and ARH were positively associated with daily JE cases from lag 0 to lag 8 and from lag 0 to lag 9, respectively. Floods, with AT and ARH, can be used to forecast JE outbreaks in the study area. Based on the results of this study, recommendations include undertaking control measures before the number of cases increases, especially for regions with similar geographic, climatic, and socio-economic conditions as those in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatio-temporal distribution of localized aerosol loading in China: A satellite view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kun; Chen, Xiaoling

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, haze pollution and high concentrations of particulate matter frequently occur in many mega cities of China, which has seriously impacted the regional air quality, and further caused harm to human health. Although satellite observation provides a convenient way to evaluate air quality in space and time, satellite measurements do not separate between natural and anthropogenic aerosols. To discriminate anthropogenic aerosol contribution from satellite observations, we proposed the concept of Local Aerosol Optical Depth (LAOD) to describe the localized aerosol loading. A comparative analysis was performed between seasonal/monthly Mean AOD (MAOD), LAOD and ground measured PM2.5/PM10. The comparison results show that LAOD has better linear relationship with PM2.5/PM10 than MAOD in central and eastern China with persistent localized aerosol emissions. Based on the MODIS Deep Blue AOD dataset from 2001 to 2015, we analyzed the spatio-temporal distribution of LAOD over China. Spatially, high LAODs are mainly distributed in Sichuan basin, North China Plain, and central China; temporally, LAOD over China presents an upward trend (+0.003 year-1) during 2001-2007 and a weak downward (-0.002 year-1) trend from 2008 to 2015. LAOD was also found to be highly correlated with haze frequency over most areas of central and eastern China, especially in North China Plain with a correlation coefficient of 0.87 (P pollution in China.

  5. A brief statistical analysis of stomatology papers published in international journals by researchers from the mainland of China--based on Thomson Reuters' journal citation reports for 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Hua; Pan, Yun-Tao; Hong, Xiao

    2011-01-01

    This paper has briefly analyzed the publication status of Chinese stomatology papers in 2009 with statistics from Journal Citation Reports provided by Thomson Scientific. Only those papers with the first author coming from the mainland of China were included for calculations. We have found a significant increase in the number of SCIE-indexed papers, most of which were published by six dental institutions in China. Among all Chinese medical institutions, West China School of Stomatology Sichuan University is the first dental institution to enter the top-20 list with the most publications, and it also ranks the 9th in the number of outstanding articles. West China School of Stomatology Sichuan University and the Forth Military Medical University are the only two dental institutions in China which have published SCIE-indexed papers over a hundred. The former has published the most SCIE-indexed stomatology papers, while the latter has the highest average impact factor. As the laboratories and funds in China have close connections with various dental hospitals, the pratice of translational medicine in dentistry is fast and fluent.

  6. Prostitutes, prostitution and STD/HIV transmission in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, V E; Wang, M S; Anderson, A F; Lin, G M; Wu, Z O

    1996-01-01

    China's opening to the world has enabled massive social and economic transformations and the liberalization of many policies, but also the rise of coincident social problems and diseases. A revival of wide-scale female prostitution since the 1980s has now accelerated to a nationwide dilemma. Prostitutes have long been considered to be reservoirs, if not 'vectors' for the transmission of sexual diseases. A well established STD epidemic in the last decade, plus the presence of growing HIV infections in China now, underscore the need to evaluate the prostitute's role in STD and HIV propagation. This report examines unobtrusive data on female prostitutes in the People's Republic of China through an analysis of prison records from eight sexually segregated prisons (six in Sichuan Province and two in Guizhou Province), two female re-education institutions, and arrest records for convicted prostitutes from four counties in Sichuan Province and Chengdu City (also in Sichuan). Collectively, these data represent 2057 female prostitution cases, and span the years 1988-1990. Demographics are examined to enable a profile of the prostitute as based on data reviewed, and this is contrasted to the stereotype of the prostitute as described in government propaganda against prostitution. STD prevalence rates in the samples are examined and contrasted to two other studies on STDs in nonprostitution populations made available to the authors. Prostitute arrest records reveal a majority had active STD infection[s] at the time of their apprehension, with gonorrhea being the most common bacterium; in many instances, prostitutes also had a history of other sexually transmitted diseases. Thus, data examined support the notion of prostitution as an agent in STD transmission. Presence of HIV infection in prostitutes could not be corroborated through sampled records, nor could prostitution itself be confirmed as an agent in HIV transmission at present. However, given the type of clients

  7. Dynamic Source Parameters of the 2008 Wenchuan 8.0, China, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.; Zhang, W.

    2013-12-01

    On May 12, 2008, a huge earthquake with magnitude Ms 8.0 occurred in the Wenchuan, Sichuan Province of China. This event was the most devastating earthquake in the mainland of China since the Great 1976 M7.8 Tangshan earthquake. It resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and "quake lakes" which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. This earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan fault, as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin. The earthquake's epicenter and focal-mechanism are consistent with it having occurred as the result of movement on the Longmenshan fault or a tectonically related fault. The earthquake reflects tectonic stresses resulting from the convergence of crustal material slowly moving from the high Tibetan Plateau, to the west, against strong crust underlying the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of the stress on the fault plane of this great earthquake is estimated from the inversion results (Qin & Zhang, 2013) by solving the elastodynamic equations. Then, the dynamic source parameters are determined and the relations between the shear stress and the slip, the shear stress and the slip-rate for all grid positions on the fault are investigated. Finally, the frictional law for the source rupture is inferred from the dynamic source parameters. Based on the obtained dynamic source parameters, we try to rebuild the dynamic rupture process of this event and discuss the characteristics of this great earthquake.

  8. Characteristics of Dengying Fm sedimentary sequence in the central–western Sichuan Basin and their controlling effect on gas accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Wen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A large gas reservoir in the Sinian Dengying Fm was recently discovered in Anyue area, central Sichuan Basin. In order to promote the oil and gas exploration in this area, it is of great significance to sustainably deepen the analysis on its high-quality reservoir distribution and source-reservoir assemblage. In this paper, a series of studies were performed on the sequence frameworks and sedimentary filling evolution characteristics of the Dengying Fm in central–western Sichuan Basin, and their controlling effects on the reservoir development and distribution and source-reservoir assemblage during its sedimentation. It is shown that the Deyang–Anyue paleo-rift is, on the whole, distributed in a NW direction, and is morphologically wide and steep in the north, but narrow and gentle in the south. There are two rift boundaries of the second and fourth members of Dengying Fm (Deng 2 Member and Deng 4 Member, respectively. The rift of Deng 2 Member is distributed in the shape of “U” in Deyang–Neijiang area. Dengying Fm is divided into four third-order sequences (SQ1–SQ4. In SQ3 of Gaoshiti–Moxi area, central Sichuan Basin, a complete sedimentation reflection structure of transgressive overlap and regressive progradation can be identified with early–middle Deng 4 Member platform margin. The paleo-rift was in embryo before the sedimentation of Sinian, so the sedimentary filling and lithofacies distribution of the Sinian were influenced by the inherited activities of pre-Sinian rifts. The favorable distribution zones of high-quality reservoirs are located at the rift margins of Deng 2 and Deng 4 Members that were formed respectively during the SQ2 and SQ4 and the platform margin of early Deng 4 Member that was formed during the SQ3. A laterally connected source-reservoir assemblage occurs at the margins of Deng 2 and Deng 4 Members around the Lower Cambrian source rocks of the paleo-rift. The northwestward extending margin zone along

  9. OPINIONS ON INTERNATIONAL RESERVES MANAGEMENT - POST CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERCEA (HANDRO PATRICIA AMALIA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent crisis demonstrated once again the importance of maintaining an adequate level of the international reserves as part of the defense of a country against the shocks internationally transmitted. Liquidity buffers aided the good functioning of financial systems, and allowed countries to cope with sudden foreign capital stops or to manage massive outflows without facing a costly crisis. This logic has been strengthened in the context of the crisis from 2008, when countries with lots of reserves, such as China or Brazil, came through better than those with lower liquid assets. Economists have argued that developing countries need reserves mainly to cover urgent imports and short-term debts. The current level of global reserves far exceeds this traditional postulate. In this context, it is necessary to rethink the adequacy of the level of constituting the reserves portfolio. The dominance of the dollar as a reserve currency, another important feature of the current reserves portfolio, makes the holders become vulnerable to the monetary policy of FED. A greater flexibility of the currency will also be needed. The often called the “trilemma” of international economics dictates: when capital is mobile, countries must choose between fixing their currencies and controlling their domestic monetary conditions. They cannot do both. The domestic currency inflexibility will ultimately lead to asset bubbles and inflation. The pressure of capital flows will depend on the prospects of rich economies, especially America’s. The increment of emerging economies availability to allow the exchange rate to move will depend on what China does - and China may remain forever linked to the dollar. The emergence of a global currency that constitute a genuine means of exchange or the use of cross-border multifaceted cash pools common to IMF members would reduce systemic risks. International regulations for countries with persistent trade surpluses could be a

  10. China's Growing Natural Gas Insecurity and the Potential of Chinese Shale Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaman, John

    2013-04-01

    reliance on imports is creating a deepening sense of energy insecurity among many policy-makers and strategists in Beijing. While there is an element of supply security in the diversification of sources, each of these options comes with its own risks: increasing vulnerability to various geopolitical interests, price volatility and instability in supply regions or along transit routes. In this context, the success of the United States in revolutionizing its energy supply by producing large quantities of indigenous gas from shale plays has sparked the imagination of China's energy planners. Recent estimates suggest that China has the largest recoverable reserves of shale gas in the world. Hoping to spur a shale gas revolution of its own, China's authorities have set ambitious plans produce 6.5 bcm/y by 2015 and between 60-100 bcm/y by 2020. But given the sheer size of China's total energy demand and its projected growth, shale gas will not be a golden ticket to energy-independence, and it is unlikely that ambitious production goals will be met within the established time frame. Nevertheless, production from shale and other unconventional sources will play an important role in helping to diversify the country's energy mix, influence energy prices and lessen the overall environmental burden from coal. The degree of impact will depend on China's ability to overcome a number of environmental, social, logistical and regulatory challenges. Many regions of the country such as the North and West will see their development stifled by water scarcity. Other basins in the South, where water availability is less of an issue, such as Sichuan, will still have to deal with the issues of population density, land access and pollution. These challenges are becoming more complicated given a context of increasing tension over land rights and over the effects of development projects on local human health and environmental sustainability. Moreover, logistical hurdles

  11. Eight new species of Batrisodes Reitter from China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri-Xin Jiang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Eight new species of the genus Batrisodes Reitter are described from continental China, seven of which were found in association with ants: B. abdominalis sp. n. and B. tianmuensis sp. n. with an Ectomomyrmex ant from Zhejiang; B. grossus sp. n. with an Odontomachus ant from Guangxi; B. simianshanus sp. n. with an Aphaenogaster ant from Chongqing; B. qiului sp. n. with a Pheidole ant, B. xuhaoi sp. n. with a Lasius ant, and B. zhouchaoi sp. n. with Lasius and Nylanderia ants from Sichuan. Batrisodes zethus sp. n. was collected from a leaf litter sample.

  12. Investigation on the governance model and effect of medical schools merged with comprehensive universities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ge; Luo, Li

    2013-08-01

    This investigation analyzes the management of medical schools merged with comprehensive universities through internet search and research review to reveal management model and effect of the merger. The conclusion is safely reached that governance models are divided into two different patterns: centralized management and decentralized management. Eight universities, representing the two models, were selected and evaluated comprehensively. Among them, the universities that carried out decentralized management have greater development after the merger based on a quality comparison concerning freshmen, faculty, teaching, and research between the two patterns. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  13. Comparative analysis of the gut microbiota of black bears in China using high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Can; Wang, Bochu; Tan, Jun; Zhu, Liancai; Lou, Deshuai; Cen, Xiaoxi

    2017-04-01

    The Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) is a protected species from eastern Asia. In China, the Asiatic black bear occurs in 17 provinces from northeast to southwest regions. To date, information on microbial diversity in the gut of the Asiatic black bears from different populations remains limited. To determine the species composition and community structure of the gut microbiota in the Asiatic black bear, we characterized 36 fecal samples from Sichuan, Yunnan, and Heilongjiang provinces, China, by pyrosequencing the 16S V3-V4 hypervariable regions using the Illumina Miseq platform. Results showed that Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla in the samples, which were largely comprised Escherichia-Shigella, Peptostreptococcaceae_incertae_sedis, Turicibacter, Streptococcus, and Clostridium. By analyzing the community structure from these 36 samples, we found that there were significant differences in the species diversity and richness between Sichuan, Yunnan, and Heilongjiang populations. In conclusion, our results reveal the species composition and structure of the gut microbiota in captive black bears in China, and suggest that biogeography could affect the black bear' gut microbiota.

  14. Analysis on concentration variety characteristics of SO2/NO2 in Chengdu city, southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Xiao, T.; Luo, Q.; WU, L.

    2017-12-01

    SO2 and NO2, the important gaseous precursors of atmospheric fine particles, are closely related to urban air quality. Chengdu located in the western China, is the capital city of Sichuan province. Though Sichuan province is one of four heavily polluted areas in China, the air pollution research in Chengdu is in a relative lack, when compared to developed cities as Beijing, Guangzhou, etc. This paper, based on characteristics of SO2 and NO2 in Chengdu, shows that: the average concentration of SO2, NO2 was 25.29 (mainly in the rage 10-40 ), 64.41 (mainly in the range 30-80 ), respectively. There is a similar annual and seasonal variation for them, yet significant differences in diurnal variation. Except summer, the air condition in Chengdu is seriously affected by SO2 and NO2, while the latter plays a more significant role. Multiple regression has good fitting performance to the diurnal variation in Chengdu. The purification efficiency of precipitation in different magnitude is also discussed. Key words: Chengdu; Pollution gas; Variety characteristics Acknowledgements: This study was supported by Pollution program in Wenjiang District, National Natural Science Foundation of China Fund Project (91337215,41575066), National Science and Technology Support Program(2015BAC03B05),Special Fund for Meteorological Re-search in the Public Interest (GYHY201406015),National Key Basic Research Program (2013CB733206), and Risk Assessment System of Significant Climate Events in Tibet (14H046), Scientific Research Foundation of CUIT (CRF201606)

  15. Ground-level ozone pollution and its health impacts in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Liu, Shuai; Xue, Boru; Lv, Zhaofeng; Meng, Zhihang; Yang, Xiaofan; Xue, Tao; Yu, Qiao; He, Kebin

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, ground-level ozone pollution in China has become an increasingly prominent problem. This study simulated and analyzed spatiotemporal distribution of ozone and exposure level by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models and monitoring data from 1516 national air quality monitoring stations in China during 2015. The simulation results show that the Sichuan Basin, Shandong, Shanxi, Henan, Anhui, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region had relatively high average annual concentrations of ozone. The regions with more than 10% nonattainment days of 160 μg/m3 (daily maximum 8-h) are mainly concentrated in BTH, Shandong Peninsula and YRD, where large seasonal variations were also found. Exposure levels were calculated based on population data and simulated ozone concentrations. The cumulative population exposed to daily maximum 8-h concentration greater than or equal to 100 μg/m3 was 816.04 million, 61.17% of the total. Three methods were used to estimate the mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attributable to ozone. A comparative study using different exposure concentrations and threshold concentrations found large variations among these methods, although they were all peer-reviewed methods. The estimated mortality of COPD caused by ozone in China in 2015 ranged from 55341 to 80280, which mainly distributed in Beijing, Shandong, Henan, Hubei and Sichuan Province, the YRD and PRD region.

  16. An insight into the genetic variation of Schistosoma japonicum in mainland China using DNA microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Jaya; Qian, Bao Zhen; Mcvean, Gilean; Webster, Joanne P

    2005-03-01

    This study presents the first microsatellite investigation into the level of genetic variation among Schistosoma japonicum from different geographical origins. S. japonicum isolates were obtained from seven endemic provinces across mainland China: Zhejiang (Jiashan County), Anhui (Guichi County), Jiangxi (Yongxiu County), Hubei (Wuhan County), Hunan (Yueyang area), Sichuan 1 (Maoshan County), Sichuan 2 (Tianquan County), Yunnan (Dali County), and also one province in the Philippines (Sorsogon). DNA from 20 individuals from each origin were screened against 11 recently isolated and characterized S. japonicum microsatellites, and a set of nine loci were selected based on their polymorphic information content. High levels of polymorphism were obtained between and within population samples, with Chinese and Philippine strains appearing to follow different lineages, and with distinct branching between provinces. Moreover, across mainland China, genotype clustering appeared to be related to habitat type and/or intermediate host morph. These results highlight the suitability of microsatellites for population genetic studies of S. japonicum and suggest that there may be different strains of S. japonicum circulating in mainland China.

  17. The Emerging Postdoc Culture in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling

    2015-07-02

    Recent years have witnessed tremendous growth in investment toward building a strong scientific research base in China. Though the postdoctoral system in China was started 30 years ago, efforts to foster research there in the past few years have spurred on a new crop of scientists to pursue postdoctoral work in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in the ultra-low frequency wave field during the precursor phase to the Sichuan earthquake: DEMETER observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Walker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic phenomena observed in association with increases in seismic activity have been studied for several decades. These phenomena are generated during the precursory phases of an earthquake as well as during the main event. Their occurrence during the precursory phases may be used in short-term prediction of a large earthquake. In this paper, we examine ultra-low frequency (ULF electric field data from the DEMETER satellite during the period leading up to the Sichuan earthquake. It is shown that there is an increase in ULF wave activity observed as DEMETER passes in the vicinity of the earthquake epicentre. This increase is most obvious at lower frequencies. Examination of the ULF spectra shows the possible occurrence of geomagnetic pearl pulsations, resulting from the passage of atmospheric gravity waves generated in the vicinity of the earthquake epicentre.

  19. Hydrochemistry of the hot springs in western Sichuan province related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Du, Jianguo; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of δ D and δ(18)O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K(+)and SO4(-) of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak.

  20. The quasi-stationary feature of nocturnal precipitation in the Sichuan Basin and the role of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xia; Wu, Tongwen; Li, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    The nocturnal precipitation in the Sichuan Basin in summer has been studied in many previous works. This paper expands the study on the diurnal cycle of precipitation in the Sichuan Basin to the whole year. Results show that the nocturnal precipitation has a specific quasi-stationary feature in the basin. It occurs not only in summer but also in other three seasons, even more remarkable in spring and autumn than in summer. There is a prominent eastward timing delay in the nocturnal precipitation, that is, the diurnal peak of precipitation occurs at early-night in the western basin whereas at late-night in the center and east of the basin. The Tibetan Plateau plays an essential role in the formation of this quasi-stationary nocturnal precipitation. The early-night peak of precipitation in the western basin is largely due to strong ascending over the plateau and its eastern lee side. In the central and eastern basin, three coexisting factors contribute to the late-night peak of precipitation. One is the lower-tropospheric southwesterly flow around the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, which creates a strong cyclonic rotation and ascendance in the basin at late-night, as well as brings abundant water vapor. The second is the descending motion downslope along the eastern lee side of the plateau, together with an air mass accumulation caused by the warmer air mass transport from the southeast of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, creating a diabatic warming at low level of the troposphere in the central basin. The third is a cold advection from the plateau to the basin at late-night, which leads to a cooling in the middle troposphere over the central basin. All these factors are responsible for precipitation to occur at late-night in the central to eastern basin.

  1. Earthquake precursors: spatial-temporal gravity changes before the great earthquakes in the Sichuan-Yunnan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi-Qing; Liang, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Song

    2018-01-01

    Using multiple-scale mobile gravity data in the Sichuan-Yunnan area, we systematically analyzed the relationships between spatial-temporal gravity changes and the 2014 Ludian, Yunnan Province Ms6.5 earthquake and the 2014 Kangding Ms6.3, 2013 Lushan Ms7.0, and 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquakes in Sichuan Province. Our main results are as follows. (1) Before the occurrence of large earthquakes, gravity anomalies occur in a large area around the epicenters. The directions of gravity change gradient belts usually agree roughly with the directions of the main fault zones of the study area. Such gravity changes might reflect the increase of crustal stress, as well as the significant active tectonic movements and surface deformations along fault zones, during the period of gestation of great earthquakes. (2) Continuous significant changes of the multiple-scale gravity fields, as well as greater gravity changes with larger time scales, can be regarded as medium-range precursors of large earthquakes. The subsequent large earthquakes always occur in the area where the gravity changes greatly. (3) The spatial-temporal gravity changes are very useful in determining the epicenter of coming large earthquakes. The large gravity networks are useful to determine the general areas of coming large earthquakes. However, the local gravity networks with high spatial-temporal resolution are suitable for determining the location of epicenters. Therefore, denser gravity observation networks are necessary for better forecasts of the epicenters of large earthquakes. (4) Using gravity changes from mobile observation data, we made medium-range forecasts of the Kangding, Ludian, Lushan, and Wenchuan earthquakes, with especially successful forecasts of the location of their epicenters. Based on the above discussions, we emphasize that medium-/long-term potential for large earthquakes might exist nowadays in some areas with significant gravity anomalies in the study region. Thus, the monitoring

  2. Effects of full-fat rice bran inclusion in diets on growth performance and meat quality of Sichuan goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W; Kang, P; Xie, M; Hou, S S; Wu, T; Mei, H M; Liu, Y L; Hou, Y Q; Wu, L Y

    2016-10-04

    This trial was conducted to study the effect of full-fat rice bran inclusion in diets on growth performance, carcass and meat quality and fatty acid composition in Sichuan goose. A total of 204 Sichuan white male geese (28-d-old, 984 ± 15 g) were used in the 42-d assay. Full-fat rice bran inclusion in diets was 0%, 6%, 12% and 18%, respectively. On d 70, two geese from each pen were randomly selected and killed for measuring the carcass and meat quality and the meat fatty acid composition. The results showed that full-fat rice bran inclusion had no effect on average daily gain during 28-56 d, but rice bran inclusion at 18% increased average daily gain during 57-70 d. In addition, the full-fat rice bran supplementation decreased the subcutaneous fat yield, and the inclusion of full-fat rice bran in amounts of 12% and 18% decreased the half-eviscerated carcass yield, eviscerated carcass yield and crude fat content in goose meat. Moreover, full-fat rice bran supplementation had no effect on the content of total saturated fatty acid (SFA), but decreased the content of total monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). The inclusion of full-fat rice bran in amounts of 12-18% increased the content of total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and total n-6 in goose meat and in the amount of 18% increased n-3 fatty acids content in goose meat. The results indicated that the rice bran inclusion had a positive effect in geese by stimulating growth performance and improving meat quality and fatty acid composition of goose meat.

  3. China's battle to save the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, N

    1989-01-01

    By the year 2000 a Great Green Wall of forests may be crossing the country from northwest to northeast, a total of 53 million hectares of green protection from encroaching deserts and erosion, stretching through 12 provinces to increase the nation's forest cover, which now stands at a mere 12.7% of China's territory. Soils have been degraded to a critical level only within the past 150 years. At present, about one-sixth of the total land is affected by erosion. In 1988 more than 11 million hectares of farmland, one-tenth of the total sown acreage, suffered from severe drought. Another 7.5 million hectares of crops were flooded, and grain output has been dropping steadily. China is now importing more than 1 billion tons of food staples to feed its population. In all big cities including the capital Beijing, sulphur dioxide and dust levels in the atmosphere surpass the norm set by the State. The most seriously polluted city in China is Benxi, situated in Liaoning Province, which contains some 420 factories. Shanghai has become a preview of what is in store for many Chinese cities unless urgent anti-pollution measures are designed and implemented. Much of the city's municipal and industrial wastes are simply flushed untreated into rivers and shallow coastal waters. Some 34 billion tons of municipal and industrial wastes are flushed into China's rivers and streams every year. A highly lauded forest farm in Sichuan Province credits afforestation with increased precipitation in the dry season, reduced soil erosion, and a halt to the flooding of some 10 rivers in the region. Many of China's 32,000 species of higher plants are endangered; and similarly, many of the nation's 2200 species of birds and animals, like the giant panda, are threatened with extinction. The country's gigantic population remains the key problem as well as the key to its solution.

  4. Ozone Induced Premature Mortality and Crop Yield Loss in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Jiang, F.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to ambient ozone is a major risk factor for health impacts such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cause damage to plant and agricultural crops. But these impacts were usually evaluated separately in earlier studies. We apply Community Multi-scale Air Quality model to simulate the ambient O3 concentration at a resolution of 36 km×36 km across China. Then, we follow Global Burden of Diseases approach and AOT40 (i.e., above a threshold of 40 ppb) metric to estimate the premature mortalities and yield losses of major grain crops (i.e., winter wheat, rice and corn) across China due to surface ozone exposure, respectively. Our results show that ozone exposure leads to nearly 67,700 premature mortalities and 145 billion USD losses in 2014. The ozone induced yield losses of all crop production totaled 78 (49.9-112.6)million metric tons, worth 5.3 (3.4-7.6)billion USD, in China. The relative yield losses ranged from 8.5-14% for winter wheat, 3.9-15% for rice, and 2.2-5.5% for maize. We can see that the top four health affected provinces (Sichuan, Henan, Shandong, Jiangsu) are also ranking on the winter wheat and rice crop yield loss. Our results provide further evidence that surface ozone pollution is becoming urgent air pollution in China, and have important policy implications for China to alleviate the impacts of air pollution.

  5. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591

  6. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  7. Investigation into the prevalence of coccidiosis and maduramycin drug resistance in chickens in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian Jun; Wang, Li Xia; Ruan, Wen Ke; An, Jian

    2013-01-16

    Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease that affects the poultry industry worldwide, having major economic impacts on poultry by reducing performance and decreasing productivity. This disease not only hinders the growth of chickens but also facilitates other epidemic diseases. Coccidiosis is mainly controlled by prophylactic coccidiostats administrated in the feed. However, the extensive use of these drugs has resulted in the development of drug resistance by Eimeria spp., which causes coccidiosis. The aim of the survey was to acquire data on the prevalence of coccidiosis and drug resistance of field isolates in chickens in China. We examined 545 farms across nine different geographic provinces over a 5-year period. These included Beijing, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Shandong, Guangdong, Fujian, Liaoning Provinces, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Regions. The results indicated that oocyst per gram faeces (OPG) and coccidiosis morbidity rate increased when non-prophylactic or low doses of coccidiostats were used. Coccidiosis morbidity rate in Guangdong Province was the highest, leading to greater, more frequent use of diverse types of coccidiostats. Consequently, the Guangdong Province had the most serious drug resistance problem. In contrast, coccidiosis morbidity rates in Inner Mongolia, Fujian and Liaoning were relatively low, leading to a reduced level of coccidiostats use, which resulted in less drug resistance. The threshold of a coccidiosis outbreak was an OPG level of >20000. When the OPG levels were ≥ 50000, chickens were in danger of clinical coccidiosis, and here coccidia generated a certain degree of resistance to the drug when administered. Coccidiostat resistance started to appear when the OPG level reached ca. 20000 using 2 mg kg(-1)/5 mg kg(-1), respectively, of maduramycin, whereas 5 mg kg(-1) of maduramycin developed severe drug resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  9. Economic evaluation on tight sandstone gas development projects in China and recommendation on fiscal and taxation support policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available China is rich in tight sandstone gas resources (“tight gas” for short. For example, the Sulige Gasfield in the Ordos Basin and the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Fm gas reservoir in the Sichuan Basin are typical tight gas reservoirs. In the past decade, tight gas reserve and production both have increased rapidly in China, but tight gas reservoirs are always managed as conventional gas reservoirs without effective fiscal, taxation and policy supports. The potential of sustainable tight gas production increase is obviously restricted. The tight gas development projects represented by the Sulige Gasfield have failed to make profit for a long period, and especially tight gas production has presented a slight decline since 2015. In this paper, a new economic evaluation method was proposed for tight gas development projects. The new method was designed to verify the key parameters (e.g. production decline rate and single-well economic service life depending on tight gas development and production characteristics, and perform the depreciation by using the production method. Furthermore, the possibility that the operation cost may rise due to pressure-boosting production and intermittent opening of gas wells is considered. The method was used for the tight gas development project of Sulige Gasfield, showing that its profit level is much lower than the enterprise's cost level of capital. In order to support a sustainable development of tight gas industry in China, it is recommended that relevant authorities issue value-added tax (VAT refund policy as soon as possible. It is necessary to restore the non-resident gas gate price of the provinces where tight gas is produced to the fair and reasonable level in addition to the fiscal subsidy of CNY0.24/m3, or offer the fiscal subsidy of CNY0.32/m3 directly based on the on-going gate price. With these support policies, tax income is expected to rise directly, fiscal expenditure will not increase, and gas

  10. Terrestrial tight oil reservoir characteristics and Graded Resource Assessment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shejiao; Wu, Xiaozhi; Guo, Giulin

    2016-04-01

    The success of shale/tight plays and the advanced exploitation technology applied in North America have triggered interest in exploring and exploiting tight oil in China. Due to the increased support of exploration and exploitation,great progress has been made in Erdos basin, Songliao basin, Junggar basin, Santanghu basin, Bohai Bay basin, Qaidam Basin, and Sichuan basin currently. China's first tight oil field has been found in Erdos basin in 2015, called xinanbian oil field, with over one hundred million tons oil reserves and one million tons of production scale. Several hundred million tons of tight oil reserve has been found in other basins, showing a great potential in China. Tight oil in China mainly developed in terrestrial sedimentary environment. According to the relations of source rock and reservoir, the source-reservoir combination of tight oil can be divided into three types, which are bottom generating and top storing tight oil,self- generating and self-storing tight oil,top generating and bottom storing tight oil. The self- generating and self-storing tight oil is the main type discovered at present. This type of tight oil has following characteristics:(1) The formation and distribution of tight oil are controlled by high quality source rocks. Terrestrial tight oil source rocks in China are mainly formed in the deep to half deep lacustrine facies. The lithology includes dark mudstone, shale, argillaceous limestone and dolomite. These source rocks with thickness between 20m-150m, kerogen type mostly I-II, and peak oil generation thermal maturity(Ro 0.6-1.4%), have great hydrocarbon generating potential. Most discovered tight oil is distributed in the area of TOC greater than 2 %.( 2) the reservoir with strong heterogeneity is very tight. In these low porosity and permeability reservoir,the resources distribution is controlled by the physical property. Tight sandstone, carbonate and hybrid sedimentary rocks are three main tight reservoir types in

  11. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  12. Estimation of soil salt content (SSC) in the Ebinur Lake Wetland National Nature Reserve (ELWNNR), Northwest China, based on a Bootstrap-BP neural network model and optimal spectral indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Fei; Ding, Jianli; Kung, Hsiang-Te; Latif, Aamir; Johnson, Verner C

    2018-02-15

    Soil salinity is recognized worldwide as a major threat to agriculture, particularly in arid regions. Producers and decision-makers thus require updated and accurate maps of salinity in agronomical and environmentally relevant regions. The goals of this study were to test various regression models for estimating soil salt content based on hyperspectral data, HJ-CCD images, and Landsat OLI data using; develop optimal band Difference Index (DI), Ratio Index (RI), and Normalization Index (NDI) algorithms for monitoring soil salt content using image and spectral data; and to compare the performances of the proposed models using a Bootstrap-BP neural network model (Bootstrap-BPNN) from different data sources. The results showed that previously published optimal remote sensing parameters can be applied to estimate the soil salt content in the Ebinur Lake Wetland National Nature Reserve (ELWNNR). Optimal band combination indices based on DI, RI, and NDI were developed for different data sources. Then, the Bootstrap-BP neural network model was built using 1000 groups of Bootstrap samples of remote sensing indices (DI, RI and NDI) and soil salt content. When verifying the accuracy of hyperspectral data, the model yields an R 2 value of 0.95, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 4.38g/kg, and a residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 3.36. The optimal model for remote sensing images was the first derivative model of Landsat OLI, which yielded R 2 value of 0.91, RMSE of 4.82g/kg, and RPD of 3.32; these data indicated that this model has a high predictive ability. When comparing the salinization monitoring accuracy of satellite images to that of ground hyperspectral data, the accuracy of the first derivative of the Landsat OLI model was close to that of the hyperspectral parameter model. Soil salt content was inverted using the first derivative of the Landsat OLI model in the study area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. China Emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    In 1992, China enacted an internal law on territorial sea and contiguous zone, which claims Chinese sovereignty over all islands that fell within a...historical components to the disputes in the South China Sea that have bearing on the issue. China , Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia , the Philippines...The past decade of mutual respect, cooperation, and investment by China led to amazing prosperity for all Southeast Asian states and is a blueprint

  14. Puberty, ovarian cycle, pregnancy, and postpartum ovulation in captive Sichuan golden monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) based on changes in urinary and fecal gonadal steroid metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muren; Kusuda, Satoshi; Doi, Osamu; Naito, Hitomi; Hashikawa, Hisashi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproductive status and clarify the reproductive physiology of captive Sichuan golden monkeys. The concentrations of urinary estradiol-3-glucuronide (E 2 G) and pregnanediol-glucuronide (PdG) or fecal estradiol-17β (E 2 ) and PdG in two females, and fecal testosterone concentrations in a male, were measured continuously using enzyme immunoassays. On the basis of these hormone profiles, the follicular phase, luteal phase, and ovarian cycle were calculated to be 14.7 ± 4.8, 10.4 ± 2.8, and 25.1 ± 3.3 days, respectively. The first ovulation (puberty) in a female monkey was observed at 5.1 years old, and the first pregnancy was diagnosed at 6.4 years old. For the first 2 months of pregnancy (204 days), fecal E 2 and PdG maintained constant high values and then increased until parturition. These profiles were similar to urinary E 2 G and PdG changes. During the last trimester of a twin pregnancy, fecal PdG was up to approximately three times higher compared with a single pregnancy. Therefore, fecal PdG levels in late pregnancy may be effective for the detection of a twin pregnancy. The first postpartum ovulation occurred 66 (fetal death and artificial rearing), 143 (fetal death), and 189 (natural suckling) days after parturition. The anovulation period of the natural suckling case was longer than the others. Conception and postpartum ovulation were detected between September and January. Fecal testosterone levels of the male were correlated with the fecal E 2 level of the nonpregnancy period in exhibited together female. Our results reported that urinary (E 2 G and PdG) and fecal (E 2 and PdG) hormone measurement is effective for monitoring the reproductive status, thereby expanding knowledge of the reproductive endocrinology of this endangered species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  16. [Validating the Oswestry Disability Index in patients with low back pain in Sichuan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ke; Zheng, Min; Yang, Bang-xiang; Ernest, Volinn; Liu, Hui; He, Jing; Jiang, Min; Li, Xiao-song

    2009-05-01

    To test the reliability and validity of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in patients with low back pain in China. Eighty six patients (female 51, male 35, average age 39.5 +/- 10.1) with chronic low back pain were assessed with the ODI. The assessment was repeated 48 hours after the first test. The Cronbach' Alpha coefficient for the ODI was 0.891. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the repeated tests was 0.854 (95% CI = 0.775-0.905). The exploratory factor analysis extracted two factors, which accounted for 61.91% of the total variance. Significant correlations were found between the ODI and the 6 domains of the SF-36. The Chinese version of Oswestry Disability Index has satisfactory reliability and validity. It can be used as an instrument for assessing chronic low back pain-related disability.

  17. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  18. Disaster nursing experiences of Chinese nurses responding to the Sichuan Ya'an earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y H; Li, S J; Chen, S H; Xie, X P; Song, Y Q; Jin, Z H; Zheng, X Y

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the disaster experiences of nurses called to assist survivors one month after the 2013 Ya'an earthquake. China has experienced an increasing number of earthquake disasters in the past four decades. Although a health and disaster management system was initiated after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, nurses' roles and experiences in a disaster have been overlooked. The researchers used qualitative descriptive design that included 16 participants. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and observation notes, after which a qualitative content analysis was conducted. Three major themes emerged: the process of being dispatched from hospitals to the disaster zone, the effort involved in getting to and working in the affected site and reflecting on the challenges they encountered. About half of the participants had received disaster nursing training before deploying to the disaster site, but they consistently expressed a lack of physical and psychological preparedness regarding the process of being dispatched from their hospitals to the disaster zone. This was a single-incident experience. Caution should be taken when trying to extend the findings to other parts of China. These findings highlighted the need for disaster in-service training as well as for having disaster plans in place. Hospital and nursing leaders should provide disaster training opportunities that included topics such as compiling resource inventories, formulating disaster drills and simulations, managing emergencies, and using emergency communication methods. Health policy-makers should be required to prioritize capacity-building training for front-line nurses as well as to develop and implement disaster management plans to better prepare nurses for future disasters. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Prevalence, Associated Risk Factors, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Toxocara vitulorum Infection in Yaks on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Lan, Yanfang; Luo, Houqiang; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Dongyu; Zhang, Lihong; Gui, Rui; Wang, Lei; Shahzad, Muhammad; Sizhu, Suolang; Li, Jiakui; Chamba, Yangzom

    2016-10-01

    Toxocara vitulorum has been rarely reported in yaks at high altitudes and remote areas of Sichuan Province of Tibetan Plateau of China. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence, associated risk factors, and phylogenetic characteristics of T. vitulorum in yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau. Fecal samples were collected from 891 yak calves and were examined for the presence of T. vitulorum eggs by the McMaster technique. A multivariable logistic regression model was employed to explore variables potentially associated with exposure to T. vitulorum infection. T. vitulorum specimens were collected from the feces of yaks in Hongyuan of Sichuan Province, China. DNA was extracted from ascaris. After PCR amplification, the sequencing of ND1 gene was carried out and phylogenetic analyses was performed by MEGA 6.0 software. The results showed that 64 (20.1%; 95% CI 15.8-24.9%), 75 (17.2; 13.8-21.1), 29 (40.9; 29.3-53.2), and 5 (7.6; 2.5-16.8) yak calves were detected out to excrete T. vitulorum eggs in yak calve feces in Qinghai, Tibet, Sichuan, and Gansu, respectively. The present study revealed that high infection and mortality by T. vitulorum is wildly spread on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau, China by fecal examination. Geographical origin, ages, and fecal consistencies are the risk factors associated with T. vitulorum prevalence by logistic regression analysis. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of ND1 gene of T. vitulorum indicated that T. vitulorum in the yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau are homologous to preveiously studies reported.

  20. Ground-Motion Simulations of the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan, China, Earthquake Using Empirical Green's Function Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Yao, X.

    2010-12-01

    On May 12, 2008, a huge earthquake with magnitude Ms8.0 occurred in the Wenhuan, Sichuan Province of China. This event was the most devastating earthquake in the mainland of China since the 1976 M7.8 Tangshan earthquake. It resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. There were about 90,000 persons killed. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and “quake lakes” which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. This earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan fault, as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin. The earthquake's epicenter and focal-mechanism are consistent with it having occurred as the result of movement on the Longmenshan fault or a tectonically related fault. The earthquake reflects tectonic stresses resulting from the convergence of crustal material slowly moving from the high Tibetan Plateau, to the west, against strong crust underlying the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China. In this study, we simulate the near-field strong ground motions of this great event based on the empirical Green’s function method (EGF). Referring to the published inversion source models, at first, we assume that there are three asperities on the rupture area and choose three different small events as the EGFs. Then, we identify the parameters of the source model using a genetic algorithm (GA). We calculate the synthetic waveforms based on the obtained source model and compare with the observed records. Our result shows that for most of the synthetic waveforms agree very well with the observed ones. The result proves the validity and the stability of the method. Finally, we forward the near-field strong ground motions near the source region and try to explain the damage distribution caused by the great earthquake.

  1. Analysis of the local lithospheric magnetic activity before and after Panzhihua Mw = 6.0 earthquake (30 August 2008, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithospheric ultra low frequency (ULF magnetic activity is recently considered as a very promising candidate for application to short-time earthquake forecasting. However the intensity of the ULF lithospheric magnetic field is very weak and often masked by much stronger ionospheric and magnetospheric signals. The study of pre-earthquake magnetic activity before the occurrence of a strong earthquake is a very hard problem which consists of the identification and localization of the weak signal sources in earthquake hazardous areas of the Earth's crust. For the separation and localization of such sources, we used a new polarization ellipse technique (Dudkin et al., 2010 to process data acquired from fluxgate magnetometers installed in the Sichuan province, China. Sichuan is the region of the strongest seismic activity on the territory of China. During the last century, about 40 earthquakes with magnitude M ≥ 6.5 happened here in close proximity to heavy populated zones. The Panzhihua earthquake Mw = 6.0 happened in the southern part of Sichuan province on 30 August 2008 at 8:30:52 UT. The earthquake hypocentre was located at 10 km depth. During the period 30–31 August – the beginning of September 2008, many clustered aftershocks with magnitudes of up to 5.6 occurred near the earthquake epicentre. The data from three fluxgate magnetometers (belonged to China magnetometer network and placed near to the clustered earthquakes at a distance of 10–55 km from main shock epicenter have been processed. The separation between the magnetometers was in the range of 40–65 km. The analysis of a local lithospheric magnetic activity during the period of January–December 2008 and a possible source structure have been presented in this paper.

  2. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.

  3. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  4. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  5. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  6. Fault features and enrichment laws of narrow-channel distal tight sandstone gas reservoirs: A case study of the Jurassic Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in the Zhongjiang Gas Field, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongping Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Jurassic Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in the Zhongjiang Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, is the main base of Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company for gas reserves and production increase during the 12th Five-Year Plan. However, its natural gas exploration and development process was restricted severely, since the exploration wells cannot be deployed effectively in this area based on the previous gas accumulation and enrichment pattern of “hydrocarbon source fault + channel sand body + local structure”. In this paper, the regional fault features and the gas accumulation and enrichment laws were discussed by analyzing the factors like fault evolution, fault elements, fault-sand body configuration (the configuration relationship between hydrocarbon source faults and channel sand bodies, trap types, and reservoir anatomy. It is concluded that the accumulation and enrichment of the Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in this area is controlled by three factors, i.e., hydrocarbon source, sedimentary facies and structural position. It follows the accumulation laws of source controlling region, facies controlling zone and position controlling reservoir, which means deep source and shallow accumulation, fault-sand body conductivity, multiphase channel, differential accumulation, adjusted enrichment and gas enrichment at sweet spots. A good configuration relationship between hydrocarbon source faults and channel sand bodies is the basic condition for the formation of gas reservoirs. Natural gas accumulated preferentially in the structures or positions with good fault-sand body configuration. Gas reservoirs can also be formed in the monoclinal structures which were formed after the late structural adjustment. In the zones supported by multiple faults or near the crush zones, no gas accumulation occurs, but water is dominantly produced. The gas-bearing potential is low in the area with undeveloped faults or being 30 km away from the hydrocarbon source faults. So

  7. Dental laboratory technology education in China: current situation and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liwei; Yue, Li; Zhou, Min; Yu, Haiyang

    2013-03-01

    Modern dentistry and dental education in China were first introduced from abroad by Dr. Lindsay in 1907. However, advancements in the field of dental laboratory technology did not occur to the same degree in specialties such as prosthodontics and orthodontics. Since the 1990s, orders from abroad demanding dental appliances surged as the image of China as the "world's factory" strengthened. The assembly line model, in which technicians work like simple procedure workers, was rapidly applied to denture production, while the traditional education system and apprenticeship systems demonstrated little progress in these years. The lack of advancement in dental laboratory technology education caused insufficient development in China's dental technology industry. In order to alter the situation, a four-year dental laboratory technology undergraduate educational program was established in 2005 by West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University (WCSS, SCU). This program was based on SCU's undergraduate education and WCSS's junior college education systems. The program introduced scientific methods in relevant subjects into laboratory technicians' training and made many improvements in the availability of trained faculty, textbooks, laboratory facilities, and curriculum.

  8. [The analysis on the funding of Natural Science Foundation of China for acupuncture projects from 2005 to 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongyong; Xu, Ji

    2017-05-12

    The funding of Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) for acupuncture projects from 2005 to 2015 was summarized and analyzed. The results indicated during past 11 years, 711 projects regarding acupuncture were funded by NSFC, with a total of 281 million RMB, accounting for 12.39% in TCM projects. It was concluded the funding for acupuncture projects was increased year by year, but was still relatively weak; in addition, the funding was unbalanced in different areas and organizations, mainly in Beijing, Shanghai, Sichuan, Guangdong, Tianjin, and the continuity and variability both existed in research content and direction.

  9. Experience from the 300 MWe CFB Demontration Plant in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvillé, P.; Semedard, J.-C.; Darling, S.

    This paper will describe the background and current status of the 300MWe CFB Demonstration Project located at the Baima Power Plant in Sichuan Province. This project was the first 300MWe class CFB in China and the first project built under the Transfer of Technology from Alstom. The plant entered commercial operation in early 2006. The fuel is a high-ash anthracite which has presented significant challenges in terms of higher-than-expected ash content and top size. While this fuel has been problematic for the adjacent suspension-fired boilers, performance in the CFB boiler has been excellent, with low carbon content in the ash, low turndown and low emissions. Key boiler performance parameters will be described along with a comparison of design and actual performance and the operational experience will be addressed. Finally, the paper will describe Alstom's process for scaling the CFB technology from 300MWe to 600MWe, and our supercritical CFB design.

  10. Employment Creation of Shale Gas Investment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuecheng; Zhang, Baosheng; Wu, Meiling; Li, Xiang; Lin, Yuying

    2018-01-01

    An ambitious shale gas extraction plan has been proposed. The huge investment of shale gas may put an effect on the whole China’s economy, especially for employment. However, there is few study to date has quantified these effects. The aim of this paper is to quantify these effects especially employment creation and figures out whether shale gas investment in China is a good choice or not. Input-output analysis has been utilized in this study to estimate the employment creation in four different Chinese regions. Our findings show that shale gas investment will result in creating 660000, 370000, 140000 and 58000 equivalent jobs in Sichuan, Chongqing, Inner Mongolia and Guizhou, respectively. Considering the potential risks of environmental issues, we suggest that it may be a better strategy for the government, at least in the current situation, to slow down shale gas development investment.

  11. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  12. Prevalence of Circulating Antibodies to Bovine Herpesvirus 1 in Yaks (Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaoqing; Gao, Jianfeng; Li, Kun; Shahzad, Muhammad; Nabi, Fazul; Zhang, Ding; Li, Jiakui; Liu, Zhengfei

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) causes infections with many clinical signs, including rhinotracheitis, encephalitis, and genital lesions. The virus occurs worldwide in bovines, and in recent years, it has been reported in yaks (Bos grunniens) inhabiting the Tibetan Plateau in China. However, there is little epidemiologic data describing BoHV-1 infections in China's yak herds. We conducted a cross-sectional study on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) in China July 2011-July 2012 to estimate the prevalence of BoHV-1 antibody in yak herds. We collected 1,840 serum samples from yaks on the QTP, in Tibet (988 yaks), Qinghai (475 yaks), and Sichuan (377 yaks) Provinces. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that 381 (38.6%) of the Tibetan samples, 212 (44.6%) of the Qinghai samples, and 105 (27.9%) of the Sichuan samples had detectable antibodies to BoHV-1. Given that this high prevalence of infection in yaks could result in heavy economic losses, we suggest that an effective management program, including vaccination and strategies for infection control, be developed.

  13. Estimation of urban residential electricity demand in China using household survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shaojie; Teng, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses annual urban household survey data of Sichuan Province from 2007 to 2009 to estimate the income and price elasticities of residential electricity demand, along with the effects of lifestyle-related variables. The empirical results show that in the urban area of Sichuan province, the residential electricity demand is price- and income-inelastic, with price and income elasticities ranging from −0.35 to −0.50 and from 0.14 to 0.33, respectively. Such lifestyle-related variables as demographic variables, dwelling size and holdings of home appliances, are also important determinants of residential electricity demand, especially the latter. These results are robust to a variety of sensitivity tests. The research findings imply that urban residential electricity demand continues to increase with the growth of income. The empirical results have important policy implications for the Multistep Electricity Price, which been adopted in some cities and is expected to be promoted nationwide through the installation of energy-efficient home appliances. - Highlights: • We estimate price and income elasticities in China using household survey data. • The current study is the first such study in China at this level. • Both price and income are inelastic. • Behavior factors have important impact on electricity consumption

  14. [Hypertrophy and coronary reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, W; Scheler, S

    2008-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.

  15. Geologic characteristics of hydrocarbon-bearing marine, transitional and lacustrine shales in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu; Xu, Zhengyu; Feng, Youliang; Zhang, Jinchuan; Cai, Dongsheng; Chen, Lei; Wu, Yue; Zhou, Dongsheng; Bao, Shujing; Long, Shengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Organic-rich shales spanning in age from Pre-Cambrian to Quaternary were widely deposited in China. This paper elaborates the geology and unique characteristics of emerging and potential hydrocarbon-bearing shales in China. The Pre-Cambrian Sinian Doushantuo to Silurian black marine shales in the intra-shelf low to slope environments were accumulated in South China and Tarim Platform in Northwest China. These marine shales with maturity (Ro) of 1.3-5% are in dry gas window. During Carboniferous to Permian, the shales associated with coal and sandstones were mainly deposited in coastal swamp transitional setting in north China, NE China, NW China and Yangtze platform in South China. These transitional shales are generally clay rich and are potential gas-bearing reservoirs. Since Middle Permian, the lacustrine shales with total carbon content (TOC) up to 30% and Ro mainly in oil window are widely distributed in all the producing basins in China. The lacustrine shales usually have more clay mineral content than marine shales and are characterized by rapid facies change and are interbedded with carbonates and sandstone. The high quality shale reservoir with high TOC, hydrocarbon content and brittle minerals content is usually located at transgressive systems tract (TST) to early highstand systems tract (EHST) interval deposited in anoxic depositional setting. Recent commercial shale gas production from the Silurian Longmaxi marine shale in the southeastern Sichuan Basin, preliminary tight oil production associated with lacustrine hydrocarbon-bearing shale intervals and hydrocarbon shows from many other shales have proven the hydrocarbon-bearing shales in China are emerging and potential shale gas and tight (shale) oil plays. Tectonic movements could have breached the early hydrocarbon accumulation in shales and tectonically stable areas are suggested to be favorable prospects for China shale plays exploration and production.

  16. Hydrochemistry of the Hot Springs in Western Sichuan Province Related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of δD and δ18O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K+ and SO4− of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak.

  17. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Interferometry for Assessing Wenchuan Earthquake (2008 Deforestation in the Sichuan Giant Panda Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulong Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radar (SAR has been an unparalleled tool in cloudy and rainy regions as it allows observations throughout the year because of its all-weather, all-day operation capability. In this paper, the influence of Wenchuan Earthquake on the Sichuan Giant Panda habitats was evaluated for the first time using SAR interferometry and combining data from C-band Envisat ASAR and L-band ALOS PALSAR data. Coherence analysis based on the zero-point shifting indicated that the deforestation process was significant, particularly in habitats along the Min River approaching the epicenter after the natural disaster, and as interpreted by the vegetation deterioration from landslides, avalanches and debris flows. Experiments demonstrated that C-band Envisat ASAR data were sensitive to vegetation, resulting in an underestimation of deforestation; in contrast, L-band PALSAR data were capable of evaluating the deforestation process owing to a better penetration and the significant coherence gain on damaged forest areas. The percentage of damaged forest estimated by PALSAR decreased from 20.66% to 17.34% during 2009–2010, implying an approximate 3% recovery rate of forests in the earthquake impacted areas. This study proves that long-wavelength SAR interferometry is promising for rapid assessment of disaster-induced deforestation, particularly in regions where the optical acquisition is constrained.

  18. Seismic spectral decomposition and analysis based on Wigner–Ville distribution for sandstone reservoir characterization in West Sichuan depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoyang; Liu, Tianyou

    2010-01-01

    Reflections from a hydrocarbon-saturated zone are generally expected to have a tendency to be low frequency. Previous work has shown the application of seismic spectral decomposition for low-frequency shadow detection. In this paper, we further analyse the characteristics of spectral amplitude in fractured sandstone reservoirs with different fluid saturations using the Wigner–Ville distribution (WVD)-based method. We give a description of the geometric structure of cross-terms due to the bilinear nature of WVD and eliminate cross-terms using smoothed pseudo-WVD (SPWVD) with time- and frequency-independent Gaussian kernels as smoothing windows. SPWVD is finally applied to seismic data from West Sichuan depression. We focus our study on the comparison of SPWVD spectral amplitudes resulting from different fluid contents. It shows that prolific gas reservoirs feature higher peak spectral amplitude at higher peak frequency, which attenuate faster than low-quality gas reservoirs and dry or wet reservoirs. This can be regarded as a spectral attenuation signature for future exploration in the study area

  19. Diagenetic differences of the Zhenzhuchong Member of Ziliujing Formation in the Jiulongshan–Jiange area, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingcai Hou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rocks of the Zhenzhuchong Member of the Ziliujing Formation, Jiulongshan–Jiange area in the Sichuan Basin, were analyzed by petrography, XRD, and SEM techniques to investigate their diagenetic history and properties, such as authigenic mineral types, evolution of mixed-layer illite–smectite minerals, the clay assembly, and the fraction of mixed-layer clay minerals. The results revealed that the Zhenzhuchong Member has experienced several important episodes of diagenetic alteration since the deposition, including compaction (pressure-solution, cementation, metasomatism, dissolution, fracturing, and infilling of caves and cracks. It was also observed that diagenetic properties of the Jiulongshan area were significantly different from those of the Jiange area. The rock samples from the Jiulongshan area were characterized by the composition of siliceous and calcareous cements, varying amounts of detrital grains, clay matrix and kaolinite replaced by calcites, a certain amount of rarely dissolved early-stage kaolinite, dickite, and infillings by late-stage calcite. On the other hand, for the rock samples from the Jiange area, the dissolution is a common phenomenon with features of abundant aluminosilicates-dissolution pores or components, but the replacement phenomenon has rarely been seen. These rock samples were characterized by the presence of clay mineral cements, quartz, and dolomite infillings. It indicated that there was a great difference of diagenesis between the two areas in the types, phase, and temperature of diagenetic fluids. Revealing the difference would provide theoretical and practical implications for the exploration of high quality oil and gas reservoirs.

  20. Determinations of directions of the mean stress field in Sichuan-Yunnan region from a number of focal mechanism solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ji-Mao; Cheng, Wan-Zheng

    2006-07-01

    Based on the spatial orientation and slip direction of the fault plane solutions, we present the expression of corresponding mechanical axis tensor in geographic coordinate system, and then put forward a method for calculating average mechanical axis tensor and its eigenvalues, which involves solving the corresponding eigenequation. The method for deducing mean stress field from T, B, and P axes parameters of a number of focal mechanism solutions has been verified by inverting data of mean stress fields in Fuyun region and in Tangshan region with fitting method of slip direction, and both results are consistent. To study regional average stress field, we need to choose a population of focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes in the massifs where there are significant tectonic structures. According to the focal mechanism solutions of 256 moderate-strong earthquakes occurred in 13 seismic zones of Sichuan-Yunnan region, the quantitative analysis results of stress tensor in each seismic zone have been given. The algorithm of such method is simple and convenient, which makes the method for analyzing tectonic stress field with large amount of focal mechanism solution data become quantified.

  1. Technical difficulties of logging while drilling in carbonate reservoirs and the countermeasures: A case study from the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Sichuan Basin, carbonate reservoirs are characterized by deep burial depth and strong heterogeneity, so it is difficult to conduct structure steering, pore space reservoir tracking and trajectory control in the process of geosteering logging while drilling. In this paper, a series of corresponding techniques for structure, reservoir and formation tracking were proposed after analysis was conducted on multiple series of carbonate strata in terms of their geologic and logging response characteristics. And investigation was performed on the adaptabilities of the following logging technologies to geosteering while drilling, including gamma ray imaging while drilling, resistivity imaging while drilling, density imaging while drilling, gamma ray logging while drilling, resistivity logging while drilling, neutron logging while drilling and density logging while drilling. After while drilling information was thoroughly analyzed, the logging suites for four common types of complicated reservoirs (thin layered reservoirs, thick massive reservoirs, denuded karst reservoirs and shale gas reservoirs were optimized, and five logging combinations suitable for different formations and reservoirs were proposed, including gamma ray logging + porosity + resistivity imaging, gamma ray logging + resistivity imaging, gamma ray logging + porosity + resistivity logging, gamma ray imaging + resistivity logging, and gamma ray logging. Field application indicates that it is of great reference and application value to use this method for the first time to summarize logging while drilling combinations for different types of carbonate reservoirs.

  2. Key seismic exploration technology for the Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Gaoshiti–Moxi area, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangrong Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The dolomite reservoirs of the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm in the Gaoshiti–Moxi area, Sichuan Basin, are deeply buried (generally 4400–4900 m, with high heterogeneity, making reservoir prediction difficult. In this regard, key seismic exploration technologies were developed through researches. Firstly, through in-depth analysis on the existing geologic, drilling, seismic data and available research findings, basic surface and subsurface structures and geologic conditions within the study area were clarified. Secondly, digital seismic data acquisition technologies with wide azimuth, wide frequency band and minor bins were adopted to ensure even distribution of coverage of target formations through optimization of the 3D seismic geometry. In this way, high-accuracy 3D seismic data can be acquired through shallow, middle and deep formations. Thirdly, well-control seismic data processing technologies were applied to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of seismic data for deep formations. Fourthly, a seismic response model was established specifically for the Longwangmiao Fm reservoir. Quantitative prediction of the reservoir was performed through pre-stack geo-statistics. In this way, plan distribution of reservoir thicknesses was mapped. Fifthly, core tests and logging data analysis were conducted to determine gas-sensitive elastic parameters, which were then used in pre-stack hydrocarbon detection to eliminate the multiple solutions in seismic data interpretation. It is concluded that application of the above-mentioned key technologies effectively promote the discovery of largescale marine carbonate gas reservoirs of the Longwangmiao Fm.

  3. Major histocompatibility complex and mate choice in the polygynous primate: the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Banghe; Ren, Baoping; Xiang, Zuofu; Yang, Jingyuan; Yao, Hui; Garber, Paul A; Li, Ming

    2014-11-01

    The highly polymorphic genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) not only play a major role in immunity resistance, but also seem to provide hints for mate choice in some animal populations. In the present study we investigated MHC-related mate choice in a small natural population (group size 40-55 individuals) of a polygynous primate, the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana). We found that there was no evidence either for MHC-disassortative mating, or for females to mate with males based on MHC heterozygosity or specific alleles. Nevertheless, of the 11 alleles identified, we found that the frequencies of 2 alleles, Rhro-DRB2 (P < 0.01) and Rhro-DRB5 (P < 0.05) were higher in offspring than in their parents. These findings suggest that MHC-DRB in this population of R. roxellana is unlikely to be associated with mating preferences. Limited female opportunities for mate choice are likely due, in part, to the harem breeding structure present in R. roxellana, and the relatively small number of resident adult males in our study band (N = 4-6). In addition, we suggest that differences in the frequency of particular alleles across generations may be linked to parasite resistance in a fluctuating environment; however, confirmation of this finding requires further study. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Environmental attitudes of stakeholders and their perceptions regarding protected area-community conflicts: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong

    2010-11-01

    Large numbers of people living in and around protected areas are highly dependent on the natural resources. However, simply excluding them from the area management has always inevitably resulted in conflicts. We conducted a case study of the Protected Area of Jinyun Mountain (PJM) in China to evaluate social context variables, environmental attitudes, and perceptions regarding protected area-community conflicts. Data were collected through questionnaire surveys administered to four stakeholder groups (i.e. local farmers, government staff, business persons, and tourists). A total of 112 questionnaires were completed in December 2008, after the Sichuan Earthquake. The questionnaire consisted of three parts, social context (gender, race, age, income, and education level), protected area-community conflicts, and environmental attitudes. The New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scores, which were employed to evaluate environmental attitudes, differed significantly among the stakeholder groups (Pprotected area-community relationship indicated that harmony and conflict both exist in the PJM, but have different forms among different stakeholders, and seem to be opposite between government staff and local farmers. Among the indexes, tourism primarily contributed to the harmonious aspect, while collection of NTFPs did to the conflicting one. Conflict scores were positively related to age and negatively related to education level. Respondents with higher NEP scores were more partial to the park management. Besides, the respondents with higher annual incomes tended to support the policy of harmonizing the relationship and lessening the harm of local communities to the area. To promote proenvironmental attitudes and alleviate the protected area-community conflicts, we recommend improving environmental education, establishing community co-management, and launching substitute sources of cash for traditional cultivation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimating municipal solid waste generation by different activities and various resident groups in five provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hui-zhen; Li, Zhen-shan; Wang, Rong-hua

    2015-07-01

    The quantities and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important factors in the planning and management of MSW. Daily human activities were classified into three groups: maintenance activities (meeting the basic needs of food, housing and personal care, MA); subsistence activities (providing the financial support requirements, SA); and leisure activities (social and recreational pursuits, LA). A model, based on the interrelationships of expenditure on consumer goods, time distribution, daily activities, residents groups, and waste generation, was employed to estimate MSW generation by different activities and resident groups in five provinces (Zhejiang, Guangdong, Hebei, Henan and Sichuan) of China. These five provinces were chosen for this study and the distribution patterns of MSW generated by different activities and resident groups were revealed. The results show that waste generation in SA and LA fluctuated slightly from 2003 to 2008. For general waste generation in the five provinces, MA accounts for more than 70% of total MSW, SA approximately 10%, and LA between 10% and 16% by urban residents in 2008. Females produced more daily MSW than males in MA. Males produced more daily MSW than females in SA and LA. The wastes produced at weekends in MA and LA were far greater than on weekdays, but less than on weekdays for SA wastes. Furthermore, one of the model parameters (the waste generation per unit of consumer expenditure) is inversely proportional to per-capita disposable income of urban residents. A significant correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and waste generation by SA was observed with a high coefficient of determination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The γ-gliadin-like γ-prolamin genes in the tribe Triticeae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, People's Republic of China; Agricultural Science Research Institute, Xichang, Sichuan 615000, People's Republic of China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Crop Genetic Resources and Improvement in Southwest ...

  7. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  8. [Effects of straw returning on the integrated soil fertility and crop yield in southern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Dong, Yan; Xu, Ming-Gang; Bao, Yao-Xian

    2012-11-01

    Based on the data from 94 experiments of straw returning in Anhui, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Guangxi, Sichuan, and Chongqing, and by using mathematic modeling approach, this paper evaluated the effects of straw returning on the soil fertility and crop yield in southern China. Obvious regional differences were observed in the soil fertility index (SFI) and crop yield response. In study area, the croplands with the SFI of Grade III and Grade IV were predominant, occupying 69.1% and 21.3% of the total, respectively. Averagely, straw returning increased the SFI and crop yield by 6.8% and 4.4%, respectively, as compared with the control (no straw returning). The SFI was significantly linearly correlated with rice yield, and could well reflect the integrated soil fertility in study area. At present, straw returning with decomposing agent added is one of the most important measures to improve the integrated soil fertility in southern China, which should be widely popularized.

  9. The management of radioactive wastes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Lijun

    2001-01-01

    Full text: This paper wants to introduce the management of radioactive wastes in China. The Management System. The management system of radioactive waste consists of the institutional system and the regulatory system. During the recent 30 years, more than 50 national standards and trades standards have been issued, will be published, or are being prepared, covering essentially all the process of wastes management. State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) is in charge of not only the environmental protection view but also nuclear safety surveillance of radioactive waste management, especially in the aspect of HLW disposal. China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) is a centralized management of the government responsible. China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC) is responsible for the management work of radioactive wastes within its system, implementing national policies on wastes management, and siting, construction and operation of LILW repositories and HLW deep geological repository. The Policies of Radioactive Waste Management. The LILW for temporary storage shall be solidified as early as possible. Regional repository for disposal of low-and intermediate-level wastes shall be built. HLW is Centralized disposal in geological repository. The radioactive wastes and waste radioisotope sources must be collected to the signified place (facilities) for a relatively centralized management in each province, The Accompanying Mineral radioactive wastes can be stored in the tailing dumps or connected to the storage place for a temporal storage, then transported to the nearby tailing dumps of installation or tailing dumps of mineral-accompanying waste for an eventual storage. Activities in the Wastes Management Radioactive wastes treatment and conditioning Since 1970, the study on the HLLW vitrification has been initiated. In 1990, a cold test bench for the vitrification (BVPM), introduced from Germany, was completed in Sichuan Province. As for the LILW, the cementation

  10. The productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Caixia; Xie, Gaodi; Li, Shimei; Ge, Liqiang; He, Tingting

    2010-01-01

    As one of the important non-grain energy crops, sweet sorghum has attracted the attention of scientific community and decision makers of the world since decades. But insufficient study has been done about the spatial suitability distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China. This paper attempts to probe into the spatial distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China by ArcGIS methods. Data used for the analysis include the spatial data of climate, soil, topography and land use, and literatures relevant for sweet sorghum studies. The results show that although sweet sorghum can be planted in the majority of lands in China, the suitable unused lands for large-scale planting (unit area not less than 100 hm 2 ) are only as much as 78.6 x 10 4 hm 2 ; and the productive potentials of ethanol from these lands are 157.1 x 10 4 -294.6 x 10 4 t/year, which can only meet 24.8-46.4% of current demand for E10 (gasoline mixed with 10% ethanol) in China (assumption of the energy efficiency of E10 is equivalent to that of pure petroleum). If all the common grain sorghum at present were replaced by sweet sorghum, the average ethanol yield of 244.0 x 10 4 t/year can be added, and thus the productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol can satisfy 63.2-84.9% of current demand for E10 of China. In general, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Liaoning rank the highest in productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol, followed by Hebei, Shanxi, Sichuan, and some other provinces. It is suggested that these regions should be regarded as the priority development zones for sweet sorghum ethanol in China.

  11. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  12. Molecular epidemiology and characterization of bovine leukemia virus in domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Yun; Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Pan, Yangyang; Xu, Fang; Tian, Lili; Zeng, Qiaoying

    2018-03-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a member of the genus Deltaretrovirus of the family Retroviridae and cause a chronic lymphosarcoma, which is extensive in cattle. In yaks (Bos grunniens), the distribution, strains and genetic characteristics of BLV have rarely been studied. The aim of our study was to investigate BLV infections in domestic yaks and determine the genetic variability of BLV circulating in a region of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, China. Blood samples were collected from 798 yaks, which were from different farms from Gansu, Qinghai and Sichuan provinces surrounding the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Nested PCR targeting BLV long terminal repeats was used to detect the BLV provirus. The highest prevalence of BLV infection was in Gansu province, where it was 18.93% (39/206) in white yaks from Tianzhu City and 19.14% (31/162) in black yaks from Gannan City. In Qinghai and Sichuan provinces, the prevalence of BLV in black yaks was 14.83% (35/236) and 14.94% (29/194), respectively. The prevalence of BLV was not significantly different in yaks up to one year old than in older animals. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using 16 different env-gp51 (497-bp) gene sequences from the three provinces and 71 known BLV strains, which revealed that in both Gansu and Qinghai provinces, genotypes 6 and 10 of the BLV strains were at high levels, whereas only genotype 10 was prevalent in Sichuan Province. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons revealed 95.7-99.8% sequence identity among the full-length env genes of 16 strains, nearly full-length genome sequences of six BLV strains, and those of the known genotypes 6 and 10 of BLV. This study provides comprehensive information is regarding the widespread infection of domestic yaks with BLV on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China, and shows that at least two BLV genotypes (genotypes 6 and 10) are circulating in this population.

  13. [Spatial-temporal distribution of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture, Sichuan province, 2011-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Yang, C H; He, J G; Li, Y K; Xiao, Y; Li, J; Wang, D X; Chen, C; Wu, J L

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture in Sichuan province from 2011 to 2016. Methods: The registration data of PTB in 618 townships of Liangshan from 2011 to 2016 were collected from "Tuberculosis Management Information System of National Disease Prevention and Control Information System" . Software ArcGIS 10.2 was used to establish the geographic information database and realize the visualization of the analysis results. Software OpenGeoda 1.2.0 was used to conduct the analyses on global indication of spatial autocorrelation (GISA) and local indication of spatial autocorrelation (LISA). Software SaTScan 9.4.1 was used for spatio-temporal scanning analysis. Results: From 2011 to 2016, the registration rate of smear positive PTB in Liangshan declined from 56.97/100 000 (2 666 cases) to 21.11/100 000 (1 038 cases). The global spatial autocorrelation coefficient Moran's I ranged from 0.25 to 0.45 and the difference was significant (all P =0.000). Local autocorrelation analysis showed that "high-high" area covered 43, 34, 37, 34, 42 and 61 townships from 2011 to 2016, respectively, mainly in Leibo county. Spatial temporal clustering analysis found one class Ⅰ clustering in the area around Bagu township of Meigu county and two class Ⅱ clustering in the areas around Liumin and Hekou township of Huili county, respectively (all P =0.000). Conclusion: Obvious spatial temporal clustering of smear positive PTB distribution was found in Liangshan from 2011-2016. Hot spot areas with serious smear positive PTB epidemic and high spread risk were mainly found in northeastern Liangshan, including townships in Leibo and Meigu counties. Targeted TB prevention and control should be conducted in these areas.

  14. Optimization of the key geological target parameters of shale-gas horizontal wells in the Changning Block, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, great progress has been made in geologic evaluation, engineering test and development optimization of the Lower Cambrian Wufeng Fm–Lower Silurian Longmaxi Fm shale gas in the Sichuan Basin, and the main shale gas exploitation technologies have been understood preliminarily. In addition, scale productivity construction has been completed in Jiaoshiba, Changning and Weiyuan blocks. In this paper, the Wufeng Fm–Longmaxi Fm shale gas wells in Changning Block were taken as the study object to provide technical reference for the development design of similar shale-gas horizontal wells. The technology combining geology with engineering, dynamic with static, and statistical analysis with simulation prediction was applied to quantify the main factors controlling shale-gas well productivity, develop the shale-gas well production prediction model, and optimize the key technical parameters of geologic target of shale-gas horizontal wells in the block (e.g. roadway orientation, location and spacing, horizontal section length and gas well production index. In order to realize high productivity of shale gas wells, it is necessary to maximize the included angle between the horizontal section orientation and the maximum major stress and fracture development direction, deploy horizontal-well roadway in top-quality shale layers, and drill the horizontal section in type I reservoirs over 1000 m long. It is concluded that high productivity of shale gas wells is guaranteed by the horizontal-well wellbore integrity and the optimized low-viscosity slickwater and ceramsite fracturing technology for complex fracture creation. Based on the research results, the technical policies for shale gas development of Changning Block are prepared and a guidance and reference are provided for the shale gas development and productivity construction in the block and the development design of similar shale-gas horizontal wells.

  15. Application of zipper-fracturing of horizontal cluster wells in the Changning shale gas pilot zone, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Qian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After several years of exploration practices in the Changning-Weiyuan national shale gas pilot zone, the industrial production has been achieved in a number of vertical and horizontal wells completed by SRV fracturing, and a series of independent shale gas reservoir stimulation technologies have come into being. Next, it is necessary to consider how to enhance the efficiency of fracturing by a factory-mode operation. This paper presents the deployment of Changning Well Pad A, the first cluster horizontal shale gas well group, and proposes the optimal design for the factory operation mode of this Pad according to the requirements of wellpad fracturing stimulation technologies and the mountainous landform in the Sichuan Basin. Accordingly, a zipper-fracturing mode was firstly adopted in the factory fracturing on wellpad. With the application of standardized field process, zipper