WorldWideScience

Sample records for reserve reading project

  1. The Family Literacy Reading Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Ann; Shoufler, Ann

    This report describes a summer project using children's literature as a teaching tool in the literacy section of the Family Literacy Reading Project. The idea for the project arose in response to a need for other resources for the English-as-a-Second-Language program and to students' desire to read to their children and grandchildren as one…

  2. Reading the Austen Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Gay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Austen Project: Jane Austen Re-imagined pairs six bestselling contemporary authors with Jane Austen’s six complete works. I propose to use this interesting (though obviously commercially based project to return to the intriguing critical issue of Jane Austen’s voice. How do the individual authors, all with established styles and audiences, deal with these demands? Whose voice does the reader hear in the narrative commentary? What is the difference, affectively, between the style and tone of the original novel and that of a contemporary writer who is not writing a pastiche but re-telling the story in modern terms? Equivalences in plot and characters are easy enough to do, and the re-imaginings so far published provide the modern reader with some delighted and/or surprised recognitions. But Austen’s famous irony, her rendition of the heroine’s thoughts from inside but also ‘beside’ the character’s viewpoint, her oblique critiques of her society and its manners – can they be re-imagined and re-rendered successfully?

  3. Family Reading Project, First Year Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorzano, Ronald W.

    The first program year evaluation of the Family Reading project addresses implementation issues at the national and local levels relating to the literacy intervention model designed for the project. The project is a collaborative effort between the National Council of La Raza and the Educational Testing Service to improve literacy levels of Latino…

  4. "Reconstructing" Lives: A Reading-for-Empowerment Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJamerson, Nanthalia W.; And Others

    A Reading-for-Empowerment project used a critical social science approach. Phase I of the project was an in-depth study of successful lives to discern the critical factors which lead to success. Four graduate counselor trainees at South Carolina State University examined the autobiographies of Maya Angelou, Zora Neal Hurston, John H. Johnson, and…

  5. Project Read[R] Phonology. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Project Read"[R] is a multisensory language arts curriculum designed for use in a classroom or group setting. Two main objectives of the program are to use language in all its forms, and to use responsive instruction rather than preplanned textbook lessons. The program emphasizes direct instruction, and lessons move from letter-sounds…

  6. Reading, writing, and reserve: Literacy activities are linked to hippocampal volume and memory in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Rocca, Maria A; Leavitt, Victoria M; Riccitelli, Gianna; Meani, Alessandro; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    Engagement in cognitive leisure activities during early adulthood has been linked to preserved memory and larger hippocampal volume in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate which specific types of cognitive leisure activities contribute to hippocampal volume and memory. We investigated links between three types of cognitive activities (Reading-Writing, Art-Music, Games-Hobbies) and (a) hippocampal volume within independent samples of Italian (n=187) and American (n=55) MS patients and (b) memory in subsamples of Italian (n=97) and American (n=53) patients. Reading-Writing was the only predictor of hippocampal volume (rp=.204, p=.002), and the best predictor of memory (rp=.288, p=.001). Findings inform the development of targeted evidence-based enrichment programs aiming to bolster reserve against memory decline. © The Author(s), 2016.

  7. 40 CFR 35.915-1 - Reserves related to the project priority list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... aside for each reserve with the final project priority list. (a) Reserve for State management assistance... extent as the last allotment. (b) Reserve for innovative and alternative technology project grant... on projects for which facilities plans were initiated before fiscal year 1979. These funds shall be...

  8. Project plan for the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Background Soil characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents

  9. Project plan for the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The Background Soil characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents.

  10. Exploring how nature and nurture affect the development of reading: an analysis of the Florida Twin Project on reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A; Logan, Jessica A R; Soden-Hensler, Brooke; Kershaw, Sarah; Taylor, Jeanette; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Research on the development of reading skills through the primary school years has pointed to the importance of individual differences in initial ability as well as the growth of those skills. Additionally, it has been theorized that reading skills develop incrementally. The present study examined the genetic and environmental influences on 2 developmental models representing these parallel ideas, generalizing the findings to explore the processes of reading development. Participants were drawn from the Florida Twin Project on Reading, with a total of 2,370 pairs of twins representative of the state of Florida. Twins' oral reading fluency scores from school progress monitoring records collected in the fall of Grades 1-5 were used to model development. Results suggested that genetic influences on the development of reading are general, shared across the early school years, as well as novel, with new genetic influences introduced at each of the first 3 years of school. The shared environment estimates suggest a pattern of general influences only, suggesting environmental effects that are moderate and stable across development.

  11. Exploring how nature and nurture affect the development of reading: An analysis of the Florida Twin Project on Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A.; Logan, Jessica A.R.; Soden-Hensler, Brooke; Kershaw, Sarah; Taylor, Jeanette; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Research on the development of reading skills through the primary school years has pointed to the importance of individual differences in initial ability as well as the growth of those skills. Additionally, it has been theorized that reading skills develop incrementally. The present study examined the genetic and environmental influences on two developmental models representing these parallel ideas, generalizing the findings to explore the processes of reading development. Participants were drawn from the Florida Twin Project on Reading, with a total of 2370 pairs of twins’ representative of the state of Florida. Twins’ oral reading fluency scores from school progress monitoring records collected in the fall of grades 1 through 5 were used to model development. Results suggested that genetic influences on the development of reading are general, shared across the early school years, as well as novel, with new genetic influences introduced at each of the first three years of school. The shared environment estimates suggest a pattern of general influences only, suggesting environmental effects which are moderate and stable across development. PMID:23294149

  12. Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Stephen, Ed.

    Articles in this monograph reflect the fact that English teachers see reading and literature as closely related. The opening essay, "Reading Is Non-Linear," provides the theoretical base for a comprehensive approach, drawing on current psycholinguistic theory. "Toward Comprehensive Reading Programs in Secondary Schools," reviews current issues and…

  13. Conjuring the Colonizer: Alternative Readings of Magic Realism in Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues" has inspired both admiration and castigation. Critics such as Stephen Evans, Adrian C. Louis, Joseph Coulombe, and James Cox have praised Alexie's satiric upending of stereotypes about Native Americans, claiming that Alexie's work "uses stereotypes...of the...Indian, in new and entirely moral and ethical ways."…

  14. The communal reading of comics: a case study of an extensive reading project for adult basic literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani, Esther

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a piece of classroom-centred research we did into the extensive reading practices of adult basic literacy learners. The research reported here was part of a larger research project into the 'communicational' teaching of English for beginning learners inspired by the work of Prabhu (1987. Using comics supplied by The Storyteller Group, we experimented with the Prabhu/Krashen 'acquisition' approach and extended the pedagogy through trial and error, documenting the whole process with the help of video recordings and our own notes. We present four stages in this 'reading for pleasure' course with descriptions of the pedagogy and excerpts of classroom interaction. Important outcomes of this research are the creative use of language promoted by story re-telling and the desire for ownership of books by learners once they experience ownership of the story through task-based activities on the comics.

  15. New developments in Orinoco oil belt projects reflect a positive effect on the areas reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroel, T. [PDVSA, La Campina, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    The Orinoco oil belt is located in the eastern Venezuela basin, parallel to the Orinoco River. The area is divided into four zones which include four projects that convert crude oil to synthetic crudes. Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) believes that the extra heavy oil reserve scenario of this area is extremely promising. This paper discussed several positive effects that recent developments have had on the reserve numbers within the area. Reserve numbers of the five joint venture projects currently operating in the area were presented. The paper discussed the location of the Orinoco oil belt and presented the general geology of the region. Basic reservoir properties and ongoing projects in the Orinoco heavy oil belt were described. Production methods for extra heavy oils were also explained. It was concluded that huge investment opportunities existed in the area, especially for those interested in participating in mixed enterprises with the Venezuelan government. 6 refs., 16 figs.

  16. Senate works: law project on the energy policy (first reading)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This synthesis of the Senate works on the law project on the energy policy, comments each article of the law text. It concerns: the energy demand control, the renewable energies, the equilibrium and the quality of the transport and distribution networks of electric power, taxation and financial incentives. (A.L.B.)

  17. Metabolic Networks Underlying Cognitive Reserve in Prodromal Alzheimer Disease: A European Alzheimer Disease Consortium Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morbelli, S.; Perneczky, R.; Drzezga, A.; Frisoni, G. B.; Caroli, A.; van Berckel, B.N.M.; Ossenkoppele, R.; Guedj, E.; Didic, M.; Brugnolo, A.; Naseri, M.; Sambuceti, G.; Pagani, M.; Nobili, F.

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to investigate the metabolic basis for resilience to neurodegeneration (cognitive reserve) in highly educated patients with prodromal Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: Sixty-four patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment who later converted to AD dementia during follow-up,

  18. An Evaluation of Project iRead: A Program Created to Improve Sight Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Theresa Meade

    2014-01-01

    This program evaluation was undertaken to examine the relationship between participation in Project iRead and student gains in word recognition, fluency, and comprehension as measured by the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS) Test. Linear regressions compared the 2012-13 PALS results from 5,140 first and second grade students at…

  19. Cosmetology; Glossary of Key Words. Vocational Reading Power Project, Title III, E.S.E.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premer, LaVerne

    The glossary is one of twenty in various subject areas of vocational education designed to assist the student in vocabulary mastery for particular vocational education courses. They are part of the Vocational Reading Power Project, Title III, E.S.E.A. This glossary is for a course in cosmetology. It is divided into two parts: one provides the…

  20. Readings in Wildlife and Fish Conservation, High School Conservation Curriculum Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, Jack

    This publication is a tentative edition of readings on Wildlife and Fish Conservation in Louisiana, and as such it forms part of one of the four units of study designed for an experimental high school course, the "High School Conservation Curriculum Project." The other three units are concerned with Forest Conervation, Soil and Water…

  1. Gas supply for independent power projects: Drilling programs and reserve acquisitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.D.; Walker, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Developers of gas-fired independent power projects, although drawn to gas as the fuel of choice for economic and environmental reasons, are finding the problem of cost-effective gas supply to be intractable. By one estimate, there are $6 billion worth of gas-fired projects languishing in the planning stage for want of long-term gas supply that is acceptable to project lenders. Worse still, as the authors are aware, some currently operating gas-fired projects lack such a supply, thus forcing the developer to rely on the spot market for gas as an interim (and unsatisfactory) solution. Although spot market prices in the deregulated natural gas industry have remained relatively low over several years, long-term gas supply has become problematic, particularly for power projects whose economics typically require an assured supply at a determined price over a multiyear period. In short, while there is an increasing demand for gas as a preferred source of fuel supply for power projects, there are discontinuities in the approaches taken to contracting for that supply by producers and developers. These concern primarily allocation of the risk of commodity-driven price increases during the term of the fuel supply contract. Without a means of accommodating price-related risk, the parties will inevitably find themselves at an impasse in contract negotiations. If there is a barrier to the independent power generation industry's vertical integration into gas production, it is the fundamental insularity of the two industries. As they have discovered, it may be indispensable for gas producers and power developers to employ intermediaries familiar with both industries in order to consummate appropriate joint-venture drilling programs and reserve acquisitions. Given the economic consequences of doing so successfully, however, they believe such programs and acquisitions may become an integral part of independent power developers' business strategy in the 1990s and beyond

  2. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. This volume contains the data from the Background Soil Characterization Project. When available, the following validation qualifiers are used in the appendixes. When validation qualifiers are not available, the corresponding contract laboratory data qualifiers appearing on the next page are used

  3. Alignment of 1000 Genomes Project reads to reference assembly GRCh38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Streeter, Ian; Fairley, Susan; Richardson, David; Clarke, Laura; Flicek, Paul

    2017-07-01

    The 1000 Genomes Project produced more than 100 trillion basepairs of short read sequence from more than 2600 samples in 26 populations over a period of five years. In its final phase, the project released over 85 million genotyped and phased variants on human reference genome assembly GRCh37. An updated reference assembly, GRCh38, was released in late 2013, but there was insufficient time for the final phase of the project analysis to change to the new assembly. Although it is possible to lift the coordinates of the 1000 Genomes Project variants to the new assembly, this is a potentially error-prone process as coordinate remapping is most appropriate only for non-repetitive regions of the genome and those that did not see significant change between the two assemblies. It will also miss variants in any region that was newly added to GRCh38. Thus, to produce the highest quality variants and genotypes on GRCh38, the best strategy is to realign the reads and recall the variants based on the new alignment. As the first step of variant calling for the 1000 Genomes Project data, we have finished remapping all of the 1000 Genomes sequence reads to GRCh38 with alternative scaffold-aware BWA-MEM. The resulting alignments are available as CRAM, a reference-based sequence compression format. The data have been released on our FTP site and are also available from European Nucleotide Archive to facilitate researchers discovering variants on the primary sequences and alternative contigs of GRCh38. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Inhibition, Updating Working Memory, and Shifting Predict Reading Disability Symptoms in a Hybrid Model: Project KIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daucourt, Mia C; Schatschneider, Christopher; Connor, Carol M; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Hart, Sara A

    2018-01-01

    Recent achievement research suggests that executive function (EF), a set of regulatory processes that control both thought and action necessary for goal-directed behavior, is related to typical and atypical reading performance. This project examines the relation of EF, as measured by its components, Inhibition, Updating Working Memory, and Shifting, with a hybrid model of reading disability (RD). Our sample included 420 children who participated in a broader intervention project when they were in KG-third grade (age M = 6.63 years, SD = 1.04 years, range = 4.79-10.40 years). At the time their EF was assessed, using a parent-report Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), they had a mean age of 13.21 years ( SD = 1.54 years; range = 10.47-16.63 years). The hybrid model of RD was operationalized as a composite consisting of four symptoms, and set so that any child could have any one, any two, any three, any four, or none of the symptoms included in the hybrid model. The four symptoms include low word reading achievement, unexpected low word reading achievement, poorer reading comprehension compared to listening comprehension, and dual-discrepancy response-to-intervention, requiring both low achievement and low growth in word reading. The results of our multilevel ordinal logistic regression analyses showed a significant relation between all three components of EF (Inhibition, Updating Working Memory, and Shifting) and the hybrid model of RD, and that the strength of EF's predictive power for RD classification was the highest when RD was modeled as having at least one or more symptoms. Importantly, the chances of being classified as having RD increased as EF performance worsened and decreased as EF performance improved. The question of whether any one EF component would emerge as a superior predictor was also examined and results showed that Inhibition, Updating Working Memory, and Shifting were equally valuable as predictors of the hybrid model of RD

  5. Inhibition, Updating Working Memory, and Shifting Predict Reading Disability Symptoms in a Hybrid Model: Project KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia C. Daucourt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent achievement research suggests that executive function (EF, a set of regulatory processes that control both thought and action necessary for goal-directed behavior, is related to typical and atypical reading performance. This project examines the relation of EF, as measured by its components, Inhibition, Updating Working Memory, and Shifting, with a hybrid model of reading disability (RD. Our sample included 420 children who participated in a broader intervention project when they were in KG-third grade (age M = 6.63 years, SD = 1.04 years, range = 4.79–10.40 years. At the time their EF was assessed, using a parent-report Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF, they had a mean age of 13.21 years (SD = 1.54 years; range = 10.47–16.63 years. The hybrid model of RD was operationalized as a composite consisting of four symptoms, and set so that any child could have any one, any two, any three, any four, or none of the symptoms included in the hybrid model. The four symptoms include low word reading achievement, unexpected low word reading achievement, poorer reading comprehension compared to listening comprehension, and dual-discrepancy response-to-intervention, requiring both low achievement and low growth in word reading. The results of our multilevel ordinal logistic regression analyses showed a significant relation between all three components of EF (Inhibition, Updating Working Memory, and Shifting and the hybrid model of RD, and that the strength of EF’s predictive power for RD classification was the highest when RD was modeled as having at least one or more symptoms. Importantly, the chances of being classified as having RD increased as EF performance worsened and decreased as EF performance improved. The question of whether any one EF component would emerge as a superior predictor was also examined and results showed that Inhibition, Updating Working Memory, and Shifting were equally valuable as predictors of the

  6. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3: Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L. [and others

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. ORR background soil characterization data will be used for two purposes. The first application will be in differentiating between naturally occurring constituents and site-related contamination. This is a very important step in a risk assessment because if sufficient background data are not available, no constituent known to be a contaminant can be eliminated from the assessment even if the sampled concentration is measured at a minimum level. The second use of the background data will be in calculating baseline risks against which site-specific contamination risks can be compared.

  7. Project of revitalization of the special nature reserve Koviljski rit (Kovilj wetland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matavulj, M.

    2002-01-01

    Together with Petrovaradin wetland positioned on the opposite banks of the river Danube, named in Serbian 'Koviljsko-Petrovaradinski rit' (Kovilj-Petrovaradin wetland), this area has been proposed for the registration of wetland areas of international significance according to the Ramsar Convention. The Kovilj-Petrovaradin wetland is being registered as the Natural treasure of special significance and is being classified into I category of protection as the Special Nature Reserve. The protection and conservation of this wetland area is in agreement with Action Plan of protection of rivers and accompanied wetlands in the frame of Paneuropean Strategy for the protection of biological and landscape diversity, accepted at the Strasburg Conference (1995). Being of such importance, this project should contribute to the raising of awareness of this special wetland value as well as to the importance of protection, conservation and improvement of this kind of ecosystems in general. Also, the objectives and results should contribute to the achieving of the wise use of this special wetland and of natural resources as a whole. (author)

  8. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. ORR background soil characterization data will be used for two purposes. The first application will be in differentiating between naturally occurring constituents and site-related contamination. This is a very important step in a risk assessment because if sufficient background data are not available, no constituent known to be a contaminant can be eliminated from the assessment even if the sampled concentration is measured at a minimum level. The second use of the background data will be in calculating baseline risks against which site-specific contamination risks can be compared

  9. 78 FR 1301 - Fiscal Year 2012 Public Transportation on Indian Reservations Program Project Selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Program supports capital projects, operating costs and planning activities that are eligible under the... million, indicating significant demand for funds for new transit services, enhancement or expansion of existing transit services, and planning studies including operational planning. Project proposals were...

  10. Sílvio Romero’s pedagogical project and his reading notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Carvalho do Nascimento

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses Sílvio Romero’s pedagogical project from the discussions and texts about educational politics produced by him and the reading notes and marginal found in his library books, understanding them as an important instrument for rebuilding the ideas and the pedagogical action in the 1880 and the to first decades of 20th century. Part of the reflections done by Sílvio Romero intended to analyze the public education. From his position in Dom Pedro II School, Sílvio Romero produced purposes to 19th century’s Brazilian Education. Romero struggled against what called the reactionary and late mentality of Brazilian teaching. Redescoverd in 90’s, it was not an object of a more carefull study.

  11. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites

  12. Transferences of Teacher-Casting and Projections of Redemption: Teacher Education, Young Adult Literature and the Psychic Life of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowich, David

    2015-01-01

    As the psychic life of reading is imbued with desire, transferences and other forms of emotional turbulence, readers invariably and often unconsciously project their anxieties, hopes and worries onto the lives of fictional characters. Using the lens of psychoanalytic theory, this article explores the meanings produced in the convergence of teacher…

  13. Industrial Electricity; Glossary of Key Words. Vocational Reading Power Project, Title III, E.S.E.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedsen, Edgar

    The glossary is one of twenty in various subject areas of vocational education designed to assist the student in vocabulary mastery for particular vocational education courses. They are part of the Vocational Reading Power Project, Title III, E.S.E.A. This glossary is for a course in industrial electricity. It is divided into two parts: one…

  14. Increasing Teachers' Metacognition Develops Students' Higher Learning during Content Area Literacy Instruction: Findings from the Read-Write Cycle Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwen, Margaret Sauceda; Miller, Roxanne Greitz; White-Smith, Kimberly A.; Calfee, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Success in the 21st century, for individuals and societies, requires competence in comprehending and communicating in the academic disciplines--the natural sciences, history, geography, and more. The Read-Write Cycle (RWC) Project, a three year longitudinal research study conducted from 2005-2008 in ten public elementary schools in southern…

  15. An Exploration of Genetic "g:" Hierarchical Factor Analysis of Cognitive Data from the Western Reserve Twin Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dasen; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Hierarchical factor analyses involving Schmid-Leiman transformations were conducted on specific cognitive abilities data collected from 148 identical and 135 fraternal twin pairs from the Western Reserve Twin Project. Model fitting results reflect genetic influences on specific abilities and suggest that environmental influences are less…

  16. Projecting Officer Strength of the United States Army Reserve from 2008-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Officer Accesions by Fiscal Year (Exponential Smoothing) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2LT 1LT...Accessions Forecasts (Holt Smoothing) Projected RC Officer Accesions by Fiscal Year (Holt Smoothing) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 2003

  17. Application of Systems Engineering to U.S. Department of Energy Privatization Project Selection at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layman, John Scott

    1999-01-01

    The privatization efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Nuclear Reservation have been very successful primarily due to a disciplined process for project selection and execution. Early in the development of Privatization at Hanford, the Department of Energy determined that a disciplined alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) process would furnish the candidate projects with the best probability for success. Many factors had to be considered in the selection of projects. Westinghouse Hanford Company was assigned to develop this process and facilitate the selection of the first round of candidate privatization projects. Team members for the AGA process were assembled from all concerned organizations and skill groups. Among the selection criteria were legal, financial and technical considerations which had to be weighed

  18. Ecological Smorgasbord: A Balanced Reading Diet. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Lorain & Backman Pak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorain, Sue; Backman, Judi

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This material was basically designed to be used as an individualized reading kit for the intermediate grade student. The books in this kit readily lend themselves to a supplementary reading program as part of a science unit. Depending on a…

  19. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. This volume contains the data from the Background Soil Characterization Project. When available, the following validation qualifiers are used in the appendixes. When validation qualifiers are not available, the corresponding contract laboratory data qualifiers appearing on the next page are used.

  20. The Manhattan Project: Combined Resources for a Diversified Secondary School Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Elizabeth; Colwell, Clyde G.

    A secondary school reading program initiated at Manhattan (Kansas) High School and involving the efforts of teachers, students, administrators, members of the board of education, and faculty members of Kansas State University is described in this paper. The first section of the paper provides background information about the program, which…

  1. Joint environmental assessment for western NPR-1 3-dimensional seismic project at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1124) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposed geophysical seismic survey on and adjacent to the Naval Petroleum Reserve No.1 (NPR-1), located approximately 35 miles west of Bakersfield, California. NPR-1 is jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.S.A. Production Company. The federal government owns about 78 percent of NPR-1, while Chevron owns the remaining 22 percent. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of DOE, which has contracted with Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc. (BPOI) for the operation and management of the reserve. The 3-dimensional seismic survey would take place on NPR-1 lands and on public and private lands adjacent to NPR-1. This project would involve lands owned by BLM, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), California Energy Commission (CEC), The Nature Conservancy, the Center for Natural Lands Management, oil companies (Chevron, Texaco, and Mobil), and several private individuals. The proposed action is designed to provide seismic data for the analysis of the subsurface geology extant in western NPR-1 with the goal of better defining the commercial limits of a currently producing reservoir (Northwest Stevens) and three prospective hydrocarbon bearing zones: the {open_quotes}A Fan{close_quotes} in Section 7R, the 19R Structure in Section 19R, and the 13Z Structure in Section 13Z. Interpreting the data is expected to provide NPR-1 owners with more accurate locations of structural highs, faults, and pinchouts to maximize the recovery of the available hydrocarbon resources in western NPR-1. Completion of this project is expected to increase NPR-1 recoverable reserves, and reduce the risks and costs associated with further exploration and development in the area.

  2. IMPROVEMENT OF STUDENTS’ SCIENTIFIC WRITING OF BIOLOGY EDUCATION OF SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY THROUGH READING PROJECT BASED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Probosari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how students’ scientific writing skills changed over as they participated in the Reading Project Based Learning (RPjBL model. This action research was conducted by Biology Teacher of Education Program Faculty of Teacher Training and Education in SebelasMaret University. The results show that the scientificwriting level increased on the last writing activities. It was suggested that RPjBL could have a positive impact on students’ scientific writing. Students who experienced the RPjBL emphasized the sentences reflecting the application and used high cognitive level sentences.   

  3. READINGS FROM THE FORMAL DISCOURSE OF PROJECT MANAGERS REGARDING DIVERSITY IN TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina da Rocha-Pinto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the viewpoint of project managers with regards to diversity, this paper used a phenomenographic method. Fifteen project managers were interviewed. The latter focused primarily on the variety of techniques, rather than on varieties of any other kind. This view of diversity extends beyond those angles generally taken in the literature on the theme which in most instances refer to diversity as based on gender, race and disadvantaged ethnic and minority groups. Additionally, the study brings to light the fact that diversities of knowledge and behavior are as beneficial for the development of projects. Furthermore, communication and the role of the project manager were raised as mitigating factors when it came to diversity. And, lastly, the conclusion arrived at was that project managers have similar discourses which correspond to the recommendation of the main project management manuals. These discourses and forms of expression are in most cases ready-made.

  4. Extra! Extra! Read All about It! How to Construct a Newsletter: A Student Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Monika; Tracy, Kay

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a student project that highlights the value of printed employee newsletters as an internal communication tool for organizations. The project provides specific information and directions on how to develop an employee newsletter on human resource topics. Microsoft Word 2007 is used for newsletter formatting. The article also…

  5. The Family Photography Project: "We Will Just Read What the Pictures Tell Us."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, Jane

    2001-01-01

    Notes that the purpose of the project was to collect evidence about learning in the "life school" of families. Describes the second session in which people brought in artifacts to tell family stories about learning in their homes. Finds that families and teachers involved in this project become more aware of home experiences as part of literacy…

  6. Crystalline Repository Project: Review and comment of the Leech Lake Reservation Business Committee: Draft area recommendation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The Leech Lake Reservation Business Committee (LLRBC) has reviewed five documents related to the US Department of Energy's Crystalline Repository Project (CRP). They are the ''National Survey of Crystalline Rocks,'' ''General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories;' Final Siting Guidelines (10 CFR Part 960),'' ''Regional Characterization Reports for the North Central Region,'' the ''Region to Area Screening Methodology Document'' (SMD) and the ''Draft Area Recommendation Report'' (DARR). The comments and discussions of issues contained in this review will be considered in the preparation of the Final Area Recommendation Report, which will formally identify potentially acceptable sites for a second national repository for the permanent disposal of high level nuclear waste. Following a review of the above referenced documents, the LLRBC has concluded that the identification of potentially acceptable sites in the Draft Area Recommendation Report is based upon inferior and incomplete technical information being applied to a flawed screening process which, among other deficiencies, pays little attention to the importance of hydrological factors in the siting process. Although the DOE prefers that comments from states and tribes be directed at the Draft Area Recommendation Report alone, the Leech Lake Reservation Business Committee is extremely concerned about inadequacies in the ''National Survey of Crystalline Rocks'' (ORCD-1), which serves as the foundation for all siting work done to date. The national survey was conducted utilizing little of the time or staffing required for this important phase of the Crystalline Repository Program. As a result, the national survey is based upon out-of-date scientific literature, exaggerates certain screening variables that favor the selection of regions in the eastern US and arbitrarily eliminated the few western crystalline rock bodies that passed the questionable screening process utilized

  7. The "Cosmopolitan" Project and Hungarian Kindergarten Education: Re-Reading Socialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millei, Zsuzsa; Imre, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we argue that the socialist kindergarten in Hungary (1948-1989) was set up to aid the modernizing of a nation in a particular way and in a historical and political context in which the only way forward was to leave behind aspects of the past and start a new chapter in Hungarian history. Comparing this project to the…

  8. Professional Development for Reading Achievement: Results from the Collaborative Language and Literacy Instruction Project (CLLIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porche, Michelle V.; Pallante, Daniel H.; Snow, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    The Collaborative Language and Literacy Instruction Project (CLLIP) is a model of professional development designed to help teachers incorporate research-based practices of literacy instruction, support mastery, and sustained use of these practices through coaching, and serve as a foundation for whole-school reform efforts. We describe the model,…

  9. Integrating technology and reading instruction with children who are deaf or hard of hearing: the effectiveness of the Cornerstones project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Paul, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    In a comparison between the Cornerstones approach--a literature-based, technology-infused literacy project--and an instructional method designated the Typical approach, a mixed-method design was used to answer three research questions: (a) Will children who are deaf or hard of hearing demonstrate differences in beginning reading skills as measured by three outcome variables: Identification of Words in Print (or Word Identification), Word Knowledge, and Story Comprehension? (b) Are there carryover effects from the Cornerstones approach to the use of the Typical approach in subsequent experiments? (c) What is the feasibility of using the Cornerstones approach for literacy instruction? There were significant differences between the Typical and Cornerstones approaches in Word Identification and Story Comprehension in Experiments 1 and 2, though none in Word Knowledge or Story Comprehension in Experiment 3. Teacher feedback provided some evidence for the feasibility of using Cornerstones in the classroom.

  10. Reading in 3 Languages. La lectura en 3 idiomas. La lecture en langues. Manual Prepared for the Bilingual Demonstration Project, Title VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    The manual contains forms, handouts, checklists, and other materials used in and developed by the Bilingual Screening and Reading Clinic Demonstration Project of New York City's Community School District 3. The materials are provided for teachers and administrators to use or modify for working with bilingual school populations in need of…

  11. Confederated Tribes Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project : Annual Report Fiscal Year 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2008-12-02

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2007 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2007-January 31, 2008) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Camp Creek, Greasewood Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying five fish passage barriers on four creeks, (2) planting 1,275 saplings and seeding 130 pounds of native grasses, (3) constructing two miles of riparian fencing for livestock exclusion, (4) coordinating activities related to the installation of two off-channel, solar-powered watering areas for livestock, and (5) developing eight water gap access sites to reduce impacts from livestock. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at all existing easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Monitoring plans will continue throughout the life of each project to oversee progression and inspire timely managerial actions. Twenty-seven conservation easements were maintained with 23 landowners. Permitting applications for planned project activities and biological opinions were written and approved. Project activities were based on a variety

  12. Validation procedures used in the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is (1) to document the data validation process developed for the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP); (2) to offer members of other project teams and potential data users the benefit of the experience gained in the BSCP in the area of developing project-specific data validation criteria and procedures based on best available guidance and technical information; and (3) to provide input and guidance to the efforts under way within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to develop standard operating procedures to streamline and optimize the analytical laboratory data validation process for general use by making it more technically rigorous, consistent, and cost effective. Lessons learned from the BSCP are also provided to meet this end (Sect. 1.3)

  13. The Literacy Club: A Cross-Age Tutoring/Paired Reading Project. NCBE Program Information Guide Series 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Barbara; Urzua, Carole

    The literacy club described is a model cross-aged, paired reading program that is being successfully used in an elementary school in Redwood City, California to teach literacy skills to non-native speakers of English. The literacy club pairs older students--"rapid readers"--with younger students--"little readers"--in a yearlong reading experience…

  14. Targeted technology applications for infield reserve growth: A synopsis of the Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project, Gulf Coast Basin. Topical report, September 1988--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, R.A.; Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR): Targeted Technology Applications for Infield Reserve Growth is a joint venture research project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the State of Texas through the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, with the cofunding and cooperation of the natural gas industry. The SGR project is a field-based program using an integrated multidisciplinary approach that integrates geology, geophysics, engineering, and petrophysics. A major objective of this research project is to develop, test, and verify those technologies and methodologies that have near- to mid-term potential for maximizing recovery of gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Natural gas reservoirs in the Gulf Coast Basin are targeted as data-rich, field-based models for evaluating infield development. The SGR research program focuses on sandstone-dominated reservoirs in fluvial-deltaic plays within the onshore Gulf Coast Basin of Texas. The primary project research objectives are: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities cause, even in reservoirs of conventional permeability, reservoir compartmentalization and hence incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields.

  15. Program Managers’ Competencies: A Consideration of Project Management Competencies on the Specific Case of the Land Reserve Modernization Project at Meaford, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    process reengineering, new service initiation, software development and etc. The roots of modern project management are visible in the second half of the...With each answer, I would just ask one question, I would just ask one question deeper than that. When they started to stutter , I knew they were in

  16. Teaching Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    "Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…

  17. Macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation -- Final project report by AST Environmental Services, LLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a full-scale demonstration of a high density polyethylene (HDPE) package, manufactured by Arrow Construction, Inc. of Montgomery, Alabama. The HDPE package, called ARROW-PAK, was designed and patented by Arrow as both a method to macroencapsulation of radioactively contaminated lead and as an improved form of waste package for treatment and interim and final storage and/or disposal of drums of mixed waste. Mixed waste is waste that is radioactive, and meets the criteria established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for a hazardous material. Results from previous testing conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1994 found that the ARROW-PAK fabrication process produces an HDPE package that passes all helium leak tests and drop tests, and is fabricated with materials impervious to the types of environmental factors encountered during the lifetime of the ARROW-PAK, estimated to be from 100 to 300 years. Arrow Construction, Inc. has successfully completed full-scale demonstration of its ARROW-PAK mixed waste macroencapsulation treatment unit at the DOE Hanford Site. This testing was conducted in accordance with Radiological Work Permit No. T-860, applicable project plans and procedures, and in close consultation with Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc.'s project management, health and safety, and quality assurance representatives. The ARROW-PAK field demonstration successfully treated 880 drums of mixed waste debris feedstock which were compacted and placed in 149 70-gallon overpack drums prior to macroencapsulation in accordance with the US EPA Alternate Debris Treatment Standards, 40 CFR 268.45. Based on all of the results, the ARROW-PAK process provides an effective treatment, storage and/or disposal option that compares favorably with current mixed waste management practices

  18. Projeto Grafico, Illustracao e Leitura do Texto Poetico (Graphic Project, Illustration and Reading of the Poetic Text).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Luis

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the presence of graphic organization in books, which creates peculiar, constitutive reading signals regarding the nature of illustration. Analyzes the graphic organization of five different illustrations of poems. (PA)

  19. Annual report on the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Results of Phase 1 investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.R.; Goddard, P.L.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Kimbrough, C.W.; Lee, S.Y.; Lietzke, D.A.; McGin, C.W.; Nourse, B.D.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Shaw, R.A.; Stinnette, S.E.; Switek, J.; Wright, J.C.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L.; Burgoa, B.B.

    1993-05-01

    Many constituents of potential concern for human health occur naturally at low concentrations in undisturbed soils. The Background soil Characterization Project (BSCP) was undertaken to provide background concentration data on potential contaminants in natural soils on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The objectives of the BSCP are to provide baseline data for contaminated site assessment and estimates of potential human health risk associated with background concentrations of hazardous and other constituents in native soils. This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in Phase I of the project. It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program

  20. Annual report on the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Results of Phase 1 investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, D.R.; Goddard, P.L.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Kimbrough, C.W.; Lee, S.Y.; Lietzke, D.A.; McGin, C.W.; Nourse, B.D.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Shaw, R.A.; Stinnette, S.E.; Switek, J.; Wright, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L.; Burgoa, B.B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science; Lietzke, D.A. [Lietzke (David A.), Rutledge, TN (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Many constituents of potential concern for human health occur naturally at low concentrations in undisturbed soils. The Background soil Characterization Project (BSCP) was undertaken to provide background concentration data on potential contaminants in natural soils on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The objectives of the BSCP are to provide baseline data for contaminated site assessment and estimates of potential human health risk associated with background concentrations of hazardous and other constituents in native soils. This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in Phase I of the project. It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program.

  1. The Impact of a School-University Multicultural Read-Aloud Project on Pre-Service Teachers' Pedagogical Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohfink, Gayla

    2014-01-01

    This school-university partnership research explored how multicultural literature read-alouds impacted the pedagogical understandings of elementary pre-service teachers. The study explores the intersection of multicultural education, Professional Development School standards, and the achievement gaps of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD)…

  2. Measuring reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Gary S

    2013-09-20

    Despite significant changes in the treatment of common eye conditions like cataract and age-related macular degeneration, reading difficulty remains the most common complaint of patients referred for low vision services. Clinical reading tests have been widely used since Jaeger introduced his test types in 1854. A brief review of the major developments in clinical reading tests is provided, followed by a discussion of some of the main controversies in clinical reading assessment. Data for the Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) study demonstrate that standardised clinical reading tests are highly predictive of reading performance under natural, real world conditions, and that discrepancies between self-reported reading ability and measured reading performance may be indicative of people who are at a pre-clinical stage of disability, but are at risk for progression to clinical disability. If measured reading performance is to continue to increase in importance as a clinical outcome measure, there must be agreement on what should be measured (e.g. speed or comprehension) and how it should be measured (e.g. reading silently or aloud). Perhaps most important, the methods for assessing reading performance and the algorithms for scoring reading tests need to be optimised so that the reliability and responsiveness of reading tests can be improved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  4. The Effects of a Parent-child Reading Project on the Development of French Prereading Skills in Innu-speaking Kindergartners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Morris

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study assesses the effects of a parent-child reading project on the development of a variety of French prereading skills in Innu-speaking Kindergartners over the course of a school year. Phonological memory, expressive and receptive lexical knowledge, morphosyntactic knowledge, and basic arithmetic concepts were tested in two subgroups of a single cohort, one composed of participants in a parent-child reading project (experimental group and the other composed of non-participants (control group. The results show that both groups made gains against French mother tongue age-level norms over the course of the year. The experimental group, whose members started the year with higher skill levels in a number of areas, improved more and on a greater variety of tasks than the control group. While the actual role the reading project played in the children’s gains cannot be determined because of intertwining of factors, bringing books into homes and informing parents about the importance of reading likely had a positive effect on project participants. Résumé Cette étude examine l’impact d’un projet de lecture parent-enfant sur le développement des habiletés préalables à l’apprentissage de la lecture chez les enfants innus inscrits à la maternelle. Nous avons comparé les résultats obtenus par deux groupes d’enfants—un dont les membres participaient au projet de lecture (groupe expérimental et un dont les membres ne participaient pas (groupe de contrôle—à une variété de tâches en utilisant un protocole expérimental pré-test, intervention, post-test. Alors que les deux groupes ont fait de bons progrès au cours de l’année scolaire, rattrapant une partie de leur retard initial par rapport aux normes francophones, le groupe expérimental a fait des gains plus importants. Le rôle exact joué par la lecture dyadique dans ces gains n’a pas pu être mesuré avec précision à cause d’un croisement de facteurs

  5. Children as ethnobotanists: methods and local impact of a participatory research project with children on wild plant gathering in the Grosses Walsertal Biosphere Reserve, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Susanne; Schunko, Christoph; Vogl, Christian R

    2016-10-10

    Ethically sound research in applied ethnobiology should benefit local communities by giving them full access to research processes and results. Participatory research may ensure such access, but there has been little discussion on methodological details of participatory approaches in ethnobiological research. This paper presents and discusses the research processes and methods developed in the course of a three-year research project on wild plant gathering, the involvement of children as co-researchers and the project's indications for local impact. Research was conducted in the Grosses Walsertal Biosphere Reserve, Austria, between 2008 and 2010 in four research phases. In phase 1, 36 freelist interviews with local people and participant observation was conducted. In phase 2 school workshops were held in 14 primary school classes and their 189 children interviewed 506 family members with structured questionnaires. In phase 3, 27 children and two researchers co-produced participatory videos. In phase 4 indications for the impact of the project were investigated with questionnaires from ten children and with participant observation. Children participated in various ways in the research process and the scientific output and local impact of the project was linked to the phases, degrees and methods of children's involvement. Children were increasingly involved in the project, from non-participation to decision-making. Scientific output was generated from participatory and non-participatory activities whereas local impact - on personal, familial, communal and institutional levels - was mainly generated through the participatory involvement of children as interviewers and as co-producers of videos. Creating scientific outputs from participatory video is little developed in ethnobiology, whereas bearing potential. As ethnobotanists and ethnobiologists, if we are truly concerned about the impact and benefits of our research processes and results to local communities, the

  6. The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon John Day Basin Office : Watershed Restoration Projects : 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. John Day Basin Office.

    2003-06-30

    The John Day is the nation's second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous United States and the longest containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, Oregon's fourth largest drainage basin, and incorporates portions of eleven counties. Originating in the Strawberry Mountains near Prairie City, the John Day River flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead, westslope cutthroat, and redband and bull trout, the John Day system is truly a basin with national significance. The majority of the John Day basin was ceded to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) formed a partnership with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), also located in the town of John Day, who contracts the majority of the construction implementation activities for these projects from the JDBO. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of most projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 2002, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of their successful partnership between the two agencies

  7. The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon John Day Basin Office: watershed restoration projects: annual report, 1999.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The John Day River is the second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous United States and one of the few major subbasins in the Columbia River basin containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, the fourth largest drainage area in Oregon. With its beginning in the Strawberry Mountains near the town of Prairie City, the John Day flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead, red band, westslope cutthroat, and redband trout, the John Day system is truly one of national significance. The entire John Day basin was granted to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) initiated contracting the majority of its construction implementation actions with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), also located in the town of John Day. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of the projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 1999, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of a successful partnership between the two agencies and basin landowners to implement an additional eleven (11

  8. The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon John Day Basin Office: FY 1999 Watershed Restoration Projects : Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Shawn W.

    2001-03-01

    The John Day River is the second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous United States and one of the few major subbasins in the Columbia River basin containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, the fourth largest drainage area in Oregon. With its beginning in the Strawberry Mountains near the town of Prairie City, the John Day flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead, red band, westslope cutthroat, and redband trout, the John Day system is truly one of national significance. The entire John Day basin was granted to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) initiated contracting the majority of its construction implementation actions with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), also located in the town of John Day. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of the projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 1999, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of a successful partnership between the two agencies and basin landowners to implement an additional eleven (11

  9. The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon John Day Basin Office: watershed restoration projects: annual report, 1998.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The John Day River is the second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous US and one of the few major subbasins in the Columbia River basin containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, the fourth largest drainage area in Oregon. With its beginning in the Strawberry Mountains near the town of Prairie City, the John Day flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead, red band, westslope cutthroat, and redband trout, the John Day system is truly one of national significance. The entire John Day basin was granted to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) initiated contracting the majority of its construction implementation actions with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), also located in the town of John Day. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of the projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 1998, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of a successful partnership between the two agencies and basin landowners to implement an additional ten (10) watershed

  10. Reading and Writing Gains for Maori Students in Mainstream Schools: Effective Partnerships in the Rotorua Home and School Literacy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Ted; Berryman, Mere; Glynn, Vin

    The Rotorua Energy Charitable Trust with support from the Ministry of Education funded a home and school literacy project in nine Rotorua primary schools. The project funded each school to train a home-school liaison worker (either a school staff member or a community person) to assist schools in developing a working partnership with the students'…

  11. Superheroes and Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ron; Buckner, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    To combat summer learning loss among remedial readers, teachers and consultants in the Omaha, Nebraska, Title I program designed a series of comic-book reading units and mailed them to students' homes. Parents were pleased with the project and it appeared that less reading skill had been lost by September. (SJL)

  12. Teaching Reading: Research into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalister, John

    2014-01-01

    In pre-service and in-service language teacher education, and in curriculum-related projects in second and foreign language settings, a recurrent issue is the failure to relate the teaching of reading to reading as a meaning-making activity. In this paper, I will consider what current research on second language (L2) reading has actually succeeded…

  13. Exposure-effect relations between aircraft and road traffic noise exposure at school and reading comprehension: the RANCH project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, Charlotte; Martin, Rocio; Kempen, Elise van; Alfred, Tamuno; Head, Jenny; Davies, Hugh W; Haines, Mary M; Lopez Barrio, Isabel; Matheson, Mark; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2006-01-01

    Transport noise is an increasingly prominent feature of the urban environment, making noise pollution an important environmental public health issue. This paper reports on the 2001-2003 RANCH project, the first cross-national epidemiologic study known to examine exposure-effect relations between

  14. Math Fluency Is Etiologically Distinct from Untimed Math Performance, Decoding Fluency, and Untimed Reading Performance: Evidence from a Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrill, Stephen; Logan, Jessica; Hart, Sara; Vincent, Pamela; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether math fluency was independent from untimed math and from reading using 314 pairs of school-aged twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Projects. Twins were assessed through a 90-min home visit at approximately age 10 and were reassessed in their homes approximately 1 year later. Results suggested that the…

  15. The ABCs of Math: A Genetic Analysis of Mathematics and Its Links with Reading Ability and General Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of…

  16. Reading Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  17. Reading: Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annemarie Wennekers; Frank Huysmans; Jos de Haan

    2018-01-01

    Original title: Lees:Tijd The amount of time that Dutch people spend reading has been declining steadily since the 1950s. This decline in reading time contrasts starkly with the positive personal and social benefits that can be derived from reading, according to lots of research. The Reading:

  18. Understanding Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the need for children to go beyond literacy to become lifelong readers. Highlights include the reading process; reading instruction; and the role of the librarian, including reading books aloud, allowing children to choose their own books, book discussion groups, teaching different purposes of reading, and author studies. (LRW)

  19. Order in the House! Associations among Household Chaos, the Home Literacy Environment, Maternal Reading Ability, and Children's Early Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anna D; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Petrill, Stephen A

    2008-01-01

    The current study examines whether associations exist between household chaos and children's early reading skills, after controlling for a comprehensive battery of home literacy environment characteristics. Our sample included 455 kindergarten and First-grade children who are enrolled in the Western Reserve Reading Project. We go on to test whether these associations are moderated by maternal reading ability. Results suggest that the degree of household order is significantly and positively associated with the expressive vocabulary, Woodcock Reading Mastery, and phonological awareness skills of children whose mothers are above-average readers. By contrast, the number of books a child owns or brings home and how often a child amuses self alone with books are significantly associated with the expressive vocabulary, Woodcock Reading Mastery, and phonological awareness skills of children whose mothers ore average-ability readers. These results suggest the potential for new approaches to encouraging literacy development in the home beyond those that depend solely on parental literacy.

  20. Systematic Environmental Impact Assessment for Non-natural Reserve Areas: A Case Study of the Chaishitan Water Conservancy Project on Land Use and Plant Diversity in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xin Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment (EIA before and after the establishment of a Water Conservancy Project (WCP is of great theoretical and practical importance for assessing the effectiveness of ecological restoration efforts. WCPs rehabilitate flood-damaged areas or other regions hit by disasters by controlling and redistributing surface water and groundwater. Using Geographic Information System (GIS and Composite Evaluation Index (CEI in predictive modeling, we studied the degree to which a WCP could change land use, plant communities, and species diversity in Yunnan, China. Via modeling, we quantified likely landscape pattern changes and linked them to naturality (i.e., the percentage of secondary vegetation types, diversity, and stability together with the human interferences (e.g., conservation or restoration project of an ecosystem. The value of each index was determined by the evaluation system, and the weight percentage was decided through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. We found that minor land-use changes would occur after the Chaishitan WCP was theoretically established. The greatest decline was farmland (0.079%, followed by forest (0.066%, with the least decline in water bodies (0.020%. We found 1,076 vascular plant species (including subspecies, varieties and form belonging to 165 families and 647 genera in Chaishitan irrigation area before the water conservancy establishment. The naturality and diversity decreased 11.18 and 10.16% respectively. The CEI was 0.92, which indicated that Chaishitan WCP will enhance local landscape heterogeneity, and it will not deteriorate local ecological quality. Our study proposes a comprehensive ecological evaluation system for this WCP and further suggests the importance of including the ecological and environmental consequences of the WCP, along with the well-established socioeconomic evaluation systems for non-natural reserve areas. We conclude that the Chaishitan WCP will have minor

  1. PARA LER O PROJETO SOB UMA PESPECTIVA ÉTICA TO READ THE PROJECT UNDER AN ETHICS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Ibertis

    2010-05-01

    .0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

    Esse artigo tece algumas considerações para ler o Projeto de uma psicologia desde uma perspectiva ética. Parte-se da leitura que Lacan efetua em O Seminário, Livro VII, A ética da psicanálise, onde ele estrutura sua interpretação na oposição entre os princípios de prazer e de realidade e na compreensão de das Ding. À diferença da leitura lacaniana, centrada no conceito de desejo, enfatizamos, em primeiro lugar, a pertinência das noções de desprazer e de prazer como fundamentais. Em segundo lugar, observamos que antes do que o objeto de desejo incestuoso, por uma parte, ou meramente formal, por outra, no Projeto se trata, além do par desprazer-prazer, das experiências do desamparo e da dívida perante o próximo-auxiliador como bases da moralidade.

    This article discusses some considerations to guide the reading of the Project for a psychology from an ethical perspective. The starting point is Lacan's interpretation in The Seminar, book VII, The Ethics of Psychoanalysis, where he structures his analysis on the opposition between the principles of pleasure and reality and on the understanding of das Ding. Unlike the Lacanian reading, centered on the concept of desire, we firstly emphasize the relevance of the notions of pleasure and displeasure as fundamental. Secondly, we argue that in the Project, Freud sets as the foundations of morality, beyond the couple's displeasure-pleasure, the experiences of helplessness and debt before the next-helper and not the object of

  2. PRÁCTICAS LECTORAS: COMPRENSIÓN Y EVALUACIÓN. TENDENCIAS, ESTADO Y PROYECCIONES READING PRACTICES: COMPREHENSION AND ASSESSMENT. TENDENCIES, STATUS, AND PROJECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Aníbal Moreno Castro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se revisan, discuten y sistematizan asuntos teóricos fundamentales que apoyan la primera fase de la investigación "Evaluación de los niveles de lectura en el contexto de la educación superior", desarrollada durante el periodo 2009-2010. El concepto de lectura, las conexiones que tal modalidad comunicativa humana sostiene con la comprensión discursiva y, finalmente, las perspectivas y estrategias evaluativas de la comprensión lectora en entornos académicos institucionalizados son los ejes temáticos del artículo. Este último se propone señalar con precisión tanto el estado como las tendencias y proyecciones conceptuales y programáticas de tales nodos temáticos. Con el propósito de fortalecer la consistencia conceptual, facilitar la comprensión crítica y aligerar la textura académica del artículo, el análisis de los documentos revisados se presenta integrado alrededor de cuatro tópicos considerados como las tendencias conceptuales nucleares: 1 el tránsito de lo sensorial a lo racional y de lo racional a lo sociocultural transaccional, 2 el tránsito del significante al significado y de allí al sentido, 3 el tránsito de lo textual a lo intertextual y de allí a lo contextual (lo literal, lo inferencial, lo crítico, y 4 el tránsito de la lectura como comportamiento a la lectura como proceso.In this article we review, discuss, and systematize fundamental theoretical issues that support the first phase of the investigation "Assessment of reading levels in the context of higher education", developed over the period 2009-2010. The concept of reading, the connections that such a human communicative mode maintains with discursive comprehension, and finally, perspectives and assessment strategies of reading comprehension in institutionalized academic environments are the crosscutting topics of the article. The latter is proposed to pinpoint the state, trends, and conceptual and programmatic projections of such

  3. Promoting a Reading Culture in School Community: How to Engage Reading Activities Cross Curricula, Directors, Teachers, Students, Parents, Administrative Services, Local Authorities, Public Libraries and Other Partners--Relating a Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana Bela; Marques, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present how an intensive collaboration between the National Portuguese Reading Plan and the School Libraries Network Programme plays an important role in the promotion of reading literacy as a baseline to develop all kinds of other literacy abilities and empower the role of school libraries and the…

  4. Implementation and assessment of a yeast orphan gene research project: involving undergraduates in authentic research experiences and progressing our understanding of uncharacterized open reading frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Bethany V; Schultheis, Patrick J; Strome, Erin D

    2016-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first eukaryotic organism to be sequenced; however, little progress has been made in recent years in furthering our understanding of all open reading frames (ORFs). From October 2012 to May 2015 the number of verified ORFs had only risen from 75.31% to 78%, while the number of uncharacterized ORFs had decreased from 12.8% to 11% (representing > 700 genes still left in this category; http://www.yeastgenome.org/genomesnapshot). Course-based research has been shown to increase student learning while providing experience with real scientific investigation; however, implementation in large, multi-section courses presents many challenges. This study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of incorporating authentic research into a core genetics course, with multiple instructors, to increase student learning and progress our understanding of uncharacterized ORFs. We generated a module-based annotation toolkit and utilized easily accessible bioinformatics tools to predict gene function for uncharacterized ORFs within the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). Students were each assigned an uncharacterized ORF, which they annotated using contemporary comparative genomics methodologies, including multiple sequence alignment, conserved domain identification, signal peptide prediction and cellular localization algorithms. Student learning outcomes were measured by quizzes, project reports and presentations, as well as a post-project questionnaire. Our results indicate that the authentic research experience had positive impacts on students' perception of their learning and their confidence to conduct future research. Furthermore, we believe that creation of an online repository and adoption and/or adaptation of this project across multiple researchers and institutions could speed the process of gene function prediction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Implementation and assessment of a yeast orphan gene research project; involving undergraduates in authentic research experiences and progressing our understanding of uncharacterized open reading frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Bethany V.; Schultheis, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first eukaryotic organism to be sequenced, however little progress has been made in recent years in furthering our understanding of all open reading frames (ORFs). From October 2012 to May 2015 the number of verified ORFs has only risen from 75.31% to 78% while the number of uncharacterized ORFs have decreased from 12.8% to 11% (representing more than 700 genes still left in this category) [http://www.yeastgenome.org/genomesnapshot]. Course-based research has been shown to increase student learning while providing experience with real scientific investigation; however, implementation in large, multi-section courses presents many challenges. This study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of incorporating authentic research into a core genetics course with multiple instructors to increase student learning and progress our understanding of uncharacterized ORFs. We generated a module-based annotation toolkit and utilized easily accessible bioinformatics tools to predict gene function for uncharacterized ORFs within the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). Students were each assigned an uncharacterized ORF which they annotated using contemporary comparative genomics methodologies including multiple sequence alignment, conserved domain identification, signal peptide prediction and cellular localization algorithms. Student learning outcomes were measured by quizzes, project reports and presentations, as well as a post-project questionnaire. Our results indicate the authentic research experience had positive impacts on student's perception of their learning and their confidence to conduct future research. Furthermore we believe that creation of an online repository and adoption and/or adaptation of this project across multiple researchers and institutions could speed the process of gene function prediction. PMID:26460164

  6. Report on the behalf of the Special Commission in charge of the examination, in the perspective of a final reading, of the bill project related to energy transition for a green growth (T.A. 519). N 3004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareigts, Ericka; Battistel, Marie-Noelle; Buis, Sabine; Baupin, Denis; Plisson, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This report contains the various amendments introduced by the French Senate before the final reading by the French National Assembly of the bill project on energy transition for a green growth. It also reports the discussion of the Commission in charge of the examination of these amendments with, for some of them, a wider discussion about their acceptance or rejection

  7. A reading intervention programme for mathematics students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the results of Phase I of a reading skills project in 2000 (SAJHE 16(3) 2002), Phase II was undertaken to set up a reading intervention programme on a voluntary basis for students enrolled in a mathematics access module, to determine whether explicit attention given to reading would improve their reading skills ...

  8. Shared Reading Goes High-Tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sharon Ruth; Islam, Chhanda

    2011-01-01

    Shared Reading is a powerful teaching technique for teaching beginning reading. Technologies such as Interactive Whiteboards now make Shared Reading much easier to do. Large texts are projected on the whiteboard for Choral reading, and interactive features allow students to learn about letter-sound correspondences, spelling patterns, punctuation,…

  9. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: a longitudinal study from Grade 1 to Grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-09-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children's reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first and second graders. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 1, but not in Grade 2, after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 2, but not in Grade 1, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral reading fluency and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in Grade 1, whereas silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency in Grade 2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Results of Field Sampling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L. [and others

    1993-10-01

    This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites.

  11. Cognitive coupling during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Caitlin; Graesser, Art; Risko, Evan F; D'Mello, Sidney K

    2017-06-01

    We hypothesize that cognitively engaged readers dynamically adjust their reading times with respect to text complexity (i.e., reading times should increase for difficult sections and decrease for easier ones) and failure to do so should impair comprehension. This hypothesis is consistent with theories of text comprehension but has surprisingly been untested. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing 4 datasets in which participants (N = 484) read expository texts using a self-paced reading paradigm. Participants self-reported mind wandering in response to pseudorandom thought-probes during reading and completed comprehension assessments after reading. We computed two measures of cognitive coupling by regressing each participant's paragraph-level reading times on two measures of text complexity: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level and Word Concreteness scores. The two coupling measures yielded convergent findings: coupling was a negative predictor of mind wandering and a positive predictor of both text- and inference-level comprehension. Goodness-of-fit, measured with Akaike information criterion, also improved after adding coupling to the reading-time only models. Furthermore, cognitive coupling mediated the relationship between mind wandering and comprehension, supporting the hypothesis that mind wandering engenders a decoupling of attention from external stimuli. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

  13. Quality assurance plan for Final Waste Forms project in support of the development, demonstration, testing and evaluation efforts associated with the Oak Ridge reservation's LDR/FFCA compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Mattus, C.H.

    1994-07-01

    This quality assurance project plan specifies the data quality objectives for Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project and defines specific measurements and processes required to achieve those objectives. Although the project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the ultimate recipient of the results is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Consequently, relevant quality assurance requirements from both organizations must be met. DOE emphasizes administrative structure to ensure quality; EPA's primary focus is the reproducibility of the generated data. The ten criteria of DOE Order 5700.6C are addressed in sections of this report, while the format used is that prescribed by EPA for quality assurance project plans

  14. Reading and grammar learning through mobile phones

    OpenAIRE

    Shudong Wang; Simon Smith

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students’ mobile phones. Students read or took part in any aspect of the materials that appealed to them. Information gathered from participants and server logs indicate that reading and...

  15. Read the NEHSI project update

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    the state and federal health management information system. The resulting software (OpenHDS) is now available for use throughout Africa. □ A template of electronic tools was developed for real- time tracking of deaths that occur in all secondary public health facilities in Cross River State. □ In Giade district in Bauchi, ...

  16. Write to read: the brain's universal reading and writing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A; Tan, Li-Hai

    2013-02-01

    Do differences in writing systems translate into differences in the brain's reading network? Or is this network universal, relatively impervious to variation in writing systems? A new study adds intriguing evidence to these questions by showing that reading handwritten words activates a pre-motor area across writing systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reading Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses ...... these aspects by drawing on typography history, designers’ ideas, and available scientific data concerning the reading process....

  18. Against Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Edmundson states that if he could make one wish for the members of his profession, college and university professors of literature, he would wish that for one year, two, three, or five, they would give up readings. By "a reading," he means the application of an analytical vocabulary to describe and (usually) to judge a work of literary art.…

  19. Reading Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses...... these aspects by drawing on typography history, designers’ ideas, and available scientific data concerning the reading process....

  20. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. How Reading Volume Affects both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. ALLINGTON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires about 15 minutes of reading activity daily. The remaining 75 minute of reading lessons is filled with many other activities such as completing workbook pages or responding to low-level literal questions about what has been read. Studies designed to enhance the volume of reading that children do during their reading lessons demonstrate one way to enhance reading development. Repeated readings have been widely used in fostering reading fluency but wide reading options seem to work faster and more broadly in developing reading proficiencies, including oral reading fluency.

  2. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    Istenič, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  3. Agreement on the privileges and immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. Latest status. Declarations/reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project, for which the Director General of the IAEA is depositary, was done in Paris on 21 November 2006. Pursuant to Article 25 thereof, the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project 'shall enter into force thirty days after the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval of this Agreement by the People's Republic of China, EURATOM, the Republic of India, Japan, the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation.' The text of the Agreement is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  4. Agreement on the establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. Latest status. Declarations/reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement on the Establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project, for which the Director General of the IAEA is depositary, was done in Paris on 21 November 2006. Pursuant to Article 22 thereof, the Agreement on the Establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project 'shall enter into force thirty days after the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval of this Agreement by the People's Republic of China, EURATOM, the Republic of India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation and the United States of America. The text of the Agreement is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  5. Comparison of reading speed with 3 different log-scaled reading charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buari, Noor Halilah; Chen, Ai-Hong; Musa, Nuraini

    2014-01-01

    A reading chart that resembles real reading conditions is important to evaluate the quality of life in terms of reading performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the reading speed of UiTM Malay related words (UiTM-Mrw) reading chart with MNread Acuity Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart. Fifty subjects with normal sight were randomly recruited through randomized sampling in this study (mean age=22.98±1.65 years). Subjects were asked to read three different near charts aloud and as quickly as possible at random sequence. The charts were the UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart, MNread Acuity Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart, respectively. The time taken to read each chart was recorded and any errors while reading were noted. Reading performance was quantified in terms of reading speed as words per minute (wpm). The mean reading speed for UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart, MNread Acuity Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart was 200±30wpm, 196±28wpm and 194±31wpm, respectively. Comparison of reading speed between UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart and MNread Acuity Chart showed no significant difference (t=-0.73, p=0.72). The same happened with the reading speed between UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart (t=-0.97, p=0.55). Bland and Altman plot showed good agreement between reading speed of UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart with MNread Acuity Chart with the Colenbrander Reading Chart. UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart in Malay language is highly comparable with standardized charts and can be used for evaluating reading speed. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. AUTHENTIC TEXTS FOR CRITICAL READING ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Amalia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research takes an action research aimed at promoting critical reading (“thinking” while reading skills using authentic materials among the students. This research also aims to reveal the students perception on using critical reading skills in reading activities. Nineteen English Education Department students who took Reading IV class, participated in this project. There were three cycles with three different critical reading strategies were applied. Meanwhile, the authentic materials were taken from newspaper and internet articles. The result revealed that the use of critical reading strategies along with the use of authentic materials has improved students’ critical reading skills as seen from the improvement of each cycle - the students critical reading skill was 54% (fair in the cycle 1 improved to 68% (average in cycle 2, and 82% (good in cycle 3.. In addition, based on the critical reading skill criteria, the students’ critical reading skill has improved from 40% (nearly meet to 80% (exceed. Meanwhile, from the students’ perception questionnaire, it was shown that 63% students agreed the critical reading activity using authentic text could improve critical thinking and 58% students agreed that doing critical reading activity could improve reading comprehension. The result had the implication that the use of authentic texts could improve students’ critical reading skills if it was taught by performing not lecturing them. Selectively choosing various strategies and materials can trigger students’ activeness in responding to a text, that eventually shape their critical reading skills.

  7. How Reading Volume Affects both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Richard L. ALLINGTON

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires about 15 minutes of reading activity daily. The remaining 75 minute of reading lessons is filled with many other activities such as comp...

  8. Does E-Reading Enhance Reading Fluency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Rahima S.; Taqi, Hanan A.; Dashti, Abdulmohsin A.; Sadeq, Taiba M.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is reading as much as possible, for one's own pleasure, at a difficulty level at which one can read smoothly and quickly. In the domain of reading, this paper investigates the effect of extensive reading from e-books, through utilizing a number of downloadable reading application programs on the students' e-devices, as opposed to…

  9. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  10. Reading Disorders:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaber, Emma

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between eating disorders and reading behaviors, arguing that there is a meaningful difference in a minority of readers' approach to and understanding of anorexia life-writing, and of literary texts more broadly. To illuminate this distinction, this article begins by considering the reported deleterious influence of Marya Hornbacher’s anorexia memoir, Wasted, elaborating the ways Hornbacher offers a positive presentation of anorexia nervosa that may, intentionally or not, induce certain readers to “try it” themselves. This is followed by an exploration of how Hornbacher’s own reading praxis is implicated in a discursive feedback loop around anorexia narratives. It concludes with a discussion of disordered reading attitudes in relation to the emergence of the “pro-anorexia” phenomenon. PMID:28569728

  11. Reading and Grammar Learning through Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Smith, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students' mobile phones. Students read…

  12. Reading Strategies to Develop Higher Thinking Skills for Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Echeverri Acosta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an action research project which examined the foreign language reading comprehension of public school eighth graders who experienced a directed reading-thinking approach with strategies for comprehension and application. The strategies used were prediction, prior knowledge, graphic organizers, and questions. Data analyzed included participants' perceptions of the usefulness of the strategies and students' work on the graphic organizers and reading worksheets. Findings showed that participants thought that the strategies and an interactive reading task improved reading comprehension. The majority of students used English to answer knowledge, comprehension and a good number of application questions. The answers to the application questions provided by the less proficient students were, despite their use of Spanish, unclear.

  13. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  14. Reading Rembrandt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Reading Rembrandt: Beyond the Word-Image Opposition explores the potential for an interdisciplinary methodology between visual art and literature. In a series of close analyses of works by "Rembrandt" - works as we see them today, through all the ways of seeing and commenting that precede - and

  15. Reading Clubs, Workshops, Reading in the Park

    OpenAIRE

    Banaurs, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Reading clubs are networks made up of book lovers who read the same book at the same time and then share their ideas and feelings inspired by that reading. This short paper discusses the benefits of reading clubs and reading workshops.

  16. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  17. Route to reading: Promoting reading through a school library: effects for non-Western migrant students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, E.

    2016-01-01

    The present research aimed at providing insight into the effects of an integrated library facility in a Dutch primary school’s curriculum on the reading attitude, reading behavior, and reading and language skills in students with a non-Western migrant background. The project consisted of a

  18. Progressive management of distribution systems by automatic meter reading. Research project shows potentialities for cost savings in water distribution in rural areas; Modernes Netzmanagement mit Zaehlerfernablesung. Forschungsprojekt zeigt deutliche Einsparpotenziale durch Fernablesung fuer die Wasserversorgung im laendlichen Raum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koewener, D. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (Fraunhofer ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fuhrmann, T. [Witten/Herdecke Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltechnik und Management

    2003-07-01

    Network monitoring of extensive water distribution systems as you can find in rural areas causes high costs. Therefore a current research project tries to find cost savings by using automatic meter reading of main flow meters within the network. The project focuses on improving leakage control as well as optimizing rehabilitation investments. By operation of a pilot plant significant potentialities for cost savings already could be identified. Additionally the calculation of the optimal time of rehabilitation shows that automatic meter reading is able to reduce investment costs. For the calculation of the costs the research team developed a software that supports the user in this decision making process. (orig.) [German] In grossraeumigen Wasserversorgungsnetzen, wie sie vor allem im laendlichen Raum anzutreffen sind, ist die Netzueberwachung mit erheblichem Aufwand verbunden. In einem laufenden Forschungsvorhaben wird untersucht, inwieweit sich Einsparungen durch Einsatz von fernablesbaren Grosswasserzaehlern realisieren lassen. Im Zentrum steht dabei die Verbesserung der Leckageueberwachung sowie eine Optimierung der Reinvestitionsplanung. Anhand ausgewaehlter Untersuchungsgebiete des beteiligten Wasserversorgers konnten bereits eindeutige Einsparpotenziale im Netz- und Leckagenmanagement durch den Einsatz der Fernablesung nachgewiesen werden. Auch die Berechnung des betriebswirtschaftlich optimalen Reinvestitionszeitpunkts laesst darauf schliessen, dass der Einsatz der Fernablesung zu einer Kostenreduktion fuehrt. Zur Berechnung der Kosten wurde eine Software entwickelt, die den Anwender bei seiner Entscheidungsfindung unterstuetzt. (orig.)

  19. EMPOWERING THE READING READABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Handoko Handoko

    2014-01-01

    A general assumption about reading is that students improve their reading ability by reading a lot. This research was conducted to explain the use of extensive reading and aimed to figure out its implementation in improving students’ reading readability by using the class action research technique. The data of this research relates to the students ‘reading progress shown in their reading reports: spoken and written summary, reading comprehension and vocabulary mastery and their participation....

  20. Turkey Reading Culture Map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Akkılık

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Derived from the project with the same name, the work was published into a book by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Directorate General of Libraries and Publications, the project coordinator. Goal of the project is defined as follows: "specifying the solutions to problems faced directly or indirectly in accessing information, making suggestions to related corporations and persons, determining the perception of libraries in the society, raising the quality of services provided at public libraries and children's libraries affiliated with the Ministry, diversifying these libraries and designating the road map for the future." Carried out with the "method of face-to-face surveys" with 6.212 people in 26 cities, the research revealed the society's habits of reading and library usage.

  1. The role of reading time complexity and reading speed in text comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallot, Sebastian; O'Brien, Beth A; Haussmann, Anna; Kloos, Heidi; Lyby, Marlene S

    2014-11-01

    Reading speed is commonly used as an index of reading fluency. However, reading speed is not a consistent predictor of text comprehension, when speed and comprehension are measured on the same text within the same reader. This might be due to the somewhat ambiguous nature of reading speed, which is sometimes regarded as a feature of the reading process, and sometimes as a product of that process. We argue that both reading speed and comprehension should be seen as the result of the reading process, and that the process of fluent text reading can instead be described by complexity metrics that quantify aspects of the stability of the reading process. In this article, we introduce complexity metrics in the context of reading and apply them to data from a self-paced reading study. In this study, children and adults read a text silently or aloud and answered comprehension questions after reading. Our results show that recurrence metrics that quantify the degree of temporal structure in reading times yield better prediction of text comprehension compared to reading speed. However, the results for fractal metrics are less clear. Furthermore, prediction of text comprehension is generally strongest and most consistent across silent and oral reading when comprehension scores are normalized by reading speed. Analyses of word length and word frequency indicate that the observed complexity in reading times is not a simple function of the lexical properties of the text, suggesting that text reading might work differently compared to reading of isolated word or sentences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Pleasure Reading and Reading Rate Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglar, David; Hunt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of (a) the amount of pleasure reading completed, (b) the type of texts read (i.e., simplified or unsimplified books), and (c) the level of simplified texts read by 14 Japanese university students who made the largest reading rate gains over one academic year. The findings indicated that the participants who made…

  3. Reading for Pleasure: A Reading Resource Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battles, Jane; Tambuscio, Colleen

    1991-01-01

    A reading resource room was developed for 59 deaf and hard-of-hearing secondary-level students, to improve vocabulary and reading skills and encourage reading for pleasure. Books of interest to teenagers with limited reading levels were located from several publishing companies and were arranged in a space with shelves and comfortable seating.…

  4. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  5. Co-reading: investigating collaborative group reading.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, J.; Owen, T.; Thimbleby, H. W.; Buchanan, G.

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative reading, or co-reading as we call it, is ubiquitous—it occurs, for instance, in classrooms, book-clubs, and in less coordinated ways through mass media. While individual digital reading has been the subject of much investigation, research into co-reading is scarce. We report a two-phase field study of group reading to identify an initial set of user requirements. A co-reading interface is then designed that facilitates the coordination of group reading by providing temporary ‘Po...

  6. Developing reading literacy by reading badge

    OpenAIRE

    Rejc, Blanka

    2017-01-01

    Reading is a fundamental activity of our society and is present in all areas of a person’s life. Authors who deal with reading define reading with different definitions, some of them I also presented in my master’s degree thesis. The ways of reading, typology of readers and knowledge of different reading models are only some of the important theoretical facts that serve as a basis for the research and defining reading. Reading motivation is an important motivational factor, which encourages a...

  7. Building up Autonomy Through Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Izquierdo Castillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an action research project conducted with six ninth grade students in a rural public school in Colombia. The purpose of the study was to determine how the implementation of three reading strategies (skimming, scanning, and making predictions, when reading topics selected by learners, helps them to improve their reading comprehension and promotes their autonomy in the learning process. The results show that these learners developed some autonomous features such as making decisions for learning and doing assigned homework, increasing reading awareness and motivation. Additionally, the training on reading strategies allowed them to succeed in their reading comprehension. We conclude that these reading strategies are tools that take learners along the path of autonomy.

  8. Reading abilities: importance of visual-spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, John D E; Norton, Elizabeth S

    2012-05-08

    Children with dyslexia may read poorly for several reasons. Recent research suggests that in addition to skills with language sounds, visual-spatial attention may be an important predictor of reading abilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Report made on the behalf of the Commission of economic affairs, in a new reading, on the bill project, rejected by the Senate, aiming at preparing a transition towards an energy 'sober' system - N. 579

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brottes, Francois

    2013-01-01

    This report proposes a second reading which aims at defining the legal framework associated with the French energy conservation policy. This bill project introduces a 'bonus-malus' approach which aims at identifying housings which must be renewed in priority in order to reduce their energy consumption. The first objective of this bill project is to provide households with a responsibility tool regarding their consumption: a basic energy volume will be assigned to each household, calculated with respect to the energy type, household composition and geographical location. It should be possible then to warn users when they are in an over-consumption situation, and to help them to take corrective actions. The other objectives are to struggle against energy 'precariousness', to prevent energy price increase, to improve the regime of capacity guarantee obligations, to strengthen consumer protection, to ease the development of renewable energies, and to create the modalities of a progressive water tariffing. The document reports the discussion and comments of the bill project articles. It also proposes a comparison of the content of the successive versions

  10. Senate works: law project on the energy policy (first reading); Travaux du Senat: projet de loi d'orientation sur l'energie (premiere lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This synthesis of the Senate works on the law project on the energy policy, comments each article of the law text. It concerns: the energy demand control, the renewable energies, the equilibrium and the quality of the transport and distribution networks of electric power, taxation and financial incentives. (A.L.B.)

  11. Examining the association between late-life depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and brain volumes in the context of cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Deirdre M; Fieo, Robert A; Hamilton, Jamie L; Zahodne, Laura B; Manly, Jennifer J; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether cognitive reserve moderated the association between depressive symptoms and cognition, as well as brain volumes in a sample of older adults. Non-demented participants (n = 3484) were selected from the Washington Heights/Hamilton Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project (Northern Manhattan). A subsample of these participants without dementia (n = 703), who had brain imaging data, was also selected for a separate analysis. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Reading level and years of education were used as measures of cognitive reserve. Four distinct cognitive composite scores were calculated: executive function, memory, visual-spatial, and language. Multiple regression analysis revealed interaction effects between both measures of cognitive reserve and depressive symptoms on all the cognitive outcome measures except for visual-spatial ability. Those with greater reserve showed greater cognitive decrements than those with lower levels of reserve as depressive symptoms increased. A borderline interaction effect was revealed between reading level and depressive symptoms on total brain volumes. Those with lower reading scores showed greater volume loss as depressive symptoms increased than those with higher reading scores. Our findings indicate that the association between late-life depressive symptoms and core aspects of cognition varies depending on one's level of cognitive reserve. Those that had greater levels of education and/or reading ability showed a greater decrease in memory, executive, and language performances as depressive symptoms increased than those with lower years of education and reading ability. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Reading Multimodally: What is Afforded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, David; Voss, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Technological changes and the proliferation of digital devices have created new reading experiences for students. The rapid transition from print to digital texts is evident in the movement toward the adoption of an e-book standard, increasing sales of e-book readers and tablet devices, and projections that universities and public schools may use…

  13. The Rise of E-Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainie, Lee; Zickuhr, Kathryn; Purcell, Kristen; Madden, Mary; Brenner, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The growing popularity of e-books and the adoption of specialized e-book reading devices are documented in a series of new nationally representative surveys by the Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project that look at the public's general reading habits, their consumption of print books, e-books and audiobooks, and their attitudes…

  14. SDR (Systems Directed Reading): An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugo Community Schools, Elkhart, IN.

    The objective of this project for kindergarten through fifth grade is to interest public and private educational institutions in the systematization of elementary school reading programs. Facets of Systems Directed Reading (SDR) include the use of a differentiated staffing pattern; experienced language arts unit leaders guiding and directing all…

  15. Rearing a reading habit

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the importance and ways of inculcating reading habit in children at the right age, describes the five reading phases in children along with interest and the material to satiate the need, explains how four deterministic factors affect the reading habit of children, enlists motivations that are behind the reading process with tips to improve reading habit of children.

  16. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  17. Observing documentary reading by verbal protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Mariangela Spotti Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Verifies the applicability to research on indexers' reading strategies of the process observing technique known as Verbal Protocol or Thinking Aloud. This interpretative-qualitative data collecting technique allows the observation of different kinds of process during the progress of different kinds of tasks. Presents a theoretical investigation into "reading" and into formal methodological procedures to observe reading processes. Describes details of the methodological procedures adopted in five case studies with analysis of samples of data. The project adopted three kinds of parameters for data analysis: theoretical, normative, empirical (derived from observations made in the first case study. The results are compared, and important conclusions regarding documentary reading are drawn.

  18. Enhancing academic reading skills through extensive reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study applied a reading comprehension pre-test and post-test design, as well as three-minute reading speed preand post-tests. Using SPSS statistical analysis, three paired-samples t-tests were administered and the progress from the reading speed pre-test to the post-test was found to be significant. Study results ...

  19. Cosmetology Reading Strategies. 1980 Vocational Reading Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, L. Jay; And Others

    Cosmetology Reading Strategies is one of five instructional guides in the Reading Strategies in Vocational Education Series. Developed to assist teachers working with students considered disadvantaged because of reading deficiency, the guide contains several strategies, suitable for adaptation, specifically related to cosmetology instruction. Each…

  20. Developing Students' Reading Ability through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanshao

    2009-01-01

    A good reading competence is a necessity for those studying English for academic and occupational purposes. Based on the results of previous research, theory and practice on L2 Extensive Reading, this paper analyses current situation for teaching and learning reading in our Chinese universities and proposes practical applications of extensive…

  1. Dialogic Reading Aloud to Promote Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    How can teachers motivate students to read extensively in a second language? One strategy is for teachers to read aloud to students to promote the joys of reading generally, to build students' language skills and to introduce students to specific authors, book series, genres, websites, etc. This article begins by discussing why teachers might want…

  2. EMPOWERING THE READING READABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko Handoko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A general assumption about reading is that students improve their reading ability by reading a lot. This research was conducted to explain the use of extensive reading and aimed to figure out its implementation in improving students’ reading readability by using the class action research technique. The data of this research relates to the students ‘reading progress shown in their reading reports: spoken and written summary, reading comprehension and vocabulary mastery and their participation. The strategy was evolved in the continuity of reading. Students were encouraged to read extensively in and outside class. The findings indicated that the implementation could improve students’ reading readability.This attainment demonstrated that students’ reading readabilityis frosted through the continuity of reading. Other facts showed that students enjoyed reading. Students’ curiosity was also a significant factor. Their high curiosity explained why students continued reading though they realized that materials they read were difficult enough. Students’ self-confidence was also built as they were required to write a retelling story and to share their previous reading. Instead of their retelling and summarizing, students felt to be appreciated as readers. This appreciation indirectly helped students to improve the reading fondness.

  3. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  4. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? Healthy Eating Kids and Food: 10 ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  5. Learning to write through reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Maria J

    2016-12-01

    Narrowing the gap between what we want to achieve as writings - publishing a report of our project - and what we achieve as readers - finding a study to inform our practice - can be challenging. One solution in enabling us to achieve this goal is to learn from close reading the writing of others, including writing in development. Close reading, appraisal in its broadest term, encourages us to articulate what we, putting us in touch with how an author has organised information, selected their words and structured their arguments. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  6. Reading skills and mathematics | Bohlmann | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article considers the relationship between poorly-developed reading skills and academic performance in mathematics. It discusses some aspects that underpin all successful reading and considers these in relation to the reading difficulties experienced by a group of foundation phase mathematics students. The project ...

  7. Reading, Understanding, Remembering and Using Information in Written Science Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Larry D.; Shymansky, James A.

    With traditional science textbooks still dominating the market, it is projected that the use of print material and related reading skills will persist as the prime method of science instruction. The need to research reading-science issues exists. This paper attempts to define the task or desired outcomes of research in reading-science dimensions.…

  8. Paraprofessionals Implementing a Research-Based Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Leanne; Konza, Deslea; Mulcahy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In many schools in Australia students often begin their primary years with limited preparation for reading. "All hands on deck" are required to ensure the best possible student success rate for learning to read. In this project, Education Assistants, often under-utilised in schools, were used to implement a reading intervention to…

  9. Reading charts in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, W

    2017-08-01

    A new generation of logarithmic reading charts has sparked interest in standardized reading performance analyses. Such reading charts have been developed according to the standards of the International Council of Ophthalmology. The print size progression in these calibrated charts is in accordance with the mathematical background of EN ISO 8596. These reading charts are: the Bailey-Lovie Word Reading Chart, the Colenbrander English Continuous Text Near Vision Cards, the Oculus Reading Probe II, the MNREAD Charts, the SKread Charts, and the RADNER Reading Charts. The test items used for these reading charts differ among the charts and are standardized to various extents. The Bailey-Lovie Charts, MNREAD Charts, SKread Charts, and RADNER Charts are also meant to measure reading speed and allow determination of further reading parameters such as reading acuity, reading speed based on reading acuity, critical print size, reading score, and logMAR/logRAD ratio. Such calibrated reading charts have already provided valuable insights into the reading performance of patients in many research studies. They are available in many languages and thus facilitate international communication about near visual performance. In the present review article, the backgrounds of these modern reading charts are presented, and their different levels of test-item standardization are discussed. Clinical research studies are mentioned, and a discussion about the immoderately high number of reading acuity notations is included. Using the logReading Acuity Determination ([logRAD] = reading acuity equivalent of logMAR) measure for research purposes would give reading acuity its own identity as a standardized reading parameter in ophthalmology.

  10. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) As projects age, the required reserve account level may be adjusted to meet anticipated “life-cycle...) Purpose. To meet the major capital expense needs of a housing project, borrowers must establish and... be deemed to contain surplus funds when the balance at the end of the housing project's fiscal year...

  11. Literacy and Health Project. Phase One. Making the World Healthier and Safer for People Who Can't Read = Projet alphabetisation et sante: Premiere etape. Rendre le milieu plus sain et sans danger pour les personnes qui ne savent pas lire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Public Health Association, Toronto.

    The Literacy and Health Project was set up to determine how reading and health problems were connected. A research phase documented the relationship between literacy and health. Information was collected from community organizations, literature review, three case studies in Ontario, and key informant interviews. The consultation process involved…

  12. Pediatric ophthalmology and childhood reading difficulties: Overview of reading development and assessments for the pediatric ophthalmologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Megan E; Mudie, Lucy I; Inns, Amanda J; Repka, Michael X

    2017-12-01

    Reading difficulties are common in the pediatric population, and large socioeconomic disparities exist. In the United States 46% of white children achieved expected reading proficiency by the end of fourth grade, while only 21% of Hispanic and 18% of African American children were reading at the expected level. Reading is an involved cognitive process with many subskills; likewise, development of reading proficiency is a complex and continuous process. Failure to achieve reading proficiency or even early difficulty with reading can affect a child's academic performance for years to come. Some studies suggest reading proficiency may be related to later success in life. Although many problems with reading are not related to vision, a vision assessment is recommended for children with reading difficulties and a suspected vision problem. The process of reading development as well as the varied educational assessments of reading are presented here for pediatric ophthalmologists. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reading and grammar learning through mobile phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students’ mobile phones. Students read or took part in any aspect of the materials that appealed to them. Information gathered from participants and server logs indicate that reading and learning grammar using mobile devices is regarded as a positive language experience. However, the data also indicate that the success of any mobile learning project could be limited unless certain criteria are applied. This includes (a providing engaging learning materials that are neither too long nor overly-demanding; (b a proper degree of teacher monitoring; (c student involvement; (d the need for incentives; (e a respect for privacy; and (f a safe and secure mobile-learning technical environment.

  14. Using Speed Reading and Extensive Reading Activities to Improve Students’ Reading Fluency

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Wardani

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This study examines the implementation of Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities to improve students’ reading fluency of students. Using a Classroom Action Research, Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities was applied in 2 cycles with 2 x 45 minutes per week. Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities were taught using three phase techniques: Pre-Reading, Whilst-Reading, and Post-Reading. Speed Reading was implemented through some techniques including scanning, sk...

  15. Reading Speed and Reading Comprehension in Age-related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadaraj, Varshini; Lesche, Stephen; Ramulu, Pradeep Y; Swenor, Bonnielin K

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) on short out-loud and sustained silent reading speeds, and reading comprehension. Prospective, cross-sectional. Setting: Wilmer Eye Institute. Literate, native-English speakers with and without AMD. AMD participants had better-eye visual acuity (VA) 20/100, while controls had binocular VA >20/32. MNRead was used to assess short-duration out-loud reading speed. Sustained silent reading test was used to evaluate sustained silent reading speeds, while reading comprehension was assessed based on silent reading test text. MNRead maximum reading speed, sustained-silent reading speed, and comprehension score. Analyses included 24 AMD patients and 22 controls. In age-adjusted regressions, AMD participants, compared to controls, read 46 words per minute (wpm) slower on MNRead (95% confidence interval [CI]: -66, -26, P reading speeds between groups (β = 0.99, 95% CI: -41.8, 43.8, P = .96). In other models, there was a decrement of 12.6 wpm on MNRead per 0.1 worsening logMAR (95% CI: -18.7, -6.6, P reading speed (β = -10.1, 95% CI: -22.4, 2.1, P = .10). However, AMD participants had substantially lower comprehension scores than controls (53% vs 85% correct, P read slower than controls when forced to read out loud. When asked to read silently over a longer duration, both groups read at similar speeds, though AMD patients demonstrated substantially lower comprehension scores, suggesting that they chose to sacrifice comprehension for speed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of sequential and discrete rapid naming on reading in Japanese children with reading difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamiya, Eiji; Okumura, Tomohito; Nakanishi, Makoto; Takeshita, Takashi; Mizuta, Mekumi; Kurimoto, Naoko; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    To clarify whether rapid naming ability itself is a main underpinning factor of rapid automatized naming tests (RAN) and how deep an influence the discrete decoding process has on reading, we performed discrete naming tasks and discrete hiragana reading tasks as well as sequential naming tasks and sequential hiragana reading tasks with 38 Japanese schoolchildren with reading difficulty. There were high correlations between both discrete and sequential hiragana reading and sentence reading, suggesting that some mechanism which automatizes hiragana reading makes sentence reading fluent. In object and color tasks, there were moderate correlations between sentence reading and sequential naming, and between sequential naming and discrete naming. But no correlation was found between reading tasks and discrete naming tasks. The influence of rapid naming ability of objects and colors upon reading seemed relatively small, and multi-item processing may work in relation to these. In contrast, in the digit naming task there was moderate correlation between sentence reading and discrete naming, while no correlation was seen between sequential naming and discrete naming. There was moderate correlation between reading tasks and sequential digit naming tasks. Digit rapid naming ability has more direct effect on reading while its effect on RAN is relatively limited. The ratio of how rapid naming ability influences RAN and reading seems to vary according to kind of the stimuli used. An assumption about components in RAN which influence reading is discussed in the context of both sequential processing and discrete naming speed. Copyright © 2010 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reading Assessment: Looking Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I focus on three areas of reading assessment that I believe to be crucial for students' reading development: developing comprehensive formative assessments, assessing the wide array of factors that contribute to students' reading development, and fostering student independence by helping students learn to use reading assessment on…

  18. Measuring Reading Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, William E., Ed.; And Others

    Designed to provide solutions to some of the problems related to measuring reading behavior, this publication explores some of the problems of test selection and usage which confront educators. Contents include "Reading Testing for Reading Evaluation" by Walter R. Hill, "Reading Tests and the Disadvantaged" by Thomas J. Fitzgibbon, "What Is…

  19. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.745 Replacement reserve. The general requirements for the replacement reserve are provided in § 891.605. For projects funded under §§ 891.655 through 891.790, the...

  20. Pediatric ophthalmology and childhood reading difficulties: Convergence insufficiency: relationship to reading and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Paul H

    2017-12-01

    Patients with convergence insufficiency (CI) are often symptomatic during activities that require near fixation, such as reading. Indeed, CI has been associated with reading impairment and poor academic performance. However, these associations do not prove a causal relationship between these conditions. The current evidence regarding the relationship between CI and its treatment, reading ability, and academic performance is discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cognitive reserve in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A M; Stern, Y

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.

  2. Law project modified by the Senate of energy orientation. (urgency declared). The Senate modified, in a first reading, the law project, adopted by the National Assembly in first reading after urgency declaration, concerning: see the numbers: national assembly (12. legisl.): 1586, 1597 and T.A. 302. Senate: 328 and 330 (2003-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This law project concerns the national energy policy, the energy demand control, the renewable energies, the equilibrium and the quality of the transport and distribution networks of electric power, taxation and financial incentives. (A.L.B.)

  3. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  4. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  5. Literacy education, reading engagement, and library use in multilingual classes

    OpenAIRE

    Tonne, Ingebjørg; Pihl, Joron

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this paper is literacy education and reading engagement in multilingual classes. What facilitates reading engagement in the language of instruction in multilingual classes? In this paper, we analyze reading engagement in a literature-based literacy program in Norway (2007–2011). The design was a research and development project in which teachers, researchers, and librarians collaborated within literacy education. We present pedagogical interventions within the project and analyze...

  6. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  7. Overlapping genetic and child-specific nonshared environmental influences on listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Victoria J; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the genetic and environmental influences on observed associations between listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension. Univariate and multivariate quantitative genetic models were conducted in a sample of 284 pairs of twins at a mean age of 9.81 years. Genetic and nonshared environmental factors accounted for statistically significant variance in listening and reading comprehension, and nonshared environmental factors accounted for variance in reading motivation. Furthermore, listening comprehension demonstrated unique genetic and nonshared environmental influences but also had overlapping genetic influences with reading comprehension. Reading motivation and reading comprehension each had unique and overlapping nonshared environmental contributions. Therefore, listening comprehension appears to be related to reading primarily due to genetic factors whereas motivation appears to affect reading via child-specific, nonshared environmental effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Examining the genetic and environmental associations among spelling, reading fluency, reading comprehension and a high stakes reading test in a combined sample of third and fourth grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Callie W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an examination of the genetic and environmental effects on the associations among reading fluency, spelling and earlier reading comprehension on a later reading comprehension outcome (FCAT) in a combined sample of 3rd and 4th grade students using data from the 2011-2012 school year of the Florida Twin project on Reading (Taylor et al., 2013). A genetically sensitive model was applied to the data with results indicating a common genetic component among all four measures, along with shared and non-shared environmental influences common between reading fluency, spelling and FCAT. PMID:26770052

  9. A Journey to Reading Hub: A Repository of Bangla Reading Skill Development through Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aklima Sharmin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reading is the basic foundation for all other learning activities for a child. Children who do not learn to read in the primary grades are more likely to struggle as they continue their schooling. Many scholars have proved that early grade reading skills are essential for all children to master in order to progress academically. Nonetheless, schools and students around the world still struggle with literacy development in the first years of schooling. Technology can be a tool to overcome this obstacle and several simple innovations in this area have proven to help children develop reading skills. Bangladesh is betting on technology as a supplement to supporting children's reading development. Save the Children, in partnership with the Government of Bangladesh's mandate for a "Vision 2021", and with support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID, launched an ICT in Education component under their larger READ (Reading Enhancement for Advancing Development project. This paper outlines the ways in which the READ (Reading Enhancement for Advancing Development project has developed digital resources for early grade learners, using a web-based platform without any other dependencies. This paper also describes the steps taken to develop the web-based platform, how teachers were trained to use it, the successes and challenges in making this platform accessible to all, and how such a platform works in rural schools in Bangladesh.

  10. A life course model of cognitive activities, socioeconomic status, education, reading ability, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Angela L; Gibbons, Laura E; Rentz, Dorene M; Carvalho, Janessa O; Manly, Jennifer; Bennett, David A; Jones, Richard N

    2011-08-01

    To cross-sectionally quantify the contribution of proxy measures of cognitive reserve reflective of the lifespan, such as education, socioeconomic status (SES), reading ability, and cognitive activities, in explaining late-life cognition. Prospective observational cohort study of aging. Retirement communities across the Chicago metropolitan area. Nine hundred fifty-one older adults free of clinical dementia in the Rush Memory and Aging Project (aged 79 ± 8, 74% female). Baseline data on multiple life course factors included early-, mid-, and late-life participation in cognitive activities; early-life and adult SES; education; and reading ability (National Adult Reading Test; NART). Path analysis quantified direct and indirect standardized effects of life course factors on global cognition and five cognitive domains (episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, visuospatial ability, perceptual speed). Adjusting for age, sex, and race, education had the strongest association with global cognition, episodic memory, semantic memory, and visuospatial ability, whereas NART (followed by education) had the strongest association with working memory. Late-life cognitive activities had the strongest association with perceptual speed, followed by education. These cross-sectional findings suggest that education and reading ability are the most-robust proxy measures of cognitive reserve in relation to late-life cognition. Additional research leveraging path analysis is warranted to better understand how these life course factors, reflecting the latent construct of cognitive reserve, affect abnormal cognitive aging. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Improving South African third graders’ reading skills: Lessons learnt from the use of Guided Reading approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohlanhledi P. Makumbila

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This professional development project, known as Literacy Leadership Project, enabled four Foundation Phase teachers in South Africa to implement the Guided Reading approach. Developed by American researchers Fountas and Pinnell (1996, Guided Reading helps elementary students strengthen their phonemic awareness, vocabulary, reading comprehension and fluency in small group activities. Over an 8-month period, lessons learnt came from data collected from this professional development included workshop activities, classroom observations, teachers’ group discussions and students’ artefacts. Results indicated improvement in students’ literacy engagement and motivation because of the use of levelled books, oral reading and group activities Keywords:  Guided Reading programme; foundation phase; childhood literacy; teacher professional development; literacy leadership; South Africa

  12. To read or not to read

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    There is a widely held belief that reading (story)books makes us smarter and helps promote success in life. Does scientific evidence support this notion? The three meta-analyses in this thesis comprise 146 studies between 1988 and 2010 (N=10,308 participants) that addressed the role of book reading

  13. Oral Reading Intonation and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Andrea

    A study investigated whether fluency in oral reading, as indicated by proper intonation, could be used as a measure of college students' reading comprehension. The study was designed to look at the three features of intonation--pitch, stress, and juncture--separately and in combination to determine whether any one or a combination of all the…

  14. Focus Group Reactions to Three Definitions of Reading (As Originally Developed in Support of NARAP Goal 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Frederick; Johnstone, Christopher; King, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    The National Accessible Reading Assessment Projects (NARAP) is a collaborative effort that is conducting research to make large-scale assessments of reading proficiency more accessible for students who have disabilities that affect reading. There are two projects that comprise the NARAP partnership, Designing Accessible Reading Assessments (DARA)…

  15. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591

  16. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  17. Global Project Management: Graduate Course

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beranek, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    ..., A. James Clark School of Engineering - Project Management Program. The course slides and suggested readings provide a general exploration of the nuances of doing projects globally as compared to domestically...

  18. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  19. Can Reading Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Ponders the effect of September 11th on teenagers. Proposes that reading books can help teenagers sort out complicated issues. Recommends young adult novels that offer hope for overcoming tragedy. Lists 50 short story collections worth reading. (PM)

  20. Developmental reading disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain does not properly recognize and process certain symbols. It is also called dyslexia. Causes Developmental reading ... child's early reading skills are based on word recognition. That involves being able to separate out the ...

  1. A Practice of English Extensive Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuko, Yoshino; Tatsuhiko, Nagasaka; Ryuji, Fujikami; Andrew, Jones

    2012-01-01

    The Foreign Language Center(FLC)of Jissen Women's University offers an Integrated English course required for the first-year students. The aim of this course is to enhance motivation for the students to acquire English and help the students to be autonomous learners. On a trial basis, a practice of English extensive reading project was adopted in 2006 and has been improved year by year. The reason whywe focused on reading was that reading is both a thinking process and a productiveactivity. I...

  2. Reading to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Phillip; Wardrip, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers expect high school students to know how to read, understand, and learn from texts at the core of the curriculum. But though students learn to read in grade school, many do not know how to "read to learn" science. And science teachers are often too busy teaching science to actively help students increase their science reading…

  3. Free Reading Is UTOPIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCrone, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…

  4. Reading and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…

  5. Reading Difficulties in Albanian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Albanian is an Indo-European language with a shallow orthography, in which there is an absolute correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. We aimed to know reading strategies used by Albanian disabled children during word and pseudoword reading. A pool of 114 Kosovar reading disabled children matched with 150 normal readers aged 6 to 11 years…

  6. Tips in Reading Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Some tips can assist teachers in guiding each pupil to achieve more optimally, with respect to the ability to read well and reading comprehension. Among these 10 specific tips are: (1) teach individualized phonics in context; (2) assist the student to read in proper thought units by covering up words in sentences for clarification; (3) assist…

  7. Free Voluntary Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çetin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Doubtless to say, the contribution of reading skill to first and second language acquisition is enormous. From one‟s speaking and writing we can more or less conclude how much s/he has read. We can list the characteristics of good readers as follows: rich vocabulary knowledge advanced reading comprehension, accurate grammar usage, broad general knowledge, correct spelling and punctuation, writing ability, and so on. If reading is so powerful, why cannot we promote reading books in our society, particularly among young people? The fact that we are imposed to read books which we think are necessary or compulsory rather than the ones which we would like to read voluntarily, is the main reason why many of us are not able to develop a life-time reading habit. Since compulsory books, such as teacher-selected books are outside one‟s interest; they are destined to be forgotten sometime, or they suffer form shallow reading, or they are mostly returned to their place on the shelf after browsing the initial pages. However, if people of all ages, especially children would read self-selected books they enjoy, they would be surprised to notice the great change inside them. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to revitalize free voluntary reading by referring to Krashen‟s well-known hypotheses. Also, it aims to revive the reader‟s belief in free voluntary reading with theoretical and practical examples

  8. Guided Reading and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Allyson L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…

  9. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural equation model was constructed to estimate the unique relations between reading strategies and reading comprehension, while controlling for reading...

  10. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  11. What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor

  12. Reading use in preschool

    OpenAIRE

    Laísa Cristina dos Santos Guilherme; Rodrigo Ferreira Daverni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Reading in preschool is a time of awakening the taste and pleasure in reading, it is also a source of reflection, discovery and learn to listen. It is then necessary that the contact with the reading start from pre-school, with a variety of texts and the teacher also has the habit of reading in their daily lives. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the benefits of daily reading in the classroom pre-school life of a student, which the characteristics of a player and teacher re...

  13. Helping Children Learn Vocabulary during Computer-Assisted Oral Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Aist

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an indispensable skill using a unique method to teach a critical component: helping children learn to read by using computer-assisted oral reading to help children learn vocabulary. We build on Project LISTEN’s Reading Tutor, a computer program that adapts automatic speech recognition to listen to children read aloud, and helps them learn to read (http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~listen. To learn a word from reading with the Reading Tutor, students must encounter the word and learn the meaning of the word in context. We modified the Reading Tutor first to help students encounter new words and then to help them learn the meanings of new words. We then compared the Reading Tutor to classroom instruction and to human-assisted oral reading as part of a yearlong study with 144 second and third graders. The result: Second graders did about the same on word comprehension in all three conditions. However, third graders who read with the 1999 Reading Tutor, modified as described in this paper, performed statistically significantly better than other third graders in a classroom control on word comprehension gains – and even comparably with other third graders who read one-on-one with human tutors.

  14. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  15. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  16. Reading the Word and Reading the World: Introducing Extensive Literature Reading Programs in Awassa College of Teacher Education and Its Partner Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Paul Michael

    2011-01-01

    Extensive literature reading is a controversial area within EFL, both in terms of its effectiveness, and potential contribution to linguistic and cultural imperialism. This article considers the role of extensive literature reading in L2 acquisition from both innatist and critical perspectives. Set in the context of a development project at Awassa…

  17. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.

  18. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  19. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  20. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  1. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  2. Training for developing reading comprehension and reading for learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pribac, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a readed text is the aim of reading at school. A reader reads to understand the meaning of a readed text and possibly use acquired informations in new sizuations. Student books and other written material is commonly used at schools. Reading comprehension difficulties lead toward loweer grades and consequently, to learning insuccess. Among students whit reading comprehension difficulties are some whit lacks in specific learning areas, such as difficulties at reading and writt...

  3. GMcloser: closing gaps in assemblies accurately with a likelihood-based selection of contig or long-read alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Shunichi; Hirakawa, Hideki; Tabata, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Genome assemblies generated with next-generation sequencing (NGS) reads usually contain a number of gaps. Several tools have recently been developed to close the gaps in these assemblies with NGS reads. Although these gap-closing tools efficiently close the gaps, they entail a high rate of misassembly at gap-closing sites. We have found that the assembly error rates caused by these tools are 20-500-fold higher than the rate of errors introduced into contigs by de novo assemblers. We here describe GMcloser, a tool that accurately closes these gaps with a preassembled contig set or a long read set (i.e., error-corrected PacBio reads). GMcloser uses likelihood-based classifiers calculated from the alignment statistics between scaffolds, contigs and paired-end reads to correctly assign contigs or long reads to gap regions of scaffolds, thereby achieving accurate and efficient gap closure. We demonstrate with sequencing data from various organisms that the gap-closing accuracy of GMcloser is 3-100-fold higher than those of other available tools, with similar efficiency. GMcloser and an accompanying tool (GMvalue) for evaluating the assembly and correcting misassemblies except SNPs and short indels in the assembly are available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gmcloser/. shunichi.kosugi@riken.jp. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Motivational reading on education, meaningful reading realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Qafa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study I will present some ideas on today’s educational practice for motivation, the realization of the meaningful reading. There is a special place for the methodical ranking of the reading process, starting in school. Main requests of this reading, consist of the deep meaning of the subject, exploration of the idea, and other elements of the subject, implementation of the technique’s rules of the expressive reading, such as breathing, voice, diction, intonation, spelling, stoppages, logical emphasizes, emotional expressions, temper, timber, gesticulations, and mimic. There is also highlighted the fact that the used method comes from the pupils’ results and depends on the capability and level of the teacher, from the programming’s scale, the tools that are put into disposition, the age and the level of the pupils, and from the environment that the teacher creates during courses. At the end there are some practical guidelines for the realization of the expressive reading in the literature subject.

  5. Improve your reading

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Help your students discover the practical solution to their reading frustrations, with Improve Your Reading. Written by bestselling author and education advocate Ron Fry, this book avoids gimmicks and tricks in favor of proven strategies that will help your students better retain and comprehend what they've read in any textbook, in any course, at any academic level. Endlessly adaptable to each student's individual learning needs, the text focuses on fundamental skills students can carry beyond the classroom.

  6. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  7. Report on the bill concerning the modernization and development of electricity public service, adopted with modifications by the National Assembly at new reading; Rapport sur le project de loi, adopte avec modifications par l'Assemblee nationale en nouvelle lecture, relatif a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revol, Henri [Senat, Paris (France)

    2000-01-20

    This document is a report presented on behalf of Commission of Economic Affairs and Plan on the project of law concerning the renovation and development of electricity public service, adopted with modifications by the National Assembly at new reading. The general outlook comprises three points titled: A. Examination conditions showing little respect of Parliament; B. A position of National Assembly inspired of dogmatic considerations; C. A text adopted by the National Assembly which turns the back to Europe and does a disservice to France's industry. The examination of the articles follows. This part is structured on the following titles: The public service of electricity, (five articles); The production of electricity (seven articles); The transport and distribution of electricity (two chapters and nine articles); Access to public electricity grids (three articles); The accounting dissociation and transparency (two articles); Regulation (twelve articles); The object of EDF (one article); Diverse and transient measures (six articles). A comparative table completes the document. It contains the texts adopted by the National Assembly at first reading, the text adopted by the Senate at first reading and the text adopted by the National Assembly at new reading.

  8. A random-permutations-based approach to fast read alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Read alignment is a computational bottleneck in some sequencing projects. Most of the existing software packages for read alignment are based on two algorithmic approaches: prefix-trees and hash-tables. We propose a new approach to read alignment using random permutations of strings. We present a prototype implementation and experiments performed with simulated and real reads of human DNA. Our experiments indicate that this permutations-based prototype is several times faster than comparable programs for fast read alignment and that it aligns more reads correctly. This approach may lead to improved speed, sensitivity, and accuracy in read alignment. The algorithm can also be used for specialized alignment applications and it can be extended to other related problems, such as assembly.More information: http://alignment.commons.yale.edu.

  9. Reading disorders and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-12-01

    We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed.

  10. [Hypertrophy and coronary reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, W; Scheler, S

    2008-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.

  11. Adult EFL Reading Selection: Influence on Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastián Basallo Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the impact of systematic reading selection used to promote English as foreign language learning in adult students. A qualitative action research methodology was used to carry out this project. Ten class sessions were designed to provide students an opportunity to select texts according to criteria based upon their language levels and personal/professional interests. The findings align with three categories of influence: motivation, engagement, and contextualization/interpretation of readings. The main objective of this project was to see how the students’ text selection processes, guided by systematically designed criteria and elaborated strategies, influenced learning and acquisition in terms of motivation, perceptions, and opinions towards reading in English.

  12. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report Summary, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-02-28

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared and published each year to inform the public of the environmental activities that take place on the reservation and in the surrounding areas. It is written to comply with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. This document has been prepared to present the highlights of the Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report 2007 in an easy-to-read, summary format.

  13. Assisted Reading with Digital Audiobooks for Students with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kelli J.; Whitten, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of assisted reading with digital audiobooks with the traditional practice of sustained silent reading (SSR) in terms of reading fluency and reading attitude with upper elementary students with reading disabilities. Treatment group participants selected authentic children's literature and engaged…

  14. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  15. Developmental Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijselaar, Marloes M. L.; Swart, Nicole M.; Steenbeek-Planting, Esther G.; Droop, Mienke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Jong, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural…

  16. Framework for inculcation of reading skills in children with reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most children are likely to learn how to read but a percentage of them need special help in order to master the skill. When this assistance is lacking the reading-impaired children tend to have difficulties in learning in later years as the switch is made from learning to read to reading to learn. Reading difficulties may deter a ...

  17. Developmental Relations Between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G,.; Droop, M.; Verhoeven, L.; de Jong, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  18. The relative contributions of speechreading and vocabulary to deaf and hearing children's reading ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Fiona Elizabeth; Campbell, Ruth; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge and speechreading are important for deaf children's reading development but it is unknown whether they are independent predictors of reading ability. This study investigated the relationships between reading, speechreading and vocabulary in a large cohort of deaf and hearing children aged 5 to 14 years. 86 severely and profoundly deaf children and 91 hearing children participated in this study. All children completed assessments of reading comprehension, word reading accuracy, speechreading and vocabulary. Regression analyses showed that vocabulary and speechreading accounted for unique variance in both reading accuracy and comprehension for deaf children. For hearing children, vocabulary was an independent predictor of both reading accuracy and comprehension skills but speechreading only accounted for unique variance in reading accuracy. Speechreading and vocabulary are important for reading development in deaf children. The results are interpreted within the Simple View of Reading framework and the theoretical implications for deaf children's reading are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Verbal and visuospatial working memory as predictors of children's reading ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Andy V; Hasson, Ramzi M

    2014-08-01

    Children with reading difficulties often demonstrate weaknesses in working memory (WM). This research study explored the relation between two WM systems (verbal and visuospatial WM) and reading ability in a sample of school-aged children with a wide range of reading skills. Children (N = 157), ages 9-12, were administered measures of short-term memory, verbal WM, visuospatial WM, and reading measures (e.g., reading fluency and comprehension). Although results indicated that verbal WM was a stronger predictor in reading fluency and comprehension, visuospatial WM also significantly predicted reading skills, but provided more unique variance in reading comprehension than reading fluency. These findings suggest that visuospatial WM may play a significant role in higher level reading processes, particularly in reading comprehension, than previously thought. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  1. Thinking and Reading for Entry Level Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allentown Literacy Council, PA.

    A pilot project demonstrated that cooperative training programs are effective and cost efficient for small businesses. Common entry-level reading and thinking tasks were identified in a variety of occupational areas. Five growing occupational areas were identified: industrial/machine operator; health care; food preparation; hotel/hospitality; and…

  2. Towards overcoming poor readership and building reading culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards overcoming poor readership and building reading culture of in schools. ... Gender and Behaviour ... The paper is based on a longitudinal project which set out to build a culture of reading among high school learners in De Vos Malan in King William's Town District in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

  3. Case studies as pedagogy for reading development within a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WIL) modality for reading development. This article focuses on the case study as a reading strategy to draw on world of work experience as a means of acculturation to professional knowledge and practice. The purpose of this research project ...

  4. Reading, Writing, and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reist, Kay M.

    2010-01-01

    With No Child Left Behind, schools are cutting extracurricular activities, doing away with aides, and even getting rid of art and physical education so that reading specialists and writing tutors can be hired. But what can the art teachers do to assist in teaching reading and writing skills? The author believes they need to provide their students…

  5. How Knowledge Powers Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Recent research shows that reading comprehension relies heavily on prior knowledge. Far more than generic "reading skills" like drawing inferences, making predictions, and knowing the function of subheads, how well students learn from a nonfiction text depends on their background knowledge of the text's subject matter. And in a cyclical…

  6. Assistive Technologies for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Tiece M.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century teachers working with diverse readers are often faced with the question of how to integrate technology in reading instruction that meets the needs of the techno-generation. Are today's teachers equipped with the knowledge of how to effectively use Assistive Technologies (AT) for reading? This position paper discusses AT for…

  7. Teaching Grammar and Reading

    OpenAIRE

    高棹, 聰子

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore what effectiveness of teaching grammar would be expected in reading, analyzing the statistical data. The data show the lack of the students' motivation and their reluctance about reading the whole passage. In conclusion, we should think out the problems caused by methodology as well as course design.

  8. Reading, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, George; Anderson, Floyd L.

    This course description was developed by educators for use at the Work Opportunity Center which was established to teach high school dropouts and hard-core unemployed youth. The objectives of this reading curriculum are to develop skills of retarded readers, further develop skills of adequate readers, and develop an appreciation for reading.…

  9. Reading and company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmičová, Anežka; Dias, Patrícia; Vogrinčič Čepič, Ana

    2017-01-01

    in the environment where one engages in individual silent reading. The primary goal of the study was to explore the role and possible associations of a number of variables (text type, purpose, device) in selecting generic (e.g. indoors vs outdoors) as well as specific (e.g. home vs library) reading environments...

  10. Aspects of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evertts, Eldonna L., Ed.

    Thirteen articles previously published in "Elementary English" are reprinted in this monograph. The articles focus on a wide range of topics but are drawn together by their emphasis on the teaching of reading. The first group of articles concerns the organization and evaluation of reading instruction, the next group discusses the place of…

  11. Four Approaches to "Authentic" Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette, Rebecca M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the types of readings students are likely to encounter in the "real" world and how they will interact with them. The four approaches discussed include reading in a daily-life context, reading for information, reading for pleasure, and participatory reading. (21 references) (Author/CK)

  12. Science Fiction: Serious Reading, Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

  13. Integrating Reading and Writing through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongyeon

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether an extensive reading (ER) approach can enhance L2 learners' writing performance in an English for Academic Purposes context. Two classes were compared in terms of writing improvement after one semester: a 'traditional' writing class primarily focused on writing practice and grammar instruction, and an ER class in which…

  14. TEACHING READING USING MAGAZINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Uswatun Hasanah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a process of communication. It has to be created through the way of teaching and exchanging the message or information by every teacher and student. The message can be knowledge, skills, ideas, experiences, and many others. Through the process of communication, the people can receive the message or information. To avoid misunderstanding in the process of communication, media are needed in the process of teaching. Magazine can be other alternative as reading material in the classroom. Magazine as reading material has appeal for the students. To make the students get information from magazine, the teacher can ask the students to observe table of content and giving the students training to use it. Like, what is done on text book. Distinguishing informative reading material with fictive reading, important to know students in reading magazine. Like analyzing advertisements to detect propaganda.

  15. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs have led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns as well as mitigation and prevention attempts. This paper hypothesizes that one cause is that the availability of reserves may reduce incentives to control costs. We draw a comparison to the insurance concept of moral hazard, and we use actuarial techniques to better understand the increase in mission costs due to the availability of reserves. NASA's CADRe database provided the data against which we tested our hypothesis and discovered that there is correlation between the amount of available reserves and project overruns, particularly for mission hardware cost increases. We address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects.

  16. Reading ability and reading engagement in older adults with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Angeline M; van Landingham, Suzanne W; Massof, Robert W; Rubin, Gary S; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2014-07-22

    We evaluated the impact of glaucoma-related vision loss on reading ability and reading engagement in 10 reading activities. A total of 63 glaucoma patients and 59 glaucoma suspect controls self-rated their level of reading difficulty for 10 reading items, and responses were analyzed using Rasch analysis to determine reading ability. Reading engagement was assessed by asking subjects to report the number of days per week they engaged in each reading activity. Reading restriction was determined as a decrement in engagement. Glaucoma subjects more often described greater reading difficulty than controls for all tasks except puzzles (P reading tasks involved puzzles, books, and finances, while the least difficult reading tasks involved notes, bills, and mail. In multivariable weighted least squares regression models of Rasch-estimated person measures of reading ability, less reading ability was found for glaucoma patients compared to controls (β = -1.60 logits, P reading ability was associated with more severe visual field (VF) loss (β = -0.68 logits per 5-dB decrement in better-eye VF mean deviation [MD], P reading on 18% fewer days (P = 0.003) and newspaper reading on 10% fewer days (P = 0.008). No statistically significant reading restriction was observed for other reading activities (P > 0.05). Glaucoma patients have less reading ability and engage less in a variety of different reading activities, particularly those requiring sustained reading. Future work should evaluate the mechanisms underlying reading disability in glaucoma to determine how patients can maintain reading ability and engagement. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  17. Influence of peer tutoring on reading and reading motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Slabe, Špela

    2013-01-01

    Reading is an important skill, which has influence not only on learning but also on individual’s self-esteem and their educational, employment and social opportunities. According to results of International Reading in Literacy Study (PIRLS, 2006) the number of students with reading difficulties in Slovenia is around 30% (Ivšek, 2011). Reading difficulties can occour due to general or specific learning disabilities. Students with reading difficultlties gradually start to refuse reading. With r...

  18. The Definition of Open Reading Frame Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Patricia; Platzer, Matthias; Schuster, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    The term open reading frame (ORF) is of central importance to gene finding. Surprisingly, at least three definitions are in use. We discuss several molecular biological and bioinformatics aspects, and we recommend using the definition in which an ORF is bounded by stop codons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Research Based Study for the Use of Audiobooks in the Classroom as a Complementary Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Meredith Ann

    In today's society, parents are often too busy to read with their children or perhaps cannot even read themselves. In response to these problems, the researcher would like to propose that audiobooks are a good alternative to parental reading. This project was designed to show the importance of reading to children. The use of audiobooks was a…

  20. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB) system is possible and that precautionary...

  1. The Relationships between Korean University Students' Reading Attitude, Reading Strategy Use, and Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyangil

    2016-01-01

    This present study investigated the relationships among L2 readers' reading attitude, reading strategy use, and reading proficiency in order to identify patterns caused by individuals' differences. For this study, 153 Korean university students replied to a reading attitude and reading strategy questionnaire. An ANOVA and frequency analysis were…

  2. Effects of Differentiated Reading on Elementary Students' Reading Comprehension and Attitudes toward Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Evans, Linda; Ferron, John; Lindo, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, we examined the effects of a differentiated reading approach on fourth grade students' reading comprehension and attitudes toward reading. Eight Title I schools within one urban district were randomly assigned to treatment (Schoolwide Enrichment Model-Reading [SEM-R]) or control (district reading curriculum) conditions.…

  3. Forecasting Reading Anxiety for Promoting English-Language Reading Performance Based on Reading Annotation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Yong-Ting; Wu, Jhih-Hao

    2016-01-01

    To reduce effectively the reading anxiety of learners while reading English articles, a C4.5 decision tree, a widely used data mining technique, was used to develop a personalized reading anxiety prediction model (PRAPM) based on individual learners' reading annotation behavior in a collaborative digital reading annotation system (CDRAS). In…

  4. A multiball read-out for the spherical proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giganon, A.; Giomataris, I.; Gros, M.; Katsioulas, I.; Navick, X. F.; Tsiledakis, G.; Savvidis, I.; Dastgheibi-Fard, A.; Brossard, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present a novel concept of proportional gas amplification for the read-out of the spherical proportional counter. The standard single-ball read-out presents limitations for large diameter spherical detectors and high-pressure operations. We have developed a multi-ball read-out system which consists of several balls placed at a fixed distance from the center of the spherical vessel. Such a module can tune the volume electric field at the desired value and can also provide detector segmentation with individual ball read-out. In the latter case, the large volume of the vessel becomes a spherical time projection chamber with 3D capabilities.

  5. Into the Curriculum. Reading/Language Arts: Frog's Fabulous Fallacy [and] Reading/Language Arts: An Integrated Approach to Children's Book Week [and] Science: Demonstrating the Importance of the Rain Forest in Our Daily Lives [and] Science: What Is a Planet? [and] Social Studies: The Twenties, Roaring Again: An Interdisciplinary Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Maria D.; Ritz-Salminen, Dianne; Abu-Ghazaleh, Samer; Portocarreo, Elisabeth A.; Barnes, Marilyn E.

    1997-01-01

    Provides five fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in elementary school reading and language arts and science, and secondary school social studies. Library media skills, objectives, grade levels, instructional roles, evaluation, and follow-up are described for each activity. (LRW)

  6. Reading between eye saccades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Blais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skilled adult readers, in contrast to beginners, show no or little increase in reading latencies as a function of the number of letters in words up to seven letters. The information extraction strategy underlying such efficiency in word identification is still largely unknown, and methods that allow tracking of the letter information extraction through time between eye saccades are needed to fully address this question. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study examined the use of letter information during reading, by means of the Bubbles technique. Ten participants each read 5,000 five-letter French words sampled in space-time within a 200 ms window. On the temporal dimension, our results show that two moments are especially important during the information extraction process. On the spatial dimension, we found a bias for the upper half of words. We also show for the first time that letter positions four, one, and three are particularly important for the identification of five-letter words. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings are consistent with either a partially parallel reading strategy or an optimal serial reading strategy. We show using computer simulations that this serial reading strategy predicts an absence of a word-length effect for words from four- to seven letters in length. We believe that the Bubbles technique will play an important role in further examining the nature of reading between eye saccades.

  7. A History of Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Yalçınkaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of reading according to Alberto Manguel is to have the art of giving life to a message which comes from past to today. Reading is the objective/ intellectual context of starting up and shutting the time. Reading is an open ended tool that makes it possible to know the words/thoughts which spoke to humanity from long time ago. The books/libraries offer a way to look at the nature, understand history, live and interpret the life. In other words, the books/libraries are natural spaces of the freedom of opinion. The reading action is a great need to redefine the Universe, realize  miracles, oppose injustice. In essence, the life is focused on the  reader from the beginning of transferring the words by writing. The history of reading started when the first writer drew and gave voice to the first letters. In brief, the history of reading is considered as the  reading action within a wide context. Now, we know there is a history of the reading…

  8. Attention and reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commodari, Elena; Guarnera, Maria

    2005-04-01

    Attention plays a critical role in information processing. Its adequate functioning is required for correct development of complex cognitive abilities and regular scholastic progress. Children with attention deficits often have difficulties in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The present study investigated interactions among reading skills, overall scholastic performance as rated by teachers, and components of attention: visual reaction time, simple immediate span of attention, and selectivity. The sample was 98 students in the first and second years of public junior high school (age range 11-14 years, M = 12.6, SD = 1.2), i.e., with expected already well-established reading. Reading was evaluated using Comprehension, Accuracy, and Speed tests. Overall scholastic performance was obtained by means of teachers' ratings. Simple Reaction Time, Digit Span, and Color-Word Interference, included in a multitask computerized test, assessed attention. Analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the reading skills are strongly predictive of the Scholastic Assessment rated by the teachers. High scholastic ratings were correlated with Reading Speed and Accuracy rather than Reading Comprehension. Poor readers showed worse performances on the Digit Span test which measures simple immediate span of attention. Good and poor readers obtained a similar score on the Color-Word Interference task. This observation seems to contrast with the more common interpretation of this effect, suggesting that reading is an automatic process and, therefore, the semantic dimension overcomes the controlled perceptual one. According to other studies, an alternative explanation is suggested. In conclusion, present results confirm the hypothesis of a strong link among reading speed and accuracy, scholastic assessment as rated by teachers, simple immediate span of attention, and visual reaction time.

  9. Using quality scores and longer reads improves accuracy of Solexa read mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Zhenyu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-generation sequencing has the potential to revolutionize genomics and impact all areas of biomedical science. New technologies will make re-sequencing widely available for such applications as identifying genome variations or interrogating the oligonucleotide content of a large sample (e.g. ChIP-sequencing. The increase in speed, sensitivity and availability of sequencing technology brings demand for advances in computational technology to perform associated analysis tasks. The Solexa/Illumina 1G sequencer can produce tens of millions of reads, ranging in length from ~25–50 nt, in a single experiment. Accurately mapping the reads back to a reference genome is a critical task in almost all applications. Two sources of information that are often ignored when mapping reads from the Solexa technology are the 3' ends of longer reads, which contain a much higher frequency of sequencing errors, and the base-call quality scores. Results To investigate whether these sources of information can be used to improve accuracy when mapping reads, we developed the RMAP tool, which can map reads having a wide range of lengths and allows base-call quality scores to determine which positions in each read are more important when mapping. We applied RMAP to analyze data re-sequenced from two human BAC regions for varying read lengths, and varying criteria for use of quality scores. RMAP is freely available for downloading at http://rulai.cshl.edu/rmap/. Conclusion Our results indicate that significant gains in Solexa read mapping performance can be achieved by considering the information in 3' ends of longer reads, and appropriately using the base-call quality scores. The RMAP tool we have developed will enable researchers to effectively exploit this information in targeted re-sequencing projects.

  10. Reading the Tourist Guidebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkelsen, Anette; Sørensen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates tourists’ ways of reading their guidebooks on the basis of qualitative interviews with tourists visiting Copenhagen, Denmark. Tourist guidebooks have only been dealt with sporadically by tourism scholars. The relatively few studies that focus on guidebooks either present...... a historical perspective on the guidebook or centre on content analyses of place representation, whereas virtually no research exists on the way in which tourists read and use their guidebooks. This study reveals that tourists read the same guidebooks in a number of different ways regarding types...... of tourism destinations....

  11. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  12. proovread: large-scale high-accuracy PacBio correction through iterative short read consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Thomas; Hedrich, Rainer; Schultz, Jörg; Förster, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Today, the base code of DNA is mostly determined through sequencing by synthesis as provided by the Illumina sequencers. Although highly accurate, resulting reads are short, making their analyses challenging. Recently, a new technology, single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing, was developed that could address these challenges, as it generates reads of several thousand bases. But, their broad application has been hampered by a high error rate. Therefore, hybrid approaches that use high-quality short reads to correct erroneous SMRT long reads have been developed. Still, current implementations have great demands on hardware, work only in well-defined computing infrastructures and reject a substantial amount of reads. This limits their usability considerably, especially in the case of large sequencing projects. Here we present proovread, a hybrid correction pipeline for SMRT reads, which can be flexibly adapted on existing hardware and infrastructure from a laptop to a high-performance computing cluster. On genomic and transcriptomic test cases covering Escherichia coli, Arabidopsis thaliana and human, proovread achieved accuracies up to 99.9% and outperformed the existing hybrid correction programs. Furthermore, proovread-corrected sequences were longer and the throughput was higher. Thus, proovread combines the most accurate correction results with an excellent adaptability to the available hardware. It will therefore increase the applicability and value of SMRT sequencing. proovread is available at the following URL: http://proovread.bioapps.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Reading in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K; Petersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent models suggest that face and word recognition may rely on overlapping cognitive processes and neural regions. In support of this notion, face recognition deficits have been demonstrated in developmental dyslexia. Here we test whether the opposite association can also be found......, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face...... recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: (a) single word reading with words of varying length,(b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, (c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief...

  14. Sequence Read Archive (SRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...

  15. What Are Reading Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and they are not a sign of lower intelligence or unwillingness to learn. People with reading disorders ... levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, ...

  16. Reading: Ave Atque Vale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Ann

    1984-01-01

    Although basic literacy will continue to be necessary for survival, mass communications and information technology are bringing about an inevitable and lamentable decline in reading for pleasure and in the love of literature for its own sake. (TE)

  17. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Feb 19,2018 What do your ... this chart: English | Spanish | Traditional Chinese Enter Your Blood Pressure Systolic mm Hg (upper #) Diastolic mm Hg (lower #) ...

  18. 18 CFR 4.91 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 4.91 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT LICENSES, PERMITS, EXEMPTIONS, AND DETERMINATION OF PROJECT COSTS Exemption of Small Conduit Hydroelectric Facilities § 4.91 [Reserved] ...

  19. Fostering Reading Comprehension and Self-Directed Learning in a Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Mendieta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research project was carried out at five public educational institutions by a group of English teacher-researchers based in different regions of Colombia. Due to a shared concern about the development of reading skills and self-regulation in the L2 classroom, a multiple case action research study was designed to examine whether the use of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR (Klingner, Vaughn & Schumm, 1998; Klingner & Vaughn, 1998 could foster reading comprehension in learners and at the same time help them become self-directed learners. Student pre and post questionnaires, reading tests and learning logs, as well as teacher's journals constituted the data collection methods used during the study. Results indicate that the use of CSR impacted participants' learning attitudes and habits positively.

  20. Metacognition in Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Eda; Harputlu, Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition is defined basically as thinking about thinking. It is a significant factor that affects many activities related to language use. Reading comprehension, which is an indispensable part of daily life and language classrooms, is affected by metacognition, too. Hence, this paper aims to present an overview of the recent theoretical and empirical studies about metacognition and reading comprehension. Firstly, it provides the definitions and the importance of metacognition. Secondly, ...

  1. "Read the Text, as if!"The Reading Retention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoll, Kent; Browning, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Students do not always read what is expected in college courses (Berry, Cook, Hill, & Stevens, 2010; Phillips & Phillips, 2007; Sikorski et al., 2002) or they read to cram for an exam or quiz (Clump, Bauer, & Bradley, 2004). The Reading Retention Strategy (RRS) is designed to motivate students to read and assist students in…

  2. Child-centered reading intervention: See, talk, dictate, read, write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet BAŞTUĞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in reading. A reading intervention was designed that targeted multiple areas of reading and aimed to improve reading skills through the use of multiple strategies. This intervention is child-centered and includes visual aids, talking, dictating, reading and writing stages. The study was performed in 35 sessions consisting of stages of a single sentence (5 sessions, two sentences (5 sessions, three sentences (20 sessions and the text stage (5 sessions. The intervention sessions were audio-taped. These recordings and the written responses to the reading comprehension questions provided the data for analysis. The findings on the reading intervention revealed positive outcomes. The student exhibited certain improvements at the levels of reading, reading rate and reading comprehension. These results were discussed in the literature and the findings suggest that child-centered reading strategies such as talking, dictating and writing should be the main focus of instruction for students with low reading literacy achievement to enable these students to meet the demands of the curriculum.

  3. When Reading Gets Ruff: Canine-Assisted Reading Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Holly B.; Zavada, Shannon D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Canine-assisted reading programs show promise as an innovative method for engaging reluctant readers and motivating them to practice. In such programs, specially trained dogs visit classrooms and libraries, and children read to them. Children who struggle with reading may be motivated to read more because they find dogs to be calming and…

  4. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  5. Child-Centered Reading Intervention: See, Talk, Dictate, Read, Write!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Muhammet; Demirtas, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in…

  6. STUDENTS’ READING PRACTICES AND ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiza Johari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The challenges of reading are indeed apparent in most teaching and learning processes in ESL classrooms. As a result, this study is conducted to resolve the issues of students who seem to find reading to be unbearable. Many of them have limited ability to read well and hence, possess insufficient reading habits to become competent readers, particularly out-of-school context. Besides, poor home literacy environments also contribute to their shortcomings in reading. The main objectives of this study are to identify the students’ reasons for reading as well as to find out their home reading environments (reading backgrounds and habits; reading attitudes and motivation; reading exposure and supports. To identify these, questionnaires were distributed to 120 secondary school students (Form 4: 16 years old from one of the urban schools in Sarawak, Malaysia. The findings indicate that the students read to gain information and knowledge though many chose reading as a hobby as their last choice in explaining their motives of reading. Besides, they preferred non-academic reading materials, mainly lighter forms reading materials such as comics, story books and magazines. Though the students acknowledged the importance of reading in their daily lives, their average reading habits, attitude, motivation, exposure and support within the home domain had suggested otherwise. They mainly read for instrumental purposes while reading for pleasure seemed not to be given priority. Besides, the respondents acknowledge that their parents and themselves did not read much at home. As an implication, it is vital for students to improve their reading perceptions, abilities and practices to achieve personal, societal and national progress. On a final note, parents’ early and continuous efforts to be involved in their children’s literacy events in an out-of-school context are believed to be vital to inculcate positive reading environments, habits and culture

  7. Word reading practice reduces Stroop interference in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Vlahou, Eleni L; Moirou, Despoina; Ziaka, Laoura

    2014-05-01

    Stroop interference is thought to index reading automaticity and is expected to increase with reading practice and to decrease with improved color naming. We investigated the effects of practice in word reading and color naming on interference in 92 adults and 109 children in Grades 4-5. For children, interference was reduced after reading practice with color words. In neither group was interference affected by practice in color naming of neutral stimuli. These findings are consistent with a direct negative relationship between reading ability and interference and challenge the automaticity account in favor of a blocking mechanism whereby interference is determined by the delay to inhibit the reading response rather than by the efficiency of color naming. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding Reading and Reading Difficulties Through Naming Speed Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Z. Al Dahhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although reading is an important and generative skill, it remains controversial how reading skills and reading difficulties develop. Currently, the fields of neuroscience, cognition, and education each have complex models to describe reading and elucidate where in the reading process deficits occur. We suggest that integrating the neural, cognitive, and educational accounts of reading offers the promise of transformative change in understanding reading development and reading difficulties. As a starting point for bridging the gaps among these fields, we used naming speed tasks as the basis for this review because they provide a “microcosm” of the processes involved during reading. We use naming speed tasks to investigate how incorporating cognitive psychology with neuroimaging techniques, under the guidance of educational theories, can further the understanding of learning and instruction, and may lead to the identification of the neural signatures of reading difficulties that might be hidden from view earlier in development.

  9. 網路課輔中層次性閱讀教學對偏鄉學童閱讀能力影響之研究 Effects of Four-Level Reading Instruction for an Online Tutoring Project on Promoting the Reading Ability of Rural Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    高台茜 Tai-Chien Kao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 為滿足偏鄉學童的國語文學習需求,提升其閱讀能力,本研究於線上課輔活動中導入層次性閱讀教學,並探求此教學對學童閱讀的助益。本研究以教育部數位學伴網路課輔計畫中,國立東華大學輔導的82 位(實驗組與對照組各41 位)東部偏鄉國小學童為研究對象。研究方法採不等組前後測設計。實驗組學童於每週兩次的一對一即時線上課輔活動中,各接受30分鐘層次性故事短文的閱讀教學,共15 次。對照組依學童學校國語課程進度進行課業輔導。 兩組於教學實驗前、後皆進行閱讀測驗。層次性閱讀教學是依閱讀能力發展進程,將教學分成字詞理解、訊息截取、訊息推論及統整詮釋四個層次。本研究先採多因子共變數分析探求兩組在整體閱讀能力表現上的差異,並進一步將性別與年段納為調節變項,進行多因子多變量共變數分析,以探知網路課輔中閱讀教學對偏鄉學童閱讀能力進步的影響。結果顯示,網路課輔中,接受層次性閱讀教學之學童整體閱讀表現優於一般語文教學。背景變項中,年段具調節作用。中年段實驗組學童之訊息推論表現顯著優於對照組;高年段實驗組學童則在統整詮釋上顯著優於對照組,此結果建議網路課輔閱讀教學應依據學童能力的發展階段進行適性調整。 To satisfy the language-learning needs of students living in rural areas and to promote their reading ability, this study developed four-level reading instruction for an afterschool online tutoring program and evaluated its effects on student reading ability. The study participants were drawn from 142 students at 11 elementary schools in Eastern Taiwan who were tutored by college students at National Dong-Hwa University as a part of the Digital Partner Afterschool Online Tutoring Program in the fall semester of 2014. 41

  10. Reading Attitudes as a Predictor of Latino Adolescents' Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Crosby, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although literacy skills have been associated with critical academic, social, and economic outcomes, most adolescents in the United States lack basic proficiency in reading comprehension. Experts in the field of adolescent literacy have identified affective components of reading (e.g., reading attitudes) as a critical topic in need of further research. Prior research has found a significant correlation between affective components of reading and reading comprehension, even after controlling...

  11. Morphological awareness and reading comprehension: Examining mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Kyle C; Kieffer, Michael J; Deacon, S Hélène

    2017-08-01

    The relation between morphological awareness-defined as the awareness of and ability to manipulate the smallest units of meaning in language-and reading comprehension remains in need of specification. In this study, we evaluated four potential intervening variables through which morphological awareness may contribute indirectly to reading comprehension. We assessed word reading and vocabulary as well as children's ability to read and analyze the meaning of morphologically complex words (morphological decoding and morphological analysis, respectively). Controls of phonological awareness and nonverbal ability were included in the model. Participants were 221 English-speaking children in Grade 3. Multivariate path analyses revealed evidence of two indirect relations and one direct relation between morphological awareness and reading comprehension. In the first indirect path, morphological awareness contributed to morphological decoding, which then influenced word reading and finally reading comprehension. In a second indirect path, morphological awareness contributed to morphological analysis, which contributed to reading comprehension. Finally, in a direct path, morphological awareness contributed to reading comprehension beyond all other variables. These findings inform as to the potential mechanisms underlying the relation between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reading in the Writing Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Edward R.

    Reading in the writing classroom can be defined as a cluster of arbitrary categories, each with its own effect on the reading/writing process. Given this definition, it can be said that (1) perceptions significantly affect both reading and writing, (2) attitudes are factors in reading and writing, (3) rhetorical triangles are useful in teaching…

  13. Reading in a Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Naomi S.

    2017-01-01

    The many advantages of reading digitally also bring with them implications for how we learn differently when we read differently. The author suggests that new contemporary technologies are changing the very notion of what it means to read. Even millennials acknowledge that their attention is more focused when they read print rather than online.…

  14. What Is a Reading Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labov, William; Baker, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Early efforts to apply knowledge of dialect differences to reading stressed the importance of the distinction between differences in pronunciation and mistakes in reading. This study develops a method of estimating the probability that a given oral reading that deviates from the text is a true reading error by observing the semantic impact of the…

  15. Peer Tutors Improve Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGue, Kristina M.; Wilson, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The influential report "Teaching Children to Read: An Evidenced-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction," published by the National Reading Panel in 2000, presented recommendations for daily literacy instruction in five key areas: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency,…

  16. In Defense of Reading Quizzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Many students fail to read the assigned material before class. A failure to read is detrimental to both student learning and course engagement. This paper considers the often-neglected teaching technique of giving frequent quizzes on the reading. Drawing on the author's experiences assigning reading quizzes, together with student opinions…

  17. What Cognitive Benefits Does an Activity-Based Reading Strategy Afford Young Native American Readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Scott C.; Levin, Joel R.; Glenberg, Arthur M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors conducted 2 experiments with children from a reservation community. In Experiment 1, 45 third-grade children were randomly assigned to the following reading strategies: (a) "reread," in which participants read each sentence of a story and then reread it; (b) "observe," in which participants read sentences and then observed an…

  18. Improving Reading Achievement through the Use of Parental Involvement and Paired Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelo, Nancy; And Others

    An action research project implemented a program for improving the reading skills of at-risk middle school students. The targeted population consisted of fifth- and seventh-grade students in a rural, middle class community located in northeastern Illinois. Evidence for the problem includes teacher observation, checklists, standardized tests, and…

  19. Reading Categories Identified in the Reading Activities of a Caregiver and a Middle-Class Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabel, Borja-Alarcón; Astrid, Ramirez Valencia; Alfonso, López-Vega

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to report the findings of a research project, developed from the need to make contributions about the characteristics that emerge, when a three-year-old child and his caregiver carry reading activities out. By the use of recordings and students' artifacts, in order to collect data; and analyzing the information collected through…

  20. Image-Language Interaction in Online Reading Environments: Challenges for Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eveline; Unsworth, Len

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the qualitative results of a study of students' reading of multimodal texts in an interactive, online environment. The study forms part of a larger project which addressed image-language interaction as an important dimension of language pedagogy and assessment for students growing up in a multimedia digital age. Thirty-two Year…

  1. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs are well-noted but not well-understood, and there is little evidence that they are decreasing in frequency or amount over time. The need to control spending has led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns, and many program control efforts are being implemented to attempt to prevent or mitigate the problem (NPR 7120). However, cost overruns have not abated, and while some direct causes of increased spending may be obvious (requirements creep, launch delays, directed changes, etc.), the underlying impetus to spend past the original budget may be more subtle. Gaining better insight into the causes of cost overruns will help NASA and its contracting organizations to avoid .them. This paper hypothesizes that one cause of NASA mission cost overruns is that the availability of reserves gives project team members an incentive to make decisions and behave in ways that increase costs. We theorize that the presence of reserves is a contributing factor to cost overruns because it causes organizations to use their funds less efficiently or to control spending less effectively. We draw a comparison to the insurance industry concept of moral hazard, the phenomenon that the presence of insurance causes insureds to have more frequent and higher insurance losses, and we attempt to apply actuarial techniques to quantifY the increase in the expected cost of a mission due to the availability of reserves. We create a theoretical model of reserve spending motivation by defining a variable ReserveSpending as a function of total reserves. This function has a positive slope; for every dollar of reserves available, there is a positive probability of spending it. Finally, the function should be concave down; the probability of spending each incremental dollar of reserves decreases progressively. We test the model against available NASA CADRe data by examining missions with reserve dollars initially available and testing whether

  2. Characterizing preservice Teacherʼs responses to literacy: Read alouds a way to experience the joy for reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Castellanos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a small-scale project which central purpose was to incorporate read-alouds in a pre-intermediate English as a foreign language class of preservice teachers during three weeks. Students responded orally and in a written way on their journals to these readings showing understanding of the texts, relating their personal experiences and / or making connections to them. The project involved students of the undergraduate program in English teaching at Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Bogotá. In all, 19 students were involved in the project. Data collection sources for this project include studentsʼ journals, after the fact notes on studentsʼ oral interactions and a group interview. Among the findings observed in this inquiry project include the intertextual connections (Short, 1993 students make across the texts read in class with their personal experiences. Most studentsʼ oral responses were characterized by code-switching; in general most students code switched depending on the difficulty of the answer. Students benefited from the reading-alouds in terms of opportunities to interact among themselves, practice their oral and written skills, and enjoy the pleasures of reading, thus building ground to a positive experience that may be emulated in their future teaching exercise. Finally, I discuss some implications of read-alouds with preservice teachers and teacher education programs in Colombia.

  3. Reading Development in European Portuguese: Relationships between Oral Reading Fluency, Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sandra; Querido, Luís; Verhaeghe, Arlette; Marques, Catarina; Araújo, Luísa

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated direct and indirect effects between oral reading fluency, vocabulary and reading comprehension across reading development in European Portuguese. Participants were 329 children attending basic education, from grade 1 to grade 6. The results of path analyses showed that text reading fluency is much more dependent on the…

  4. Reading Improvement in English- and Hebrew-Speaking Children with Reading Difficulties after Reading Acceleration Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Cicchino, Nicole; Amiel, Merav; Holland, Scott K.; Breznitz, Zvia

    2014-01-01

    A reading acceleration program known to improve reading fluency in Hebrew-speaking adults was tested for its effect on children. Eighty-nine Hebrew- and English-speaking children with reading difficulties were divided into a waiting list group and two training groups (Hebrew and English) and underwent 4 weeks of reading acceleration training.…

  5. Leading global projects for professional and accidental project leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, Robert T

    2008-01-01

    This book is a must-read for anyone responsible for projects and initiatives that span functional and geographical divides. Authors Moran and Youngdahl bring extensive experience and learning from industry practice to present a clear and straightforward treatment of the leadership skills and knowledge required to lead projects that are global in nature. They have written the first book of its kind to address the three essential skills of global project leaders - strategic project management, project leadership, and cross-cultural leadership. The authors argue that global project leadership is an essential skill in our project-based world and that we are all either intentional or accidental project leaders. Intentional project leaders pursue formal project management education and even certification whereas accidental project leaders find themselves leading global projects and initiatives as a result of a special assignment or promotion. Moran and Youndahl have found that the vast majority of global projects ...

  6. The Explicit Instruction of Reading Strategies: Directed Reading Thinking Activity vs. Guided Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Yazdani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the efficiencies and deficiencies of reading strategies is one of the noticeable issues in the related theory and research in reading comprehension instruction. This study was to examine the impact of Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA and Guided Reading (GR on reading comprehension. Sixty three Iranian students of grade one in Shahed high school in the city of Bojnourd took part in the study. They were assigned in three groups, one control and two experimental groups. The instruction lasted for ten weeks. This study utilized a pretest posttest control group in quantitative quasi- experimental design. The same reading comprehension test was administered as pre-test and post-test. The results were twofold: First, the instruction of learning strategies could foster reading comprehension skill. Second, while the explicit instruction of both strategies could improve the students' reading comprehension skill, Directed Reading Thinking Activity had a more significant positive effect than Guided Reading.

  7. Re-reading after mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varao-Sousa, Trish L; Solman, Grayden J F; Kingstone, Alan

    2017-09-01

    Though much research has been conducted on the causes and processes underlying mind wandering, relatively little has addressed what happens after an episode of mind wandering. We explore this issue in the context of reading. Specifically, by examining re-reading behaviours following mind wandering episodes. Results from 2 studies reveal that after mind wandering, participants re-read nearly half the time. This re-reading occurs whether mind wandering is self-caught or probe-caught, and it typically involves retracing a line or 2 of text. Based on subjective reports, it appears that individuals re-read when they feel that clarification of the text is needed, suggesting that a key concept of the text is missed during a mind wandering episode. Future work aimed at understanding how individuals refocus their attention following mind wandering in different settings should provide additional insights into the fluctuation of attentional focus and the immediate impact of a mind wandering episode. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Reading network in dyslexia: Similar, yet different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, Karen E; Wilson, Anna J; Roberts, Reece P; Moreau, David

    2017-11-01

    Dyslexia is a developmental disorder characterized by reading and phonological difficulties, yet important questions remain regarding its underlying neural correlates. In this study, we used partial least squares (PLS), a multivariate analytic technique, to investigate the neural networks used by dyslexics while performing a word-rhyming task. Although the overall reading network was largely similar in dyslexics and typical readers, it did not correlate with behavior in the same way in the two groups. In particular, there was a positive association between reading performance and both right superior temporal gyrus and bilateral insula activation in dyslexic readers but a negative correlation in typical readers. Together with differences in lateralization unique to dyslexics, this suggests that the combination of poor reading performance with high insula activity and atypical laterality is a consistent marker of dyslexia. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding right-hemisphere activation in dyslexia and provide promising directions for the remediation of reading disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Device for improving quantification of reading acuity and reading speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexl, Alois K; Schlögel, Horst; Wolfbauer, Michael; Grabner, Günther

    2010-09-01

    To present a new device, the Salzburg Reading Desk (SRD), for the standardized testing of reading acuity and reading speed at a subjectively convenient reading distance (best distance). First, in a systematic experimental setup, testing for validity and reliability was performed at 450 simulated reading distances (90 different test situations, each repeated 5 times) between 16 and 70 cm. The distance read-outs by the SRD software were correlated to the distances measured with a meter ruler. Second, reading distance and reading speed of 27 naturally emmetropic and presbyopic patients were evaluated using the log-scaled Radner Reading Charts implemented in the SRD. In the experimental setup, an overall mean difference of the SRD distance read-out-compared to a standard distance measurement with a meter ruler-of 0.08±0.13 cm was observed. In the presbyopic patients, overall mean reading distance was 49.74±4.43 cm. Patients were able to read with their own subjectively convenient reading distance. A constant mean reading speed of sentences with bigger typeface (between 152.4±22.6 words/minute [wpm] and 157.3±15.8 wpm) was found, but reading speed gradually diminished over time when reading sentences with smaller typeface. The SRD seems to be a valid and reliable device for testing reading acuity at the best reading distance in an experimental setup as well as in clinical use in presbyopic patients. The SRD may be used whenever a detailed comparison of different methods for correcting presbyopia is required. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. [Binocular coordination during reading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassou, L; Granié, M; Pugh, A K; Morucci, J P

    1992-01-01

    Is there an effect on binocular coordination during reading of oculomotor imbalance (heterophoria, strabismus and inadequate convergence) and of functional lateral characteristics (eye preference and perceptually privileged visual laterality)? Recordings of the binocular eye-movements of ten-year-old children show that oculomotor imbalances occur most often among children whose left visual perceptual channel is privileged, and that these subjects can present optomotor dissociation and manifest lack of motor coordination. Close binocular motor coordination is far from being the norm in reading. The faster reader displays saccades of differing spatial amplitude and the slower reader an oculomotor hyperactivity, especially during fixations. The recording of binocular movements in reading appears to be an excellent means of diagnosing difficulties related to visual laterality and to problems associated with oculomotor imbalance.

  11. Reading through Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Gayathri Raman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper captures the design of a comprehensive curriculum incorporating the four skills based exclusively on the use of parallel audio-visual and written texts. We discuss the use of authentic materials to teach English to Indian undergraduates aged 18 to 20 years. Specifically, we talk about the use of parallel reading (screen-play and audio-visual texts (Shawshank Redemption, and Life is Beautiful, A Few Good Men and Lion King drawn from popular culture in the classroom as an effective teaching medium. Students were gradually introduced to films based on novels with extracts from the original texts (Schindler’s List, Beautiful Mind for extended reading and writing practice. We found that students began to pay more attention to aspects such as pronunciation, intonational variations, discourse markers and vocabulary items (phrasal verbs, synonyms, homophones, and puns. Keywords: Reading, films, popular culture, ESL classroom, language skills

  12. [Reading research articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Yolanda; Zaat, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Keeping up with the latest developments is not easy, but neither is reading articles on research. There are too many medical journals that contain information that is irrelevant to clinical practice. From this mass of articles you have to decide which are important for your own clinical practice and which are not. Most articles naturally fall into the latter category as spectacular findings with important consequences for medical practice do not occur every week. The most important thing in a research article is the research question. If you begin with this, then you can put aside much scientific literature. The methodology section is essential; reading this can save you a lot of time. In this article we take you step-by-step through the process of reading research articles. The articles in our Methodology series can be used as background information. These articles have been combined in a tablet app, which is available via www.ntvg.nl/methodologie.

  13. READING STATISTICS AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Yavuz Akbulut

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The book demonstrates the best and most conservative ways to decipher and critique research reports particularly for social science researchers. In addition, new editions of the book are always better organized, effectively structured and meticulously updated in line with the developments in the field of research statistics. Even the most trivial issues are revisited and updated in new editions. For instance, purchaser of the previous editions might check the interpretation of skewness and kurtosis indices in the third edition (p. 34 and in the fifth edition (p.29 to see how the author revisits every single detail. Theory and practice always go hand in hand in all editions of the book. Re-reading previous editions (e.g. third edition before reading the fifth edition gives the impression that the author never stops ameliorating his instructional text writing methods. In brief, “Reading Statistics and Research” is among the best sources showing research consumers how to understand and critically assess the statistical information and research results contained in technical research reports. In this respect, the review written by Mirko Savić in Panoeconomicus (2008, 2, pp. 249-252 will help the readers to get a more detailed overview of each chapters. I cordially urge the beginning researchers to pick a highlighter to conduct a detailed reading with the book. A thorough reading of the source will make the researchers quite selective in appreciating the harmony between the data analysis, results and discussion sections of typical journal articles. If interested, beginning researchers might begin with this book to grasp the basics of research statistics, and prop up their critical research reading skills with some statistics package applications through the help of Dr. Andy Field’s book, Discovering Statistics using SPSS (second edition published by Sage in 2005.

  14. Reading is FUNdamental: The effect of a reading programme on vocabulary development in a high poverty township school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheepers, Ruth

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of the vocabulary of grade 7 learners in a reading project currently underway at a school in Atteridgeville, a township on the outskirts of Pretoria. A library has been established at the school and teachers throughout the school attend workshops designed to heighten their awareness of the value of reading and the importance of vocabulary, and to provide them with strategies to facilitate the development of reading. This paper focuses on the vocabulary development of grade 7 learners – they are in the senior phase of primary school and will soon be entering high school where they will be faced with more academic vocabulary in context-reduced textbooks. Learners’ vocabulary was tested early in the year and then again towards the end to assess whether increased access to books and reading had had an effect on vocabulary growth. Results revealed that learners at the project school showed a lack of vocabulary, even at the end of the study period, not only in terms of academic words but also high frequency words. Extensive reading alone is clearly not enough – learners need explicit vocabulary instruction: in order to read successfully at high school level, learners need a working knowledge of academic vocabulary, and this knowledge is developed by reading – but learners cannot read successfully without an adequate basic high-frequency vocabulary.

  15. The genetic architecture of oral language, reading fluency, and reading comprehension: A twin study from 7 to 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosto, Maria G; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E; Harlaar, Nicole; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the genetic and environmental etiology underlying the development of oral language and reading skills, and the relationship between them, over a long period of developmental time spanning middle childhood and adolescence. It focuses particularly on the differential relationship between language and two different aspects of reading: reading fluency and reading comprehension. Structural equation models were applied to language and reading data at 7, 12, and 16 years from the large-scale TEDS twin study. A series of multivariate twin models show a clear patterning of oral language with reading comprehension, as distinct from reading fluency: significant but moderate genetic overlap between oral language and reading fluency (genetic correlation r g = .46-.58 at 7, 12, and 16) contrasts with very substantial genetic overlap between oral language and reading comprehension (r g = .81-.87, at 12 and 16). This pattern is even clearer in a latent factors model, fit to the data aggregated across ages, in which a single factor representing oral language and reading comprehension is correlated with-but distinct from-a second factor representing reading fluency. A distinction between oral language and reading fluency is also apparent in different developmental trajectories: While the heritability of oral language increases over the period from 7 to 12 to 16 years (from h² = .27 to .47 to .55), the heritability of reading fluency is high and largely stable over the same period of time (h² = .73 to .71 to .64). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Jacobs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER. First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests ways that teachers and students can find ER materials. Fourth, guidance is provided to students for when they select what to read from among the ER materials available to them. Finally, advice is given on integrating ER with course textbooks.

  17. Crossroads of Literacy and Orality: Reading Poetry Aloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Lisa

    1992-01-01

    Describes the inspiration, planning, and implementation of the Poetry Project, a nine-week unit designed to immerse first and second grade children in the reading and writing of poetry. Notes that the project helped the students bring together oral and written language. (RS)

  18. Social Justice through Literacy: Integrating Digital Video Cameras in Reading Summaries and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Unger, John A.; Scullion, Vicki A.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing data from an action-oriented research project for integrating digital video cameras into the reading process in pre-college courses, this study proposes using digital video cameras in reading summaries and responses to promote critical thinking and to teach social justice concepts. The digital video research project is founded on…

  19. Donor attention to reading materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S F; Osmond, L; Choquet, K; Yi, Q-L; Goldman, M

    2015-11-01

    Mandatory predonation reading materials inform donors about risk factors for transmissible disease, possible complications of donation and changes to the donation process. We aimed to assess the attention to predonation reading materials and factors which may affect attention. A national survey in 2008 of 18,108 blood donors asked about self-assessed attention to reading the materials. In face-to-face interviews, 441 donors completed additional questions about reading the materials and a literacy test. Qualitative interviews of 27 donors assessed their approach to reading. In the national survey, most of the first-time donors said they read all or most of the materials (90.9% first-time vs. 57.6% repeat donors, P reading them carefully (P read materials carefully, skimmed or did not read, most knew that donors are informed of positive transmissible disease test results (97.1%, 95.5, 98.0 P > 0.05), but fewer recalled seeing the definition of sex (77.2%, 56.9, 24.2 P read materials carefully, skimmed or did not read were compared (P > 0.05). Qualitative interviews showed that donors are reluctant to read any more than necessary and decide based on perceived importance or relevance. Attention to predonation reading materials tends to be better among first-time donors. The effectiveness is limited by low motivation to read, especially for repeat donors, as well as poor literacy. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  20. Freedom for mangas: youth, reading, and information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacira Gil Bernardes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2016v13n3p81 The present paper is an attempt to reflect and discuss the meaning and significance that youngsters from an outskirt district attribute to information and reading. 8 semi-structured interviews were conducted with young adults between 18 and 24 years of age who took part on a social project called Casa das Juventudes (House of the Youth in the Guajuviras suburb in Canoas, Brazil. Casa das Juventudes is a part of the ‘Territórios da Paz’ (Land of Peace project and is a development and learning center as well as a leisure space. It houses PROTEJO, a social project that focus on youngsters who are subject to violence and other forms of social vulnerability. Our outcomes indicate that reading is part of their daily activities since the results of the interviews demonstrate that they express interest not only in literature but also in obtaining information both in and outside Casa das Juventudes. However, access to information is hindered for various reasons such as the absence of public libraries and cultural spaces suitable to their social reality. Access to information seems to be impeded not by lack of interest in reading but because of the inadequacy of books and by the high price of material acquisition.

  1. Word and object recognition during reading acquisition: MEG evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarra, Sendy; Martin, Clara D; Lizarazu, Mikel; Lallier, Marie; Zarraga, Asier; Molinaro, Nicola; Carreiras, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Studies on adults suggest that reading-induced brain changes might not be limited to linguistic processes. It is still unclear whether these results can be generalized to reading development. The present study shows to which extent neural responses to verbal and nonverbal stimuli are reorganized while children learn to read. MEG data of thirty Basque children (4-8y) were collected while they were presented with written words, spoken words and visual objects. The evoked fields elicited by the experimental stimuli were compared to their scrambled counterparts. Visual words elicited left posterior (200-300ms) and temporal activations (400-800ms). The size of these effects increased as reading performance improved, suggesting a reorganization of children's visual word responses. Spoken words elicited greater left temporal responses relative to scrambles (300-700ms). No evidence for the influence of reading expertise was observed. Brain responses to objects were greater than to scrambles in bilateral posterior regions (200-500ms). There was a greater left hemisphere involvement as reading errors decreased, suggesting a strengthened verbal decoding of visual configurations with reading acquisition. The present results reveal that learning to read not only influences written word processing, but also affects visual object recognition, suggesting a non-language specific impact of reading on children's neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Foundations of reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, Evelien; Segers, Eliane; van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about predictors for reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is still fragmented. This study compared reading comprehension, word decoding, listening comprehension, and reading related linguistic and cognitive precursor measures in children with mild ID and typically developing controls. Moreover, it was explored how the precursors related to reading achievement. Children with mild ID and typical controls were assessed on reading comprehension, decoding, language comprehension, and linguistic (early literacy skills, vocabulary, grammar) and cognitive (rapid naming, phonological short-term memory, working memory, temporal processing, nonverbal reasoning) precursor measures. It was tested to what extent variations in reading comprehension could be explained from word decoding, listening comprehension and precursor measures. The ID group scored significantly below typical controls on all measures. Word decoding was at or above first grade level in half the ID group. Reading comprehension in the ID group was related to word decoding, listening comprehension, early literacy skills, and temporal processing. The reading comprehension profile of children with mild ID strongly resembles typical early readers. The simple view of reading pertains to children with mild ID, with additional influence of early literacy skills and temporal processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Eye movements during reading of randomly shuffled text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Daniel J; Nuthmann, Antje; Engbert, Ralf

    2010-11-23

    In research on eye-movement control during reading, the importance of cognitive processes related to language comprehension relative to visuomotor aspects of saccade generation is the topic of an ongoing debate. Here we investigate various eye-movement measures during reading of randomly shuffled meaningless text as compared to normal meaningful text. To ensure processing of the material, readers were occasionally probed for words occurring in normal or shuffled text. For reading of shuffled text we observed longer fixation times, less word skippings, and more refixations than in normal reading. Shuffled-text reading further differed from normal reading in that low-frequency words were not overall fixated longer than high-frequency words. However, the frequency effect was present on long words, but was reversed for short words. Also, consistent with our prior research we found distinct experimental effects of spatially distributed processing over several words at a time, indicating how lexical word processing affected eye movements. Based on analyses of statistical linear mixed-effect models we argue that the results are compatible with the hypothesis that the perceptual span is more strongly modulated by foveal load in the shuffled reading task than in normal reading. Results are discussed in the context of computational models of reading. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Can reading-specific training stimuli improve the effect of perceptual learning on peripheral reading speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Arunkumar, Amit; Chung, Susana T L

    2012-08-01

    In a previous study, Chung, Legge, and Cheung (2004) showed that training using repeated presentation of trigrams (sequences of three random letters) resulted in an increase in the size of the visual span (number of letters recognized in a glance) and reading speed in the normal periphery. In this study, we asked whether we could optimize the benefit of trigram training on reading speed by using trigrams more specific to the reading task (i.e., trigrams frequently used in the English language) and presenting them according to their frequencies of occurrence in normal English usage and observers' performance. Averaged across seven observers, our training paradigm (4 days of training) increased the size of the visual span by 6.44 bits, with an accompanied 63.6% increase in the maximum reading speed, compared with the values before training. However, these benefits were not statistically different from those of Chung, Legge, and Cheung (2004) using a random-trigram training paradigm. Our findings confirm the possibility of increasing the size of the visual span and reading speed in the normal periphery with perceptual learning, and suggest that the benefits of training on letter recognition and maximum reading speed may not be linked to the types of letter strings presented during training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ARCPEP Project - Army Reserve Component Personal Empowerment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Appendix 5 Perceived Stress Scale The questions in this scale ask you about your feelings and thoughts during the last month. In each case , you will be...5. How many servings of red meat, hamburger or meat products (ham, sausage , etc.) do you consume per day? (1 serving = 3.5-5 ounces) ə 6. How...consume chicken, turkey instead of veal, pork, hamburger or sausage ? Yes 14. How many times per week do you consume vegetables, pasta, rice or other

  6. SchemaOnRead Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Michael J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    SchemaOnRead provides tools for implementing schema-on-read including a single function call (e.g., schemaOnRead("filename")) that reads text (TXT), comma separated value (CSV), raster image (BMP, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and JPG), R data (RDS), HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet (XLS, XLSX, ODS, and DIF), Weka Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF), Epi Info (REC), Pajek network (PAJ), R network (NET), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), SPSS (SAV), Systat (SYS), and Stata (DTA) files. It also recursively reads folders (e.g., schemaOnRead("folder")), returning a nested list of the contained elements.

  7. The Ultimate Science Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, B.

    2010-01-01

    There are six people in space as you read these words. Let that sink in for a moment. Six human beings are zipping around the planet once every 90 minutes, pushing back the boundaries of scientific knowledge and experience. They are, of course, on the International Space Station - a project

  8. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1991

    1991-01-01

    To help replenish educators' supply of ideas, "Kappan" editors suggest several books for summer reading, including many noncurrent titles not specifically on education such as Peter Novick's "That Noble Dream," Joy Kogawa's "Obasan," Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God," Kate Chopin's "The Awakening," Willa Cather's "My Antonia,"…

  9. Reading, Perception and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Drake D., Ed.; Rawson, Margaret B., Ed.

    The nine papers in this book discuss aspects of language processing that contribute to reading difficulty. After a summary of the 1974 World Congress on Dyslexia, at which these papers were presented, the following subjects are examined: historical background and educational treatment of dyslexia; the structure of language; neuroanatomy underlying…

  10. Visual Factors in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Chris; Henderson, Lisa-Marie

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about how the visual system recognizes letters and words, and the impact on reading when parts of the visual system malfunction. The physiology of eye and brain places important constraints on how we process text, and the efficient organization of the neurocognitive systems involved is not inherent but…

  11. Painless reading comprehension

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, EdD, Darolyn "Lyn"

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension gets easier as students learn what kind of reader they are, discover how to keep facts in their head, and much more. Bonus Online Component: includes additional games, including Beat the Clock, a line match game, and a word scramble.

  12. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Recommends leisurely reading for teachers: biographies on St. Augustine and Charles Lindbergh; novels by Edwidge Danticat, Kate Chopin, and Velma Allis; Edward Tufte's three volumes on the visual presentation of information; Jean Vanier's "Becoming Human;" the Harry Potter series, and Michael Tolkin's novel "The Player." (MLH)

  13. Teachers Reading Aloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Creating research-based expectations and education strategies for all teachers to implement consistently are the beginning steps in giving all students access to standards-based curriculum and in creating readers, writers, and content learners. Reading aloud is one research-based practice that enhances achievement for all students, whether they…

  14. Teaching reading comprehension strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Lika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The academic debate nowadays is focused on producing an applied science of learning, aiming to teach students how to learn and be strategic in their acquisition. The aim of the study is to identify and discuss the reading comprehension instruction approach applied in the Albanian system of education. Findings from 10 classes of Albanian language and literature with students of third grade were directly observed and analyzed, in order to gather evidence based on indicators and instruments that assess the way of reading comprehension. Findings were categorized according to strategy use; the frequency of their application in different classes was counted and represented in percentages. In this paper we will try to respond to questions like: What are students' main barriers of comprehending? Does the instructional approach respond to students’ needs and level of comprehension? Are teachers prepared to teach comprehension strategies? Furthermore, examples of procedures on how to deliver instruction of comprehension strategies in natural contexts will be represented. Results from teacher practices during lessons of reading comprehension confirmed that teachers use limited teaching strategies to deliver lessons. They mainly use strategies to test comprehension; while the approach of teaching students to read independently and strategically is an unknown practice.

  15. Reading about Real Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

  16. Reading Angles in Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  17. Reading Waddington today

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reading Waddington today. (A commentary on C. H. Waddington 1957 J. Genet. 55, 241–245; reprinted in this issue as a J. Genet. classic, pages 101–105) ... fixing of a genotype. These papers provide a diverse intellec- tual feast and point to how valuable Waddington's prescient and thoughtful views are today. References.

  18. Reading Community: Writing Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Katherine K.

    Reading the speeches each year of the program chair of the Conference on College Composition and Communication gives the reader a concrete notion of how the field has been perceived and constructed by these leaders in composition. The more recent articles also construct a surprisingly unified and stable identity for the field which is premised on…

  19. Teaching Reading Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Tom; Dymock, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Would you like your students to be excited when they read a new word and keen to work out its meaning straight away? This book will turn them into word detectives, ready to tackle any new word they come across. And when writing, would you like them to make sentences that have interesting and descriptive words like "shamble," "ravenous" or…

  20. Teaching Reading through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Marjatta

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a teaching method called reading through writing (RtW), based on the use of computers rather than handwriting. The pupils use the computers in pairs and decide themselves what they will write about. The use of this method is studied via a questionnaire to 22 teachers and via seven Master's and two Bachelor's theses,…

  1. Reading's Next Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellman, Steven G.

    2008-01-01

    It is hard to imagine a world without books. Reading represents a mode of thinking and being that may be overshadowed in a contemporary world of web sites, movies, TV shows, CDs and video games. Ultimately, the author concludes that the percentage of serious readers has probably not changed significantly during the past century: what has changed…

  2. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Recommends many books for summer reading enjoyment, concentrating on historical and contemporary fiction. Different cultures clash in William T. Vollman's "Fathers and Crows" and John Demos's adventuresome "Unredeemed Captive." Other suggestions: "Snow Falling on Cedar Mountain" (David Gutterman) and "Foxfire" (Joyce Carol Oates). For professional…

  3. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Editors

    2001-01-01

    Teachers and education professors suggest various nonfiction and fiction books for summer reading enjoyment, from Robert Putnam's "Bowling Alone," C.A. Bowers's "Let Them Eat Data," and Larry McMurtry's "Roads: Driving America's Great Highways" to Kent Hauf's "Plainsong, J.M. Coetzee's "Disgrace," and Michael Cunningham's "The Hours." (MLH)

  4. Readings in risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gough, Michael; Glickman, Theodore S

    1990-01-01

    ... from Resources for the Future are distributed worldwide by The Johns Hopkins University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Readings in risk I Theodore S. Glickman and Michael Gough, editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-915707-55-1 (alk. paper) 1. Technology-Risk assessment. 2. Health risk assessment....

  5. Reading speed and comprehension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-11-28

    Nov 28, 2015 ... is generally accepted that reading speed and com- prehension are closely related, there is still debate about the link between them. Despite this on-going debate, it has been recognised that a very slow reader is more likely to have little understanding of a passage of text, as this person's memory is under.

  6. Time for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, certain ideas have become dominant that make learning to read different than it once was than the ideas that children are neurologically "wired" to use language "competently" in certain ways. Noam Chomsky has promoted the idea that there are certain "syntactic structures" hard-wired in the human brain. That view, the author…

  7. Assessment Problems in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGinitie, Walter H., Ed.

    The papers in this volume deal with a range of assessment problems in reading. The first paper, by Karlin, introduces the general problem of using assessment procedures to guide teaching. The next six papers deal with various aspects of this general problem. Otto discusses the distinction between norm-referenced, standardized achievement tests and…

  8. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Advises administrators to use their summers to relax and recharge their intellectual batteries. Reading suggestions include Edith Wharton's "House of Mirth," Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper," Amy Tan's "Joy Luck Club," China Achebe's "Things Fall Apart," Paule Marshall's "The Chosen…

  9. Empathy: from mind reading to the reading of a distant text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Yair

    2010-09-01

    In the psychoanalytic literature empathy is commonly discussed as a form of "mind reading", which is deeply associated with the capacity to mirror the other's mental state. In this paper, I propose an alternative perspective on empathy as the process of reading a distant text. This perspective is illustrated through a Talmudic story and by weaving a thread between Bakhtin, Bion and Lacan. The paper concludes by pointing to the danger of empathy as a hidden form of projective identification that provides the reader with a false sense of control rather than with negative capability for otherness.

  10. Parents' reading-related knowledge and children's reading acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

    2011-12-01

    Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related knowledge, print exposure, storybook reading, and general cultural knowledge. Children were tested on measures of letter-word knowledge, sound awareness, receptive vocabulary, oral expression, and mathematical skill. Parent reading-related knowledge showed significant positive links with child letter-word knowledge and sound awareness, but showed no correlations with child measures of mathematical skill or vocabulary. Furthermore, parent reading-related knowledge was not associated with parents' own print exposure or cultural knowledge, indicating that knowledge about English word structure may be separate from other cognitive skills. Implications are discussed in terms of improving parent reading-related knowledge to promote child literacy.

  11. New approaches to e-reserve linking, sharing and streaming

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Ophelia; Patrick, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Aimed at academic library practitioners, this book describes how e-reserve services can evolve and adapt to the changing virtual learning environment of higher education. New approaches discussed include: the integration of subscribed, free, and copyrighted resources within course management systems; innovative employment of open URL link resolvers to connect e-reserve with library e-resources and services; video streaming within course documents; and the creative use of bibliographic software to produce customized reading lists. New Approaches to E-Reserve includes detailed descriptions and e

  12. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  13. The Use of Extensive Reading in Teaching Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdila, Raihani

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates benefits of using extensive reading in teaching reading and as well as students' attitudes toward it. A case study design as a part of qualitative research was employed in this study. The data were collected through classroom observation, questionnaire and interview. The participants of this study were a class of second graders in one of the public junior high schools in Bandung. The findings reveal that extensive reading was beneficial in teaching reading. There are fi...

  14. Teachers’ beliefs about reading and use of reading strategies

    OpenAIRE

    VASILIKA RRAKU

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to place the focus on teachers’ beliefs about reading and reading strategies to the purpose of emphasizing the im portance of reading strategies in the reading process. The method of study is analytic analysis of teachers’ beliefs obtained through ques tionnaires delivered to 18 English language teachers of elementary, secondary and high level education in the region of Saranda in lbania. The results of the study pointed to a great concordance between teach ers’ bel...

  15. Question answer relationship strategy increases reading comprehension among Kindergarten students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Furtado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Question Answer Relationship (QAR strategy equips students with tools to successfully decode and comprehend what they read. An action research project over 18 days with twenty-three kindergarteners adapted exposure to QAR’s "In the Book" and "In my Head" categories with similar questions for each of two popular Aesop’s fables. The challenges and outcomes are presented with special emphasis on teacher-preparation, teacher-reflections, and a hands-on, day-by-day project-implementation. An oral pre-test, after reading The Tortoise and the Hare, served as a baseline assessment for student-comprehension levels. The QAR strategy was then explicitly taught, with opportunities to practice the comprehension skills in small and large groups with parental assistance. Students overwhelmingly scored higher on the post-test reading comprehension after the read-aloud of The Jay and the Peacock with some receiving perfect scores.

  16. A Special Chinese Reading Acceleration Training Paradigm: To Enhance the Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Chinese Children with Reading Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a number of studies, use of a Reading Acceleration Program as reading intervention training has been demonstrated to improve reading speed and comprehension level effectively in most languages and countries. The objective of the current study was to provide further evidence of the effectiveness of a Reading Acceleration Program for Chinese children with reading disabilities using a distinctive Chinese reading acceleration training paradigm. The reading acceleration training paradigm is divided into a non-accelerated reading paradigm, a Character-accelerated reading paradigm and a Words-accelerated reading paradigm. The results of training Chinese children with reading disabilities indicate that the acceleration reading paradigm applies to children with Chinese-reading disabilities. In addition, compared with other reading acceleration paradigms, Words- accelerated reading training is more effective in helping children with reading disabilities read at a high speed while maintaining superior comprehension levels.

  17. Impact of the Reading Buddies Program on Reading Level and Attitude Towards Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Dolman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This research examines the Reading Buddies program at the Grande Prairie Public Library, which took place in July and August of 2011 and 2012. The Reading Buddies program pairs lower elementary students with teen volunteers for reading practice over the summer. The aim of the study was to discover how much impact the program would have on participating children’s reading levels and attitudes towards reading.Methods – During the first and last sessions of the Reading Buddies program, the participants completed the Elementary Reading Attitudes Survey (ERAS and the Graded Word Recognition Lists from the Bader Reading and Language Inventory (6th ed., 2008.Participants were also asked for their grade and sex, and the program coordinator kept track of attendance. Results – There were 37 Reading Buddies participants who completed both the pre- and post-tests for the study. On average, the program had a small positive effect on participants’ reading levels and a small negative effect on their attitudes towards reading. There was a larger range of changes to the ERAS scores than to the reading test scores, but most participants’ scores did not change dramatically on either measure.Conclusions – Although findings are limited by the small size of the data-set, results indicate that many of the Reading Buddies participants maintained their reading level over the summer and had a similar attitude towards reading at the end of the program. On average, reading levels increased slightly and attitudes towards reading were slightly more negative. Many factors could not be taken into account during the study (e.g., the amount of reading done at home. A study with a control group that did not participate in the program could help to assess whether the program helped to combat summer learning loss.

  18. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text readi...

  19. Oral Reading Instruction: The Impact on Student Reading Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutzel, D. Ray; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Measures the effects of two oral reading instructional routines (the Oral Recitation Lesson and Shared Book Experience) on second-grade students' reading development (including word analysis skills, oral reading errors, self-correction rates, oral retellings, vocabulary gains, and fluency). Finds that the Shared Book Experience was superior or…

  20. Neural activations correlated with reading speed during reading novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Norio; Munetsuna, Shinji; Sasaki, Toyofumi; Hayakawa, Tomoe; Ihara, Aya; Wei, Qiang; Terazono, Yasushi; Murata, Tsutomu

    2009-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure neural activations in subjects instructed to silently read novels at ordinary and rapid speeds. Among the 19 subjects, 8 were experts in a rapid reading technique. Subjects pressed a button to turn pages during reading, and the interval between turning pages was recorded to evaluate the reading speed. For each subject, we evaluated activations in 14 areas and at 2 instructed reading speeds. Neural activations decreased with increasing reading speed in the left middle and posterior superior temporal area, left inferior frontal area, left precentral area, and the anterior temporal areas of both hemispheres, which have been reported to be active for linguistic processes, while neural activation increased with increasing reading speed in the right intraparietal sulcus, which is considered to reflect visuo-spatial processes. Despite the considerable reading speed differences, correlation analysis showed no significant difference in activation dependence on reading speed with respect to the subject groups and instructed reading speeds. The activation reduction with speed increase in language-related areas was opposite to the previous reports for low reading speeds. The present results suggest that subjects reduced linguistic processes with reading speed increase from ordinary to rapid speed.

  1. The Effects of Oral and Silent Reading on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Naomi; Ness, Molly

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reading mode (oral and silent) and text genre (narrative and expository) on fourth graders' reading comprehension. While controlling for prior reading ability of 48 participants, we measured comprehension. Using a repeated measured design, data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, paired t-tests, and…

  2. Pleasure Reading Cures Readicide and Facilitates Academic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer, J. Mary; Ponniah, R. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Pleasure reading is an absolute choice to eradicate readicide, a systematic killing of the love for reading. This paper encompasses the different forms and consequences of readicide which will have negative impact not only on comprehension but also on the prior knowledge of a reader. Reading to score well on tests impedes the desire for reading…

  3. Iowa City Reads! The Reading Event Worth Shouting About.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham van Deusen, Jean; Langhorne, Mary Jo

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Community Reading Month (CRM) initiative in Iowa City, Iowa; its goals are to promote the value of reading and to build a sense of community. Topics include the development of CRM, increased reading scores of Iowa City's elementary school students, activities for people of all ages, and planning and evaluation. (AEF)

  4. Early Reading Intervention by Means of a Multicomponent Reading Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, M.; de Leeuw, L.; van Weerdenburg, M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a multiple baseline approach, we tested children's…

  5. How do children read words? A focus on reading processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Being able to read is very important in our literate society. Many studies, therefore, have examined children’s reading skills to improve our understanding of reading development. In general, there have been two types of studies. On the one hand, there is a line of research that focuses on the

  6. The Importance of Metacognitive Reading Strategy Awareness in Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Abdullah, Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan

    2013-01-01

    Metacognitive reading strategy awareness plays a significant role in reading comprehension and educational process. In spite of its importance, metacognitive strategy has long been the ignored skill in English language teaching, research, learning, and assessment. This lack of good metacognitive reading strategy skill is exacerbated by the central…

  7. Reading by Design: Two Case Studies of Digital Reading Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Burke, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The digital reading practices of two middle school students in US and Canadian contexts are examined. Using a multimodal discourse framework, the authors contemplate what digital reading practice is and distinctive practices of reading texts online compared with printed, school-based literacy practices. By focusing on two different genres of…

  8. Project 2010 Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Happy, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The ideal on-the-job reference guide for project managers who use Microsoft Project 2010. This must-have guide to using Microsoft Project 2010 is written from a real project manager's perspective and is packed with information you can use on the job. The book explores using Project 2010 during phases of project management, reveals best practices, and walks you through project flow from planning through tracking to closure. This valuable book follows the processes defined in the PMBOK Guide, Fourth Edition , and also provides exam prep for Microsoft's MCTS: Project 2010 certification.: Explains

  9. Building esp content-based materials to promote strategic reading

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista Barón, Myriam Judith

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on an action research project that proposes to improve the reading comprehension and vocabulary of undergraduate students of English for Specific Purposes–explosives majors, at a police training institute in Colombia. I used the qualitative research method to explore and reflect upon the teaching-learning processes during implementation. Being the teacher of an English for specific purposes course without the appropriate didactic resources, I designed six reading comprehe...

  10. [Reading as a protective factor against cognitive decline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Miguel Esteve; Gil, Angel Collado

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether reading is a protective factor against cognitive decline in the population aged over 65 years. We performed an unmatched case-control study in the Fuente de San Luis Health Center in Valencia, Spain. A total of 153 subjects aged more than 65 years old were studied, corresponding to 51 cases and 102 controls. Cognitive impairment was measured by the version of the Mini-Mental State Examination adapted and validated to Spanish. Reading habits were assessed with the scale of the Federación de Gremios y Editores de España. Logistic regression showed a significant association with the habit of frequent reading for more than 5 years, complete primary school education, and age lower than 75 years Reading is a protective factor against cognitive impairment. This protection is greater in frequent readers with a history of reading of over 5 years. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

    1973-01-01

    Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

  12. Speed Reading: Remember the Tortoise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Richard G.

    1973-01-01

    After speed-reading partisans questioned the criticisms in a Psychology Today article, another psychologist conducted a controlled study of speed readers. As we said before, "Speed Readers Don't Read; They Skim". (Editor)

  13. Bill project putting an end to the search for as well as to the exploitation of hydrocarbons, and bearing various applications related to energy and to the environment, adopted on new reading by the National Assembly - Nr 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas-Roy, Jean-Charles

    2017-01-01

    While considering objectives of limitation of temperature increase, and in order to limit the use of fossil energies likes conventional and non-conventional hydrocarbons, the exploitation of which would result in an increase of CO 2 emissions, France has to modify its rules related to hydrocarbon extraction. This bill project therefore aims at programming the end of the exploration and of the exploitation of hydrocarbons. As mentioned, some articles of this bill project concern energy regulation, or can be a transposition of a European directive. This document presents the final version of each article adopted by the National Assembly

  14. Interaction Quality during Partner Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Bradley, Barbara A.; Stahl, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of social relationships, positive interdependence, and teacher structure on the quality of partner reading interactions was examined. Partner reading, a scripted cooperative learning strategy, is often used in classrooms to promote the development of fluent and automatic reading skills. Forty-three pairs of second grade children were observed during partner reading sessions taking place in 12 classrooms. The degree to which the partners displayed social cooperation (instrumental...

  15. Assessing reserve-building pursuits and person characteristics: psychometric validation of the Reserve-Building Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E.; Michael, Wesley; Zhang, Jie; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that regularly engaging in stimulating activities across multiple domains-physical, cultural, intellectual, communal, and spiritual-builds resilience. This project investigated the psychometric characteristics of the DeltaQuest Reserve-Building Measure for use in

  16. So Much to Read, So Little Time: How Do We Read, and Can Speed Reading Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Keith; Schotter, Elizabeth R; Masson, Michael E J; Potter, Mary C; Treiman, Rebecca

    2016-05-01

    The prospect of speed reading--reading at an increased speed without any loss of comprehension--has undeniable appeal. Speed reading has been an intriguing concept for decades, at least since Evelyn Wood introduced her Reading Dynamics training program in 1959. It has recently increased in popularity, with speed-reading apps and technologies being introduced for smartphones and digital devices. The current article reviews what the scientific community knows about the reading process--a great deal--and discusses the implications of the research findings for potential students of speed-reading training programs or purchasers of speed-reading apps. The research shows that there is a trade-off between speed and accuracy. It is unlikely that readers will be able to double or triple their reading speeds (e.g., from around 250 to 500-750 words per minute) while still being able to understand the text as well as if they read at normal speed. If a thorough understanding of the text is not the reader's goal, then speed reading or skimming the text will allow the reader to get through it faster with moderate comprehension. The way to maintain high comprehension and get through text faster is to practice reading and to become a more skilled language user (e.g., through increased vocabulary). This is because language skill is at the heart of reading speed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Improving Eleventh Graders’ Reading Comprehension Through Text Coding and Double Entry Organizer Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Mahecha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report on an innovation project developed with a group of eleventh graders at a public school in Bogotá. Its aim was to encourage students to improve reading comprehension of texts in English. It was conducted taking into account students' needs, interests and level of English. To do it, we implemented two reading strategies: text coding and double entry organizer. We observed the students' attitudes during two lesson plans, compared their level of comprehension before and after using the reading strategies and asked them to self-evaluate their performance. At the end, we could see their improvement, how they enjoyed doing the activities and became more confident.

  18. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5% of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other…

  19. Close Reading in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Close reading is a recommended instructional approach to meet the challenges of teaching complex texts. But close readings are more common in high school and college than in elementary schools. In this article, we identify the components of close reading that were developed after a group of elementary school teachers observed their colleges in…

  20. Investigating Gender Differences in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

    2010-01-01

    Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…

  1. Reading comprehension in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) self-report reading problems and experience difficulties in cognitive-linguistic functions that support discourse-level reading, prior research has primarily focused on sentence-level processing and auditory comprehension. Accordingly, the authors investigated the presence and nature of reading comprehension in PD, hypothesizing that (a) individuals with PD would display impaired accuracy and/or speed on reading comprehension tests and (b) reading performances would be correlated with cognitive test results. Eleven adults with PD and 9 age- and education-matched control participants completed tests that evaluated reading comprehension; general language and cognitive abilities; and aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The PD group obtained significantly lower scores on several, but not all, reading comprehension, language, and cognitive measures. Memory, language, and disease severity were significantly correlated with reading comprehension for the PD group. Individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia or broad cognitive deficits can display reading comprehension difficulties, particularly for high- versus basic-level reading tasks. These reading difficulties are most closely related to memory, high-level language, and PD symptom severity status. The findings warrant additional research to delineate further the types and nature of reading comprehension impairments experienced by individuals with PD.

  2. Awareness Development for Online Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenotz, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    In a world in which online reading is becoming increasingly common and, as a consequence, online literacy more and more necessary, this paper focuses on possibility of training L2 (second language) readers to bridge the gap between paper reading and online reading. Many researchers believe metacognitive awareness to be the most important ability…

  3. Teaching Content Is Teaching Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, E. D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Every two years the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), "the Nation's Report Card," reports the nation's average reading and math scores in grades 4 and 8. Despite the strong focus on reading under the 2001 No Child Left Behind law, the recent 2009 reading scores were not statistically different from those of 2007, which…

  4. MisReading LIS Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Wayne

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the need to place a greater emphasis on the subject of reading in library and information science (LIS) education and research. Topics include literacy studies, print culture history, reader-response theory, ethnography of reading, genre fiction and cultural studies, information versus reading, and access to information versus content of…

  5. The Effects of Pleasure Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Rebecca

    1995-01-01

    Supports Krashen's theory on the benefits of free voluntary reading and the impact pleasure reading makes on results of the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) test. The improved TOEFL scores indicate a measurable and viable result of reading for pleasure as well as an intangible attitudinal change on the part of the students. (10…

  6. The Science of Reading. 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisawa, Shuntaro, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This collection of the 1990 issues of the Japanese-language journal "The Science of Reading" presents 23 articles (research reports and "personal views of reading") on a variety of questions dealing with reading. The articles in the collection all have summaries in English. Articles in the April issue are "The Effects of…

  7. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct reading dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, I.

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a direct reading dosimeter which is light, small enough to be worn on a person, and measures both dose rates and total dose. It is based on a semiconductor sensor. The gate threshold voltage change rather than absolute value is measured and displayed as a direct reading of the dose rate. This is effected by continuously switching the gate of an MOS transistor from positive to negative bias. The output can directly drive a digital readout or trigger an audible alarm. The sensor device can be a MOSFET, bipolar transistor, or MOSFET capacitor which has its electrical characteristics change due to the trapped charge in the insulating layer of the device

  9. Reading Authentic Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly...... proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements were monitored. The experiment shows a cognate advantage for morphologically simple words, but only when cognateness is defined relative to translation equivalents that are appropriate in the context. For morphologically complex words, a cognate disadvantage...... is observed which may be due to problems of integrating cognate with non-cognate morphemes. The results show that fast non-selective access to the bilingual lexicon is conditioned by the communicative context. Importantly, a range of variables are statistically controlled in the regression analyses, including...

  10. Reading, writing, rebelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doubinsky, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    What is reading? What is writing? What connects the two? These questions have been the fertile ground for many literary and philosophical theories, from New Criticism to Deconstruction. This essay does not pretend answering to these two questions, but rather to question the question themselves...... and try to shed a different light of this essential problematic. Choosing not to consider literature as a stable concept, but rather as an ontologically impermanent one, I try to reflect upon the terms that condition our approach of works and of the creation of these works. In a large perspective......, the notions of “reading” and “writing” are examined through the prism of their incarnations as “works”, and the consequences of this identity have on our critical discourse. In order to read critically, one must thus recognize this immanent instability of our notions and definitions, and begin from...

  11. Nuclear, uranium, reserves, sustainability, independence; Nucleaire, Uranium, reserves, durabilite, independance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C

    2007-06-15

    In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  12. Reading Speed as a Constraint of Accuracy of Self-Perception of Reading Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Heekyung; Linderholm, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesised that college students take reading speed into consideration when evaluating their own reading skill, even if reading speed does not reliably predict actual reading skill. To test this hypothesis, we measured self-perception of reading skill, self-perception of reading speed, actual reading skill and actual reading speed to…

  13. Reading Heidegger after Derrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Strawser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to broach the complex difference between Martin Heidegger and Jacques Derrida, It focuses on the fundamental assumptions involved in the reading of Heidegger's Being and Time and Derrida's early "noted" attention to this text. Is Heidegger's early work essentially tainted by "the metaphysics of presence," as Derrida wishes to suggest? After sketching Derrida's interpretation, the author attempts to show how readers of Being and Time need not succumb to Derrida's criticism.

  14. Reading Heidegger after Derrida

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Strawser

    2013-01-01

    This essay attempts to broach the complex difference between Martin Heidegger and Jacques Derrida, It focuses on the fundamental assumptions involved in the reading of Heidegger's Being and Time and Derrida's early "noted" attention to this text. Is Heidegger's early work essentially tainted by "the metaphysics of presence," as Derrida wishes to suggest? After sketching Derrida's interpretation, the author attempts to show how readers of Being and Time need not succumb to Derrida's criticism.

  15. Quantum reading capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario. (paper)

  16. Energy reserves. [Summary of reserve estimates and economic supply models for exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Carhart, S.C.; Marcuse, W.

    1977-03-01

    There is an increasing concern about scarcity of the world's remaining natural energy resources and, in particular, the future supply of oil and natural gas. This paper summarizes recent estimates of energy reserves and economic supply models for exhaustible resources. The basic economic theory of resource exhaustion is reviewed, and recent estimates of both discovered and undiscovered energy resources are presented and compared. Domestic and world-wide reserve estimates are presented for crude oil and natural gas liquids, natural gas, coal, and uranium. Economic models projecting supply of these energy forms, given reserve estimates and other pertinent information, are discussed. Finally, a set of recent models which project world oil prices are summarized and their published results compared. The impact of energy conservation efforts on energy supply is also briefly discussed. 53 references.

  17. XII Elkonin Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugrimenko E.A.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the reader the main content of report presented at the XII Elkonin Readings (4th March, 2016. Elkonin Readings takes place each 2 years in Psychological Institute, Russian Academy of education. This year they are focused on the problem of “Mediation and development”. Speakers from different institutions presented their approaches to solving these problems. The theoretical foundation of the new understanding of the relationship of functional genesis and ontogenesis, buildings mediation activities, proximal development areas have been disclosed in the articles of V.V. Rubtsov, D.B. Elkonin, P.G. Nezhnov. The new conditions for mediation were created on the basis of the different materials (games, reading, and spatial image of “self” according to an experimental practice of teaching and correction of self- development. Developing of creative ways of mediation were mentioned in the articles of L.I. Elkoninov, E.O. Smirnov, E.A. Abdulaeva, E.A. Bugrimenko, N.U. Mangutov, that meet actual problems for modern children.

  18. Optimizing speed reading practice for reading fluency: How many Speed Reading exercises should you do per class?

    OpenAIRE

    Fuisting, Bjorn; Dalton, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Speed Reading has been demonstrated to be an important element in an L2 Reading course for improving reading fluency. However research has not been published on how many sessions of Speed Reading should be done in each class. Is one Speed Reading session enough, or do two per class produce dramatically better gains in reading speed? Does any differential gain remain after controlling for the quantity of Speed Reading text? Examining reading speed gains from two equivalent class samples, the f...

  19. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Gomes Ferreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi. Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi.

  20. Basic Concepts of Reading Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ARI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading act is performed by connected physiological, psychological and cognitive processes. The operations taking place in these processes are expected to continue for life by being developed with certain strategies. A lot of information is gained with reading skill in education life. Therefore, basic concepts that constitute reading education in teaching and improving reading are important for teachers. The aim of this study is to submit information compiled from the literature about reading education process and which basic concepts are used in reading education. While teaching reading from part to whole, from whole to part and interactional approaches are used. From part to whole approach is at the forefront. Then with interactional approach strategies, both code solving and making sense is improved. Teachers should know the characteristics of bouncing, stopping, turning back, and scanning movements of the eye both in code solving and making sense. The teacher should configure the teaching for the students to gain fluid reading elements by making use of reading out and reading silently. After reading act is acquired; good reader characteristics should be gained by improving asking questions, guessing, summarizing, interpretation skills in integrated readings. Reading skill is improved by studies on the text. Therefore, the students should come across texts that are suitable to their levels, textuality and readability criteria. The vocabulary of children should be improved in a planned way with text-based word and meaning studies. Fluid reading, making sense and interpretation skills of children should be pursued with different evaluation types. In the long term, work should be done to make reading a habit for them.

  1. The involvement of long-term serial-order memory in reading development: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; De Maeyer, Marjolijn; Page, Mike P A; Duyck, Wouter

    2016-05-01

    Recent findings suggest that Hebb repetition learning-a paradigmatic example of long-term serial-order learning-is impaired in adults with dyslexia. The current study further investigated the link between serial-order learning and reading using a longitudinal developmental design. With this aim, verbal and visual Hebb repetition learning performance and reading skills were assessed in 96 Dutch-speaking children who we followed from first through second grade of primary school. We observed a positive association between order learning capacities and reading ability as well as weaker Hebb learning performance in early readers with poor reading skills even at the onset of reading instruction. Hebb learning further predicted individual differences in later (nonword) reading skills. Finally, Hebb learning was shown to explain a significant part of the variance in reading performance above and beyond phonological awareness. These findings highlight the role of serial-order memory in reading ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The ABCs of Math: A Genetic Analysis of Mathematics and Its Links With Reading Ability and General Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A; Petrill, Stephen A; Thompson, Lee A; Plomin, Robert

    2009-05-01

    The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of assessment. Univariate analyses provide a range of estimates of genetic (h(2) = .00 -.63) and shared (c(2) = .15-.52) environmental influences across math calculation, fluency, and problem solving measures. Multivariate analyses indicate genetic overlap between math problem solving with general cognitive ability and reading decoding, whereas math fluency shares significant genetic overlap with reading fluency and general cognitive ability. Further, math fluency has unique genetic influences. In general, math ability has shared environmental overlap with general cognitive ability and decoding. These results indicate that aspects of math that include problem solving have different genetic and environmental influences than math calculation. Moreover, math fluency, a timed measure of calculation, is the only measured math ability with unique genetic influences.

  3. From map reading to geometric intuitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Moira R; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2018-03-29

    The origins and development of our geometric intuitions have been debated for millennia. The present study links children's developing intuitions about the properties of planar triangles to their developing abilities to read purely geometric maps. Six-year-old children are limited when navigating by maps that depict only the sides of a triangle in an environment composed of only the triangle's corners and vice versa. Six-year-old children also incorrectly judge how the angle size of the third corner of a triangle varies with changes to the other two corners. These limitations in map reading and in judgments about triangles are attenuated, respectively, by 10 and 12 years of age. Moreover, as children get older, their map reading predicts their geometric judgments on the triangle task. Map reading thus undergoes developmental changes that parallel an emerging capacity to reason explicitly about the distance and angle relations essential to euclidean geometry. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. A sensitive short read homology search tool for paired-end read sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techa-Angkoon, Prapaporn; Sun, Yanni; Lei, Jikai

    2017-10-16

    Homology search is still a significant step in functional analysis for genomic data. Profile Hidden Markov Model-based homology search has been widely used in protein domain analysis in many different species. In particular, with the fast accumulation of transcriptomic data of non-model species and metagenomic data, profile homology search is widely adopted in integrated pipelines for functional analysis. While the state-of-the-art tool HMMER has achieved high sensitivity and accuracy in domain annotation, the sensitivity of HMMER on short reads declines rapidly. The low sensitivity on short read homology search can lead to inaccurate domain composition and abundance computation. Our experimental results showed that half of the reads were missed by HMMER for a RNA-Seq dataset. Thus, there is a need for better methods to improve the homology search performance for short reads. We introduce a profile homology search tool named Short-Pair that is designed for short paired-end reads. By using an approximate Bayesian approach employing distribution of fragment lengths and alignment scores, Short-Pair can retrieve the missing end and determine true domains. In particular, Short-Pair increases the accuracy in aligning short reads that are part of remote homologs. We applied Short-Pair to a RNA-Seq dataset and a metagenomic dataset and quantified its sensitivity and accuracy on homology search. The experimental results show that Short-Pair can achieve better overall performance than the state-of-the-art methodology of profile homology search. Short-Pair is best used for next-generation sequencing (NGS) data that lack reference genomes. It provides a complementary paired-end read homology search tool to HMMER. The source code is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/short-pair/ .

  5. Probing the neurocognitive trajectories of children's reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talcott, Joel B; Witton, Caroline; Stein, John F

    2013-02-01

    Emerging evidence of the high variability in the cognitive skills and deficits associated with reading achievement and dysfunction promotes both a more dimensional view of the risk factors involved, and the importance of discriminating between trajectories of impairment. Here we examined reading and component orthographic and phonological skills alongside measures of cognitive ability and auditory and visual sensory processing in a large group of primary school children between the ages of 7 and 12 years. We identified clusters of children with pseudoword or exception word reading scores at the 10th percentile or below relative to their age group, and a group with poor skills on both tasks. Compared to age-matched and reading-level controls, groups of children with more impaired exception word reading were best described by a trajectory of developmental delay, whereas readers with more impaired pseudoword reading or combined deficits corresponded more with a pattern of atypical development. Sensory processing deficits clustered within both of the groups with putative atypical development: auditory discrimination deficits with poor phonological awareness skills; impairments of visual motion processing in readers with broader and more severe patterns of reading and cognitive impairments. Sensory deficits have been variably associated with developmental impairments of literacy and language; these results suggest that such deficits are also likely to cluster in children with particular patterns of reading difficulty. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Promoting toddlers' vegetable consumption through interactive reading and puppetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Droog, Simone M; van Nee, Roselinde; Govers, Mieke; Buijzen, Moniek

    2017-09-01

    Picture books with characters that promote healthy eating are increasingly being used to make this behavior more attractive. The first aim of this study was to investigate whether the effect of vegetable-promoting picture books on toddlers' vegetable consumption differed according to the reading style and the use of a hand puppet during reading. The second aim was to investigate whether these effects were mediated by toddlers' narrative involvement and character imitation. In a 2 (reading style: interactive vs. passive) x 2 (puppet use: with vs. without puppet) between-subjects design, 163 toddlers (2-3 years) were randomly assigned to one of the four reading conditions. The story was about a rabbit that loves to eat carrots. After the fourth reading day, the eating task was conducted in which children could eat freely from four different snacks, including carrots. The main finding was that interactive reading produced the greatest carrot consumption. The explanation for this effect was that interactive reading stimulated toddlers to imitate poses of the book characters, even more when interactive reading was supported by the use of a hand puppet. The findings underline that young children should be actively involved with health interventions in order for them to be effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Action video games make dyslexic children read better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Sandro; Gori, Simone; Ruffino, Milena; Viola, Simona; Molteni, Massimo; Facoetti, Andrea

    2013-03-18

    Learning to read is extremely difficult for about 10% of children; they are affected by a neurodevelopmental disorder called dyslexia [1, 2]. The neurocognitive causes of dyslexia are still hotly debated [3-12]. Dyslexia remediation is far from being fully achieved [13], and the current treatments demand high levels of resources [1]. Here, we demonstrate that only 12 hr of playing action video games-not involving any direct phonological or orthographic training-drastically improve the reading abilities of children with dyslexia. We tested reading, phonological, and attentional skills in two matched groups of children with dyslexia before and after they played action or nonaction video games for nine sessions of 80 min per day. We found that only playing action video games improved children's reading speed, without any cost in accuracy, more so than 1 year of spontaneous reading development and more than or equal to highly demanding traditional reading treatments. Attentional skills also improved during action video game training. It has been demonstrated that action video games efficiently improve attention abilities [14, 15]; our results showed that this attention improvement can directly translate into better reading abilities, providing a new, fast, fun remediation of dyslexia that has theoretical relevance in unveiling the causal role of attention in reading acquisition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. White matter microstructure integrity in relation to reading proficiency☆.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikki Arrington, C; Kulesz, Paulina A; Juranek, Jenifer; Cirino, Paul T; Fletcher, Jack M

    2017-11-01

    Components of reading proficiency such asaccuracy, fluency, and comprehension require the successful coordination of numerous, yet distinct, cortical regions. Underlying white matter tracts allow for communication among these regions. This study utilized unique residualized tract - based spatial statistics methodology to identify the relations of white matter microstructure integrity to three components of reading proficiency in 49 school - aged children with typically developing phonological decoding skills and 27 readers with poor decoders. Results indicated that measures of white matter integrity were differentially associated with components of reading proficiency. In both typical and poor decoders, reading comprehension correlated with measures of integrity of the right uncinate fasciculus; reading comprehension was also related to the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus in poor decoders. Also in poor decoders, word reading fluency was related to the right uncinate and left inferior fronto - occipital fasciculi. Word reading was unrelated to white matter integrity in either group. These findings expand our knowledge of the association between white matter integrity and different elements of reading proficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The reciprocal relations between morphological processes and reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Richard S; Bergman, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal relations between emerging morphological processes and reading skills were examined in a longitudinal study tracking children from Grade 1 through Grade 3. The aim was to examine predictive relationships between productive morphological processing involving composing and decomposing of inflections and derivations, reading ability for pseudoword and word decoding, and word and passage reading comprehension after controlling for initial abilities in reading, morphological processing, phonological awareness, and vocabulary. Reciprocal influences were indicated by predictive relations among initial morphological processes and later reading abilities co-occurring with relationships between initial reading abilities and later morphological processes. Using multilevel modeling, decomposing and composing were found to predict emerging word decoding and word and passage comprehension but not pseudoword decoding. Reading comprehension predicted growth in decomposing. Subsequent regression analyses of model-estimated early linear growth in predictors and later linear growth in outcomes showed that early growth in morphological processes predicted later growth in word decoding and passage comprehension. Although reciprocal relations between emerging morphological processes and reading skills were observed, the different patterns on each side of the reciprocal "coin" indicated that the mechanisms underlying predictive influences are likely different but related to quality of lexical representations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effects of Extensive Reading on Reading Comprehension, Reading Rate, and Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Namhee

    2017-01-01

    Several empirical studies and syntheses of extensive reading have concluded that extensive reading has positive impacts on language learning in second- and foreign-language settings. However, many of the studies contained methodological or curricular limitations, raising questions about the asserted positive effects of extensive reading. The…

  11. Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

  12. Reading Fluency and Students with Reading Disabilities: How Fast Is Fast Enough to Promote Reading Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of improving reading rate and fluency is to positively impact reading comprehension; however, it is unclear how fast students with learning disabilities (LD) need to read to reap this benefit. The purpose of this research was to identify the point of diminishing return for students who were dysfluent readers. Participants included 337…

  13. Psychological Behaviorism's Reading Therapy Program: Parents as Reading Therapists for Their Children's Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G. Leonard; Kondrick, Patricia Ann

    1998-01-01

    Ten parents administered a behavioral reading-therapy program to their second- to fourth-grade children with reading disabilities. The children received from 70 to 121 30-minute sessions. Parents were able to administer the program effectively and children participated enthusiastically. Children showed mastery of the reading materials and…

  14. Book Clubs in Developmental Reading: Building Reading Comprehension, Fostering Reading Enjoyment, and Engaging Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The use of book clubs in college developmental reading classes is an effective way to encourage reluctant readers to build and strengthen reading skills, foster reading enjoyment, and engage students. In addition, book clubs build a sense of community within the classroom as the students converse and share their interpretations of the reading…

  15. Miraculous Readings: Using Fantasy Novels about Reading to Reflect on Reading the Bible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Russell W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects on the vivid images of reading presented in several popular fantasy novels, including "The Spiderwick Chronicles," "The Great Good Thing," and "The Neverending Story." It suggests that these images can be used to help children, youth, and adults reflect on the nature of reading and the potential power of reading sacred texts.…

  16. The Relationship between Reading Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Reading Strategy Use and Reading Comprehension Level of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mahdieh; Zaferanieh, Elaheh

    2012-01-01

    This co-relational study explored the relationship between reading self-efficacy beliefs, reading strategies use and reading comprehension level of Iranian EFL learners. In this study, Michigan reading comprehension test, a self-reported Reading Strategy Use Questionnaire, and a Reading Self-efficacy Questionnaire were administered to eighty…

  17. The Relationship of Print Reading in Tier I Instruction and Reading Achievement for Kindergarten Students at Risk of Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kent, Shawn C.

    2014-01-01

    For many students at risk of reading difficulties, effective, early reading instruction can improve reading outcomes and set them on a positive reading trajectory. Thus, response-to-intervention models include a focus on a student's Tier I reading instruction as one element for preventing reading difficulties and identifying students with a…

  18. Extensive Reading: A Means of Reconciliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutiper, Karen

    1983-01-01

    Cites research suggesting that extensive reading is as effective as intensive reading in developing general reading ability and is more effective in promoting good attitudes among elementary and secondary school students toward reading. (MM)

  19. Exploring educators' understanding of developing learners' reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring educators' understanding of developing learners' reading skills and their readiness to implement CAPS. ... Journal for Language Teaching ... Phase English First Additional Language teachers understood about reading and teaching reading, and the strategies they used to develop learners' reading skills.

  20. Project Half Double

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Gerstrøm, Anna; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    projects and to document their development. The purpose of this addendum is thus to document the development in the pilot projects from June 2016 to January 2017 with particular focus on the impact they have created. This Addendum is a supplement and should be read in conjunction with the Phase 1 report...... by the day. The formal part of Project Half Double was initiated in June 2015; it is divided into two phases where phase 1 took place from June 2015 to June 2016 with seven pilot projects, and phase 2 is in progress from July 2016 to July 2017 with 10 pilot projects. The Half Double consortium: Implement....... The Danish Industry Foundation, an independent philanthropic foundation, is contributing to the project financially with DKK 13.8 million. About the addendum: We published the report “Preliminary results for phase 1” in June 2016 (Svejvig, Ehlers et al. 2016). It is time to follow up on the Phase 1 pilot...

  1. Report on the behalf of the special commission for the examination of the bill project, after proceeding the accelerated procedure, modified by the Senate in first reading, related to energy transition for a green growth (nr 2611) - Nr 2736

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareigts, Ericka; Battistel, Marie-Noelle; Buis, Sabine; Baupin, Denis; Plisson, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    After a presentation of the commission works, this huge report presents and discusses the content and the modifications brought by the Senate to the bill project on energy transition for a green growth. Thus, it addresses the different articles of this bill project: to define common objectives for a successful energy transition, to strengthen France energy independence and economic competitiveness, to preserve health and the environment and to struggle against climatic change; to better renovate buildings to save energy, to reduce bills and to create jobs; to develop clean transports for a better air quality and to protect health; to struggle against spillages and to promote circular economy from product design to recycling; to promote renewable energies to diversify energies and valorise territorial resources; to strengthen nuclear safety and citizen information; to simplify and clarify procedures for better efficiency and competitiveness; to give to citizen, enterprises, territories and State the power to act together. A table gives a comparative vision of the successive versions of the bill project

  2. Mayan Forest Road Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    2008-01-01

    Road-building projects in the Mayan Biosphere Reserve to connect Mexico and Guatemala were subjected to a cost-benefit evaluation. Up to an estimated 311,000 hectares of jaguar habitat were found to be at risk of deforestation due to these projects. Some of the projects were shown to have negative...

  3. Youth Problems on Indian Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Ruth M., Ed.

    Juvenile delinquency was identified as the major problem affecting youth on Indian reservations. Causes for delinquency which were discussed included culture conflict, expectation of failure, unemployment, failure of homes and parents, discrimination, inadequate education, off-reservation schools, and alcoholism. Needs identified by tribal leaders…

  4. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  5. Accuracy and reading time for six strategies using digital breast tomosynthesis in women with mammographically negative dense breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliafico, Alberto Stefano; Calabrese, Massimo; Bignotti, Bianca; Signori, Alessio; Fisci, Erica; Rossi, Federica; Valdora, Francesca; Houssami, Nehmat

    2017-12-01

    To compare six strategies using digital breast tomosynthesis in women with mammographically negative dense breasts. This is a substudy of the 'ASTOUND' trial. 163 women who underwent tomosynthesis with synthetically reconstructed projection images (S-2D) inclusive of 13 (7.9%) cases diagnosed with breast cancer at histopathology after surgery were evaluated. Accuracy measures and screen-reading time of six reading strategies were assessed: (A) Single reading of S-2D alone, (B) single reading of tomosynthesis alone, (C) single reading of joint interpretation of tomosynthesis + S-2D, (D) double-reading of S-2D alone, (E) double reading of tomosynthesis alone, (F) double reading of joint interpretation of tomosynthesis + S-2D. The median age of the patients was 53 years (range, 36-88 years). The highest global accuracy was obtained with double reading of tomosynthesis + S2D (F) with an AUC of 0.979 (pstrategy (single reading of S-2D alone). The AUCs for the other five strategies did not differ from each other. Double reading of tomosynthesis+ S2D had the best accuracy of six screen-reading strategies although it had the longest reading time. • Tomosynthesis acquisitions are progressively implemented with reconstructed synthesized 2D images • Double reading using S-2D plus tomosynthesis had the highest global accuracy (p<0.001). • Double reading of S-2D plus tomosynthesis increased reading time.

  6. Reading Strategies to Develop Higher Thinking Skills for Reading Comprehension (Estrategias de lectura para el desarrollo de habilidades de pensamiento para la comprensión de lectura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri Acosta, Luz Marina; McNulty Ferri, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports an action research project which examined the foreign language reading comprehension of public school eighth graders who experienced a directed reading-thinking approach with strategies for comprehension and application. The strategies used were prediction, prior knowledge, graphic organizers, and questions. Data analyzed…

  7. STEM Summer Academy on the Navajo Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The US Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission, an ESA cornerstone mission to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. While the project's outreach efforts span multi-media, and a variety of age and ethnic groups, a special emphasis has been made to find a way to provide meaningful outreach to the reservation communities. Because language preservation is an issue of urgent concern to the reservation communities, and because Rosetta, uniquely among NASA missions, has been named after the notion that keys to missing understanding of elements of the ancient past were found in the language on the original Rosetta stone, the US Rosetta Project has embarked upon outreach with a focus on STEM vocabulary in ancient US languages of the Navajo, Hopi, Ojibwe, and other tribal communities as the project expands. NASA image and science are used and described in the native language, alongside lay English and scientific English curriculum elements. Additionally, science (geology/chemistry/botany/physics) elements drawn from the reservation environment, including geomorphology, geochemistry, soil physics, are included and discussed in the native language as much as possible — with their analogs in other planetary environments (such as Mars). In this paper we will report on the most recent Summer Science Academy [2012], a four week summer course for middle school children, created in collaboration with teachers and administrators in the Chinle Unified School District. The concept of the Academy was initiated in 2011, and the first Academy was conducted shortly thereafter, in June 2011 with 14 children, 3 instructors, and a NASA teacher workshop. The community requested three topics: geology, astronomy, and botany. The 2012 Academy built on the curriculum already developed with more robust field trips, addressed to specific science topics, additional quantitative measurements and activities, with more written material for the cultural components from

  8. Mammography test sets: reading location and prior images do not affect group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, B P; Lee, W B; McEntee, M F; Kench, P L; Reed, W M; Heard, R; Chakraborty, D P; Brennan, P C

    2014-04-01

    To examine how the location where reading takes place and the availability of prior images can affect performance in breast test-set reading. Under optimized viewing conditions, 10 expert screen readers each interpreted a reader-specific set of images containing 200 mammographic cases. Readers, randomly divided into two groups read images under one of two pairs of conditions: clinical read with prior images and laboratory read with prior images; laboratory read with prior images and laboratory read without prior images. Region-of-interest (ROI) figure-of-merit (FOM) was analysed using JAFROC software. Breast side-specific sensitivity and specificity were tested using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests. Agreement between pairs of readings was measured using Kendall's coefficient of concordance. Group performances between test-set readings demonstrated similar ROI FOMs, sensitivity and specificity median values, and acceptable levels of agreement between pairs of readings were shown (W = 0.75-0.79, p reading conditions. On an individual reader level, two readers demonstrated significant decreases (p images were unavailable. Reading location had an inconsistent impact on individual performance. Reading location and availability of prior images did not significantly alter group performance. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in

  10. The Nature of Children's Motivations for Reading, and Their Relations to Reading Frequency and Reading Performance. Reading Research Report No. 63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfield, Allan; And Others

    A study assessed dimensions of children's reading motivations by giving them a revised version of the Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (MRQ). The MRQ is designed to assess 11 possible dimensions of reading motivations, including reading efficacy, several intrinsic and several extrinsic reading motivations, social aspects of reading, and the…

  11. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  12. On the Practice Teaching of English Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yonghong

    2009-01-01

    The main task of practice teaching of English Reading is to train students' independent reading ability and good reading habits. Extra-curricular reading of English literature and English newspapers and magazines plays an active role in improving English reading ability. The principle of selecting reading materials, the scope of selection and the…

  13. Repeated Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Repeated reading" is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. "Repeated reading" can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level. During "repeated reading," a student sits in a quiet location with a…

  14. Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

    2013-06-01

    While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

  15. Reading: Interaction With Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-15

    comedian- shots , jockey-doubt, zoologist-perfect, cobbler- grown, musician-dust. Subjects and Design. There were 32 subjects in each of Experiments 6 and 7...dotte I TIME: 11:16 I DATE: JUMO 4, 19313JM: 4 shadilrkilC,•apWGRP IMCJOB’ePSSIDitV-d419470, S*Oi: P’,: I ,S,, I o--mE-NT "W 325 PLEASE RETURN PROOFS...scratch ed, shot at, was being tickled by. tried to catch, saw, read ps < .05. All other Fs, for both experiments, were less than somfething to, went

  16. COLLABORATIVE STRATEGIC READING IMPLEMENTATION TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Desy Olivia Riani

    2013-01-01

    This collaborative action research is aimed to find out whether or not the implementation of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) improves students' reading comprehension and also to identify students' attitude towards the implementation of CSR. CSR is reading strategy that employs four strategies namely Preview, Click and Clunk, Get the Gist and Wrap Up during students’ cooperative learning. A class of eleventh grade students of a public senior high school in Majalengka, West Java, Indonesi...

  17. Disaggregating reserve-to-production ratios: An algorithm for United States oil and gas reserve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles William

    Reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas development are utilized by oil and gas producing states to monitor oil and gas reserve and production dynamics. These ratios are used to determine production levels for the manipulation of oil and gas prices while maintaining adequate reserves for future development. These aggregate reserve-to-production ratios do not provide information concerning development cost and the best time necessary to develop newly discovered reserves. Oil and gas reserves are a semi-finished inventory because development of the reserves must take place in order to implement production. These reserves are considered semi-finished in that they are not counted unless it is economically profitable to produce them. The development of these reserves is encouraged by profit maximization economic variables which must consider the legal, political, and geological aspects of a project. This development is comprised of a myriad of incremental operational decisions, each of which influences profit maximization. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a model for characterizing a single product multi-period inventory/production optimization problem from an unconstrained quantity of raw material which was produced and stored as inventory reserve. This optimization was determined by evaluating dynamic changes in new additions to reserves and the subsequent depletion of these reserves with the maximization of production. A secondary purpose was to determine an equation for exponential depletion of proved reserves which presented a more comprehensive representation of reserve-to-production ratio values than an inadequate and frequently used aggregate historical method. The final purpose of this study was to determine the most accurate delay time for a proved reserve to achieve maximum production. This calculated time provided a measure of the discounted cost and calculation of net present value for developing new reserves. This study concluded that

  18. Comparing treatments for children with ADHD and word reading difficulties: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Leanne; Denton, Carolyn A; Epstein, Jeffery N; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Heather; Arnold, L Eugene; Bukstein, Oscar; Anixt, Julia; Koshy, Anson; Newman, Nicholas C; Maltinsky, Jan; Brinson, Patricia; Loren, Richard E A; Prasad, Mary R; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Vaughn, Aaron

    2017-05-01

    This trial compared attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment alone, intensive reading intervention alone, and their combination for children with ADHD and word reading difficulties and disabilities (RD). Children (n = 216; predominantly African American males) in Grades 2-5 with ADHD and word reading/decoding deficits were randomized to ADHD treatment (medication + parent training), reading treatment (reading instruction), or combined ADHD + reading treatment. Outcomes were parent and teacher ADHD ratings and measures of word reading/decoding. Analyses utilized a mixed models covariate-adjusted gain score approach with posttest regressed onto pretest. Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity outcomes were significantly better in the ADHD (parent Hedges's g = .87/.75; teacher g = .67/.50) and combined (parent g = 1.06/.95; teacher g = .36/41) treatment groups than reading treatment alone; the ADHD and Combined groups did not differ significantly (parent g = .19/.20; teacher g = .31/.09). Word reading and decoding outcomes were significantly better in the reading (word reading g = .23; decoding g = .39) and combined (word reading g = .32; decoding g = .39) treatment groups than ADHD treatment alone; reading and combined groups did not differ (word reading g = .09; decoding g = .00). Significant group differences were maintained at the 3- to 5-month follow-up on all outcomes except word reading. Children with ADHD and RD benefit from specific treatment of each disorder. ADHD treatment is associated with more improvement in ADHD symptoms than RD treatment, and reading instruction is associated with better word reading and decoding outcomes than ADHD treatment. The additive value of combining treatments was not significant within disorder, but the combination allows treating both disorders simultaneously. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  20. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  1. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  2. Comparison of Reading Levels of Pharmacy Students and Reading Level of Primary Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy H Ficzere

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The project purpose was to evaluate pharmacy students’ reading levels using the Nelson-Denney Reading Test (NDRT and compare these results with the reading level of primary literature to investigate incongruities between student’s comprehension ability and the readability level of assigned reading in the curriculum. Methods: The NDRT was administered to first- through third-year student pharmacists to determine grade equivalents (GE for vocabulary and reading comprehension. Twenty articles previously identified as Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters (POEMs were analyzed to determine the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level and Gunning-Fog Score. Student demographics, information regarding language spoken, and reading habits, were also assessed. Pearson product moment correlations, t-tests, ANOVA, and descriptive statistics were used to assess relationships between demographic data and NDRT scores. Results: One hundred students participated. The mean NDRT total grade equivalent (±SD was 16.95 ± 2.1 (median = 17.3. NDRT grade equivalents were statistically different for students with different racial or ethnic backgrounds (t(98=3.74, p=0.026, English as a second language (ESL students (t(98=5.19, p=0.021, and students that read works of fiction for pleasure (t(98=4.31, p=0.002. The average Gunning-Fog Score for all primary literature articles was 11.48, with the introduction section being the most complex. The average Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level was 17.04, with the results section scoring the lowest average grade level. Implications: While the overall reading grade level of our pharmacy students suggests that they are capable of comprehending reading assigned in the pharmacy curriculum, minority students and students for whom English is a second language may struggle with comprehending complex text. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have

  3. A genetic scale of reading frame coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Christian J

    2014-08-21

    The reading frame coding (RFC) of codes (sets) of trinucleotides is a genetic concept which has been largely ignored during the last 50 years. A first objective is the definition of a new and simple statistical parameter PrRFC for analysing the probability (efficiency) of reading frame coding (RFC) of any trinucleotide code. A second objective is to reveal different classes and subclasses of trinucleotide codes involved in reading frame coding: the circular codes of 20 trinucleotides and the bijective genetic codes of 20 trinucleotides coding the 20 amino acids. This approach allows us to propose a genetic scale of reading frame coding which ranges from 1/3 with the random codes (RFC probability identical in the three frames) to 1 with the comma-free circular codes (RFC probability maximal in the reading frame and null in the two shifted frames). This genetic scale shows, in particular, the reading frame coding probabilities of the 12,964,440 circular codes (PrRFC=83.2% in average), the 216 C(3) self-complementary circular codes (PrRFC=84.1% in average) including the code X identified in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes (PrRFC=81.3%) and the 339,738,624 bijective genetic codes (PrRFC=61.5% in average) including the 52 codes without permuted trinucleotides (PrRFC=66.0% in average). Otherwise, the reading frame coding probabilities of each trinucleotide code coding an amino acid with the universal genetic code are also determined. The four amino acids Gly, Lys, Phe and Pro are coded by codes (not circular) with RFC probabilities equal to 2/3, 1/2, 1/2 and 2/3, respectively. The amino acid Leu is coded by a circular code (not comma-free) with a RFC probability equal to 18/19. The 15 other amino acids are coded by comma-free circular codes, i.e. with RFC probabilities equal to 1. The identification of coding properties in some classes of trinucleotide codes studied here may bring new insights in the origin and evolution of the genetic code. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  4. A Special Chinese Reading Acceleration Training Paradigm: To Enhance the Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Chinese Children with Reading Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Li Dai; Chengcheng Zhang; Xiangping Liu

    2016-01-01

    According to a number of studies, use of a Reading Acceleration Program as reading intervention training has been demonstrated to improve reading speed and comprehension level effectively in most languages and countries. The objective of the current study was to provide further evidence of the effectiveness of a Reading Acceleration Program for Chinese children with reading disabilities using a distinctive Chinese reading acceleration training paradigm. The reading acceleration training parad...

  5. Reserve Retirement Equality: Treating Reserves Fairly While Saving Taxpayer Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    rata .121 For example, a Reserve who performs the equivalent of five years of active duty, will receive one-fourth the retired pay of his active duty...4,225 per month.124 But because reserve-retirement benefits are based on pro rata years of service, this officer’s years of service for retirement...purposes are 3,146 retirement points divided by 360.125 This results in 8.74 years pro rata years of service.126 His retirement benefits thus are

  6. Science teacher's discourse about reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martins

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research we start from the assumption that teachers act as mediators of reading practices in school and problematise their practices, meanings and representations of reading. We have investigated meanings constructed by a group of teachers of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, working at a federal technical school. Having French discourse analysis as our theoretical-methodological framework, we considered that meanings, concepts and conceptions of reading are built historically through discourses, which produce meanings that determine ideological practices. Our results show that, for that group of teachers, there were no opportunities during either initial training or on-going education for reflecting upon the role of reading in science teaching and learning. Moreover, there seems to be an association between the type of discourse and modes of reading, so that unique meanings are attributed to scientific texts and their reading are linked to search and assimilation of information.

  7. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB system is possible and that precautionary reserves consequently do not pose a necessary limit. We discuss various instances in which a FRFB system may expand credit without a prior increase in real savings. These facets all demonstrate why a fractional reserve banking system – even a free banking one – is inherently unstable, and incentivized to impose a stabilizing central bank. We find that at the root of our disagreements with Selgin lies a different approach to monetary theory. Selgin subscribes to the aggregative equation of exchange, which impedes him from seeing the microeconomic problems that the stabilization of “MV” by a FRFB system causes.

  8. Reading strategies of primary school pupils in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Najvarová

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on reading with comprehension – an activity of the readerwhich is seen as an interaction between the author and the recipient. In order tounderstand a text better, a reader may employ various techniques and strategies. Thearticle consists of three parts. In the first part, categories reading strategy and readingskill and the relationship between them are defined. In the second part, classificationsof reading strategies are presented and sorted according to various criteria. The thirdpart summarises the findings of a research project that concentrated on the readingstrategies of primary school pupils in Czech primary schools in the 2005/06 schoolyear. The findings indicate primary school teachers’ preferred procedures of using textsin teaching and pupils’ preferred reading strategies by the end of primary education.

  9. Upgrade of the ALICE-TPC read-out electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Junique, A; Musa , L; Rehman , A U

    2010-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN LHC employs a large volume time projection chamber (TPC) as its main tracking device. Instigated by analyses indicating that the high level trigger is capable of sifting events with rare physics probes, it is endeavoured to read out the TPC an order of magnitude faster then was reckoned during the design of its read-out electronics. Based on an analysis of the read-out performance of the current system, an upgrade of the front-end read-out network is proposed. The performance of the foreseen architecture is simulated with raw data from real 7 TeV pp collisions. Events are superimposed in order to emulate the future ALICE running conditions: high multiplicity events generated either by PbPb collisions or by the superposition (pile-up) of a large number of pp collisions. The first prototype of the main building block has been produced and characterised, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach

  10. Upgrade of the ALICE-TPC read-out electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junique, A; Mager, M; Musa, L; Rehman, A Ur, E-mail: Magnus.Mager@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-12-15

    The ALICE experiment at CERN LHC employs a large volume time projection chamber (TPC) as its main tracking device. Instigated by analyses indicating that the high level trigger is capable of sifting events with rare physics probes, it is endeavoured to read out the TPC an order of magnitude faster then was reckoned during the design of its read-out electronics. Based on an analysis of the read-out performance of the current system, an upgrade of the front-end read-out network is proposed. The performance of the foreseen architecture is simulated with raw data from real 7 TeV pp collisions. Events are superimposed in order to emulate the future ALICE running conditions: high multiplicity events generated either by PbPb collisions or by the superposition (pile-up) of a large number of pp collisions. The first prototype of the main building block has been produced and characterised, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach.

  11. Pictures, Images and Deep Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, Janice

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the support provided by multimodal children’s literature in the development of literacy. The focus is on reading in a second language and the negotiation of understanding due to information gaps in the narrative, and on reading pleasure due to sensory anchoring through pictures. The development of deep reading is differentiated from the acquisition of functional literacy skills. Further, the differentiation between the medium-embeddedness of pictures and the perceptual-tr...

  12. »AREA« PROGRAMME FOR CALCULATION OF MINERAL RESERVES

    OpenAIRE

    Nevenka Krklec; Mario Zidar

    1989-01-01

    An accurate estimation of mineral reserves is needed for their completion of geologic project on the reserves of solid mineral raw materials. Authors have developed an original computer analyses for estimation of mineral reserves based on the method of vertical, parallel profiles. The language and the computer used are PASCAL and PARTNER, respectively. Important results in speed and accuracy of estimation have been obtained (the paper is published in Croatian).

  13. »AREA« PROGRAMME FOR CALCULATION OF MINERAL RESERVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Krklec

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available An accurate estimation of mineral reserves is needed for their completion of geologic project on the reserves of solid mineral raw materials. Authors have developed an original computer analyses for estimation of mineral reserves based on the method of vertical, parallel profiles. The language and the computer used are PASCAL and PARTNER, respectively. Important results in speed and accuracy of estimation have been obtained (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  15. Children’s comprehension of informational text: Reading, engaging, and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda BAKER

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Reading, Engaging, and Learning project (REAL investigated whether a classroom intervention that enhanced young children's experience with informational books would increase reading achievement and engagement. Participants attended schools serving low income neighborhoods with 86% African American enrollment. The longitudinal study spanned second through fourth grades. Treatment conditions were: (1 Text Infusion/Reading for Learning Instruction -- students were given greater access to informational books in their classroom libraries and in reading instruction; (2 Text Infusion Alone -- the same books were provided but teachers were not asked to alter their instruction; (3 Traditional Instruction -- students experienced business as usual in the classroom. Children were assessed each year on measures of reading and reading engagement, and classroom instructional practices were observed. On most measures, the informational text infusion intervention did not yield differential growth over time. However, the results inform efforts to increase children’s facility with informational text in the early years in order to improve reading comprehension.

  16. Reading assessment and training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to ensure ourselves and the general public that the workers in the Nuclear Materials Processing Department (NMPD) could read, follow, and understand procedures. Procedures were randomly selected and analyzed for reading levels. A tenth grade reading level was established as the standard for all NMPD employees. Employees were tested to determine reading levels and approximately 12% could not read at the target level. A Procedure Walk-Through Evaluation was administered to each person not reaching tenth grade reading level. This was a job performance measure given to ensure that the worker was competent in his/her present job, and should remain there while completing reading training. A mandatory Reading Training Program utilizing Computer Based Training was established. This program is self-paced, individualized instruction and provided to the worker on Company time. Results of the CBT Program have been very good. Instruction is supplemented with test-taking skills seminars, practice exams, individual conferences with their own reading specialist, and some self-directed study books. This paper describes the program at Savannah River Site

  17. Centrifugal and centripetal forces in the discourse of early years reading instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Christopher George

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports on a research project investigating how a sample of eight teachers of P2 children in Scotland encouraged dialogic interaction in their reading groups while following prescriptive policy. The research is based on a detailed analysis of the discourse of reading sessions conducted by the eight teachers, and is informed by previous research on oral language development, the role of dialogue in children’s learning, and the relationships between reading developmen...

  18. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  19. Cerebral correlates of cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Staff, Roger T; Fox, Helen C; Murray, Alison D

    2016-01-30

    Cognitive reserve is a hypothetical concept introduced to explain discrepancies between severity of clinical dementia syndromes and the extent of dementia pathology. We examined cognitive reserve in a research programme that followed up a non-clinical sample born in 1921 or 1936 and IQ-tested age 11 years in 1932 or 1947. Structural MRI exams were acquired in about 50% of the sample from whom a subsample were recruited into an additional fMRI study. Here, we summarise findings from seven inter-related studies. These support an understanding of cognitive reserve as a balance between positive life course activity-driven experiences and the negative effects of brain pathologies including cerebrovascular disease and total and regional brain volume loss. Hypothesised structural equation models illustrate the relative causal effects of these positive and negative contributions. Cognitive reserve is considered in the context of choice of interventions to prevent dementia and the opposing effects of cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer like brain appearances. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  1. Reading, Writing & Rings: Science Literacy for K-4 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, S.; Spilker, L.; Zimmerman-Brachman, R.

    2007-12-01

    Scientific discovery is the impetus for the K-4 Education program, "Reading, Writing & Rings." This program is unique because its focus is to engage elementary students in reading and writing to strengthen these basic academic skills through scientific content. As science has been increasingly overtaken by the language arts in elementary classrooms, the Cassini Education Program has taken advantage of a new cross-disciplinary approach to use language arts as a vehicle for increasing scientific content in the classroom. By utilizing the planet Saturn and the Cassini-Huygens mission as a model in both primary reading and writing students in these grade levels, young students can explore science material while at the same time learning these basic academic skills. Content includes reading, thinking, and hands-on activities. Developed in partnership with the Cassini-Huygens Education and Public Outreach Program, the Bay Area Writing Project/California Writing Project, Foundations in Reading Through Science & Technology (FIRST), and the Caltech Pre-College Science Initiative (CAPSI), and classroom educators, "Reading, Writing & Rings" blends the excitement of space exploration with reading and writing. All materials are teacher developed, aligned with national science and language education standards, and are available from the Cassini-Huygens website: http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/education/edu-k4.cfm Materials are divided into two grade level units. One unit is designed for students in grades 1 and 2 while the other unit focuses on students in grades 3 and 4. Each includes a series of lessons that take students on a path of exploration of Saturn using reading and writing prompts.

  2. Promoting Tenth Graders’ Reading Comprehension of Academic Texts in the English Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Quiroga Carrillo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an action research project conducted in a public school in Bogotá, Colombia, with tenth grade students. We decided to develop it because of the students' needs as well as the emphasis of the PEI (Proyecto Educativo Institucional = School Institutional Project, which is based on the requisite of improving reading comprehension. The project focused on the implementation of four lesson plans in which five reading strategies were applied. They were reading speed, non-text information, word attack skills, text attack and discursive strategies. Data collection was conducted by using observation, journals, interviews and questionnaires. These instruments provided information about the level of improvement in reading comprehension and evidenced advances in the students' performance when they read an academic text in English.

  3. An examination of the rapid automatized naming-reading relationship using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummine, J; Chouinard, B; Szepesvari, E; Georgiou, G K

    2015-10-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been established to be a strong predictor of reading. Yet, the neural correlates underlying the RAN-reading relationship remain unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine: (a) the extent to which RAN and reading activate similar brain regions (within subjects), (b) whether RAN and reading are directly related in the shared activity network outlined in (a), and (c) to what extent RAN neural activation predicts behavioral reading performance. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), university students (N=15; Mean age=20.6 years) were assessed on RAN (letters and digits) and single-word reading (words and non-words). The results revealed a common RAN-reading network that included regions associated with motor planning (cerebellum), semantic access (middle temporal gyrus), articulation (supplementary motor area, pre-motor), and grapheme-phoneme translation (supramarginal gyrus). We found differences between RAN and reading with respect to percent signal change (PSC) in phonological and orthographic regions, but not in articulatory regions. Significant correlations between the neural RAN and reading parameters were found primarily in motor/articulatory regions. Further, we found a unique relationship between in-scanner reading response time and RAN PSC in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Taken together, these findings support the notion that RAN and reading activate similar neural networks. However, the relationship between RAN and reading is primarily driven by commonalities in the motor-sequencing/articulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Involvement of the right hemisphere in reading comprehension: a DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Wang, Yingying; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

    2014-09-25

    The Simple View of reading emphasizes the critical role of two factors in normal reading skills: word recognition and reading comprehension. The current study aims to identify the anatomical support for aspects of reading performance that fall within these two components. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained from diffusion tensor images in twenty-one typical adolescents and young adults using the tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. We focused on the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) as fiber tracts that connect regions already implicated in the distributed cortical network for reading. Our results demonstrate dissociation between word-level and narrative-level reading skills: the FA values for both left and right ILF were correlated with measures of word reading, while only the left ILF correlated with reading comprehension scores. FA in the AF, however, correlated only with reading comprehension scores, bilaterally. Correlations with the right AF were particularly robust, emphasizing the contribution of the right hemisphere, especially the frontal lobe, to reading comprehension performance on the particular passage comprehension test used in this study. The anatomical dissociation between these reading skills is supported by the Simple View theory and may shed light on why these two skills dissociate in those with reading disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydropower Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-02

    The Water Power Program helps industry harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generate environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity. Through support for public, private, and nonprofit efforts, the Water Power Program promotes the development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced hydropower devices and pumped storage hydropower applications. These technologies help capture energy stored by diversionary structures, increase the efficiency of hydroelectric generation, and use excess grid energy to replenish storage reserves for use during periods of peak electricity demand. In addition, the Water Power Program works to assess the potential extractable energy from domestic water resources to assist industry and government in planning for our nation’s energy future. From FY 2008 to FY 2014, DOE’s Water Power Program announced awards totaling approximately $62.5 million to 33 projects focused on hydropower. Table 1 provides a brief description of these projects.

  6. Information security of remote-reading energy meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, J.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents basic concepts within the field of IT security. The ITSEC security and the ITSEM methods given by the European Community are used as a base. The EC INFOSEC research programme has included the project 'PER DOMUM' which focuses on remote reading of energy meters. The project is a co-operation between TACS (U.K.), GPP (Germany), CESI (Italy) and ENEL (Italy). SP has during the spring and summer of 1994 participated in the concluding of the project. Threats, security functions and security mechanisms are given for remote reading of energy meters. All of the listed functions and mechanisms do not origin from the 'PER DOMUM' project, but are the experiences of SP. The security evaluation is explained in two ways. One description of the required by ITSEM is given. Another description is given of which deliverables are required to perform the evaluation

  7. Observation of directional storybook reading influences young children's counting direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Silke M; McCrink, Koleen; Fischer, Martin H; Shaki, Samuel

    2018-02-01

    Even before formal schooling, children map numbers onto space in a directional manner. The origin of this preliterate spatial-numerical association is still debated. We investigated the role of enculturation for shaping the directionality of the association between numbers and space, focusing on counting behavior in 3- to 5-year-old preliterate children. Two studies provide evidence that, after observing reading from storybooks (left-to-right or right-to-left reading) children change their counting direction in line with the direction of observed reading. Just observing visuospatial directional movements had no such effect on counting direction. Complementarily, we document that book illustrations, prevalent in children's cultures, exhibit directionality that conforms to the direction of a culture's written language. We propose that shared book reading activates spatiotemporal representations of order in young children, which in turn affect their spatial representation of numbers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  9. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  10. Enhancing "Reading Mastery" Programs Using Explicit "Reading to Learn" Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.; McGlocklin, Linda M.; Miller, Darcey E.; Martella, Ronald C.

    2006-01-01

    Vocabulary and text comprehension strategies are acknowledged as critical components of any comprehensive reading program. This article highlights the scientifically-based research on effective reading instruction related to vocabulary and comprehension development. Specifically, the article provides explicit formats integrating these important…

  11. Promoting reading and good reading culture through the use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is the findings from existing literature on the mechanics of using book talks and story books to inculcate reading and the steps to develop good reading culture in children. This work is an ongoing action research work in selected private and public schools in Lagos Mainland. It has so far been established that the ...

  12. Do You Read Me? Service Supplement: Reading Development Activities Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Elizabeth L.; Chenoweth, Roberta

    This activity guide is one of four supplements to be used with "Do You Read Me? Prevocational-Vocational Reading Development Activities" (ED 210 454). Each supplement deals with a different occupational category. Games, puzzles, and other activities are offered to aid in developing the word recognition, vocabulary, and comprehension…

  13. Modern Speed-Reading Apps Do Not Foster Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acklin, Dina; Papesh, Megan H

    2017-01-01

    New computer apps are gaining popularity by suggesting that reading speeds can be drastically increased when eye movements that normally occur during reading are eliminated. This is done using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), where words are presented 1 at a time, thus preventing natural eye movements such as saccades, fixations, and regressions from occurring. Al- though the companies producing these apps suggest that RSVP reading does not yield comprehension deficits, research investigating the role of eye movements in reading documents shows the necessity of natural eye movements for accurate comprehension. The current study explored variables that may affect reading comprehension during RSVP reading, including text difficulty (6th grade and 12th grade), text presentation speed (static, 700 wpm, and 1,000 wpm), and working memory capacity (WMC). Consistent with recent work showing a tenuous relationship between comprehension and WMC, participants' WMC did not predict comprehension scores. Instead, comprehension was most affected by reading speed: Static text was associated with superior performance, relative to either RSVP reading condition. Furthermore, slower RSVP speeds yielded better verbatim comprehension, and faster speeds benefited inferential comprehension.

  14. Reading the Web: Internet Guided Reading with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, David

    2015-01-01

    Online reading requires traditional and new comprehension skills and strategies, and these skills and strategies will have to be taught and supported, especially for young beginning readers. But how do elementary teachers go about doing this? Much of the research regarding teaching and supporting online reading comprehension has focused on older…

  15. A Cognitive View of Reading Comprehension: Implications for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne; Karlsson, Josefine

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in the present paper is to discuss a "cognitive view" of reading comprehension, with particular attention to research findings that have the potential to improve our understanding of difficulties in reading comprehension. We provide an overview of how specific sources of difficulties in inference making, executive functions, and…

  16. Reading Cooperatively or Independently? Study on ELL Student Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siping; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of cooperative reading teaching activities and independent reading activities for English language learner (ELL) students at 4th grade level. Based on simple linear regression and correlational analyses of data collected from two large data bases, PIRLS and NAEP, the study found that cooperative reading…

  17. Compensatory Reading among ESL Learners: A Reading Strategy Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Petras, Yusof Ede; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Eng, Lin Siew

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to gain an insight to the relationship of two different concepts about reading comprehension, namely, the linear model of comprehension and the interactive compensatory theory. Drawing on both the above concepts, a heuristic was constructed about three different reading strategies determined by the specific ways the literal,…

  18. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  19. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: A longitudinal study from grade one to two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children’s reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first- and second-grade students. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade one, but not in grade two after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade two, but not in grade one, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in grade one whereas in grade two, silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency. PMID:22726256

  20. NARROW READING IN AN EXTENSIVE READING COURSE: LEXICALLY-BASED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siusana Kweldju

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One shot case study was conducted in one semester to undergraduate English majors who were preparing themselves to become English teachers at high school level. This study was to find out whether or not students had positive attitudes towards narrow reading, how high narrow reading helped them improve their English proficiency, and what problems students might have with narrow reading. Four questionnaires were completed during the case study to discover how students felt and thought about the course and how the course improved their English. It was found out that narrow reading not only improved students' language proficiency but also helped students develop their general knowledge, the love of reading and the appreciation on literary work.

  1. Electricity Bill [second reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, G.; Williams, C.C.P.; Ezra, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Parliamentary Under-Secretary at the Department of Energy introduced the second reading of the Electricity Bill which provides for the restructuring and privatisation of the electricity supply industry throughout Great Britain. Three features at the heart of the Government's proposals are mentioned - first that the proposals will promote competition in electricity generation and supply of electricity so there will be a downward pressure on costs and prices, second is a new deal for customers and third is the security of electricity supply which will be ensured by the diversity of suppliers. The benefits of the scheme are outlined and then specific details of the Bill are considered. The debate which followed lasted six hours and is reported verbatim. The issues raised included environmental effects, efficiency, energy conservation, research and development and investment. (UK)

  2. Readings in Formal Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ‘Formal epistemology’ is a term coined in the late 1990s for a new constellation of interests in philosophy,the roots of which are found in earlier works of epistemologists, philosophers of science, and logicians. It addresses a growing agenda of problems concerning knowledge, belief, certainty......, rationality, deliberation, decision, strategy, action and agent interaction – and it does so using methods from logic, probability, computability, decision, and game theory. This volume presents 42 classic texts in formal epistemology, and strengthens the ties between research into this area of philosophy...... and its neighbouring intellectual disciplines. The editors provide introductions to five basic subsections: Bayesian Epistemology, Belief Change, Decision Theory, Interactive Epistemology and Logics of Knowledge and Belief. The volume also includes a thorough index and suggestions for further reading...

  3. Lexical prosody beyond first-language boundary: Chinese lexical tone sensitivity predicts English reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, William; Tong, Xiuli; Cain, Kate

    2016-08-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study examined the role of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity in predicting English reading comprehension and the pathways underlying their relation. Multiple measures of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity, English lexical stress sensitivity, Cantonese segmental phonological awareness, general auditory sensitivity, English word reading, and English reading comprehension were administered to 133 Cantonese-English unbalanced bilingual second graders. Structural equation modeling analysis identified transfer of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity to English reading comprehension. This transfer was realized through a direct pathway via English stress sensitivity and also an indirect pathway via English word reading. These results suggest that prosodic sensitivity is an important factor influencing English reading comprehension and that it needs to be incorporated into theoretical accounts of reading comprehension across languages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Verbal working memory and reading abilities among students with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Vassilios; Masoura, Elvira; Tsiakali, Thomai K; Nikolaraizi, Magda; Lappa, Christina

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between working memory (WM) and reading abilities among students with visual impairment (VI). Seventy-five students with VI (visually impairment and blindness), aged 10-15 years old participated in the study, of whom 44 were visually impaired and 31 were blind. The participants' reading ability was assessed with the standardized reading ability battery Test-A (Padeliadu & Antoniou, 2008) and their verbal working memory ability was assessed with the listening recall task from the Working Memory Test Battery for Children (Pickering et al., 2001). Data analysis indicated a strong correlation between verbal WM and decoding, reading comprehension and overall reading ability among the participants with VI, while no correlation was found between reading fluency and verbal WM. The present study points out the important role of verbal WM in reading among students who are VI and carries implications for the education of those individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reading deficiencies in older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R H; Davis, T C; Murphy, P; Bairnsfather, L E; George, R B

    1994-08-01

    To participate effectively in their health care, older patients often are expected to read a wide variety of materials, including written instructions, brochures, and consent forms. This study quantitates the reading ability of older patients and compares it to that of younger patients. Two hundred seventy-two patients 30 and older were selected from five outpatient clinics at a public teaching hospital and tested for objective reading ability using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test--Revised. The 76 patients 60 and older read significantly worse (grade level 2.9) than the 196 patients younger than 60 (grade level 5.8) (P < 0.0001). Older patients also completed significantly fewer years of school than younger patients (7.3 years versus 10.6 years). Analysis of variance for age categories 30-44, 45-59, 60-74, and 75 and older confirmed declining reading ability and educational status with advancing age. Multiple regression analysis helped show that an equation could be derived to predict reading ability from age, educational status, race, and sex, but the coefficient of determination was so low (r2 = 0.39) that it cannot be considered clinically useful for individual patients. In this study, older patients read significantly worse than younger patients, and a formula that combines age, race, sex, and educational status cannot reliably predict reading ability for individual patients. Most older patients read on a level so low that they cannot be expected to read most commonly used written materials. Routine testing of reading ability may allow more appropriate design and use of written materials.

  6. Phonological coding during reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  7. Impact of ground control on mining reserve estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, G. [AMC Resource Consultants Pty Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2001-07-01

    The estimation of coal resources and reserves is an important and often critical component of the assessment of a mining operation or project. An accurate estimation of reserves in particular is essential for many stages of a mining project - from initial evaluation of the project potential, commitment to a mine development, approval of capital expenditure and/or project finance, through to mine valuation for sale or public listing. Accurate estimation of reserves is also a compulsory reporting requirement for public listed companies as set out in the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX), listing rules. Under these rules, resources and reserves are reported under the JOC Code that incorporates the 'Australian Code for Reporting Identified Coal Resources and Reserves'. These rules are now also used more frequently for non public listed companies. A number of geotechnical parameters play an important role in the process of converting insitu resources to economically recoverable reserves. Whilst these parameters play a role in opencut mining, this paper covers a number of key geotechnical issues that influence the estimation of underground reserves. 11 figs.

  8. Developing Writing-Reading Abilities though Semiglobal Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macri, Cecilia; Bocos, Musata

    2013-01-01

    Through this research was intended to underline the importance of the semi-global strategies used within thematic projects for developing writing/reading abilities in the first grade pupils. Four different coordinates were chosen to be the main variables of this research: the level of phonological awareness, the degree in which writing-reading…

  9. Year Two of Implementation Nebraska Reading First. Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainin, Guy; Yagil, Oren; Murphy, Malinda

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines the results of a two year implementation of the Nebraska's Reading First initiative. Over three thousand six hundred students from Kindergarten to Third grade were included in the project. Results indicated significant growth across all demographic groups. Student performance in the earlier grades has shown great promise for…

  10. openlab reading clubs - fostering critical thinking and constructive communication

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At the openlab HTCC collaboration, we have started a reading club in the context of academic articles on scientific computing to practice precisely these skills and to gain more knowledge in this field. This is especially important for the doctoral students in our collaboration, allowing them to better set their project into a greater context and compare to related works.

  11. Reading Culture and Internet Browsing: A Shift of Paradigm among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the state of adolescents' readiness to project a stable reading culture in a society where the growth of ICT is catching their fancy, A total of 100 respondents, 52 awaiting admission into the university and 48 in their first year in the university, were used. Four hypotheses were tested to ...

  12. Service Learning: Flooding Students with Vocabulary through Read Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kerry; Thompson, Judith

    2014-01-01

    In the spirit of the Steven Stahl 600 Book Kid Challenge, 90 preservice teachers engaged children in 36 read-aloud sessions for a vocabulary improvement service learning project. This article describes how the preservice teachers used narrative and informational books as a vehicle for rare-word vocabulary exposure for children ages 8-12.

  13. Crafting Creative Nonfiction: From Close Reading to Close Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollins, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    A process writing project in a third-grade classroom explored the idea of using nonfiction mentor texts to assist students in writing their own creative informational texts about animals. By looking at author craft and structure during close reading activities with nonfiction Twin Texts, students were taught how to emulate these techniques in…

  14. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    .... The commentators represented Rural Development employees who work with the Multi-Family Housing Direct... their annual over-inflated tax bills and assessments. As a result, rent income funding that could be..., as rents cannot be raised to an amount that will cover all current and future reserve expenses...

  15. Reading for Pleasure among Year 13 Boys: What Are the Possibilities and Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Bev

    2012-01-01

    Boys' literacy has been, and continues to be, an area of concern for educationalists at all levels. The decline in boys' reading, which may have negative consequences for their learning, becomes more marked as they get older. This project examined possible reasons for this and implemented strategies designed to increase Year 13 boys' reading. The…

  16. The Effect of Story Read-Alouds on Children's Foreign Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norato Cerón, Catalina

    2014-01-01

    This action research project examines the impact of reading stories aloud on the development of children's reading and critical thinking strategies as well as on the improvement of English as a foreign language. Analysis of journal entries and transcriptions of recordings of the sessions were used to gather the information. Data collected revealed…

  17. iPad Use for Accelerating Reading Gains in Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retter, Shannan; Anderson, Christine; Kieran, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This action research project explored the use of the iPad 2 in a special education classroom with high school students who were considered struggling readers to determine if an academic gain in reading comprehension, reading fluency, and vocabulary implementing the intervention of an iPad and four specific applications (apps). The high school…

  18. "It Makes Me Really Want To Read": Struggling Readers Discover Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeaux, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a project where the teacher, rather than teaching the students how to read using a remedial, isolated skills approach, concerned herself with getting them to read by "falling into the literature" and getting involved in the characters' lives. Describes a reader response approach that was designed to motivate the students to engage with…

  19. Students' Difficulties in Reading Images. Comparing Results from Four National Research Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Roser; Ametller, Jaume

    2002-01-01

    Compares the results of four studies made under the auspices of the Science Teacher Training in an Information Society (STTIS) project researching the difficulties students have in reading images. The studies are compared under such categories as pre-eminence of narrative readings, real-world versus symbolic elements, verbal elements, and…

  20. In search of methods enhancing fluency in reading: An examination of the relations between time constraints and processes of reading in readers of German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Kochva, Irit; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    The attainment of fluency in reading is a major difficulty for reading-disabled people. Manipulations applied on the presentation of texts, leading to "on-line" effects on reading (i.e., while texts are manipulated), are one direction of examinations in search of methods affecting reading. The imposing of time constraints, by deleting one letter after the other from texts presented on a computer screen, has been established as such a method. In an attempt to further understand its nature, we tested the relations between time constraints and processes of reading: phonological decoding of small orthogrpahic units and the addressing of orthographic representations from the mental lexicon. We also examined whether the type of orthogrpahic unit deleted (lexical, sublexical, or nonlexical unit) has any additional effect. Participants were German fifth graders with (n = 29) or without (n = 34) reading disability. Time constraints enhanced fluency in reading in both groups, and to a similar extent, across conditions. Comprehension was unimpaired. These results place the very principle of time constraints, regardless of the orthographic unit manipulated, as a critical factor affecting fluency in reading. However, phonological decoding explained a significant amount of variance in fluency in reading across all conditions in reading-disabled children, whereas the addressing of orthographic representations was the consistent predictor of fluency in reading in regular readers. These results indicate a qualitative difference in the processes explaining the variance in fluency in reading in regular and reading-disabled readers and suggest that time constraints might not have an effect on the relations between these processes and reading performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Schemata as a Reading Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Zaliha

    Reading is a multileveled, interactive, and hypothesis-generating process in which readers construct a meaningful representation of text by using their knowledge of the world and of language. If reading involves grasping the significance of an input depending on the reader's mental cognitive-perceptual situation, then there is a form of background…

  2. 10 Questions about Independent Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Teachers know that establishing a robust independent reading program takes more than giving kids a little quiet time after lunch. But how do they set up a program that will maximize their students' gains? Teachers have to know their students' reading levels inside and out, help them find just-right books, and continue to guide them during…

  3. Reading Fluency and College Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Chang, Shu-Ching; Edmondson, Elizabeth; Nageldinger, James; Nigh, Jennifer; Remark, Linda; Kenney, Kristen Srsen; Walsh-Moorman, Elizabeth; Yildirim, Kasim; Nichols, William Dee; Paige, David D.; Rupley, William H.

    2017-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards suggest that an appropriate goal for secondary education is college and career readiness. Previous research has identified reading fluency as a critical component for proficient reading. One component of fluency is word recognition accuracy and automaticity. The present study attempted to determine the word…

  4. Iconic Prosody in Story Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Marcus; Clark, Nathaniel; Falck, Marlene Johansson

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that people iconically modulate their prosody corresponding with the meaning of their utterance (e.g., Shintel et al., 2006). This article reports findings from a story reading task that expands the investigation of iconic prosody to abstract meanings in addition to concrete ones. Participants read stories that…

  5. Summertime...and Reading Beckons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Otto

    2000-01-01

    Presents a collection of quotes by famous people about reading for enjoyment and personal development. The collection was assembled from a lifetime of fond association with books and reading by the rare-book librarian at the State Library in Berlin, who after Hitler's rise, relocated to the United States and founded the Bettmann Archive in New…

  6. Accessibility Principles for Reading Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Laitusis, Cara Cahalan; Dillon, Deborah R.; Cook, Linda L.; Moen, Ross E.; Abedi, Jamal; O'Brien, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Within the context of standards-based educational systems, states are using large scale reading assessments to help ensure that all children have the opportunity to learn essential knowledge and skills. The challenge for developers of accessible reading assessments is to develop assessments that measure only those student characteristics that are…

  7. How my brain stopped reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    Due to a medical condition I temporarily lost the ability to read and write. As an academic researcher specialised in understanding the reading process, I can benefit from this terrible experience by explaining – on a scientific level – what happened to me, and hence draw the lines to existing re...

  8. READ – developing literacy together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Vedsgaard

    2015-01-01

    -home literacy-intervention throughout a school year. The children in the intervention group (1500 children in year 2 and 3) received reading materials and their parents were informed about how to talk about texts, language and knowledge with their children through specially developed tools such as “reading...

  9. Reading: Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Much debate centers on motivating student in reading achievement. Should students feel motivated from within (intrinsic motivation), or is it better to have extrinsic motivation whereby external stimuli are used to help learners achieve optimally in reading? This paper aims to analyze the two points of view about motivating students in reading…

  10. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

  11. Empathy, Reading, and Gender Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.

    2017-01-01

    For this study, empathy was defined as not only understanding and sharing another's mental state, but also responding from a perspective more closely resembling the observed rather than the observer. Based on evidence suggesting relationships between reading and empathy, between empathy and gender, and between reading and gender, the current study…

  12. Reading Prosody in Spanish Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Martínez, Cristina; García, Noemí; Cuetos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Reading becomes expressive when word and text reading are quick, accurate and automatic. Recent studies have reported that skilled readers use greater pitch changes and fewer irrelevant pauses than poor readers. Given that developmental dyslexics have difficulty acquiring and automating the alphabetic code and developing orthographic…

  13. Gender Ratios for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Jesse L.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcut, Erik G.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of reading difficulties is typically higher in males than females in both referred and research-identified samples, and the ratio of males to females is greater in more affected samples. To explore possible gender differences in reading performance, we analysed data from 1133 twin pairs in which at least one member of each pair had…

  14. READING AND WRITING STANDARD ENGLISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRAIG, MYRTLE C.

    THE PROBLEM OF HOW TO TEACH PUPILS IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS TO READ AND WRITE STANDARD ENGLISH IS DISCUSSED. THE VALUE OF ORAL LANGUAGE AS A MEANS OF ATTAINING READING AND WRITING PROFICIENCY IS SUGGESTED. SUCCESS IN THESE AREAS CAN BE ATTAINED IF (1) THE HOME LANGUAGE OF THE CHILD IS ACCEPTED, (2) THE CHILD IS OFFERED MATERIALS ON HIS LEVEL OF…

  15. Effects of Ritalin on Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooter, Robert B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This article describes the use of "Ritalin" to calm overactive children. The drug's side effects are reported, and research on the effect of "Ritalin" on reading performance in the classroom is reviewed. It is concluded that use of stimulant drugs to help reading underachievers is not supported by research. (Author/JDD)

  16. Vocabularies in the Reading Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollerup, Cay; And Others

    Using a study of 30 Danish freshman college students' vocabularies as a springboard, this paper explores and discusses a number of current assumptions about vocabularies in the mother tongue and in foreign language pedagogics. The paper contends that it is logical to assume that vocabularies in reading are fluid and depend on the text read, on the…

  17. Bringing Reading Research to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Margaret G., Ed.; Kucan, Linda, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book brings together some of the world's foremost literacy scholars to discuss how research influences what teachers actually do in the classroom. Chapters describe the current state of knowledge about such key topics as decoding, vocabulary, comprehension, digital literacies, reading disabilities, and reading reform. At the same time, the…

  18. READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reading comprehension research and in linguistic pragmatics, and to assess its significance for both reading .... metaphorical or ironical interpretation; (vii) the meaning of any stylistic effects. The basic problem for ..... the speaker's emotional state and assumptions about other speakers' perception of your emotional state.

  19. The Science of Reading, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shinichi, Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This collection of the 1993 issues of the Japanese-language journal "The Science of Reading" presents 18 articles (research reports and "classroom reports") on a variety of questions dealing with reading. The articles in the collection all have summaries in English. Articles in the April issue are: "A Comparison of Two Methods of English Language…

  20. Toward developing a standardized Arabic continuous text reading chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdulkader, Balsam; Leat, Susan Jennifer

    Near visual acuity is an essential measurement during an oculo-visual assessment. Short duration continuous text reading charts measure reading acuity and other aspects of reading performance. There is no standardized version of such chart in Arabic. The aim of this study is to create sentences of equal readability to use in the development of a standardized Arabic continuous text reading chart. Initially, 109 Arabic pairs of sentences were created for use in constructing a chart with similar layout to the Colenbrander chart. They were created to have the same grade level of difficulty and physical length. Fifty-three adults and sixteen children were recruited to validate the sentences. Reading speed in correct words per minute (CWPM) and standard length words per minute (SLWPM) was measured and errors were counted. Criteria based on reading speed and errors made in each sentence pair were used to exclude sentence pairs with more outlying characteristics, and to select the final group of sentence pairs. Forty-five sentence pairs were selected according to the elimination criteria. For adults, the average reading speed for the final sentences was 166 CWPM and 187 SLWPM and the average number of errors per sentence pair was 0.21. Childrens' average reading speed for the final group of sentences was 61 CWPM and 72 SLWPM. Their average error rate was 1.71. The reliability analysis showed that the final 45 sentence pairs are highly comparable. They will be used in constructing an Arabic short duration continuous text reading chart. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.