WorldWideScience

Sample records for reserve growth potential

  1. Reserve growth in oil fields of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Gautier, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of petroleum resources of the North Sea, as well as other areas of the world, requires a viable means to forecast the amount of growth of reserve estimates (reserve growth) for discovered fields and to predict the potential fully developed sizes of undiscovered fields. This study investigates the utility of North Sea oil field data to construct reserve-growth models. Oil fields of the North Sea provide an excellent dataset in which to examine the mechanisms, characteristics, rates and quantities of reserve growth because of the high level of capital investments, implementation of sophisticated technologies and careful data collection. Additionally, these field data are well reported and available publicly. Increases in successive annual estimat es of recoverable crude oil volumes indicate that oil fields in the North Sea, collectively and in each country, experience reserve growth. Specific patterns of reserve growth are observed among countries and primary producing reservoir-rock types. Since 1985, Norwegian oil fields had the greatest volume increase; Danish oil fields increased by the greatest percentage relative to 1985 estimates; and British oil fields experienced an increase in recoverable oil estimates for the first ten years since 1985, followed by a slight reduction. Fields producing primarily from clastic reservoirs account for the majority of the estimated recoverable oil and, therefore, these fields had the largest volumetric increase. Fields producing primarily from chalk (limestone) reservoirs increased by a greater percentage relative to 1985 estimates than did fields producing primarily from clastic reservoirs. Additionally, the largest oil fields had the greatest volumetric increases. Although different reserve-growth patterns are observed among oil fields located in different countries, the small number of fields in Denmark precludes construction of reserve-growth models for that country. However, differences in reserve-growth

  2. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta: Model and forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.; Cook, T.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth is recognized as a major component of additions to reserves in most oil provinces around the world, particularly in mature provinces. It takes place as a result of the discovery of new pools/reservoirs and extensions of known pools within existing fields, improved knowledge of reservoirs over time leading to a change in estimates of original oil-in-place, and improvement in recovery factor through the application of new technology, such as enhanced oil recovery methods, horizontal/multilateral drilling, and 4D seismic. A reserve growth study was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada, with the following objectives: 1) evaluate historical oil reserve data in order to assess the potential for future reserve growth; 2) develop reserve growth models/ functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes; 3) study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters (for example, pool size, porosity, and oil gravity); and 4) compare reserve growth in oil pools and fields in Alberta with those from other large petroleum provinces around the world. The reported known recoverable oil exclusive of Athabasca oil sands in Alberta increased from 4.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) in 1960 to 17 BBO in 2005. Some of the pools that were included in the existing database were excluded from the present study for lack of adequate data. Therefore, the known recoverable oil increased from 4.2 to 13.9 BBO over the period from 1960 through 2005, with new discoveries contributing 3.7 BBO and reserve growth adding 6 BBO. This reserve growth took place mostly in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of known recoverable oil. Pools with light oil accounted for most of the total known oil volume, therefore reflecting the overall pool growth. Smaller pools, in contrast, shrank in their total recoverable volumes over the years. Pools with heavy oil (gravity less than 20o API) make up only a small share (3.8 percent) of the total recoverable oil; they showed a 23-fold growth compared to

  3. Development growth of uranium reserves during mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroux, M.

    1989-01-01

    According to the 1988 issue of the Nuclear Energy Agency report 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand' (the Red Book), total uranium resources remained constant, and compare with those given in the 1986 issue. However, the low cost category of the Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR), that is to say potentially mineable reserves under present market conditions, presents a different picture. These show a decrease of 54 000 tonnes U, or about 3.5%, from the 1 January 1985 level. It seems insignificant until compared with what was removed from the ground - only a quarter of the 71 500 tonnes U of the low cost uranium that was extracted during 1985 and 1986 was renewed by the industry. This is probably related to the low level of exploration activity since 1983. Moreover, new uranium might be not as easy to find as some past discoveries have led us to believe. While in 1988 it appears there is enough low cost uranium to supply existing reactors, the picture quickly changes. From 1991 onwards, for 30 years' supply for existing reactors, uranium will have to come from RAR in the higher cost category. (author)

  4. Reserve growth during financial volatility in a technologically challenging world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth (growth-to-known) is the addition of oil and gas quantities to reported proved or proved-plus-probable reserves in discovered fields. The amount of reserve growth fluctuates through time with prevailing economic and technological conditions. Most reserve additions are the result of investment in field operations and in development technology. These investments can be justified by higher prices of oil and gas, the desire to maintain cash flow, and by greater recovery efficiency in well established fields. The price/cost ratio affects decisions for field abandonment and (or) implementation of improved recovery methods. Although small- to medium-size fields might show higher percentages of reserve growth, a relatively few giant fields contribute most volumetric reserve growth, indicating that companies may prefer to invest in existing fields with low geologic and production risk and an established infrastructure in order to increase their price/cost relationship. Whereas many previous estimates of reserve growth were based on past trends of reported reserves, future reserve growth is expected to be greatly affected by financial volatility and fluctuating economic and technological conditions.

  5. Geologic constraints on the upper limits of reserve growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.

    2001-01-01

    For many oil and gas fields, estimates of ultimate recovery (the sum of cumulative production plus estimated reserves) tend to increase from one year to the next, and the gain is called reserve growth. Forecasts of reserve growth by the U.S. Geological Survey rely on statistical analyses of historical records of oil and gas production and estimated reserves. The preproposal in this Open-File Report suggests that this traditional petroleum–engineering approach to reserve growth might be supplemented, or at least better understood, by using geological data from individual oil and gas fields, 3–D modeling software, and standard volumetric techniques to estimate in–place volumes of oil and gas. Such estimates, in turn, can be used to constrain the upper limits of reserve growth and ultimate recovery from those fields.

  6. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON DYNAMICS OF CREDIT GROWTH AND FOREIGN RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrugan Sinah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a model for looking into the nature of change in foreign reserve from movements in domestic credit. This model is relevant to foreign reserve targeting, small and open economies. The model denotes that measures undertaken by central banks to constraint domestic credit growth with the view of controlling capital outflows will also be detrimental to foreign reserves level. The empirical studies with application of Fourier Transformation technique have been used to build a model, which shows that growth in domestic credit is more biased towards positive swings in foreign reserves, rather than being unfavorable. The small and open economies, particularly, the Pacific Island nations, have the right set up for application of this model to safeguard foreign reserves level.

  7. New U.S. Geological Survey Method for the Assessment of Reserve Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Attanasi, E.D.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Freeman, P.A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Le, Phuong A.; Ryder, Robert T.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Verma, Mahendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Reserve growth is defined as the estimated increases in quantities of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids that have the potential to be added to remaining reserves in discovered accumulations through extension, revision, improved recovery efficiency, and additions of new pools or reservoirs. A new U.S. Geological Survey method was developed to assess the reserve-growth potential of technically recoverable crude oil and natural gas to be added to reserves under proven technology currently in practice within the trend or play, or which reasonably can be extrapolated from geologically similar trends or plays. This method currently is in use to assess potential additions to reserves in discovered fields of the United States. The new approach involves (1) individual analysis of selected large accumulations that contribute most to reserve growth, and (2) conventional statistical modeling of reserve growth in remaining accumulations. This report will focus on the individual accumulation analysis. In the past, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated reserve growth by statistical methods using historical recoverable-quantity data. Those statistical methods were based on growth rates averaged by the number of years since accumulation discovery. Accumulations in mature petroleum provinces with volumetrically significant reserve growth, however, bias statistical models of the data; therefore, accumulations with significant reserve growth are best analyzed separately from those with less significant reserve growth. Large (greater than 500 million barrels) and older (with respect to year of discovery) oil accumulations increase in size at greater rates late in their development history in contrast to more recently discovered accumulations that achieve most growth early in their development history. Such differences greatly affect the statistical methods commonly used to forecast reserve growth. The individual accumulation-analysis method involves estimating the in

  8. Petroleum reserves and undiscovered resources in the total petroleum systems of Iraq: Reserve growth and production implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.K.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Al-Gailani, M.

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is one of the world's most petroleum-rich countries and, in the future, it could become one of the main producers. Iraq's petroleum resources are estimated to be 184 billion barrels, which include oil and natural gas reserves, and undiscovered resources. With its proved (or remaining) reserves of 113 billion barrels of oil (BBO) as of January 2003, Iraq ranks second to Saudi Arabia with 259 BBO in the Middle East. Iraq's proved reserves of 110 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) rank tenth in the world. In addition to known reserves, the combined undiscovered hydrocarbon potential for the three Total Petroleum Systems (Paleozoic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous/Tertiary) in Iraq is estimated to range from 14 to 84 BBO (45 BBO at the mean), and 37 to 227 TCFG (120 TCFG at the mean). Additionally, of the 526 known prospective structures, some 370 remain undrilled. Petroleum migration models and associated geological and geochemical studies were used to constrain the undiscovered resource estimates of Iraq. Based on a criterion of recoverable reserves of between 1 and 5 BBO for a giant field, and more than 5 BBO for a super-giant, Iraq has 6 super-giant and 11 giant fields, accounting for 88% of its recoverable reserves, which include proved reserves and cumulative production. Of the 28 producing fields, 22 have recovery factors that range from 15 to 42% with an overall average of less than 30%. The recovery factor can be increased with water injection, improved and enhanced oil recovery methods (IOR and EOR) in various reservoirs, thus potentially increasing Iraq's reserves by an additional 50 to 70 BBO. Reserve growth is a significant factor that has been observed, to some extent, in nearly all Iraqi oil fields. Historically, producing fields have shown an average growth of 1.6 fold (or 60%) in their recoverable reserves over a 20-year period (1981-2001). With periodic assessments of reservoirs, application of available technology, and an upgrading of facilities

  9. Impact of water stress on growth reserves and re-growth of Themeda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... carbohydrates (TNCC) and water-soluble protein (WSPC) as growth reserves after defoliation were determined in the indigenous C4 semi-arid grass species Themeda triandra during three growth stages (vegetative, piping and reproductive) and in three plant parts (roots, stubble and leaves). Four water stress treatments ...

  10. Population Aging and Potential Growth in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Otsu, Keisuke; Shibayama, Katsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of projected population aging on potential growth in Asian economies over the period 2015–2050. We find that an increase in the share of the population over 64 years of age will significantly lower output growth through decreased labor participation. Population aging can also reduce economic growth through increased labor income taxes and dampened productivity growth.

  11. All rights reserved Intermolecular Model Potentials and Virial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Key words: Equation of state, virial coefficients, speed of sound, intermolecular potentials. The virial equation of state (EOS) is based on ... general equation of state method that can predict volumetric and caloric thermodynamic ... standard cubic foot of gas per day and at the current price of $ 3.3 per 1000 cubic foot set by ...

  12. Growth potential of the family camping market

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. LaPage; W.F. LaPage

    1973-01-01

    A study of the camping market's short-term growth potential, based upon interviews with the heads of 2,003 representative American households. The study estimates the size of the potential camping market and divides it into three segments: those families with a high, medium and low propensity to become campers. The developed camping market is also divided into an...

  13. Estimation of potential fresh water reserves in icebergs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Krass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the forecast of the global shortage of fresh water it is expected that the global demand for drink‑ ing water will be increased up to 400 km3 per a year. As the main potential resources of drinking water it is proposed to use table Antarctic icebergs. Mathematical and phenomenological models of heat exchange between the icebergs and the environment, and a process of melting of ices floes in the warm sea water are discussed. The ablation processes on the daily and lower surfaces of icebergs at different modes of towing them to points of utilization is analyzed. The most optimal technology is to fill tankers with water taken from the freshwater layer under icebergs, and then subsequent delivery of the water to points of utilization. Using of the phenomenon of fresh-salt stratified Lake Vanda is considered as one of promising technologies of the industrial water production.

  14. Creative potential, creative achievement, and personal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helson, R; Pals, J L

    2000-02-01

    We tested the idea that young people who have creative potential (are complex and unconventional) increase in intrapsychic awareness as they mature but often have difficulty with psychosocial growth, especially the development of a cohesive identity; and that for some women commitment to creative work solves the problem of psychosocial integration and leads to creative achievement. In a longitudinal sample of 109 women, these ideas were supported: Creative potential and creative achievement were both associated with intrapsychic growth but only creative achievement was associated with psychosocial growth. Regression analyses showed that the development of a cohesive identity from early to middle adulthood added to and interacted with creative potential in the prediction of creative achievement.

  15. Decreased growth-induced water potential: A primary cause of growth inhibition at low water potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonami, Hiroshi [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Wu, Yajun; Boyer, J.S. [Univ. of Delaware, Lewes, DE (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Cell enlargement depends on a growth-induced difference in water potential to move water into the cells. Water deficits decrease this potential difference and inhibit growth. To investigate whether the decrease causes the growth inhibition, pressure was applied to the roots of soybean seedlings and the growth and potential difference were monitored in the stems. In water-limited plants, the inhibited stem growth increased when the roots were pressurized and it reverted to the previous rate when the pressure was released. The pressure around the roots was perceived as an increased turgor in the stem in small cells next to the xylem, but not in outlying cortical cells. This local effect implied that water transport was impeded by the small cells. The diffusivity for water was much less in the small cells than in the outlying cells. The small cells thus were a barrier that caused the growth-induced potential difference to be large during rapid growth, but to reverse locally during the early part of a water deficit. Such a barrier may be a frequent property of meristems. Because stem growth responded to the pressure-induced recovery of the potential difference across this barrier, we conclude that a decrease in the growth-induced potential difference was a primary cause of the inhibition.

  16. Laplacian growth, elliptic growth, and singularities of the Schwarz potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Erik

    2011-04-01

    The Schwarz function has played an elegant role in understanding and in generating new examples of exact solutions to the Laplacian growth (or 'Hele-Shaw') problem in the plane. The guiding principle in this connection is the fact that 'non-physical' singularities in the 'oil domain' of the Schwarz function are stationary, and the 'physical' singularities obey simple dynamics. We give an elementary proof that the same holds in any number of dimensions for the Schwarz potential, introduced by Khavinson and Shapiro (1989 Technical Report TRITA-MAT-1989-36 Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm). An extension is also given for the so-called elliptic growth problem by defining a generalized Schwarz potential. New exact solutions are constructed, and we solve inverse problems of describing the driving singularities of a given flow. We demonstrate, by example, how {C}^n-techniques can be used to locate the singularity set of the Schwarz potential. One of our methods is to prolong available local extension theorems by constructing 'globalizing families'.

  17. Laplacian growth, elliptic growth, and singularities of the Schwarz potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The Schwarz function has played an elegant role in understanding and in generating new examples of exact solutions to the Laplacian growth (or 'Hele-Shaw') problem in the plane. The guiding principle in this connection is the fact that 'non-physical' singularities in the 'oil domain' of the Schwarz function are stationary, and the 'physical' singularities obey simple dynamics. We give an elementary proof that the same holds in any number of dimensions for the Schwarz potential, introduced by Khavinson and Shapiro (1989 Technical Report TRITA-MAT-1989-36 Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm). An extension is also given for the so-called elliptic growth problem by defining a generalized Schwarz potential. New exact solutions are constructed, and we solve inverse problems of describing the driving singularities of a given flow. We demonstrate, by example, how C n -techniques can be used to locate the singularity set of the Schwarz potential. One of our methods is to prolong available local extension theorems by constructing 'globalizing families'.

  18. Bayesian methods to estimate urban growth potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W.; Smart, Lindsey S.; Dorning, Monica; Dupéy, Lauren Nicole; Méley, Andréanne; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2017-01-01

    Urban growth often influences the production of ecosystem services. The impacts of urbanization on landscapes can subsequently affect landowners’ perceptions, values and decisions regarding their land. Within land-use and land-change research, very few models of dynamic landscape-scale processes like urbanization incorporate empirically-grounded landowner decision-making processes. Very little attention has focused on the heterogeneous decision-making processes that aggregate to influence broader-scale patterns of urbanization. We examine the land-use tradeoffs faced by individual landowners in one of the United States’ most rapidly urbanizing regions − the urban area surrounding Charlotte, North Carolina. We focus on the land-use decisions of non-industrial private forest owners located across the region’s development gradient. A discrete choice experiment is used to determine the critical factors influencing individual forest owners’ intent to sell their undeveloped properties across a series of experimentally varied scenarios of urban growth. Data are analyzed using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. The estimates derived from the survey data are used to modify a spatially-explicit trend-based urban development potential model, derived from remotely-sensed imagery and observed changes in the region’s socioeconomic and infrastructural characteristics between 2000 and 2011. This modeling approach combines the theoretical underpinnings of behavioral economics with spatiotemporal data describing a region’s historical development patterns. By integrating empirical social preference data into spatially-explicit urban growth models, we begin to more realistically capture processes as well as patterns that drive the location, magnitude and rates of urban growth.

  19. Approaches to identifying reservoir heterogeneity and reserve growth opportunities from subsurface data: The Oficina Formation, Budare field, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Raeuchle, S.K.; Holtz, M.H. [Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We applied an integrated geologic, geophysical, and engineering approach devised to identify heterogeneities in the subsurface that might lead to reserve growth opportunities in our analysis of the Oficina Formation at Budare field, Venezuela. The approach involves 4 key steps: (1) Determine geologic reservoir architecture; (2) Investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow; (3) Integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture; and (4) Estimate original oil-in-place, residual oil saturation, and remaining mobile oil, to identify opportunities for reserve growth. There are three main oil-producing reservoirs in the Oficina Formation that were deposited in a bed-load fluvial system, an incised valley-fill, and a barrier-strandplain system. Reservoir continuity is complex because, in addition to lateral facies variability, the major Oficina depositional systems were internally subdivided by high-frequency stratigraphic surfaces. These surfaces define times of intermittent lacustrine and marine flooding events that punctuated the fluvial and marginal marine sedimentation, respectively. Syn and post depositional faulting further disrupted reservoir continuity. Trends in fluid flow established from initial fluid levels, response to recompletion workovers, and pressure depletion data demonstrated barriers to lateral and vertical fluid flow caused by a combination of reservoir facies pinchout, flooding shale markers, and the faults. Considerable reserve growth potential exists at Budare field because the reservoir units are highly compartment by the depositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. Numerous reserve growth opportunities were identified in attics updip of existing production, in untapped or incompletely drained compartments, and in field extensions.

  20. Population Growth and Sprawl on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. L.

    2006-05-01

    The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, especially Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and agricultural areas of the reservation are undergoing a change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen a subsequent increase in rural sprawl. In this case, rural sprawl is defined as exponential population growth and geographic expansion of remote reservation communities. Using satellite imagery and software to render these images is a cost effective way to investigate this growth. Also, using remotely sensed data and a GIS (geographic information system) package can address different issues that concern people and communities in and around the Pine Ridge area. The objective of my project is to observe land use change on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation using Geographic Information Systems such as; ARCGis 9, ENVI, and Multispec, along with Landsat 4, 5, and 7 imagery over the past 20 years.

  1. Growth and metabolic characteristics of oleaginous microalgal isolates from Nilgiri biosphere Reserve of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Kalaiselvi; Radha Krishnan, Preethi; Nagaiah, Srimeena; Kuppusamy, Senthil; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Rajadorai, Jude Sudhagar; Nellaiappan Olaganathan, Gopal; Dananjeyan, Balachandar

    2018-01-03

    Renewable energy for sustainable development is a subject of a worldwide debate since continuous utilization of non-renewable energy sources has a drastic impact on the environment and economy; a search for alternative energy resources is indispensable. Microalgae are promising and potential alternate energy resources for biodiesel production. Thus, our efforts were focused on surveying the natural diversity of microalgae for the production of biodiesel. The present study aimed at identification, isolation, and characterization of oleaginous microalgae from shola forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR), the biodiversity hot spot of India, where the microalgal diversity has not yet been systematically investigated. Overall the higher biomass yield, higher lipid accumulation and thermotolerance observed in the isolated microalgal strains have been found to be the desirable traits for the efficient biodiesel production. Species composition and diversity analysis yielded ten potential microalgal isolates belonging to Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae classes. The chlorophytes exhibited higher growth rate, maximum biomass yield, and higher lipid accumulation than Cyanophyceae. Among the chlorophytes, the best performing strains were identified and represented by Acutodesmus dissociatus (TGA1), Chlorella sp. (TGA2), Chlamydomonadales sp. (TGA3) and Hindakia tetrachotoma (PGA1). The Chlamydomonadales sp. recorded with the highest growth rate, lipid accumulation and biomass yield of 0.28 ± 0.03 day -1 (μ exp ), 29.7 ± 0.69% and 134.17 ± 16.87 mg L -1  day -1 , respectively. It was also found to grow well at various temperatures, viz., 25 °C, 35 °C, and 45 °C, indicating its suitability for open pond cultivation. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis of stationary phase cultures of selected four algal strains by tandem mass spectrograph showed C16:0, C18:1 and C18:3 as dominant fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production. All the three

  2. Complete adrenocorticotropin deficiency after radiation therapy for brain tumor with a normal growth hormone reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Haruna; Yoshioka, Katsunobu; Yamagami, Keiko

    2002-01-01

    A 34-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1, who had received radiation therapy after the excision of a brain tumor 5 years earlier, was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and weight loss. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) were undetectable before and after administration of 100 μg corticotropin releasing hormone. The level of growth hormone without stimulation was 24.7 ng/ml. We diagnosed him to have complete ACTH deficiency attributable to radiation therapy. This is the first known case of a patient with complete ACTH deficiency after radiation therapy and a growth hormone reserve that remained normal. (author)

  3. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W; Dolanc, Christopher R; Gao, Hui; Strauss, Sharon Y; Schwartz, Ari C; Williams, John N; Tang, Ya

    2013-01-01

    Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1) whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2) if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3) how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th) century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix) strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth.

  4. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Schwartz

    Full Text Available Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1 whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2 if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3 how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth.

  5. Type I insulin-like growth factor as a liver reserve assessment tool in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Wahab R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Reham Abdel-Wahab,1,2 Samir Shehata,2 Manal M Hassan,1 Mouhammed A Habra,3 Ghazaleh Eskandari,4 Peggy T Tinkey,5 Jennifer Mitchell,5 Ju-Seog Lee,6 Hesham M Amin,4,7 Ahmed O Kaseb11Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Clinical Oncology, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt; 3Department of Endocrinology, 4Department of Hematopathology, 5Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, 6Department of Systems Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 7Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Chronic liver diseases (CLDs encompass a wide range of illnesses, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and viral hepatitis. Deterioration of liver capacity, with subsequent progression into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, ultimately leads to a further decrease in the hepatic reserve. The Child–Turcotte–Pugh scoring system is the standard tool for assessing underlying liver reserve capacity in routine practice and in clinical trials of CLD and HCC. In this review, we highlight the clinical significance of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and the growth hormone (GH signaling pathway in HCC. IGF-I could be a marker for liver reserve capacity in CLDs and HCC in clinical practice. This approach could improve the risk assessment and stratifications of patients on the basis of their underlying liver reserve, either before active treatment in routine practice or before they are enrolled in clinical trials.Keywords: IGF-I, growth hormone, chronic liver disease

  6. RELATIVECONTRIBUTIONS OF THE NIGERIAN CAPITALMARKETTO THE GROWTH OF EXTERNAL RESERVES (2005-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaninyene Udo Akpan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtually all aspects of human endeavour entail the use of money either selfgenerated or borrowed. In capital market, the stock in trade is money which couldbe raised through various instruments under well governed rules and regulationscarefully administered and followed by different institutions or market operators.External reserves constitute an integral part of the wealth of the nation such thatthe lack of it brings worry to most nations and can limit the ability of the countryto make foreign currency denominated payments and limits its spending abroad.Hence,countries are induced to hold reserves to allow monetary authorities tointervene in markets to control the exchange rate and inflation. Adequate reservesalso allow the country to borrow from abroad and to hedge against instability anduncertainty of external capital flows.Therefore, the objective of this paper is toaccess the relative contribution of the Nigerian capital market if any to the growthof her external reserve.The methodology used is purely descriptive and narrative and the data used is secondary. The evidence provided in the study based on thestatistical analysis, revealed that the Nigerian capital market can induce thegrowthof external reserve but it has not contributed to the growth of externalreserve in Nigeria. Furthermore, the study recommendedamong otherstheneedfor availability of more investment instruments such as derivatives, futures,swaps, options in the market and theexpansion of the Nigerian capital Market bythe government creating an enabling investable environment that will increaseboth the volume of transactions and number of securities traded in the market.This will improve their ability to mobilize resources and efficiently allocate themto the most productive sectors of the economy hence, contributing its portion tothe growth of her external reserve.

  7. A dual potassium channel activator improves repolarization reserve and normalizes ventricular action potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calloe, Kirstine; Di Diego, José M; Hansen, Rie Schultz

    2016-01-01

    in cultured canine cardiac myocytes and determined whether a dual K(+) current activator can normalize K(+) currents and restore action potential (AP) configuration. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ventricular myocytes were isolated and cultured for up to 48h. Current and voltage clamp recordings were made using patch...... of EADs. Our results suggest a potential benefit of K(+) current activators under conditions of reduced repolarization reserve including heart failure....

  8. Potential effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damping off caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on cowpea results in yield losses with serious socioeconomic implication. Induction of defense responses by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is largely associated with the production of defense enzyme phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL) and oxidative enzymes like ...

  9. Occurrence and growth potentials of hydrocarbon degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbon degraders identified as Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, and Micrococcus were obtained. Most of the organisms grew well on diesel. Pseudomonas sp. grew luxuriantly on diesel and kerosene while Bacillus sp. did not grow on kerosene. Optimal growth on the hydrocarbon occurred between the 8th and 14th ...

  10. GREYBULL SANDSTONE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Lopez

    2000-12-14

    Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the Rocky Mountain Foreland structural province, which is characterized by Laramide uplifts and intervening structural basins. The Pryor and Bighorn mountains, like other foreland uplifts, are characterized by asymmetrical folds associated with basement-involved reverse faults. The reservation area east of the mountains is on the northwestern flank of the Powder River Basin. Therefore, regional dips are eastward and southeastward; however, several prominent structural features interrupt these regional dips. The nearly 4,000 mi{sup 2} reservation is under explored but has strong potential for increased oil and gas development. Oil and gas production is well established in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to the south as well as in the areas north and west of the reservation. However, only limited petroleum production has been established within the reservation. Geologic relations and trends indicate strong potential for oil and gas accumulations, but drilling has been insufficient for their discovery. The Greybull Sandstone, which is part of the transgressive systems tract that includes the overlying Fall River Sandstone, was deposited on a major regional unconformity. The erosional surface at the base of the Greybull Sandstone is the +100 Ma, late Aptian-Early Albian regional unconformity of Weimer (1984). This lowstand erosional surface was controlled by a basin-wide drop in sea level. In areas where incised Greybull channels are absent, the lowstand erosional unconformity is at the base of the Fall River Sandstone and equivalent formations. During the pre-Greybull lowstand, sediment bypassed this region. In the subsequent marine transgression, streams began to aggrade and deposit sand of the lower Greybull Sandstone

  11. Potential Mechanisms for Racial and Ethnic Differences in Antimüllerian Hormone and Ovarian Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshef Tal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that reproductive potential and function may be different across racial and ethnic groups. Racial differences have been demonstrated in pubertal timing, infertility, outcomes after assisted reproductive technology (ART treatment, and reproductive aging. Recently, racial differences have also been described in serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH, a sensitive biomarker of ovarian reserve, supporting the notion that ovarian reserve differs between racial/ethnic groups. The existence of such racial/ethnic differences in ovarian reserve, as reflected by AMH, may have important clinical implications for reproductive endocrinologists. However, the mechanisms which may underlie such racial differences in ovarian reserve are unclear. Various genetic factors and environmental factors such as obesity, smoking, and vitamin D deficiency which have been shown to correlate with serum AMH levels and also display significant racial/ethnic variations are discussed in this review. Improving our understanding of racial differences in ovarian reserve and their underlying causes may be essential for infertility treatment in minority women and lead to better reproductive planning, improved treatment outcomes, and timely interventions which may prolong reproductive lifespan in these women.

  12. International strategies for growth : monetizing gas reserves to add value to the bottom line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihaichuk, G.

    1998-01-01

    The direction taken by oil and gas companies, including TransCanada International, in their strategy for growth in global energy markets was discussed. The role that gas plays in meeting the objectives was examined and the different ways in which gas reserves and investments in the gas sector are being turned into high-performing vehicles for adding value to the bottom line were described. Deregulation of, and competition within, the gas and electric power industries are the driving factors for changes within the energy industries. Natural gas will be a winner because it is the first choice for new power generation. Many companies have entered the international playing field to take advantage of the opportunities in international markets. The problems and solutions to monetizing natural gas reserves, some of the international political issues such as regulatory uncertainty, cross-border disputes, lack of regional integration, and sanctions, and how these adverse effects may be mitigated through mergers, acquisitions, or joint ventures, are explored. 14 figs

  13. Lifelong bilingualism and neural reserve against Alzheimer's disease: a review of findings and potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Brian T

    2015-03-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disorder that initially affects medial temporal lobe circuitry and memory functions. Current drug treatments have only modest effects on the symptomatic course of the disease. In contrast, a growing body of evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism may delay the onset of clinical AD symptoms by several years. The purpose of the present review is to summarize evidence for bilingualism as a reserve variable against AD and discuss potential underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that bilingualism may delay clinical AD symptoms by protecting frontostriatal and frontoparietal executive control circuitry rather than medial temporal lobe memory circuitry. Cellular and molecular mechanisms that may contribute to bilingual cognitive reserve effects are discussed, including those that may affect neuronal metabolic functions, dynamic neuronal-glial interactions, vascular factors, myelin structure and neurochemical signaling. Future studies that may test some of these potential mechanisms of bilingual CR effects are proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Crowding and Follicular Fate: Spatial Determinants of Follicular Reserve and Activation of Follicular Growth in the Mammalian Ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gaytan

    Full Text Available Initiation of growth of resting ovarian follicles is a key phenomenon for providing an adequate number of mature oocytes in each ovulation, while preventing premature exhaustion of primordial follicle reserve during the reproductive lifespan. Resting follicle dynamics strongly suggest that primordial follicles are under constant inhibitory influences, by mechanisms and factors whose nature remains ill defined. In this work, we aimed to assess the influence of spatial determinants, with special attention to clustering patterns and crowding, on the fate of early follicles in the adult mouse and human ovary. To this end, detailed histological and morphometric analyses, targeting resting and early growing follicles, were conducted in ovaries from mice, either wild type (WT or genetically modified to lack kisspeptin receptor expression (Kiss1r KO, and healthy adult women. Kiss1r KO mice were studied as model of persistent hypogonadotropism and anovulation. Different qualitative and quantitative indices of the patterns of spatial distribution of resting and early growing follicles in the mouse and human ovary, including the Morisita's index of clustering, were obtained. Our results show that resting primordial follicles display a clear-cut clustered pattern of spatial distribution in adult mouse and human ovaries, and that resting follicle aggrupation is inversely correlated with the proportion of follicles initiating growth and entering into the growing pool. As a whole, our data suggest that resting follicle crowding, defined by changes in density and clustered pattern of distribution, is a major determinant of follicular activation and the fate of ovarian reserve. Uneven follicle crowding would constitute the structural counterpart of the major humoral regulators of early follicular growth, with potential implications in ovarian ageing and pathophysiology.

  15. Considering Future Potential Regarding Structural Diversity in Selection of Forest Reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lundström

    Full Text Available A rich structural diversity in forests promotes biodiversity. Forests are dynamic and therefore it is crucial to consider future structural potential when selecting reserves, to make robust conservation decisions. We analyzed forests in boreal Sweden based on 17,599 National Forest Inventory (NFI plots with the main aim to understand how effectiveness of reserves depends on the time dimension in the selection process, specifically by considering future structural diversity. In the study both the economic value and future values of 15 structural variables were simulated during a 100 year period. To get a net present structural value (NPSV, a single value covering both current and future values, we used four discounting alternatives: (1 only considering present values, (2 giving equal importance to values in each of the 100 years within the planning horizon, (3 applying an annual discount rate considering the risk that values could be lost, and (4 only considering the values in year 100. The four alternatives were evaluated in a reserve selection model under budget-constrained and area-constrained selections. When selecting young forests higher structural richness could be reached at a quarter of the cost over almost twice the area in a budget-constrained selection compared to an area-constrained selection. Our results point to the importance of considering future structural diversity in the selection of forest reserves and not as is done currently to base the selection on existing values. Targeting future values increases structural diversity and implies a relatively lower cost. Further, our results show that a re-orientation from old to young forests would imply savings while offering a more extensive reserve network with high structural qualities in the future. However, caution must be raised against a drastic reorientation of the current old-forest strategy since remnants of ancient forests will need to be prioritized due to their role for

  16. Potential germination and initial growth of Sclerocarya birrea (A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of potential germination and initial growth of seedlings was conducted in Niamey. The objective of the study was to determine the parameters of seed germination and initial growth of seedlings of this species in order to assess how the findings could help in reforestation in some areas. Methodology: The parameters ...

  17. Growth Potential and Business Constraints of Micro and Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    some light for policy makers and anyone else who may have a stake on the small business development as a positive knock on effect for growth of MSEs. Key words: business constraints, growth potential, principal components, MSEs, south wollo. JEL Classification: D220. 1 PhD, Assistant Professor in Economics, Director, ...

  18. Growth potentials of Taraxacum microspecies from different habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOMMELS, CH; WINTERDAAL, J; VANDERHARING, E; Tanczos, Otto

    Various Taraxacum microspecies from different fertile habitats were cultured at near optimal conditions in order to study the relationship between growth potential and habitat as a factor in their distribution, taking a high growth rate as essential for the occupation of fertile sites. Differences

  19. Do broiler chicks possess enough growth potential to compensate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    co.za. ISSN 0375-1589 (print), ISSN 222-4062 (online). Publisher: South African Society for Animal Science. Do broiler chicks possess enough growth potential to compensate long-term feed and water depravation during the neonatal period?

  20. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Geothermal Resource Potential within the Pyramid Lake Paiute Reservation Phase III Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, Donna [Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, Nixon, NV (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This project integrated state-of-the-art exploration technologies with a geologic framework and reservoir modeling to ultimately determine the efficacy of future geothermal production within the PLPT reservation. The information gained during this study should help the PLPT to make informed decisions regarding construction of a geothermal power plant. Additional benefits included the transfer of new technologies and geothermal data to the geothermal industry and it created and/or preserved nearly three dozen jobs accordance with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. A variety of tasks were conducted to achieve the above stated objectives. The following are the tasks completed within the project: 1. Permitting 2. Shallow temperature survey 3. Seismic data collection and analysis 4. Fracture stress analysis 5. Phase I reporting Permitting 7. Shallow temperature survey 8. Seismic data collection and analysis 9. Fracture stress analysis 10. Phase I reporting 11. Drilling two new wells 12. Borehole geophysics 13. Phase II reporting 14. Well testing and geochemical analysis 15. Three-dimensional geologic model 16. Three-dimensional reservoir analysis 17. Reservation wide geothermal potential analysis 18. Phase III reporting Phase I consisted of tasks 1 – 5, Phase II tasks 6 – 8, and Phase III tasks 9 – 13. This report details the results of Phase III tasks. Reports are available for Phase I, and II as separate documents.

  1. THE POTENTIAL OF VEGETATION SPECIES DIVERSITY FOR ECOTOROURISM DEVELOPMENT AT NATURE RESERVE OF PANJALU LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encep Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nature Reserve of Panjalu Lake is one of the oldest conservation area in Indonesia. As a conservation area, Panjalu Lake has different species of flora that are useful as germplasm conservation, science and education. This study aims to know the potential of vegetation species diversity for ecotourism development at Nature Reserve of Panjalu Lake. The inventory method used is line plot sampling with intensity 15 % in two paths of 500 m (adjusted according length of the area and 20 m width. Spacing between lines is 200 m and spacing between observation plot is 100 m. Within each path, 50 m x 20 m observation plots were established. The results showed that there are three species of seedlings with highest IVI, namely: Dysoxylum densiflorum Miq. (47.64 %, Calamus zollingerii (47.64 %, and Sterculia macrophylla Vent. (44.37 %. The four species at sapling stage with highest IVI are: Litsea cassiaefolia (114.29 %; Dysoxylum densiflorum Miq (57.14 %; Litsea sp. and Endiandra rubescens Miq (14.29 %. Three species at pole stage with highest IVI, namely: Dysoxylum densiflorum Miq. (143.04%; Litsea cassiaefolia (99.78 % and Artocarpus elasticus Reinw 9.53 %. Three species at tree stage with highest IVI, namely: Dysoxylum densiflorum Miq (147.924 %, Litsea cassiaefolia (68.753 %, and Eugenia fastigiata Miq ( 31.410 %.

  2. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing Identifies a Quantitative Trait Locus Repressing Carbon Reserve Accumulation during Optimal Growth in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Hugh Douglas; Nguyen, Hoa Mai; Kong, Fantao; Beyly-Adriano, Audrey; Légeret, Bertrand; Billon, Emmanuelle; Cuiné, Stéphan; Beisson, Fred; Peltier, Gilles; Li-Beisson, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have emerged as a promising source for biofuel production. Massive oil and starch accumulation in microalgae is possible, but occurs mostly when biomass growth is impaired. The molecular networks underlying the negative correlation between growth and reserve formation are not known. Thus isolation of strains capable of accumulating carbon reserves during optimal growth would be highly desirable. To this end, we screened an insertional mutant library of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for alterations in oil content. A mutant accumulating five times more oil and twice more starch than wild-type during optimal growth was isolated and named constitutive oil accumulator 1 (coa1). Growth in photobioreactors under highly controlled conditions revealed that the increase in oil and starch content in coa1 was dependent on light intensity. Genetic analysis and DNA hybridization pointed to a single insertional event responsible for the phenotype. Whole genome re-sequencing identified in coa1 a >200 kb deletion on chromosome 14 containing 41 genes. This study demonstrates that, 1), the generation of algal strains accumulating higher reserve amount without compromising biomass accumulation is feasible; 2), light is an important parameter in phenotypic analysis; and 3), a chromosomal region (Quantitative Trait Locus) acts as suppressor of carbon reserve accumulation during optimal growth. PMID:27141848

  3. Evaluating the physiological reserves of older patients with cancer: the value of potential biomarkers of aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallis, Athanasios G; Hatse, Sigrid; Brouwers, Barbara; Pawelec, Graham; Falandry, Claire; Wedding, Ulrich; Lago, Lissandra Dal; Repetto, Lazzaro; Ring, Alistair; Wildiers, Hans

    2014-04-01

    Aging of an individual entails a progressive decline of functional reserves and loss of homeostasis that eventually lead to mortality. This process is highly individualized and is influenced by multiple genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. This individualization and the diversity of factors influencing aging result in a significant heterogeneity among people with the same chronological age, representing a major challenge in daily oncology practice. Thus, many factors other than mere chronological age will contribute to treatment tolerance and outcome in the older patients with cancer. Clinical/comprehensive geriatric assessment can provide information on the general health status of individuals, but is far from perfect as a prognostic/predictive tool for individual patients. On the other hand, aging can also be assessed in terms of biological changes in certain tissues like the blood compartment which result from adaptive alterations due to past history of exposures, as well as intrinsic aging processes. There are major signs of 'aging' in lymphocytes (e.g. lymphocyte subset distribution, telomere length, p16INK4A expression), and also in (inflammatory) cytokine expression and gene expression patterns. These result from a combination of the above two processes, overlaying genetic predispositions which contribute significantly to the aging phenotype. These potential "aging biomarkers" might provide additional prognostic/predictive information supplementing clinical evaluation. The purpose of the current paper is to describe the most relevant potential "aging biomarkers" (markers that indicate the biological functional age of patients) which focus on the biological background, the (limited) available clinical data, and technical challenges. Despite their great potential interest, there is a need for much more (validated) clinical data before these biomarkers could be used in a routine clinical setting. This manuscript tries to provide a guideline on how

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF MANAGEMENT APPROACHES: RESERVES GROWTH OF EFFICIENCY OF NR-MANAGEMENT IN THE BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sh. Fedorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes one of the possible ways of building more eff ective relationships between managers and subordinates, taking into account variable range of individual motivation, capabilities and potential of people belonging to diff erent types of employees.The topic is urgent due to the changes in modern business processes that require new approaches to management. Goal/objectives. Our aim is to develop an approach to the creation of human resources management model that takes into account not only the knowledge and skills of employees, but also their deeper individual characteristics. The approach accounts for the hierarchy of one's life values and drives, temperament, strains, habitual and unfamiliar social roles, way of thinking, preferred pattern of communication, peculiarities of the behavior in power relations and a host of other features. We suggest that asking them into account is an incredible opportunity for productivity growth and team eff ectiveness improvements.Methodology. The theoretical basis of the article are studies of Russian and foreign authors on the classifications and typologies of personality, of social roles, roles in the team, as well as subordinate types. The article refl ects the results of studies and observations of the authors on the peculiarities of manifestation of diff erent types of people in decision-making and business communications.Results. We suggest the typology of subordinates describing the key characteristics and preferences of representatives of the types. The typology allows to build relationships between managers and subordinates more eff ectively.Conclusions/significance. We propose typology of subordinates that can be used to develop management models focused on certain types of employees. This, in turn, may be useful for structuring of human management, retrieval of unused but eff ective management tools, and for building an eff ective staff -management relations network as a whole to

  5. Muskellunge growth potential in northern Wisconsin: implications for trophy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Matthew D.; Isermann, Daniel A.; Luehring, Mark A.; Hansen, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The growth potential of Muskellunge Esox masquinongy was evaluated by back-calculating growth histories from cleithra removed from 305 fish collected during 1995–2011 to determine whether it was consistent with trophy management goals in northern Wisconsin. Female Muskellunge had a larger mean asymptotic length (49.8 in) than did males (43.4 in). Minimum ultimate size of female Muskellunge (45.0 in) equaled the 45.0-in minimum length limit, but was less than the 50.0-in minimum length limit used on Wisconsin's trophy waters, while the minimum ultimate size of male Muskellunge (34.0 in) was less than the statewide minimum length limit. Minimum reproductive sizes for both sexes were less than Wisconsin's trophy minimum length limits. Mean growth potential of female Muskellunge in northern Wisconsin appears to be sufficient for meeting trophy management objectives and angler expectations. Muskellunge in northern Wisconsin had similar growth potential to those in Ontario populations, but lower growth potential than Minnesota's populations, perhaps because of genetic and environmental differences.

  6. Improving estimates of tree mortality probability using potential growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Adrian J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Tree growth rate is frequently used to estimate mortality probability. Yet, growth metrics can vary in form, and the justification for using one over another is rarely clear. We tested whether a growth index (GI) that scales the realized diameter growth rate against the potential diameter growth rate (PDGR) would give better estimates of mortality probability than other measures. We also tested whether PDGR, being a function of tree size, might better correlate with the baseline mortality probability than direct measurements of size such as diameter or basal area. Using a long-term dataset from the Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., as well as existing species-specific estimates of PDGR, we developed growth–mortality models for four common species. For three of the four species, models that included GI, PDGR, or a combination of GI and PDGR were substantially better than models without them. For the fourth species, the models including GI and PDGR performed roughly as well as a model that included only the diameter growth rate. Our results suggest that using PDGR can improve our ability to estimate tree survival probability. However, in the absence of PDGR estimates, the diameter growth rate was the best empirical predictor of mortality, in contrast to assumptions often made in the literature.

  7. Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential and adaptability. S.J. Schoeman* and J.A. Visser. Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received I0 February 1995; accepted 18 July 1995. Water intake, efficiency and consumption of ...

  8. Osmotic potential, photosynthetic abilities and growth characters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A positive correlation between physiological and growth parameters, including osmotic potential, photosynthetic pigments and water oxidation in photosystem II and Pn was demonstrated. These data provide the basis for the establishment of multivariate criteria for water deficit tolerance screening in oil palm breeding ...

  9. Plant growth promoting potential of endophytic bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endophytic microorganisms are able to promote plant growth through various mechanisms, such as production of plant hormones and antimicrobial substances, as well as to provide the soil with nutrients, for instance, inorganic phosphate. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of endophytic bacteria isolated from ...

  10. Assessing the Extraction Potential of Tomsk Region’s Difficult-To-Obtain Oil Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Valeryevna Sharf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant increase in oil production in the Tomsk region can be achieved by a better development of the license areas at the disposal of oil-producing companies, active prospecting, introduction of innovative technologies to increase the oil recovery, as well as active oil extraction from unconventional horizons. This article reviews the activities of the oil-producing companies of the Tomsk region for the past 10 years, and proves the potential of increasing oil production of both traditional and difficultto-obtain oil reserves, concentrated in the Bazhenov and Tyumen Formations and the Lower Jurassic sediments. Technologically, Russia is significantly lagging behind the economically developed countries in the extraction of hard unconventional hydrocarbon resources, primarily, the United States. The observed «shale revolution» was due to the complex of financial and tax breaks for oil companies, from which mainly medium and small companies were benefited. As a result, this requires an increase in investment on the part of economic entities and regional authorities, as well as additional tax benefits, considering the quality and types of actual and prospective raw materials produced in the region, in contrast to the declared benefits in Eastern Siberia. The introduction of tax incentives justified by the authors and the implementation of public-private partnership will ensure the profitability of the development of marginal and difficult-to-obtain oil deposits of the Tomsk region in the long term, which in turn should ensure the stability of economic development of the subject of the Russian Federation

  11. Cardiac inotropic reserve examined by postextrasystolic potentiation and redistribution of exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Adachi, Haruhiko; Nakagawa, Hiroaki

    1986-01-01

    Evaluation of regional contractile reserve and the viability of an infarcted segment of the myocardium is very important in determining the indications for aorto-coronary bypass after myocardial infarction and in predicting the prognosis. Regional wall motion of the left ventricle after postextrasystolic potentiation (PESP) was studied in 18 patients with old myocardial infarction, and compared with indices of redistribution of thallium after exercise. Equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography (RNA) using Tc 99m HSA was performed at rest and after PESP produced by a programmable cardiac stimulator via a right ventricular catheter. Regional ejection fractions (REF) were determined, and wall motion was observed visually. The relative thallium activity (RTA) and washout rate (WOR) were obtained from exercise myocardial scintigraphy performed 10 minutes, and 3 hours after thallium-201 injections. Wall motion improved in 12 of 23 infarcted segments after PESP. Regional ejection fraction and relative thallium activity (in three hours, or the difference between the activities of the initial and three hours after exercise) in the improved segments were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in the unchanged segments. Washout rate was lower (p < 0.02) in the improved segments. Significant correlation was observed between the change in regional ejection fraction and relative thallium activity (3 hours after exercise) (r = 0.654, p < 0.05). Thus, the wall motion of some infarcted regions of the myocardium improved after PESP, and thallium was redistributed during three hours after exercise. It is concluded that contractility and viability might be preserved even in the infarcted site following myocardial infarction, and that these results are indications for aorto-coronary bypass surgery in cases of old myocardial infarction. Both PESP assessed by equilibrium radionuclide angiography and exercise thallium scintigraphy are useful means for these evaluations. (author)

  12. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinju Ma

    Full Text Available Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential.

  13. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinju; Ma, Liyi; Zhang, Zhongquan; Li, Kai; Wang, Youqiong; Chen, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential.

  14. Evaluating company growth potential using AI and web media data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droll, Andrew; Khan, Shahzad; Tanev, Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    The article focuses on adapting and validating the use of an existing web search and analytics engine to evaluate the growth and competitive potential of new technology start-ups and existing firms in the newly emerging precision medicine sector. The results are based on two different search...... includes new technology firms in the same sector. The firms in the second sample were used as test cases in examining if their growth related web search scores would relate to the degree of their innovativeness. The second part of the study applied the same methodology to the real time monitoring of firms...

  15. Targeted technology applications for infield reserve growth: A synopsis of the Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project, Gulf Coast Basin. Topical report, September 1988--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, R.A.; Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR): Targeted Technology Applications for Infield Reserve Growth is a joint venture research project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the State of Texas through the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, with the cofunding and cooperation of the natural gas industry. The SGR project is a field-based program using an integrated multidisciplinary approach that integrates geology, geophysics, engineering, and petrophysics. A major objective of this research project is to develop, test, and verify those technologies and methodologies that have near- to mid-term potential for maximizing recovery of gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Natural gas reservoirs in the Gulf Coast Basin are targeted as data-rich, field-based models for evaluating infield development. The SGR research program focuses on sandstone-dominated reservoirs in fluvial-deltaic plays within the onshore Gulf Coast Basin of Texas. The primary project research objectives are: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities cause, even in reservoirs of conventional permeability, reservoir compartmentalization and hence incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields.

  16. Rotary District 7600 Relative Membership Growth Potential Analysis by County

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    This brief applies a simple framework for assessing the relative potential for Rotary membership growth in different geographic areas. The analysis is relative in that areas are compared to each other through an econometric procedure. By design about half of the areas are considered as performing comparatively well in that they have membership rates above expectations. The other areas are considered as performing less well because they have membership rates below expectations, and thereby m...

  17. Rotary District 7770 Relative Membership Growth Potential Analysis by County

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    This brief applies a simple framework for assessing the relative potential for Rotary membership growth in different geographic areas. The analysis is relative in that areas are compared to each other through an econometric procedure. By design about half of the areas are considered as performing comparatively well in that they have membership rates above expectations. The other areas are considered as performing less well because they have membership rates below expectations, and thereby m...

  18. Rotary District 7570 Relative Membership Growth Potential Analysis by County

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    This brief applies a simple framework for assessing the relative potential for Rotary membership growth in different geographic areas. The analysis is relative in that areas are compared to each other through an econometric procedure. By design about half of the areas are considered as performing comparatively well in that they have membership rates above expectations. The other areas are considered as performing less well because they have membership rates below expectations, and thereby m...

  19. Rotary District 7610 Relative Membership Growth Potential Analysis by County

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    This brief applies a simple framework for assessing the relative potential for Rotary membership growth in different geographic areas. The analysis is relative in that areas are compared to each other through an econometric procedure. By design about half of the areas are considered as performing comparatively well in that they have membership rates above expectations. The other areas are considered as performing less well because they have membership rates below expectations, and thereby m...

  20. Rotary District 7550 Relative Membership Growth Potential Analysis by County

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    This brief applies a simple framework for assessing the relative potential for Rotary membership growth in different geographic areas. The analysis is relative in that areas are compared to each other through an econometric procedure. By design about half of the areas are considered as performing comparatively well in that they have membership rates above expectations. The other areas are considered as performing less well because they have membership rates below expectations, and thereby m...

  1. Rotary District 7690 Relative Membership Growth Potential Analysis by County

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    This brief applies a simple framework for assessing the relative potential for Rotary membership growth in different geographic areas. The analysis is relative in that areas are compared to each other through an econometric procedure. By design about half of the areas are considered as performing comparatively well in that they have membership rates above expectations. The other areas are considered as performing less well because they have membership rates below expectations, and thereby m...

  2. Growth of PETROBRAS international gas reserves in Latin America; Crescimento das reservas internacionais de gas da PETROBRAS na America Latina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, Claudio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Syrio, Julio Cesar; Pizarro, Jorge Oscar de Sant' Anna [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the work developed at PETROBRAS International to increase the natural gas reserves and production in Latin America. The results indicate that the company's new strategic focus has been providing an increase of its production of natural gas in 270%, in which daily production in September reached 84192 boed. The same happened with reserves in 2002, that increased in 37,2 billions m{sup 3}. This growth was mainly due to incorporation of Perez Conpanc and Petrolera Santa Fe. (author)

  3. Coal-to-liquids: Potential impact on U.S. coal reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    The production of liquid fuels from coal will very likely become an important part of the hydrocarbon energy mix of the future, provided that technical and environmental obstacles are overcome economically. The coal industry should be able to handle a coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry of modest size, using 60-70 million short tons or 54-64 million metric tonnes of coal per annum, without premature depletion of the country's coal reserves. However, attempts to use CTL technology to replace all petroleum imports would deplete the nation's coal reserves by the end of the century. ?? 2009 U.S. Government.

  4. Assessment of the potential for exploitation of the remaining reserves of coal in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodarski, K.; Bijanska, J.

    2014-01-01

    In mining areas belonging to the Polish mining companies, there is a significant amount of coal, contained in remaining reserves, that have not been exploited so far. For years, the mines have been evaluating the possibility of its exploitation, since it would expand its resource base and would extend its useful life. In addition, exploitation of the remaining reserves can minimize stress concentration zones in the soil, the rebel y improving conditions for maintenance of excavations and limiting the risk of shock rock. (Author)

  5. Greybull Sandstone Petroleum Potential on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David A.

    2002-05-13

    The focus of this project was to explore for stratigraphic traps that may be present in valley-fill sandstone at the top of the Lower Cretaceous Kootenai Formation. This sandstone interval, generally known as the Greybull Sandstone, has been identified along the western edge of the reservation and is a known oil and gas reservoir in the surrounding region. The Greybull Sandstone was chosen as the focus of this research because it is an excellent, well-documented, productive reservoir in adjacent areas, such as Elk Basin; Mosser Dome field, a few miles northwest of the reservation; and several other oil and gas fields in the northern portion of the Bighorn Basin.

  6. Coal reserves and resources as well as potentials for underground coal gasification in connection with carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilse, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Coal is the energy source with the largest geological availability worldwide. Of all non-renewable energies coal and lignite accounting for 55 % of the reserves and some 76 % of the resources represent the largest potential. Reserves are those geological quantities of a mineral which can currently be mined under technically and economically viable conditions. Resources are those quantities which are either proven but currently not economically recoverable or quantities which can still be expected or explored on the basis of geological findings. The global availability of energy source does not only depend on geological and economic factors. The technical availability, e.g. mining and preparation capacities, the sufficient availability of land and sea-borne transportation as well as transloading capacities and also a political availability are required likewise. The latter may be disturbed by domestic-policy disputes like strikes or unrest or by foreign-policy disputes like embargos, trade conflicts or even tensions and wars in the producing regions. In the energy-economic discussion the reach of fossil primary energies plays a central role with the most important questions being: when will which energy source be exhausted, which impact will future developments have on the energy price, what does the situation of the other energies look like and which alternatives are there? The reach of coal can only be estimated because of the large deposits on the one hand and the uncertain future coal use and demand on the other. The stronger growth of population and the economic catching-up process in the developing and threshold countries will result in a shift of the production and demand centres in the global economy. However, also in case of further increases the geological potential will be sufficient to reliably cover the global coal demand for the next 100 years. The conventional mining of seams at great depths or of thin seams reaches its technical and economic limits

  7. Fossil fuel potential of Turkey: A statistical evaluation of reserves, production, and consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkmaz, S.; Kara-Gulbay, R.; Turan, M. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-07-01

    Since Turkey is a developing country with tremendous economic growth, its energy demand is also getting increased. Of this energy, about 70% is supplied from fossil fuels and the remaining 30% is from renewable sources. Among the fossil fuels, 90% of oil, natural gas, and coal are imported, and only 10% is from domestic sources. All the lignite is supplied from domestic sources. The total share of renewable sources and lignite in the total energy production is 45%. In order for Turkey to have sufficient and reliable energy sources, first the renewable energy sources must be developed, and energy production from fossil fuels, except for lignite, must be minimized. Particularly, scarcity of fossil fuels and increasing oil prices have a strong effect on economic growth of the country.

  8. Soil carbon sequestration potential in semi-arid grasslands in the conservation reserve program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in the USA plays a major role in carbon (C) sequestration to help mitigate rising CO2 levels and climate change. The Southern High Plains (SHP) region contains N900.000 ha enrolled in CRP, but a regionally specific C sequestration rate has not been studied, and...

  9. Nonlinear Growth Models as Measurement Models: A Second-Order Growth Curve Model for Measuring Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel; Dumas, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Recent methodological work has highlighted the promise of nonlinear growth models for addressing substantive questions in the behavioral sciences. In this article, we outline a second-order nonlinear growth model in order to measure a critical notion in development and education: potential. Here, potential is conceptualized as having three components-ability, capacity, and availability-where ability is the amount of skill a student is estimated to have at a given timepoint, capacity is the maximum amount of ability a student is predicted to be able to develop asymptotically, and availability is the difference between capacity and ability at any particular timepoint. We argue that single timepoint measures are typically insufficient for discerning information about potential, and we therefore describe a general framework that incorporates a growth model into the measurement model to capture these three components. Then, we provide an illustrative example using the public-use Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten data set using a Michaelis-Menten growth function (reparameterized from its common application in biochemistry) to demonstrate our proposed model as applied to measuring potential within an educational context. The advantage of this approach compared to currently utilized methods is discussed as are future directions and limitations.

  10. Algal Growth Potential of Microcystis aeruginosa from Reclaimed Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jin Chul; Ahn, Chang Hyuk; Lee, Saeromi; Jang, Dae-Gyu; Lee, Woo Hyoung; Ryu, Byong Ro

    2016-01-01

    Algal growth potential (AGP) of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa, NIES-298) using reclaimed water from various wastewater reclamation pilot plants was investigated to evaluate the feasibility of the reclaimed water usage for recreational purposes. After completing the coagulation and ultrafiltration processes, the concentrations of most contaminants in the reclaimed water were lower than the reuse guidelines for recreational water. However, M. aeruginosa successfully adapted to low levels of soluble reactive phosphorus (PO(3-)(4)) concentrations. The AGP values of M. aeruginosa decreased with the progression of treatment processes, and with the increases in the dilution volume. Also, both the AGP and chlorophyll-a values can be estimated a priori without conducting the AGP tests. Therefore, aquatic ecosystems in locations prone to environmental conditions favorable for the growth of M. aeruginosa require more rigorous nutrient management plans (e.g., reverse osmosis and dilution with clean water resources) to reduce the nutrient availability.

  11. NTD Silicon; Product Characteristics, Main Uses and Growth Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M. G.; Bjorling, C. F.

    2013-01-01

    Topsil is a specialised manufacturer of ultrapure float zone silicon since 1959, headquartered in Denmark. Topsil co-pioneered the invention of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) monocrystalline silicon with research institute Risoe in the 1970s and has since then been world leading manufacturer of NTD silicon for the power market. This presentation will focus on NTD silicon; its characteristics, invention and main uses. It will address the trends of the power market and market projections for NTD, and discuss the growth potential in the years ahead, including larger silicon wafers and management of the NTD supply chain

  12. Well-Production Data and Gas-Reservoir Heterogeneity -- Reserve Growth Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Schmoker, James W.

    2003-01-01

    Oil and gas well production parameters, including peakmonthly production (PMP), peak-consecutive-twelve month production (PYP), and cumulative production (CP), are tested as tools to quantify and understand the heterogeneity of reservoirs in fields where current monthly production is 10 percent or less of PMP. Variation coefficients, defined as VC= (F5-F95)/F50, where F5, F95, and F50 are the 5th, 95th, and 50th (median) fractiles of a probability distribution, are calculated for peak and cumulative production and examined with respect to internal consistency, type of production parameter, conventional versus unconventional accumulations, and reservoir depth. Well-production data for this study were compiled for 69 oil and gas fields in the Lower Pennsylvanian Morrow Formation of the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma. Of these, 47 fields represent production from marine clastic facies. The Morrow data were supplemented by data from the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician Arbuckle Group, Middle Ordovician Simpson Group, Middle Pennsylvanian Atoka Formation, and Silurian and Lower Devonian Hunton Group of the Anadarko Basin, one large gas field in Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of north-central Montana (Bowdoin field), and three areas of the Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation continuous-type (unconventional) oil accumulation in the Williston Basin, North Dakota and Montana. Production parameters (PMP, PYP, and CP) measure the net result of complex geologic, engineering, and economic processes. Our fundamental hypothesis is that well-production data provide information about subsurface heterogeneity in older fields that would be impossible to obtain using geologic techniques with smaller measurement scales such as petrographic, core, and well-log analysis. Results such as these indicate that quantitative measures of production rates and production volumes of wells, expressed as dimensionless variation coefficients, are potentially valuable tools for

  13. Russian Innovative Potential in the Conditions of Economic Sanctions: Reserves of Grown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem M. Nureev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the impact of economic sanctions in general for innovative development of Russia, as well as individual sectors of oil, gas, financial and banking sector. It is shown that the ban on exports to the Russian oil and gas technology has led to the freezing of existing and refusal to enter into new projects. Increased production and export of US oil and gas have led to an increase in excess of the global scope of these types of raw materials and led to long-term downward trend in world energy prices. In recent years there has been a sharp decline in the net inflow of foreign direct investment in Russia, which exacerbates the problem of domestic sources of domestic innovation policy. The effect of sanctions on the development of the Russian economy as a whole and its individual regions is condifered. The paper describes the approaches to the definition of the innovation potential of the Russian region, identified several levels of manifestation of the region's potential and its characteristics, provides a definition of the region's innovation potential, discussed the factors influencing the development of the region's innovative capacity. The current state of the regional innovation system of the Russian Federation is analysed. The paper describes the main tasks of the Russian Federation Innovative Development Strategy for the period up to 2020. The degree of implementation of the Strategy, problems and prospects of realization of the basic provisions of the Strategy, the impact of the implementation of the Strategy on the Russian economy, its position in the index business are analysed in the paper.

  14. Dynamic contents of energy and organic nutrient in steppe growths of the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Veselý

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the dynamics in the content of organic nutrients, ash and energy in dry matter of growths within the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve (NPR, and to document their initial nutritive value before the intended grazing. Plant samples in 1995 and 1996 during the growing season in 14-days intervals from the area of 3 × 1 m2. Amounts of dry matter, fibre, nitrogen substances, fat and ashes were determined in growths according to the ANONYM (2001. Nitrogen-free extract substances (BNLV were determined by final calculating; BE, ME, NEL, NEV, PDIN and PDIE were calculated using the regression equations (VESELÝ and ZEMAN, 1995, 1997. Combining ratio (SP was calculated according to the relation: SP = PDIN (g/NEL (MJ. The dynamics of the contents of dry matter, organic nutrients, ashes and energy were assessed in the growth during the vegetation period and the dynamics was compared with standardized requirements of sheep (no pregnant ewe. Regression and correlation relations for nutrition value of the growths during vegetation period were calculated by use of mathematical-statistical analysis. Only statistically significantly (P<0.05 different parameters form the zero are presented in the paper. The content of dry matter in the growths culminated in summer months (places D8, E13, B17 and it was accompanied by depression in autumn months. After the highest content of crude protein, PDIN and PDIE recorded in spring months summer depression (August followed, this depression was partly balanced by autumn growth of vegetation. The content of ash in steppe growths increased during evaluated period. Similar tendency was registered for fat. Also the contents of fibre and BNLV linearly increased. The contents of nitrogen nutrients and energy corresponded with standardized requirements for sheep during whole vegetation period. Conversely the content of fibre highly exceeded the requirement except in spring

  15. An initial evaluation of potential options for managing riparian reserves of the Aquatic Conservation Strategy of the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Brian R. Pickard; K. Norman. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    The Aquatic Conservation Strategy (ACS) of the Northwest Forest Plan guides management of riparian and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands in western Oregon, western Washington, and northern California. We applied new scientific findings and tools to evaluate two potential options, A and B, for refining interim riparian reserves to meet ACS goals and likely challenges...

  16. Bioinsecticidal activity of Talisia esculenta reserve protein on growth and serine digestive enzymes during larval development of Anticarsia gemmatalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Freire, Maria das Graças M; Kubo, Carlos Eduardo G; Parra, José Roberto P

    2011-01-01

    Plants synthesize a variety of molecules to defend themselves against an attack by insects. Talisin is a reserve protein from Talisia esculenta seeds, the first to be characterized from the family Sapindaceae. In this study, the insecticidal activity of Talisin was tested by incorporating the reserve protein into an artificial diet fed to the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis, the major pest of soybean crops in Brazil. At 1.5% (w/w) of the dietary protein, Talisin affected larval growth, pupal weight, development and mortality, adult fertility and longevity, and produced malformations in pupae and adult insects. Talisin inhibited the trypsin-like activity of larval midgut homogenates. The trypsin activity in Talisin-fed larvae was sensitive to Talisin, indicating that no novel protease-resistant to Talisin was induced in Talisin-fed larvae. Affinity chromatography showed that Talisin bound to midgut proteinases of the insect A. gemmatalis, but was resistant to enzymatic digestion by these larval proteinases. The transformation of genes coding for this reserve protein could be useful for developing insect resistant crops. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, cognitive reserve, and cognitive function in later life: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Tzu

    2017-01-01

    Background Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors may influence cognitive health in later life and offer potential to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The concept of cognitive reserve has been proposed as a mechanism to explain individual differences in rates of cognitive decline, but its potential role as a mediating pathway has seldom been explored using data from large epidemiological studies. We explored the mediating effect of cognitive reserve on the cross-sectional association between lifestyle factors and cognitive function in later life using data from a population-based cohort of healthy older people. Methods and findings We analysed data from 2,315 cognitively healthy participants aged 65 y and over in the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study Wales (CFAS-Wales) cohort collected in 2011–2013. Linear regression modelling was used to investigate the overall associations between five lifestyle factors—cognitive and social activity, physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking—and cognition, adjusting for demographic factors and chronic conditions. Mediation analysis tested for indirect effects of the lifestyle factors on cognition via cognitive reserve. After controlling for age, gender, and the presence of chronic conditions, cognitive and social activity, physical activity, healthy diet, and light-to-moderate alcohol consumption were positively associated with cognitive function, together accounting for 20% (95% CI 17%–23%) of variance in cognitive test scores. Cognitive reserve was an important mediator of this association, with indirect effects via cognitive reserve contributing 21% (95% CI 15%–27%) of the overall effect on cognition. The main limitations of the study derive from the cross-sectional nature of the data and the challenges of accurately measuring the latent construct of cognitive reserve. Conclusions Cross-sectional associations support the view that enhancing cognitive reserve may benefit cognition

  18. Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, cognitive reserve, and cognitive function in later life: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Linda; Wu, Yu-Tzu; Teale, Julia C; MacLeod, Catherine; Matthews, Fiona; Brayne, Carol; Woods, Bob

    2017-03-01

    Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors may influence cognitive health in later life and offer potential to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The concept of cognitive reserve has been proposed as a mechanism to explain individual differences in rates of cognitive decline, but its potential role as a mediating pathway has seldom been explored using data from large epidemiological studies. We explored the mediating effect of cognitive reserve on the cross-sectional association between lifestyle factors and cognitive function in later life using data from a population-based cohort of healthy older people. We analysed data from 2,315 cognitively healthy participants aged 65 y and over in the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study Wales (CFAS-Wales) cohort collected in 2011-2013. Linear regression modelling was used to investigate the overall associations between five lifestyle factors-cognitive and social activity, physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking-and cognition, adjusting for demographic factors and chronic conditions. Mediation analysis tested for indirect effects of the lifestyle factors on cognition via cognitive reserve. After controlling for age, gender, and the presence of chronic conditions, cognitive and social activity, physical activity, healthy diet, and light-to-moderate alcohol consumption were positively associated with cognitive function, together accounting for 20% (95% CI 17%-23%) of variance in cognitive test scores. Cognitive reserve was an important mediator of this association, with indirect effects via cognitive reserve contributing 21% (95% CI 15%-27%) of the overall effect on cognition. The main limitations of the study derive from the cross-sectional nature of the data and the challenges of accurately measuring the latent construct of cognitive reserve. Cross-sectional associations support the view that enhancing cognitive reserve may benefit cognition, and maintenance of cognitive health may be supported

  19. Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, cognitive reserve, and cognitive function in later life: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Clare

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors may influence cognitive health in later life and offer potential to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The concept of cognitive reserve has been proposed as a mechanism to explain individual differences in rates of cognitive decline, but its potential role as a mediating pathway has seldom been explored using data from large epidemiological studies. We explored the mediating effect of cognitive reserve on the cross-sectional association between lifestyle factors and cognitive function in later life using data from a population-based cohort of healthy older people.We analysed data from 2,315 cognitively healthy participants aged 65 y and over in the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study Wales (CFAS-Wales cohort collected in 2011-2013. Linear regression modelling was used to investigate the overall associations between five lifestyle factors-cognitive and social activity, physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking-and cognition, adjusting for demographic factors and chronic conditions. Mediation analysis tested for indirect effects of the lifestyle factors on cognition via cognitive reserve. After controlling for age, gender, and the presence of chronic conditions, cognitive and social activity, physical activity, healthy diet, and light-to-moderate alcohol consumption were positively associated with cognitive function, together accounting for 20% (95% CI 17%-23% of variance in cognitive test scores. Cognitive reserve was an important mediator of this association, with indirect effects via cognitive reserve contributing 21% (95% CI 15%-27% of the overall effect on cognition. The main limitations of the study derive from the cross-sectional nature of the data and the challenges of accurately measuring the latent construct of cognitive reserve.Cross-sectional associations support the view that enhancing cognitive reserve may benefit cognition, and maintenance of cognitive health

  20. Nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds: chemical diversity and potential economic uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. S Mayworm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contents of proteins, carbohydrates and oil of seeds of 57 individuals of Vochysiaceae, involving one species of Callisthene, six of Qualea, one of Salvertia and eight of Vochysia were determined. The main nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds are proteins (20% in average and oils (21. 6%. Mean of carbohydrate contents was 5. 8%. Callisthene showed the lowest protein content (16. 9%, while Q. cordata was the species with the highest content (30% in average. The contents of ethanol soluble carbohydrates were much higher than those of water soluble carbohydrates. Oil contents lay above 20% for most species (30. 4% in V. pygmaea and V. pyramidalis seeds. The predominant fatty acids are lauric (Q. grandiflora, oleic (Qualea and Salvertia or acids with longer carbon chains (Salvertia and a group of Vochysia species. The distribution of Vochysiaceae fatty acids suggests for seeds of some species an exploitation as food sources (predominance of oleic acid, for other species an alternative to cocoa butter (high contents or predominance of stearic acid or the production of lubricants, surfactants, detergents, cosmetics and plastic (predominance of acids with C20 or C22 chains or biodiesel (predominance of monounsaturated acids. The possibility of exploitation of Vochysiaceae products in a cultivation regimen and in extractive reserves is discussed.Teores de proteínas, carboidratos solúveis e óleos de sementes de 57 indivíduos de Vochysiaceae, compreendendo uma espécie de Callisthene, seis de Qualea, uma de Salvertia e oito de Vochysia foram determinados. As principais reservas de sementes de Vochysiaceae são proteínas (20% em média e óleos (21, 6%. A média dos teores de carboidratos foi de 5, 8%. Callisthene apresentou o mais baixo teor de proteínas (16, 9%, enquanto Q. cordata foi a espécie com o mais elevado teor (30% em média. Teores de carboidratos solúveis em etanol foram muito superiores aos solúveis em água. Os teores de

  1. Restoration potential for Danube River Basin, lower Danube and Mura Drava Danube Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHWARZ Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Originally main Danube basin floodplains would cover an area of 26,500 km², which is equal to about 3.3% of the total catchment size. In recent history, 80% have been cut off by dikes and dams for flood control, hydropower generation, to improve navigability or simply to meliorate land for agricultural purposes. River regulation, rectification and floodplain loss changed the hydromorphological conditions for many major rivers and cause the loss of large water retention areas, the acceleration and unfavourable superimposition of flood waves, the local increase of flood peaks and the loss of functional wetlands and their ecological services. The aim of the investigations commissioned by World Wide Fund (since 2009, three studies with increasing spatial resolution were carried out, for the whole Danube basin and for the lower Danube, Mura and Drava rivers was the assessment and prioritisation of potential restoration areas to support national and international activities in respect to nature conservation, the ecological status improvement under Water Framework Directive (WFD and flood mitigation. Aside of the review of existing and planned major restoration projects, new areas are proposed based on continuously available data sets including land use, spatial configuration, hydromorphological intactness, overlapping protected areas and different floodplain types.

  2. Assessment of Gas Potential in the Niobrara Formation, Rosebud Reservation, South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Aubrey E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hopkinson, Leslie [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Soeder, Daniel [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-01-23

    Surface water and groundwater risks associated with unconventional oil and gas development result from potential spills of the large volumes of chemicals stored on-site during drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations, and the return to the surface of significant quantities of saline water produced during oil or gas well production. To better identify and mitigate risks, watershed models and tools are needed to evaluate the dispersion of pollutants in possible spill scenarios. This information may be used to determine the placement of in-stream water-quality monitoring instruments and to develop early-warning systems and emergency plans. A chemical dispersion model has been used to estimate the contaminant signal for in-stream measurements. Spills associated with oil and gas operations were identified within the Susquehanna River Basin Commission’s Remote Water Quality Monitoring Network. The volume of some contaminants was found to be sufficient to affect the water quality of certain drainage areas. The most commonly spilled compounds and expected peak concentrations at monitoring stations were used in laboratory experiments to determine if a signal could be detected and positively identified using standard water-quality monitoring equipment. The results were compared to historical data and baseline observations of water quality parameters, and showed that the chemicals tested do commonly affect water quality parameters. This work is an effort to demonstrate that hydrologic and water quality models may be applied to improve the placement of in-stream water quality monitoring devices. This information may increase the capability of early-warning systems to alert community health and environmental agencies of surface water spills associated with unconventional oil and gas operations.

  3. Lifelong Bilingualism and Neural Reserve against Alzheimer’s disease: A Review of Findings and Potential Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive brain disorder that initially affects medial temporal lobe circuitry and memory functions. Current drug treatments have only modest effects on the symptomatic course of the disease. In contrast, a growing body of evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism may delay the onset of clinical AD symptoms by several years. The purpose of the present review is to summarize evidence for bilingualism as a reserve variable against AD and discuss potential underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that bilingualism may delay clinical AD symptoms by protecting frontostriatal and frontoparietal executive control circuitry rather than medial temporal lobe memory circuitry. Cellular and molecular mechanisms that may contribute to bilingual cognitive reserve effects are discussed, including those that may affect neuronal metabolic functions, dynamic neuronal-glial interactions, vascular factors, myelin structure and neurochemical signaling. Future studies that may test some of these potential mechanisms of bilingual CR effects are proposed. PMID:25496781

  4. Canadian oil sands : supply and potential for market growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.

    2004-01-01

    Canadian oil sands recoverable reserves rank second only to Saudi Arabia and present enormous potential, particularly through technological gains. This paper discussed the market potential for oil sands both globally and in North America. It was estimated that oil sands production would eventually surpass declining conventional production, increasing from 42 per cent of Western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. Recoverable reserves were an estimated 174 billion barrels, with cumulative production at 4 billion barrels between 1967 to 2003. Statistics of U.S. and Canadian markets for crude oil were presented to the year 2020. A flow chart of oil sands products and market outlets was presented, as well as details of existing and potential markets for Canadian crude oil. Oil sands product dispositions were outlined, with the prediction that Asia may emerge as an incremental market. World crude oil production statistics were presented by type. World residual supply and demand estimates were presented, including details of conversion capacity and requirements for residual processing capacity in refineries and field upgraders. American refinery feedstocks were presented by type, with the identification of an increase in heavy crude runs. It was noted that recent pricing provided a strong incentive to add refining conversion capacity to process heavy oil. An outline of a study completed for the Alberta government and industry was presented, in which upgrading to light synthetic crude was determined as a base case. The value added to process bitumen beyond upgrading was discussed in relation to the upgrading of American refineries to process bitumen blends and synthetic crude. Potential cases for upgrading bitumen were presented, along with a comparison of capital costs. An overall economic comparison of projects was provided. Various measures to maximize markets for oil sands products in Alberta were presented. It was suggested that U.S. markets should absorb more new

  5. Conservation Potential of Abandoned Military Areas Matches That of Established Reserves: Plants and Butterflies in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Oldrich; Vrba, Pavel; Benes, Jiri; Hrazsky, Zaboj; Koptik, Jiri; Kucera, Tomas; Marhoul, Pavel; Zamecnik, Jaroslav; Konvicka, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Military training generates frequent and irregular disturbance followed by succession, resulting in fine-scaled mosaics of ecological conditions in military training areas (MTAs). The awareness that MTAs may represent important biodiversity sanctuaries is increasing recently. Concurrently, changes in military doctrine are leading to abandonment of many MTAs, which are being brought under civilian administration and opened for development. We surveyed vascular plants in 43 and butterflies in 41 MTAs in the Czech Republic and compared the records with plants and butterfly records from 301 and 125 nature reserves, respectively. After controlling for effects of area, geography, and climate, we found that plant species richness was equal in the two land use categories; butterfly richness was higher in MTAs; reserves hosted more endangered plants and more endangered butterflies. Ordination analyses, again controlled for potential nuisance effects, showed that MTAs and reserves differed also in species composition. While specialist species of nationally rarest habitat types inclined towards the reserves, MTAs hosted a high representation of endangered species depending on either disturbed ground, or successionaly transient conditions. These patterns reflect the history of the national nature reserves network, and the disturbance-succession dynamics within MTAs. The conservation value of formerly army-used lands is increasingly threatened by abandonment, and conservationists should support either alternative uses mimicking army activities, or sustainable management regimes. PMID:23326388

  6. Bacterial growth on stream insects: potential for use in bioassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly

    1998-01-01

    Growth of filamentous bacteria (Sphaerotilus sp., Leptothrix sp.) on aquatic insects was evaluated for its usefulness as a bioindicator of detrimental nutrient levels in streams. Field measurements of insect abundance, nutrient concentrations, and incidence/ degree of bacterial growth on insects upstream and downstream of livestock pastures were made in 2 Virginia, USA...

  7. The customized fetal growth potential: a standard for Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, Julia

    2013-01-01

    To identify maternal and pregnancy-related physiological and pathological variables associated with fetal growth and birthweight in Ireland and to develop customized birthweight centile charts for the Irish population that will aid in appropriate identification and selection of growth-restricted fetuses requiring increased antenatal surveillance.

  8. Cognitive reserve modulates attention processes in healthy elderly and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lihua; Chen, Jiu; Gao, Lijuan; Shu, Hao; Wang, Zan; Liu, Duan; Yan, Yanna; Li, Shijiang; Zhang, Zhijun

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate and compare the effect of cognitive reserve (CR) on brain activation in healthy controls (HC) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients during 0-back and 1-back tasks measured by event-related potential (ERP). The study recorded 85 subjects (39 aMCI patients and 46 their matched controls) with a 64-channel electroencephalogram (EEG). Subjects performed 0- and 1-back tasks. Compared to HC, aMCI patients showed reduced accuracy, delayed mean correct response time (RT) and decreased P300 amplitude at central-parietal and parietal electrodes. A mediation analysis indicated that higher CR reduced neural inefficiency, which might be associated with better task performance in HC. However, no correlation was detected between CR and neural inefficiency in aMCI patients, whereas higher CR was still related to enhanced accuracy and prolonged RT in aMCI patients. The present study reported that higher CR could contribute to better task performance via down-regulating neural inefficiency in HC. In addition, higher CR might modulate attention processes in aMCI via a way distinct from that in HC, and eventually result in better task performance. The study provided evidence for that improving CR might lower cognitive impairment of healthy elderly and aMCI patients. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Allelopathic and bioherbicidal potential of Cladonia verticillaris on the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigre, R C; Silva, N H; Santos, M G; Honda, N K; Falcão, E P S; Pereira, E C

    2012-10-01

    Responses to germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) submitted to organic extracts and purified compounds of Cladonia verticillaris ("salambaia") were analyzed in this work. The experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions using extracts and pure compounds at different concentrations. None of the assays showed any influence on the germination of L. sativa seeds using C. verticillaris extracts; however, modifications in leaf area and seedling hypocotyl and root development occurred. In the growth experiments, seedlings exposed to ether or acetone extract showed diminished hypocotyl growth in detriment to the root stimulus, compared to controls. Increases in extract concentrations led to the formation of abnormal seedlings. To determine the allelochemicals of C. verticillaris, its principal components, fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids, were isolated and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). When the seedlings were exposed to the two acids separately, presented increased leaf area at all concentrations. In contrast, hypocotyl and root stimulus was observed only in the presence of protocetraric acid at different concentrations. Fumarprotocetraric as well as protocetraric acids, isolated and purified from C. verticillaris and Parmotrema dilatatum respectively, influenced the development of L. sativa seedlings at high concentrations, indicating a possible bioherbicide potential of these acids. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth potential and business constraints of micro and small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The MSEs employment growth was significantly and negatively affected by limited access to finance, limited access to business services, and limited access to market. In addition, limited access to premises, limited access to finance and limited access to business services were significantly and negatively affect the ...

  11. Growth potential of Eucalyptus cypellocarpa as an alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With forestry expanding into mid-altitude drier and warmer, or drier and colder sites, the growth of E. grandis has been compromised by unsuitable growing conditions ... A genotype environment interaction was present between two sites, as indicated by low Type B correlations of 0.47 and 0.53 for basal area and volume, ...

  12. Analysis of growth, yield potential and horticultural performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complete randomized block design was applied to evaluate and compare the growth, yield and field performance of in vitro derived turmeric plants with conventional rhizome under field condition. In vitro propagated plants manifest consistently superior horticultural performance over the conventional rhizome. Among the ...

  13. Growth potential and genetic parameters of four Mesoamerican ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary results are reported from a total of 319 provenance/progeny tests of Pinus tecunumanii, P. maximinoi, P. patula and P. greggii that were established on sites in Brazil, Colombia and South Africa. Tests were measured for the growth traits height, diameter at breast height (DBH) and volume at ages 3, 5 and 8 years.

  14. The Potential Role of Innovative Indian SMEs in Sustainable Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Oncioiu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available India has experienced a robust economic growth in the recent years, but with a trajectory which offers both positive and negative lessons on the business innovation faced by many countries in Asia and elsewhere in the developing world. This study sought to test the relationship between innovation, financial performance and economic growth. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics on the factors that contribute to assuring the innovation of the processes involved in the financial performance and economic development in the rubber and plastic product sector in India. The results revealed that there is a positive relationship between innovation and economic growth, as well as between innovation and the financial performance of the company. Finally, the conclusion presents implications, limitations and directions for future research regarding the importance of innovation to the firm’s performance. A clear lesson from this study is that the future must include promoting Innovative Indian SMEs; in other words, business competitiveness depends on the creativity and innovativeness of its entrepreneurship.

  15. Age, size and regeneration of old growth white pine at Dividing Lake Nature Reserve, Algonquin Park, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey

    1995-01-01

    The age, mode of regeneration and diameter growth of white pine were determined in an old growth stand near Dividing Lake, Algonquin Provincial Park. The white pine ranged in age from 267 to 486 years. There was no significant relationship between white pine age and diameter (DBH). The distribution of tree ages indicated that the white pine component in this mixed...

  16. Geologic technical assessment of the Richton salt dome, Mississippi, for potential expansion of the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, Anna C.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Looff, Karl M. (Geologic Consultant)

    2006-01-01

    Technical assessment and remodeling of existing data indicates that the Richton salt dome, located in southeastern Mississippi, appears to be a suitable site for expansion of the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The maximum area of salt is approximately 7 square miles, at a subsurface elevation of about -2000 ft, near the top of the salt stock. Approximately 5.8 square miles of this appears suitable for cavern development, because of restrictions imposed by modeled shallow salt overhang along several sides of the dome. The detailed geometry of the overhang currently is only poorly understood. However, the large areal extent of the Richton salt mass suggests that significant design flexibility exists for a 160-million-barrel storage facility consisting of 16 ten-million-barrel caverns. The dome itself is prominently elongated from northwest to southeast. The salt stock appears to consist of two major spine features, separated by a likely boundary shear zone trending from southwest to northeast. The dome decreases in areal extent with depth, because of salt flanks that appear to dip inward at 70-80 degrees. Caprock is present at depths as shallow as 274 ft, and the shallowest salt is documented at -425 ft. A large number of existing two-dimensional seismic profiles have been acquired crossing, and in the vicinity of, the Richton salt dome. At least selected seismic profiles should be acquired, examined, potentially reprocessed, and interpreted in an effort to understand the limitations imposed by the apparent salt overhang, should the Richton site be selected for actual expansion of the Reserve.

  17. Growth potential of exponential- and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium during sausage fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Henriksen, Sidsel; Müller, K.

    2016-01-01

    Raw meat for sausage production can be contaminated with Salmonella. For technical reasons, meat is often frozen prior to mincing but it is unknown how growth of Salmonella in meat prior to freezing affects its growth potential during sausage fermentation. We investigated survival of exponential-...... fermentation, sporadic growth of exponential-phase cells of S. Typhimurium was observed drawing attention to the handling and storage of sausage meat.......Raw meat for sausage production can be contaminated with Salmonella. For technical reasons, meat is often frozen prior to mincing but it is unknown how growth of Salmonella in meat prior to freezing affects its growth potential during sausage fermentation. We investigated survival of exponential...... starter culture. With no starter culture, both strains grew in both growth phases. In general, a functional starter culture abolished S. Typhimurium growth independent of growth phase and we concluded that ensuring correct fermentation is important for sausage safety. However, despite efficient...

  18. India’s long-term growth potential and the implications for Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Ralston; Wilson Au-Yeung; Bill Brummitt

    2011-01-01

    After 20 years of economic reform this article discusses India’s long-term growth potential and canvasses some of the challenges that Indian policy makers will need to overcome to realise this potential. Some of the consequences of India’s growth for Australia are also explored.

  19. SPORTS INDUSTRY – A POTENTIAL NEW SOURCE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STAN, PhD Student, Free International University of Moldova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study the impact of sports industry on the economic growth of a country, with a further perspective for the Republic of Moldova. The novelty consists in the necessity of a wider research of the activities of sports organizations and their impact on the economic activities within a country, as there are existing worldwide examples that could serve as a strong argument in this case. The results were achieved using the following methods: statistical, analytical, comparison, etc. Understanding that modernization of the sport industry is necessary for any country, including the Republic of Moldova could result in the determination of the linkage between sports and further development of the country.

  20. Root environment water potential and tomato fruit growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van de P.A.C.M.; Uittien, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Tomato plants were grown in a climate chamber in water culture at standard nutrient solution concentration with electrical conductivity of 2 mS-cm-1. At the start of the development of the fourth cluster the EC was increased to 6, 9 or 12 mS-cm-1, resulting in a water potential of the nutrient

  1. Growth and yield potential of Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Indeed, although E. pyramidalis has exhibited an excellent yielding potential in vertical-flow constructed wetlands, this treatment process faces numerous problems such as the variability of liquid waste compositions and clogging of the wetland treatment units. In Cameroon, the faecal sludge contains high organic matter ...

  2. Evaluation of gas production potential from gas hydrate deposits in National Petroleum Reserve Alaska using numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandanwar, Manish S.; Anderson, Brian J.; Ajayi, Taiwo; Collett, Timothy S.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation of the gas production potential of Sunlight Peak gas hydrate accumulation in the eastern portion of the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) of Alaska North Slope (ANS) is conducted using numerical simulations, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gas hydrate Life Cycle Assessment program. A field scale reservoir model for Sunlight Peak is developed using Advanced Processes & Thermal Reservoir Simulator (STARS) that approximates the production design and response of this gas hydrate field. The reservoir characterization is based on available structural maps and the seismic-derived hydrate saturation map of the study region. A 3D reservoir model, with heterogeneous distribution of the reservoir properties (such as porosity, permeability and vertical hydrate saturation), is developed by correlating the data from the Mount Elbert well logs. Production simulations showed that the Sunlight Peak prospect has the potential of producing 1.53 × 109 ST m3 of gas in 30 years by depressurization with a peak production rate of around 19.4 × 104 ST m3/day through a single horizontal well. To determine the effect of uncertainty in reservoir properties on the gas production, an uncertainty analysis is carried out. It is observed that for the range of data considered, the overall cumulative production from the Sunlight Peak will always be within the range of ±4.6% error from the overall mean value of 1.43 × 109 ST m3. A sensitivity analysis study showed that the proximity of the reservoir from the base of permafrost and the base of hydrate stability zone (BHSZ) has significant effect on gas production rates. The gas production rates decrease with the increase in the depth of the permafrost and the depth of BHSZ. From the overall analysis of the results it is concluded that Sunlight Peak gas hydrate accumulation behaves differently than other Class III reservoirs (Class III reservoirs are composed of a single layer of hydrate with no

  3. Life History theory hypotheses on child growth: Potential implications for short and long-term child growth, development and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-01

    Life history theory integrates ecological, physiological, and molecular layers within an evolutionary framework to understand organisms' strategies to optimize survival and reproduction. Two life history hypotheses and their implications for child growth, development, and health (illustrated in the South African context) are reviewed here. One hypothesis suggests that there is an energy trade-off between linear growth and brain growth. Undernutrition in infancy and childhood may trigger adaptive physiological mechanisms prioritizing the brain at the expense of body growth. Another hypothesis is that the period from conception to infancy is a critical window of developmental plasticity of linear growth, the duration of which may vary between and within populations. The transition from infancy to childhood may mark the end of a critical window of opportunity for improving child growth. Both hypotheses emphasize the developmental plasticity of linear growth and the potential determinants of growth variability (including the role of parent-offspring conflict in maternal resources allocation). Implications of these hypotheses in populations with high burdens of undernutrition and infections are discussed. In South Africa, HIV/AIDS during pregnancy (associated with adverse birth outcomes, short duration of breastfeeding, and social consequences) may lead to a shortened window of developmental plasticity of growth. Furthermore, undernutrition and infectious diseases in children living in South Africa, a country undergoing a rapid nutrition transition, may have adverse consequences on individuals' cognitive abilities and risks of cardio-metabolic diseases. Studies are needed to identify physiological mechanisms underlying energy allocation between biological functions and their potential impacts on health. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. RESEARCH REGARDING THE POTENTIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS ON PLANTS GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA-IRINA PATRICIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that growth and morphogenesis of plant tissue cultures can be improved by small amounts of some organic compounds. Heterocyclic compounds such as chromanones and thiazoles derivatives, valuable because of their potential biological activities, have also been reported as pesticides, herbicides and plant-growth regulators. In the present study, different concentrations of chromanones and thiazoles derivatives were employed to evaluate their effects on plantlets growth of Ocimum basilicum L. and Echinacea purpurea L. The studied compounds were proved to be growth inhibitors at high concentrations. A growth stimulation effect was registered at low concentration.

  5. Fibroblast Growth Factor-23—A Potential Uremic Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kuczera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23 is a circulating member of the FGF family produced mainly by the osteocytes and osteoblasts that can act as a hormone. The main action of FGF23 is to lower phosphatemia via the reduction of urinary phosphate reabsorption and the decrease of 1,25(OH2-D generation in the kidney. In the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD, plasma FGF23 concentration rises early, most probably to compensate the inability of the deteriorating kidneys to excrete an adequate amount of phosphate. However, this comes at the cost of FGF23-related target organ toxicity. Results of clinical studies suggest that elevated plasma FGF23 concentration is independently associated with the increased risk of CKD progression, occurrence of cardio-vascular complications, and mortality in different stages of CKD. FGF23 also contributes to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, vascular calcification, and endothelial dysfunction. The impact of FGF23 on heart muscle is not dependent on Klotho, but rather on the PLCγ–calcineurin–NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells pathway. Among the factors increasing plasma FGF23 concentration, active vitamin D analogues play a significant role. Additionally, inflammation and iron deficiency can contribute to the increase of plasma FGF23. Among the factors decreasing plasma FGF23, dietary phosphate restriction, some intestinal phosphate binders, cinacalcet (and other calcimimetics, and nicotinamide can be enumerated. Anti-FGF23 antibodies have also recently been developed to inhibit the action of FGF23 in target organs. Still, the best way to normalize plasma FGF23 in maintenance hemodialysis patients is restoring kidney function by successful kidney transplantation.

  6. Documented international enquiry on solid sedimentary fossil fuels; Coal: definitions, classifications, reserves-resources and energy potential

    OpenAIRE

    Alpern, B.; Lemos de Sousa, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with all solid sedimentary fossil fuels, i.e. coal, the main one for geological reserves and resources, peat, and oil shales. Definitions of coal ( < 50% ash) and coal seam (thickness and depth limits) are examined in view of an international agreement regarding new concepts for a common reserves and resources evaluation using the same nomenclature. The 50% ash limit, already adopted by UN-ECE for coal definition, allows the creation of a new category—the organic ...

  7. Effect of temperature on development and growth potential of axillary buds in roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of temperature during axillary bud formation on axillary bud development and subsequent shoot growth was investigated. Growth potential of the axillary buds was studied either in situ, by pruning the parent shoot above the bud, or in isolation, by grafting the bud or by culturing the bud

  8. Development and validation of SUCROS-Cotton : A potential crop growth simulation model for cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Werf, van der W.; Cao, W.; Li, B.; Pan, X.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    A model for the development, growth and potential production of cotton (SUCROS-Cotton) was developed. Particular attention was given to the phenological development of the plant and the plasticity of fruit growth in response to temperature, radiation, daylength, variety traits, and management. The

  9. DEFINING THE MARKET POTENTIAL BY ASSESSING GROWTH AND SATURATION IN THE PRIVATE LIFE AND PENSIONS INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ilja Arefjevs; Tatjana Volkova; Marija Lindemane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the report is define the market potential of the private life and pension industry in the Baltic region. The authors used the Törnquist function to develop the market growth and saturation approach. The research outcome is a cross-country comparison of market growth, saturation and its dynamics to support strategic decisions by financial companies.

  10. Defining the Market Potential by Assessing Growth and Saturation in the Private Life and Pensions Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ilja Arefjevs, Tatjana Volkova, Marija Lindemane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the report is define the market potential of the private life and pension industry in the Baltic region. The authors used the Törnquist function to develop the market growth and saturation approach. The research outcome is a cross-country comparison of market growth, saturation and its dynamics to support strategic decisions by financial companies.

  11. Assessing Potential Climate Change Effects on Loblolly Pine Growth: A Probabilistic Regional Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter B. Woodbury; James E. Smith; David A. Weinstein; John A. Laurence

    1998-01-01

    Most models of the potential effects of climate change on forest growth have produced deterministic predictions. However, there are large uncertainties in data on regional forest condition, estimates of future climate, and quantitative relationships between environmental conditions and forest growth rate. We constructed a new model to analyze these uncertainties...

  12. USGS world petroleum assessment 2000; new estimates of undiscovered oil and natural gas, including reserve growth, outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Oil and natural gas account for approximately 63 percent of the world’s total energy consumption. The U.S. Geological Survey periodically estimates the amount of oil and gas remaining to be found in the world. Since 1981, each of the last four of these assessments has shown a slight increase in the combined volume of identified reserves and undiscovered resources. The latest assessment estimates the volume of technically recoverable conventional oil and gas that may be added to the world's reserves, exclusive of the United States, in the next 30 years. The USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000 reports an increase in global petroleum resources, including a 20-percent increase in undiscovered oil and a 14-percent decrease in undiscovered natural gas compared to the previous assessment (table 1). These results have important implications for energy prices, policy, security, and the global resource balance.

  13. Potential of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers on soil enzymes and plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosheen, A.; Bano, A.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers alone or in combination on urease, invertase and phosphatase activities of rhizospheric soil and also on general impact on growth of safflower cvv. Thori and Saif-32. The PGPR (Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter vinelandii) were applied at 10/sup 6/ cells/mL as seed inoculation prior to sowing. Chemical fertilizers were applied at full (Urea 60 Kg ha/sup -1/ and Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 30 Kg ha/sup -1/), half (Urea 30 Kg ha/sup -1/ and DAP 15 Kg ha/sup -1/) and quarter doses (Urea 15 Kg ha-1 and DAP 7.5 Kg ha/sup -1/) during sowing. The chemical fertilizers and PGPR enhanced urease and invertase activities of soil. Presence of PGPR in combination with quarter and half doses of chemical fertilizers further augmented their effect on soil enzymes activities. The soil phosphatase activity was greater in Azospirillum and Azotobacter in combination with half dose of chemical fertilizers. Maximum increase in leaf melondialdehyde content was recorded in full dose of chemical fertilizers whereas coinoculation treatment exhibited significant reduction in cv. Thori. Half and quarter dose of chemical fertilizers increased the shoot length of safflower whereas maximum increase in leaf protein was recorded in Azotobacter in combination with full dose of chemical fertilizers. Root length was improved by Azospirillum and Azotobacter in combination with quarter dose of chemical fertilizers. Leaf area and chlorophyll contents were significantly improved by Azotobacter in combination with half dose of chemical fertilizers. It is inferred that PGPR can supplement 50 % chemical fertilizers for better plant growth and soil health. (author)

  14. Time‐course of Tomato Whole‐plant Respiration and Fruit and Stem Growth During Prolonged Darkness in Relation to Carbohydrate Reserves

    OpenAIRE

    GARY, C.; BALDET, P.; BERTIN, N.; DEVAUX, C.; TCHAMITCHIAN, M.; RAYMOND, P.

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the relevance of a simple carbon balance model (Seginer et al., 1994, Scientia Horticulturae 60: 55–80) in source‐limiting conditions, the dynamics of growth, respiration and carbohydrate reserves of tomato plants were observed in prolonged darkness. Four days prior to the experiments, plants were exposed to high or low light levels and CO2 concentrations. The concentration of carbohydrates in vegetative organs was 30–50 % lower in plants that were exposed to low carbon assimil...

  15. Influence of electrolytes on growth, phototropism, nutation and surface potential in etiolated cucumber seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, E. P.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of electrolytes (10-30 mol m-3) increased the relative growth rate of etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Burpee's Pickler) hypocotyls by 20-50% relative to water-only controls. The nonelectrolyte mannitol inhibited growth by 10%. All salts tested were effective, regardless of chemical composition or valence. Measurements of cell-sap osmolality ruled out an osmotic mechanism for the growth stimulation by electrolytes. This, and the nonspecificity of the response, indicate that an electrical property of the solutions was responsible for their growth-stimulating activity. Measurements of surface electrical potential supported this reasoning. Treatment with electrolytes also enhanced nutation and altered the pattern of phototropic curvature development. A novel analytical method for quantitating these effects on growth was developed. The evidence indicates that electrolytes influence an electrophysiological parameter that is involved in the control of cell expansion and the coordination of growth underlying tropisms and nutations.

  16. Land-use dynamics influence estimates of carbon sequestration potential in tropical second-growth forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Naomi B.; Uriarte, María; DeFries, Ruth; Gutierrez-Velez, Victor H.; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miguel A.

    2017-07-01

    Many countries have made major commitments to carbon sequestration through reforestation under the Paris Climate Agreement, and recent studies have illustrated the potential for large amounts of carbon sequestration in tropical second-growth forests. However, carbon gains in second-growth forests are threatened by non-permanence, i.e. release of carbon into the atmosphere from clearing or disturbance. The benefits of second-growth forests require long-term persistence on the landscape, but estimates of carbon potential rarely consider the spatio-temporal landscape dynamics of second-growth forests. In this study, we used remotely sensed imagery from a landscape in the Peruvian Amazon to examine patterns of second-growth forest regrowth and permanence over 28 years (1985-2013). By 2013, 44% of all forest cover in the study area was second growth and more than 50% of second-growth forest pixels were less than 5 years old. We modeled probabilities of forest regrowth and clearing as a function of landscape factors. The amount of neighboring forest and variables related to pixel position (i.e. distance to edge) were important for predicting both clearing and regrowth. Forest age was the strongest predictor of clearing probability and suggests a threshold response of clearing probability to age. Finally, we simulated future trajectories of carbon sequestration using the parameters from our models. We compared this with the amount of biomass that would accumulate under the assumption of second-growth permanence. Estimates differed by 900 000 tonnes, equivalent to over 80% of Peru’s commitment to carbon sequestration through ‘community reforestation’ under the Paris Agreement. Though the study area has more than 40 000 hectares of second-growth forest, only a small proportion is likely to accumulate significant carbon. Instead, cycles between forest and non-forest are common. Our results illustrate the importance of considering landscape dynamics when assessing

  17. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Martyniuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  18. Autonomous growth potential of leukemia blast cells is associated with poor prognosis in human acute leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Wieman, Eric A; Guan, Xiuqin; Jakubowski, Ann A; Steinherz, Peter G; O'Reilly, Richard J

    2009-12-29

    We have described a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model that permits the subcutaneous growth of primary human acute leukemia blast cells into a measurable subcutaneous nodule which may be followed by the development of disseminated disease. Utilizing the SCID mouse model, we examined the growth potential of leukemic blasts from 133 patients with acute leukemia, (67 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 66 acute myeloid leukemia (AML)) in the animals after subcutaneous inoculation without conditioning treatment. The blasts displayed three distinct growth patterns: "aggressive", "indolent", or "no tumor growth". Out of 133 leukemias, 45 (33.8%) displayed an aggressive growth pattern, 14 (10.5%) displayed an indolent growth pattern and 74 (55.6%) did not grow in SCID mice. The growth probability of leukemias from relapsed and/or refractory disease was nearly 3 fold higher than that from patients with newly diagnosed disease. Serial observations found that leukemic blasts from the same individual, which did not initiate tumor growth at initial presentation and/or at early relapse, may engraft and grow in the later stages of disease, suggesting that the ability of leukemia cells for engraftment and proliferation was gradually acquired following the process of leukemia progression. Nine autonomous growing leukemia cell lines were established in vitro. These displayed an aggressive proliferation pattern, suggesting a possible correlation between the capacity of human leukemia cells for autonomous proliferation in vitro and an aggressive growth potential in SCID mice. In addition, we demonstrated that patients whose leukemic blasts displayed an aggressive growth and dissemination pattern in SClD mice had a poor clinical outcome in patients with ALL as well as AML. Patients whose leukemic blasts grew indolently or whose leukemia cells failed to induce growth had a significantly longer DFS and more favorable clinical course.

  19. Autonomous growth potential of leukemia blast cells is associated with poor prognosis in human acute leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowski Ann A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have described a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mouse model that permits the subcutaneous growth of primary human acute leukemia blast cells into a measurable subcutaneous nodule which may be followed by the development of disseminated disease. Utilizing the SCID mouse model, we examined the growth potential of leukemic blasts from 133 patients with acute leukemia, (67 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and 66 acute myeloid leukemia (AML in the animals after subcutaneous inoculation without conditioning treatment. The blasts displayed three distinct growth patterns: "aggressive", "indolent", or "no tumor growth". Out of 133 leukemias, 45 (33.8% displayed an aggressive growth pattern, 14 (10.5% displayed an indolent growth pattern and 74 (55.6% did not grow in SCID mice. The growth probability of leukemias from relapsed and/or refractory disease was nearly 3 fold higher than that from patients with newly diagnosed disease. Serial observations found that leukemic blasts from the same individual, which did not initiate tumor growth at initial presentation and/or at early relapse, may engraft and grow in the later stages of disease, suggesting that the ability of leukemia cells for engraftment and proliferation was gradually acquired following the process of leukemia progression. Nine autonomous growing leukemia cell lines were established in vitro. These displayed an aggressive proliferation pattern, suggesting a possible correlation between the capacity of human leukemia cells for autonomous proliferation in vitro and an aggressive growth potential in SCID mice. In addition, we demonstrated that patients whose leukemic blasts displayed an aggressive growth and dissemination pattern in SClD mice had a poor clinical outcome in patients with ALL as well as AML. Patients whose leukemic blasts grew indolently or whose leukemia cells failed to induce growth had a significantly longer DFS and more favorable clinical course.

  20. Transforming growth factor β activated kinase 1: a potential therapeutic target for rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechtner, Sabrina; Fox, David A; Ahmed, Salahuddin

    2017-07-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α are central regulators of autoinflammatory diseases. While targeting these cytokines has proven to be a successful clinical strategy, the long-term challenges such as drug resistance, lack of efficacy and poor clinical outcomes in some patients are some of the limitations faced by these therapies. This has ignited strategies to reduce inflammation by potentially targeting a variety of molecules, including cell surface receptors, signalling proteins and/or transcription factors to minimize cytokine-induced inflammation and tissue injury. In this regard, transforming growth factor β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is activated in the inflammatory signal transduction pathways in response to IL-1β, TNF-α or toll-like receptor stimulation. Because of its ideal position upstream of mitogen-activated protein kinases and the IκB kinase complex in signalling cascades, targeting TAK1 may be an attractive strategy for treating diseases characterized by chronic inflammation. Here, we discuss the emerging role of TAK1 in mediating the IL-1β, TNF-α and toll-like receptor mediated inflammatory responses in diseases such as RA, OA, gout and SS. We also review evidence suggesting that TAK1 inhibition may have potential therapeutic value. Finally, we focus on the current status of the development of TAK1 inhibitors and suggest further opportunities for testing TAK1 inhibitors in rheumatic diseases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Ascertaining the potential effects of temperature on growth, survival and feeding of different juvenile clown fish

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwas Rao Methari; Thipramalai Thankappan Ajith Kumar; Mohideen Abdul Badhul Haq; Chinna Raja; Sheik Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the physiological and ecological responses of marine ornamental fishes to the change of water temperature with its potential effects on the growth, survival and feeding in clown fish. Methods: Three different sea anemone fish (Premnas biaculeatus, Amphiprion clarkii, Amphiprion akallopisos) were reared in confinement at water temperatures of 26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 °C using thermostat and they were maintained up to the marketable size, and growth, surv...

  2. MECHANISMS OF GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION OF HUMAN AND INTELLECTUAL POTENTIALS IN CORPORATION OF KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Lanskaya D. V.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the mechanisms of growth, transformation of human and intellectual potentials in the corporation capitals, and also the mechanisms of fixing of their carriers in a corporation for the purpose of ensuring growth of competitive force of corporation of knowledge economy; in particular, we have investigated basic mechanisms of interaction of owners of human and intellectual capitals with a vertical of the economic power of corporation and the mechanism of an intellectual ren...

  3. Peasant coffee in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Mexico: A critical evaluation of sustainable intensification and market integration potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Cristina de la Vega-Leinert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Production of low-input, shaded coffee in the Los Tuxtlas UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (LTBR, Veracruz, Mexico, an economically marginalized but ecologically rich region, was strongly affected by the collapse in international prices and the reconfiguration of the Mexican coffee sector in the 1990s. This place-based study used qualitative methods to investigate local strategies to reactivate coffee cultivation and improve market integration. Ninety-five producers, processors and cooperative representatives were interviewed to: 1 characterize the different actors in the local coffee commodity chain; 2 explore how producers, organized or not, shape and are constrained by the local coffee sector, and 3 evaluate whether producers land use strategies may be compatible with conservation in the LTBR. We combine the Land Sparing and Sharing framework with the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve zonation system to conceptualize how coffee plantations can be spatially integrated in protected areas and facilitate synergies between local livelihoods and conservation. Our empirical study illustrates the complexity and dynamism of the LTBR coffee sector. It highlights the resourcefulness of producers in adapting their cultivation systems, but also the narrow maneuvering room farmers have to exploit textbook synergies between conservation and fair trade and / or certified organic markets. In principle, coffee cultivation can be expanded and intensified without affecting remaining primary forest (Land Sparing and contribute to maintain a diverse landscape matrix in productive agroforestry systems (Land Sharing. However, few producers have the means required to successfully achieve profitable and long-term market integration. Future research on sustainable land use management in, and around, protected areas needs to explicitly address local, sectoral and market dynamics as drivers of land use at the local level. Although these dynamics may create windows of opportunity

  4. Estimating urban trees and carbon stock potentials for mitigating climate change in Lagos: Case of Ikeja Government Reserved Area (GRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, P. O.; Faderin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Urban trees are a component of the urban infrastructure which offers diverse services including environmental, aesthetic and economic. The accumulation of carbon in the atmosphere resulting from the indiscriminate distribution of human populations and urban activities with the unsustainable consumption of natural resources contributes to global environmental change especially in coastal cities like Lagos. Carbon stocks and sequestration by urban trees are increasingly recognized to play significant roles for mitigating climate change. This paper focuses on the estimation of carbon stock and sequestration through biomass estimation and quantification in Ikeja GRA, Lagos. Ikeja possesses a characteristic feature as a microcosm of Lagos due to the wide range of land uses. A canopy assessment of tree population was carried out using itree canopy software. A GPS survey was used to collect an inventory of all trees showing their location, spatial distribution and other attributes. The analysis of the carbon storage and sequestration potential of both actual and potential tree planting sites involved biomass estimations from tree allometry equations. Trees were identified at species level and measurements of their dendrometric values were recorded and integrated into the GIS database to estimate biomass of trees and carbon storage. The trees in the study area were estimated to have a biomass of 441.9 mg and carbon storage of 221.395 kg/tree. By considering the potential tree planting sites the estimated carbon stored increased to 11,352.73 kg. Carbon sequestration value in the study area was found to be 1.6790 tonnes for the existing trees and 40.707 tonnes for the potential tree planting sites (PTPS). The estimation of carbon storage and sequestration values of trees are important incentives for carbon accounting/footprints and monitoring of climate change mitigation which has implications for evaluation and monitoring of urban ecosystem.

  5. Foraging and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon after tidal restoration of a large river delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Aaron T.; Ellings, Christopher; Woo, Isa; Simenstad, Charles A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Turner, Kelley L.; Smith, Ashley L.; Takekawa, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether restoring tidal flow to previously diked estuarine wetlands also restores foraging and growth opportunities for juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Several studies have assessed the value of restored tidal wetlands for juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., but few have used integrative measures of salmon performance, such as habitat-specific growth potential, to evaluate restoration. Our study took place in the Nisqually River delta, Washington, where recent dike removals restored tidal flow to 364 ha of marsh—the largest tidal marsh restoration project in the northwestern contiguous United States. We sampled fish assemblages, water temperatures, and juvenile Chinook Salmon diet composition and consumption rates in two restored and two reference tidal channels during a 3-year period after restoration; these data were used as inputs to a bioenergetics model to compare Chinook Salmon foraging performance and growth potential between the restored and reference channels. We found that foraging performance and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon were similar between restored and reference tidal channels. However, Chinook Salmon densities were significantly lower in the restored channels than in the reference channels, and growth potential was more variable in the restored channels due to their more variable and warmer (2°C) water temperatures. These results indicate that some—but not all—ecosystem attributes that are important for juvenile Pacific salmon can recover rapidly after large-scale tidal marsh restoration.

  6. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andimuthu Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB, with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK. The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.

  7. Term amniotic fluid: an unexploited reserve of mesenchymal stromal cells for reprogramming and potential cell therapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraghebi, Roksana; Kirkeby, Agnete; Chaves, Patricia; Rönn, Roger E; Sitnicka, Ewa; Parmar, Malin; Larsson, Marcus; Herbst, Andreas; Woods, Niels-Bjarne

    2017-08-25

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are currently being evaluated in numerous pre-clinical and clinical cell-based therapy studies. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest in exploring alternative uses of these cells in disease modelling, pharmaceutical screening, and regenerative medicine by applying reprogramming technologies. However, the limited availability of MSCs from various sources restricts their use. Term amniotic fluid has been proposed as an alternative source of MSCs. Previously, only low volumes of term fluid and its cellular constituents have been collected, and current knowledge of the MSCs derived from this fluid is limited. In this study, we collected amniotic fluid at term using a novel collection system and evaluated amniotic fluid MSC content and their characteristics, including their feasibility to undergo cellular reprogramming. Amniotic fluid was collected at term caesarean section deliveries using a closed catheter-based system. Following fluid processing, amniotic fluid was assessed for cellularity, MSC frequency, in-vitro proliferation, surface phenotype, differentiation, and gene expression characteristics. Cells were also reprogrammed to the pluripotent stem cell state and differentiated towards neural and haematopoietic lineages. The average volume of term amniotic fluid collected was approximately 0.4 litres per donor, containing an average of 7 million viable mononuclear cells per litre, and a CFU-F content of 15 per 100,000 MNCs. Expanded CFU-F cultures showed similar surface phenotype, differentiation potential, and gene expression characteristics to MSCs isolated from traditional sources, and showed extensive expansion potential and rapid doubling times. Given the high proliferation rates of these neonatal source cells, we assessed them in a reprogramming application, where the derived induced pluripotent stem cells showed multigerm layer lineage differentiation potential. The potentially large donor base from caesarean section

  8. The use of stored carbon reserves in growth of temperate tree roots and leaf buds: Analyses using radiocarbon measurements and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudinski, J.B.; Torn, M.S.; Riley, W.J.; Swanston, C.; Trumbore, S.E.; Joslin, J.D.; Majdi, H.; Dawson, T.E.; Hanson, P.J.

    2009-02-01

    Characterizing the use of carbon (C) reserves in trees is important for understanding regional and global C cycles, stress responses, asynchrony between photosynthetic activity and growth demand, and isotopic exchanges in studies of tree physiology and ecosystem C cycling. Using an inadvertent, whole-ecosystem radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) release in a temperate deciduous oak forest and numerical modeling, we estimated that the mean age of stored C used to grow both leaf buds and new roots is 0.7 years and about 55% of new-root growth annually comes from stored C. Therefore, the calculated mean age of C used to grow new-root tissue is {approx}0.4 years. In short, new roots contain a lot of stored C but it is young in age. Additionally, the type of structure used to model stored C input is important. Model structures that did not include storage, or that assumed stored and new C mixed well (within root or shoot tissues) before being used for root growth, did not fit the data nearly as well as when a distinct storage pool was used. Consistent with these whole-ecosystem labeling results, the mean age of C in new-root tissues determined using 'bomb-{sup 14}C' in three additional forest sites in North America and Europe (one deciduous, two coniferous) was less than 1-2 years. The effect of stored reserves on estimated ages of fine roots is unlikely to be large in most natural abundance isotope studies. However, models of root C dynamics should take stored reserves into account, particularly for pulse-labeling studies and fast-cycling roots (<1 years).

  9. Long-term effect of carbohydrate reserves on growth and reproduction of Prosopis denudans (Fabaceae): implications for conservation of woody perennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Alejandra E.; Agüero, Paola R.; Ravetta, Damián; González-Paleo, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis denudans, an extreme xerophyte shrub, is consumed by ungulates and threatened by firewood gathering, because it is one of the preferred species used by Mapuche indigenous people of Patagonia. In a scenario of uncontrolled use of vegetation, it is very difficult to develop a conservation plan that jointly protects natural resources and its users. We performed a field experiment to assess the impact of defoliation on growth, reproduction and stores of a wild population of P. denudans. We imposed four levels of defoliation (removal of 100, 66, 33 and 0% of leaves) and evaluated the short- and long-term (3 years) effects of this disturbance. Seasonal changes in shoot carbohydrates suggested that they support leaf-flush and blooming. Severely defoliated individuals also used root reserves to support growth and leaf-flush after clipping. Vegetative growth was not affected by defoliation history. Leaf mass area increased after the initial clipping, suggesting the development of structural defenses. The depletion of root reserves at the end of the first year affected inflorescence production the following spring. We conclude that P. denudans shrubs could lose up to one-third of their green tissues without affecting growth or inflorescence production. The removal of a higher proportion of leaves will diminish stores, which in turn, will reduce or completely prevent blooming and, therefore, fruit production the following seasons. Very few studies integrate conservation and plant physiology, and we are not aware, so far, of any work dealing with long-term plant carbon economy of a long-lived perennial shrub as an applied tool in conservation. These results might help the development of management strategies that consider both the use and the conservation of wild populations of P. denudans. PMID:27293747

  10. Alternative fuel cycle options: performance characteristics and impact on nuclear power growth potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Till, C.E.; Rudolph, R.R.; Deen, J.R.; King, M.J.

    1977-09-01

    The fuel utilization characteristics for LWR, SSCR, CANDU and LMFBR reactor concepts are quantified for various fuel cycle options, including once-through cycles, thorium cycles, and denatured cycles. The implications of various alternative reactor deployment strategies on the long-term nuclear power growth potential are then quantified in terms of the maximum nuclear capacity that can be achieved and the growth pattern over time, subject to the constraint of a fixed uranium-resource base. The overall objective of this study is to shed light on any large differences in the long-term potential that exist between various alternative reactor/fuel cycle deployment strategies

  11. Geologic technical assessment of the Chacahoula Salt Dome, Louisiana, for potential expansion of the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, Anna C.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Looff, Karl M. (Geologic Consultant, Lovelady, TX)

    2006-03-01

    The Chacahoula salt dome, located in southern Louisiana, approximately 66 miles southwest of New Orleans, appears to be a suitable site for a 160-million-barrel-capacity expansion facility for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, comprising sixteen 10-million barrel underground storage caverns. The overall salt dome appears to cover an area of some 1800 acres, or approximately 2.8 square miles, at a subsea elevation of 2000 ft, which is near the top of the salt stock. The shallowest known salt is present at 1116 ft, subsea. The crest of the salt dome is relatively flatlying, outward to an elevation of -4000 ft. Below this elevation, the flanks of the dome plunge steeply in all directions. The dome appears to comprise two separate spine complexes of quasi-independently moving salt. Two mapped areas of salt overhang, located on the eastern and southeastern flanks of the salt stock, are present below -8000 ft. These regions of overhang should present no particular design issues, as the conceptual design SPR caverns are located in the western portion of the dome. The proposed cavern field may be affected by a boundary shear zone, located between the two salt spines. However, the large size of the Chacahoula salt dome suggests that there is significant design flexibility to deal with such local geologic issues.

  12. Socio-Economic Effects on The Forest Villagers of Ecotourism Potential (Case of Artvin-Camili Biosphere Reserve Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnci Zeynep Aydın

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rapid changes occurring in the world who live urban people from a resort in the selection of natural areas and start to choose to travel; forest villagers because rural poverty, forest and forest resource have been destroyed. Since people change their expectations from tourism, natural areas began to gain importance. Until ın today’s conditions for citizens to the problems of migration and employment and ensure the sustainability of forest resources with ecotourism activities on the agenda of the approach began to take its place. The case study area, Camili Biosphere Reserve in Artvin; eco-tourism activities on the forest villagers demographic, social, cultural, economic, etc. with eco-tourısm activities and the sustainability of forest resources and forest planning and management aimed at the development stage of the villagers how it ought to be investigated. Forest villagers are selected according to full-count method. Data will be analyzed through descriptives, Chi-Square, paired T tests and Wilcoxon analyses.

  13. Characterizing and valuing of regeneration potential of the seed germination bank at the Carpatos forest reserve (Guasca, Cundinamarca)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantillo Higuera Edgard Ernesto; Castiblanco Gutierrez Viviana; Pinilla Mondragon David Fernando; Alvarado Claudia Liliana

    2008-01-01

    In the Carpatos Forest Reserve the bank seed germinate (BSG) was marked and valued and the dispersion mechanisms and strategies of there serve defined. They subsequently determined the spatial, dinamogenetic and temporary structures of the seral states and their populations. For the vegetation on foot 61 species were recorded, represented by 53 genera and 36 families, alongside the BSG were 55 species, represented by 50 genera and 27 families. The minimum volume was 1.500 cm 3, for a total of 13.150 germinating seeds; the total density for BSG was 1.553 seeds per m2. The species emerged in the BSG were mostly herbaceous and flush - approximately 70% of all individuals and species -; Phytolacca bogotensis, Digitalis purpurea and Ageratina sp. were the dominant species in the three trials Bank, other important species were Carex sp., Poa annua, Rubus floribundum, Bulbostylis sp.and Borreria sp. The species of woody habit usually varied in each trial according to the phenophase of each species, the most representative species were Cestrum Mutisia, Clusia ducu, Myrsine coriacea, Axinaea macrophylla and Miconia denticulata. As for phenology and dispersal, it was found that vegetation stands submitted to the zoocoria as the dominant scattering strategy in all fields; the maximum flowering occurred during the dry season, from December to March, though the greatest fruiting records correspond to the longest rainy season, from June to August.

  14. The applications of nanotechnology in cosmetic products – growth potential or potential hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. N. Polova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale. Applications of nanotechnology are widely used in electronics and medicine and now are founded in the field of cosmetics (nanocosmetics. Nowadays cosmetology became science. Progress in the study of the physiology of the skin, the mechanisms of aging and skin diseases pathogenesis, allowed developers to create cosmetic products consciously based on the needs of the skin and the mechanisms of action of active components. However, there are debates over their toxicity. The aim. The aim of our study was to analyze scientific literature about types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics and the potential risks of nanoparticles. Materials and methods. Informational search about: different types of nanomaterials in cosmetics including nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles and also toxicity and safety; in scientific editions, medical and pharmaceutical databases, and other web-resources was carried out. Results. There are currently exist two main uses for nanotechnology in cosmetics. First of all - use of nanoparticles as UV filters. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are the main compounds used in these applications. The second use is nanotechnology for delivery. Liposomes and nanosomes are used in the cosmetic industry as delivery vehicles. Scientists currently believe that these nanomaterials are unlikely to have a toxic effect on humans or ecosystems that differ them from the effect of the larger particles of other substances. However, these carrier systems can change the bioavailability and the toxicological behaviour of the agents that they transport. For several years, many studies assess the health risks of the nanomaterials. Toxicologists’ thoughts about approach to the safety assessment of nanomaterials vary greatly: some scientists suggest that nanomaterials should be considered as new substances and therefore careful study of

  15. Phenolic acid degradation potential and growth behavior of lactic acid bacteria in sunflower substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Caroline; Heinrich, Veronika; Vogel, Rudi F; Toelstede, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Sunflower flour provides a high content of protein with a well-balanced amino acid composition and is therefore regarded as an attractive source for protein. The use for human nutrition is hindered by phenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acid, which can lead under specific circumstances to undesirable discolorations. In this study, growth behavior and degradation ability of chlorogenic acid of four lactic acid bacteria were explored. Data suggested that significant higher fermentation performances on sunflower flour as compared to sunflower protein concentrate were reached by Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In fermentation with the latter two strains reduced amounts of chlorogenic acid were observed in sunflower flour (-11.4% and -19.8%, respectively), which were more pronounced in the protein concentrate (-50.7% and -95.6%, respectively). High tolerances against chlorogenic acid and the cleavage product quinic acid with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥20.48 mg/ml after 48 h were recorded for all strains except Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, which was more sensitive. The second cleavage compound, caffeic acid revealed a higher antimicrobial potential with MIC values of 0.64-5.12 mg/ml. In this proof of concept study, degradation versus inhibitory effect suggest the existence of basic mechanisms of interaction between phenolic acids in sunflower and lactic acid bacteria and a feasible way to reduce the chlorogenic acid content, which may help to avoid undesired color changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modelling the effects of soil water potential on growth and quality of cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, L.; Li, W.; Shao, J.; Luo, W.; Dai, J.; Yin, X.; Zhou, Y.; Zhao, C.

    2011-01-01

    A complete dynamic model was developed to describe the effects of soil water potential (WP) on the growth and external quality of standard cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) in order to optimise water management of greenhouse crops. Experiments using chrysanthemum cv. ‘Jinba’ with

  17. Development and growth potential of axillary buds in roses as affected by bud age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of axillary bud age on the development and potential for growth of the bud into a shoot was studied in roses. Age of the buds occupying a similar position on the plant varied from 'subtending leaf just unfolded' up to 1 year later. With increasing age of the axillary bud its dry mass,

  18. Potential use of endophytic bacteria to promote the plant growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential use of endophytic bacteria to promote the plant growth of micropropagated banana cultivar Prata Anã. Thiago Prates Fernandes, Silvia Nietsche, Márcia Regina Costa, Adelica Aparecida Xavier, Débora Francine Gomes Silva Pereira, Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira ...

  19. Linking root traits to potential growth rate in six temperate tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comas, L.H.; Bouma, T.J.; Eissenstat, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    There is an extremely limited understanding of how plants of different potential growth rate vary in root traits, especially in woody species. We contrasted fine root morphology, physiology, and elemental construction between a fast- and a slow-growing species in each of three families: Aceraceae

  20. Association between Soil Fertility and Growth Performance of Planted Shorea macrophylla (de Vriese after Enrichment Planting at Rehabilitation Sites of Sampadi Forest Reserve, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugunthan Perumal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the status of soil properties after enrichment planting in comparison to an adjacent secondary forest and to evaluate the effect of enrichment planting of Shorea macrophylla (de Vriese on the soil fertility status with special reference to Soil Fertility Index (SFI and Soil Evaluation Factor (SEF at Sampadi Forest Reserve, Sarawak. The study sites were stands rehabilitated in different years (1996: SM96; 1997: SM97; 1998: SM98; 1999: SM99 and secondary forest (SF. Findings indicated that the soils at rehabilitation sites and SF were strongly acidic in nature, with pH less than 5.50, poor soil exchangeable bases, and nutrient status. The soils were relatively of sandy clay loam to sandy clay. Principal Component Analysis revealed the three most significant components of the soil properties which explained 76.3% of the total variation. At surface soils, SFI was correlated with tree growth parameters of S. macrophylla, indicating that SFI is an applicable soil quality index as compared to SEF. Notwithstanding, a significant association was found between soil available phosphorus and planted S. macrophylla, indicating that soil phosphorus is a better indicator than SFI. Further studies on other environmental factors influencing tree growth performance, early establishment of experimental reforestation at nursery, and field should be implemented to obtain the initial data on seedling growth performance prior to outplanting.

  1. Biochar and flyash inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria act as potential biofertilizer for luxuriant growth and yield of tomato plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripti; Kumar, Adarsh; Usmani, Zeba; Kumar, Vipin; Anshumali

    2017-04-01

    Overuse of agrochemical fertilizers alarmingly causes deterioration in soil health and soil-flora. Persistence of these agrochemicals exerts detrimental effects on environment, potentially inducing toxic effects on human health, thus pronouncing an urgent need for a safer substitute. The present study investigates the potential use of agricultural and industrial wastes as carrier materials, viz. biochar and flyash, respectively, for preparation of bioformulations (or biofertilizers) using two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, Bacillus sp. strain A30 and Burkholderia sp. strain L2, and its effect on growth of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato). The viability of strains was determined based on colony forming units (cfu) count of each bioformulation at an interval of 60 days for a period of 240 days. Seeds were coated with different carrier based bioformulations and pot experiment(s) were carried out to access its effects on plant growth parameters. Biochar based bioformulations showed higher cfu count and maximum viability for strain L2 (10 7  cfu g -1 ) at 240 days of storage. Maximum percentage of seed germination was also observed in biochar inoculated with strain L2. Significant (p < 0.05) increase in plant growth parameters (dry and fresh biomass, length, number of flowers) were ascertained from the pot experiment and amongst all bioformulations, biochar inoculated with strain L2 performed consistently thriving results for tomato yield. Furthermore, post-harvest study of this bioformulation treated soil improved physico-chemical properties and dehydrogenase activity as compared to pre-plantation soil status. Overall, we show that prepared biochar based bioformulation using Burkholderia sp. L2 as inoculum can tremendously enhance the productivity of tomato, soil fertility, and can also act as a sustainable substitute for chemical fertilizers. In addition, mixture of biochar and flyash inoculated with strain L2 also showed noteworthy results for the

  2. GROWTH CAPACITY OF BACILLUS POTENTIAL STARTER STRAINS ISOLATED FROM COCOA BEANS FERMENTATION UNDER CULTURE STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILFRIED YAO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the growth capacity of Bacillus with pectinolytic activity, acidifying and citrate metabolism capacities under culture stress conditions. Spontaneous heaps fermentation was conducted from cocoa of six producing regions of Côte d’Ivoire. Bacillus isolated using plate agar on nutrient medium were analyzed for pectinolytic enzymes production, citric acid breakdown, acidification and growth capacity under different stress conditions. A total of 970 Bacillus strains were isolated and 44.53 % of them produced pectinolytic activity. Among pectinolytic strains, 163 (37.73 % exhibited acidifying and citrate metabolism capacity. Five (5 of these strains exhibited a strong thermotolerance at 50 ºC with the optimal growth at 35 ºC and a good capacity to grow at pH 4 to pH 8. Moreover, sugar concentrations ranged 5 to 25 % showed low effect on all tested strains growth with a maximum growth at 5 % fructose and sucrose concentration and at 15% glucose concentration. However, ethanol stress conditions (up to 8 % repress strongly growth capacity of the strains analyzed. This study indicates that Bacillus strains involved in Ivorian cocoa fermentation possess some properties essential for a well-fermented cocoa. Therefore, these results show that Bacillus studied should be potential candidate as starter for cocoa beans fermentation control.

  3. Secondary natural gas recovery: Targeted applications for infield reserve growth in midcontinent reservoirs, Boonsville Field, Fort Worth Basin, Texas. Topical report, May 1993--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, B.A.; Carr, D.L.; Finley, R.J.; Tyler, N.; Lancaster, D.E.; Elphick, R.Y.; Ballard, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to define undrained or incompletely drained reservoir compartments controlled primarily by depositional heterogeneity in a low-accommodation, cratonic Midcontinent depositional setting, and, afterwards, to develop and transfer to producers strategies for infield reserve growth of natural gas. Integrated geologic, geophysical, reservoir engineering, and petrophysical evaluations are described in complex difficult-to-characterize fluvial and deltaic reservoirs in Boonsville (Bend Conglomerate Gas) field, a large, mature gas field located in the Fort Worth Basin of North Texas. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate approaches to overcoming the reservoir complexity, targeting the gas resource, and doing so using state-of-the-art technologies being applied by a large cross section of Midcontinent operators.

  4. Mycelium-Like Networks Increase Bacterial Dispersal, Growth, and Biodegradation in a Model Ecosystem at Various Water Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrich, Anja; König, Sara; Miltner, Anja; Banitz, Thomas; Centler, Florian; Frank, Karin; Thullner, Martin; Harms, Hauke; Kästner, Matthias; Wick, Lukas Y

    2016-05-15

    Fungal mycelia serve as effective dispersal networks for bacteria in water-unsaturated environments, thereby allowing bacteria to maintain important functions, such as biodegradation. However, poor knowledge exists on the effects of dispersal networks at various osmotic (Ψo) and matric (Ψm) potentials, which contribute to the water potential mainly in terrestrial soil environments. Here we studied the effects of artificial mycelium-like dispersal networks on bacterial dispersal dynamics and subsequent effects on growth and benzoate biodegradation at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and -1.5 MPa. In a multiple-microcosm approach, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged derivative of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as a model organism and sodium benzoate as a representative of polar aromatic contaminants. We found that decreasing ΔΨo and ΔΨm values slowed bacterial dispersal in the system, leading to decelerated growth and benzoate degradation. In contrast, dispersal networks facilitated bacterial movement at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and -0.5 MPa and thus improved the absolute biodegradation performance by up to 52 and 119% for ΔΨo and ΔΨm, respectively. This strong functional interrelationship was further emphasized by a high positive correlation between population dispersal, population growth, and degradation. We propose that dispersal networks may sustain the functionality of microbial ecosystems at low osmotic and matric potentials. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Study of growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes in low fat salami: an innovative Italian meat product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dalzini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, consequently to EC Regulation no. 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods, some Italian food businnes operators (FBOs leaders in the meat sector, invested in research to develop innovative products such as low fat salami, containing up to 30% less fat than the traditional one. For FBOs it is essential to demonstrate for each production process whether the substrate allows the growth of L. monocytogenes and whether L. monocytogenes could reach or exceed the limit of 100 cfu g–1 at the end of the shelf life, as stated by EC Regulation no. 2073/2005. In the present study, the growth potential of L. monocytogenes during the shelf life of low fat salami packed in modified atmosphere was evaluated. The results show that the product is unable to support the growth of pathogen, even if the storage temperature is between 8 and 12°C.

  6. [Effect of the medium redox potential on the growth and metabolism of anaerobic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilian, A; Trchunian, A

    2008-01-01

    Based on the available literature data on a decrease in the redox potential of medium to low negative values and a decrease in pH during the growth of sugar-fermenting anaerobic bacteria, it was concluded that these processes cannot be described by the theory of redox potential. A theory was developed according to which the regulation of bacterial metabolism is accomplished through changes in the redox potential. The theory considers the redox potential as a factor determining the growth of anaerobic bacteria, which is regulated by oxidizers and reducers. The assumption is put forward that, under anaerobic conditions, bacteria are sensitive to changes in the redox potential and have a redox taxis. The effect of the redox potential on the transport of protons and other substances through membranes and the activity of membrane-bound enzymes, including the proton F1-F0-ATPase, whose mechanisms of action involve changes in the proton conductance of the membrane, the generation of proton-driving force, and dithiol-disulfide transitions in proteins was studied.

  7. Antimicrobial peptide lysozyme has the potential to promote mouse hair follicle growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yongsheng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Jin; Lin, Bojie; Miao, Yong; Hu, Zhiqi

    2015-10-01

    Lysozyme is a well-known antimicrobial peptide that exists widely in mammalian skin and it is also expressed by pilosebaceous units. However, the exact location of lysozyme in hair follicles and whether it exerts any direct effects on hair follicle growth are unclear. To determine whether lysozyme affected hair growth in vitro, micro-dissected mouse vibrissae follicles (VFs) were treated in serum-free organ culture for 3 days with lysozyme (1-10μg/ml). After that, the effects of lysozyme on dermal papilla (DP) cells were also investigated. Lysozyme was mainly identified in DP and dermal sheath regions of VF by immunochemistry. In addition, 5-10μg/ml lysozyme had a promoting effect on shaft production. It was also associated with significant proliferation of matrix keratinocytes by immunofluorescence observation. Furthermore, lysozyme promoted hair growth by increasing the levels of alkaline phosphatase and lymphoid enhancer factor 1 in DP, as determined by Western blotting. These results indicate that lysozyme is a promoter of VF growth via enhancing the hair-inductive capacity of DP cells during organ culture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Brevibacillus brevis as a potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehra, Vibha; Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Choudhary, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to isolate, screen and evaluate a selected promising PGPR Brevibacillus brevis on cotton crop. Out of 156 bacterial isolates one of the most promising isolate was analyzed for the various PGP traits. A seed germination analysis was conducted with cotton seeds to evaluate the potential of the isolate to promote plant growth. The bacterial isolate was checked for its growth and survival at high temperatures. The isolate was also analyzed for the PGP traits exhibited after the heat treatment. To identify the isolate morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization was performed. The isolate was found positive for many of the PGP attributes like IAA, ARA, anti-fungal activity and ammonia production. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters was used as an indicator. The isolate showed significant growth and exhibited various PGP traits at high temperature making it suitable as an inoculant for cotton crop. Isolate was identified as Brevibacillus brevis [SVC(II)14] based on phenotypic as well as genotypic attributes and after conducting this research we propose that the B. brevis which is reported for the first time for its PGP potential in cotton, exerts its beneficial effects on cotton crop through combined modes of actions.

  9. Exploring the potential of cassava in promoting agricultural growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of the major food crops in Nigeria, with multiple uses from human consumption to industrial applications. This study explores the potential of cassava in Nigerian agriculture based on a review of cassava development policies; performs a trend analysis of the cultivation area, production, productivity, and real price of cassava and other competing crops for the period 1961–2013; identifies the sources of growth in production; and examines the production constraints at the local level based on a survey of 315 farmers/processors and 105 marketers from Delta State. The results revealed that several policies and programmes were implemented to develop the cassava sector with mixed outcomes. Although cassava productivity grew at 1.5% per annum (p.a. during the post-structural adjustment programme period (1993–2013, its real price declined at a rate of 3.5% p.a. The effect of yield is the main source of growth in production, contributing 76.4% of the total growth followed by the area effect (28.2%. The cassava sector is constrained by inadequate market infrastructure, processing facilities, and lack of information and unstable prices at the local level. The widespread diffusion of improved tropical manioc selection technologies and investments in market and marketing infrastructure, processing technologies, irrigation/water provision and information dissemination are recommended to enhance the potential of the cassava sector to support agricultural growth in Nigeria.

  10. Electrochemical growth of synthetic melanin thin films by constant potential methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyun; Nam, Hye Jin; Ahn, Hyeon Ju [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Materials Science, Institute of Basic Sciences, Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of NanoTechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Chunchun-dong, Gyunggi-do, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Duk-Young, E-mail: dyjung@skku.ed [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Materials Science, Institute of Basic Sciences, Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of NanoTechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Chunchun-dong, Gyunggi-do, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-28

    Polymerized melanin thin films were electrochemically synthesized in a 5,6-dihydroxyindole precursor solution on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using the cyclic voltammetry and constant potential methods. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (THAM) and phosphate buffer solutions were applied to prepare the films that were well deposited to the ITO substrates. The films that were synthesized in the THAM buffer solution exhibited a faster growth rate and better adhesion to the ITO electrodes than the films in the phosphate buffer. The film thickness linearly increased at the growth rate of 0.8 nm/s as the deposition time and number of cycles increased. Two electrochemical conditions produced similar thicknesses as well as physical properties in each buffer solution. However, the constant potential method demonstrated that this provides the synthetic advantages of faster deposition and less consumption of electric charge compared to the cyclic voltammetry route.

  11. Autoallelopathic Potential of Leaflets and Seeds on Seedling Growth of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O.A. Warrag

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoalle1opathic effects of date palm leaflets and seed aqueous extracts, with -0.05, -0.1 and -0.2 mPa osmotic potentials, on seed germination and early seedling growth were investigated. Final seed germination percentage, seed germination rate, the time of radicle appearance, and plumule length were not affected. In contrast, the cotyledonary sheath and radicle lengths were significantly retarded, whereas the time of plumule appearance was significantly increased by most of the extracts in comparison with the distilled water control. Mannitol solutions, with the same osmotic potential and pH as the extracts, resulted in significantly longer cotyledonary sheaths and radicles and an earlier plumule appearance than their corresponding extracts. Thus, it could be deduced that date palm leaflets and seeds contain water-soluble allelochemicals that could substantially retard early seedling growth of the same species.

  12. Ascertaining the potential effects of temperature on growth, survival and feeding of different juvenile clown fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Rao Methari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the physiological and ecological responses of marine ornamental fishes to the change of water temperature with its potential effects on the growth, survival and feeding in clown fish. Methods: Three different sea anemone fish (Premnas biaculeatus, Amphiprion clarkii, Amphiprion akallopisos were reared in confinement at water temperatures of 26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 °C using thermostat and they were maintained up to the marketable size, and growth, survival and feeding were evaluated during the experimental period. Results: The results illustrated that water temperature influenced the physiological performance of juveniles of three different sea anemone fish significantly. The growth and survival rates of juveniles of three different clown fish significantly increased with the increase of water temperature from 26 °C to 34 °C (P<0.05. Water temperature also influenced the feeding of three different clown fish significantly with feed conversion ratio increased from (0.071±0.020, (0.075±0.030 and (0.079±0.028 to (0.057±0.040, (0.047±0.030 and (0.045±0.028 for Premnas biaculeatus, Amphiprion clarkii and Amphiprion akallopisos respectively with increase of water temperature from 26 °C to 34 °C (P<0.05. Specific growth rates (P<0.05 increased significantly with increase of water temperature and positively correlated with the feed conversion ratio, indicating that growth rates are significantly increased with increase of temperature. Conclusions: This study deliberately reveals that the physiological response of juveniles of clown fish as the change of water temperature and substantiated that water temperature influenced juvenile growth, survival and feeding significantly. This study also put forward that the reduced growth, survival and feeding of juveniles at lower temperature which have ecological impacts on clown fish juveniles in settlement and population replacement in the wild.

  13. Phylogenetically diverse AM fungi from Ecuador strongly improve seedling growth of native potential crop trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüßler, Arthur; Krüger, Claudia; Urgiles, Narcisa

    2016-04-01

    In many deforested regions of the tropics, afforestation with native tree species could valorize a growing reservoir of degraded, previously overused and abandoned land. The inoculation of tropical tree seedlings with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) can improve tree growth and viability, but efficiency may depend on plant and AM fungal genotype. To study such effects, seven phylogenetically diverse AM fungi, native to Ecuador, from seven genera and a non-native AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM197198) were used to inoculate the tropical potential crop tree (PCT) species Handroanthus chrysanthus (synonym Tabebuia chrysantha), Cedrela montana, and Heliocarpus americanus. Twenty-four plant-fungus combinations were studied in five different fertilization and AMF inoculation treatments. Numerous plant growth parameters and mycorrhizal root colonization were assessed. The inoculation with any of the tested AM fungi improved seedling growth significantly and in most cases reduced plant mortality. Plants produced up to threefold higher biomass, when compared to the standard nursery practice. AM fungal inoculation alone or in combination with low fertilization both outperformed full fertilization in terms of plant growth promotion. Interestingly, root colonization levels for individual fungi strongly depended on the host tree species, but surprisingly the colonization strength did not correlate with plant growth promotion. The combination of AM fungal inoculation with a low dosage of slow release fertilizer improved PCT seedling performance strongest, but also AM fungal treatments without any fertilization were highly efficient. The AM fungi tested are promising candidates to improve management practices in tropical tree seedling production.

  14. Event related potential and response time give evidence for a physiological reserve in cognitive functioning in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgren, Mathias; Wahlin, Åke; Maurex, Liselotte; Brismar, Tom

    2015-09-15

    Cognitive dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). Different factors may moderate the degree of cognitive deficit. The aim of the present study was to distinguish different mechanisms for cognitive reserve in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). The effects of clinical variables (physical disability, depression), premorbid intelligence (years of education, vocabulary knowledge), visual event-related potential measures (P300) and response time (RT) were studied in RRMS patients (n=71) and healthy subjects (n=89). Patients with high P300 amplitude and short RT had better cognitive performance. This effect was significantly weaker in controls. High P300 and short RT may be physiological markers of a cognitive reserve in RRMS. In contrast, the association between cognitive scores and premorbid intelligence was similar in patients and in control subjects. The effects of physiological reserve and clinical variables were studied in a hierarchical linear regression model of cognitive performance in RRMS. P300 amplitude and RT explained a considerable amount of variance in global cognitive performance (34%, preserve is the strongest moderator of cognitive impairment in RRMS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Robin L; Broadbent, Eben N; Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Craven, Dylan; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Lohbeck, Madelon; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velazquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, Isabel Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans; Vieira, Ima Celia G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-05-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km(2) of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services.

  16. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Robin L.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T. Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M.; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Craven, Dylan; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S.; Cabral, George A. L.; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S.; Dent, Daisy H.; DeWalt, Saara J.; Dupuy, Juan M.; Durán, Sandra M.; Espírito-Santo, Mario M.; Fandino, María C.; César, Ricardo G.; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Junqueira, André B.; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G.; Lohbeck, Madelon; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A.; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R. F.; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S.; Rodríguez-Velazquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, Isabel Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B.; Steininger, Marc K.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D. M.; Vester, Hans; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G. Bruce; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-01-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km2 of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services. PMID:27386528

  17. Weed Suppressing Potential and Isolation of Potent Plant Growth Inhibitors from Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phung Thi Tuyen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study isolated, determined, and quantified plant growth inhibitors in Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc, a deciduous species native to Japan and Korea. In laboratory assays, C. crenata leaves showed strong inhibition on germination and seedling growth of Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyardgrass, Lactuca sativa (lettuce, and Raphanus sativus (radish. Laboratory and greenhouse trials showed that leaves of C. crenata appeared as a promising material to manage weeds, especially the dicot weeds. By GC-MS and HPLC analyses, gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, ferulic, ellagic, and cinnamic acids were identified and quantified, of which ellagic acid was present in the highest quantity (2.36 mg/g dried leaves. By column chromatography and spectral data (1H- and 13C-NMR, IR, and LC-MS analysis, a compound identified as 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid (1 was purified from the methanolic leaf extract of C. crenata (0.93 mg/g dried leaves. This constituent showed potent inhibition on growth of E. crus-galli, a problematic weed in agricultural practice. The inhibition of the compound 1 (IC50 = 2.62 and 0.41 mM was >5 fold greater than that of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (IC50 = 15.33 and 2.11 mM on shoot and root growth of E. crus-galli, respectively. Results suggest that the isolated the compound 1 has potential to develop natural herbicides to manage E. crus-galli. This study is the first to isolate and identify 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid in a plant and report its plant growth inhibitory potential.

  18. Weed Suppressing Potential and Isolation of Potent Plant Growth Inhibitors from Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, Phung Thi; Xuan, Tran Dang; Tu Anh, Truong Thi; Mai Van, Truong; Ahmad, Ateeque; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Khanh, Tran Dang

    2018-02-07

    This study isolated, determined, and quantified plant growth inhibitors in Japanese chestnut ( Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc), a deciduous species native to Japan and Korea. In laboratory assays, C. crenata leaves showed strong inhibition on germination and seedling growth of Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyardgrass), Lactuca sativa (lettuce), and Raphanus sativus (radish). Laboratory and greenhouse trials showed that leaves of C. crenata appeared as a promising material to manage weeds, especially the dicot weeds. By GC-MS and HPLC analyses, gallic, protocatechuic, p -hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, ferulic, ellagic, and cinnamic acids were identified and quantified, of which ellagic acid was present in the highest quantity (2.36 mg/g dried leaves). By column chromatography and spectral data (¹H- and 13 C-NMR, IR, and LC-MS) analysis, a compound identified as 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid ( 1 ) was purified from the methanolic leaf extract of C. crenata (0.93 mg/g dried leaves). This constituent showed potent inhibition on growth of E. crus-galli , a problematic weed in agricultural practice. The inhibition of the compound 1 (IC 50 = 2.62 and 0.41 mM) was >5 fold greater than that of p -hydroxybenzoic acid (IC 50 = 15.33 and 2.11 mM) on shoot and root growth of E. crus-galli , respectively. Results suggest that the isolated the compound 1 has potential to develop natural herbicides to manage E. crus-galli . This study is the first to isolate and identify 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid in a plant and report its plant growth inhibitory potential.

  19. A potential role for CHH DNA methylation in cotton fiber growth patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiang; Pang, Yu; Jia, Fangxing; Xiao, Guanghui; Li, Qin; Zhu, Yuxian

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation controls many aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we report a novel annual growth potential change that may correlate with changes in levels of the major DNA demethylases and methyltransferases in cotton ovules harvested at different times of the year. The abundances of DNA demethylases, at both the mRNA and protein levels, increased significantly from February to August and decreased during the remainder of the 12-month period, with the opposite pattern observed for DNA methyltransferases. Over the course of one year, substantial changes in methylcytosine content was observed at certain CHH sites (H = A, C, or T) in the promoter regions of the ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR 6 (ERF6), SUPPRESSION OF RVS 161 DELTA 4 (SUR4) and 3-KETOACYL-COA SYNTHASE 13 (KCS13), which regulate cotton fiber growth. Three independent techniques were used to confirm the annual fluctuations in DNA methylation. Furthermore, in homozygous RNAi lines specifically targeting REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1, a conserved DNA demethylase domain), promotion of DNA methylation significantly reduced fiber growth during August.

  20. A potential role for CHH DNA methylation in cotton fiber growth patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Jin

    Full Text Available DNA methylation controls many aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we report a novel annual growth potential change that may correlate with changes in levels of the major DNA demethylases and methyltransferases in cotton ovules harvested at different times of the year. The abundances of DNA demethylases, at both the mRNA and protein levels, increased significantly from February to August and decreased during the remainder of the 12-month period, with the opposite pattern observed for DNA methyltransferases. Over the course of one year, substantial changes in methylcytosine content was observed at certain CHH sites (H = A, C, or T in the promoter regions of the ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR 6 (ERF6, SUPPRESSION OF RVS 161 DELTA 4 (SUR4 and 3-KETOACYL-COA SYNTHASE 13 (KCS13, which regulate cotton fiber growth. Three independent techniques were used to confirm the annual fluctuations in DNA methylation. Furthermore, in homozygous RNAi lines specifically targeting REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1, a conserved DNA demethylase domain, promotion of DNA methylation significantly reduced fiber growth during August.

  1. Effective Cell Growth Potential of Mg-Based Bioceramic Scaffolds towards Targeted Dentin Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontonasaki E.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available New emerging approaches in tissue engineering include incorporation of metal ions involved in various metabolic processes, such as Cu, Zn, Si into bioceramic scaffolds for enhanced cell growth and differentiation of specific cell types. The aim of the present work was to investigate the attachment, morphology, growth and mineralized tissue formation potential of Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs seeded into Mg-based glassceramic scaffolds with incorporated Zn and Cu ions. Bioceramic scaffolds containing Si 60%, Ca 30%, Mg 7.5% and either Zn or Cu 2.5%, sintered at different temperatures were synthesized by the foam replica technique and seeded with DPSCs for up to 21 days. Scanning Electron Microscopy with associated Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS was used to evaluate their ability to support the DPSCs’s attachment and proliferation, while the structure of the seeded scaffolds was investigated by X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD. Zn-doped bioceramic scaffolds promoted the attachment and growth of human DPSCs, while identically fabricated scaffolds doped with Cu showed a cytotoxic behaviour, irrespective of the sintering temperature. A mineralized tissue with apatite-like structure was formed on both Cu-doped scaffolds and only on those Zn-doped scaffolds heat-treated at lower temperatures. Sol-gel derived Zn-doped scaffolds sintered at 890oC support DPSC growth and apatite-like tissue formation, which renders them as promising candidates towards dental tissue regeneration.

  2. ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE: AN INVESTIGATION FOR SIX EU CANDIDATE AND POTENTIAL CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Tache

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The South Eastern European region (SEE has seen major beneficial transformation in the recent years. Romania and Bulgaria in 2007 and Croatia in 2013 became members of the European Union and registered significant economic growth rates. This paper investigates some important factors that influence economic growth in 6 EU candidate and potential candidate countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia and offers to policy makers in those countries key insights for stimulating the economy. The paper proposes a dynamic growth model which will be developed using the Quasi-maximum likelihood (QML estimation. This model is suited for this type of analysis because of the small T sample and also to cope with missingness. The results indicate that nine out of the fourteen variables were statistically significant. The number of non-resident tourists, the number of passenger cars, the number of children in pre-primary and primary-education are positive factors for economic growth. In contrast, government debt, inflation, all energy imports, railway transportation and primary production of coal and lignite are hindering development.

  3. Potential for plant growth promotion of rhizobacteria associated with Salicornia growing in Tunisian hypersaline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands.

  4. Potential for Plant Growth Promotion of Rhizobacteria Associated with Salicornia Growing in Tunisian Hypersaline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mapelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands.

  5. A Two-Stage-to-Orbit Spaceplane Concept With Growth Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.

    2001-01-01

    A two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) spaceplane concept developed in 1993 is revisited, and new information is provided to assist in the development of the next-generation space transportation vehicles. The design philosophy, TSTO spaceplane concept, and the design method are briefly described. A trade study between cold and hot structures leads to the choice of cold structures with external thermal protection systems. The optimal Mach number for staging the second stage of the TSTO spaceplane (with air-breathing propulsion on the first stage) is 10, based on life-cycle cost analysis. The performance and specification of a prototype/experimental (P/X) TSTO spaceplane with a turbo/ram/scramjet propulsion system and built-in growth potential are presented and discussed. The internal rate of return on investment is the highest for the proposed TSTO spaceplane, vis-A-vis a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rocket vehicle and a TSTO spaceplane without built-in growth. Additional growth potentials for the proposed spaceplane are suggested. This spaceplane can substantially decrease access-to-space cost and risk, and increase safety and reliability in the near term It can be a serious candidate for the next-generation space transportation system.

  6. Chemical diversity of microbial volatiles and their potential for plant growth and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIDANANDA NAGAMANGALA KANCHISWAMY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs are produced by a wide array of microorganisms ranging from bacteria to fungi. A growing body of evidence indicates that MVOCs are ecofriendly and can be exploited as a cost-effective sustainable strategy for use in agricultural practice as agents that enhance plant growth, productivity and disease resistance. As naturally occurring chemicals, MVOCs have potential as possible alternatives to harmful pesticides, fungicides and bactericides as well as genetic modification. Recent studies performed under open field conditions demonstrate that efficiently adopting MVOCs may contribute to sustainable crop protection and production. We review here the chemical diversity of MVOCs and their potential physiological effects on crops and analyze potential and actual limitations for MVOC use as a sustainable strategy for improving productivity and reducing pesticide use.

  7. Hyaluronic Acid Gel-Based Scaffolds as Potential Carrier for Growth Factors: An In Vitro Bioassay on Its Osteogenic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA has been utilized for a variety of regenerative medical procedures due to its widespread presence in connective tissue and perceived biocompatibility. The aim of the present study was to investigate HA in combination with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 9 (rhBMP9, one of the most osteogenic growth factors of the BMP family. HA was first combined with rhBMP9 and assessed for the adsorption and release of rhBMP9 over 10 days by ELISA. Thereafter, ST2 pre-osteoblasts were investigated by comparing (1 control tissue culture plastic, (2 HA alone, and (3 HA with rhBMP9 (100 ng/mL. Cellular proliferation was investigated by a MTS assay at one, three and five days and osteoblast differentiation was investigated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity at seven days, alizarin red staining at 14 days and real-time PCR for osteoblast differentiation markers. The results demonstrated that rhBMP9 adsorbed within HA scaffolds and was released over a 10-day period in a controlled manner. While HA and rhBMP9 had little effect on cell proliferation, a marked and pronounced effect was observed for cell differentiation. rhBMP9 significantly induced ALP activity, mRNA levels of collagen1α2, and ALP and osteocalcin (OCN at three or 14 days. HA also demonstrated some ability to induce osteoblast differentiation by increasing mRNA levels of OCN and increasing alizarin red staining at 14 days. In conclusion, the results from the present study demonstrate that (1 HA may serve as a potential carrier for various growth factors, and (2 rhBMP9 is a potent and promising inducer of osteoblast differentiation. Future animal studies are now necessary to investigate this combination approach in vivo.

  8. [Effects of covering on growth potential and chlorophyll content of hardwood cutting of Lycium barbarum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju-qiong; Lin, Hai-ming; Lin, Nan

    2011-07-01

    To study the effect of plastic film covering, straw covering, plastic film covering in greenhouse and no-covering cutting on growth and Chlorophyll content of Lycium barbarum hardwood cutting seedlings. Single factor randomized block design method was used in this research. The effect of different covering treatments on germination rate, seedling rate and growth potential were all plastic film covering in greenhouse > plastic film covering > straw covering > no-covering cutting. Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Chlorophyll a + b content and Ca/Cb were significantly different with different coverings in different periods. The optimal covering on hardwood cutting of Lycium barbarum is plastic film covering in greenhouse. Both plastic film and straw covering are better than no-covering cutting.

  9. Effects of Growth Environment and Ulking Rate on Cyanogenic Potential of Cassava Tuerous Roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Githunguri, C.M

    2002-01-01

    Various abiotic factors affect the pattern of growth and accumulation of cyanogenic glucosides in cassava plants. Five cassava genotypes were planted in a wet and a dry agro-ecological zone and analyzed at 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months after planting for tuberous root bulking rate and cyanogenic potential. Cassava plants at Ibadan (the wetter zone) had higher tuberous roots bulking rate and lower cynogenic potential than those planted at Minjibir (the drier zone). Root bulking rate at Ibadan increased from 4 to 6 months after planting, fell to 10 months, and then levelled off thereafter. At Majorana, bulking rate increased from 4 to 6 months, levelling off u pto 8 months after planting, and then falling slightly u pto to 10 months, and rising gradually u pto 12 months after planting. At Minijibir, the 6-8 months after planting period coincided with drought and the highest root bulking rate but increasing cyanogenic potential. Similarly, at Ibadan the 6-8 months after planting period coincided with drought and the highest root bulking rate but increasing cyanogenic potential. Despite the onset of drought, bulking continued up to 8 months after planting, falling u pto 10 months and levelling off thereafter at both agro-ecological zones. However, whereas cyanogenic potential rose rapidly after 8 months to peak at 10 months, and levelling off up to 12 months at Minjibir, cyanogenic potential levelled of after 8 u pto 12 months at Ibadan. Correlation and regression analysis suggested that root bulking rate and cyanogenic potential were negatively associated, meaning that an increase in root bulking rate would lead to corresponding decrease in it's cyanogenic potential which is highly desirable. This study has demonstrated that whereas the plant age and genotypic effects are not important factors in determining tuberous roots bulking rate and cyanogenic potential of cassava, the agro-ecological zone effect is an important factor in determining them

  10. Novel components of leaf bacterial communities of field-grown tomato plants and their potential for plant growth promotion and biocontrol of tomato diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Fernando M; Marina, María; Pieckenstain, Fernando L

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to characterize potentially endophytic culturable bacteria from leaves of cultivated tomato and analyze their potential for growth promotion and biocontrol of diseases caused by Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae. Bacteria were obtained from inner tissues of surface-disinfected tomato leaves of field-grown plants. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences identified bacterial isolates related to Exiguobacterium aurantiacum (isolates BT3 and MT8), Exiguobacterium spp. (isolate GT4), Staphylococcus xylosus (isolate BT5), Pantoea eucalypti (isolate NT6), Bacillus methylotrophicus (isolate MT3), Pseudomonas veronii (isolates BT4 and NT2), Pseudomonas rhodesiae (isolate BT2) and Pseudomonas cichorii (isolate NT3). After seed inoculation, BT2, BT4, MT3, MT8, NT2 and NT6 were re-isolated from leaf extracts. NT2, BT2, MT3 and NT6 inhibited growth of Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in vitro, produced antimicrobial compounds and reduced leaf damage caused by B. cinerea. Some of these isolates also promoted growth of tomato plants, produced siderophores, the auxin indole-3-acetic and solubilized inorganic phosphate. Thus, bacterial communities of leaves from field-grown tomato plants were found to harbor potentially endophytic culturable beneficial bacteria capable of antagonizing pathogenic microorganisms and promoting plant growth, which could be used as biological control agents and biofertilizers/biostimulators for promotion of tomato plant growth. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of an EAM potential for zinc and its application to the growth of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, F; Braun, S; Kraska, T

    2009-05-28

    In the context of the investigation of particle formation, a potential model by means of the embedded atom method is developed for the hexagonal close packed metal zinc. This type of model includes many-body interactions caused by delocalised electrons in metals. The effective core charge as function of the distance is calculated here by an integral over the electron distribution function rather than fitting it to experimental data. In addition, the dimer potential is included in the parameterisation because we focus on the formation of nanoparticles from the vapour phase. With this potential model, the growth of zinc clusters consisting of 125 to 1000 atoms is investigated, which takes place at elevated temperatures in a liquid-like cluster state. The growing clusters are embedded in an argon carrier gas atmosphere which regulates the cluster temperature. The average thermal expansion of the clusters and the different lattice constants are analysed. For the determination of the cluster structure, the common-neighbour analysis method is extended to hexagonal close packed surface structures. During growth, small clusters with less than approximately 60 atoms develop transient icosahedral structure before transforming into hexagonal close-packed structure. The surface of the clusters exhibits a transformation from planes with high surface energy to the most stable ones. Besides ambiguous surface structures the final clusters are almost completely in an hexagonal close packed structure.

  12. The potential for constructed wetlands to treat alkaline bauxite-residue leachate: Phragmites australis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, D; Curtin, T; Pawlett, M; Courtney, R

    2016-12-01

    High alkalinity (pH > 12) of bauxite-residue leachates presents challenges for the long-term storage and managements of the residue. Recent evidence has highlighted the potential for constructed wetlands to effectively buffer the alkalinity, but there is limited evidence on the potential for wetland plants to establish and grow in soils inundated with residue leachate. A pot-based trial was conducted to investigate the potential for Phragmites australis to establish and grow in substrate treated with residue leachate over a pH range of 8.6-11.1. The trial ran for 3 months, after which plant growth and biomass were determined. Concentrations of soluble and exchangeable trace elements in the soil substrate and also in the aboveground and belowground biomass were determined. Residue leachate pH did not affect plant biomass or microbial biomass. With the exception of Na, there was no effect on exchangeable trace elements in the substrate; however, increases in soluble metals (As, Cd and Na) were observed with increasing leachate concentration. Furthermore, increases in Al, As and V were observed in belowground biomass and for Cd and Cr in aboveground biomass. Concentrations within the vegetation biomass were less than critical phytotoxic levels. Results demonstrate the ability for P. australis to grow in bauxite-residue leachate-inundated growth media without adverse effects.

  13. Aggressive Patch Augmentation May Reduce Growth Potential of Hypoplastic Branch Pulmonary Arteries After Tetralogy of Fallot Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Travis J; Van Arsdell, Glen S; Pham-Hung, Eric; Gritti, Michael; Hussain, Sara; Caldarone, Christopher A; Redington, Andrew; Hickey, Edward J

    2016-03-01

    Potential surgical strategies for hypoplastic branch pulmonary arteries (BPAs) during tetralogy of Fallot repair include (1) extensive patch augmentation to the hilum (PATCH), (2) limited extension arterioplasty to the proximal pulmonary artery (EXTENSION), or (3) leaving the native vessels unaugmented (NATIVE). We explored the effect of these strategies on reintervention and BPA growth. From 2000 to 2012, 434 children underwent complete tetralogy of Fallot repair. Risk-adjusted parametric models were used to analyze the risk of BPA reintervention for (1) all children, (2) children with BPAs of 4 mm or smaller, and (3) children with BPAs of 3 mm or smaller. Repeated-measures analysis of more than 2,000 echocardiograms was used to characterize postoperative BPA growth and right ventricular pressure by using nonlinear mixed models. Overall survival (99% [3 deaths]) was excellent. The 10-year freedom from BPA reintervention was 84%. In risk-adjusted models (including baseline BPA z-score), PATCH had a decreased freedom from reintervention (73%; p tetralogy of Fallot tend (∼85%) to grow well without instrumentation. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Wheat seeds harbour bacterial endophytes with potential as plant growth promoters and biocontrol agents of Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Herrera, Silvana; Grossi, Cecilia; Zawoznik, Myriam; Groppa, María Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The role of endophytic communities of seeds is still poorly characterised. The purpose of this work was to survey the presence of bacterial endophytes in the seeds of a commercial wheat cultivar widely sown in Argentina and to look for plant growth promotion features and biocontrol abilities against Fusarium graminearum among them. Six isolates were obtained from wheat seeds following a culture-dependent protocol. Four isolates were assignated to Paenibacillus genus according to their 16S rRNA sequencing. The only gammaproteobacteria isolated, presumably an Enterobactereaceae of Pantoea genus, was particularly active as IAA and siderophore producer, and also solubilised phosphate and was the only one that grew on N-free medium. Several of these isolates demonstrated ability to restrain F. graminearum growth on dual culture and in a bioassay using barley and wheat kernels. An outstanding ability to form biofilm on an inert surface was corroborated for those Paenibacillus which displayed greater biocontrol of F. graminearum, and the inoculation with one of these isolates in combination with the Pantoea isolate resulted in greater chlorophyll content in barley seedlings. Our results show a significant ecological potential of some components of the wheat seed endophytic community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of potential probiotic Bacillus cereus EN25 on growth, immunity and disease resistance of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yancui; Yuan, Lei; Wan, Junli; Sun, Zhenxing; Wang, Yiyan; Sun, Hushan

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine effects of potential probiotic Bacillus cereus EN25 (isolated from mud of sea cucumber culturing water bodies) on growth, immunity and disease resistance against Vibrio splendidus infection in juvenile sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus. Animals were respectively fed diets with B. cereus EN25 at 0 (control), 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) CFU/g for 30 days. Results showed that dietary B. cereus EN25 had no significant effects on growth, total coelomocytes counts and acid phosphatase activity of A. japonicus (P > 0.05). Dietary EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g had significantly improved the phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity and total nitric oxide synthase activity of animals (P  0.05), whereas dietary EN25 at 10(9) CFU/g had significantly decreased its activity (P < 0.05). The cumulative mortality after V. splendidus challenge decreased significantly in sea cucumbers fed with EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed dietary B. cereus EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g could significantly improve immunity and disease resistance in juvenile A. japonicus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Growth potential in gas plant ethane production and the impact on propane import trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippe, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    In varying degrees in most ethylene plants, ethane and propane are used interchangeably as feedstocks. During the next five years, several new ethylene plants will be built in the Gulf Coast area. Most of these plants will be based on LPG feedstocks and will have some flexibility to operate with ethane and propane feedstocks. The completion of new ethylene plants will increase feedstock demand for ethane by 65--90 Mbpd by 1998 and by an additional 50--80 Mbpd by 2000. Thus, the availability of ethane will have a significant impact on Gulf Coast waterborne propane import requirements. Sustained growth in the gas processing industry's ethane recovery capability will effectively minimize waterborne propane import requirements for the next five to ten years. Petral Worldwide's approach to feedstock supply analysis highlights investment opportunities in domestic supply sources. Projects of these types will also limit a growth dependence on NGL feedstock supplies from politically unstable supply sources in North Africa and the Middle East. This paper examines the potential for growth in the gas processing industry's ethane recovery capability and the impact on Gulf Coast feedstock markets

  17. Turning Weaknesses into Strengths: Nordic Tourism, Potentials for Growth and Major Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhet Genc

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nordic region is a geographical area which is characterized by a combination of nature, culture, history and technology and regarded as a common entity in political, economical and historical sense. Although rich in its resources, Nordic tourism has not actualized its potential in full. The present paper aims to identify weaknesses of the region, to outline a new set of directions for improving Nordic tourism and to delineate major challenges. Its geographical and natural beauties, cultural characteristics, technological advancement and policy development are identified as assets for tourism advancement in the region. Winter tourism, adventure tourism, nature-based tourism and cultural tourism are demonstrated as potential routes of growth. Marketing strategies and changing trends are discussed as major challenges, with suggestions for implementation.

  18. THE POTENTIAL OF FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A REGIONAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT ENGINE IN THE WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Cohut Ioana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the objectives, activities, and the results of the empirical, quantitative, and qualitative research carried out in the AntrES project (AntrES - Project acronym "Entrepreneurship and Equal Opportunities. A new school for women entrepreneurship" – Antreprenoriatul şi egalitatea de şanse. Un nou model de şcoală antreprenorială pentru femei, during the two years of implementation, in the Western Romania referring to the new businesses start up; business development; the motivation and difficulties of female entrepreneurs and potentially enterprising women; of their perceptions regarding the need for entrepreneurship education, the role of female entrepreneurship promotion and the impact of the successful models on new businesses start up – this paper presents directions of action meant to emphasize and support the potential of the female entrepreneurship in Romania, as a regional growth and development engine.

  19. Human placental growth hormone in ectopic pregnancy: Detection in maternal blood, immunohistochemistry and potential clinical implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübener, Christoph; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Wu, Zida; Diebold, Joachim; Strasburger, Christian J; Mahner, Sven; Hasbargen, Uwe; Delius, Maria

    2017-12-01

    To investigate human placental growth hormone (hGH-V) in ectopic pregnancy (EP): detection in maternal blood, correlation with immunohistochemistry and possible role as a marker for the course of EP. Women presenting in the outpatient or emergency department of a tertiary care university hospital with a positive pregnancy test and strong suspicion of EP by ultrasound and/or symptoms were eligible for the study (n=70). Tissue specimens from the surgically treated patients (n=50) were examined by histopathology as well as by a hGH-V specific immohistochemistry set-up. A highly sensitive hGH-V specific immunoassay was used to analyse serum samples collected before treatment, day 1 post surgery samples and serial samples for medical treatment. In EP patients' sera hGH-V was shown to be measurable for the first time (n=18). HGH-V however could not be detected in all patients' sera. HCG levels were significantly higher in the hGH-V serum positive group (p 0.001). HGH-V was localized to the syncytiotrophoblast in all specimens of EP examined by immunohistochemistry (n=10) regardless of the detection in the patient's blood. Placental growth hormone (hGH-V) was shown to be present both in ectopic pregnancy patients' sera and tissue. It may serve as a biomarker for monitoring the course and treatment of EP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hormones, receptors, and growth in hyperplastic enlarged lobular units: early potential precursors of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangjun; Mohsin, Syed K; Mao, Sufeng; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Medina, Dan; Allred, D Craig

    2006-01-01

    The hyperplastic enlarged lobular unit (HELU) is a common alteration in adult female human breast and is the earliest histologically identifiable lesion with premalignant potential. Growth and differentiation in normal epithelium are regulated by estrogen and progesterone, whose effects are mediated through estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and progesterone receptor (PR). We assessed correlations between growth (proliferation and apoptosis), endogenous hormone levels (using age as a surrogate for menopausal/estrogen status), and ER-alpha/PR expression in HELUs versus adjacent normal terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) to gain insight into potentially premalignant hyperplasia. Proliferation (Ki67 antigen), ER-alpha, and PR were assessed by immunohistochemistry, apoptosis using the TUNEL (terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling) assay, and nuclear colocalization of ER-alpha and Ki67 by dual-labeled immunofluorescence in HELUs and adjacent TDLUs (n = 100-584, depending on the factor) from 324 breasts. All factors were quantified under direct microscopic visualization. ER-alpha/PR expression was semiquantified by estimating the proportion of positive cells (0 = none, 1 = or 2/3). Ki67, TUNEL, and colocalization of ER-alpha and Ki67 were scored by absolute counting (%positive). ER-alpha and PR expression were significantly elevated in HELUs versus adjacent TLDUs (average score: 4.5 versus 3.1 and 3.5 versus 2.1; P apoptosis was significantly lower in HELUs versus TDLUs (average 0.61% versus 0.22%; P breast cancer.

  1. Free trade area in southeast Europe: Growth potentials and implications for Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nela Vlahinić-Dizdarević

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Paper focuses on preconditions, actual trade flows and growth potentials of the Free Trade Zone in Southeast Europe. Further trade liberalisation and implementation of all 21 bilateral trade agreementswould be important incentive for intra-regional trade, especially within SEE-5, where, according to gravity model results, there exist situations of “under-trade”. Bilateral trade between Croatia and S&MNrepresents such “under-trade” situation that gives large space for Croatian export growth to this market. On the other hand, trade with B&His already above the predicted level and it could even fall in the future because great part of B&H imports was triggered by Western assistance. According to the analysis, the establishment of the Free Trade Area in SEE gives potentials for an increase in intra-regional trade (especially SEE-5, but these benefits could be fully reached only by pursuing parallel trade integration towards the EU in order to avoid trade diversion effect.

  2. Final Report and Strategic Plan on the Feasibility Study to Assess Geothermal Potential on Warm Springs Reservation Lands. Report No. DOE/GO/15177

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Manion, Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises; David McClain, McClain & Associates

    2007-05-17

    In 2005 the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Tribal Council authorized an evaluation of the geothermal development potential on the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises obtained a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct a geological assessment and development estimate. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises utilized a team of expert consultants to conduct the study and develop a strategic plan. The resource assessment work was completed in 2006 by GeothermEx Inc., a consulting company specializing in geothermal resource assessments worldwide. The GeothermEx report indicates there is a 90% probability that a commercial geothermal resource exists on tribal lands in the Mt. Jefferson area. The geothermal resource assessment and other cost, risk and constraints information has been incorporated into the strategic plan.

  3. Toxicological benchmark for screening of potential contaminants of concern for effects on aquatic biota on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Futrell, M.A.; Kerchner, G.A.

    1992-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment of hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration. This report presents potential screening benchmarks for protection of aquatic life from contaminants in water. Because there is no guidance for screening benchmarks, a set of alternative benchmarks is presented here. The alternative benchmarks are based on different conceptual approaches to estimating concentrations causing significant effects. To the extent that toxicity data are available, this report presents the alternative benchmarks for chemicals that have been detected on the Oak Ridge Reservation. It also presents the data used to calculate the benchmarks, and the sources of the data. It compares the benchmarks and discusses their relative conservatism and utility.

  4. Toxicological benchmark for screening of potential contaminants of concern for effects on aquatic biota on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W. II; Futrell, M.A.; Kerchner, G.A.

    1992-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment of hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration. This report presents potential screening benchmarks for protection of aquatic life from contaminants in water. Because there is no guidance for screening benchmarks, a set of alternative benchmarks is presented here. The alternative benchmarks are based on different conceptual approaches to estimating concentrations causing significant effects. To the extent that toxicity data are available, this report presents the alternative benchmarks for chemicals that have been detected on the Oak Ridge Reservation. It also presents the data used to calculate the benchmarks, and the sources of the data. It compares the benchmarks and discusses their relative conservatism and utility

  5. Geologic technical assessment of the Stratton Ridge salt dome, Texas, for potential expansion of the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Snider, Anna C.; Looff, Karl M. (Geologic Consultant, Lovelady, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The Stratton Ridge salt dome is a large salt diapir located only some ten miles from the currently active Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site at Bryan Mound, Texas. The dome is approximately 15 miles south-southwest of Houston. The Stratton Ridge salt dome has been intensively developed, in the desirable central portions, with caverns for both brine production and product storage. This geologic technical assessment indicates that the Stratton Ridge salt dome may be considered a viable, if less-than-desirable, candidate site for potential expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Past development of underground caverns significantly limits the potential options for use by the SPR. The current conceptual design layout of proposed caverns for such an expansion facility is based upon a decades-old model of salt geometry, and it is unacceptable, according to this reinterpretation of salt dome geology. The easternmost set of conceptual caverns are located within a 300-ft buffer zone of a very major boundary shear zone, fault, or other structural feature of indeterminate origin. This structure transects the salt stock and subdivides it into an shallow western part and a deeper eastern part. In places, the distance from this structural boundary to the design-basis caverns is as little as 150 ft. A 300-ft distance from this boundary is likely to be the minimum acceptable stand-off, from both a geologic and a regulatory perspective. Repositioning of the proposed cavern field is possible, as sufficient currently undeveloped salt acreage appears to be available. However, such reconfiguration would be subject to limitations related to land-parcel boundaries and other existing infrastructure and topographic constraints. More broadly speaking, the past history of cavern operations at the Stratton Ridge salt dome indicates that operation of potential SPR expansion caverns at this site may be difficult, and correspondingly expensive. Although detailed information is

  6. Levels and associations among self-esteem, fertility distress, coping, and reaction to potentially being a genetic carrier in women with diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmeli, Ceylan; Lobel, Marci; Franasiak, Jason; Pastore, Lisa M

    2013-06-01

    To measure the level of distress and its relationship with other psychologic factors in women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) who participated in a fragile X genetics study. Longitudinal data analyzed with structural equation modeling. Four U.S. private and academic fertility centers. Sixty-two infertile patients with DOR. None. Fertility Problem Inventory, Coping Scale for Infertile Couples, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, Health Orientation Scale. Nineteen percent had low fertility distress, 56% had average fertility distress, and 24% had high fertility distress. Thirty-six percent self-reported a "favorable" or "very favorable" emotional response to potentially being a fragile X carrier (termed "emotions"), 53% were "ambivalent," and 11% had an unfavorable reaction. Three months after learning that they were not a carrier, these percentages were 91%, 9%, and 0%, respectively. Emotions at this second time point were significantly more positive than at pretesting. At baseline, higher self-esteem was a significant predictor of reduced fertility distress both directly and indirectly through emotions. Fertility distress was not associated with coping. Self-esteem, fertility distress, pretesting emotions, and coping were unrelated to posttesting emotions. The potential of having an explanation for one's DOR condition may have a beneficial impact on women's psychologic states during the process of genetic testing, and this appeared to be especially true for women with higher self-esteem. Psychologic interventions targeted to women with low self-esteem may reduce distress and improve reactions to genetic testing. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preincubation of Penicillium commune conidia under modified atmosphere conditions: Influence on growth potential as determined by an impedimetric method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1996-01-01

    conditions in sealed vials for 14, 35 and 56 d. Lag time and growth rates were determined using impedance microbiology on a Bactometer. Conidia survived and some swelling was observed during all experimental preincubation conditions. Regression analysis of the subsequent growth responses showed that relative......The combined effect of preincubation time, relative humidity (r.h.), headspace carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) on subsequent growth potential of conidia from Penicillium commune was studied using Response Surface Modelling (RSM). Native conidia were preincubated under modified atmosphere...... on the growth potential of the conidia. Increasing CO2 levels (7% to 20%) in the storage atmosphere, reduced lag times from 65 to 25 h. By the same increase in CO2 levels, at 70% r.h. growth rates were doubled. Oxygen in the range 2-18%, did not produce any significant effect on either lag time or growth rate...

  8. Potential effects of environmental conditions on the efficiency of the antifungal tebuconazole controlling Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum growth rate and fumonisin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Patricia; de Ory, Ana; Cruz, Alejandra; Magan, Naresh; González-Jaén, M Teresa

    2013-08-01

    Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum are important phytopathogens which contaminate cereals in the Mediterranean climatic region with fumonisins. In this study we examined the interaction between the fungicide efficacy of tebuconazole and water potential (Ψw) (-0.7-7.0MPa)×temperature (20-35°C) on growth and FUM1 gene expression by real time RT-PCR (an indicator of fumonisin biosynthesis) in strains of both Fusarium species. Concentrations of tebuconazole required to reduce growth by 50 and 90% (ED50 and ED90 values) were determined. Growth of strains of both species was largely reduced by tebuconazole, with similar efficacy profiles in the interacting water potential×temperature conditions. In contrast, FUM1 expression was not generally reduced by tebuconazole. Moreover, sub-lethal doses in combination with mild water stress and temperatures less than 35°C significantly induced FUM1 expression with slight differences in both species. These results suggest that the efficacy of antifungal compounds to reduce mycotoxin risk would be more effective if consideration is given to both growth rate and toxin biosynthesis in relation to interacting environmental conditions. This is the first study linking fungicide efficacy of tebuconazole with environmental factor effects on control of growth and FUM1 gene expression of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The deep hydrogeologic flow system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation -- Assessing the potential for active groundwater flow and origin of the brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nativ, R. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Soil and Water Sciences; Halleran, A.; Hunley, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1997-08-01

    The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) contains contaminants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds. The groundwater in the deep system is saline and has been considered to be stagnant in previous studies. This study was designed to address the following questions: is groundwater in the deep system stagnant; is contaminant migration controlled by diffusion only or is advection a viable mechanism; where are the potential outlet points? On the basis of existing and newly collected data, the nature of saline groundwater flow and potential discharge into shallow, freshwater systems was assessed. Data used for this purpose included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the deep system, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) spatial and temporal temperature variations at depth, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline groundwater. The observations suggest that the saline water contained at depth is old but not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active, freshwater-bearing units. Influx of recent water does occur. Groundwater volumes involved in this flow are likely to be small. The origin of the saline groundwater was assessed by using existing and newly acquired chemical and isotopic data. The proposed model that best fits the data is modification of residual brine from which halite has been precipitated. Other models, such as ultrafiltration and halite dissolution, were also evaluated.

  10. Soil bacteria showing a potential of chlorpyrifos degradation and plant growth enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa Akbar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Since 1960s, the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos has been widely used for the purpose of pest control. However, given its persistence and toxicity towards life forms, the elimination of chlorpyrifos from contaminated sites has become an urgent issue. For this process bioremediation is the method of choice. Results: Two bacterial strains, JCp4 and FCp1, exhibiting chlorpyrifos-degradation potential were isolated from pesticide contaminated agricultural fields. These isolates were able to degrade 84.4% and 78.6% of the initial concentration of chlorpyrifos (100 mg L-1 within a period of only 10 days. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these strains were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans (JCp4 and Ochrobactrum sp. (FCp1. These strains exhibited the ability to degrade chlorpyrifos in sterilized as well as non-sterilized soils, and were able to degrade 93-100% of the input concentration (200 mg kg-1 within 42 days. The rate of degradation in inoculated soils ranged from 4.40 to 4.76 mg-1 kg-1 d-1 with rate constants varying between 0.047 and 0.069 d-1. These strains also displayed substantial plant growth promoting traits such as phosphate solubilization, indole acetic acid production and ammonia production both in absence as well as in the presence of chlorpyrifos. However, presence of chlorpyrifos (100 and 200 mg L-1 was found to have a negative effect on indole acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization with percentage reduction values ranging between 2.65-10.6% and 4.5-17.6%, respectively. Plant growth experiment demonstrated that chlorpyrifos has a negative effect on plant growth and causes a decrease in parameters such as percentage germination, plant height and biomass. Inoculation of soil with chlorpyrifos-degrading strains was found to enhance plant growth significantly in terms of plant length and weight. Moreover, it was noted that these strains degraded chlorpyrifos at an increased rate (5

  11. Suitable Days for Plant Growth Disappear under Projected Climate Change: Potential Human and Biotic Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R; Caldwell, Jamie M; Fisher, Micah R; Genco, Brandon M; Running, Steven W

    2015-06-01

    Ongoing climate change can alter conditions for plant growth, in turn affecting ecological and social systems. While there have been considerable advances in understanding the physical aspects of climate change, comprehensive analyses integrating climate, biological, and social sciences are less common. Here we use climate projections under alternative mitigation scenarios to show how changes in environmental variables that limit plant growth could impact ecosystems and people. We show that although the global mean number of days above freezing will increase by up to 7% by 2100 under "business as usual" (representative concentration pathway [RCP] 8.5), suitable growing days will actually decrease globally by up to 11% when other climatic variables that limit plant growth are considered (i.e., temperature, water availability, and solar radiation). Areas in Russia, China, and Canada are projected to gain suitable plant growing days, but the rest of the world will experience losses. Notably, tropical areas could lose up to 200 suitable plant growing days per year. These changes will impact most of the world's terrestrial ecosystems, potentially triggering climate feedbacks. Human populations will also be affected, with up to ~2,100 million of the poorest people in the world (~30% of the world's population) highly vulnerable to changes in the supply of plant-related goods and services. These impacts will be spatially variable, indicating regions where adaptations will be necessary. Changes in suitable plant growing days are projected to be less severe under strong and moderate mitigation scenarios (i.e., RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5), underscoring the importance of reducing emissions to avoid such disproportionate impacts on ecosystems and people.

  12. Suitable Days for Plant Growth Disappear under Projected Climate Change: Potential Human and Biotic Vulnerability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Mora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing climate change can alter conditions for plant growth, in turn affecting ecological and social systems. While there have been considerable advances in understanding the physical aspects of climate change, comprehensive analyses integrating climate, biological, and social sciences are less common. Here we use climate projections under alternative mitigation scenarios to show how changes in environmental variables that limit plant growth could impact ecosystems and people. We show that although the global mean number of days above freezing will increase by up to 7% by 2100 under "business as usual" (representative concentration pathway [RCP] 8.5, suitable growing days will actually decrease globally by up to 11% when other climatic variables that limit plant growth are considered (i.e., temperature, water availability, and solar radiation. Areas in Russia, China, and Canada are projected to gain suitable plant growing days, but the rest of the world will experience losses. Notably, tropical areas could lose up to 200 suitable plant growing days per year. These changes will impact most of the world's terrestrial ecosystems, potentially triggering climate feedbacks. Human populations will also be affected, with up to ~2,100 million of the poorest people in the world (~30% of the world's population highly vulnerable to changes in the supply of plant-related goods and services. These impacts will be spatially variable, indicating regions where adaptations will be necessary. Changes in suitable plant growing days are projected to be less severe under strong and moderate mitigation scenarios (i.e., RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5, underscoring the importance of reducing emissions to avoid such disproportionate impacts on ecosystems and people.

  13. Evaluation of growth and flowering potential of rosa hybrida cultivars under Faisalabad climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Khan, M.A.; Riaz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Exotic cultivars of hybrid roses respond uncertainly to new habitat. It is necessary to explore the potential of the introduced cultivars to judge the suitability in a new habitat. In the present study, nine Rosa hybrida cultivars including Autumn Sunset, Ice Berg, Paradise, Angel Face, Louise Odier, Casino, Grand Margina, Handel and Gruss-an-Teplitz were evaluated for growth and yield attributed under the climatic conditions of Faisalabad. Results indicated that there was decreasing trend in the growth and flowering of the bushes as the temperature increased above 32 degree C and humidity decreased to 29 %. Number of flowers per bush and diameter of flower decreased as the temperature increased and humidity decreased in contrast to increment in height of the plant and num ber of primary branches per plant in succeeding months. Interaction between yield traits and months was also significant. Overall, significant variations were observed in each cultivar for length and number of petals per flower, number of prickles, fragrance, flower persistence life and color, bush shape and overall performance with respect to climatic conditions of Faisalabad. It is concluded that the cultivars 'Autumn Sunset' and Gruss-an-Teplitz performed better in climatic conditions of Faisalabad. (author)

  14. Potential Roles of n-3 PUFAs during Skeletal Muscle Growth and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Tachtsis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, which are commonly found in fish oil supplements, are known to possess anti-inflammatory properties and more recently alter skeletal muscle function. In this review, we discuss novel findings related to how n-3 PUFAs modulate molecular signaling responsible for growth and hypertrophy as well as the activity of muscle stem cells. Muscle stem cells commonly known as satellite cells, are primarily responsible for driving the skeletal muscle repair process to potentially damaging stimuli, such as mechanical stress elicited by exercise contraction. To date, there is a paucity of human investigations related to the effects of n-3 PUFAs on satellite cell content and activity. Based on current in vitro investigations, this review focuses on novel mechanisms linking n-3 PUFA’s to satellite cell activity and how they may improve muscle repair. Understanding the role of n-3 PUFAs during muscle growth and regeneration in association with exercise could lead to the development of novel supplementation strategies that increase muscle mass and strength, therefore possibly reducing the burden of muscle wasting with age.

  15. Stimulation of methane oxidation potential and effects on vegetation growth by bottom ash addition in a landfill final evapotranspiration cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gil Won; Ho, Adrian; Kim, Pil Joo; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2016-09-01

    The landfilling of municipal solid waste is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4), contributing up to 20% of total anthropogenic CH4 emissions. The evapotranspiration (ET) cover system, an alternative final cover system in waste landfills, has been considered to be a promising way to mitigate CH4 emissions, as well as to prevent water infiltration using vegetation on landfill cover soils. In our previous studies, bottom ash from coal-fired power plants was selected among several industrial residues (blast furnace slag, bottom ash, construction waste, steel manufacture slag, stone powder sludge, and waste gypsum) as the best additive for ET cover systems, with the highest mechanical performance achieved for a 35% (wtwt(-1)) bottom ash content in soil. In this study, to evaluate the field applicability of bottom ash mixed soil as ET cover, four sets of lysimeters (height 1.2m×width 2m×length 6m) were constructed in 2007, and four different treatments were installed: (i) soil+bottom ash (35% wtwt(-1)) (SB); (ii) soil+compost (2% wtwt(-1), approximately corresponding to 40Mgha(-1) in arable field scale) (SC); (iii) soil+bottom ash+compost (SBC); and (iv) soil only as the control (S). The effects of bottom ash mixing in ET cover soil on CH4 oxidation potential and vegetation growth were evaluated in a pilot ET cover system in the 5th year after installation by pilot experiments using the treatments. Our results showed that soil properties were significantly improved by bottom ash mixing, resulting in higher plant growth. Bottom ash addition significantly increased the CH4 oxidation potential of the ET cover soil, mainly due to improved organic matter and available copper concentration, enhancing methanotrophic abundances in soil amended with bottom ash. Conclusively, bottom ash could be a good alternative as a soil additive in the ET cover system to improve vegetation growth and mitigate CH4 emission impact in the waste landfill system. Copyright © 2016

  16. Occurrence and growth of yeasts in processed meat products - implications for potential spoilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Jacobsen, Tomas; Jespersen, Lene

    2008-01-01

    Spoilage of meat products is in general attributed to bacteria but new processing and storage techniques inhibiting growth of bacteria may provide opportunities for yeasts to dominate the microflora and cause spoilage of the product. With the aim of obtaining a deeper understanding of the potential...... role of yeast in spoilage of five different processed meat products (bacon, ham, salami and two different liver patés), yeasts were isolated, enumerated and identified during processing, in the final product and in the final product at the end of shelf life. Yeasts were isolated along the bacon...... of the processed meat products. The yeast microflora was complex with 4-12 different species isolated from the different production sites. In general, Candida zeylanoides, Debaryomyces hansenii and the newly described Candida alimentaria were found to be the dominant yeast species. In addition, three putatively...

  17. Laboratory experiments with growth potential of Cenangium ferruginosum tested on natural nutrition soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunca Andrej

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Serious pine dieback was reported in early spring from several localities in Slovakia in 2012. Needle necrosis, bark necrosis and twig cankers were the most conspicuous symptoms on diseased trees. There were no or at least not significant damages caused by bark beetles, leaf eating insects, root rots neither tracheomycosis. We also excluded Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr. Dyko & B. Sutton as the main pest agent, which played an important role in Pinus nigra Arnold dieback from 2000 to 2007 in Slovakia. Our laboratory inspections revealed Cenangium ferruginosum Fr. as the agent responsible for that dieback. We tested its growth capability on different natural nutrition soils in the laboratory to see the potential pathogenecity. This paper describes the pine dieback based on the field inspections and laboratory studies, and we discuss the role of predisposing factors involved in the dieback.

  18. In vitro growth potential of fibroblasts isolated from pigs with radiation-induced fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.; Remy, J.; Daburon, F.

    1986-01-01

    Degenerative processes were studied in pig muscles irradiated with single doses of 30 or 40 Gy. Damaged muscle was gradually replaced by an invasive fibrotic tissue. As a control, surgical muscle exeresis was performed of the same size as the radiation-induced lesions at the same anatomical site. Primary cultures were set up comprising cells freshly extracted from normal dermis, or from tissue exhibiting either normal wound fibrosis or radiation-induced fibrosis. The growth potential of cells taken from the latter region far exceeded that of the two other types; attachment efficiency was higher, and fibronectin was detected early by immunofluorescence. These in vivo and in vitro observations imply that a pathological repair process occurs after localized irradiation. (author)

  19. Climate-induced seasonal changes in smallmouth bass growth rate potential at the southern range extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middaugh, Christopher R.; Kessinger, Brin; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2018-01-01

    Temperature increases due to climate change over the coming century will likely affect smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) growth in lotic systems at the southern extent of their native range. However, the thermal response of a stream to warming climate conditions could be affected by the flow regime of each stream, mitigating the effects on smallmouth bass populations. We developed bioenergetics models to compare change in smallmouth bass growth rate potential (GRP) from present to future projected monthly stream temperatures across two flow regimes: runoff and groundwater-dominated. Seasonal differences in GRP between stream types were then compared. The models were developed for fourteen streams within the Ozark–Ouachita Interior Highlands in Arkansas, Oklahoma and Missouri, USA, which contain smallmouth bass. In our simulations, smallmouth bass mean GRP during summer months decreased by 0.005 g g−1 day−1 in runoff streams and 0.002 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams by the end of century. Mean GRP during winter, fall and early spring increased under future climate conditions within both stream types (e.g., 0.00019 g g−1 day−1 in runoff and 0.0014 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams in spring months). We found significant differences in change in GRP between runoff and groundwater streams in three seasons in end-of-century simulations (spring, summer and fall). Potential differences in stream temperature across flow regimes could be an important habitat component to consider when investigating effects of climate change as fishes from various flow regimes that are relatively close geographically could be affected differently by warming climate conditions.

  20. Influence of biostimulants-seed-priming on Ceratotheca triloba germination and seedling growth under low temperatures, low osmotic potential and salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masondo, Nqobile A; Kulkarni, Manoj G; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Extreme temperatures, drought and salinity stress adversely affect seed germination and seedling growth in crop species. Seed priming has been recognized as an indispensable technique in the production of stress-tolerant plants. Seed priming increases seed water content, improves protein synthesis using mRNA and DNA and repair mitochondria in seeds prior to germination. The current study aimed to determine the role of biostimulants-seed-priming during germination and seedling growth of Ceratotheca triloba (Bernh.) Hook.f. (an indigenous African leafy vegetable) under low temperature, low osmotic potential and salinity stress conditions. Ceratotheca triloba seeds were primed with biostimulants [smoke-water (SW), synthesized smoke-compound karrikinolide (KAR 1 ), Kelpak ® (commercial seaweed extract), phloroglucinol (PG) and distilled water (control)] for 48h at 25°C. Thereafter, primed seeds were germinated at low temperatures, low osmotic potential and high NaCl concentrations. Low temperature (10°C) completely inhibited seed germination. However, temperature shift to 15°C improved germination. Smoke-water and KAR 1 enhanced seed germination with SW improving seedling growth under different stress conditions. Furthermore, priming seeds with Kelpak ® stimulated percentage germination, while PG and the control treatment improved seedling growth at different PEG and NaCl concentrations. Generally, high concentrations of PEG and NaCl brought about detrimental effects on seed germination and seedling growth. Findings from this study show the potential role of seed priming with biostimulants in the alleviation of abiotic stress conditions during seed germination and seedling growth in C. triloba plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential production and growth analysis of local variety and Americana variety of soybean (Glycine max (L) Merril)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumakud, M.Y.M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Soybean needs high radiation intensity for photosynthesis process; therefore 100 percent of the sunlight are needed. Due to increasing the soybean production, the environment factor such as climate, soil and management are needed. One of the environment factor that influence the growth and dry matter production is radiation. This research done was to see the potential production of local variety and Americana variety by observing the total radiation absorption, temperature, rainfall and humidity. Therefore the objective of this research was to know the potential production in tropic area in soybean. If the production is mainly determined by the high growth rate or the length of phase linear or both of them also by the efficiency of radiation that received by the plant. The method of this research was carried out by using completed randomized design, with three replications. The result showed that the growth and the production of soybean are determined by growth rate (Cm) and the length of growth linear (tm). Dry matter of soybean is determined by growth rate instead of the length of growth linear, for efficiency of radiation are not significant. Pod formation is determined by the growth rate, content of pods is determined by the length of linear growth

  2. Plant growth-promoting potential of bacteria isolated from active volcano sites of Barren Island, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaresan, N; Kumar, K; Sureshbabu, K; Madhuri, K

    2014-02-01

    To elucidate the biodiversity of plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria in active volcano sites of Barren Island, India, a total of 102 bacteria were isolated and screened for their multifunctional PGP properties. The results revealed that 21 isolates (20.6%) survived heat shock at 72°C and 11 (10.8%) isolates were able to grow exposed to 25% NaCl (w/v). In assaying for PGP properties, 59 (57.8%) isolates shown indole acetic acid (IAA) like substances production, 57 isolates (55.9%) produced siderophore and 34 (33.3%) solubilized inorganic phosphate qualitatively. Whereas in the production of extracellular enzymes, 42 isolates (41.2%) produced protease and amylase, 26 (25.5%) isolates produced lipase and 24 (23.5%) isolates produced cellulase. In antagonistic activity, 30 isolates (29.4%) were found antagonistic against Macrophomina sp., 20 isolates (19.6%) against Rhizoctonia solani and 15 isolates (14.7%) against Sclerotium rolfsii. The results based on 16 rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the PGP bacteria belonged to 22 different species comprising 13 genera. Based on multifunctional properties, nine isolates were further selected to determine the PGP in brinjal and chilli seeds. Of the bacteria tested, the isolate BAN87 showed increased root and shoot length of both the crops followed in plant growth promotion by BAN86 and BAN43. The outcome of this research proves plausible practical applicability of these PGPB for crop production in soils of saline and arid environments. The present research shows diverse plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria could be isolated from the active volcano site and suggests that volcano sites represent an ecological niche, which harbours a diverse and hitherto largely uncharacterized microbial population with yet unknown and untapped potential biotechnological applications, for example, plant growth promoters, as evidenced from this study. The outcome of this research may have a practical effect on crop production methodologies in

  3. Toxicological benchmarks for screening of potential contaminants of concern for effects on aquatic biota on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, G.A. II (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Futrell, M.A. (East Tennessee State Univ., Johnson City, TN (United States)); Kerchner, G.A. (Harvard Coll., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This report presents potential screening benchmarks for protection of aquatic life from contaminants in water. Because there is no guidance for screening benchmarks, a set of alternative benchmarks is presented here. The alternative benchmarks are based on different conceptual approaches to estimating concentrations causing significant effects. For the upper screening benchmark, they are the acute National Ambient Water Quality Criterion (NAWQC) and the acute pesticide advisory value (a concentration that is estimated with 95% confidence not to exceed the unknown acute NAWQC for those chemicals with no NAWQC). The alternative chronic benchmarks are the chronic NAWQC, the chronic pesticide screening value, the lowest chronic values for fish and daphnids, the lowest concentration that produces a response in 20% of fish and daphnids [effective concentration 20 (EC[sub 20])] as established through chronic toxicity tests, the estimated EC[sub 20] for a sensitive species, and the concentration estimated to cause a 20% reduction in the recruit abundance of largemouth bass. It is recommended that ambient chemical concentrations be compared to all of these benchmarks. To the extent that toxicity data are available, this report presents the alternative benchmarks for chemicals that have been detected on the Oak Ridge Reservation. It also presents the data used to calculate the benchmarks, and the sources of the data. It compares the benchmarks and discusses their relative conservatism and utility.

  4. Fungi in cake production chain: Occurrence and evaluation of growth potential in different cake formulations during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassi, Letícia L P; Bernardi, Angélica O; Amaral, Alexandra L P M; Chaves, Rafael D; Santos, Juliana L P; Copetti, Marina V; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence and populations of fungi in cake production chain. Besides, the growth potential of twelve fungal strains in different cake formulations was evaluated. Raw materials from two different batches (n=143), chocolate cakes (n=30), orange cakes (n=20), and processing environment air samples (n=147) were analyzed. Among the raw materials, wheat flour (3.2±0.3 log CFU per g) and corn meal (3.8±0.8 log CFU per g) belonging to batch #1 showed significant higher fungal counts (p3mm) in the free of preservative cake formulation at 19th and 44th days of storage at 25°C, respectively. Revealing the biodiversity of fungi in ingredients, air and final products, as well as challenging final products with representative fungal strains may assist to implement effective controlling measures as well as to gather data for the development of more robust cake formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of intrauterine growth restriction on sleep and the cardiovascular system: The use of melatonin as a potential therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wallace, Euan M; Miller, Suzanne L; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2016-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) complicates 5-10% of pregnancies and is associated with increased risk of preterm birth, mortality and neurodevelopmental delay. The development of sleep and cardiovascular control are closely coupled and IUGR is known to alter this development. In the long-term, IUGR is associated with altered sleep and an increased risk of hypertension in adulthood. Melatonin plays an important role in the sleep-wake cycle. Experimental animal studies have shown that melatonin therapy has neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects in the IUGR fetus. Consequently, clinical trials are currently underway to assess the short and long term effects of antenatal melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies. Given melatonin's role in sleep regulation, this hormone could affect the developing infants' sleep-wake cycle and cardiovascular function after birth. In this review, we will 1) examine the role of melatonin as a therapy for IUGR pregnancies and the potential implications on sleep and the cardiovascular system; 2) examine the development of sleep-wake cycle in fetal and neonatal life; 3) discuss the development of cardiovascular control during sleep; 4) discuss the effect of IUGR on sleep and the cardiovascular system and 5) discuss the future implications of melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of root-knot nematode disease control and plant growth promotion potential of biofertilizer Ning shield on Trichosanthes kirilowii in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-Hao; Xie, Ping; Li, Ke; Xie, Yue-Sheng; Chen, Liu-Jun; Wang, Jin-Suo; Xu, Quan; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2017-11-11

    Biofertilizer Ning shield was composed of different strains of plant growth promotion bacteria. In this study, the plant growth promotion and root-knot nematode disease control potential on Trichosanthes kirilowii in the field were evaluated. The application of Ning shield significantly reduced the diseases severity caused by Meloidogyne incognita, the biocontrol efficacy could reached up to 51.08%. Ning shield could also promote the growth of T. kirilowii in the field by increasing seedling emergence, height and the root weight. The results showed that the Ning shield could enhance the production yield up to 36.26%. Ning shield could also promote the plant growth by increasing the contents of available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter, and increasing the contents of leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment. Moreover, Ning shield could efficiently enhance the medicinal compositions of Trichosanthes, referring to the polysaccharides and trichosanthin. Therefore, Ning shield is a promising biofertilizer, which can offer beneficial effects to T. kirilowii growers, including the plant growth promotion, the biological control of root-knot disease and enhancement of the yield and the medicinal quality. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential effects of climate change on the growth of fishes from different thermal guilds in Lakes Michigan and Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chun; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Lofgren, Brent M.; Perroud, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    We used a bioenergetics modeling approach to investigate potential effects of climate change on the growth of two economically important native fishes: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), a cool-water fish, and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), a cold-water fish, in deep and oligotrophic Lakes Michigan and Huron. For assessing potential changes in fish growth, we contrasted simulated fish growth in the projected future climate regime during the period 2043-2070 under different prey availability scenarios with the simulated growth during the baseline (historical reference) period 1964-1993. Results showed that effects of climate change on the growth of these two fishes are jointly controlled by behavioral thermoregulation and prey availability. With the ability of behavioral thermoregulation, temperatures experienced by yellow perch in the projected future climate regime increased more than those experienced by lake whitefish. Thus simulated future growth decreased more for yellow perch than for lake whitefish under scenarios where prey availability remains constant into the future. Under high prey availability scenarios, simulated future growth of these two fishes both increased but yellow perch could not maintain the baseline efficiency of converting prey consumption into body weight. We contended that thermal guild should not be the only factor used to predict effects of climate change on the growth of a fish, and that ecosystem responses to climate change should be also taken into account.

  8. Extracellular matrix protein in calcified endoskeleton: a potential additive for crystal growth and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizur Rahman, M.; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Oomori, Tamotsu

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a key function of extracellular matrix proteins (ECMPs) on seed crystals, which are isolated from calcified endoskeletons of soft coral and contain only CaCO 3 without any living cells. This is the first report that an ECMP protein extracted from a marine organism could potentially influence in modifying the surface of a substrate for designing materials via crystallization. We previously studied with the ECMPs from a different type of soft coral ( Sinularia polydactyla) without introducing any seed crystals in the process , which showed different results. Thus, crystallization on the seed in the presence of ECMPs of present species is an important first step toward linking function to individual proteins from soft coral. For understanding this interesting phenomenon, in vitro crystallization was initiated in a supersaturated solution on seed particles of calcite (1 0 4) with and without ECMPs. No change in the crystal growth shape occurred without ECMPs present during the crystallization process. However, with ECMPs, the morphology and phase of the crystals in the crystallization process changed dramatically. Upon completion of crystallization with ECMPs, an attractive crystal morphology was found. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the crystal morphologies on the seeds surface. The mineral phases of crystals nucleated by ECMPs on the seeds surface were examined by Raman spectroscopy. Although 50 mM Mg 2+ is influential in making aragonite in the crystallization process, the ECMPs significantly made calcite crystals even when 50 mM Mg 2+ was present in the process. Crystallization with the ECMP additive seems to be a technically attractive strategy to generate assembled micro crystals that could be used in crystals growth and design in the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  9. Attenuated expression of HRH4 in colorectal carcinomas: a potential influence on tumor growth and progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Earlier studies have reported the production of histamine in colorectal cancers (CRCs. The effect of histamine is largely determined locally by the histamine receptor expression pattern. Recent evidence suggests that the expression level of histamine receptor H4 (HRH4 is abnormal in colorectal cancer tissues. However, the role of HRH4 in CRC progression and its clinical relevance is not well understood. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and molecular phenotypes of colorectal tumors with abnormal HRH4 expression. Methods Immunoblotting, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry assays were adopted to examine HRH4 expression in case-matched CRC samples (n = 107 and adjacent normal tissues (ANTs. To assess the functions of HRH4 in CRC cells, we established stable HRH4-transfected colorectal cells and examined cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle and apoptosis in these cells. Results The protein levels of HRH4 were reduced in most of the human CRC samples regardless of grade or Dukes classification. mRNA levels of HRH4 were also reduced in both early-stage and advanced CRC samples. In vitro studies showed that HRH4 over-expression caused growth arrest and induced expression of cell cycle proteins in CRC cells upon exposure to histamine through a cAMP -dependent pathway. Furthermore, HRH4 stimulation promoted the 5-Fu-induced cell apoptosis in HRH4-positive colorectal cells. Conclusion The results from the current study supported previous findings of HRH4 abnormalities in CRCs. Expression levels of HRH4 could influence the histamine-mediated growth regulation in CRC cells. These findings suggested a potential role of abnormal HRH4 expression in the progression of CRCs and provided some new clues for the application of HRH4-specific agonist or antagonist in the molecular therapy of CRCs.

  10. Study on PotentialClostridium BotulinumGrowth and Toxin Production in Parma Ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merialdi, Giuseppe; Ramini, Mattia; Parolari, Giovanni; Barbuti, Silvana; Frustoli, Maria Angela; Taddei, Roberta; Pongolini, Stefano; Ardigò, Paolo; Cozzolino, Paolo

    2016-04-19

    The objective of this study was to investigate Clostridium botulinum growth and toxin production in the industrially manufactured Italian Parma ham. The study focuses on the Parma ham production phase identified as maximum risk to C. botulinum proliferation, i.e . the transition from cold phase (salting and resting) to a phase carried out at temperature between 15 and 23°C (drying). A preliminary in vitro test was carried out in order to verify the capability of 6 C. botulinum strains (1 type A, 4 type B, and 1 type E strains) to grow in conditions of temperature, pH and NaCl concentration comparable to those of the beginning stage of ham drying. Five C. botulinum strains grew at 20°C and pH 6, four strains produced toxin when inoculated at a concentration equal to 10 3 cfu/mL at NaCl concentration of 4%, while when the inoculum concentration was 10 cfu/mL, NaCl concentration of 3% resulted the toxin-genesis limiting factor. An experimental contamination with a mixture of the 5 C. botulinum strains selected by the preliminary in vitro test was performed on 9 thighs inoculated at the end of the resting phase. The study was designed to evaluate the potential growth and toxin production in extremely favourable conditions for the bacterium. Type B proteolytic C. botulinum toxin was produced after 14 days of incubation at 20°C in 2 thighs characterised by high weight, low number of days of resting and anomalous physiochemical characteristics [one for very low NaCl concentration (1.59%), the other for elevated pH (6.27) and both for high water activity values (>0.970)]. The results of this research confirm that the cold resting step is a critical phase in the production process of Parma ham for the investigated hazard. Based on the present study, the long resting phase adopted in the manufacturing of Parma ham is proven effective to prevent the growth of C. botulinum , an event which could not otherwise be excluded if the hams were processed under less stringent

  11. Any Peer Competitors Out There? An Economic Perspective to the Growth of Potential Peer Competitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Population Growth (%) G D P G ro w th ( % ) China 1 sigmadeviation Figure 3. Sensitivity of GDP Growth ...accelerate. 24 Demographic Status China has successfully slowed its rate of population growth to 1.5 percent a year and it is projected to slow even further to...education during this time period, China still was able to create a climate for economic growth during the 1980s. The percentage of eligible population

  12. Microplate-based method for high-throughput screening of microalgae growth potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wagenen, Jonathan; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; De Francisci, Davide

    2014-01-01

    that it is possible to use microplates to measure characteristic exponential growth rates and determine the specific growth rate light intensity dependency (μ-I curve), which is useful as the key input for several models that predict Pv. Nannochloropsis salina and Chlorella sorokiniana specific growth rates were...

  13. Simulated groundwater flow in the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers, Rosebud Indian Reservation area, South Dakota - Revisions with data through water year 2008 and simulations of potential future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew J.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2010-01-01

    The Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers are important water resources in the Rosebud Indian Reservation area and are used extensively for irrigation, municipal, and domestic water supplies. Drought or increased withdrawals from the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers in the Rosebud Indian Reservation area have the potential to affect water levels in these aquifers. This report documents revisions and recalibration of a previously published three-dimensional, numerical groundwater-flow model for this area. Data for a 30-year period (water years 1979 through 2008) were used in steady-state and transient numerical simulations of groundwater flow. In the revised model, revisions include (1) extension of the transient calibration period by 10 years, (2) the use of inverse modeling for steady-state calibration, (3) model calibration to base flow for an additional four surface-water drainage basins, (4) improved estimation of transient aquifer recharge, (5) improved delineation of vegetation types, and (6) reduced cell size near large capacity water-supply wells. In addition, potential future scenarios were simulated to assess the potential effects of drought and increased groundwater withdrawals.The model comprised two layers: the upper layer represented the Ogallala aquifer and the lower layer represented the Arikaree aquifer. The model’s grid had 168 rows and 202 columns, most of which were 1,640 feet (500 meters) wide, with narrower rows and columns near large water-supply wells. Recharge to the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers occurs from precipitation on the outcrop areas. The average recharge rates used for the steady-state simulation were 2.91 and 1.45 inches per year for the Ogallala aquifer and Arikaree aquifer, respectively, for a total rate of 255.4 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Discharge from the aquifers occurs through evapotranspiration, discharge to streams as base flow and spring flow, and well withdrawals. Discharge rates for the steady-state simulation were 171

  14. Reuse potential of laundry greywater for irrigation based on growth, water and nutrient use of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, R. K.; Patel, J. H.; Baxi, V. R.

    2010-05-01

    SummaryGreywater is considered as a valuable resource with a high reuse potential for irrigation of household lawns and gardens. However, there are possibilities of surfactant and sodium accumulation in soil from reuse of greywater which may affect agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability adversely. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to examine variation in growth, water and nutrient use of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Grosse Lisse) using tap water (TW), laundry greywater (GW) and solutions of low and high concentration of a detergent surfactant (LC and HC, respectively) as irrigation treatments. Each treatment was replicated five times using a randomised block design. Measurements throughout the experiment showed greywater to be significantly more alkaline and saline than the other types of irrigation water. Although all plants received 16 irrigations over a period of 9 weeks until flowering, there were little or no significant effects of irrigation treatments on plant growth. Soil water retention following irrigation reduced significantly when plants were irrigated with GW or surfactant solutions on only three of 12 occasions. On one occasion, water use measured as evapotranspiration (ET) with GW irrigation was similar to TW, but it was significantly higher than the plants receiving HC irrigation. At harvest, various components of plant biomass and leaf area for GW irrigated plants were found to be similar or significantly higher than the TW irrigated plants with a common trend of GW ⩾ TW > LC ⩾ HC. Whole-plant concentration was measured for 12 essential plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo and B) and Na (often considered as a beneficial nutrient). Irrigation treatments affected the concentration of four nutrients (P, Fe, Zn and Na) and uptake of seven nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe and B) significantly. Uptake of these seven nutrients by tomato was generally in the order GW ⩾ TW > HC ⩾ LC. GW

  15. Nerve growth factor (NGF): a potential urinary biomarker for overactive bladder syndrome (OAB)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Jai H; Sahai, Arun; Khan, Mohammad S; van der Aa, Frank; de Ridder, Dirk; Panicker, Jalesh N; Dasgupta, Prokar; Fowler, Clare J

    2013-03-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: The search for a biomarker in overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is an emerging field of interest, as bladder dysfunction is a common complaint that causes significant morbidity. A biomarker may give us insight as a diagnostic tool, and also inform us about how severe the condition is, how it may progress and how it may best be treated. The protein of interest here is nerve growth factor (NGF) and it has been shown to be a dynamic molecule in the bladder of patients with OAB. Urinary levels have been seen to rise in patients with OAB and fall in those who respond to treatment. However, there have also been many studies that examine this trend in numerous other conditions, e.g. interstitial cystitis, bladder outflow obstruction, renal stone disease and patients with neurological impairment after stroke. As a result the specificity of this as a potential urinary biomarker for OAB is questioned. This is a review of published studies, which discusses the pros and cons of NGF as a potential urinary biomarker. The evidence is examined and the studies are summarised together in a Table. Questions remain about the reliability, practicality and specificity of NGF as a biomarker for OAB. These questions need to be addressed by further studies that could clarify the points raised. To review the current literature on the use of urinary nerve growth factor (NGF) as a potential biomarker for overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). A comprehensive electronic literature search was conducted using the PubMed database to identify publications relating to urinary NGF. There are a growing number of publications that have measured urinary NGF levels in different types of bladder dysfunction. These range from OAB, bladder pain syndrome, idiopathic and neurogenic detrusor overactivity, bladder oversensitivity and bladder outflow obstruction. Urinary NGF levels do appear to be raised in these pathological states when compared with

  16. Correlations between Natural Radionuclide Concentrations in Soil and Vine-Growth Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modisane, T.G.D.

    2008-01-01

    Stellenbosch district is known as one of the best wine-producing regions in South Africa and lies 45 km east of Cape Town. It has a large number of estates, of which one of them was earmarked for vineyard development and is of much importance to this study. Soil plays an important role in the development of the vine and ultimately the grapes harvested from the vine. It is therefore important to characterise vineyard soils (quantitatively and qualitatively) and to study the impact of soil properties on the vine. These properties include among others and of importance to this study, the soil ph, concentrations of trace elements, clay content and natural radioactivity concentrations (1). In this study correlations between radiometric data and traditional chemical data in vineyard soils used to infer growth potential were studied. Discussed below are experimental techniques used in the determination of activity concentration of natural radionuclide ( 40 K, 232 Th and 238 U) in soil, data analysis, results and conclusions

  17. Potential impacts of using sewage sludge biochar on the growth of plant forest seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isidoria Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sewage sludge has long been successfully used in the production of nursery plants; however, some restriction may apply due to its high pathogenic characteristics. The process of charring the organic waste significantly reduces that undesired component and may be as effective as the non-charred residue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge biochar on the growth and morphological traits of eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus grandis L. seedlings, and compare results with those observed when using uncharred sewage sludge. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design, in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replications. Charred and non-charred sewage sludge were tested with and without NPK addition. A control treatment was also evaluated. Ten weeks old eucalyptus seedlings were transferred to the pots and grew for eight weeks. Chlorophyll content, plant height and stem diameter were measured at 0, 30 and 60 days after transplant. Shoot and root biomass were measured after plant harvest. Dickson Quality Index was calculated to evaluate the overall quality of seedlings. Biochar was effective in improving the seedlings quality, and had similar effects as the non-charred waste. Therefore, sewage sludge biochar has the potential to improve the process of production of forest species seedlings and further reduce the environmental risks associated with the use of non-charred sewage sludge.

  18. Assessing nitrogen supply potential and influence on growth of lettuce and amaranthus of different aged composts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.J.; Young, I.; Irvine, R.J.; Sturrock, C.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the potential of different composts at different maturity stages to supply N and their effect on the vegetative growth of lettuce and Amaranthus. Five composts aged 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, were mixed with soil at the rate of 5%, 10% and 15% then seeded with lettuce and Amaranthus. Results showed that 1, 3 and 6 month aged composts had a negative effect on plant height of lettuce and Amaranthus as 1-15.78% and 4.78 to 29.45% decrease in plant height over control was recorded respectively. On the other hand 9 and 12 month aged composts had a significant positive effect on plant height of lettuce and Amaranthus where 43.48% and 34.8% increase over control was recorded with the application of 15% of 12 month aged compost respectively. A similar effect was observed on fresh biomass of both lettuce and Amaranthus where a 386% and 59.43% increase over control was recorded with the application of 15% of 12 month aged compost respectively. One and three month aged composts revealed a negative effect on N absorption by lettuce whereas 1, 3, 6 and 9 month aged composts had a negative effect on N absorption by Amaranthus. 30.39% and 21.48% increases over control in N absorption by lettuce and Amaranthus respectively were recorded with the application of 15% of 12 month aged compost. (author)

  19. Myostatin and insulin-like growth factor I: potential therapeutic biomarkers for pompe disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hsiu Chien

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Myostatin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 are serum markers for muscle growth and regeneration. However, their value in the clinical monitoring of Pompe disease - a muscle glycogen storage disease - is not known. In order to evaluate their possible utility for disease monitoring, we assessed the levels of these serum markers in Pompe disease patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT. DESIGN: A case-control study that included 10 patients with Pompe disease and 10 gender- and age-matched non-Pompe disease control subjects was performed in a referral medical center. Average follow-up duration after ERT for Pompe disease patients was 11.7 months (range: 6-23 months. Measurements of serum myostatin, IGF-1, and creatine kinase levels were obtained, and examinations of muscle pathology were undertaken before and after ERT in the patient group. RESULTS: Compared with control subjects, Pompe disease patients prior to undergoing ERT had significantly lower serum IGF-1 levels (98.6 ng/ml vs. 307.9 ng/ml, p = 0.010 and lower myostatin levels that bordered on significance (1.38 ng/ml vs. 3.32 ng/ml, p = 0.075. After ERT, respective myostatin and IGF-1 levels in Pompe disease patients increased significantly by 129% (from 1.38 ng/ml to 3.16 ng/ml, p = 0.047 and 74% (from 98.6 ng/ml to 171.1 ng/ml, p = 0.013; these values fall within age-matched normal ranges. In contrast, myostatin and IGF-1 serum markers did not increase in age-matched controls. Follistatin, a control marker unrelated to muscle, increased in both Pompe disease patients and control subjects. At the same time, the percentage of muscle fibers containing intracytoplasmic vacuoles decreased from 80.0±26.4% to 31.6±45.3%. CONCLUSION: The increase in myostatin and IGF-1 levels in Pompe disease patients may reflect muscle regeneration after ERT. The role of these molecules as potential therapeutic biomarkers in Pompe disease and other neuromuscular

  20. The potential impact of urban growth simulation on the long-term planning of our cities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Waldeck, L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available consumption patterns of municipal services: Water, energy, waste water, solid waste, public transport, libraries, revenue, ? Slide 14 of 17 Validation (example from City of Johannesburg) hu / ha Growth aggregated to Traffic Analysis Zones Actual Urban... of urban growth simulation on the long-term planning of our cities 4th Biennial Conference Presented by: Dr Louis Waldeck Date: 10 October 2012 Slide 2 of 17 Why Urban Growth Simulation? ? Reduced carbon footprint ? Reduce resource consumption...

  1. Occurrence, sources and transport of antibiotics in the surface water of coral reef regions in the South China Sea: Potential risk to coral growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruijie; Zhang, Ruiling; Yu, Kefu; Wang, Yinghui; Huang, Xueyong; Pei, Jiying; Wei, Chaoshuai; Pan, Ziliang; Qin, Zhenjun; Zhang, Gan

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory research has indicated that antibiotics had negative effects on coral growth by disturbing natural microbiota; however, no field studies have reported antibiotic contamination levels and their influence on coral growth in natural coral reef regions (CRRs). This study investigated antibiotic occurrence and sources in the surface water from CRRs that have suffered from rapid coral degradation and evaluated their risk to coral growth. These regions are in the South China Sea, including four coastal and two offshore CRRs. The results show that 13 antibiotics were detected in the coastal CRRs with concentrations ranging from 10 -2 -10 0  ng L -1 , while 5 antibiotics occurred in offshore CRRs (300-950 km from the mainland), with concentrations ranging from 10 -2 to 10 -1  ng L -1 . Their concentrations decreased gradually from the coast to offshore in the transport process. However, Yongxing Island, which is approximately 300 km from the mainland, was an exception with relatively higher concentrations than the surrounding reefs because of the ever-increasing human activity on the island. The presence of anthropogenic contaminants antibiotics in CRRs may be a potential risk to coral growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of potential upon the high-temperature fatigue crack growth response of low-alloy steels. Part 1: Crack growth results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.; Moshier, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion-fatigue crack propagation experiments were conducted on several low-alloy steels in elevated temperature aqueous environments, and experimental parameters included temperature, sulfur content of the steel, applied potential level, and dissolved hydrogen (and in one case, dissolved oxygen) concentration in the water. Specimen potentials were controlled potentiostatically, and the observation (or non-observation) of accelerated fatigue crack growth rates was a complex function of the above parameters. Electrochemical results and the postulated explanation for the complex behavior are given in Part II

  3. Mineral Resources: Reserves, Peak Production and the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence D. Meinert; Gilpin R. Robinson; Nedal T. Nassar

    2016-01-01

    The adequacy of mineral resources in light of population growth and rising standards of living has been a concern since the time of Malthus (1798), but many studies erroneously forecast impending peak production or exhaustion because they confuse reserves with “all there is”. Reserves are formally defined as a subset of resources, and even current and potential resources are only a small subset of “all there is”. Peak production or exhaustion cannot be modeled accurately from reserves. Using ...

  4. Serotonin potentiates transforming growth factor-beta3 induced biomechanical remodeling in avian embryonic atrioventricular valves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R Buskohl

    Full Text Available Embryonic heart valve primordia (cushions maintain unidirectional blood flow during development despite an increasingly demanding mechanical environment. Recent studies demonstrate that atrioventricular (AV cushions stiffen over gestation, but the molecular mechanisms of this process are unknown. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ and serotonin (5-HT signaling modulate tissue biomechanics of postnatal valves, but less is known of their role in the biomechanical remodeling of embryonic valves. In this study, we demonstrate that exogenous TGFβ3 increases AV cushion biomechanical stiffness and residual stress, but paradoxically reduces matrix compaction. We then show that TGFβ3 induces contractile gene expression (RhoA, aSMA and extracellular matrix expression (col1α2 in cushion mesenchyme, while simultaneously stimulating a two-fold increase in proliferation. Local compaction increased due to an elevated contractile phenotype, but global compaction appeared reduced due to proliferation and ECM synthesis. Blockade of TGFβ type I receptors via SB431542 inhibited the TGFβ3 effects. We next showed that exogenous 5-HT does not influence cushion stiffness by itself, but synergistically increases cushion stiffness with TGFβ3 co-treatment. 5-HT increased TGFβ3 gene expression and also potentiated TGFβ3 induced gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Blockade of the 5HT2b receptor, but not 5-HT2a receptor or serotonin transporter (SERT, resulted in complete cessation of TGFβ3 induced mechanical strengthening. Finally, systemic 5-HT administration in ovo induced cushion remodeling related defects, including thinned/atretic AV valves, ventricular septal defects, and outflow rotation defects. Elevated 5-HT in ovo resulted in elevated remodeling gene expression and increased TGFβ signaling activity, supporting our ex-vivo findings. Collectively, these results highlight TGFβ/5-HT signaling as a potent mechanism for control of biomechanical

  5. Serotonin Potentiates Transforming Growth Factor-beta3 Induced Biomechanical Remodeling in Avian Embryonic Atrioventricular Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskohl, Philip R.; Sun, Michelle L.; Thompson, Robert P.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic heart valve primordia (cushions) maintain unidirectional blood flow during development despite an increasingly demanding mechanical environment. Recent studies demonstrate that atrioventricular (AV) cushions stiffen over gestation, but the molecular mechanisms of this process are unknown. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) and serotonin (5-HT) signaling modulate tissue biomechanics of postnatal valves, but less is known of their role in the biomechanical remodeling of embryonic valves. In this study, we demonstrate that exogenous TGFβ3 increases AV cushion biomechanical stiffness and residual stress, but paradoxically reduces matrix compaction. We then show that TGFβ3 induces contractile gene expression (RhoA, aSMA) and extracellular matrix expression (col1α2) in cushion mesenchyme, while simultaneously stimulating a two-fold increase in proliferation. Local compaction increased due to an elevated contractile phenotype, but global compaction appeared reduced due to proliferation and ECM synthesis. Blockade of TGFβ type I receptors via SB431542 inhibited the TGFβ3 effects. We next showed that exogenous 5-HT does not influence cushion stiffness by itself, but synergistically increases cushion stiffness with TGFβ3 co-treatment. 5-HT increased TGFβ3 gene expression and also potentiated TGFβ3 induced gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Blockade of the 5HT2b receptor, but not 5-HT2a receptor or serotonin transporter (SERT), resulted in complete cessation of TGFβ3 induced mechanical strengthening. Finally, systemic 5-HT administration in ovo induced cushion remodeling related defects, including thinned/atretic AV valves, ventricular septal defects, and outflow rotation defects. Elevated 5-HT in ovo resulted in elevated remodeling gene expression and increased TGFβ signaling activity, supporting our ex-vivo findings. Collectively, these results highlight TGFβ/5-HT signaling as a potent mechanism for control of biomechanical remodeling of

  6. A third option for climate policy within potential limits to growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Jeroen C. J. M.

    2017-02-01

    Climate change has revived debates around the concept of limits to growth, 45 years after it was first proposed. Many citizens, scientists and politicians fear that stringent climate policy will harm economic growth. Some are anti-growth, whereas others believe green growth is compatible with a transition to a low-carbon economy. As the window to curb warming at 2 °C closes, this debate will intensify. This Review critically reflects on both positions, providing an overview of existing literature on the growth versus climate debate. Both positions are argued here to jeopardize environmental or social goals. A third position, labelled an 'agrowth' strategy, is proposed to depolarize the debate and reduce resistance to climate policies.

  7. Potentialities of Urban Centres as Growth Points: An Approach of Regional Development Perspective from a Developing Country (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUMAN PAUL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth points are centres of economic activity, which are artificially created or stimulated in disadvantaged regions with the intention that they will eventually become natural centres of economic growth. They are centres of expanding industries, which trigger a chain reaction of production and promotion of associated services with the ultimate goal of improving the quality of life. It is envisaged that by declaring promising and resource-endowed centres as growth points, the cumulative causation process would kick-start the process of economic development, whose spread effects would activate the quality of life in the periphery. In so doing it would attract investment and favourable government treatment, which would lead to both cumulative growth in economic activity and high population growth. Some growth poles have continued to prosper long after the initial stimulation factor gone through multiplier effects associated with a growing centre. In this paper, an attempt has been made to find out the potentialities of urban centres of North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India as growth pole and strategies for the regional development.

  8. A risk modelling approach for setting microbiological limits using enterococci as indicator for growth potential of Salmonella in pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Anne Mette; Nauta, Maarten; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2017-01-01

    for this purpose includes the dose-response relationship for Salmonella and a reduction factor to account for preparation of the fresh pork. By use of the risk model, it was estimated that the majority of salmonellosis cases, caused by the consumption of pork in Denmark, is caused by the small fraction of pork......Microbiological limits are widely used in food processing as an aid to reduce the exposure to hazardous microorganisms for the consumers. However, in pork, the prevalence and concentrations of Salmonella are generally low and microbiological limits are not considered an efficient tool to support...... are carried in the intestinal tract, contaminate pork by the same mechanisms and share similar growth characteristics (lag phase and maximum specific growth rate) at temperatures around 5-10. °C, suggest a potential of enterococci to be used as an indicator of potential growth of Salmonella in pork. Elevated...

  9. Using Artificial Intelligence and Web Media Data to Evaluate the Growth Potential of Companies in Emerging Industry Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Droll

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe our efforts to adapt and validate a web search and analytics tool – the Gnowit Cognitive Insight Engine – to evaluate the growth and competitive potential of new technology startups and existing firms in the newly emerging precision medicine sector. The results are based on two different search ontologies and two different samples of firms. The first sample includes established drug companies operating in the precision medicine field and was used to estimate the relationship between the firms’ innovativeness and the extent of online discussions focusing on their potential growth. The second sample includes new technology firms in the same sector. The firms in the second sample were used as test cases to determine whether their growth-related web search scores would relate to the degree of their innovativeness. The second part of the study applied the same methodology to the real-time monitoring of the firms’ competitive actions. In our findings, we see that our methodology reveals a moderate degree of correlation between the Insight Engine’s algorithmically computed relevance scores and independent measures of innovation potential. The existence of such correlations invites future work in attempting to analyze company growth potential using techniques founded in web content scraping, natural language processing, and machine learning.

  10. Maximum growth potential in loblolly pine: results from a 47-year-old spacing study in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas L. Eberhardt; John R. Butnor; Tom A. Stokes; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2010-01-01

    Growth, allocation to woody root biomass, wood properties, leaf physiology, and shoot morphology were examined in a 47-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) density trial located in Maui, Hawaii, to determine if stands continued to carry the high density, basal area, and volume reported at younger ages and to identify potential factors controlling...

  11. Clues from Crouzon: Insights into the potential role of growth factors in the pathogenesis of myelinated retinal nerve fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo A. Garcia

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: This association of Crouzon syndrome with bilateral peripapillary MRNF may lend insight into the developmental control of optic nerve myelination, the pathogenesis of MRNF, and the potential role of growth factors in these processes. Further, OCT angiography allowed for excellent blood vessel visualization in this case of MRNF.

  12. Generation of the membrane potential and its impact on the motility, ATP production and growth in Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    The generation of an electrical membrane potential (''), the major constituent of the proton motive force (pmf) is crucial for the ATP synthesis, bacterial growth and motility. The pmf drives the rotation of flagella and is vital for the microaerophilic human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni to coloniz...

  13. Using artificial intelligence and web media data to evaluate the growth potential of companies in emerging industry sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Droll, Andrew; Khan, Shahzad

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we describe our efforts to adapt and validate a web search and analytics tool – the Gnowit Cognitive Insight Engine – to evaluate the growth and competitive potential of new technology startups and existing firms in the newly emerging precision medicine sector. The results are ba...

  14. Real convergence and determinants of growth in EU candidate and potential candidate countries: a panel data approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morgese Borys, Magdalena; Polgár, É. K.; Zlate, A.

    -, č. 86 (2008), s. 1-46 ISSN 1607-1484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : EU candidate and potential candidate countries * real convergence * determinants of growth Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.ecb.europa.eu/pub/pdf/scpops/ecbocp86.pdf

  15. Toxicological Benchmarks for Screening of Potential Contaminants of Concern for Effects on Aquatic Biota on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W., II

    1993-01-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment of hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which, if any, of them are worthy of further consideration; this process is termed contaminant screening. Screening is performed by comparing concentrations in ambient media to benchmark concentrations that are either indicative of a high likelihood of significant effects (upper screening benchmarks) or of a very low likelihood of significant effects (lower screening benchmarks). Exceedance of an upper screening benchmark indicates that the chemical in question is clearly of concern and remedial actions are likely to be needed. Exceedance of a lower screening benchmark indicates that a contaminant is of concern unless other information indicates that the data are unreliable or the comparison is inappropriate. Chemicals with concentrations below the lower benchmark are not of concern if the ambient data are judged to be adequate. This report presents potential screening benchmarks for protection of aquatic life from contaminants in water. Because there is no guidance for screening benchmarks, a set of alternative benchmarks is presented herein. The alternative benchmarks are based on different conceptual approaches to estimating concentrations causing significant effects. For the upper screening benchmark, there are the acute National Ambient Water Quality Criteria (NAWQC) and the Secondary Acute Values (SAV). The SAV concentrations are values estimated with 80% confidence not to exceed the unknown acute NAWQC for those chemicals with no NAWQC. The alternative chronic benchmarks are the chronic NAWQC, the Secondary Chronic Value (SCV), the lowest chronic values for fish and daphnids, the lowest EC20 for fish and daphnids from chronic toxicity tests, the estimated EC20 for a sensitive species, and the concentration estimated to cause a 20% reduction in the recruit abundance of largemouth bass. It is recommended that ambient chemical

  16. Assessment of the potential for exploitation of the remaining reserves of coal in Poland; Valoracion de las posibilidades de explotacion de las reservas remanentes de carbon en Polonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodarski, K.; Bijanska, J.

    2014-07-01

    In mining areas belonging to the Polish mining companies, there is a significant amount of coal, contained in remaining reserves, that have not been exploited so far. For years, the mines have been evaluating the possibility of its exploitation, since it would expand its resource base and would extend its useful life. In addition, exploitation of the remaining reserves can minimize stress concentration zones in the soil, the rebel y improving conditions for maintenance of excavations and limiting the risk of shock rock. (Author)

  17. Regeneration potential and growth of two indigenous shrubs in the desert of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Abdulqader, A.M.; Nasroun, T.H.; Assnar, S.; Al-Kahlifah, N.S.

    2008-01-01

    Ertaa (Calligonum comosum) and Ghada (Haloxylon persicum) are two important multipurpose indigenous shrubs in the desert of Saudi Arabia, supplying firewood and fodder to the local populations. Their environmental benefits in connection with sand dune fixation and microenvironment improvement are commendable. Due to over-exploitation and habitat destruction, populations of these two shrubs have become severely degraded. This study helps in the development of the appropriate techniques for their regeneration and evaluates their relative growth rate under different irrigation schedules. Productivity in the natural population and biological growth under cultivation were also evaluated. Seeds of Ertaa required no special treatment while the seeds of Ghada showed higher percentage of germination when soaked in cold water for 1 hour. The seeds of Ghada are photoblastic, which require adequate light for germination while those of Ertaa are negatively photoblastic. The growth rate of both species under different irrigation schedule proved that the increase of irrigation frequency may not proportionally influence the growth rate. The estimated productivity of natural stands in Saudi Arabia was much less than the productivity of both species from other parts of the world. The estimated biological growth function under cultivation was found to reasonably match with the natural growth for both species are in their initial growth stage. (author)

  18. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  19. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    impact on the growth of reserves and resources (H. Le Leuch); Additional reserves: the role of new technologies - A global perspective on EORIOR (G. Fries); - Updating reservoir models with dynamic data and uncertainty quantification: an integrated approach (F. Roggero); Seismic technology for the OAPEC countries (P. Canal); Exploration knowledge and technologies: impact of progress - Statistical results (N. Alazard); Stratigraphic modelling as a key to find new potentialities in exploration (D. Granjeon); Modelling hydrocarbon migration as a tool for reserve estimation (J-L. Rudkiewicz); The contribution of surface and near surface geology to hydrocarbon discoveries (S.M. Kumati); Contribution of the exploration activity in renewing reserves - The case of Algeria (R. Lounissi); Egypt's petroleum hydrocarbon potential (H. Hataba); Future of hydrocarbon reserves in Syria (T. Hemsh); Natural gas, the fuel of choice for decades to com (M.F. Chabrelie); The role and importance of Arab natural gas in world market (M. Al-Lababidi); LNG and GTL: two pathways for natural gas utilization (C. Cameron); Yet to find hydrocarbon potential (S. Al Menhali); Libyan context of hydrocarbon reserves: abundance or scarcity? (M. Elazi)

  20. The Willapa Bay Oyster Reserves in Washington State: Fishery collapse, creating a sustainable replacement, and the potential for habitat conservation and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oysters have been an important resource in Washington state since the mid 1800’s and are intimately associated with recent history of the Willapa Bay estuary just as they have defined social culture around much larger US east coast systems. The Willapa Bay oyster reserves were set aside to preserve...

  1. Autologous platelet-rich plasma: a potential therapeutic tool for promoting hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng Jun; Choi, Hye-In; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Im, Myung; Seo, Young-Joon; Lee, Young-Ho; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Lee, Young

    2012-07-01

    Recently, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has attracted attention in various medical fields, including plastic and orthopedic surgery and dermatology, for its ability to promote wound healing. PRP has been tested during facelift and hair transplantation to reduce swelling and pain and to increase hair density. To investigate the effects of PRP on hair growth using in vivo and in vitro models. PRP was prepared using the double-spin method and applied to dermal papilla (DP) cells. The proliferative effect of activated PRP on DP cells was measured. To understand the mechanisms of activated PRP on hair growth, we evaluated signaling pathways. In an in vivo study, mice received subcutaneous injections of activated PRP, and their results were compared with control mice. Activated PRP increased the proliferation of DP cells and stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt signaling. Fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF-7) and beta-catenin, which are potent stimuli for hair growth, were upregulated in DP cells. The injection of mice with activated PRP induced faster telogen-to-anagen transition than was seen on control mice. Although few studies tested the effects of activated PRP on hair growth, this research provides support for possible clinical application of autologous PRP and its secretory factors for promotion of hair growth. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Crystallization of lysozyme from lysozyme - ovalbumin mixtures: Separation potential and crystal growth kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maosoongnern, Somchai; Flood, Chalongsri; Flood, Adrian E.; Ulrich, Joachim

    2017-07-01

    Lysozyme was successfully separated from mixtures of lysozyme and ovalbumin by crystallization. The purity of the lysozyme product is more than 98%, the remaining activity is greater than 97%, and the yields of the crystal products were greater than 80%. The experimental conditions used were varied to study the effect of the operating parameters on the growth kinetics of lysozyme crystal and the separation ability of the process. The growth rates of lysozyme are second order with respect to the relative supersaturation. Therefore the growth kinetics of the crystallization process is controlled by the surface integration mechanism. The calculated growth rate constants were 5.4×10-6 cm/h and 2.5×10-6 cm/h for the crystallization process at 20 °C and 10 °C, respectively. There is no significant effect of the ovalbumin impurity up to the concentration of 67.5% ovalbumin (based on total protein) on the growth kinetics of lysozyme. Changing the NaCl concentration from 4% to 3% had no effect on the growth kinetics of lysozyme, although this does change the solubility and therefore the yield. The calculated activation energy was 53.08 kJ/mol which supports the hypothesis that the crystallization process is controlled by the surface integration mechanism.

  3. Changes of redox potential in serum samples after in vitro irradiation - an indicator for malignant tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, D.; Heinrich, H.

    1989-01-01

    In serum samples of healthy persons and patients with malignant neoplasias the redox potentials were determined. Measurings were done in untreated sera and after irradiation with different doses. Sera of healthy persons showed a decrease, those of tumor patients an increase of redox potential values. With this method malignant tumor growth can be demonstrated. It does not allow any statements on tumor localization. On the other hand conclusions seem to be possible on the speed of tumor growth. Estimations of redox potential are applicable to diagnose fast growing recurrences and metastases in tumor aftercare, but can also support the therapeutic procedure decisively in defined differential diagnostic problems and in tumors of questionable dignity. (author)

  4. Indoleacetic acid production and plant growth promoting potential of bacterial endophytes isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Kang, Sang-Mo; Seo, Chang-Woo; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial endophytes from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere have been used to produce bioactive metabolites and to promote plant growth. However, little is known about the endophytes residing in seeds. This study aimed to isolate and identify seed-borne bacterial endophytes from rice and elucidate their potential for phytohormone production and growth enhancement. The isolated endophytes included Micrococcus yunnanensis RWL-2, Micrococcus luteus RWL-3, Enterobacter soli RWL-4, Leclercia adecarboxylata RWL-5, Pantoea dispersa RWL-6, and Staphylococcus epidermidis RWL-7, which were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. These strains were analyzed for indoleacetic acid (IAA) production by using GC-MS and IAA was found in the range of 11.50 ± 0.77 μg ml -1 to 38.80 ± 1.35 μg ml -1 . We also assessed the strains for plant growth promoting potential because these isolates were able to produce IAA in pure culture. Most of the growth attributes of rice plants (shoot and root length, fresh and dry biomass, and chlorophyll content) were significantly increased by bacterial endophytes compared to the controls. These results show that IAA producing bacterial endophytes can improve hostplant growth traits and can be used as bio-fertilizers.

  5. Projections of Biofuel Growth Patterns Reveal the Potential Importance of Nitrogen Fixation for Miscanthus Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Dohleman, F. G.; Gottel, N. R.; Smith, C. M.; Kent, A. D.; Delucia, E. H.

    2008-12-01

    Demand for liquid biofuels is increasing because of the disparity between fuel demand and supply. Relative to grain crops, the more intensive harvest required for second generation liquid biofuel production leads to the removal of significantly more carbon and nitrogen from the soil. These elements are conventionally litter products of crops that are returned to the soil and can accumulate over time. This loss of organic matter represents a management challenge because the energy cost associated with fertilizers or external sources of organic matter reduce the net energy value of the biofuel crops. Plants that have exceptional strategies for exploiting nutrients may be the most viable options for sustainable biofuel yields because of low management and energy cost. Miscanthus x giganteus has high N retranslocation rates, maintains high photosynthetic rates over a large temperature range, exploits a longer-than-average growing season, and yields at least twice the biomass of other candidate biofuel grass crops (i.e. switchgrass). We employed the DAYCENT model to project potential productivity of Miscanthus, corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie communities based on our current knowledge of these species. Ecosystem process descriptions that have been validated for many crop species did not accurately predict Miscanthus yields and lead to new hypotheses about unknown N cycling mechanisms for this species. We tested the hypothesis that Miscanthus hosts N-fixing bacteria in several ways. First, we used enrichment culture and molecular methods to detect N-fixing bacteria in Miscanthus. Then, we demonstrated the plant-growth promoting effect of diazotrophs isolated from Miscanthus rhizomes on a model grass. And finally, we applied 15N2 to the soil and rooting zone of field grown Miscanthus plants to determine if atmospheric N2 was incorporated into plant tissue, a process that requires N-fixation. These experiments are the first tests of N-fixation in Miscanthus x

  6. Elemental concentration and potential ecological risk assessment of reef associated surface sediments of Appa Island, Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, Southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, P; Krishnakumar, S; Silva, Judith D; Pradhap, D; Vidyasakar, A; Radhakrishnan, K; Godson, Prince S; Arumugam, K; Magesh, N S

    2018-03-01

    Thirty three surface sediments were collected for the present study to assess the elemental concentration and its associated ecological risk in the reef associated surface sediments, Appa Island, Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, South east coast of India. The distribution of calcium carbonate in the reef sediments is controlled by coral debris and shell fragments whereas the Organic matter (OM) content are chiefly derived from mangroves and sea grasses. The circulation of trace elements and Fe, Mn are controlled by the fluvial process and re-suspended sediments. The concentration of Pb was primarily controlled by migration of pollutants through long shore sediment transport process. The main source of Pb in the study area is from coal incinerating power plants and coal handling operations from harbors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Growth Indicators of a 48-Clone Sugar Cane Population (Saccharum spp. with Forage Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoslen Fernández Gálvez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine growth indicators in a 48-clone sugar cane population, with promising phenotypical features for forage production. The following indicators were assessed: leaf area (A, leaf area index (LA1; leaf area ratio (LAR; specific leaf area (SLA; leaf weight ratio (LWR; crop growth rate (CGR; net assimilation rate (NAR; relative growth rate in weight (RGR; biomass production speed (G; leaf area duration (LAD; and biomass duration (Z, monthly (187 - 370 days. The minimum, the mean, the maximum values, and the population variance were determined for all cutting ages and the variables assessed. The results achieved have provided quantitative values that can be used as reference for selection and assessment of forage genotypes for ruminant nutrition.

  8. Preincubation of Penicillium commune conidia under modified atmosphere conditions: Influence on growth potential as determined by an impedimetric method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1996-01-01

    The combined effect of preincubation time, relative humidity (r.h.), headspace carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) on subsequent growth potential of conidia from Penicillium commune was studied using Response Surface Modelling (RSM). Native conidia were preincubated under modified atmosphere...... conditions in sealed vials for 14, 35 and 56 d. Lag time and growth rates were determined using impedance microbiology on a Bactometer. Conidia survived and some swelling was observed during all experimental preincubation conditions. Regression analysis of the subsequent growth responses showed that relative...... humidity in the vials was the most significant factor affecting lag time of the conidia after preincubation for 14 and 35 d. Storage for 35 d extended lag times by 15 h when the level of r.h. was increased from 41% to 80%. After prolonged storage (56 d) r.h and CO2 levels elicited a significant effect...

  9. Potassium limits potential growth of bog vegetation under elevated atmospheric CO2 and N deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoosbeek, M.R.; Breemen, van N.; Vasander, H.; Buttlers, A.; Berendse, F.

    2002-01-01

    The free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) and N deposition experiments on four ombrotrophic bogs in Finland, Sweden, the Netherlands and Switzerland, revealed that after three years of treatment: (1) elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration had no significant effect on the biomass growth of

  10. The potential roles of lime and molybdenum on the growth, nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... Molybdenum is a trace element found in the soil and is required for growth of most biological organisms including plants (Purvis, 1955; Anderson, 1956; .... role in a reaction centre in the photosystem II (Brand and. Becker, 1984). As light is absorbed, this catalytic centre drives the photosynthesis process ...

  11. Effects of light and temperature on the growth rate of potentially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... light intensity is more effective compared to temperature in excessive reproduction of the algae in its natural environment. Key words: Growth rate, light, temperature, Thalassiosira allenii, marine diatom. INTRODUCTION. Besides the significance of diatoms being the main food source of pelagic and benthic ...

  12. Growth strategy, phylogeny and stoichiometry determine the allelopathic potential of native and non-native plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, Bart M.C.; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Gross, Elisabeth M.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; van Donk, Ellen; Bakker, Elisabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary compounds can contribute to the success of non-native plant species if they reduce damage by native herbivores or inhibit the growth of native plant competitors. However, there is opposing evidence on whether the secondary com- pounds of non-native plant species are stronger than those of

  13. Selection of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria with biocontrol potential for growth in phosphorus rich animal bone charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Nijhuis, E.H.; Sommeus, E.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to solubilize phosphorus (P) and to improve plant health were selected and tested for growth and survival in P-rich animal bone charcoal (ABC). ABC is suggested to be suitable as a carrier for biocontrol agents, offering them a protected niche as well as delivering

  14. Predicting and Modelling the Growth of Potentially Pathogenic Bacteria in Coalho Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Valdenice Gomes; de Oliveira Arruda, Maria Digian; Dantas Duarte, Francisca Nayara; de Sousa, Janaína Maria Batista; da Costa Lima, Maiara; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Schaffner, Donald W; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2017-07-01

    Coalho is a semihard medium- to high-moisture cheese produced in various states in the northeastern region of Brazil. This study was conducted to predict the growth kinetics (maximum growth rate, Grmax) of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus using the ComBase predictor with various combinations of temperature, pH, and water activity (a w ) in commercial Coalho cheese samples. The growth of two antibiotic-resistant derivative strains of L. monocytogenes (parental strains ATCC 19115 and ATCC 7644) and S. aureus (parental strains ATCC 13565 and ATCC 19095) was measured in commercial Coalho cheese samples during 14 days of storage as a function of the initial contamination level (3 and 5 log CFU/g) and storage temperature (7.5 and 12°C). The highest Grmax values predicted by ComBase under the various conditions of temperature, pH, and a w were for L. monocytogenes (0.006 to 0.065 log CFU/g/h) and S. aureus (0.003 to 0.048 log CFU/g/h). The Grmax values predicted by ComBase for E. coli and Salmonella were 0.007 to 0.026 and 0.008 to 0.041 log CFU/g/h, respectively. An experimental challenge in Coalho cheese revealed that the populations of all tested antibiotic-resistant derivative strains of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus increased (>0.5 log CFU/g) by day 14 of storage at 7.5 or 12°C. L. monocytogenes and S. aureus had higher Grmax values in cheese samples stored at 12°C than those stored at 7.5°C. The ComBase growth predictions under the temperature, pH, and a w conditions in commercial Coalho cheese samples were generally fail-safe for predicting the growth of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in the actual product. These results indicate that Coalho cheese has pH and a w characteristics that allow the growth of E. coli, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, and S. aureus. These cheeses are typically stored at temperatures that do not prevent the growth of these bacteria.

  15. Potential Bacillus probiotics enhance bacterial numbers, water quality and growth during early development of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrat, Subuntith; Suksawat, Sunisa; Boonthai, Traimat; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong

    2012-10-12

    Epidemics of epizootics and occurrence of multiresistant antibiotics of pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture have put forward a development of effective probiotics for the sustainable culture. This study examined the effectiveness of forms of mixed Bacillus probiotics (probiotic A and probiotic B) and mode of probiotic administration on growth, bacterial numbers and water quality during rearing of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in two separated experiments: (1) larval stages and (2) postlarval (PL) stages. Forms of Bacillus probiotics and modes of probiotic administration did not affect growth and survival of larval to PL shrimp. The compositions of Bacillus species in probiotic A and probiotic B did not affect growth and survival of larvae. However, postlarvae treated with probiotic B exhibited higher (Pgrowth than probiotic A and controls, indicating Bacillus probiotic composition affects the growth of PL shrimp. Total heterotrophic bacteria and Bacillus numbers in larval and PL shrimp or culture water of the treated groups were higher (Pgrowth and survival of PL shrimp, increased beneficial bacteria in shrimp and culture water and enhanced water quality for the levels of pH, ammonia and nitrite of culture water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cryopreservation of Hair-Follicle Associated Pluripotent (HAP) Stem Cells Maintains Differentiation and Hair-Growth Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M; Kajiura, Satoshi; Cao, Wenluo; Liu, Fang; Amoh, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells which originate above the bulge area of the follicle, below the sebaceous gland. We have termed these cells hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. We have established efficient cryopreservation methods of the hair follicle that maintain the pluripotency of HAP stem cells as well as hair growth. We cryopreserved the whole hair follicle by slow-rate cooling in TC-Protector medium or in DMSO-containing medium and storage in liquid nitrogen or at -80 °C. After thawing and culture of the cryopreserved whisker follicles, growing HAP stem cells formed hair spheres. The hair spheres contained cells that differentiated to neurons, glial cells, and other cell types. The hair spheres derived from slow-cooling cryopreserved hair follicles were as pluripotent as hair spheres from fresh hair follicles. We have also previously demonstrated that cryopreserved mouse whisker hair follicles maintain their hair-growth potential. DMSO better cryopreserved mouse whisker follicles compared to glycerol. DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles also maintained the HAP stem cells, evidenced by P75 ntr expression. Subcutaneous transplantation of DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles in nude mice resulted in extensive hair fiber growth over 8 weeks, indicating the functional recovery of hair-shaft growth of cryopreserved hair follicles. HAP stem cells can be used for nerve and spinal-cord repair. This biobanking of hair follicles can allow each patient the potential for their own stem cell use for regenerative medicine or hair transplantation.

  17. Growth Studies of Probiotic Bacteria on Short Chain Glucomannan, a Potential Prebiotic Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ON SHORT CHAIN GLUCOMANNAN, A POTENTIAL PREBIOTIC SUBSTRATE by Wayne S. Muller Steve Arcidiacono Adam Liebowitz Ken Racicot... PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ON SHORT CHAIN GLUCOMANNAN, A POTENTIAL PREBIOTIC SUBSTRATE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER PE...prebiotic potential of glucomannan (GM) oligosaccharides as a novel dietary approach to assist in alleviating gastrointestinal distress in deployed troops

  18. Assessing the Potential Stem Growth and Quality of Yellow Birch Prior to Restoration: A Case Study in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Achim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Past silvicultural treatments have resulted in the high-grading mixed temperate forests of Québec, Canada. Despite recognition of this issue, the low occurrence of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton within current stands raises questions about the potential of the species to grow and eventually constitute a high-quality forest resource. The objective of this study was to assess this potential using tree characteristics, forest structure and additional site and climatic conditions as predictors. A total of 145 trees were sampled in two areas located in the same bioclimatic zone. Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix was chosen as an area where a restoration plan could be implemented, whereas Portneuf was selected as a reference. We used nonlinear mixed models to investigate which environmental factors are likely to influence the radial growth and stem quality of yellow birch sample trees. Our results suggest that topographic and climatic conditions, as well as the competitive environment of the trees, are important factors to consider in the evaluation of yellow birch production. Despite the limited occurrence of yellow birch, the potential for growth and quality was high in the Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix area. For equivalent topographic, climatic, and competitive environment conditions, there was no significant difference in either radial growth or stem quality with Portneuf. We suggest that the economic interest of producing high quality timber should be used to justify the implementation of a restoration strategy in the Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix area.

  19. Methods for facilitating microbial growth on pulp mill waste streams and characterization of the biodegradation potential of cultured microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Ayoub, Ali S; Pawlak, Joel; Grunden, Amy M

    2013-12-12

    The kraft process is applied to wood chips for separation of lignin from the polysaccharides within lignocellulose for pulp that will produce a high quality paper. Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. However, the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulose resources, its chemical derivatives that constitute the majority of available organic carbon within black liquor, and its basic pH present challenges to microbial biodegradation of this waste material. Methods for the collection and modification of black liquor for microbial growth are aimed at utilization of this pulp waste to convert the lignin, organic acids, and polysaccharide degradation byproducts into valuable chemicals. The lignocellulose extraction techniques presented provide a reproducible method for preparation of lignocellulose growth substrates for understanding metabolic capacities of cultured microorganisms. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables the identification and quantification of the fermentation products resulting from the growth of microorganisms on pulping waste. These methods when used together can facilitate the determination of the metabolic activity of microorganisms with potential to produce fermentation products that would provide greater value to the pulping system and reduce effluent waste, thereby increasing potential paper milling profits and offering additional uses for black liquor.

  20. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  1. The impact of water and temperature interactions on lag phase, growth and potential ochratoxin A production by two new species, Aspergillus aculeatinus and A. sclerotiicarbonarius, on a green coffee-based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Asya; Magan, Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Two new species of Aspergillus (A. aculeatinus, A. sclerotiicarbonarius) were previously isolated from coffee in Thailand. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of interacting environmental factors of water availability (water activity, aw) and temperature on lag phases prior to growth, growth and potential for ochratoxin A (OTA) production by three strains of each species on a green coffee-based medium for the first time. This showed that overall the growth of the three strains of each species was similar over the 20-37°C and 0.85-0.99 aw ranges. The lag phase prior to growth was coffee-based medium. This information is important as these species are part of the mycobiota of coffee and may influence OTA contamination by other ochratoxigenic species during coffee processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Loss of CSL Unlocks a Hypoxic Response and Enhanced Tumor Growth Potential in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike-Benjamin Braune

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Notch signaling is an important regulator of stem cell differentiation. All canonical Notch signaling is transmitted through the DNA-binding protein CSL, and hyperactivated Notch signaling is associated with tumor development; thus it may be anticipated that CSL deficiency should reduce tumor growth. In contrast, we report that genetic removal of CSL in breast tumor cells caused accelerated growth of xenografted tumors. Loss of CSL unleashed a hypoxic response during normoxic conditions, manifested by stabilization of the HIF1α protein and acquisition of a polyploid giant-cell, cancer stem cell-like, phenotype. At the transcriptome level, loss of CSL upregulated more than 1,750 genes and less than 3% of those genes were part of the Notch transcriptional signature. Collectively, this suggests that CSL exerts functions beyond serving as the central node in the Notch signaling cascade and reveals a role for CSL in tumorigenesis and regulation of the cellular hypoxic response.

  3. Growth of Bulk Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Crystals and Their Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Tong; Shi, Detang; Morgan, S. H.; Collins, W. Eugene; Burger, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    Developments in bulk crystal growth research for electro-optical devices in the Center for Photonic Materials and Devices since its establishment have been reviewed. Purification processes and single crystal growth systems employing physical vapor transport and Bridgman methods were assembled and used to produce high purity and superior quality wide bandgap materials such as heavy metal halides and II-VI compound semiconductors. Comprehensive material characterization techniques have been employed to reveal the optical, electrical and thermodynamic properties of crystals, and the results were used to establish improved material processing procedures. Postgrowth treatments such as passivation, oxidation, chemical etching and metal contacting during the X-ray and gamma-ray device fabrication process have also been investigated and low noise threshold with improved energy resolution has been achieved.

  4. Reserves of Dairy Cattle Breeding Growth in the Vologda Oblast in the Context of Solving State Strategic Tasks to Develop the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Nikolaevich Chekavinskii

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the expediency of conducting research to assess the state of the agrofood system in the regions of the European North of Russia due to the increased geopolitical risks and the need to achieve strategic objectives of the Arctic territories development. Based on the analysis of statistical information, materials of the Department of Agriculture and Food Resources of the Vologda Oblast the author analyzes the change in the value of milk production, identifies municipal regions where agricultural producers boost agricultural economics, describes trends in the structure of livestock in 2000–2014. The work shows that the major resource potential for the dairy cattle breeding development in the region is concentrated in Vologdsky District, Gryazovetsky District and Cherepovetsky District. The analytical grouping helps determine that given current market conditions, state of material and technical base of the industry and level of state support it is economically feasible to increase the productivity of cows to 7083 kg, as it allows to reduce unit costs and enhance profitability. However, for agricultural producers to raise the productivity of dairy cattle, it is necessary to implement systematic measures for their promotion on the part of public authorities. The article draws special attention to the scale of modern technological means used by agricultural enterprises for keeping, milking and feeding cows, as well as to the measures undertaken to improve breeding and productive qualities of cattle. The conclusion of the article proves that the dramatic changes in agrarian policy of the Vologda Oblast can make the region an “outpost” providing the population of Arctic areas with quality agricultural products

  5. Jobs, Growth, and Governance in the Middle East and North Africa : Unlocking the Potential for Prosperity

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report identifies the following as the fundamental challenges and changes that the Middle East and Africa must meet and make in order to improve living standards over the next two decades: Between eighty and one hundred million new jobs to be created by 2020. Economic growth to be lifted from a sluggish 3.4 percent over the late 1990s to at least 6-7 percent a year. Governance to move...

  6. The neurobiology and addiction potential of anabolic androgenic steroids and the effects of growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönbladh, Alfhild; Nylander, Erik; Hallberg, Mathias

    2016-09-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are substances that mimic the hormone testosterone, and primarily act via the androgen receptor. In addition to their physiological effect on muscle tissue and growth, research from the last decade has shown that AAS have a pronounced impact on the central nervous system. A large number of studies have demonstrated that AAS affect the mesolimbic reward system in the brain. However, whether the direct effects of AAS on endorphins, dopamine, serotonin and GABA etc. and on the corresponding and related systems lead to dependence needs to be further elucidated. According to recent studies, the prevalence of AAS dependence among AAS users has been estimated to be approximately 30%, and polysubstance use, of both pharmaceutical drugs and narcotics, within this group is common. The present review primarily discusses AAS in the context of addiction and dependence, and further addresses the issue of using multiple substances, i.e. stimulants and opiates in combination with AAS. In addition, aspects of the treatment of AAS dependence, the connection between AAS abuse and cognition, and AAS-induced neurotoxicity are presented. Currently, performance enhancing drugs are frequently used in combination with AAS. Therefore, a large section on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor is also included. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Promoting blood vessel growth in ischemic diseases: challenges in translating preclinical potential into clinical success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Dragneva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenic therapy, which involves the use of an exogenous stimulus to promote blood vessel growth, is an attractive approach for the treatment of ischemic diseases. It has been shown in animal models that the stimulation of blood vessel growth leads to the growth of the whole vascular tree, improvement of ischemic tissue perfusion and improved muscle aerobic energy metabolism. However, very few positive results have been gained from Phase 2 and 3 clinical angiogenesis trials. Many reasons have been given for the failures of clinical trials, including poor transgene expression (in gene-therapy trials and instability of the vessels induced by therapy. In this Review, we discuss the selection of preclinical models as one of the main reasons why clinical translation has been unsuccessful thus far. This issue has received little attention, but could have had dramatic implications on the expectations of clinical trials. We highlight crucial differences between human patients and animal models with regards to blood flow and pressure, as well as issues concerning the chronic nature of ischemic diseases in humans. We use these as examples to demonstrate why the results from preclinical trials might have overestimated the efficacy of angiogenic therapies developed to date. We also suggest ways in which currently available animal models of ischemic disease could be improved to better mimic human disease conditions, and offer advice on how to work with existing models to avoid overestimating the efficacy of new angiogenic therapies.

  8. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR: their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Beneduzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. PGPR are highly diverse and in this review we focus on rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents. Their effects can occur via local antagonism to soil-borne pathogens or by induction of systemic resistance against pathogens throughout the entire plant. Several substances produced by antagonistic rhizobacteria have been related to pathogen control and indirect promotion of growth in many plants, such as siderophores and antibiotics. Induced systemic resistance (ISR in plants resembles pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR under conditions where the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remain spatially separated. Both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant to pathogens in several plant species. Rhizobacteria induce resistance through the salicylic acid-dependent SAR pathway, or require jasmonic acid and ethylene perception from the plant for ISR. Rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus are well known for their antagonistic effects and their ability to trigger ISR. Resistance-inducing and antagonistic rhizobacteria might be useful in formulating new inoculants with combinations of different mechanisms of action, leading to a more efficient use for biocontrol strategies to improve cropping systems.

  9. Potential mechanisms for the inhibition of tumor cell growth by manganese superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K H; Rodriguez, A M; Carrico, P M; Melendez, J A

    2001-06-01

    Studies from many laboratories have shown that overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inhibits the growth of numerous tumor cell types. The inhibition of tumor cell growth can be attributed to the increase in the steady-state levels of H2O2 as a result of the increased dismuting activity of MnSOD. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of MnSOD enhances the activity of the superoxide (O2*-)-sensitive enzyme aconitase, decreases the intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio, and dose-dependently inhibits pyruvate carboxylase activity. Thus, alterations in the steady-state concentrations of mitochondrial O2*- and H2O2 as a result of MnSOD overexpression can alter the metabolic capacity of the cell leading to inhibition of cell growth. Furthermore, we propose that MnSOD overexpression can modulate the activity of nitric oxide (*NO) by preventing its reaction with O2*-. This hypothesis suggests that the redox environment of the mitochondria can be altered to favor the activity of *NO rather than peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and may explain the enhanced toxicity of *NO-generating compounds toward MnSOD-overexpressing cell lines. These findings indicate that therapeutic strategies targeted at overexpressing MnSOD in tumor tissue may be more effective when used in combination with agents that deplete the oxidant-buffering and enhance the *NO-generating capacity of the tumor and host, respectively.

  10. Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IP da Costa

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9% were in larval form and 22 (21.1% were nymphs; the only adult (0.8% was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

  11. Evolving GIS technologies in nature conservation and the spatial planning strategy of Tara NP (Serbia as a potential UNECSO MAB reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Tara NP was nominated in 2004 within the UNESCO - ROSTE programme, for Man and the Biosphere (MAB Reserve status in Serbia as transboundary 'Peace Park' status between Serbia and Bosnia & Herzegovina. Mt. Tara is one of the most important centres of Balkans and European ecosystems and species diversity. They represent a unique example of well preserved forests in south eastern Europe with numerous endemic and relict species of flora and fauna. In this floristic diversity of Mt Tara of the greatest interest is the Serbian (Pančić's spruce Picea omorika. Mt. Tara NP is characterized by specific geomorphologic, hydrologic, geologic, soil and climatic features. The geographical information system (GIS that we have created has proved an excellent tool for the spatial planning strategy in assessment and conservation of all natural characteristics of Mt. Tara NP, and is helpful to Park management for sustainable use of landscape resources. GIS of Mt. Tara NP includes data on natural, artificial and management themes.

  12. Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, I P da; Bonoldi, V L N; Yoshinari, N H

    2002-07-01

    A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris) - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus) captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9%) were in larval form and 22 (21.1%) were nymphs; the only adult (0.8%) was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

  13. Recent insights into the implications of metabolism in plasmacytoid dendritic cell innate functions: Potential ways to control these functions [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Saas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are more and more data concerning the role of cellular metabolism in innate immune cells, such as macrophages or conventional dendritic cells. However, few data are available currently concerning plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC, another type of innate immune cells. These cells are the main type I interferon (IFN producing cells, but they also secrete other pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor or interleukin [IL]-6 or immunomodulatory factors (e.g., IL-10 or transforming growth factor-β. Through these functions, PDC participate in antimicrobial responses or maintenance of immune tolerance, and have been implicated in the pathophysiology of several autoimmune diseases, as well as in tumor immune escape mechanisms. Recent data support the idea that the glycolytic pathway (or glycolysis, as well as lipid metabolism (including both cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism may impact some innate immune functions of PDC or may be involved in these functions after Toll-like receptor (TLR 7/9 triggering. The kinetics of glycolysis after TLR7/9 triggering may differ between human and murine PDC. In mouse PDC, metabolism changes promoted by TLR7/9 activation may depend on an autocrine/paracrine loop, implicating type I IFN and its receptor IFNAR. This could explain a delayed glycolysis in mouse PDC. Moreover, PDC functions can be modulated by the metabolism of cholesterol and fatty acids. This may occur via the production of lipid ligands that activate nuclear receptors (e.g., liver X receptor [LXR] in PDC or through limiting intracellular cholesterol pool size (by statin or LXR agonist treatment in these cells. Finally, lipid-activated nuclear receptors (i.e., LXR or peroxisome proliferator activated receptor may also directly interact with pro-inflammatory transcription factors, such as NF-κB. Here, we discuss how glycolysis and lipid metabolism may modulate PDC functions and how this may be harnessed in pathological situations

  14. In vitro ecology of Seiridium cardinale and allied species: the effect of solute stress and water potential on fungal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena TURCO

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Defining the potential implications of global climate change on Mediterranean forest ecosystems requires a basic knowledge on the ecology of fungal pathogens under conditions that would stress host plants. The Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens-Seiridium spp. pathosystem represents an important case study. In the last century, epidemics of cypress canker have killed historical plantations and the decades-long host resistance will probably break down in the future as a result of both host and pathogen adaptation to increasing temperature and decreasing summer precipitation. In this study, the effect of osmotic water stress on mycelial growth of Seiridium cardinale, S. unicorne and S. cupressi in culture was examined and compared to that of Diplodia cupressi, which is a pathogen of cypress known to be favoured by host water stress. Growth responses were evaluated on potato sucrose agar amended with KCl or NaCl to give water potentials in the range of -0.34 to -15 MPa. Mycelial growth decreased with decreasing water potential and ceased at -15 MPa, although the mycelium remained alive. Histochemical analysis conducted on S. cardinale grown at -12 MPa revealed melanization and thickening of hyphal walls, in addition to abundance of lipid-rich organelles. These results suggest that the three Seiridium spp. might survive drying cycles in cypress wood, but their tolerance is different. Successful survival strategies may partly result from changes in mycelium structure. Furthermore, S. unicorne was positively stimulated by a water potential of -3 MPa, suggesting that it may have high adaptive potential for life in a drier Mediterranean ecosystem, which is predicted to occur under scenarios of global warming. Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  15. Dioscorea spp. (A Wild Edible Tuber): A Study on Its Ethnopharmacological Potential and Traditional Use by the Local People of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeet; Das, Gitishree; Shin, Han-Seung; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    2017-01-01

    A number of wild crops remain unexplored in this world and among them some have excellent medicinal and nutritional properties. India is a harbor of biodiversity in general and phytodiversity in particular. The plant diversity is distributed from the Western Ghats to Eastern Ghats, along with the North-Eastern region and from the Greater Himalayas to the plain of Ganga. Among these distributed floral regions of the country, the Eastern Ghats are important due to their rich floral diversity. The forests of Odisha form a major part of Eastern Ghats in general and the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) in particular. The SBR is inhabited by many local communities. The food and medicinal habits of these communities are not fully explored even today. They are dependent on the forests of SBR for their food and medicine. Among their collections from forests, root and tuberous plants play a significant role. The local communities of SBR use about 89 types of tuberous plants for various purposes. Dioscorea is one such tuber, having maximum use among the local of SBR. However, less documentation and no specific reports are available on the food and medicinal values of the species available in this part of the World. Dioscorea species, popularly known as Yam worldwide and as Ban Aalu in Odisha, India, is a prime staple medicinal-food substitute for the majority of rural and local people of the state of India. Of the 13 Dioscorea species available in SBR, 10 species are known to be bitter in taste and unpalatable when taken raw. Since less documentation is available on the Dioscorea species of SBR and their traditional uses, the present study was focused on the ethnobotany, nutritional and pharmacological values of these species along its nutraceutical importance.

  16. Dioscorea spp. (A Wild Edible Tuber): A Study on Its Ethnopharmacological Potential and Traditional Use by the Local People of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeet; Das, Gitishree; Shin, Han-Seung; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    2017-01-01

    A number of wild crops remain unexplored in this world and among them some have excellent medicinal and nutritional properties. India is a harbor of biodiversity in general and phytodiversity in particular. The plant diversity is distributed from the Western Ghats to Eastern Ghats, along with the North-Eastern region and from the Greater Himalayas to the plain of Ganga. Among these distributed floral regions of the country, the Eastern Ghats are important due to their rich floral diversity. The forests of Odisha form a major part of Eastern Ghats in general and the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) in particular. The SBR is inhabited by many local communities. The food and medicinal habits of these communities are not fully explored even today. They are dependent on the forests of SBR for their food and medicine. Among their collections from forests, root and tuberous plants play a significant role. The local communities of SBR use about 89 types of tuberous plants for various purposes. Dioscorea is one such tuber, having maximum use among the local of SBR. However, less documentation and no specific reports are available on the food and medicinal values of the species available in this part of the World. Dioscorea species, popularly known as Yam worldwide and as Ban Aalu in Odisha, India, is a prime staple medicinal-food substitute for the majority of rural and local people of the state of India. Of the 13 Dioscorea species available in SBR, 10 species are known to be bitter in taste and unpalatable when taken raw. Since less documentation is available on the Dioscorea species of SBR and their traditional uses, the present study was focused on the ethnobotany, nutritional and pharmacological values of these species along its nutraceutical importance. PMID:28261094

  17. Epithelial separation theory for post-tonsillectomy secondary hemorrhage: evidence in a mouse model and potential heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, Daniel M; Santa Maria, Chloe; Ayoub, Noel F; Capasso, Robson; Santa Maria, Peter Luke

    2018-02-01

    To provide histological evidence to investigate a theory for post-tonsillectomy secondary hemorrhage (PTH) in a mouse model and to evaluate the potential for heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) treatment on wound healing in this model. A prospective randomized single-blinded cohort study. A uniform tongue wound was created in 84 mice (day 0). Mice were randomized to HB-EGF (treatment, n = 42) or saline (control, n = 42). In treatment mice, HB-EGF 5 µg/ml was administered intramuscularly into the wound daily (days 0-14). In control mice, normal saline was administered daily. Three mice from each group were sacrificed daily through day 14 and the wounds evaluated histologically by blinded reviewers. Key stages of wound healing, including keratinocyte proliferation and migration, wound contraction, epithelial separation, and neoangiogenesis, are defined with implications for post-tonsillectomy wound healing. Epithelial separation (59 vs. 100%, p = 0.003) and wound reopening (8 vs. 48%, p < 0.001) were reduced with HB-EGF. Epithelial thickness (220 vs. 30 µm, p = 0.04) was greater with HB-EGF. Wound closure (days 4-5 vs. day 6, p = 0.01) occurred earlier with HB-EGF. In healing of oral keratinocytes on muscle epithelial separation secondary to muscle, contraction occurs concurrently with neoangiogenesis in the base of the wound, increasing the risk of hemorrhage. This potentially explains why post-tonsillectomy secondary hemorrhage occurs and its timing. HB-EGF-treated wounds showed greater epithelial thickness, less frequent epithelial separation and wound reopening, and earlier wound closure prior to neovascularization, suggesting that HB-EGF may be a potential preventative therapy for PTH. NA-animal studies or basic research.

  18. Agglomeration Determines Effects of Carbonaceous Nanomaterials on Soybean Nodulation, Dinitrogen Fixation Potential, and Growth in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential effects of carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNMs) on agricultural plants are of concern. However, little research has been performed using plants cultivated to maturity in soils contaminated with various CNMs at different concentrations. Here, we grew soybean for 39 days...

  19. Growth Potential of Listeria Monocytogenes and Staphylococcus Aureus on Fresh-Cut Tropical Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ke; Hu, Wenzhong; Jiang, Aili; Xu, Yongping; Sarengaowa; Li, Xiaobo; Bai, Xue

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fate of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and natural microbiota on fresh-cut tropical fruits (pitaya, mango, papaya and pineapple) with commercial PVC film at different storage temperature (5, 13, and 25 °C). The results showed that S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and natural microbiota increased significantly on fresh-cut tropical fruits at 25 °C. Both pathogen and natural microbiota were able to grow on fresh-cut tropical fruits at 13 °C. The maximum population of L. monocytogenes was higher than that of S. aureus on fresh-cut tropical fruits. L. monocytogenes and S. aureus could survive without growth on fresh-cut pitaya, mango, and papaya at 5 °C. The population of L. monocytogenes declined significantly on fresh-cut pineapple at all temperature, indicating composition of fresh-cut pineapple could inhibit growth of L. monocytogenes. However, S. aureus was still able to grow on fresh-cut pineapple at storage temperature. Thus, this study suggests that 4 kinds of fresh-cut tropical fruits (pitaya, mango, papaya, and pineapple) should be stored at low temperature to extend shelf life as well as to ensure the safety of fresh-cut fruits. The data collected in this study demonstrated that L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were able to grow on fresh-cut tropical fruits at different temperatures. These results could be of interest in knowing the capacity of tropical fruits to support the growth of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. This information may also be useful to local and state regulatory officials responsible for food safety.

  20. Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayan, K V; Selvaraju, M; Thirugnanamoorthy, K

    2011-08-15

    Microalgae exhibit a number of heavy metal uptake process by different metabolism. In this study, the ability of microalgae for removal of heavy metal from wastewater was studied. Growth and biochemical contents of microalgae were determined by spectrophotometer. Heavy metal analysis of wastewater effluents were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after treatment at laboratory scale. The growth of Scenedesmus bijuga and Oscillatoria quadripunctulata in sewage wastewater was higher than those grown in synthetic medium. Whereas, the growth of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata in sterilized petrochemical effluents was slightly lower than that grown in the standard synthetic medium. The chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein content of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized sewage wastewater were higher than those grown in the standard medium. Similarly S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized petrochemical effluents showed lower contents of pigments and protein than those grown in sewage and synthetic medium. Heavy metals copper, cobalt, lead and zinc were removed by 37-50, 20.3-33.3, 34.6-100 and 32.1-100%, respectively from sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluent using Ocillatoria culture. The metal absorption by S. bijuga were (Cu, Co, Pb, Zn) 60-50, 29.6-66, 15.4-25 and 42.9-50%, respectively from sewage and petrochemical effluents. Both species showed high level of heavy metal removal efficiency and metal sorption efficiency of both microalgae depended on the type of biosorbent, the physiological status of the cells, availability of heavy metal, concentration of heavy metal and chemical composition of wastewater.

  1. Potential use of duckweed based anaerobic digester effluent as a feed source for heterotrophic growth of micro-algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, L.; Dupont, R.

    2013-12-01

    Finding an alternative source of energy for the growing world's demand is a challenging task being considered by many scientists. Various types of renewable energy alternatives are being investigated by researchers around the world. The abundance of duckweed (i.e., Lemna and Wolfia sp.) in wetlands and wastewater lagoons, their rapid growth, and their capacity for nutrient, metal and other contaminant removal from wastewater suggests their potential as an inexpensive source of biomass for biofuel production. Another source of biomass for biofuel and energy production is micro-algae. The large-scale growth of micro-algae can potentially be achieved in a smaller footprint and at a higher rate and lower cost via heterotrophic growth compared to autotrophic growth for specific species that can grow under both conditions. Here we describe two types of research. First, two lab-scale, 5 L anaerobic digesters containing municipal raw wastewater that were set up, maintained and monitored over the course of 6 months using duckweed as the feed source. The pH, salinity, amount of gas production and gas composition were measured on a daily basis. The results from these measurements show that duckweed can be used as a good source of biofuel production in the form of methane gas. The second set of reactors consisted of two 1 L batch fed reactors containing algae (Chlorella vulgaris) grown in the lab environment heterotrophically. The pH and DO were monitored on a daily basis in order to investigate their effect on algae growth. Lipid analysis of the harvested algal biomass was done to investigate the efficiency of harvestable biofuel products. A nutrient solution containing glucose as an energy source was used as the initial feed solution, and the potential substitution of the glucose solution with the organic carbon residue from the duckweed digester effluent was investigated. Methane production, carbon stabilization, and gas composition results from the duckweed fed anaerobic

  2. In vitro Antimicrobial Assay of Actinomycetes in Rice AgainstXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and as Potential Plant Growth Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erneeza Mohd Hata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to invitro assay the antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes in rice against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and as potential plant growth promoter. A total of 92 actinomycete strains were isolated from different rice plant components and field locations. Of these, only 21.74% showed antagonistic activity against the Xoc pathogen. Molecular identification via 16s rRNA amplification revealed that 60% of the active antagonistic strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Isolates that demonstrated the highest antagonistic activity were also able to produce hydrolytic enzymes and plant growth-promoting hormones. Combination of preliminary screening based on in vitro antagonistic, hydrolytic enzyme and plant growth hormone activity facilitated the best selection of actinomycete candidates as evidenced by strains classification using cluster analysis (Ward's Method. Results from the preliminary screening showed that actinomycetes, especially Streptomycetes, could offer a promising source for both biocontrol and plant growth-promotion agents against BLS disease in rice.

  3. An assessment of arthropod prey resources at Nakula Natural Area Reserve, a potential site of reintroduction for Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui `Alauahio (Parareomyza montana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Cappadonna, Justin; Steele, Claire; Leonard, David L.; Mounce, Hanna L.; Becker, Dusti; Swinnerton, Kirsty

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds have declined dramatically since humans arrived in the archipelago. Birds from all foraging guilds have been affected but insectivorous species are currently at greatest risk of extinction. On the island of Maui, populations and ranges of the insectivorous kiwikiu (Maui parrotbill; Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui ‘alauahio (Maui creeper; Paroreomyza montana) have declined significantly from historic levels primarily due to habitat loss, predation,disease, and food web disruption, leading to federal listings of endangered species and species of concern, respectively. Recovery plans for these birds include reestablishment of populations in parts of their former range. Nakula Natural Area Reserve on the leeward side of HaleakalāVolcano has been targeted for release of wild-caught or captive-bred individuals. The mesic, montane koa-‘ōhi‘a (Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha) forest at Nakula has been heavily impacted through grazing by feral ungulates, but recent management actions to exclude these animals are promoting forest recovery. The objective of this study was to assess the arthropod prey base at Nakula in preparation for reintroductions of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio. To accomplish that goal, we compared arthropod abundances at Nakula to those at Hanawi Natural Area Reserve and Waikamoi Preserve, areas where kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio are currently found. We also identified diets of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio from fecal samples to better understand and evaluate the prey base at Nakula. Assessment methods included clipping branch tips to sample arthropods within the foliage of koa and ‘ōhi‘a, using traps to quantify arthropods on koa and ‘ōhi‘a bark surfaces, counting exit holes to quantify abundances of beetles (Coleoptera) within dead branches of koa, and measuring the density of arthropods within the stems of ‘ākala (Rubus hawaiiensis). The diet of kiwikiu was dominated by caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae

  4. Genome-scale reconstruction of the Streptococcus pyogenes M49 metabolic network reveals growth requirements and indicates potential drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levering, Jennifer; Fiedler, Tomas; Sieg, Antje; van Grinsven, Koen W A; Hering, Silvio; Veith, Nadine; Olivier, Brett G; Klett, Lara; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Teusink, Bas; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Kummer, Ursula

    2016-08-20

    Genome-scale metabolic models comprise stoichiometric relations between metabolites, as well as associations between genes and metabolic reactions and facilitate the analysis of metabolism. We computationally reconstructed the metabolic network of the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes M49. Initially, we based the reconstruction on genome annotations and already existing and curated metabolic networks of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis. This initial draft was manually curated with the final reconstruction accounting for 480 genes associated with 576 reactions and 558 metabolites. In order to constrain the model further, we performed growth experiments of wild type and arcA deletion strains of S. pyogenes M49 in a chemically defined medium and calculated nutrient uptake and production fluxes. We additionally performed amino acid auxotrophy experiments to test the consistency of the model. The established genome-scale model can be used to understand the growth requirements of the human pathogen S. pyogenes and define optimal and suboptimal conditions, but also to describe differences and similarities between S. pyogenes and related lactic acid bacteria such as L. lactis in order to find strategies to reduce the growth of the pathogen and propose drug targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and characterization of polymers based on PDMS and PEG-DMA as potential scaffold for cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiguzel, Zelal; Sagnic, Servet A; Aroguz, Ayse Z

    2017-09-01

    This work describes a soft lithographic method for the generation of patterned both biopolymer and silver with each covered on microscope glass. Because of their biocompatible nature and permeability to gases the biopolymers are convenient for cell culture studies. The microscope glass was covered by polyethylene glycol dimethyl acrylate (PEG-DMA), as biopolymer and patterned by the UV light passing through the printed photomask for the preparation of the PDMS stamps. PDMS stamps were originally fabricated in this work for pattern transfer. Ag and polymer covered on the microscope glass were patterned by using these PDMS stamps. The patterned Ag, PDMS mold and PEG-DMA biopolymer were used as scaffolds and cell growth experiments have been performed on these materials. The degree of cell viability was measured by seeding them with L929 mouse fibroblasts and the number of the cells was measured by neutral red uptake assay. An increase in the number of cells on the material surfaces was observed. The pattern and the cell growth properties were followed by optic microscope. The results obtained from the cell growth was subjected to student's t-test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Successful survival, growth, and reproductive potential of quagga mussels in low calcium lake water: is there uncertainty of establishment risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton J. Davis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The risk of quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov 1897 establishment into water-bodies of the western US has expanded the geographic concern regarding the ecological and economic impacts this species will have in aquatic ecosystems. Thresholds based on calcium concentrations, an element critical for mussel growth and physiology, have been used as a primary predictor of quagga mussel establishment success to aid management decisions. We evaluated the invasion potential of quagga mussels in low calcium waters using laboratory experiments to compare the survival, growth and reproductive potential of adult mussels held for 90 days at low (9 and 12 ppm, moderate (15 to 32 ppm and high (72 ppm calcium water concentrations. In conjunction with adult experiments, veliger stage survival, growth and settlement were evaluated under similar low, moderate, and high calcium water treatments. Adult mussels survived, grew and showed reproductive potential in low calcium water (12 ppm. Veligers were also able to survive, grow and settle in low calcium water. Higher levels of natural seston biomass appeared to improve adult mussel life history performance in low calcium water. Survival curve analysis predicted that 99% adult mortality could occur in 15 ppm could have adults surviving more than a year. The results from these bioassays provide further evidence that quagga mussels have higher risk of establishment in low calcium lakes if habitats exist that have slightly elevated calcium. These results should help emphasize the vulnerability of water-body in the 12 to 15 ppm calcium range that could potentially be at risk of establishing sustainable quagga mussel populations. Furthermore, these results provide insights into the uncertainty of using a single parameter in assigning establishment risk given the complexity of variables in specific water-bodies that influence life history performance of introduced species.

  7. Successful survival, growth, and reproductive potential of quagga mussels in low calcium lake water: is there uncertainty of establishment risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Clinton J; Ruhmann, Emma K; Acharya, Kumud; Chandra, Sudeep; Jerde, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    The risk of quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov 1897) establishment into water-bodies of the western US has expanded the geographic concern regarding the ecological and economic impacts this species will have in aquatic ecosystems. Thresholds based on calcium concentrations, an element critical for mussel growth and physiology, have been used as a primary predictor of quagga mussel establishment success to aid management decisions. We evaluated the invasion potential of quagga mussels in low calcium waters using laboratory experiments to compare the survival, growth and reproductive potential of adult mussels held for 90 days at low (9 and 12 ppm), moderate (15 to 32 ppm) and high (72 ppm) calcium water concentrations. In conjunction with adult experiments, veliger stage survival, growth and settlement were evaluated under similar low, moderate, and high calcium water treatments. Adult mussels survived, grew and showed reproductive potential in low calcium water (12 ppm). Veligers were also able to survive, grow and settle in low calcium water. Higher levels of natural seston biomass appeared to improve adult mussel life history performance in low calcium water. Survival curve analysis predicted that 99% adult mortality could occur in 15 ppm could have adults surviving more than a year. The results from these bioassays provide further evidence that quagga mussels have higher risk of establishment in low calcium lakes if habitats exist that have slightly elevated calcium. These results should help emphasize the vulnerability of water-body in the 12 to 15 ppm calcium range that could potentially be at risk of establishing sustainable quagga mussel populations. Furthermore, these results provide insights into the uncertainty of using a single parameter in assigning establishment risk given the complexity of variables in specific water-bodies that influence life history performance of introduced species.

  8. Potential of C and X Band SAR for Shrub Growth Monitoring in Sub-Arctic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Duguay

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic and sub-Arctic environments have seen a rapid growth of shrub vegetation at the expense of the Arctic tundra in recent decades. In order to develop better tools to assess and understand this phenomenon, the sensitivity of multi-polarized SAR backscattering at C and X band to shrub density and height is studied under various conditions. RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X images were acquired from November 2011 to March 2012 over the Umiujaq community in northern Quebec (56.55°N, 76.55°W and compared to in situ measurements of shrub vegetation density and height collected during the summer of 2009. The results show that σ0 is sensitive to changes in shrub coverage up to 20% and is sensitive to changes in shrub height up to around 1 m. The cross-polarized backscattering (σ0 HV displays the best sensitivity to both shrub height and density, and RADARSAT-2 is more sensitive to shrub height, as TerraSAR-X tends to saturate more rapidly with increasing volume scattering from the shrub branches. These results demonstrate that SAR data could provide essential information, not only on Remote Sens. 2015, 7 9411 the spatial expansion of shrub vegetation, but also on its vertical growth, especially at early stages of colonization.

  9. Osteogenic potential and synergistic effects of growth factors delivered from a bionic composite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Gomez, Alan W; Zuo, Yi; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Yubao; Hu, Jing; Li, Jihua

    2016-03-01

    Previous research has raised substantial controversy over the synergistic effects of exogenous growth factors, BMP-2 and bFGF, when used together for the treatment of bony defects. Thus, this study evaluated the effects of BMP-2 and bFGF at specified dose ratio composited with n-HA/PU40, a porous scaffold material, for repairing femoral defect in rats. Four weeks after implantation of this composite system, tissue specimens were collected for histological, immunohistochemical examinations, and µ-CT scanning. The results showed that the group DUAL/BMSCs with both the factors had better effect on repairing bone defects than the other four groups in terms of new bone formation and bone-scaffold bonding, suggesting crosstalk between these growth factors during early bone regeneration. This work demonstrates that provided that there is effective contact between cells and active proteins in the defect area, the controlled release of bFGF and BMP-2 have positive synergistic effects on early bone formation in the defect area. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 659-668, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes in sliced turkey bresaola packed in modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dalzini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to EC Regulation No 2073/2005, for food business operators that produce ready-to-eat (RTE product, it is crucial to be able to demonstrate if the product supports the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. The objective of the study was therefore to evaluate the behaviour of L. monocytogenes in sliced RTE turkey bresaola (made by cured turkey breast 4.5% NaCl, 1% sodium lactate, sodium nitrite 150 ppm and flavouring during the shelf life of the product, simulating a contamination during the slicing operation. Considering a shelf life of 90 days, as defined by manufacturer, the packages of sliced bresaola were stored at 5°C for 7 days and at 8°C for the remaining storage time (83 days. L. monocytogenes count decreased during storage test from 1.43/1.98 log cfu/g in the three batches tested to 1.03 log cfu/g in one batch and to undetectable levels in the other two batches. The results show that the investigated product is unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  11. Allelopathic potential of jatropha curcas L. leaf aqueous extracts on seedling growth of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, A.; Ullah, F.; Wazir, S. M.; Shinwari, Z. K.

    2015-01-01

    Allelopathic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas on seed germination and early seedling growth of wheat cv. Inqlab-91 were investigated. The extracts were applied at 50 percentage, 25 percentage, 12.5 percentage, 6.25 percentage and 3.12 percentage as seed soaking for 5h prior to sowing of seeds in the pots. The J. curcas leaf characterized for composition of macronutrients showed Na (304 micro g/g), K (267 micro g/g), Mg (92 micro g/g) and Ca (12 micro g/g). Among micronutrients Fe (92 micro g/g), Cr (92 micro g/g), Ni (48 micro g/g), Co (38 μg/g), Cu (23 micro g/g, Mn (12 micro g/g) and Zn (15.22 micro g/g) were found. Phenolic compounds were detected in the extracts and were found maximum (8.12 mg gallic acid/g extract) in 50 percentage extract. Lower concentrations (6.25 percentage, 3.25 percentage) of the extracts significantly improved seed germination (percentage), germination index, shoot length, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight, root dry weight and root area of wheat plants (p<0.05). At higher concentration of the extract, root length was significantly reduced. It is inferred that lower concentrations (6.25 percentage and 3.12 percentage) of the extracts exhibited beneficial effects on growth of wheat plants. (author)

  12. Activating Developmental Reserve Capacity Via Cognitive Training or Non-invasive Brain Stimulation: Potentials for Promoting Fronto-Parietal and Hippocampal-Striatal Network Functions in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, Susanne; Thurm, Franka; Li, Shu-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Existing neurocomputational and empirical data link deficient neuromodulation of the fronto-parietal and hippocampal-striatal circuitries with aging-related increase in processing noise and declines in various cognitive functions. Specifically, the theory of aging neuronal gain control postulates that aging-related suboptimal neuromodulation may attenuate neuronal gain control, which yields computational consequences on reducing the signal-to-noise-ratio of synaptic signal transmission and hampering information processing within and between cortical networks. Intervention methods such as cognitive training and non-invasive brain stimulation, e.g., transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have been considered as means to buffer cognitive functions or delay cognitive decline in old age. However, to date the reported effect sizes of immediate training gains and maintenance effects of a variety of cognitive trainings are small to moderate at best; moreover, training-related transfer effects to non-trained but closely related (i.e., near-transfer) or other (i.e., far-transfer) cognitive functions are inconsistent or lacking. Similarly, although applying different tDCS protocols to reduce aging-related cognitive impairments by inducing temporary changes in cortical excitability seem somewhat promising, evidence of effects on short- and long-term plasticity is still equivocal. In this article, we will review and critically discuss existing findings of cognitive training- and stimulation-related behavioral and neural plasticity effects in the context of cognitive aging, focusing specifically on working memory and episodic memory functions, which are subserved by the fronto-parietal and hippocampal-striatal networks, respectively. Furthermore, in line with the theory of aging neuronal gain control we will highlight that developing age-specific brain stimulation protocols and the concurrent applications of tDCS during cognitive training may potentially facilitate

  13. Potential Novel Biomarkers for Diabetic Testicular Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Nerve Growth Factor Beta and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rıza Sisman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that diabetes mellitus may cause testicular damage. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and nerve growth factor beta (NGF-β are important neurotrophic factors for male reproductive system. Objective. We aimed to investigate the correlation between testicular damage and testicular VEGF and NGF-β levels in diabetic rats. Methods. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg/i.p. in adult rats. Five weeks later testicular tissue was removed; testicular VEGF and NGF-β levels were measured by ELISA. Testicular damage was detected by using hematoxylin and eosin staining and periodic acid-Schiff staining, and apoptosis was identified by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL. Seminiferous tubular sperm formation was evaluated using Johnsen’s score. Results. In diabetic rats, seminiferous tubule diameter was found to be decreased; basement membrane was found to be thickened in seminiferous tubules and degenerated germ cells. Additionally, TUNEL-positive cells were increased in number of VEGF+ cells and levels of VEGF and NGF-β were decreased in diabetic testes. Correlation between VEGF and NGF-β levels was strong. Conclusion. These results suggest that the decrease of VEGF and NGF-β levels is associated with the increase of the apoptosis and testicular damage in diabetic rats. Testis VEGF and NGF-β levels could be potential novel biomarkers for diabetes induced testicular damage.

  14. Potential novel biomarkers for diabetic testicular damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: nerve growth factor Beta and vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisman, Ali Rıza; Kiray, Muge; Camsari, Ulas Mehmet; Evren, Merve; Ates, Mehmet; Baykara, Basak; Aksu, Ilkay; Guvendi, Guven; Uysal, Nazan

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that diabetes mellitus may cause testicular damage. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor beta (NGF-β) are important neurotrophic factors for male reproductive system. We aimed to investigate the correlation between testicular damage and testicular VEGF and NGF-β levels in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg/i.p.) in adult rats. Five weeks later testicular tissue was removed; testicular VEGF and NGF-β levels were measured by ELISA. Testicular damage was detected by using hematoxylin and eosin staining and periodic acid-Schiff staining, and apoptosis was identified by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Seminiferous tubular sperm formation was evaluated using Johnsen's score. In diabetic rats, seminiferous tubule diameter was found to be decreased; basement membrane was found to be thickened in seminiferous tubules and degenerated germ cells. Additionally, TUNEL-positive cells were increased in number of VEGF+ cells and levels of VEGF and NGF-β were decreased in diabetic testes. Correlation between VEGF and NGF-β levels was strong. These results suggest that the decrease of VEGF and NGF-β levels is associated with the increase of the apoptosis and testicular damage in diabetic rats. Testis VEGF and NGF-β levels could be potential novel biomarkers for diabetes induced testicular damage.

  15. Potential adverse effects of antenatal melatonin as a treatment for intrauterine growth restriction: findings in pregnant sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Candia, Alejandro; Veliz, Marcelino; Araya, Claudio; Quezada, Sebastian; Ebensperger, Germán; Serón-Ferré, María; Reyes, Roberto V; Llanos, Aníbal J; Herrera, Emilio A

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is a condition in which the fetus has a birthweight and/or length melatonin acts as an umbilical vasodilator and a potent antioxidant that has not been evaluated in pregnancies under chronic hypoxia that induce fetal growth restriction. However, this neurohormone has been proposed as a pharmacologic therapy for complicated pregnancies. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of prenatal administration of melatonin during the last trimester of pregnancy on the biometry of the growth-restricted lambs because of developmental hypoxia. Further, we aimed to determine melatonin and cortisol levels and oxidative stress markers in plasma of pregnant ewes during the treatment. High-altitude pregnant sheep received either vehicle (n = 5; 5 mL 1.4% ethanol) or melatonin (n = 7; 10 mg/kg(-1)day(-1) in 5 mL 1.4% ethanol) daily during the last one-third of gestation. Maternal plasma levels of melatonin, cortisol, antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress were determined along treatment. At birth, neonates were examined, weighed, and measured (biparietal diameter, abdominal diameter, and crown-rump length). Antenatal treatment with melatonin markedly decreased neonatal biometry and weight at birth. Additionally, melatonin treatment increased the length of gestation by 7.5% and shifted the time of delivery. Furthermore, the prenatal treatment doubled plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol and significantly improved the antioxidant capacity of the pregnant ewes. Our findings indicate that antenatal melatonin induces further intrauterine growth restriction but improves the maternal plasma antioxidant capacity. Additional studies should address the efficiency and safety of antenatal melatonin before clinical attempts on humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Alteration in antioxidant potential of spinacia oleracea in response to selected plant growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Sultana, B.; Ali, S.; Rehman, K.U.

    2013-01-01

    The spinach (Spinacia oleracea) plants treated with certain seed priming (bio-fertilizer and Humic acid) and foliar treatments (Humic acid, Moringa leaf extract, 6-Benzyl amino purine etc.) were tested for total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. Methanolic extracts of all spinach samples were assessed performing three different protocols including Folin-Ciocalteu, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging assays. TPC value ranged 4.678-13.236 mg GAE/g of dry matter. Reducing power assay showed values (absorbance at lambda max=700nm) in the range of 0.351-1.874 at 10 mg/mL extract concentration. The range of IC 50 values in DPPH radical scavenging assay was 0.499-1.063 mu g/mL extract concentration. The one way ANOVA under CRD showed significant differences among treatments. Among various plant growth regulators, fresh Moringa leaf extract proved as the potent enhancer of antioxidant activity of spinach leaves. (author)

  17. Montane forest root growth and soil organic layer depth as potential factors stabilizing Cenozoic global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E.; Taylor, Lyla L.; Girardin, Cecile A. J.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Beerling, David J.

    2014-02-01

    Tree roots and their symbiotic fungal partners are believed to play a major role in regulating long-term global climate, but feedbacks between global temperature and biotic weathering have not yet been explored in detail. In situ field data from a 3000 m altitudinal transect in Peru show fine root growth decreases and organic layer depth increases with the cooler temperatures that prevail at increased altitude. We hypothesize that this observation suggests a negative feedback: as global temperatures rise, the soil organic layer will shrink, and more roots will grow in the mineral layer, thereby accelerating weathering and reducing atmospheric CO2. We examine this mechanism with a process-based biological weathering model and demonstrate that this negative feedback could have contributed to moderating long-term global Cenozoic climate during major Cenozoic CO2 changes linked to volcanic degassing and tectonic uplift events.

  18. Identification of anatomic features of the equine clitoris as potential growth sites for Taylorella equigenitalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, R A; Sack, W O

    1990-06-15

    A median clitoral sinus, as a space canalized from epithelial cells, was distinguishable developmentally in equine fetuses from 33-mm crown-rump length (CRL) to 500-mm CRL (including a mule of 21-mm CRL). In saggital sections of the clitoris of a 480-mm CRL fetus, indentations under the transverse frenular fold were identified as lateral sinuses of the clitoris. Unlike the median sinus, they were shallow; it therefore could not be anatomically substantiated that the lateral sinuses were of sufficient depth to support the growth of the partial anaerobe Taylorella equigenitalis, the organism of contagious equine metritis. This study indicated excision of the lateral clitoral sinuses was unnecessary for treatment of contagious equine metritis.

  19. Microbial growth in the polar oceans - role of temperature and potential impact of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchman, David L; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G; Ducklow, Hugh

    2009-06-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria are the most abundant organisms on the planet and dominate oceanic biogeochemical cycles, including that of carbon. Their role in polar waters has been enigmatic, however, because of conflicting reports about how temperature and the supply of organic carbon control bacterial growth. In this Analysis article, we attempt to resolve this controversy by reviewing previous reports in light of new data on microbial processes in the western Arctic Ocean and by comparing polar waters with low-latitude oceans. Understanding the regulation of in situ microbial activity may help us understand the response of the Arctic Ocean and Antarctic coastal waters over the coming decades as they warm and ice coverage declines.

  20. Measuring the Potential of Local Green Growth – An Analysis of Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina; Sharpe, Samantha; Andersen, Maj Munch

    to concentrate both from the private and public sectors. The report argues for the significant role local institutions have to play in implementing national agendas for the transition to a green growth economy and also sometimes push for change. Measurement of progress needs to take account of both ends......The Copenhagen case is the first of OECD local green indicators studies. It identifies the drivers of progress for its clean-tech firms. And it shows how they can become a magnet for attracting investment to the country .The Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster (CCC) is a key contributor to the green...... of the ‘national-local’ continuum. The Copenhagen green dashboard shows the significance of measuring progress as an analytical strategy for development. As the City of Copenhagen and the Capital Region demonstrates, a lot can be achieved through cooperation between national and local stakeholders....

  1. A dynamic model of potential growth of olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Sierra, Alejandro; Leffelaar, Peter A.; Testi, Luca; Orgaz, Francisco; Villalobos, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    A model of potential olive oil production is presented, based on a three-dimensional model of canopy photosynthesis and respiration and dynamic distribution of assimilates among organs. The model is used to analyse the effects of planting density (high and super-high density orchards with 408 and

  2. Immunomodulatory and Growth-Promoting Potential of Lowcost Probiotic Product in Penaeus Monodon Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandran Manohar Navin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The capability of a low-cost probiotic product was evaluated in Penaeus monodon reared under an outdoor culture system for a period of 90 days. The low-cost probiotic product was formulated by mixing the broth culture of Bacillus cereus along with commercial chalk powder in 1:1 ratio. The prepared probiotic product as a powdered supplement was incorporated along with the shrimp diet at various concentrations (1 to 5%. The viability of B. cereus in the experimental diet was tested once in 30 days up to 90 days during the experimentation. After 90 days of feeding experiments, the growth performance of shrimp was determined with a maximum production of 11.98 ± 0.367 g, SGR of 5.030 ± 0.171% and FCE of 86.63 ± 1.300% in P. monodon fed D4 diet (4% probiotic supplement. The immunological parameters determined at the end of the culture experiment showed variation among diets. The total haemocyte count (273.66 ± 3.09 x 105 cells/ml, phenoloxidase activity (0.132 ± 0.007 OD and respiratory burst activity (0.291 ± 0.020 O.D were high in P. monodon fed D4 diet. Similar effects were observed for plasma protein concentration (68.00 ± 1.41 mg/ ml, lysozyme activity (0.483 ± 0.014 U/ml and bactericidal activity (81.0 ± 1.33% in shrimp fed D4 diet. The results of the present investigation conclude that the probiotic product at a concentration of 4% was effective in elevating the growth and immune performances in shrimp P. monodon.

  3. Azospirillum spp. from native forage grasses in Brazilian Pantanal floodplain: biodiversity and plant growth promotion potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Mayara S T; de Baura, Valter A; Santos, Sandra A; Fernandes-Júnior, Paulo Ivan; Reis Junior, Fábio B; Marques, Maria Rita; Paggi, Gecele Matos; da Silva Brasil, Marivaine

    2017-04-01

    A sustainable alternative to improve yield and the nutritive value of forage is the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) that release nutrients, synthesize plant hormones and protect against phytopathogens (among other mechanisms). Azospirillum genus is considered an important PGPB, due to the beneficial effects observed when inoculated in several plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of new Azospirillum isolates and select bacteria according to the plant growth promotion ability in three forage species from the Brazilian Pantanal floodplain: Axonopus purpusii, Hymenachne amplexicaulis and Mesosetum chaseae. The identification of bacterial isolates was performed using specific primers for Azospirillum in PCR reactions and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes. The isolates were evaluated in vitro considering biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. Based on the results of BNF and IAA, selected isolates and two reference strains were tested by inoculation. At 31 days after planting the plant height, shoot dry matter, shoot protein content and root volume were evaluated. All isolates were able to fix nitrogen and produce IAA, with values ranging from 25.86 to 51.26 mg N mL -1 and 107-1038 µmol L -1 , respectively. The inoculation of H. amplexicaulis and A. purpusii increased root volume and shoot dry matter. There were positive effects of Azospirillum inoculation on Mesosetum chaseae regarding plant height, shoot dry matter and root volume. Isolates MAY1, MAY3 and MAY12 were considered promising for subsequent inoculation studies in field conditions.

  4. Placental growth factor and its potential role in diabetic retinopathy and other ocular neovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quan Dong; De Falco, Sandro; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Lam, Wai-Ching; Li, Xuri; Reichhart, Nadine; Ricci, Federico; Pluim, Jennifer; Li, William W

    2018-02-01

    The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), including in retinal vascular diseases, has been well studied, and pharmacological blockade of VEGF is the gold standard of treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration, retinal vein occlusion and diabetic macular oedema. Placental growth factor (PGF, previously known as PlGF), a homologue of VEGF, is a multifunctional peptide associated with angiogenesis-dependent pathologies in the eye and non-ocular conditions. Animal studies using genetic modification and pharmacological treatment have demonstrated a mechanistic role for PGF in pathological angiogenesis. Inhibition decreases neovascularization and microvascular abnormalities across different models, including oxygen-induced retinopathy, laser-induced choroidal neovascularization and in diabetic mice exhibiting retinopathies. High levels of PGF have been found in the vitreous of patients with diabetic retinopathy. Despite these strong animal data, the exact role of PGF in pathological angiogenesis in retinal vascular diseases remains to be defined, and the benefits of PGF-specific inhibition in humans with retinal neovascular diseases and macular oedema remain controversial. Comparative effectiveness research studies in patients with diabetic retinal disease have shown that treatment that inhibits both VEGF and PGF may provide superior outcomes in certain patients compared with treatment that inhibits only VEGF. This review summarizes current knowledge of PGF, including its relationship to VEGF and its role in pathological angiogenesis in retinal diseases, and identifies some key unanswered questions about PGF that can serve as a pathway for future basic, translational and clinical research. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation and European Association for Vision & Eye Research.

  5. Use of plant growth promoting bacterial strains to improve Cytisus striatus and Lupinus luteus development for potential application in phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro-Romero, María; Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Kidd, Petra S; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Weyens, Nele; Monterroso, Carmen; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2017-03-01

    Plant growth promoting (PGP) bacterial strains possess different mechanisms to improve plant development under common environmental stresses, and are therefore often used as inoculants in soil phytoremediation processes. The aims of the present work were to study the effects of a collection of plant growth promoting bacterial strains on plant development, antioxidant enzyme activities and nutritional status of Cytisus striatus and/or Lupinus luteus plants a) growing in perlite under non-stress conditions and b) growing in diesel-contaminated soil. For this, two greenhouse experiments were designed. Firstly, C. striatus and L. luteus plants were grown from seeds in perlite, and periodically inoculated with 6 PGP strains, either individually or in pairs. Secondly, L. luteus seedlings were grown in soil samples of the A and B horizons of a Cambisol contaminated with 1.25% (w/w) of diesel and inoculated with best PGP inoculant selected from the first experiment. The results indicated that the PGP strains tested in perlite significantly improved plant growth. Combination treatments provoked better growth of L. luteus than the respective individual strains, while individual inoculation treatments were more effective for C. striatus. L. luteus growth in diesel-contaminated soil was significantly improved in the presence of PGP strains, presenting a 2-fold or higher increase in plant biomass. Inoculants did not provoke significant changes in plant nutritional status, with the exception of a subset of siderophore-producing and P-solubilising bacterial strains that resulted in significantly modification of Fe or P concentrations in leaf tissues. Inoculants did not cause significant changes in enzyme activities in perlite experiments, however they significantly reduced oxidative stress in contaminated soils suggesting an improvement in plant tolerance to diesel. Some strains were applied to non-host plants, indicating a non-specific performance of their plant growth promotion

  6. Effects of light and temperature on the growth rate of potentially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thalassiosira allenii is a potentially harmful marine diatom distributed along the Northern Aegean and Southern Black Sea coasts of Turkey. In order to better understand the effect of environmental factors on T. allenii, the effects of 6 different light intensities (6.5, 38.7, 77.5, 116.2, 15 and 193.7 mmol/m2s (PAR)) and 4 ...

  7. Potential Utility of Melatonin in Preeclampsia, Intrauterine Fetal Growth Retardation, and Perinatal Asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marseglia, Lucia; D'Angelo, Gabriella; Manti, Sara; Reiter, Russel J; Gitto, Eloisa

    2016-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases during gestation and the perinatal period. During pregnancy, increased oxygen demand augments the rate of production of free radicals. Oxidative stress is involved in pregnancy disorders including preeclampsia and intrauterine fetal growth retardation (IUGR). Moreover, increased levels of oxidative stress and reduced antioxidative capacities may contribute to the pathogenesis of perinatal asphyxia. Melatonin, an efficient antioxidant agent, diffuses through biological membranes easily and exerts pleiotropic actions on every cell and appears to be essential for successful gestation. This narrative review summarizes current knowledge concerning the role of melatonin in reducing complications during human pregnancy and in the perinatal period. Melatonin levels are altered in women with abnormally functioning placentae during preeclampsia and IUGR. Short-term melatonin therapy is highly effective and safe in reducing complications during pregnancy and in the perinatal period. Because melatonin has been shown to be safe for both mother and fetus, it could be an attractive therapy in pregnancy and is considered a promising neuroprotective agent in perinatal asphyxia. We believe that the use of melatonin treatment during the late fetal and early neonatal period might result in a wide range of health benefits, improved quality of life, and may help limit complications during the critical periods prior to, and shortly after, delivery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Plant growth promoting potential and phylogenetic characteristics of a lichenized nitrogen fixing bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Chidanandamurthy Thippeswamy; Gayathri, Devaraja; Devaraja, Thimmalapura Neelakantaiah; Bandekar, Mandar; D'Souza, Stecy Elvira; Meena, Ram Murti; Ramaiah, Nagappa

    2016-12-01

    Lichens are complex symbiotic association of mycobionts, photobionts, and bacteriobionts, including chemolithotropic bacteria. In the present study, 46 lichenized bacteria were isolated by conventional and enrichment culture methods on nitrogen-free bromothymol blue (NFb) medium. Only 11 of the 46 isolates fixed nitrogen on NFb and had reduced acetylene. All these 11 isolates had also produced siderophore and 10 of them the IAA. Further, ammonia production was recorded from nine of these nitrogen fixers (NF). On molecular characterization, 16 S rRNA sequencing recorded that, nine NF belonged to Proteobacteria, within Gammaproteobacteria, and were closely related to Enterobacter sp. with a maximum similarity to Enterobacter cloacae. Each one of our NF isolates was aligned closely to Enterobacter pulveris strain E443, Cronobacter sakazakii strain PNP8 and Providencia rettgeri strain ALK058. Notably, a few strains we examined found to possess plant growth promoting properties. This is the first report of Enterobacter sp. from lichens which may be inhabit lichen thalli extrinsically or intrinsically. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Fibroblast growth factor signaling potentiates VE-cadherin stability at adherens junctions by regulating SHP2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiko Hatanaka

    Full Text Available The fibroblast growth factor (FGF system plays a critical role in the maintenance of vascular integrity via enhancing the stability of VE-cadherin at adherens junctions. However, the precise molecular mechanism is not well understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the detailed mechanism of FGF regulation of VE-cadherin function that leads to endothelial junction stabilization.In vitro studies demonstrated that the loss of FGF signaling disrupts the VE-cadherin-catenin complex at adherens junctions by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation levels of VE-cadherin. Among protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs known to be involved in the maintenance of the VE-cadherin complex, suppression of FGF signaling reduces SHP2 expression levels and SHP2/VE-cadherin interaction due to accelerated SHP2 protein degradation. Increased endothelial permeability caused by FGF signaling inhibition was rescued by SHP2 overexpression, indicating the critical role of SHP2 in the maintenance of endothelial junction integrity.These results identify FGF-dependent maintenance of SHP2 as an important new mechanism controlling the extent of VE-cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation, thereby regulating its presence in adherens junctions and endothelial permeability.

  10. Influence of canopy form on growth, flowering, and storage potential of ,anna, apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    this study was carried out during the two successive seasons of 1997 and 1998. two years old anna apple trees (budded on M.M. 106 semi - dwarfing root - stocks) planted in El Khattatbah, Monoufiah Governorate were used in this investigation. this study aimed to evaluate the influence of two different tree canopy forms (central leaders and vase) and tipping treatment on the yield and some fruit quality characteristics of anna apple fruits and the effect of irradiation on some of these characteristics during a limited period under cold storage. results revealed improved light conditions in trained trees compared to untrained controls. open vase trained trees produce less fruits which where bigger, softer, with more T.S.S. and sugar content, and less acidity, compared to central leader harvested fruits.it was also found that tipping application resulted in excessive vegetative growth and reduced fruit numbers which were bigger, softer, and contained more T.S.S., and sugars, and less acidity, compared to fruits harvested from untipped trees

  11. GM trees with increased resistance to herbivores: trait efficiency and their potential to promote tree growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim eHjältén

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, as well as a more intensive forestry, is expected to increase the risk of damage by pests and pathogens on trees, which can already be a severe problem in tree plantations. Recent development of biotechnology theoretically allows for resistance enhancement that could help reduce these risks but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of benefits and tradeoffs with pest resistant GM (genetically modified trees. We synthesized the current knowledge on the effectiveness of GM forest trees with increased resistance to herbivores. There is ample evidence that induction of exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis genes reduce performance of target pests whereas upregulation of endogenous resistance traits e.g. phenolics, generates variable results. Our review identified very few studies estimating the realized benefits in tree growth of GM trees in the field. This is concerning as the realized benefit with insect resistant GM plants seems to be context-dependent and likely manifested only if herbivore pressure is sufficiently high. Future studies of secondary pest species and resistance evolution in pest to GM trees should be prioritized. But most importantly we need more long-term field tests to evaluate the benefits and risks with pest resistant GM trees.

  12. Imbalance of the Nerve Growth Factor and Its Precursor as a Potential Biomarker for Diabetic Retinopathy

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    B. A. Mysona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have demonstrated that diabetes-induced oxidative stress alters homeostasis of retinal nerve growth factor (NGF resulting in accumulation of its precursor, proNGF, at the expense of NGF which plays a critical role in preserving neuronal and retinal function. This imbalance coincided with retinal damage in experimental diabetes. Here we test the hypothesis that alteration of proNGF and NGF levels observed in retina and vitreous will be mirrored in serum of diabetic patients. Blood and vitreous samples were collected from patients (diabetic and nondiabetic undergoing vitrectomy at Georgia Regents University under approved IRB. Levels of proNGF, NGF, and p75NTR shedding were detected using Western blot analysis. MMP-7 activity was also assayed. Diabetes-induced proNGF expression and impaired NGF expression were observed in vitreous and serum. Vitreous and sera from diabetic patients (n=11 showed significant 40.8-fold and 3.6-fold increases, respectively, compared to nondiabetics (n=9. In contrast, vitreous and sera from diabetic patients showed significant 44% and 64% reductions in NGF levels, respectively, compared to nondiabetics. ProNGF to NGF ratios showed significant correlation between vitreous and serum. Further characterization of diabetes-induced imbalance in the proNGF to NGF ratio will facilitate its utility as an early biomarker for diabetic complications.

  13. Synergistic growth of Bacillus and Pseudomonas and its degradation potential on pretreated polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravinthan, Adithan; Arkatkar, Ambika; Juwarkar, Asha A; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated biodegradation of physically pretreated polypropylene (PP) by using two different combinations of microorganisms, namely, Bacillus flexus + Pseudomonas azotoformans(B1) and B. flexus + B. subtilis(B2), for a period of 12 months. The growth rate of (B1) was found to be high throughout the study period, and reached a maximum of 1 × 10(14) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. At the end of the experiment, the polymers become hydrophilic. Carbonyl indices showed that ultraviolet (UV)-treated polymers started degrading faster than the thermally treated PP. The thermogravimetric analysis also revealed that UV-treated PP exposed to the B. flexus + P. azotoformans combination for 1 year exhibited maximum degradation (22.7%). The gravimetric weight loss method showed 1.95% weight loss followed by 1.45% with B. flexus + B. subtilis. The changes in the carbonyl indices of the polymer through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis also support the degradation.

  14. Dialkoxyquinazolines: Screening Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Potential Tumor Imaging Probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Lim, John K.; Coffing, Stephanie L.; Hom, Darren L.; Negash, Kitaw; Ono, Michele Y.; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Taylor, Scott E.; Vanderpoel, Jennifer L.; Slavik, Sarah M.; Morris, Andrew B.; Riese II, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a long-standing drug development target, is also a desirable target for imaging. Sixteen dialkoxyquinazoline analogs, suitable for labeling with positron-emitting isotopes, have been synthesized and evaluated in a battery of in vitro assays to ascertain their chemical and biological properties. These characteristics provided the basis for the adoption of a selection schema to identify lead molecules for labeling and in vivo evaluation. A newEGFR tyrosine kinase radiometric binding assay revealed that all of the compounds possessed suitable affinity (IC50 = 0.4 - 51 nM) for the EGFR tyrosine kinase. All of the analogs inhibited ligand-induced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation (IC50 = 0.8 - 20 nM). The HPLC-estimated octanol/water partition coefficients ranged from 2.0-5.5. Four compounds,4-(2'-fluoroanilino)- and 4-(3'-fluoroanilino)-6,7-diethoxyquinazoline as well as 4-(3'-chloroanilino)- and4-(3'-bromoanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, possess the best combination of characteristics that warrant radioisotope labeling and further evaluation in tumor-bearing mice

  15. Potential of plant growth regulator and chlormequat chloride on alfalfa seed components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J. S.; Lin, H.; Han, W.

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant growth regulators (PGRs) has opened new prospects for increased seed production in grasses and legumes, but little information is available on the effects of PGRs combination with chlormequat chloride (CCC) on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed yield components. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of applying chlormequat chloride in combination with three PGRs (Naphthylacetic acid (NAA), gibberellic acid 3 (GA), and brassinolide (BR)) on seed yield, aboveground biomass, plant height, lodging, yield components. CCC was applied annually at the stooling stage while three PGRs were applied twice each year at the stages of flower bud formation and peak flowering. Results provides evidence that: (i) each PGR consistently increased seed yields, and the numbers of seeds per stem compared to untreated plants; (ii) CCC treatment reduced plant height and lodging, but also significantly decreased seed yield and did not affect aboveground biomass. (iii) effectiveness of CCC application depends on climatic conditions, especially in North-east China. (iiii) the optimum combination of CCC with a PGR to increase alfalfa seed production was failed to identify. (iiiii) no interactions between PGRs and CCC on seed yield were observed and neither the PGRs nor the CCC. But alfalfa seed yield could be improved by combining a PGR such as NAA. Our Results suggest that these PGRs could be used in alfalfa breeding to increase seed yield while maintaining high seed quality. (author)

  16. Dialkoxyquinazolines: Screening Epidermal Growth Factor ReceptorTyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Potential Tumor Imaging Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Lim, John K.; Coffing, Stephanie L.; Hom,Darren L.; Negash, Kitaw; Ono, Michele Y.; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Taylor,Scott E.; Vanderpoel, Jennifer L.; Slavik, Sarah M.; Morris, Andrew B.; Riese II, David J.

    2005-09-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a long-standingdrug development target, is also a desirable target for imaging. Sixteendialkoxyquinazoline analogs, suitable for labeling with positron-emittingisotopes, have been synthesized and evaluated in a battery of in vitroassays to ascertain their chemical and biological properties. Thesecharacteristics provided the basis for the adoption of a selection schemato identify lead molecules for labeling and in vivo evaluation. A newEGFR tyrosine kinase radiometric binding assay revealed that all of thecompounds possessed suitable affinity (IC50 = 0.4 - 51 nM) for the EGFRtyrosine kinase. All of the analogs inhibited ligand-induced EGFRtyrosine phosphorylation (IC50 = 0.8 - 20 nM). The HPLC-estimatedoctanol/water partition coefficients ranged from 2.0-5.5. Four compounds,4-(2'-fluoroanilino)- and 4-(3'-fluoroanilino)-6,7-diethoxyquinazoline aswell as 4-(3'-chloroanilino)- and4-(3'-bromoanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, possess the bestcombination of characteristics that warrant radioisotope labeling andfurther evaluation in tumor-bearing mice.

  17. The Nerve Growth Factor Signaling and Its Potential as Therapeutic Target for Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotective therapies which focus on factors leading to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs degeneration have been drawing more and more attention. The beneficial effects of nerve growth factor (NGF on the glaucoma have been recently suggested, but its effects on eye tissue are complex and controversial in various studies. Recent clinical trials of systemically and topically administrated NGF demonstrate that NGF is effective in treating several ocular diseases, including glaucoma. NGF has two receptors named high affinity NGF tyrosine kinase receptor TrkA and low affinity receptor p75NTR. Both receptors exist in cells in retina like RGC (expressing TrkA and glia cells (expressing p75NTR. NGF functions by binding to TrkA or p75NTR alone or both together. The binding of NGF to TrkA alone in RGC promotes RGC’s survival and proliferation through activation of TrkA and several prosurvival pathways. In contrast, the binding of NGF to p75NTR leads to apoptosis although it also promotes survival in some cases. Binding of NGF to both TrkA and p75NTR at the same time leads to survival in which p75NTR functions as a TrkA helping receptor. This review discusses the current understanding of the NGF signaling in retina and the therapeutic implications in the treatment of glaucoma.

  18. Modeling and analysis of proximal tibial growth plate fractures in adolescents: Theory and potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Basile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overuse injuries in children and adolescents are becoming increasingly common, particularly in those who regularly participate in a single sport. As a result, prevention, early detection and treatment of these injuries is vital. However, existing research in adult populations cannot always be directly applied to analogous cases in younger populations. This study attempts to provide an example of how both mathematical and computer modeling can be utilized to predict alterations in load locations, directions, and magnitudes resulting from maturational changes in a way not possible in vivo. Methods: A 2D leg extension model was created and used to calculate relevant forces at the proximal knee joint. Individual aspects of the model, such as quadriceps force and leg length, were changed to quantify how increases in a growing adolescent’s force generation and limb length may affect the forces at the joint. The derived forces were input into a 3D finite element model incorporating a growing young adult’s relatively weaker epiphyseal plate material to calculate the stresses and strains on the tibia of an adolescent. Results: Findings indicated that a shortened patellar tendon and increased quadriceps muscle strength were potentially greater contributors to increased stress on the proximal tibia, as opposed to aspects such as height and weight changes. Conclusions: The theoretical and computational methods employed show promise in their ability to predict potential injury risks in populations for whom evidence-based research is lacking. Models incorporating the elbow and shoulder have high impact potential for young baseball pitchers.

  19. Phorbol ester potentiates the growth inhibitory effects of troglitazone via up-regulation of PPARγ in A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Woo, Im Sun; Kang, Eun Sil; Eun, So Young; Kim, Gil Hyeong; Ham, Sun Ah; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Lee, Hoon Taek; Seo, Han Geuk

    2006-01-01

    The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) has been shown to induce growth arrest and differentiation of various cancer cells. In the current study, we investigated the effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the expression of PPARγ and proliferation of A549 cells. TPA elicited a dose- and time-dependent increase in PPARγ mRNA and protein levels. PPARγ expression in response to TPA was attenuated by pretreatment with bisindolylmaleimide I, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and PD98059. TPA-induced protein kinase C (PKC) activation was linked to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), both of which were indispensable for PPARγ expression in A549 cells. Pretreatment with bisindolylmaleimide I or NAC blocked TPA-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), suggesting that ERK-mediated signaling is also involved in the induction of PPARγ. Furthermore, the growth inhibitory effect of troglitazone was significantly potentiated by prolonged incubation with TPA and was attenuated in the presence of GW9662, a specific inhibitor of PPARγ. These effects were associated with an induction of cell cycle arrest at G /G 1 phase, which was accompanied by the induction of p21 Waf1/Cip1 expression and decreased cyclin D1 expression. Taken together, these observations indicate that TPA synergizes with PPARγ ligand to inhibit cell growth through up-regulation of PPARγ expression

  20. [Effects of intercropping Chinese onion cultivars of different allelopathic potential on cucumber growth and soil micro-environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wu, Feng-zhi

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of intercropping various Chinese onion cultivars of different allelopathic potential on the cucumber growth and rhizospheric soil environment. When intercropped with high allelopathic Chinese onion cultivars, the EC value and peroxidase activity of cucumber rhizospheric soil decreased, while the pH value, invertase and catalase activities, and bacterial community diversity increased. The cloning and sequencing results indicated that most DGGE bands amplified from cucumber rhizospheric soil samples showed a high homology to uncultured bacterial species. The common bands were affiliated with Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, and the differential bacteria bands were affiliated with Proteobacteria and Anaerolineaceae. Rhodospirillales and Acidobacteria were only found in the cucumber rhizospheric soil intercropped with low allelopathic Chinese onion cultivars. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations between rhizospheric soil urease activity and cucumber seedlings height, total dry biomass, leaf area, and DGGE band number. It was suggested that intercropping high allelopathic Chinese onion cultivars could establish a good rhizospheric soil micro-environment for cucumber growth, and promote the growth of cucumber seedlings markedly.

  1. Des-γ-Carboxy Prothrombin (DCP as a Potential Autologous Growth Factor for the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sheng Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP is a prothrombin precursor produced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Because of deficiency of vitamin K or γ-glutamyl carboxylase in HCC cells, the 10 glutamic acid (Glu residues in prothrombin precursor did not completely carboxylate to γ-carboxylated glutamic acid (Gla residues, leaving some Glu residues remained in N-terminal domain. These prothrombin precursors with Glu residues are called DCPs. DCP displays insufficient coagulation activity. Since Liebman reported an elevated plasma DCP in patients with HCC, DCP has been used in the diagnosis of HCC. Recently, its biological malignant potential has been specified to describe DCP as an autologous growth factor to stimulate HCC growth and a paracrine factor to integrate HCC with vascular endothelial cells. DCP was found to stimulate HCC growth through activation of the DCP-Met-JAK1-STAT3 signaling pathway. DCP might increase HCC invasion and metastasis through activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs and the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. DCP has also been found to play a crucial role in the formation of angiogenesis. DCP could increase the angiogenic factors released from HCC and vascular endothelial cells. These effects of DCP in angiogenesis might be related to activation of the DCP-KDR-PLC-γ-MAPK signaling pathway. In this article, we summarized recent studies on DCP in biological roles related to cancer progression and angiogenesis in HCC.

  2. Potential risk of weed outbreak by increasing biochar's application rates in slow-growth legume, lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei Khorram, Mahdi; Fatemi, Akram; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Kiefer, Rudolf; Jafarnia, Sasan

    2018-04-01

    Biochar amendment is a promising tool to improve the soil quality and, consequently, higher crop yield has received more attention during last decades. The positive effects of biochar have been attracting more attention especially in the areas with low precipitation rates, such as the Middle East, due to low soil organic carbon content, higher drought intensity, and increasing demands for food production. However, biochar can lead to lower herbicide efficacy, resulting in higher consumption of herbicides. In this study, the impact of two biochars on soil properties, plant growth, and fomesafen efficacy under rain-fed condition was investigated. Biochar amendment at the rate of 5 t ha -1 improved soil quality and plant growth by 40-200% and 46-57%, respectively, compared to the control. The increase of biochar application rate from 5 t ha -1 to 15 t ha -1 showed small additional positive effects on soil and lentil as the tested crop plant, whereas the growth of weeds elevated by 200% in this case. Albeit biochar application could be an effective way to improve the soil fertility, the potential risk of weed outbreak in the long term should be evaluated carefully before the use of biochar amendment at field scale. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The role of epidermal growth factor receptor in chordoma pathogenesis: a potential therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Asem; Presneau, Nadège; Ye, Hongtao; Halai, Dina; Berisha, Fitim; Idowu, Bernadine; Leithner, Andreas; Liegl, Bernadette; Briggs, Timothy R W; Bacsi, Krisztian; Kindblom, Lars-Gunnar; Athanasou, Nicholas; Amary, Maria Fernanda; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Tirabosco, Roberto; Flanagan, Adrienne M

    2011-02-01

    Chordoma, the molecular hallmark of which is T (brachyury), is a rare malignant bone tumour with a high risk of local recurrence and a tumour from which metastatic disease is a common late event. Currently, there is no effective drug therapy for treating chordomas, although there is evidence that some patients respond to the empirical use of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antagonists. The aim of this study was to determine the role of EGFR in the pathogenesis of chordoma. Paraffin-embedded material from 173 chordomas from 160 patients [sacro-coccygeal (n = 94), skull-based (n = 50), and mobile spine (n = 16)] was analysed by immunohistochemistry and revealed total EGFR expression in 69% of cases analysed. Of 147 informative chordomas analysed by FISH, 38% revealed high-level EGFR polysomy, 4% high-level polysomy with focal amplification, 18% low-level polysomy, and 39% disomy. Phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase array membranes showed EGFR activation in the chordoma cell line U-CH1 and all of the three chordomas analysed. Direct sequencing of EGFR (exons 18-21), KRAS, NRAS, HRAS (exons 2, 3), and BRAF (exons 11, 15) using DNA from 62 chordomas failed to reveal mutations. PTEN expression was absent by immunohistochemistry in 19 of 147 (13%) analysed chordomas, only one of which revealed high-level polysomy of EGFR. The EGFR inhibitor tyrphostin (AG 1478) markedly inhibited proliferation of the chordoma cell line U-CH1 in vitro and diminished EGFR phosphorylation in a dose-dependant manner, a finding supported by inhibition of phosphorylated Erk1/2. p-Akt was suppressed to a much lesser degree in these experiments. There was no reduction of T as assessed by western blotting. These data implicate aberrant EGFR signalling in the pathogenesis of chordoma. This study provides a strategy for patient stratification for treatment with EGFR antagonists. Copyright © 2010 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Growth Inhibitory Potential and Antimetastatic Effect of Camel Urine on Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Firdaus; Abu, Nadiah; Khorshid, Faten A; Syed Najmuddin, Syed Umar Faruq; Keong, Yeap Swee; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Hamid, Muhajir; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Nik Abd Rahman, Nik Mohd Afizan

    2017-12-01

    Although it may sound unpleasant, camel urine has been consumed extensively for years in the Middle East as it is believed to be able to treat a wide range of diseases such as fever, cold, or even cancer. People usually take it by mixing small drops with camel milk or take it directly. The project aims to study the effects of camel urine in inhibiting the growth potential and metastatic ability of 4T1 cancer cell line in vitro and in vivo. Based on the MTT result, the cytotoxicity of camel urine against 4T1 cell was established, and it was dose-dependent. Additionally, the antimetastatic potential of camel urine was tested by running several assays such as scratch assay, migration and invasion assay, and mouse aortic ring assay with promising results in the ability of camel urine to inhibit metastatic process of the 4T1 cells. In order to fully establish camel urine's potential, an in vivo study was carried out by treating mice inoculated with 4T1 cells with 2 different doses of camel urine. By the end of the treatment period, the tumor in both treated groups had reduced in size as compared to the control group. Additional assays such as the TUNEL assay, immunophenotyping, cytokine level detection assay, clonogenic assay, and proteome profiler demonstrated the capability of camel urine to reduce and inhibit the metastatic potential of 4T1 cells in vivo. To sum up, further study of anticancer properties of camel urine is justified, as evidenced through the in vitro and in vivo studies carried out. Better results were obtained at higher concentration of camel urine used in vivo. Apart from that, this project has laid out the mechanisms employed by the substance to inhibit the growth and the metastatic process of the 4T1 cell.

  5. Potential probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3 improves the growth, immunity, and disease resistance of tropical freshwater fish, Labeo rohita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Oviya, M

    2013-02-01

    The study evaluated the effects of dietary doses of Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3 on the growth performance, immunity, and disease resistance of Labeo rohita juveniles against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish (mean body weight 60 g) were fed with diet containing 0 (control), 10(6), 10(8), 10(10) cfu g(-1)L. plantarum VSG3 for 60 days. Various growth and immune parameters were examined at 30 and 60 days of post-feeding. Fish were challenged with A. hydrophila 60 days post-feeding and mortalities were recorded over 10 days post-infection. Results showed that administration of VSG3 for 60 days had significant effects (P feed utilization efficiency of L. rohita. Dietary administration of L. plantarum VSG3 significantly increased the serum lysozyme and alternative complement pathway (ACP) activities, phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity in L. rohita throughout the experimental period. The highest superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P group fed diet containing VSG3 at 10(8) cfu g(-1). The serum IgM levels were significantly higher in the experimental groups compared to the control group after 30 days of feeding; but, the result was opposite after 60 days of feeding. Further, fish fed the diet containing 10(8) cfu g(-1)L. plantarum VSG3 had significantly higher (P < 0.05) post-challenge survival rate (77.7%). These results collectively suggest that dietary supplementation of L. plantarum VSG3 at 10(8) cfu g(-1) to L. rohita is optimal for enhancing the growth, immunity, and disease resistance against A. hydrophila infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship Between Allelopathic Effects and Functional Traits of Different Allelopathic Potential Rice Accessions at Different Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Gaofeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effects of temperature, light and their interactions on allelopathic effects and the functional traits specific leaf area (SLA and stem mass fraction (SMF of different allelopathic potential rice accessions at different growth stages were analyzed. The main results were as follows: Allelopathic responses to temperature and light varied with different allelopathic potential rice accessions at different growth stages. With the rise of temperature and the extension of photoperiod, allelopathic effect increased firstly and then decreased at 2–3 leaf stage, but increased constantly at the 4–5 and 7–8 leaf stages in strong allelopathic rice accessions [O. longistaminata, F1 (O. longistaminata × RD23, F2 (RL159 and RL169]. Temperature had significant impact on allelopathic effect without considering light factors, but light showed little effect on rice allelopathy at the same temperature conditions. The greatest allelopathic effect was attained with moderate temperature and long photoperiod at 2–3 leaf stage in strong allelopathic rice accessions, but all the rice accessions showed weak allelopathic effects at the low temperature condition (15 °C/10 °C, and the influence of different factors on allelopathy followed a general trend as temperature > leaf stage > light, indicating that among the multiple factors impacting rice allelopathy, temperature was the main factor. Allelopathic characteristics of F1 and F2 to various temperature and light were similar to O. longistaminata, showing that allelopathic genes from wild rice can be expressed in its descendants. Temperature and light also had significant effects on SLA and SMF, and rice allelopathy was closely correlative to SLA in strong allelopathic rice accessions at the 4–5 and 7–8 leaf stages, but there was no correlation between rice allelopathy and SMF at different growth stages. These results suggested that rice adjust the relationship between allelopathy and SLA

  7. Potential targets of transforming growth factor-beta1 during inhibition of oocyte maturation in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelland Eric

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGF-beta is a multifunctional growth factor involved in regulating a variety of cellular activities. Unlike mammals, the function of TGF-beta in the reproduction of lower vertebrates, such as fish, is not clear. Recently, we showed that TGF-beta1 inhibits gonadotropin- and 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP-induced maturation in zebrafish. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying this action. Method To determine if the effect of TGF-beta1 on oocyte maturation involves transcription and/or translation, ovarian follicles were pre-treated with actinomycin D, a blocker of transcription, and cyclohexamide, an inhibitor of translation, and incubated with hCG or DHP, either alone or in combination with TGF-beta1 and oocyte maturation scored. To determine the effect of TGF-beta1 on mRNA levels of several key effectors of oocyte maturation, three sets of experiments were performed. First, follicles were treated with control medium or TGF-beta1 for 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. Second, follicles were treated with different concentrations of TGF-beta1 (0 to 10 ng/ml for 18 h. Third, follicles were incubated with hCG in the absence or presence of TGF-beta1 for 18 h. At the end of each experiment, total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed. PCR using primers specific for 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20beta-HSD which is involved in DHP production, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, the two forms of membrane progestin receptor: mPR-alpha and mPR-beta, as well as GAPDH (control, were performed. Results Treatment with actinomycin D, a blocker of transcription, reduced the inhibitory effect of TGF-beta1 on DHP-induced oocyte maturation, indicating that the inhibitory action of TGF-beta1 is in part due to regulation of gene transcription. Treatment with TGF-beta1 caused a dose and time-dependent decrease in mRNA levels of 20beta-HSD, LHR and mPR-beta in

  8. An analysis of the effects of sulphur content and potential on corrosion fatigue crack growth in reactor pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, J.D.; Chen, Z.-Y. [Sheffield Hallam Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Engineering; Yu, J. [Shanghai Research Inst., SH (China)

    1996-05-01

    The present work characterizes the effects of sulphur content and applied potential on the corrosion fatigue crack propagation rate in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels. The data for the characterization were achieved by conducting the tests on A533B type steels, subjected to a sine-waveform loading at 0.0167 Hz in stagnant PWR Primary (Li/B dosed) water at 290{sup o}C. Data analyses reveal that both plateau corrosion fatigue crack propagation rate, da/dN{sub p}, and threshold stress intensity factor, {Delta}K{sub thp}, are closely proportional to the square root value of bulk sulphur concentration in the range 0.003-0.019%. These relationships have been supported by other sources of data obtained under similar testing conditions. Available experimental results also show that both da/dN{sub p} and {Delta}K{sub thp} are linear functions of the difference between externally applied potential and open circuit potential, {Delta}E. An equation has been proposed to predict the synergistic effect of sulphur content and applied potential on the plateau corrosion fatigue crack growth rate of A533B steels. (Author).

  9. Analysis of the influence of external factors on efficiency of use of resource potential and economic growth of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Vasiliev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article are described and analyzed the influence of factors of external and internal environments on maintaining the planned economic growth, efficient use of the resource potential of the regional economic complex. Are provided methods of analysis and comprehensive measures to maintain the planned pace of economic growth of the region, expansion of competitive advantages. Enlargement and generalization determine the impact of economic environmental factors, in accordance with the duration of optimization and changes in the business cycle, provide a high level of confidence in the estimates of the impact of the macro environment on the process of achieving economic success, efficient use of the resource potential of the regional economic complex. Analysis of the internal conditions of region is carried out by management on the basis of establishing the optimal values of the distribution of the resource potential for high-priority, economically viable, and socially important areas of efficient use of logistical, labor, information, and natural resources, analysis of the current or having a tendency to the formation of informal communities in the sectoral components of economic activities, industrial complexes and social services. The possibilities of the availability and abilities of the region to influence the structural components in achieving the economic and financial goals of the activity are considered, including ensuring sustainable dynamics in increasing the efficiency of regional production, providing competitive advantages in the use of consumed resources. The factors proposed for consideration, different management of the regional economy, contribute to the creation of both formal and informal organizational and economic communities, taking into account the interests of all its participants. In addition, mechanisms and tools are proposed that facilitate the creation of favorable conditions for participants in informal clusters

  10. Potential of Multitemporal Tandem-X Derived Crop Surface Models for Maize Growth Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütt, C.; Tilly, N.; Schiedung, H.; Bareth, G.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, first results of retrieving plant heights of maize fields from multitemporal TanDEM-X images are shown. Three TanDEM-X dual polarization spotlight acquisitions were taken over a rural area in Germany in the growing season 2014. By interferometric processing, digital terrain models (DTM) were derived for each date with 5m resolution. From the data of the first acquisition (June 1st) taken before planting, a DTM of the bare ground is generated. The data of the following acquisition dates (July 15th, July 26th) are used to establish crop surface models (CSM). A CSM represents the crop surface of a whole field in a high resolution. By subtracting the DTM of the ground from each CSM, the actual plant height is calculated. Within these data sets 30 maize fields in the area of interest could be detected and verified by external land use data. Besides the spaceborne measurements, one of the maize fields was intensively investigated using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), which was carried out at the same dates as the predicted TanDEM-X acquisitions. Visual inspection of the derived plant heights, and accordance of the individually processed polarisations over the maize fields, demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Unfortunately, the infield variability of the intensively monitored field could not be successfully captured in the TanDEM-X derived plant heights and merely the general trend is visible. Nevertheless, the study shows the potential of the TanDEM-X constellation for maize height monitoring on field level.

  11. Growth Inhibitory Effects of Adhatoda vasica and Its Potential at Reducing Listeria monocytogenes in Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Shukla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effects of Adhatoda vasica ethanolic leaf extract (AVELE against Listeria monocytogenes were examined to assess its potential to preserve minimally processed meat products safely. The total phenolic, flavonoid, and alkaloid levels in AVELE were 10.09 ± 4.52 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g, 22.43 ± 1.62 mg of quercetin equivalents/g, and 19.43 ± 3.90 mg/g, respectively. AVELE (1, 5, 10, or 20% had considerable antibacterial effects against L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563 in terms of the inhibitory zones (7.4–13.6 mm, MIC (100 mg/mL or 10% formulated solution, reduced cell viability, potassium ion efflux, and the release of 260-nm absorbing materials and extracellular ATP. AVELE was used as a rinse solution (5, 10, and 20% for raw chicken breast meat. A 20% rinsing solution applied for 60 min inhibited the L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563 counts significantly on raw chicken breast meat. Moreover, L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563 did not grow in the meat sample when the rinse time was increased to 90 min at the same concentration. L. monocytogenes showed a greater reduction to ~3 CFU/g after rinsing with a 10 and 20% AVELE solution for 30 min than with a 5% AVELE solution. The rinsing processes with AVELE produced the final cooked chicken products with higher sensory attribute scores, such as taste, juiciness, and tenderness, compared to the control group along with a decrease in microbial contamination. Chicken meat rinsed with AVELE (rinsing time of 90 min showed better sensory attribute scores of juiciness and tenderness, as well as the overall sensory quality compared to the untreated group. This research highlights the effectiveness of AVELE against L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563, suggesting that AVELE can be used as an effective antimicrobial marinade and/or a rinse for meat preservation.

  12. Growth potential of alternative eucalyptus species for mid and high altitude sites in the summer rainfall region in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komakech Otim, C

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available between the impact of disease infestation and growth performance. It was found that negative phenotypic correlations existed between the levels of infection and tree growth. ie greater infection slower growth. Evaluation of genotype x environment...

  13. Descriptive, cross-country analysis of the nurse practitioner workforce in six countries: size, growth, physician substitution potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Claudia B; Barnes, Hilary; Aiken, Linda H; Busse, Reinhard

    2016-09-06

    Many countries are facing provider shortages and imbalances in primary care or are projecting shortfalls for the future, triggered by the rise in chronic diseases and multimorbidity. In order to assess the potential of nurse practitioners (NPs) in expanding access, we analysed the size, annual growth (2005-2015) and the extent of advanced practice of NPs in 6 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Cross-country data analysis of national nursing registries, regulatory bodies, statistical offices data as well as OECD health workforce and population data, plus literature scoping review. NP and physician workforces in 6 OECD countries (Australia, Canada, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand and USA). The main outcomes were the absolute and relative number of NPs per 100 000 population compared with the nursing and physician workforces, the compound annual growth rates, annual and median percentage changes from 2005 to 2015 and a synthesis of the literature on the extent of advanced clinical practice measured by physician substitution effect. The USA showed the highest absolute number of NPs and rate per population (40.5 per 100 000 population), followed by the Netherlands (12.6), Canada (9.8), Australia (4.4), and Ireland and New Zealand (3.1, respectively). Annual growth rates were high in all countries, ranging from annual compound rates of 6.1% in the USA to 27.8% in the Netherlands. Growth rates were between three and nine times higher compared with physicians. Finally, the empirical studies emanating from the literature scoping review suggested that NPs are able to provide 67-93% of all primary care services, yet, based on limited evidence. NPs are a rapidly growing workforce with high levels of advanced practice potential in primary care. Workforce monitoring based on accurate data is critical to inform educational capacity and workforce planning. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  14. Plant Growth Promotion Potential Is Equally Represented in Diverse Grapevine Root-Associated Bacterial Communities from Different Biopedoclimatic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Marasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-associated bacteria provide important services to host plants. Environmental factors such as cultivar type and pedoclimatic conditions contribute to shape their diversity. However, whether these environmental factors may influence the plant growth promoting (PGP potential of the root-associated bacteria is not widely understood. To address this issue, the diversity and PGP potential of the bacterial assemblage associated with the grapevine root system of different cultivars in three Mediterranean environments along a macrotransect identifying an aridity gradient were assessed by culture-dependent and independent approaches. According to 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE, the structure of endosphere and rhizosphere bacterial communities was highly diverse (P=0.03 and was associated with a cultivar/latitudinal/climatic effect. Despite being diverse, the bacterial communities associated with Egyptian grapevines shared a higher similarity with the Tunisian grapevines than those cultivated in North Italy. A similar distribution, according to the cultivar/latitude/aridity gradients, was observed for the cultivable bacteria. Many isolates (23% presented in vitro multiple stress resistance capabilities and PGP activities, the most frequent being auxin synthesis (82%, insoluble phosphate solubilisation (61%, and ammonia production (70%. The comparable numbers and types of potential PGP traits among the three different environmental settings indicate a strong functional homeostasis of beneficial bacteria associated with grape root.

  15. Pseudomonas rhizophila S211, a New Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium with Potential in Pesticide-Bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Hassen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of Pseudomonas strains function as inoculants for biocontrol, biofertilization, and phytostimulation, avoiding the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Here, we present a new metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas rhizophila S211, isolated from a pesticide contaminated artichoke field that shows biofertilization, biocontrol and bioremediation potentialities. The S211 genome was sequenced, annotated and key genomic elements related to plant growth promotion and biosurfactant (BS synthesis were elucidated. S211 genome comprises 5,948,515 bp with 60.4% G+C content, 5306 coding genes and 215 RNA genes. The genome sequence analysis confirmed the presence of genes involved in plant-growth promoting and remediation activities such as the synthesis of ACC deaminase, putative dioxygenases, auxin, pyroverdin, exopolysaccharide levan and rhamnolipid BS. BS production by P. rhizophila S211 grown on olive mill wastewater based media was effectively optimized using a central-composite experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM. The optimum conditions for maximum BS production yield (720.80 ± 55.90 mg/L were: 0.5% (v/v inoculum size, 15% (v/v olive oil mill wastewater (OMWW and 40°C incubation temperature at pH 6.0 for 8 days incubation period. Biochemical and structural characterization of S211 BS by chromatography and spectroscopy studies suggested the glycolipid nature of the BS. P. rhizophila rhamnolipid was stable over a wide range of temperature (40–90°C, pH (6–10, and salt concentration (up to 300 mM NaCl. Due to its low-cost production, emulsification activities and high performance in solubilization enhancement of chemical pesticides, the indigenous BS-producing PGPR S211 could be used as a promising agent for environmental bioremediation of pesticide-contaminated agricultural soils.

  16. Staurosporine from the endophytic Streptomyces sp. strain CNS-42 acts as a potential biocontrol agent and growth elicitor in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Huang, Pei; Wang, Qian; Xiao, Lie; Liu, Miaomiao; Bolla, Krishna; Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Linyong; Gan, Bingcheng; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2014-09-01

    Chinese medicinal plants and their surrounding rhizospheric soil serve as promising sources of actinobacteria. A total of 180 actinobacteria strains were isolated from the rhizosphere soil, leaves, stems, and roots of nine selected plants and have been identified as potential biocontrol agents against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. An endophytic strain CNS-42 isolated from Alisma orientale showed the largest zone of inhibition demonstrating a potent effect against F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and a broad antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeasts, and other pathogenic fungi. The in vivo biocontrol assays showed that the disease severity index was significantly reduced (P plant shoot fresh weight and height increased greatly (P plant growth promoting activities and the latter property of staurosporine is reported for the first time. The in vivo assay was further performed and indicated that staurosporine showed good growth promoting effect on the plant shoot biomass of cucumber. This is the first critical evidence identifying CNS-42 as a biocontrol agent for the soil borne pathogen, F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

  17. Determination of plant growth promoting potential of enterobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. León Mendoza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The yellow maize is the third most important crop in Peru and part of the chain maize-poultry-pig, significant impact on the national economic and social activity, however, in 2011, only 40% of the corn offered corresponded to the domestic industry. Looking for alternatives to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers, have performed investigations with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of maize from districts Monsefú and Reque, Lambayeque. Dilution was made into sterile saline 0.87% NaCl w/v and plated on MacConkey agar, incubating at 30°C for 48 hours. 269 pure cultures of bacteria were obtained, the biochemical reaction was investigated in agar Triple sugar iron agar Iron Lysine, agar Citrate Simons, peptone broth, red broth methyl Voges-Proskauer and nitrate broth, was identified 66% as Enterobacteriaceae of genera Pantoea (49%, Klebsiella (17%, Kluyvera (16%, Serratia (11%, Citrobacter (4% and Hafnia (3%. The native enterobacteria were quantified to 31.67 ppm of fixed nitrogen as ammonia; 54.25 ppm indole acetic acid and 4,78 ppm solubilized phosphorus, activity proteolytic and chitinolytic and antagonistic activity of Fusarium verticillioides were also determined. 16% of native enterobacteria did not affect the emergence of hard yellow maize, 77% affected positively and 7% affected negatively. In turn, none bacteria affected survival. Was demonstrated the potential plant growth promoter of enterobacteria isolated from field crops in the region of Lambayeque.

  18. Wound healing potential of naringin ointment formulation via regulating the expression of inflammatory, apoptotic and growth mediators in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandhare, Amit D; Alam, Javed; Patil, Mithun V K; Sinha, Akanksha; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is a consequence of a complex process involving inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling phases. Naringin, a flavanone glycoside, is associated with modulation of various oxido-inflammatory and growth factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the wound-healing activity of naringin ointment formulation (NOF) on experimental wound models. A soft paraffin-based cream containing 1, 2, and 4% (w/w) naringin was formulated and evaluated for physicochemical characters. Excision wounds and incisions wounds were used to study the topical effect of NOF for 20 d (once a day) on various biochemical, molecular, and histological parameters. NOF (2 and 4%, w/w) treatment showed a significant decrease (p healing potential via down-regulated expression of inflammatory (NF-κB, TNF-α, and ILs), apoptotic (pol-γ and Bax), and up-regulated growth factor (VEGF and TGF-β) expression, thus modulating collagen-1 expression to induce angiogenesis leading to wound healing.

  19. Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Koelreuteria Paniculata Seedlings and Their Potential for Restoring Manganese Mine Wastelands in Hunan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil.

  20. Growth Rate Potential of Juvenile Sockeye Salmon in Warmer and Cooler Years on the Eastern Bering Sea Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward V. Farley

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A spatially explicit bioenergetics model was used to predict juvenile sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka growth rate potential (GRP on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during years with cooler and warmer spring sea surface temperatures (SSTs. Annual averages of juvenile sockeye salmon GRP were generally lower among years with cooler SSTs and generally higher in offshore than nearshore regions of the eastern Bering Sea shelf during years with warmer SSTs. Juvenile sockeye salmon distribution was significantly (P<.05 related to GRP and their prey densities were positively related to spring SST (P<.05. Juvenile sockeye salmon GRP was more sensitive to changes in prey density and observed SSTs during years when spring SSTs were warmer (2002, 2003, and 2005. Our results suggest that the pelagic productivity on the eastern Bering Sea shelf was higher during years with warmer spring SSTs and highlight the importance of bottom-up control on the eastern Bering Sea ecosystem.

  1. In-vitro growth characteristics of commercial probiotic strains and their potential for inhibition of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoster, A.; Permin, A.; Kokotovic, Branko

    2012-01-01

    . To study growth characteristics of 17 commercial probiotic strains (Lactobacilli n=16, Bifidobacteria n=1) MRS broth was adjusted to pH 2 or 4 or supplemented with 0.15% or 0.3% bile. Growth was measured at 0 and 24h and compared spectrophotometrically to control growth in standard MRS broth. Growth under...

  2. IN-VITRO GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMERCIAL PROBIOTIC STRAINS AND THEIR POTENTIAL FOR INHIBITION OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE AND CLOSTRDIDUM PERFRINGENS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoster, Angelika; Kokotovic, Branko; Permin, Anders

    . To study growth characteristics of 17 commercial probiotic strains (Lactobacilli n=16, Bifidobacteria n=1) MRS broth was adjusted to pH 2 or 4 or supplemented with 0.15% or 0.3% bile. Growth was measured at 0 and 24h and compared spectrophotometrically to control growth in standard MRS broth. Growth under...

  3. Evaluation of the Green Microalga Monoraphidium sp. Dek19 Growth Utilizing Ethanol Plant Side Streams and Potential for Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, David Michael

    This research was conducted to evaluate the potential for growth of Monoraphidium sp. Dek19 using side streams from an ethanol plant for culture medium. Additionally, the potential of using enzymes to break down the cell wall material to release fermentable sugars and oil was examined. The ethanol streams selected were methanator influent, methanator effluent, and thin stillage. This species of microalgae has been previously studied and found to have the ability to grow in and remediate the effluent water from the DeKalb Sanitary District (DSD). The Monoraphidium sp. Dek19 was grown in various concentrations of the ethanol plant side streams concurrently with algae cultures grown in the DSD effluent. The algae cultures were grown in 250ml flasks to determine the optimal concentrations of the ethanol streams. The concentrations with the growth rate and cell counts closest to or higher than the DSD effluents were selected for further examination. These concentrations were repeated to evaluate the most optimal growth conditions using the ethanol streams in comparison to the DSD effluent grown algae. The selected growth condition for the ethanol streams was determined to be using the methanator effluent as the base water component with the thin stillage added to a 2% concentration. The 2% concentration showed an average increase in cell count to be 8.49% higher than the control cell count. The methanator influent was discarded as a base water component, as the growth of the algae was 40.18% less than that of the control. Other concentrations considered resulted in a decrease in cell. count ranging from 9.20-48.97%. The three closest growth results of the concentration of thin stillage and methanator effluent (1%, 2%, and 4%) were scaled up to 2L flasks to confirm the results on a larger scale. The results showed a greater reduction in the cell count of the 1% and 4% concentrations, 23.52% and 16.31% reduction in cell count respectively. The 2% concentration showed a

  4. Synergistic effect of vitamin D and low concentration of transforming growth factor beta 1, a potential role in dermal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie; Kwan, Peter; Ma, Zengshuan; Iwashina, Takashi; Wang, Jianfei; Shankowsky, Heather A; Tredget, Edward E

    2016-09-01

    Dermal wound healing, in which transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) plays an important role, is a complex process. Previous studies suggest that vitamin D has a potential regulatory role in TGFβ1 induced activation in bone formation, and there is cross-talk between their signaling pathways, but research on their effects in other types of wound healing is limited. The authors therefore wanted to explore the role of vitamin D and its interaction with low concentration of TGFβ1 in dermal fibroblast-mediated wound healing through an in vitro study. Human dermal fibroblasts were treated with vitamin D, TGFβ1, both, or vehicle, and then the wound healing functions of dermal fibroblasts were measured. To further explore possible mechanisms explaining the synergistic effect of vitamin D and TGFβ1, targeted gene silencing of the vitamin D receptor was performed. Compared to either factor alone, treatment of fibroblasts with both vitamin D and low concentration of TGFβ1 increased gene expression of TGFβ1, connective tissue growth factor, and fibronectin 1, and enhanced fibroblast migration, myofibroblast formation, and collagen production. Vitamin D receptor gene silencing blocked this synergistic effect of vitamin D and TGFβ1 on both collagen production and myofibroblast differentiation. Thus a synergistic effect of vitamin D and low TGFβ1 concentration was found in dermal fibroblast-mediated wound healing in vitro. This study suggests that supplementation of vitamin D may be an important step to improve wound healing and regeneration in patients with a vitamin D deficiency. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Endophytic fungal diversity in Theobroma cacao (cacao) and T. grandiflorum (cupuaçu) trees and their potential for growth promotion and biocontrol of black-pod disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Rogério Eiji; Pomella, Alan William V; Costa, Heron Salazar; Bezerra, José Luiz; Loguercio, Leandro L; Pereira, José O

    2010-01-01

    The endophytic niches of plants are a rich source of microbes that can directly and indirectly promote plant protection, growth and development. The diversity of culturable endophytic fungi from stems and branches of Theobroma cacao (cacao) and Theobroma grandiflorum (cupuaçu) trees growing in the Amazon region of Brazil was assessed. The collection of fungal endophytic isolates obtained was applied in field experiments to evaluate their potential as biocontrol agents against Phytophthora palmivora, the causal agent of the black-pod rot disease of cacao, one of the most important pathogens in cocoa-producing regions worldwide. The isolated endophytic fungi from 60 traditional, farmer-planted, healthy cacao and 10 cupuaçu plants were cultured in PDA under conditions inducing sporulation. Isolates were classified based upon the morphological characteristics of their cultures and reproductive structures. Spore suspensions from a total of 103 isolates that could be classified at least up to genus level were tested against P. palmivora in pods attached to cacao trees in the field. Results indicated that ∼70% of isolates showed biocontrol effects to a certain extent, suggesting that culturable endophytic fungal biodiversity in this system is of a mostly mutualistic type of interaction with the host. Eight isolates from genera Trichoderma (reference isolate), Pestalotiopsis, Curvularia, Tolypocladium and Fusarium showed the highest level of activity against the pathogen, and were further characterized. All demonstrated their endophytic nature by colonizing axenic cacao plantlets, and confirmed their biocontrol activity on attached pods trials by showing significant decrease in disease severity in relation to the positive control. None, however, showed detectable growth-promotion effects. Aspects related to endophytic biodiversity and host-pathogen-endophyte interactions in the environment of this study were discussed on the context of developing sustainable strategies

  6. Interstitial fluid flow-induced growth potential and hyaluronan synthesis of fibroblasts in a fibroblast-populated stretched collagen gel culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Natsumi; Adachi, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru; Kawada, Norifumi; Oofusa, Ken; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

    2017-09-01

    Tensioned collagen gels with dermal fibroblasts (DFs) as a dermis model are usually utilized in a static culture (SC) that lacks medium flowing. To make the model closer to its in vivo state, we created a device to perfuse the model with media flowing at a physiological velocity and examined the effects of medium flow (MF) on the cultures. We constructed a medium perfusion device for human DF-embedded stretched collagen gels (human dermis model), exposed the model to media that flows upwardly at ~1mL/day, and examined water retention of the gels, cells' growth ability, metabolic activity, expression profiles of nine extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes. The obtained data were compared with those from the model in SC. MF increases the gels' water retention and cells' growth potential but had little effect on their metabolic activities. MF robustly enhanced hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and matrix metalloprotease 1 (MMP1) gene expressions but not of the other genes (MMP2, HYAL1, HYAL2, HYAL3, COL1A1, COL3A1, and CD44). MF significantly increased the amounts of cellular hyaluronan and adenosine triphosphate. The MF at a physiological speed significantly influences the nature of ECMs and their resident fibroblasts and remodels ECMs by regulating hyaluronan metabolism. Fibroblasts in tensioned collagen gels altered their phenotypes in a MF rate-dependent manner. Collagen gel culture with tension and MF could be utilized as an appropriate in vitro model of interstitial connective tissues to evaluate the pathophysiological significance of mechanosignals generated by fluid flow and cellular/extracellular tension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A potential role for lamellar insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in the pathogenesis of hyperinsulinaemic laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Melody A; Pollitt, Christopher C; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; McGowan, Catherine M; Sillence, Martin N

    2013-08-01

    The reason why a sustained high concentration of insulin induces laminitis in horses remains unclear. Cell proliferation occurs in the lamellae during insulin-induced laminitis and in other species high concentrations of insulin can activate receptors for the powerful cell mitogen, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. The first aim of this study was to determine if IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1R) are activated in the hoof during insulin-induced laminitis. Gene expression for IGF-1R and the insulin receptor (InsR) was measured using qRT-PCR, in lamellar tissue from control horses and from horses undergoing a prolonged euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic clamp (p-EHC), during the mid-developmental (24h) and acute (46 h) phases of insulin-induced laminitis. Gene expression for both receptors was decreased 13-32-fold (Plaminitis. Targeting this receptor may provide insights into the pathogenesis or identify a novel therapy for hyperinsulinaemic laminitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of growth, metabolism and production of potentially bioactive components during fermentation of barley with Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallin, Anton; Agback, Peter; Jonsson, Hans; Roos, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Eighteen bacterial isolates from millet, buckwheat and rye flour were identified as Lactobacillus reuteri. Genomic fingerprinting (rep-PCR) revealed that they represented five strains and phylogenetic analyses using multi locus sequence analysis (MLSA) showed that all clustered with strains of rodent origin. Two strains (SU12-3 and SU18-3) from different phylogenetic clades were used in fermentations of six varieties of barley, both untreated and heat-treated (with inactivated indigenous enzymes) flour. They were compared with two probiotic strains of human origin (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 6475), one previously isolated sourdough strain (LTH 5531) and one strain of Lactobacillus plantarum (36E). Analyses of growth (CFU) and metabolism (1H-NMR) revealed differences at species level, with L. plantarum showing a higher capacity to assimilate nutrients without help of the cereal enzymes. Similarities were observed between L. reuteri strains isolated from sourdough, while the greatest differences between L. reuteri strains were observed between strains 6475 and 17938. Multivariate analysis of the metabolic profiles revealed clear clustering according to flour treatment, species of bacteria and barley variety and to some extent also bacterial strain. Possible bioactive compounds such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 1,3- propanediol (sign of reuterin production) and histamine were identified and quantified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Growth and Potential Damage of Human Bone-Derived Cells Cultured on Fresh and Aged C60/Ti Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopova, Ivana; Lavrentiev, Vasily; Vacik, Jiri; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of binary C60/Ti composites, with various concentrations of Ti ranging from ~ 25% to ~ 70%, were deposited on microscopic glass coverslips and were tested for their potential use in bone tissue engineering as substrates for the adhesion and growth of bone cells. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of Ti atoms (i.e., widely used biocompatible material for the construction of stomatological and orthopedic implants) with atoms of fullerene C60, which can act as very efficient radical scavengers. However, fullerenes and their derivatives are able to generate harmful reactive oxygen species and to have cytotoxic effects. In order to stabilize C60 molecules and to prevent their possible cytotoxic effects, deposition in the compact form of Ti/C60 composites (with various Ti concentrations) was chosen. The reactivity of C60/Ti composites may change in time due to the physicochemical changes of molecules in an air atmosphere. In this study, we therefore tested the dependence between the age of C60/Ti films (from one week to one year) and the adhesion, morphology, proliferation, viability, metabolic activity and potential DNA damage to human osteosarcoma cells (lines MG-63 and U-2 OS). After 7 days of cultivation, we did not observe any negative influence of fresh or aged C60/Ti layers on cell behavior, including the DNA damage response. The presence of Ti atoms resulted in improved properties of the C60 layers, which became more suitable for cell cultivation. PMID:25875338

  10. Potential role for epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in combined-modality therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Choy, Hak

    2004-01-01

    There has been a surge of interest in the translation of discoveries in molecular biology into clinically relevant therapies in the field of hematology/oncology. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been a molecular target of significant interest and investigation, and preclinical and clinical studies support a role for targeted therapy in a variety of cancers, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) via compounds that specifically inhibit EGFR. ZD1839, IMC-C225, and OSI-774 are the most clinically developed of these compounds. Interestingly, preclinical studies have demonstrated that EGFR inhibitors may have radiation-sensitizing properties, as well as increased cytotoxic activity in combination with chemotherapeutic agents, suggesting a potential role for EGFR inhibitors as an adjunct to the current combined-modality approach for therapy of Stage III NSCLC. Therefore, clinical trials have been proposed and initiated to address the issue of determining the impact of the addition of EGFR inhibitors to the standard combined-modality regimen (chemotherapy/radiation therapy ± surgery) for Stage III NSCLC. This article reviews preclinical and clinical data supporting the role for EGFR inhibitors alone or in combination with chemotherapy/radiation therapy for locally advanced NSCLC. Also, it will provide an overview of ongoing and proposed clinical studies investigating the potential role for EGFR inhibitors in Stage III NSCLC

  11. Effect of potential barrier growth of auto-localized excitons decay on radiation defects in AHC at low lattice symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shunkeev, K.; Sagimbaeva, Sh.; Shunkeev, S.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of auto-localized excitons (ALE) luminescence strengthening is conditioned by two mechanisms: either decrease of potential barrier divided of quasi-free states and auto-localized states or decrease of emission-less channel effectiveness of exciton decay on primary radiation defects. In considered range (80 K) all excitons are only in auto-localized state. Therefore a realization of the first mechanism is improbable, For instant, in KI crystal at 80-100 K luminescence of free exciton is completely putting out, and ALE luminescence has maximal intensity. It is known that in the temperature range when ALE luminescence putting out is beginning an effectiveness of radiation defects is beginning to grow. This effect is related with predominating at that time emission-less exciton decay on radiation defects (F-H pairs). Experimentally by luminescence spectroscopy method activation energy of temperature putting out of ALE in AHC under uniaxial deformation. It is revealed, that increase of activation energy value has observed in a number of crystals: KBr→NaCl→KI→Na Br→CsBr→RbI. It is concluded, that effect of ALE intensity building-up and decrease of effectiveness of radiation defect formation are interpreted by growth of potential barrier of ALE decay into radiation defects under low symmetry of AHC lattice of low-temperature uniaxial deformation

  12. Bioenergetic model estimates of interannual and spatial patterns in consumption demand and growth potential of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J.H.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Cross, A.D.; Farley, E.V.; Murphy, J.M.; Helle, J.H.; Walker, R.V.; Myers, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    A bioenergetic model of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) was used to estimate daily prey consumption and growth potential of four ocean habitats in the Gulf of Alaska during 2001 and 2002. Growth potential was not significantly higher in 2002 than in 2001 at an alpha level of 0.05 (P=0.073). Average differences in growth potential across habitats were minimal (slope habitat=0.844 g d-1, shelf habitat=0.806 g d-1, offshore habitat=0.820 g d-1, and nearshore habitat=0.703 g d-1) and not significantly different (P=0.630). Consumption demand differed significantly between hatchery and wild stocks (P=0.035) when examined within year due to the interaction between hatchery verses wild origin and year. However, the overall effect of origin across years was not significant (P=0.705) due to similar total amounts of prey consumed by all juvenile pink salmon in both study years. We anticipated that years in which ocean survival was high would have had high growth potential, but this relationship did not prove to be true. Therefore, modeled growth potential may not be useful as a tool for forecasting survival of Prince William Sound hatchery pink salmon stocks. Significant differences in consumption demand and a two-fold difference in nearshore abundance during 2001 of hatchery and wild pink salmon confirmed the existence of strong and variable interannual competition and the importance of the nearshore region as being a potential competitive bottleneck.

  13. Growth and reproductive potential of Eisenia foetida (Sav) on various zoo animal dungs after two methods of pre-composting followed by vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Godínez, Edmundo Arturo; Lagunes-Zarate, Jorge; Corona-Hernández, Juan; Barajas-Aceves, Martha

    2017-06-01

    Disposal of animal manure without treatment can be harmful to the environment. In this study, samples of four zoo animal dungs and one horse dung were pre-composted in two ways: (a) traditional composting and (b) bokashi pre-composting for 1month, followed by vermicomposting for 3months. The permanence (PEf) and reproductive potential (RP) of Eisenia foetida as well as the quality of vermicompost were evaluated. The PEf values and RP index of E. foetida were higher for samples pre-composted using the traditional composting method (98.7-88% and 31.85-16.27%, respectively) followed by vermicomposting (92.7-72.7% and 22.96-13.51%, respectively), when compared with those for bokashi pre-composted samples followed by vermicomposting, except for the horse dung sample (100% for both the parameters). The values of electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic C, total N, available P, C/N ratio, and pH showed that both treatments achieved the norms of vermicompost (composting followed by vermicomposting produced the highest values (98.7-70.7%, 97.67-96.65%, and 2.7-1.97%, respectively), when compared with the other method adapted in this study. Nevertheless, further studies with plants for plant growth evaluation are needed to assess the benefits and limitations of these two pre-composting methods prior to vermicomposting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  15. Preparation, characterization of silver phyto nanoparticles and their impact on growth potential ofLupinus termisL. seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Huqail, Asma A; Hatata, Maysa M; Al-Huqail, Arwa A; Ibrahim, Mohamed M

    2018-02-01

    The current study reports rapid and easy method for synthesis of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Coriandrum sativum leaves extract as a reducing and covering agent. The bio-reductive synthesis of AgNPs was monitored using a scanning double beam UV-vis spectrophotometer. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the morphology of AgNPs obtained from plant extracts. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of AgNPs indicate that the structure of AgNPs is the face centered cubic structure of metallic silver. The surface morphology and topography of the AgNPs were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the energy dispersive spectrum revealed the presence of elemental silver in the sample. The silver phyto nanoparticles were collected from plant extract and tested growth potential and metabolic pattern in ( Lupinus termis L.) seedlings upon exposure to different concentrations of AgNPs. The seedlings were exposed to various concentrations of (0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg L -1 ) AgNPs for ten days. Significant reduction in shoot and root elongation, shoot and root fresh weights, total chlorophyll and total protein contents were observed under the higher concentrations of AgNPs. Exposure to 0.5 mg L -1 of AgNPs decreased sugar contents and caused significant foliar proline accumulation which considered as an indicator of the stressful effect of AgNPs on seedlings. AgNPs exposure resulted in a dose dependent decrease in different growth parameters and also caused metabolic disorders as evidenced by decreased carbohydrates and protein contents. Further studies needed to find out the efficacy, longevity and toxicity of AgNPs toward photosynthetic system and antioxidant parameters to improve the current investigation.

  16. Preparation, characterization of silver phyto nanoparticles and their impact on growth potential of Lupinus termis L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma A. Al-Huqail

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study reports rapid and easy method for synthesis of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Coriandrum sativum leaves extract as a reducing and covering agent. The bio-reductive synthesis of AgNPs was monitored using a scanning double beam UV-vis spectrophotometer. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to characterize the morphology of AgNPs obtained from plant extracts. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of AgNPs indicate that the structure of AgNPs is the face centered cubic structure of metallic silver. The surface morphology and topography of the AgNPs were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the energy dispersive spectrum revealed the presence of elemental silver in the sample. The silver phyto nanoparticles were collected from plant extract and tested growth potential and metabolic pattern in (Lupinus termis L. seedlings upon exposure to different concentrations of AgNPs. The seedlings were exposed to various concentrations of (0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg L−1 AgNPs for ten days. Significant reduction in shoot and root elongation, shoot and root fresh weights, total chlorophyll and total protein contents were observed under the higher concentrations of AgNPs. Exposure to 0.5 mg L−1 of AgNPs decreased sugar contents and caused significant foliar proline accumulation which considered as an indicator of the stressful effect of AgNPs on seedlings. AgNPs exposure resulted in a dose dependent decrease in different growth parameters and also caused metabolic disorders as evidenced by decreased carbohydrates and protein contents. Further studies needed to find out the efficacy, longevity and toxicity of AgNPs toward photosynthetic system and antioxidant parameters to improve the current investigation.

  17. Effect of sea salt irrigation on plant growth, yield potential and some biochemical attributes of carissa carandas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyab, A.

    2016-01-01

    Carissa carandas (varn. Karonda) is an edible and medicinal plant having ability to grow in saline and water deficit conditions, however, little is known about its salinity tolerance. Therefore, the effect of salinity on vegetative (height and volume), reproductive (number of flowers and number, size and weight of fruits) and some biochemical parameters (leaf pigments, ions, soluble sugars, proteins, and phenols) of C. carandas were studied. Plants were grown in drum pot culture and irrigated with non-saline or saline water of 0.6% and 0.8% sea salt concentrations, for a period of 30 months. Results showed that, plant height, and canopy volume decreased with increasing salinity. The chlorophyll contents and chlorophyll a/b ratio followed the similar trend as for growth, however, carotenoids increased at 0.6% sea salt and subsequently decreased in higher salinity. Unchanged soluble sugar and protein content at 0.6% sea salt, as compared to control, could be attributed to leaf osmotic adjustments which decreased with further increase in salinity. Linear increase in soluble phenols and carotenoid/chlorophyll ratio indicating a protective strategy of C. carandas to minimize photo-damage. Besides increasing Na+ and decreasing K+ contents, plant seemed to maintain K+/Na+ ratio (above 1), especially at 0.6 sea salt, which disturbed at higher salinity. Salinity adversely affected reproductive growth of C. carandas where, production of flowers, and fruits were significantly reduced. In addition, fresh and dry weights of fruits decreased with increasing salinity, but salinity did not affect fruit length and diameter. Present study provides basic information related to plant growth, fruit yield and some biochemical attributes, which suggest that C. carandas is moderately salt tolerant plant. This plant showed potential to grow on saline marginal lands using brackish water irrigation and provide biomass for edible and medicinal purposes. However, in-depth analysis of field and

  18. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espreafico Enilza M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma progression occurs through three major stages: radial growth phase (RGP, confined to the epidermis; vertical growth phase (VGP, when the tumor has invaded into the dermis; and metastasis. In this work, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to investigate the molecular signature of melanoma progression, by comparing a group of metastatic cell lines with an RGP-like cell line showing characteristics of early neoplastic lesions including expression of the metastasis suppressor KISS1, lack of αvβ3-integrin and low levels of RHOC. Methods Two subtracted cDNA collections were obtained, one (RGP library by subtracting the RGP cell line (WM1552C cDNA from a cDNA pool from four metastatic cell lines (WM9, WM852, 1205Lu and WM1617, and the other (Met library by the reverse subtraction. Clones were sequenced and annotated, and expression validation was done by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Gene Ontology annotation and searches in large-scale melanoma expression studies were done for the genes identified. Results We identified 367 clones from the RGP library and 386 from the Met library, of which 351 and 368, respectively, match human mRNA sequences, representing 288 and 217 annotated genes. We confirmed the differential expression of all genes selected for validation. In the Met library, we found an enrichment of genes in the growth factors/receptor, adhesion and motility categories whereas in the RGP library, enriched categories were nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA packing/repair, and macromolecular/vesicular trafficking. Interestingly, 19% of the genes from the RGP library map to chromosome 1 against 4% of the ones from Met library. Conclusion This study identifies two populations of genes differentially expressed between melanoma cell lines from two tumor stages and suggests that these sets of genes represent profiles of less aggressive versus metastatic melanomas. A search for expression profiles of melanoma in

  19. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Josane F; Espreafico, Enilza M

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma progression occurs through three major stages: radial growth phase (RGP), confined to the epidermis; vertical growth phase (VGP), when the tumor has invaded into the dermis; and metastasis. In this work, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to investigate the molecular signature of melanoma progression, by comparing a group of metastatic cell lines with an RGP-like cell line showing characteristics of early neoplastic lesions including expression of the metastasis suppressor KISS1, lack of αvβ3-integrin and low levels of RHOC. Two subtracted cDNA collections were obtained, one (RGP library) by subtracting the RGP cell line (WM1552C) cDNA from a cDNA pool from four metastatic cell lines (WM9, WM852, 1205Lu and WM1617), and the other (Met library) by the reverse subtraction. Clones were sequenced and annotated, and expression validation was done by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Gene Ontology annotation and searches in large-scale melanoma expression studies were done for the genes identified. We identified 367 clones from the RGP library and 386 from the Met library, of which 351 and 368, respectively, match human mRNA sequences, representing 288 and 217 annotated genes. We confirmed the differential expression of all genes selected for validation. In the Met library, we found an enrichment of genes in the growth factors/receptor, adhesion and motility categories whereas in the RGP library, enriched categories were nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA packing/repair, and macromolecular/vesicular trafficking. Interestingly, 19% of the genes from the RGP library map to chromosome 1 against 4% of the ones from Met library. This study identifies two populations of genes differentially expressed between melanoma cell lines from two tumor stages and suggests that these sets of genes represent profiles of less aggressive versus metastatic melanomas. A search for expression profiles of melanoma in available expression study databases allowed us to point to a

  20. Inhibition of C. difficile and C. perfringens by commercial and potential probiotic strains and their in-vitro growth characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoster, A.; Kokotovic, Branko; Permin, A.

    2012-01-01

    strains (Lactobacilli n=16, Bifidobacteria n=1) on growth of clostridia spp was assessed in an agar well diffusion assay and broth co-culture experiment, using supernatant harvested at different growth phases and with and without pH adjustment. To study growth characteristics MRS broth was adjusted to pH2...

  1. Growth potential and habitat requirements of endangered age-0 pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River, USA, determined using a individual-based model framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, David; Heironimus, Laura B.; Rapp, Tobias; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Klumb, Robert A.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    An individual-based model framework was used to evaluate growth potential of the federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River. The model, developed for age-0 sturgeon, combines information on functional feeding response, bioenergetics and swimming ability to regulate consumption and growth within a virtual foraging arena. Empirical data on water temperature, water velocity and prey density were obtained from three sites in the Missouri River and used as inputs in the model to evaluate hypotheses concerning factors affecting pallid sturgeon growth. The model was also used to evaluate the impacts of environmental heterogeneity and water velocity on individual growth variability, foraging success and dispersal ability. Growth was simulated for a period of 100 days using 100 individuals (first feeding; 19 mm and 0.035 g) per scenario. Higher growth was shown to occur at sites where high densities of Ephemeroptera and Chironomidae larvae occurred throughout the growing season. Highly heterogeneous habitats (i.e., wide range of environmental conditions) and moderate water velocities (0.3 m/s) were also found to positively affect growth rates. The model developed here provides an important management and conservation tool for evaluating growth hypotheses and(or) identifying habitats in the Missouri River that are favourable to age-0 pallid sturgeon growth.

  2. Growth hormone signaling in human T47D breast cancer cells: potential role for a growth hormone receptor-prolactin receptor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Zhang, Yue; Berry, Philip A; Jiang, Jing; Lobie, Peter E; Langenheim, John F; Chen, Wen Y; Frank, Stuart J

    2011-04-01

    GH receptor (GHR) and prolactin (PRL) receptor (PRLR) are structurally similar cytokine receptor superfamily members that are highly conserved among species. GH has growth-promoting and metabolic effects in various tissues in vertebrates, including humans. PRL is essential for regulation of lactation in mammals. Recent studies indicate that breast tissue bears GHR and PRLR and that both GH and PRL may impact development or behavior of breast cancer cells. An important facet of human GH (hGH) and human PRL (hPRL) biology is that although hPRL interacts only with hPRLR, hGH binds well to both hGHR and hPRLR. Presently, we investigated potential signaling effects of both hormones in the estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-positive human T47D breast cancer cell line. We found that this cell type expresses ample GHR and PRLR and responds well to both hGH and hPRL, as evidenced by activation of the Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 pathway. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed specific GHR-PRLR association in these cells that was acutely enhanced by GH treatment. Although GH caused formation of disulfide-linked and chemically cross-linked GHR dimers in T47D cells, GH preferentially induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PRLR rather than GHR. Notably, both a GHR-specific ligand antagonist (B2036) and a GHR-specific antagonist monoclonal antibody (anti-GHR(ext-mAb)) failed to inhibit GH-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 activation. In contrast, although the non-GHR-specific GH antagonist (G120R) and the PRL antagonist (G129R) individually only partially inhibited GH-induced activation, combined treatment with these two antagonists conferred greater inhibition than either alone. These data indicate that endogenous GHR and PRLR associate (possibly as a GHR-PRLR heterodimer) in human breast cancer cells and that GH signaling in these cells is largely mediated by the PRLR in the context of both PRLR-PRLR homodimers

  3. Evasion of anti-growth signaling: a key step in tumorigenesis and potential target for treatment and prophylaxis by natural compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, A.R.M. Ruhul; Karpowicz, Phillip A.; Carey, Thomas E.; Arbiser, Jack; Nahta, Rita; Chen, Zhuo G.; Dong, Jin-Tang; Kucuk, Omer; Khan, Gazala N.; Huang, Gloria S.; Mi, Shijun; Lee, Ho-Young; Reichrath, Joerg; Honoki, Kanya; Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Amedei, Amedeo; Amin, Amr; Helferich, Bill; Boosani, Chandra S.; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I.; Azmi, Asfar S.; Keith, W Nicol; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Niccolai, Elena; Fujii, Hiromasa; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S. Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan; Bilsland, Alan; Shin, Dong M.

    2015-01-01

    The evasion of anti-growth signaling is an important characteristic of cancer cells. In order to continue to proliferate, cancer cells must somehow uncouple themselves from the many signals that exist to slow down cell growth. Here, we define the anti-growth signaling process, and review several important pathways involved in growth signaling: p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), retinoblastoma protein (Rb), Hippo, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A), Notch, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) pathways. Aberrations in these processes in cancer cells involve mutations and thus the suppression of genes that prevent growth, as well as mutation and activation of genes involved in driving cell growth. Using these pathways as examples, we prioritize molecular targets that might be leveraged to promote anti-growth signaling in cancer cells. Interestingly, naturally-occurring phytochemicals found in human diets (either singly or as mixtures) may promote anti-growth signaling, and do so without the potentially adverse effects associated with synthetic chemicals. We review examples of naturally-occurring phytochemicals that may be applied to prevent cancer by antagonizing growth signaling, and propose one phytochemical for each pathway. These are: epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for the Rb pathway, luteolin for p53, curcumin for PTEN, porphyrins for Hippo, genistein for GDF15, resveratrol for ARID1A, withaferin A for Notch and diguelin for the IGF1-receptor pathway. The coordination of anti-growth signaling and natural compound studies will provide insight into the future application of these compounds in the clinical setting. PMID:25749195

  4. Potential of different AM fungi (native from As-contaminated and uncontaminated soils) for supporting Leucaena leucocephala growth in As-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jerusa; Bundschuh, Jochen; Rangel, Wesley de Melo; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto Guimarães

    2017-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation is considered a potential biotechnological tool for an eco-friendly remediation of hazardous contaminants. However, the mechanisms explaining how AM fungi attenuate the phytotoxicity of metal(oid)s, in particular arsenic (As), are still not fully understood. The influence of As on plant growth and the antioxidant system was studied in Leucaena leucocephala plants inoculated with different isolates of AM fungi and exposed to increasing concentrations of As (0, 35, and 75 mg dm -3 ) in a Typic Quartzipsamment soil. The study was conducted under greenhouse conditions using isolates of AM fungi selected from uncontaminated soils (Acaulospora morrowiae, Rhizophagus clarus, Gigaspora albida; and a mixed inoculum derived from combining these isolates, named AMF Mix) as well as a mix of three isolates from an As-contaminated soil (A. morrowiae, R. clarus, and Paraglomus occultum). After 21 weeks, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) were determined in the shoots in addition to measuring plant height and mineral contents. In general, AM fungi have shown multiple beneficial effects on L. leucocephala growth. Although the activity of most of the stress-related enzymes increased in plants associated with AM fungi, the percentage increase caused by adding As to the soil was even greater for non-mycorrhizal plants when compared to AM-fungi inoculated ones, which highlights the phytoprotective effect provided by the AM symbiosis. The highest P/As ratio observed in AM-fungi plants, compared to non-mycorrhizal ones, can be considered a good indicator that the AM fungi alter the pattern of As(V) uptake from As-contaminated soil. Our results underline the role of AM fungi in increasing the tolerance of L. leucocephala to As stress and emphasize the potential of the symbiosis L. leucocephala-R. clarus for As-phytostabilization at moderately As

  5. The Role and Potential Therapeutic Implications of the Fibroblast Growth Factors in Energy Balance and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Maitane; Gil, María J; Monreal, Ignacio; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Frühbeck, Gema; Catalán, Victoria

    2017-06-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic diseases have reached epidemic proportions worldwide, reducing life expectancy and quality of life. Several drugs have been tested to treat these diseases but many of them have damaging side effects. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop more effective therapies. Recently, endocrine fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have become attractive targets in the treatment of metabolic diseases. This review summarizes their most important functions as well as FGF-based therapies for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent studies demonstrate that circulating levels of FGF19 are reduced in obesity. In fact, exogenous FGF19 administration is associated with a reduction in food intake as well as with improvements in glycaemia. In contrast, FGF21 levels are elevated in subjects with abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and T2D, probably representing a compensatory response. Additionally, elevated levels of circulating FGF23 in individuals with obesity and T2D are reported in most clinical studies. Finally, increased FGF1 levels in obese patients associated with adipogenesis have been described. FGFs constitute important molecules in the treatment of metabolic diseases due to their beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. Among all members, FGF19 and FGF21 have demonstrated the ability to improve glucose, lipid and energy homeostasis, along with FGF1, which was recently discovered to have beneficial effects on metabolic homeostasis. Additionally, FGF23 may also play a role in insulin resistance or energy homeostasis beyond mineral metabolism control. These results highlight the relevant use of FGFs as potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of metabolic diseases. In this regard, notable progress has been made in the development of FGF-based therapies and different approaches are being tested in different clinical trials. However, further studies are needed to determine their potential therapeutic

  6. Cytotoxic Potential of Bacillus cereus Strains ATCC 11778 and 14579 Against Human Lung Epithelial Cells Under Microaerobic Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eKilcullen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus, a food poisoning bacterium closely related to Bacillus anthracis, secretes a multitude of virulence factors including enterotoxins, hemolysins, and phospholipases. However, the majority of the in vitro experiments evaluating the cytotoxic potential of B. cereus were carried out in the conditions of aeration, and the impact of the oxygen limitation in conditions encountered by the microbe in natural environment such as gastrointestinal tract remains poorly understood. This research reports comparative analysis of ATCC strains 11778 (BC1 and 14579 (BC2 in aerated and microaerobic (static cultures with regard to their toxicity for human lung epithelial cells. We showed that BC1 increased its toxicity upon oxygen limitation while BC2 was highly cytotoxic in both growth conditions. The combined effect of the pore-forming, cholesterol-dependent hemolysin, cereolysin O (CLO, and metabolic product(s such as succinate produced in microaerobic conditions provided substantial contribution to the toxicity of BC1 but not BC2 which relied mainly on other toxins. This mechanism is shared between CB1 and B. anthracis. It involves the permeabilization of the cell membrane which facilitates transport of toxic bacterial metabolites into the cell. The toxicity of BC1was potentiated in the presence of bovine serum albumin which appeared to serve as reservoir for bacteria-derived nitric oxide participating in the downstream production of reactive oxidizing species with the properties of peroxynitrite. In agreement with this the BC1cultures demonstrated the increased oxidation of the indicator dye Amplex Red catalyzed by peroxidase as well as the increased toxicity in the presence of externally added ascorbic acid.

  7. Cytotoxic Potential of Bacillus cereus Strains ATCC 11778 and 14579 Against Human Lung Epithelial Cells Under Microaerobic Growth Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcullen, Kathleen; Teunis, Allison; Popova, Taissia G; Popov, Serguei G

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus, a food poisoning bacterium closely related to Bacillus anthracis, secretes a multitude of virulence factors including enterotoxins, hemolysins, and phospholipases. However, the majority of the in vitro experiments evaluating the cytotoxic potential of B. cereus were carried out in the conditions of aeration, and the impact of the oxygen limitation in conditions encountered by the microbe in natural environment such as gastrointestinal tract remains poorly understood. This research reports comparative analysis of ATCC strains 11778 (BC1) and 14579 (BC2) in aerobic and microaerobic (static) cultures with regard to their toxicity for human lung epithelial cells. We showed that BC1 increased its toxicity upon oxygen limitation while BC2 was highly cytotoxic in both growth conditions. The combined effect of the pore-forming, cholesterol-dependent hemolysin, cereolysin O (CLO), and metabolic product(s) such as succinate produced in microaerobic conditions provided substantial contribution to the toxicity of BC1 but not BC2 which relied mainly on other toxins. This mechanism is shared between CB1 and B. anthracis. It involves the permeabilization of the cell membrane which facilitates transport of toxic bacterial metabolites into the cell. The toxicity of BC1 was potentiated in the presence of bovine serum albumin which appeared to serve as reservoir for bacteria-derived nitric oxide participating in the downstream production of reactive oxidizing species with the properties of peroxynitrite. In agreement with this the BC1 cultures demonstrated the increased oxidation of the indicator dye Amplex Red catalyzed by peroxidase as well as the increased toxicity in the presence of externally added ascorbic acid.

  8. Extrapolating phosphorus production to estimate resource reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, David A; Strigul, Nikolay

    2011-08-01

    Various indicators of resource scarcity and methods for extrapolating resource availability are examined for phosphorus. These include resource lifetime, and trends in resource price, ore grade and discovery rates, and Hubbert curve extrapolation. Several of these indicate increasing scarcity of phosphate resources. Calculated resource lifetime is subject to a number of caveats such as unanticipated future changes in resource discovery, mining and beneficiation technology, population growth or per-capita demand. Thus it should be used only as a rough planning index or as a relative indicator of potential scarcity. This paper examines the uncertainty in one method for estimating available resources from historical production data. The confidence intervals for the parameters and predictions of the Hubbert curves are computed as they relate to the amount of information available. These show that Hubbert-type extrapolations are not robust for predicting the ultimately recoverable reserves or year of peak production of phosphate rock. Previous successes of the Hubbert curve are for cases in which there exist alternative resources, which is not the situation for phosphate. It is suggested that data other than historical production, such as population growth, identified resources and economic factors, should be included in making such forecasts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Coagulation increased the growth potential of various species bacteria of the effluent of a MBR for the treatment of domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tong; Li, Guoqiang; Lin, Wenqi; Hu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Yun

    2017-02-01

    Microbial regrowth in reclaimed water is an important issue restricting water reclamation and reuse. Previous studies about the effect of coagulation on microbial growth in reclaimed water were limited and inconsistent. In this study, microbial growth potentials of the effluent of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the treatment of domestic wastewater after coagulation was evaluated by using bacteria of various phyla, classes (α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteriaa) or species isolated from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test strains. Bacterial growth increased considerably after coagulation with polyaluminum for the samples investigated in this study. The results revealed that the microbial growth potentials in the effluent of the MBR evidently increased after coagulation. The increase ratio of bacterial growth could reach up to 929 %. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) of the samples averagely decreased 16.3 %, but the removal efficiencies of the excitation emission matrices (EEMs) were less than 5 % after coagulation. It is suggested that the organic matter which affected the bacterial growth might be substances having aromaticity (i.e., UV 254 absorbance) but little fluorescence. According to molecular weight (MW) distribution analysis, the coagulation was indeed effective in removing organic matters with large MW. The removal of large MW organic matters might be related to bacterial growth increase. The results indicated that posttreatments are needed after coagulation to maintain the biological stability of reclaimed water.

  10. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-05-01

    To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi.

  11. Effects of substrate water potential in root growth of Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA B PEÑA-VALDIVIA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that root of maguey (Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings reacts during the first 24 h to low substrate water potential (Yw, by anatomical modifications. Three-4 cm root length seedlings were planted in vermiculite for 24 h at Yw between -0.03 and -2.35 MPa. Root dimensions, proline content and anatomy were evaluated. Substrate ψw between -0.65 and -2.35 MPa did not significantly affect longitudinal root growth. However, proline content significantly increased from 1.6 to 2.1 emoles mg-1. Significant reductions of transverse root area (41 %, thickness of mucilage covering the epidermis (47 %, thickness of epidermis (between 15 and 46 %, area of the parenchyma (between 35 and 41 % and number of vessels (up to 28 % were observed with Yw of -2.35 MPa. In contrast, thickness of xylem wall, diameter of xylem vessels and the number of cells of the cortex of the differentiation root region significantly increased (64, 17, and 97 %, respectively. The anatomical changes associated with low substrate Yw indicate a net increase of root apoplatic paths; structures involved in water conduction increased their diameter under low substrate Yw conditions and anatomical changes occurred during the first 24 h of water stress.

  12. Manipulation of Plant Growth Regulators on Phytochemical Constituents and DNA Protection Potential of the Medicinal Plant Arnebia benthamii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid A. Parray

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Arnebia benthamii of the family Boraginaceae is a critically endangered nonendemic plant of the Kashmir Himalayas and is used to treat a number of human diseases. The current study was based on developing an in vitro micropropagation protocol vis-à-vis induction of various secondary metabolites under in vitro conditions for the possible biological activity. A tissue culture protocol was developed for A. benthamii for the first time in the Himalayan region using varied combinations and proper media formulations, including various adjuvants: Murashige and Skoog (MS media, growth hormones, sugars, agar, and so forth. The influence of different media combinations was estimated, and the MS + thidiazuron (TDZ + indole 3-acetic acid (IAA combination favors a higher regeneration potential. The higher amounts of chemical constituents were also recorded on the same treatment. The in vitro plant samples also showed a noteworthy effect of scavenging of hydroxyl radicals vis-à-vis protection from oxidative DNA damage. The in vitro raised plants are good candidates for the development of antioxidant molecules.

  13. A Comprehensive Tool for Exploring the Availability, Scalability and Growth Potential of Conventional and Renewable Energy Sources and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack-Scott, E.; Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.; Davis, S. J.; Delman, E.

    2015-12-01

    It has been a generational challenge to simultaneously meet the world's energy requirements, while remaining within the bounds of acceptable cost and environmental impact. To this end, substantial research has explored various energy futures on a global scale, leaving decision-makers and the public overwhelmed by information on energy options. In response, this interactive energy table was developed as a comprehensive resource through which users can explore the availability, scalability, and growth potentials of all energy technologies currently in use or development. Extensive research from peer-reviewed papers and reports was compiled and summarized, detailing technology costs, technical considerations, imminent breakthroughs, and obstacles to integration, as well as political, social, and environmental considerations. Energy technologies fall within categories of coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, solar, wind, hydropower, ocean, geothermal and biomass. In addition to 360 expandable cells of cited data, the interactive table also features educational windows with background information on each energy technology. The table seeks not to advocate for specific energy futures, but to succinctly and accurately centralize peer-reviewed research and information in an interactive, accessible resource. With this tool, decision-makers, researchers and the public alike can explore various combinations of energy technologies and their quantitative and qualitative attributes that can satisfy the world's total primary energy supply (TPES) while making progress towards a near zero carbon future.

  14. Potential Anticancer Effects of Polyphenols from Chestnut Shell Extracts: Modulation of Cell Growth, and Cytokinomic and Metabolomic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Sorice

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a hydroalcoholic chestnut shell extract was characterized and tested on six different human cell lines. Gallic, ellagic, and syringic acids were the most abundant non-condensed compounds in the chestnut extract, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Tannins were mainly represented by condensed monomeric units of epigallocatechin and catechin/epicatechin. After 48 h of treatment, only the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells reached an inhibition corresponding to IC50 with an increase of apoptosis and mitochondrial depolarization. The cytokinome evaluation before and after treatment revealed that the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α decreased after the treatment, suggesting a potential anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of this extract. Moreover, the metabolome evaluation by 1H-NMR evidenced that the polyphenols extracted from chestnut shell (PECS treatment affected the levels of some amino acids and other metabolites. Overall, these data highlight the effects of biomolecules on cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and mitochondrial depolarization, and on cytokinomics and metabolomics profiles.

  15. Nerve growth factor and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D): a potential therapeutic target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-juan; Liu, Liang; Yao, Shu-kun

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with abnormal bowel habits. Diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) is a major subtype of IBS, the predominant manifestations of which are abdominal pain and diarrhea. The pathogenesis of IBS-D remained unknown until recently. The effects of psychosocial stress, central hypervigilance, neuroendocrine abnormality, disturbed gastrointestinal motility, mucosal immune activation, intestinal barrier dysfunction, visceral hypersensitivity (VH), altered gut flora, and genetic susceptibility may be involved in its development. Recently, increased attention has been placed on the neural-immune-endocrine network mechanism in IBS-D, especially the role of various neuroendocrine mediators. As a member of the neurotrophin family, nerve growth factor (NGF) has diverse biological effects, and participates in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Basic studies have demonstrated that NGF is associated with inflammatory- and stress-related VH, as well as stress-related intestinal barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study is to summarize recent literature and discuss the role of NGF in the pathophysiology of IBS-D, especially in VH and intestinal barrier dysfunction, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target in IBS-D.

  16. Cognitive reserve in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A M; Stern, Y

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.

  17. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  18. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  19. Dietary Inflammatory Potential during Pregnancy Is Associated with Lower Fetal Growth and Breastfeeding Failure: Results from Project Viva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sarbattama; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Shivappa, Nitin; Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R; Gold, Diane R; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation during pregnancy has been linked to adverse maternal and infant outcomes. There is limited information available on the contribution of maternal diet to systemic inflammation and pregnancy health. The objective of this study was to examine associations of maternal prenatal dietary inflammatory index (DII), a composite measure of the inflammatory potential of diet, with markers of maternal systemic inflammation and pregnancy outcomes. We studied 1808 mother-child pairs from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We calculated the DII from first- and second-trimester food-frequency questionnaires by standardizing the dietary intakes of participants to global means, which were multiplied by the inflammatory effect score and summed. We examined associations of DII with maternal plasma C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in the second trimester and the following perinatal outcomes: gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, length of gestation, fetal growth, mode of delivery, and duration of breastfeeding. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models to analyze the strength of these associations. Maternal age was (mean ± SD) 32.2 ± 5.0 y, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) was 24.9 ± 5.2, and DII was -2.56 ± 1.42 units with a range of -5.4 to 3.7. DII was positively correlated with prepregnancy BMI (Pearson'sr= 0.13,PL per 1-unit increase in maternal DII; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.14) and lower birth weight for gestational agezscore in infants born to obese mothers (β: -0.10zscore per 1-unit increase in maternal DII; 95% CI: -0.18, -0.02). Higher DII scores were associated with lower odds of breastfeeding for at least 1 mo (OR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98). A proinflammatory diet during pregnancy is associated with maternal systemic inflammation and may be associated with impaired fetal growth and breastfeeding failure. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Structural effects and potential changes in growth factor signalling in penis-projecting autonomic neurons after axotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keast Janet R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The responses of adult parasympathetic ganglion neurons to injury and the neurotrophic mechanisms underlying their axonal regeneration are poorly understood. This is especially relevant to penis-projecting parasympathetic neurons, which are vulnerable to injury during pelvic surgery such as prostatectomy. We investigated the changes in pelvic ganglia of adult male rats in the first week after unilateral cavernous (penile nerve axotomy (cut or crush lesions. In some experiments FluoroGold was injected into the penis seven days prior to injury to allow later identification of penis-projecting neurons. Neurturin and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF are neurotrophic factors for penile parasympathetic neurons, so we also examined expression of relevant receptors, GFRα1 and GFRα2, in injured pelvic ganglion neurons. Results Axotomy caused prolific growth of axon collaterals (sprouting in pelvic ganglia ipsilateral to the injury. These collaterals were most prevalent in the region near the exit of the penile nerve. This region contained the majority of FluoroGold-labelled neurons. Many sprouting fibres formed close associations with sympathetic and parasympathetic pelvic neurons, including many FluoroGold neurons. However immunoreactivity for synaptic proteins could not be demonstrated in these collaterals. Preganglionic terminals showed a marked loss of synaptic proteins, suggesting a retrograde effect of the injury beyond the injured neurons. GFRα2 immunofluorescence intensity was decreased in the cytoplasm of parasympathetic neurons, but GFRα1 immunofluorescence was unaffected in these neurons. Conclusion These studies show that there are profound changes within the pelvic ganglion after penile nerve injury. Sprouting of injured postganglionic axons occurs concurrently with structural or chemical changes in preganglionic terminals. New growth of postganglionic axon collaterals within the ganglion raises the

  1. The potential effects of pre-settlement processes on post-settlement growth and survival of juvenile northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) in Gulf of Alaska nursery habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Erin J.; Miller, Jessica A.; Hurst, Thomas P.; Jiang, Duo

    2017-04-01

    Early life history traits in marine fish such as growth, size, and timing of life history transitions often vary in response to environmental conditions. Identifying the potential effects of trait variation across life history stages is critical to understanding growth, recruitment, and survival. Juvenile northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) were collected (2005, 2007, 2009-2011) from two coastal nurseries in the Gulf of Alaska during the early post-settlement period (July-August) to examine variation in early life history traits in relation to water temperature and juvenile densities in nurseries as well as to evaluate the potential for carry-over effects. Size-at-hatch, larval growth, metamorphosis size and timing, and post-metamorphic and recent growth of juveniles were quantified using otolith structural analysis and compared across years and sites. Additionally, traits of fish caught in July and August were compared for evidence of selective mortality. Post-metamorphic and recent growth were related to temperatures in nurseries as well as temperatures during the larval period, indicating a direct influence of concurrent nursery temperatures and a potential indirect effect of thermal conditions experienced by larvae. Correlations between metamorphic traits and fish size at capture demonstrated that interannual variation in size persisted across life history stages regardless of post-settlement growth patterns. No evidence of density-dependent growth or growth-selective mortality were detected during the early post-settlement period; however, differences in hatch size and metamorphosis timing between fish collected in July and August indicate a selective loss of individuals although the pattern varied across years. Overall, variation in size acquired early in life and temperature effects on the phenology of metamorphosis may influence the direction of selection and survival of northern rock sole.

  2. Transforming Growth Factor Beta Family: Insight into the Role of Growth Factors in Regulation of Fracture Healing Biology and Potential Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz A. Poniatowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β family forms a group of three isoforms, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3, with their structure formed by interrelated dimeric polypeptide chains. Pleiotropic and redundant functions of the TGF-β family concern control of numerous aspects and effects of cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and migration, in all tissues of the human body. Amongst many cytokines and growth factors, the TGF-β family is considered a group playing one of numerous key roles in control of physiological phenomena concerning maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in the bone tissue. By breaking the continuity of bone tissue, a spread-over-time and complex bone healing process is initiated, considered a recapitulation of embryonic intracartilaginous ossification. This process is a cascade of local and systemic phenomena spread over time, involving whole cell lineages and various cytokines and growth factors. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies in various models analysing cytokines and growth factors’ involvement have shown that TGF-β has a leading role in the fracture healing process. This paper sums up current knowledge on the basis of available literature concerning the role of the TGF-β family in the fracture healing process.

  3. Growth and physiology of loblolly pine in response to long-term resource management: defining growth potential in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Samuelson; John Butnor; Chris Maier; Tom A. Stokes; Kurt Johnsen; Michael Kane

    2008-01-01

    Leaf physiology and stem growth were assessed in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in response to 10 to 11 years of treatment with weed control (W), weed control plus irrigation (WI), weed control plus irrigation and fertigation (WIF), or weed control plus irrigation, fertigation, and pest control (WIFP) to determine whether increased resource...

  4. Oak Ridge Health Studies Phase 1 report, Volume 2: Part C, Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. Tasks 5: A summary of information concerning historical locations and activities of populations potentially affected by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DaMassa, C.L.; Widner, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    A significant number of information sources have been identified that are relevant to historical locations and activities of populations potentially affected by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation. The information that has been reviewed as part of this Task 5 investigation has shown that numerous residences and farms have historically been present near the ORR boundary and that a variety of land uses and recreational activities have been practiced. Based on this information alone, it would appear that many routes of off-site exposure could have been plausible. Most of the available published information addresses demographic and land use data on a regional or county-wide basis over fairly broad time periods. The information sources that are most readily available do not support direct evaluation of potential exposure pathways at specific geographic locations near the Oak Ridge facilities at specific points in time. A number of information sources have been identified that can provide demography and land use information more specific to locations and time periods that are identified to be of interest. Examples of data sources in this category include individual USGS topographic maps, aerial photographs, lowest-level census tract data, and interviews with long-time local residents. However, specific release events and periods of interest should be identified prior to attempts to collect more specific demographic or land use information for actual dose reconstruction.

  5. Familial episodic ataxia in lambs is potentially associated with a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K E Dittmer

    Full Text Available Familial episodic ataxia of lambs is a congenital transient autosomal dominant disorder of newborn lambs, with varying expressivity. Affected lambs show episodes of an asymmetric ataxic gait, base-wide extensor hypertonia of the thoracic limbs and flexor hypertonia of the pelvic limbs. The aim of the study was to determine the genetic variant causing familial episodic ataxia in lambs. Using whole genome sequencing of two half-sib affected lambs, their sire, and their two normal dams, a heterozygous C>T transition at OAR10:77593415 (Oar_v3.1 in exon 1 of the fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14 gene (c.46C>T was identified. The c.46C>T transition resulted in a premature stop codon at position 16 of the 247 amino acid FGF14 protein (p.Q16*. PCR and Sanger sequencing was used to genotype an additional 20 clinically affected animals, demonstrating all lambs carried the c.46C>T variant but 1 clinically more severely affected inbred lamb was homozygous (TT. A further 11 unrelated normal ewes were positionally sequenced, none of which had the variant, while in 18 lambs of unknown status born over 2 years of breeding trials six lambs were found to have the c.46C>T variant, likely clinically unidentified heterozygotes due to the variable expressivity, while 12 did not. In conclusion, familial episodic ataxia of lambs is potentially associated with a c.46C>T variant in the FGF14 gene. Further research is required into the mechanism behind the apparent recovery of lambs.

  6. Damage potential of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) on early growth stages of small-grains and canola under subarctic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begna, Sultan H; Fielding, Dennis J

    2003-08-01

    We characterized the type and extent of grasshopper injury to above- and below-ground plant parts for four crops [barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oats (Avena sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and canola (Brassica campestris L.)] commonly grown, or with potential to grow, in central Alaska. Cages were placed on 48 pots containing plants in second to third leaf stages and stocked with 0, 2, 4, and 6 first-instar Melanoplus sanguinipes F. pot(-1). Plants were harvested 22 d after planting. Stem growth of barley and oats was not affected except at the highest grasshopper treatment. In canola, stem biomass was reduced at the medium and high grasshopper treatments, when most of the leaves had been consumed. The highest grasshopper treatment reduced leaf area in barley and oats by approximately 55%, and caused a significant reduction in dry weight of leaves, stems, and roots (41-72%). Wheat and canola plants were smaller than barley and oats across all treatments and, at the highest grasshopper density, above-ground portions of wheat and canola were completely destroyed. Length and surface area of roots of barley and oats were reduced by 20-28% again at the highest grasshopper density, whereas the reduction for wheat and canola ranged from 50 to 90%. There was little or no difference among all grasshopper densities for C-N ratio in leaf and stem tissues of all crops. The results suggest that wheat and canola are more susceptible than barley and oats and that densities > or = 2 pot(-1) (approximately > or = 50 m(-2)) of even very small grasshoppers could cause significant damage in small-grain and oilseed crop production.

  7. Growth rates and milk production potential of Sahelian and Red Sokoto breeds of goats in northern Guinea Savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makun, H J; Ajanusi, J O; Ehoche, O W; Lakpini, C A M; Otaru, S M

    2008-02-15

    The milk production potentials and growth rates of Red Sokoto and Sahelian goats fed basal diets of maize stover and Digitaria smutsii (wolly finger grass) supplemented with concentrate was investigated in two separate trials. In experiment 1, ten multi-parous does were allocated to intensive management following kidding. Does were hand-milked twice weekly and the milk production recorded. Body weight changes of dam and kid, milk fat, milk solid were determined weekly over 12 weeks period. The average birth weight of the Sahelian (2.2+/-0.23 kg) was significantly (pkids (1.0+/-0.17). At weaning age, the average kid weight of the Sahelian (5.6+/-0.42 kg) was significantly higher than the Red Sokoto (3.9+/-0.44 kg). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in daily milk yield and total lactation between the two breeds. The total solids and milk fat of 16.4+/-0.39 and 3.7+/-0.13% were significantly (pkids had higher ADG than the Sahelian (46.6+/-1.59). Similarly the males of the Red Sokoto (61.9+/-1.59) had higher ADG than the Sahelian males (46.7+/-0.59) and the females of both breed. The experiments demonstrated a linear increase in weight gains of Red Sokoto over the Sahelian and a slightly higher milk yield obtained from the Sahelian providing the basis to conclude that the Sahelian goat can adapted and fit into the production systems of Sudan Savannah rural farmers.

  8. The effect of Emdogain and platelet-derived growth factor on the osteoinductive potential of hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R C; Marino, V; Bartold, P M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether hydroxyapatite β-tricalcium phosphate (HA-TCP) either alone or coated with Emdogain (EMD) or recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) becomes osteoinductive in the murine thigh muscle model for osteoinduction. Twenty CD1 adult male mice had gelatin capsules implanted into the thigh muscle of both hind limbs. The capsules were either empty or contained one of the following: uncoated particulate HA-TCP, EMD-coated HA-TCP or rhPDGF-BB-coated HA-TCP. The implant sites were assessed histologically at 4 and 8 weeks. A semi-quantitative histological examination was performed to assess the inflammatory changes, reparative processes and osteoinduction within the graft site. At both 4 and 8 weeks, histological analysis failed to demonstrate any osteoinductive activity in any of the specimens from the experimental groups. A minimal chronic inflammatory response and foreign body reaction around the implanted materials was seen which reduced over time. The HA-TCP particles were embedded within fibrous connective tissue and were encapsulated by a dense cellular layer consisting of active fibroblasts and occasional macrophages with the thickness of this layer decreasing over time. The results of this study suggest that the use of commercially available HA-TCP alone or in combination with EMD or rhPDGF-BB is biocompatible but not osteoinductive in the murine thigh muscle model of osteoinduction. Coating HA-TCP with EMD or rhPDGF-BB does not enhance its osteoinductive potential.

  9. Potential Predictors of Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Concentrations: Cross-Sectional Analysis in the EPIC-Germany Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina di Giuseppe

    Full Text Available Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23, a bone-derived hormone involved in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, has been related to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD in chronic kidney disease patients and in the general population. However, what determines higher FGF23 levels is still unclear. Also, little is known about the influence of diet on FGF23. The aim of this study was therefore to identify demographic, clinical and dietary correlates of high FGF23 concentrations in the general population.We performed a cross-sectional analysis within a randomly selected subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Germany comprising 2134 middle-aged men and women. The Human FGF23 (C-Terminal ELISA kit was used to measure FGF23 in citrate plasma. Dietary data were obtained at baseline via validated food frequency questionnaires including up to 148 food items.Multivariable adjusted logistic regression showed that men had a 66% lower and smokers a 64% higher probability of having higher FGF23 (≥ 90 RU/mL levels compared, respectively, with women and nonsmokers. Each doubling in parathyroid hormone, creatinine, and C-reactive protein was related to higher FGF23. Among the dietary factors, each doubling in calcium and total energy intake was related, respectively, to a 1.75 and to a 4.41 fold increased probability of having higher FGF23. Finally, each doubling in the intake of iron was related to an 82% lower probability of having higher FGF23 levels. Results did not substantially change after exclusion of participants with lower kidney function.In middle-aged men and women traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors were related to higher FGF23 concentrations. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the potential mechanisms linking increased FGF23 to increased CVD risk.

  10. Impact of matric potential and pore size distribution on growth dynamics of filamentous and non-filamentous soil bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, A.B.; Vos, M.; De Boer, W.; Kowalchuk, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to

  11. Impact of Matric Potential and Pore Size Distribution on Growth Dynamics of Filamentous and Non-Filamentous Soil Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, A.B.; Vos, de M.; Boer, de W.; Kowalchuk, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to

  12. Effect of solvents on the bulk growth of 4-aminobenzophenone single crystals: A potential material for blue and green lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, V.; Usharani, S.; Arivanandhan, M.; Anandan, P.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Although 4-aminobenzophenone (4-ABP) is the best derivative of benzophenone with 260 times higher second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency than potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), growth of high quality bulk crystal still remains a difficult task. In the present work, the effect of solvents on solubility and growth aspects of 4-ABP was investigated to grow inclusion free 4-ABP crystals. The growth processes were discussed based on solute-solvent interaction in two different growth media of ethyl acetate and ethanol. The growth rate and thereby solvent inclusions are relatively higher in ethyl acetate grown crystal than the crystal grown from ethanol. The structural, thermal and optical properties of 4-ABP crystals were studied. The enthalpy of 4-ABP melting process was estimated from differential thermal analysis. The optical transmission study shows that 4-ABP crystals grown from ethanol has high transparency compared to ethyl acetate grown sample due to solvent inclusion in the later crystal.

  13. IN-VITRO GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMERCIAL PROBIOTIC STRAINS AND THEIR POTENTIAL FOR INHIBITION OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE AND CLOSTRDIDUM PERFRINGENS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoster, Angelika; Kokotovic, Branko; Permin, Anders

    Probiotics have gained importance in human and veterinary medicine to prevent enteric disease. Little information is available on commercial probiotic strains regarding their growth characteristics and inhibition of equine enteric pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens...... aerobic conditions was assessed. To evaluate inhibition of C. difficile and C. perfringens sterile supernatant of the probiotic culture was added to BHI inoculated with a standard C. difficile or C. perfringens suspension. Growth was measured spectrophotometrically at 0 and 24h and compared to the control...... (C. difficile or C. perfringens suspension in BHI). At pH 4 12% of strains showed >50% growth and 24% were unable to grow, however did survive. At pH 2 none of the tested strains grew or survived. Eighty eight percent showed >75% growth in 0.15% bile, 60% showed >75% growth in 0.3% bile. Ninety...

  14. Clipboard: Unraveling the mystery of cognitive reserve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 40; Issue 2. Clipboard : Unraveling the mystery of cognitive reserve ... Keywords. Aging; Alzheimer's; bilingualism; cognitive reserve; dementia; Down's; education; enrichment; environment; learning; long term potentiation; LTP; memory; neuroepigenetics; plasticity ...

  15. Serum platelet-derived growth factor BB levels: a potential biomarker for the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiyuan; Deng, Yongqiong; Yan, Linlin; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Guiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Few studies have investigated serum levels of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The present study aimed to determine whether PDGF-BB could serve as a potential biomarker for the detection of liver fibrosis. From October 2013 to August 2015, 465 patients with CHB were enrolled prospectively in this study. All patients underwent liver biopsy and staging based on the Ishak system. The serum PDGF-BB level was measured quantitatively by ELISA. The serum PDGF-BB level was negatively correlated with fibrosis stage in all patients (p = 0.003, Spearman's rho=-0.16) and was significantly different between fibrosis stages. The areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROCs) for serum PDGF-BB level and PGT score (a combination of PDGF-BB, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and platelet levels) were 0.667 and 0.831, respectively, for patients with significant fibrosis and normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The AUROCs for aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio (APRI) and fibrosis index based on four factors (FIB-4) were 0.823 and 0.821, respectively. Importantly, a cut-off value of 1.05 and 1.43, respectively, resulted in a sensitivity of 0.95 and 0.52, a specificity of 0.29 and 0.95, a positive predictive value of 0.30 and 0.79, and a negative predictive value of 0.96 and 0.86. The rate of correct diagnosis was up to 88.4% when using cut-offs of 1.05 and 1.43 for the absence or presence of significant fibrosis, respectively. Serum PDGF-BB decreased remarkably as fibrosis progressed, and this could be used as a non-invasive biomarker for the assessment of fibrosis stage in patients with CHB. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential synergistic effects of human placental extract and minoxidil on hair growth-promoting activity in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, T-R; Oh, C T; Park, H M; Han, H J; Ji, H J; Kim, B J

    2015-08-01

    Human placenta extract (HPE) has been used to alleviate tiredness and promote wound healing, and for its antiageing functions; however, it has not yet been studied for its effects on hair growth. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effect of HPE on hair growth by observing its actions on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs). To define how HPE promotes induction of anagen hair growth during the telogen phase, and to understand the synergistic molecular mechanisms of HPE and minoxidil (MXD) actions on hair growth. We examined the effects of HPE and MXD on C57BL6/J mice using haematoxylin and eosin staining, quantitative histomorphometry, hair growth scoring, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence on the dorsal skins of C57BL/6J mice. We found that HPE synergistically augmented the effects of MXD, a promoter of hair growth. In particular, histomorphometric analysis data indicated that subcutaneous injection of HPE induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the anagen phase. It also stimulated increases in both the number and size of hair follicles in groups treated with HPE alone and HPE + MXD. From our data, we conclude that HPE increases β-catenin and Wnt3a expression levels. Overall, our findings suggest that HPE in combination with MXD has hair growth-promoting activity and is a potential novel therapeutic treatment for alopecia or baldness in humans. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. An absolute procedure to test the growth potential of medium and the influence of decreased oxygen tension in primary amniotic fluid cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Suijkerbuijk, Ron; van der Vlag, Jakob; Stoepker, Marian; Buys, Charles H. C. M.; Meerman, Gerard J. te

    Objective For prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis, cell cultures should be maximally successful. When introducing a change in conditions, e.g. a new batch of medium, the growth potential of a culture is usually compared under both the new condition and the one already in use. Such a relative test is in

  18. An absolute procedure to test the growth potential of medium and the influence of decreased oxygen tension in primary amniotic fluid cell cultures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema-Raddatz, B.; Suijkerbuijk, R.F.; Vlag, J. van der; Stoepker, M.; Buys, C.H.C.M.; Meerman, G.J. te

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: For prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis, cell cultures should be maximally successful. When introducing a change in conditions, e.g. a new batch of medium, the growth potential of a culture is usually compared under both the new condition and the one already in use. Such a relative test is in

  19. Application of a crop growth model (SUCROS-87) to assess the effect of moisture on yield potential of durum wheat in Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simane, B.; Keulen, van H.; Stol, W.; Struik, P.C.

    1994-01-01

    A spring wheat growth model (SUCROS-87) was used to identify moisture stress periods during the growing seasons and simulate yield potentials of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum) in six durum wheat growing regions of Ethiopia. The start of the rainy season and distribution of rainfall were

  20. Modified water regimes affect photosynthesis, xylem water potential, cambial growth and resistance of juvenile Pinus taeda L. to Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Dunn; Peter L. Jr. Lorio

    1993-01-01

    We modified soil water supply to two groups of juvenile loblolly pines, Pinus taeda L., by sheltering or irrigating root systems in early summer or in later summer and measured oleoresin flow (primary defense), net photosynthesis, xylem water potential, and cambial growth throughout the growing season. When consistent significant differences in...

  1. Impact of the growth phase on the activity of multidrug resistance pumps and membrane potential of S.cerevidiae: effect of pump overproduction and carbon source

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čadek, R.; Chládková, K.; Sigler, Karel; Gášková, D.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 1665, - (2004), s. 111-117 ISSN 0005-2736 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5020202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : growth phases * s.cerevisiae * membrane potential Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.441, year: 2004

  2. Standardized lagal growth potential and/or algal primary production rates of maritime Antarctic stream waters (King George Island, South Shetlands)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvíderová, Jana; Elster, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 11191 (2013) ISSN 0800-0395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600050708; GA MŠk ME 945; GA MŠk ME 934 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Antarctic * streams * growth potential Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.686, year: 2013

  3. Growth of health maintenance organisations in Nigeria and the potential for a role in promoting universal coverage efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoka, Chima A; Hanson, Kara; Mills, Anne

    2016-08-01

    There has been growing interest in the potential for private health insurance (PHI) and private organisations to contribute to universal health coverage (UHC). Yet evidence from low and middle income countries remains very thin. This paper examines the evolution of health maintenance organisations (HMOs) in Nigeria, the nature of the PHI plans and social health insurance (SHI) programmes and their performance, and the implications of their business practices for providing PHI and UHC-related SHI programmes. An embedded case study design was used with multiple subunits of analysis (individual HMOs and the HMO industry) and mixed (qualitative and quantitative) methods, and the study was guided by the structure-conduct-performance paradigm that has its roots in the neo-classical theory of the firm. Quantitative data collection and 35 in-depth interviews were carried out between October 2012 to July 2013. Although HMOs first emerged in Nigeria to supply PHI, their expansion was driven by their role as purchasers in the government's national health insurance scheme that finances SHI programmes, and facilitated by a weak accreditation system. HMOs' characteristics distinguish the market they operate in as monopolistically competitive, and HMOs as multiproduct firms operating multiple risk pools through parallel administrative systems. The considerable product differentiation and consequent risk selection by private insurers promote inefficiencies. Where HMOs and similar private organisations play roles in health financing systems, effective regulatory institutions and mandates must be established to guide their behaviours towards attainment of public health goals and to identify and control undesirable business practices. Lessons are drawn for policy makers and programme implementers especially in those low and middle-income countries considering the use of private organisations in their health financing systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alkali-etching growth of nest-like Ag@mTiO2 hierarchical nanostructures and their potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongnan; Zhang, Haijiao

    2017-06-01

    Porous nanomaterials have attracted extensive interests in adsorption, catalysis, biosensors, and biomedicine due to their high surface area, well-defined pore structure and tunable pore size. However, how to obtain porous nanomaterials of desirable component and unique structure with multifunctionalities and synergetic properties is still a great challenge. In this work, a novel nest-like Ag@mTiO 2 hierarchical nanostructure with Ag nanoparticle as the core and a mesoporous crystalline TiO 2 as the protective shell was successfully prepared by layer-by-layer assembly technique and alkali-etching hydrothermal route. By simply changing the conditions of alkali etching, different nanostructures could be obtained, such as core-shell or rattle type. In the process, the thickness of coating silica layer and TiO 2 shell both played important roles for the formation of desired nanostructures. The as-prepared products had a large specific surface area of 301m 2 /g and a tailored TiO 2 outer shell. Raman spectra results showed perfect SERS signal of the tags enhanced and remained good stability even after one month. Doxycycline (Doxy) was chosen to evaluate their drug loading and controlled release properties. The results indicated that the obtained Ag@mTiO 2 nanoparticles exhibited good biocompatibility and excellent drug-loading capacity. Consequently, they are also expected to serve as ideal candidates for more potential applications including photocatalysis, drug controlled release, biosensor and cell imaging, etc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591

  6. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  7. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  8. Transforming growth factor beta signal transduction: a potential target for maintenance/restoration of transparency of the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saika, Shizuya; Yamanaka, Osamu; Sumioka, Takayoshi; Okada, Yuka; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Shirai, Kumi; Kitano, Ai; Tanaka, Sai-ichi

    2010-09-01

    Maintenance of the transparency and regular shape of the cornea are essential to the normal vision, whereas opacification of the tissue impairs vision. Fibrogenic reaction leading to scarring in an injured cornea is characterized by appearance of myofibroblasts, the key player of the fibrogenic reaction, and excess accumulation of fibrous extracellular matrix. Inflammatory/fibrogenic growth factors/cytokines produced by inflammatory cells play a pivotal role in fibrogenic response. Signaling systems involved in myofibroblast formation and fibrogenesis are activated by various growth factors, i.e., transforming growth factor beta or others. Modulation of transforming growth factor beta signal transduction molecules, e.g., Smad and mitogen-activated protein kinases, by gene transfer and other technology provides a new concept of prevention/treatment of unfavorable fibrogenesis in the cornea.

  9. Growth potential of Eucalyptus cypellocarpa as an alternative species for the mid-altitude summer rainfall region of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komakech, C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus grandis is predominantly cultivated in the humid, warmer temperate, subtropical regions in South Africa for pulp and paper production because of its rapid growth and desirable wood properties. With forestry expanding into mid...

  10. Coming Out and the Potential for Growth in Sexual Minorities: The Role of Social Reactions and Internalized Homonegativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; McAbee, James; Åsberg, Kia; McGee, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Coming out is a significant and sometimes difficult process in the lives of sexual minorities, but disclosure can also affect wellbeing in positive ways, including reduced distress and greater relationship satisfaction. This study investigates the possibility of stress-related growth and depreciation following coming out. To obtain a diverse sample with varying coming-out experiences, data were collected from undergraduate students as well as from online sources, including lesbian, gay, and bisexual support groups and Pride groups. Regression analyses indicated that negative social reactions to coming out predicted both growth and depreciation, although they more strongly predicted depreciation. Positive social reactions were positively related to stress-related growth, while internalized homonegativity was inversely associated with growth. Although the two sample sources (online and campus) differed in some ways, sample source was not a significant predictor in the regressions, nor was it indicated as a moderator in exploratory ANOVA analyses.

  11. In-vitro growth characteristics of commercial probiotic strains and their potential for inhibition of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoster, A.; Kokotovic, Branko; Permin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics have gained importance in human and veterinary medicine to prevent enteric disease. Little information is available on commercial probiotic strains regarding their growth characteristics and inhibition of equine enteric pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens...

  12. Influence of introduced potential biocontrol agents on maize seedling growth and bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozdroj, J; Trevors, JT; van Elsas, JD

    2004-01-01

    Two species of Pseudomonas chromosomally tagged with gfp, which had shown antagonistic activity against the tomato pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in a previous study, were assessed for their impact in the rhizosphere of maize. Plant growth characteristics, numbers of indigenous heterotrophic

  13. Survival, Biofilm Formation, and Growth Potential of Environmental and Enteric Escherichia coli Strains in Drinking Water Microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abberton, Cathy L; Bereschenko, Ludmila; van der Wielen, Paul W J J; Smith, Cindy J

    2016-09-01

    concern therefore arises around the fate of E. coli on entering a WDS; its survival, ability to form a biofilm, and potential for regrowth. In particular, if E. coli bacteria have the ability to incorporate and regrow within the pipe wall biofilm of a WDS, they could reinoculate the water at a later stage. This study sheds light on the fate of environmental and enteric strains of E. coli in drinking water showing extended survival, the potential for biofilm formation under shear stress, and importantly, that regrowth in the presence of an indigenous microbial community is unlikely. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Application of the potential-drop method to measurements of hydrogen-induced sub-critical crack growth in zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.; Clarke, C.F.

    1977-10-01

    Adaptation of the potential-drop method of crack-following to the problem of hydrogen-induced sub-critical crack growth in Zr-2.5% Nb is described. Reasons for non-linearity in the calibration of crack extension against potential drop in compact tension specimens are discussed. It is shown that despite non-linearities, careful comparison of fractographic features with the potential-drop record can lead to a continuous plot of crack velocity against time or stress intensity factor. Procedures for correcting data through temperature and load changes are also described. The application of the technique to studies of the mechanism of hydrogen crack growth is illustrated with several examples. (author)

  15. High molecular weight fibroblast growth factor-2 in the human heart is a potential target for prevention of cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Jon-Jon; McNaughton, Leslie J; Koleini, Navid; Ma, Xin; Bestvater, Brian; Nickel, Barbara E; Fandrich, Robert R; Wigle, Jeffrey T; Freed, Darren H; Arora, Rakesh C; Kardami, Elissavet

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a multifunctional protein synthesized as high (Hi-) and low (Lo-) molecular weight isoforms. Studies using rodent models showed that Hi- and Lo-FGF-2 exert distinct biological activities: after myocardial infarction, rat Lo-FGF-2, but not Hi-FGF-2, promoted sustained cardioprotection and angiogenesis, while Hi-FGF-2, but not Lo-FGF-2, promoted myocardial hypertrophy and reduced contractile function. Because there is no information regarding Hi-FGF-2 in human myocardium, we undertook to investigate expression, regulation, secretion and potential tissue remodeling-associated activities of human cardiac (atrial) Hi-FGF-2. Human patient-derived atrial tissue extracts, as well as pericardial fluid, contained Hi-FGF-2 isoforms, comprising, respectively, 53%(±20 SD) and 68% (±25 SD) of total FGF-2, assessed by western blotting. Human atrial tissue-derived primary myofibroblasts (hMFs) expressed and secreted predominantly Hi-FGF-2, at about 80% of total. Angiotensin II (Ang II) up-regulated Hi-FGF-2 in hMFs, via activation of both type 1 and type 2 Ang II receptors; the ERK pathway; and matrix metalloprotease-2. Treatment of hMFs with neutralizing antibodies selective for human Hi-FGF-2 (neu-AbHi-FGF-2) reduced accumulation of proteins associated with fibroblast-to-myofibroblast conversion and fibrosis, including α-smooth muscle actin, extra-domain A fibronectin, and procollagen. Stimulation of hMFs with recombinant human Hi-FGF-2 was significantly more potent than Lo-FGF-2 in upregulating inflammation-associated proteins such as pro-interleukin-1β and plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1. Culture media conditioned by hMFs promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, an effect that was prevented by neu-AbHi-FGF-2 in vitro. In conclusion, we have documented that Hi-FGF-2 represents a substantial fraction of FGF-2 in human cardiac (atrial) tissue and in pericardial fluid, and have shown that human Hi-FGF-2, unlike Lo-FGF-2, promotes deleterious

  16. Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase and activated insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor/insulin receptor: potential therapeutic targets in chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Josh; Itani, Doha M; Homlar, Kelly C; Keedy, Vicki L; Halpern, Jennifer L; Holt, Ginger E; Schwartz, Herbert S; Coffin, Cheryl M; Kelley, Michael J; Cates, Justin M M

    2010-04-01

    Currently there is no effective chemotherapy for chordoma. Recent studies report co-expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) and its cognate ligand in chordoma, but it is unknown whether this receptor tyrosine kinase is activated in these tumours. Additionally, genetic studies have confirmed frequent deletions of chromosome 9p in chordomas, which encompasses the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) locus. Another gene in this region, methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP), is an essential enzyme of the purine salvage pathway and has therapeutic relevance because MTAP-deficient cells are particularly sensitive to inhibitors of de novo purine synthesis. We investigated whether these pathways might be potential therapeutic targets for chordoma. Paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 30 chordomas were analysed by immunohistochemistry for expression of the phosphorylated isoforms of IGF1R or the insulin receptor (pIGF1R/pIR) and selected downstream signalling molecules, including BCL2-associated agonist of cell death protein (BAD). Expression of CDKN2A and MTAP proteins was also assessed. Skeletal chondrosarcomas, benign notochordal cell tumours, and fetal notochord were studied for comparison. Phosphorylated IGF1R/IR was detected in 41% of chordomas, together with activated downstream signalling molecules, and pIGF1R/pIR was absent in benign notochordal cell tumours and fetal notochord. Thirty-nine per cent of chordomas were negative for MTAP immunoreactivity. Patients with pIGF1R/pIR-positive tumours showed significantly decreased median disease-free survival in multivariate survival analysis (p = 0.036), whereas phosphorylation of BAD at serine-99 was found to be associated with a favourable prognosis (p = 0.002). Approximately 40% of chordomas demonstrate evidence of activation of the IGF1R/IR signalling pathway or loss of a key enzyme in the purine salvage pathway. Aberrant signalling cascades and disrupted metabolic pathways such as

  17. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  18. Potential for production of ‘mini-mussels’ in Great Belt (Denmark) evaluated on basis of actual and modeled growth of young mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Lundgreen, Kim; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a first step towards evaluation of the potential for line-mussel production in the Great Belt region between the Kattegat and Baltic Sea, Denmark. We present experimental results for actual growth rates of juvenile/adult mussels Mytilus edulis in suspended net bags in terms......) as a function of dry weight of soft parts (W, g) by a previously developed simple bioenergetic growth model μ = aW −0.34. Results were generally in good agreement with the model which assumes the prevailing average chlorophyll a concentration at field sites to essentially account for the nutrition. Our studies...

  19. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  20. Clonal variation in growth plasticity within a Bosmina longirostris population: the potential for resistance to toxic cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Jiang

    Full Text Available Many aquatic organisms respond phenotypically, through morphological, behavioral, and physiological plasticity, to environmental changes. The small-size cladoceran Bosminalongirostris, a dominant zooplankter in eutrophic waters, displayed reduced growth rates in response to the presence of a toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystisaeruginosa, in their diets. The magnitude of growth reduction differed among 15 clones recently isolated from a single population. A significant interaction between clone and food type indicated a genetic basis for the difference in growth plasticity. The variation in phenotypic plasticity was visualized by plotting reaction norms with two diets. The resistance of each clone to dietary cyanobacteria was measured as the relative change in growth rates on the "poor" diet compared with the "good" diet. The enhanced resistance to M. aeruginosa in B. longirostris was derived from both the reduced slope of reaction norms and the increased mean growth rates with two diets. The large clonal variation within a B. longirostris population may contribute to local adaptation to toxic cyanobacteria and influence ecosystem function via clonal succession.

  1. Genetic variants in the fibroblast growth factor pathway as potential markers of ovarian cancer risk, therapeutic response, and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing H; Xu, Enping; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Liang, Dong; Lu, Karen; Ye, Yuanqing; Wagar, Elizabeth A; Wu, Xifeng

    2014-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor (FGFR) axis plays a critical role in tumorigenesis, but little is known of its influence in ovarian cancer. We sought to determine the association of genetic variants in the FGF pathway with risk, therapeutic response, and survival of patients with ovarian cancer. We matched 339 non-Hispanic white ovarian cancer cases with 349 healthy controls and genotyped them for 183 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 24 FGF (fibroblast growth factor) and FGFR (fibroblast growth factor receptor) genes. Genetic associations for the main effect, gene-gene interactions, and the cumulative effect were determined. Multiple SNPs in the FGF-FGFR axis were associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer. In particular, FGF1 [fibroblast growth factor 1 (acidic)] SNP rs7727832 showed the most significant association with ovarian cancer (odds ratio, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.31-3.95). Ten SNPs were associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. FGF18 (fibroblast growth factor 18) SNP rs3806929, FGF7 (fibroblast growth factor 7) SNP rs9920722, FGF23 (fibroblast growth factor 23) SNP rs12812339, and FGF5 (fibroblast growth factor 5) SNP rs3733336 were significantly associated with a favorable treatment response, with a reduction of risk of nonresponse of 40% to 60%. Eleven SNPs were significantly associated with overall survival. Of these SNPs, FGF23 rs7961824 was the most significantly associated with improved prognosis (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.39-0.78) and was associated with significantly longer survival durations, compared with individuals with the common genotype at this locus (58.1 months vs. 38.0 months, P = 0.005). Survival tree analysis revealed FGF2 rs167428 as the primary factor contributing to overall survival. Significant associations of genetic variants in the FGF pathway were associated with ovarian cancer risk, therapeutic response, and survival. The discovery of multiple SNPs in the FGF-FGFR pathway provides a

  2. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  3. Growth of human cells on a non-woven silk fibroin net: a potential for use in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Ronald E; Wolf, Michael; Peters, Kirsten; Motta, Antonella; Migliaresi, Claudio; James Kirkpatrick, C

    2004-03-01

    We have examined a novel biomaterial consisting of a non-woven fibroin net produced from silk (Bombyx mori) cocoons for its ability to support the growth of human cells. Various human cells of different tissue and cell types (endothelial, epithelial, fibroblast, glial, keratinocyte, osteoblast) were examined for adherence and growth on the nets by confocal laser microscopy after staining of the cells with calcein-AM and by electron microscopy. All the cells readily adhered and spread over the individual fibers of the nets. Most of the cells were able to grow and survive on the nets for at least 7 weeks and growth not only covered the individual fibers of the net but generally bridged the gaps between individual fibers forming tissue-like structures. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the nets demonstrated a tight association of individual cells with the fibers and nets examined after removal of cells showed no evidence that the growth of cells in any way changed the structure of the fibers. Thus, silk fibroin nets are highly human cell-compatible and should be a useful new scaffolding biomaterial applicable for a wide range of target tissues in addition to supporting endothelial cells required for the vascularization of the newly formed tissue.

  4. Semiconductor growth on an oxide using a metallic surfactant and interface studies for potential gate stacks from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Huamantinco, Andrei

    2008-05-09

    In this work the epitaxial growth of germanium on SrHfO{sub 3}(001), and the La{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7}/Si(001) and SrTiO{sub 3}/GaAs(001) interfaces were studied theoretically using the Projector-Augmented Wave (PAW) method. The PAW method is based on Density Functional Theory and it is implemented in the Car-Parrinello Ab-Initio Molecular Dynamics. The goal of the germanium growth on SrHfO{sub 3}(001) is to form a germanium film with low density of defects and smooth morphology, to be used as channel in a transistor. The feasibility of using a third material to achieve germanium layer-by-layer growth was investigated. The formation of an ordered strontium film on a SrO-terminated oxide substrate, to be used as template for germanium overgrowth, was studied. Deposition of germanium on the strontium 1ML template results in wetting and thus a change of the growth mode to layer-by-layer. The germanium surface is then passivated and a germanium compound is initially formed with strontium at the surface and interface. The interfacial structure and valence band offsets of the La{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7}/Si(001) crystalline system were studied. The SrTiO{sub 3}/GaAs(001) crystalline interfaces with unpinned Fermi level were investigated. (orig.)

  5. Antisense down-regulation of 4CL expression alters lignification, tree growth, and saccharification potential of field-grown poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick C. Meinzer; Michael Jourdes; Chanyoung Ki; Ann M. Patten; Laurence B. Davin; Norman G. Lewis; Gerald A. Tuskan; Lee Gunter; Stephen R. Decker; Michael J. Selig; Robert Sykes; Michael E. Himmel; Peter Kitin; Olga Shevchenko; Steven H. Strauss

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic down-regulation of the Pt4CL1 gene family encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) has been reported as a means for reducing lignin content in cell walls and increasing overall growth rates, thereby improving feedstock quality for paper and bioethanol production. Using hybrid poplar (Populus tremula...

  6. Growth, radiation use efficiency and yield potential of enset (Ensete ventricosum) at different sites in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge on the physiological parameters that determine the growth of enset (Ensete ventricosum) and on how these parameters develop over time and affect yield under field conditions is scarce. Field experiments were carried out at three sites in southern Ethiopia using suckers of several clones to

  7. Plant growth promoting potential of pseudomonas sp. SP0113 isolated from potable water from a closed water well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemieniecki Wojciech Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pseudomonas sp. SP0113 strain from a partially closed aquatic environment was identified as a plant growth promoting bacterium (PGPB. Laboratory tests revealed that PS0113 has multiple plant growth promoting traits, including mineral phosphate solubilizing ability, ammonifying ability that increases nitrogen availability for plants via the root system, and phosphatase activity that plays an important role in organic phosphorus mineralization. Tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42 solubilizing ability was described as average (2-3 mm after 7 days of incubation and as high (>3 mm after 14 days of incubation. The analyzed bacterium was an antagonist of major crop pathogenic fungi. A high degree of pathogen growth inhibition was reported with regard to Rhizoctonia solani (38%, whereas the tested strain's ability to inhibit the growth of fungi of the genera Fusarium and Microdochium nivalis was somewhat lower at 20-29%. The bacterium proliferated in Roundup 360 SL solutions with concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg•ml-1.

  8. Hypertrophy of neurons within cardiac ganglia in human, canine, and rat heart failure: the potential role of nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay; Sayers, Scott; Walter, James S; Thomas, Donald; Dieter, Robert S; Nee, Lisa M; Wurster, Robert D

    2013-08-19

    Autonomic imbalances including parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic overactivity are cardinal features of heart failure regardless of etiology; however, mechanisms underlying these imbalances remain unknown. Animal model studies of heart and visceral organ hypertrophy predict that nerve growth factor levels should be elevated in heart failure; whether this is so in human heart failure, though, remains unclear. We tested the hypotheses that neurons in cardiac ganglia are hypertrophied in human, canine, and rat heart failure and that nerve growth factor, which we hypothesize is elevated in the failing heart, contributes to this neuronal hypertrophy. Somal morphology of neurons from human (579.54±14.34 versus 327.45±9.17 μm(2); Phearts (767.80±18.37 versus 650.23±9.84 μm(2); Phearts (327.98±3.15 versus 271.29±2.79 μm(2); Phuman heart are 250% greater than levels in healthy donor hearts. Neurons from cardiac ganglia cultured with nerve growth factor are significantly larger and have greater dendritic arborization than neurons in control cultures. Hypertrophied neurons are significantly less excitable than smaller ones; thus, hypertrophy of vagal postganglionic neurons in cardiac ganglia would help to explain the parasympathetic withdrawal that accompanies heart failure. Furthermore, our observations suggest that nerve growth factor, which is elevated in the failing human heart, causes hypertrophy of neurons in cardiac ganglia.

  9. Potential involvement of drought-induced Ran GTPase CLRan1 in root growth enhancement in a xerophyte wild watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Kinya; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kajikawa, Masataka; Hanada, Kouhei; Kosaka, Rina; Kato, Atsushi; Katoh, Akira; Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Yokota, Akiho

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced root growth is known as the survival strategy of plants under drought. Previous proteome analysis in drought-resistant wild watermelon has shown that Ran GTPase, an essential regulator of cell division and proliferation, was induced in the roots under drought. In this study, two cDNAs were isolated from wild watermelon, CLRan1 and CLRan2, which showed a high degree of structural similarity with those of other plant Ran GTPases. Quantitative RT-PCR and promoter-GUS assays suggested that CLRan1 was expressed mainly in the root apex and lateral root primordia, whereas CLRan2 was more broadly expressed in other part of the roots. Immunoblotting analysis confirmed that the abundance of CLRan proteins was elevated in the root apex region under drought stress. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing CLRan1 showed enhanced primary root growth, and the growth was maintained under osmotic stress, indicating that CLRan1 functions as a positive factor for maintaining root growth under stress conditions.

  10. Growth of self-perceived clinical competence in postgraduate training for general practice and its relation to potentially influencing factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, A.W.M.; Zuithoff, P.; Jansen, J.J.; Tan, L.H.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the increase in self-perceived clinical competence during a three-year postgraduate training in general practice and to explore the relation between the growth of self-perceived competence and several background variables. DESIGN: Cohort, 1995-1998. SETTING: Three-year

  11. Fungal endophytes from seeds of invasive, non-native Phragmites australis and their potential role in germination and seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearin, Zackery R. C.; Filipek, Matthew; Desai, Rushvi; Bickford, Wesley A.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Clay, Keith

    2018-01-01

    Background and aimsWe characterized fungal endophytes of seeds of invasive, non-native Phragmites from three sites in the Great Lakes region to determine if fungal symbiosis could contribute to invasiveness through their effects on seed germination and seedling growth.MethodsField-collected seeds were surface sterilized and plated on agar to culture endophytes for ITS sequencing. Prevalence of specific endophytes from germinated and non-germinated seeds, and from seedlings, was compared.ResultsOne-third of 740 seeds yielded endophyte isolates. Fifteen taxa were identified with Alternaria sp. representing 54% of all isolates followed by Phoma sp. (21%) and Penicillium corylophilum (12%). Overall germination of seeds producing an isolate (36%) was significantly higher than seeds not producing an isolate (20%). Penicillium in particular was strongly associated with increased germination of seeds from one site. Sixty-three isolates and 11 taxa were also obtained from 30 seedlings where Phoma, Penicillium and Alternaria respectively were most prevalent. There was a significant effect of isolating an endophyte from the seed on seedling growth.ConclusionsThese results suggest that many endophyte taxa are transmitted in seeds and can increase seed germination and seedling growth of invasive Phragmites. The role of fungal endophytes in host establishment, growth and invasiveness in nature requires further research.

  12. Sustainable nitrogen fertilisation in sweet pepper: assessing growth and fruit quality and the potential nitrate pollution from different organic manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-López, María D; del Amor, Francisco M

    2013-03-30

    The use of organic cultivation with manures does not avoid the risk of high nitrate concentrations if nutrient management is inefficient. So we studied the influence of three organic manures combined or not with additional chemical fertilisers on growth and yield of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), and on the soil and plant N concentrations. After 3 years of organic cultivation, poultry manure caused the highest soil pollution. The evolution of nitrate and organic matter in soil showed a pattern close to that of plant growth. The addition of mineral fertiliser increased vegetative growth and yield, and a cumulative season effect was observed. In treatments with no additional mineral fertiliser N translocation from leaves to fruits happened. A cumulative effect of seasons on fruit quality and a reduction near to 30% was observed in the first fruit quality category after 3 years. The fruit vitamin C content was reduced by increasing N fertilisation. The effects of organic fertiliser on soil and plant growth and yield depended on the type of manure used, its rate, and consecutive crop seasons. Horse manure gave the best combination of agricultural and environmental characteristics and could be used without additional fertigation. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Aurora kinase B is important for antiestrogen resistant cell growth and a potential biomarker for tamoxifen resistant breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sarah L; Yde, Christina W; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Rasmussen, Birgitte B; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Bak, Martin; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E; Kirkegaard, Tove

    2015-04-08

    Resistance to antiestrogen therapy is a major clinical challenge in the treatment of estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore the growth promoting pathways of antiestrogen resistant breast cancer cells to identify biomarkers and novel treatment targets. Antiestrogen sensitive and resistant T47D breast cancer cell lines were used as model systems. Parental and fulvestrant resistant cell lines were subjected to a kinase inhibitor library. Kinase inhibitors preferentially targeting growth of fulvestrant resistant cells were identified and the growth inhibitory effect verified by dose-response cell growth experiments. Protein expression and phosphorylation were investigated by western blot analysis. Cell cycle phase distribution and cell death were analyzed by flow cytometry. To evaluate Aurora kinase B as a biomarker for endocrine resistance, immunohistochemistry was performed on archival primary tumor tissue from breast cancer patients who have received adjuvant endocrine treatment with tamoxifen. The selective Aurora kinase B inhibitor barasertib was identified to preferentially inhibit growth of fulvestrant resistant T47D breast cancer cell lines. Compared with parental cells, phosphorylation of Aurora kinase B was higher in the fulvestrant resistant T47D cells. Barasertib induced degradation of Aurora kinase B, caused mitotic errors, and induced apoptotic cell death as measured by accumulation of SubG1 cells and PARP cleavage in the fulvestrant resistant cells. Barasertib also exerted preferential growth inhibition of tamoxifen resistant T47D cell lines. Finally, high percentage of Aurora kinase B positive tumor cells was significantly associated with reduced disease-free and overall survival in 261 ER-positive breast cancer patients, who have received tamoxifen as first-line adjuvant endocrine treatment. Our results indicate that Aurora kinase B is a driving factor for growth of antiestrogen resistant T47D breast

  14. Growth at low ammonium concentrations and starvation response as potential factors involved in niche differentiation among ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Annette; Bär-Gilissen, Marie-José; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J

    2002-10-01

    In nature, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria have to compete with heterotrophic bacteria and plants for limiting amounts of ammonium. Previous laboratory experiments conducted with Nitrosomonas europaea suggested that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria are weak competitors for ammonium. To obtain a better insight into possible methods of niche differentiation among ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, we carried out a growth experiment at low ammonium concentrations with N. europaea and the ammonia oxidizer G5-7, a close relative of Nitrosomonas oligotropha belonging to Nitrosomonas cluster 6a, enriched from a freshwater sediment. Additionally, we compared the starvation behavior of the newly enriched ammonia oxidizer G5-7 to that of N. europaea. The growth experiment at low ammonium concentrations showed that strain G5-7 was able to outcompete N. europaea at growth-limiting substrate concentrations of about 10 micro M ammonium, suggesting better growth abilities of the ammonia oxidizer G5-7 at low ammonium concentrations. However, N. europaea displayed a more favorable starvation response. After 1 to 10 weeks of ammonium deprivation, N. europaea became almost immediately active after the addition of fresh ammonium and converted the added ammonium within 48 to 96 h. In contrast, the regeneration time of the ammonia oxidizer G5-7 increased with increasing starvation time. Taken together, these results provide insight into possible mechanisms of niche differentiation for the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria studied. The Nitrosomonas cluster 6a member, G5-7, is able to grow at ammonium concentrations at which the growth of N. europaea, belonging to Nitrosomonas cluster 7, has already ceased, providing an advantage in habitats with continuously low ammonium concentrations. On the other hand, the ability of N. europaea to become active again after longer periods of starvation for ammonium may allow better exploitation of irregular pulses of ammonium in the environment.

  15. Evaluation of multifarious plant growth promoting traits, antagonistic potential and phylogenetic affiliation of rhizobacteria associated with commercial tea plants grown in Darjeeling, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Jintu; Thakur, Debajit

    2017-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are studied in different agricultural crops but the interaction of PGPR of tea crop is not yet studied well. In the present study, the indigenous tea rhizobacteria were isolated from seven tea estates of Darjeeling located in West Bengal, India. A total of 150 rhizobacterial isolates were screened for antagonistic activity against six different fungal pathogens i.e. Nigrospora sphaerica (KJ767520), Pestalotiopsis theae (ITCC 6599), Curvularia eragostidis (ITCC 6429), Glomerella cingulata (MTCC 2033), Rhizoctonia Solani (MTCC 4633) and Fusarium oxysporum (MTCC 284), out of which 48 isolates were antagonist to at least one fungal pathogen used. These 48 isolates exhibited multifarious antifungal properties like the production of siderophore, chitinase, protease and cellulase and also plant growth promoting (PGP) traits like IAA production, phosphate solubilization, ammonia and ACC deaminase production. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and BOX-PCR analysis based genotyping clustered the isolates into different groups. Finally, four isolates were selected for plant growth promotion study in two tea commercial cultivars TV-1 and Teenali-17 in nursery conditions. The plant growth promotion study showed that the inoculation of consortia of these four PGPR isolates significantly increased the growth of tea plant in nursery conditions. Thus this study underlines the commercial potential of these selected PGPR isolates for sustainable tea cultivation.

  16. Evaluation of multifarious plant growth promoting traits, antagonistic potential and phylogenetic affiliation of rhizobacteria associated with commercial tea plants grown in Darjeeling, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintu Dutta

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are studied in different agricultural crops but the interaction of PGPR of tea crop is not yet studied well. In the present study, the indigenous tea rhizobacteria were isolated from seven tea estates of Darjeeling located in West Bengal, India. A total of 150 rhizobacterial isolates were screened for antagonistic activity against six different fungal pathogens i.e. Nigrospora sphaerica (KJ767520, Pestalotiopsis theae (ITCC 6599, Curvularia eragostidis (ITCC 6429, Glomerella cingulata (MTCC 2033, Rhizoctonia Solani (MTCC 4633 and Fusarium oxysporum (MTCC 284, out of which 48 isolates were antagonist to at least one fungal pathogen used. These 48 isolates exhibited multifarious antifungal properties like the production of siderophore, chitinase, protease and cellulase and also plant growth promoting (PGP traits like IAA production, phosphate solubilization, ammonia and ACC deaminase production. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA and BOX-PCR analysis based genotyping clustered the isolates into different groups. Finally, four isolates were selected for plant growth promotion study in two tea commercial cultivars TV-1 and Teenali-17 in nursery conditions. The plant growth promotion study showed that the inoculation of consortia of these four PGPR isolates significantly increased the growth of tea plant in nursery conditions. Thus this study underlines the commercial potential of these selected PGPR isolates for sustainable tea cultivation.

  17. On the potential of Hg-Photo-CVD process for the low temperature growth of nano-crystalline silicon (Topical review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhdadi, A.

    2005-08-01

    Mercury-Sensitized Photo-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (Hg-Photo-CVD) technique opens new possibilities for reducing thin film growth temperature and producing novel semiconductor materials suitable for the future generation of high efficiency thin film solar cells onto low cost flexible plastic substrates. This paper provides an overview of this technique, with the emphasis on its potential in low temperature elaboration of nano-crystalline silicon for the development of thin films photovoltaic technology. (author)

  18. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.

  19. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  20. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  1. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  2. The potential regulatory effect of nitric oxide in plasma activated water on cell growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying; Guo, Jinsong; Wu, Dong; Wang, Kaile; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Plasma activated water (PAW) has shown a promising prospect for applications in the medical and food industries. In this study, the influence of nitric oxide radical (NO.) on the PAW regulatory capability was investigated. Electron paramagnetic resonance was employed to systematically detect the exact concentrations of NO. in PAW. It was observed that NO. concentration depended on plasma generation power, increasing with the augment of electrical parameters. Accordingly, the survival rates of S. cerevisiae were analyzed after PAW treatments, which had a negative correlation with NO. concentrations. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that NO. with low concentration in PAW had a promotive effect on cell growth, while NO. with high concentration in PAW had an inhibitory effect. It was speculated that NO. may be involved in the regulation of PAW on cell growth, which shed light on the further understanding in the interaction of PAW with biological cell.

  3. An integrative genetic study of rice metabolism, growth and stochastic variation reveals potential C/N partitioning loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Baohua; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    metabolites suggesting that they may influence carbon and nitrogen partitioning, with one locus co-localizing with SUSIBA2 (WRKY78). Comparing QTLs for metabolomic and a variety of growth related traits identified few overlaps. Interestingly, the rice population displayed fewer loci controlling stochastic...... on identifying genes controlling major effect loci. To complement these studies, we conducted a replicated metabolomics analysis on a japonica (Lemont) by indica (Teqing) rice recombinant inbred line population and focused on the genetic variation for primary metabolism. Using independent replicated studies, we......Studying the genetic basis of variation in plant metabolism has been greatly facilitated by genomic and metabolic profiling advances. In this study, we use metabolomics and growth measurements to map QTL in rice, a major staple crop. Previous rice metabolism studies have largely focused...

  4. Development and validation of a stochastic model for potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated lightly preserved seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Bøknæs, Niels; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-01-01

    A new stochastic model for the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was developed and validated on data from naturally contaminated samples of cold-smoked Greenland halibut (CSGH) and cold-smoked salmon (CSS). During industrial processing these samples were......) values of L. monocytogenes in naturally contaminated samples of CSGH and CSS were accurately predicted by the stochastic model based on measured variability in product characteristics and storage conditions. Results comparable to those from the stochastic model were obtained, when product characteristics...... to CSGH and CSS was confirmed as a suitable mitigation strategy against the risk of growth by L. monocytogenes as both types of products were in compliance with the EU regulation on ready-to-eat foods....

  5. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) with PALMSIM: Model description, evaluation and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, M.; Castaneda Vera, A.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthür, T.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the gap between water-limited potential yield and actual yield in oil palm production systems through intensification is seen as an important option for sustainably increasing palm oil production. Simulation models can play an important role in quantifying water-limited potential yield, and

  6. Expression and potential role of fibroblast growth factor 2 and its receptors in human embryonic stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Petr; Dvořáková, D.; Košková, S.; Vidinská, M.; Najvirtová, M.; Krekáč, D.; Hampl, Aleš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 8 (2005), s. 1200-1211 ISSN 1066-5099 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/03/1122; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/05/0434; GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : growth factor * human embryonic stem cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.094, year: 2005

  7. Effects of salicylic acid foliar application on germination, growth and antioxidant potential of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Karalija, Erna; Parić, Adisa

    2018-01-01

    Salicylic acid is one of endogenous plant growth regulators that plays a key role in many physiological processes. The present study analysed the effect of different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, ad 1.0 mM) of salicylic acid on morphological parameters, photosynthetic pigments, protein, proline, total carbohydrates, and secondary metabolites content as well as peroxidase activity. One month after sowing seedlings were replanted in new pots, and salicylic acid was applied in form of a foliar s...

  8. A Review of the Growth of the Fast Food Industry in China and Its Potential Impact on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youfa Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The fast-food (FF industry and obesity rates have rapidly increased in China. This study examined the FF industry growth in China, key factors contributing to the growth, and the association between FF consumption (FFC and obesity. We collected related data from multiple sources and conducted analysis including linear regression analysis on the increase in FF revenue. It was found that FF industry in China is large, with over two million FF facilities. Its total revenue (in million US$ increased from 10,464 in 1999 to 94,218 in 2013, and by 13% annually since 2008. Increased income, urbanization, busier lifestyle, speedy FF service, assurance of food safety, new brands and foods have stimulated demand for FF. Studies have linked FFC with obesity risk, including a few reporting a positive association between FFC and obesity in China. Rapid expansion of Western-style FF restaurants has also stimulated local FF industry growth. Government regulation and public health education need to address the health consequences of rapidly increasing FFC. Lessons learned in China will help other countries.

  9. A Review of the Growth of the Fast Food Industry in China and Its Potential Impact on Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Wang, Liang; Xue, Hong; Qu, Weidong

    2016-11-09

    The fast-food (FF) industry and obesity rates have rapidly increased in China. This study examined the FF industry growth in China, key factors contributing to the growth, and the association between FF consumption (FFC) and obesity. We collected related data from multiple sources and conducted analysis including linear regression analysis on the increase in FF revenue. It was found that FF industry in China is large, with over two million FF facilities. Its total revenue (in million US$) increased from 10,464 in 1999 to 94,218 in 2013, and by 13% annually since 2008. Increased income, urbanization, busier lifestyle, speedy FF service, assurance of food safety, new brands and foods have stimulated demand for FF. Studies have linked FFC with obesity risk, including a few reporting a positive association between FFC and obesity in China. Rapid expansion of Western-style FF restaurants has also stimulated local FF industry growth. Government regulation and public health education need to address the health consequences of rapidly increasing FFC. Lessons learned in China will help other countries.

  10. Growth potential of energy sector reforms: new evidence on EU and Southeast European countries by exploring impact on electricity generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nela Vlahinić Lenz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of energy sector reforms on electricity generation and thus economic growth in EU and Southeast European countries. The paper aims at clarifying whether the impact of energy sector reforms on generation efficiency differs among countries according to their level of development and regional characteristics. Our hypothesis is that the EU reform model is not appropriate for all Member States and Southeast European countries since it does not improve efficiency in electricity generation in all countries and therefore, it can hamper economic growth. For testing the defined hypothesis the panel regression model with fixed effects has been used. The research results show that unlike in the EU-15 (old Member States, energy sector reforms in the EU-12 (new Member States, and selected Southeast European countries (Energy Community contracting parties have no significant impact on electricity transmission and distribution losses. These evidences imply that the uniform EU reform model does not improve efficiency of electricity generation in less developed countries. On the contrary it can even hamper economic growth and therefore it cannot be appropriate for all Member States. The reason lies in the fact that successful reform model requires adequate level of institutional resources that are missing in most transition and post-transition countries.

  11. Growth rate variation and potential paleoceanographic proxies in Primnoa pacifica: Insights from high-resolution trace element microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranha, Renita; Edinger, Evan; Layne, Graham; Piercey, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Red tree coral, Primnoa pacifica, is one of the more common habitat-forming deep-sea gorgonian corals in the northeast Pacific Ocean, growing in colonies up to 2 m high and living for decades to hundreds of years. Growth characteristics of P. pacifica were studied in Dixon Entrance, northern British Columbia, and the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary, Washington State, USA, based on samples collected in July 2008. To minimize the impact of scientific sampling on coral populations, only dead coral skeletons and dislodged live corals were collected. Ages and growth rates were measured using band counts, and checked against AMS-14C ages of gorgonin rings. Ba/Ca, Mg/Ca, Na/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios in the calcite cortex were measured using radial Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS) transects with a spot size of Bomb radiocarbon in all but one of the gorgonin samples, and long radiocarbon reservoir ages in the Northeast Pacific, made radiocarbon-based verification of coral ages and growth rates difficult due to wide errors in calibrated age estimates. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were inversely correlated in two of the three corals analyzed, and showed evidence of interannual variation. Mg/Ca ratios ranged from 70 to 136 mmol mol-1, and Sr/Ca ratios from 2.041 to 3.14 mmol mol-1. Previously published relationships between gorgonian calcite Mg/Ca and seawater temperature yielded average temperatures matching ambient measurements, but the intra- and inter-annual variation in apparent temperature based on the Mg/Ca ratios was more than double the observed variation in modern seawater temperature ranges in the region. Annual variation in Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca could be related to seasonal changes in precipitation efficiency, which is likely a function of short-term fluctuations in coral growth rate, in turn related to variation in primary productivity. Seasonal and interannual variations in food availability, driven by primary productivity, may affect skeletal growth rate, hence Mg

  12. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  13. [Hypertrophy and coronary reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, W; Scheler, S

    2008-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.

  14. Evaluation of the Slope of Amplitude Growth Function Changes of the Electrically Evoked Action Potential in Three Months after Receiving the Device in Children with Cochlear Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Pourjavid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In neural response telemetry, intracochlear electrodes stimulate the auditory nerve and record the neural responses. The electrical stimulation is sent to the auditory nerve by an electrode and the resulted response, called electrically evoked compound action potential, is recorded by an adjacent electrode. The most important clinical applications of this test are evaluation and monitoring the intra and postoperative responses of auditory nerve and help to primary setting of speech processor. The aim of this study was evaluating the potential's slope of amplitude growth function changes three monthes after receiving the devise in pediatric cochlear implant recipients. Materials & Methods: This longitudinal study evaluated the potentials' slope of amplitude growth function changes in four given electrodes in four sessions after receiving the devise by approximately one month's intervals in all of the children who implanted in Amir Alam and Hazrat-e-Rasoul hospitals in 2007, July to December. Friedman test was used to analyse the results. Results: Electrically evoked compound action potential's mean slope of each electrode was more in later sessions relative to first session, while there was significant difference between the 1st and the other electrodes’ responses in every session (P<0.05. Conclusion: The reliabiliy of the responses results in more assurance of clinician to fit the speech processor for along time. Better responses in apical electrodes may lead to develope an effective coding strategy.

  15. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  16. Identification and growth optimization of a Marine Bacillus DK1-SA11 having potential of producing broad spectrum antimicrobial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Naseem; Lin, Hong; Li, Meng; Wang, Jingxue; Mirani, Zulfiqar Ali; Khan, Seema Ismat; Buzdar, Muhammad Aslam; Ali, Imran; Jamil, Khalid

    2017-05-01

    Control of harmful bacteria in food, aquaculture, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, hospitals and recreation water pools are of great global concern. Marine bacteria are an enormous source of bio-controlling agents. The aim of this study was to identify and optimize the growth conditions including effect of different biotic and abiotic factors on antimicrobial activity of strain DK1-SA11 isolated from Qingdao Bay of China Yellow Sea. Microscopic characterization, API® 20E and 50 CHB kit base carbohydrates utilization, 16S rDNA and DNA gyrB gene sequencing studies identified the bacterium as Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii DK1-SA11. Antimicrobial spectrum of cell free supernatant (CFS) has shown antimicrobial activities against all test strains including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli O157:H7, Candida albicans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, E. coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae. Among all the media tested, Marine Broth 2216 was found to be the best medium for bacterial growth and production of antibacterial compounds. The other optimum conditions for growth were pH:7 and incubation temperature: 25°C with < 180 rpm for 60-72 h. Out of 49 different carbohydrates tested, D-mannose increases the antibacterial activity by 33.3% while D-arabitol decreases it by 44.4%. Crude CFS showed activity even after three months of storage below -20°C and boiling for 10 min, whereas it loses 100% of its antimicrobial activity after enzymatic treatments of lipase, trypsin and papain. The production of antimicrobial compounds and broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against all tested pathogens suggested that the strain DK1-SA11 can be used as a source for probiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics.

  17. Potential costs of acclimatization to a warmer climate: growth of a reef coral with heat tolerant vs. sensitive symbiont types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jones

    Full Text Available One of the principle ways in which reef building corals are likely to cope with a warmer climate is by changing to more thermally tolerant endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae genotypes. It is highly likely that hosting a more heat-tolerant algal genotype will be accompanied by tradeoffs in the physiology of the coral. To better understand one of these tradeoffs, growth was investigated in the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora in both the laboratory and the field. In the Keppel Islands in the southern Great Barrier Reef this species naturally harbors nrDNA ITS1 thermally sensitive type C2 or thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium and can change dominant type following bleaching. We show that under controlled conditions, corals with type D symbionts grow 29% slower than those with type C2 symbionts. In the field, type D colonies grew 38% slower than C2 colonies. These results demonstrate the magnitude of trade-offs likely to be experienced by this species as they acclimatize to warmer conditions by changing to more thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae. Irrespective of symbiont genotype, corals were affected to an even greater degree by the stress of a bleaching event which reduced growth by more than 50% for up to 18 months compared to pre-bleaching rates. The processes of symbiont change and acute thermal stress are likely to act in concert on coral growth as reefs acclimatize to more stressful warmer conditions, further compromising their regeneration capacity following climate change.

  18. Potential costs of acclimatization to a warmer climate: growth of a reef coral with heat tolerant vs. sensitive symbiont types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alison; Berkelmans, Ray

    2010-05-03

    One of the principle ways in which reef building corals are likely to cope with a warmer climate is by changing to more thermally tolerant endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) genotypes. It is highly likely that hosting a more heat-tolerant algal genotype will be accompanied by tradeoffs in the physiology of the coral. To better understand one of these tradeoffs, growth was investigated in the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora in both the laboratory and the field. In the Keppel Islands in the southern Great Barrier Reef this species naturally harbors nrDNA ITS1 thermally sensitive type C2 or thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium and can change dominant type following bleaching. We show that under controlled conditions, corals with type D symbionts grow 29% slower than those with type C2 symbionts. In the field, type D colonies grew 38% slower than C2 colonies. These results demonstrate the magnitude of trade-offs likely to be experienced by this species as they acclimatize to warmer conditions by changing to more thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae. Irrespective of symbiont genotype, corals were affected to an even greater degree by the stress of a bleaching event which reduced growth by more than 50% for up to 18 months compared to pre-bleaching rates. The processes of symbiont change and acute thermal stress are likely to act in concert on coral growth as reefs acclimatize to more stressful warmer conditions, further compromising their regeneration capacity following climate change.

  19. The effects of modeled microgravity on growth kinetics, antibiotic susceptibility, cold growth, and the virulence potential of a Yersinia pestis ymoA-deficient mutant and its isogenic parental strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Abidat; Kirtley, Michelle L; van Lier, Christina J; Erova, Tatiana E; Kozlova, Elena V; Sha, Jian; Chopra, Ashok K; Rosenzweig, Jason A

    2013-09-01

    Previously, we reported that there was no enhancement in the virulence potential (as measured by cell culture infections) of the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis (YP) following modeled microgravity/clinorotation growth. We have now further characterized the effects of clinorotation (CR) on YP growth kinetics, antibiotic sensitivity, cold growth, and YP's virulence potential in a murine model of infection. Surprisingly, none of the aforementioned phenotypes were altered. To better understand why CR did not enhance YP's virulence potential as it did for other bacterial pathogens, a YP ΔymoA isogenic mutant in the KIM/D27 background strain that is unable to produce the histone-like YmoA protein and influences DNA topography was used in both cell culture and murine models of infection. YmoA represses type three secretion system (T3SS) virulence gene expression in the yersiniae. Similar to our CR-grown parental YP strain data, the CR-grown ΔymoA mutant induced reduced HeLa cell cytotoxicity with concomitantly decreased Yersinia outer protein E (YopE) and low calcium response V (LcrV) antigen production and secretion. Important, however, were our findings that, although no significant differences were observed in survival of mice infected intraperitoneally with either normal gravity (NG)- or CR-grown parental YP, the ΔymoA mutant induced significantly more mortality in infected mice than did the parental strain following CR growth. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CR did enhance the virulence potential of the YP ΔymoA mutant in a murine infection model (relative to the CR-grown parental strain), despite inducing less HeLa cell rounding in our cell culture infection assay due to reduced T3SS activity. Therefore, CR, which induces a unique type of bacterial stress, might be enhancing YP's virulence potential in vivo through a T3SS-independent mechanism when the histone-like YmoA protein is absent.

  20. Economic growth and the reform of the judicial system of Bulgaria in the period 2000-2015 (vision for a new measurement model). IDEAS Working Paper Series from RePEc N72919, Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Nozharov, Shteryo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The publication proposes a concept for new model for evaluation of the “reform of the judicial system”, different from those applied by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund where the economic growth rate of each country is measured. Their models, based on performance indicators, examine the “reform of the judicial system” as constant and floating in time, evaluated in certain periods of time. This fact obstructs the identification of the relative legislative miscarriag...

  1. Aurora kinase B is important for antiestrogen resistant cell growth and a potential biomarker for tamoxifen resistant breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sarah L; Yde, Christina W.; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    resistant T47D breast cancer cell lines. Compared with parental cells, phosphorylation of Aurora kinase B was higher in the fulvestrant resistant T47D cells. Barasertib induced degradation of Aurora kinase B, caused mitotic errors, and induced apoptotic cell death as measured by accumulation of SubG1 cells...... and PARP cleavage in the fulvestrant resistant cells. Barasertib also exerted preferential growth inhibition of tamoxifen resistant T47D cell lines. Finally, high percentage of Aurora kinase B positive tumor cells was significantly associated with reduced disease-free and overall survival in 261 ER...

  2. Measurement of Urinary Growth Hormone (GH) Levels by Highly Sensitive Enzyme Immunoassay as a Potential Screening Test for GH Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Sohmiya, Motoi; Kato, Yuzuru

    1992-01-01

    We set up a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay of human growth hormone (hGH) using anti-hGH rabbit Fab'-peroxidase conjugate. IgG was obtained from anti-hGH rabbit serum with salting-out and diethylaminoethyl cellulose. IgG was digested by porcine gastric mucosa pepsin to F (ab')_2 which was reduced to Fab'. Fab' was conjugated with peroxidase by maleimide method. The minimum detectable amount of hGH was 0.3pg/ml using 100μl of dialyzed urine sample without any concentrating procedure. Urina...

  3. Phytotoxicity assessment on corn stover biochar, derived from fast pyrolysis, based on seed germination, early growth, and potential plant cell damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Shen, Fei; Guo, Haiyan; Wang, Zhanghong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Lilin; Zhang, Yanzong; Zeng, Yongmei; Deng, Shihuai

    2015-06-01

    The potential phytotoxicity of water extractable toxicants in a typical corn stover biochar, the product of fast pyrolysis, was investigated using an aqueous biochar extract on a soil-less bioassay with tomato plants. The biochar dosage of 0.0-16.0 g beaker(-1) resulted in an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between biochar doasage and seed germination/seedling growth. This indicated that tomato growth was slightly stimulated by low dosages of biochar and inhibited with higher dosages of biochar. Additionally, antioxidant enzyme activities in the roots and leaves were enhanced at lower dosages, but rapidly decreased with higher dosages of biochar. With the increased dosages of biochar, the malondialdehyde content in the roots and leaves increased, in addition with the observed morphology of necrotic root cells, suggesting that serious damage to tomato seedlings occurred. EC50 of root length inhibition occurred with biochar dosages of 9.2 g beaker(-1) (3.5th day) and 16.7 g beaker(-1) (11th day) (equivalent to 82.8 and 150.3 t ha(-1), respectively), which implied that toxicity to the early growth of tomato can potentially be alleviated as the plant grows.

  4. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  5. Monitoring of tumor growth and metastasis potential in MDA-MB-435s/tk-luc human breast cancer xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.-F.; Lin, Y.-Y.; Wang, H.-E.; Liu, R.-S.; Pang Fei; Hwang, J.-J.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging of reporter gene expression provides a rapid, sensitive and non-invasive monitoring of tumor behaviors. In this study, we reported the establishment of a novel animal model for longitudinal examination of tumor growth kinetics and metastatic spreading in vivo. The highly metastatic human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-435s cell line was engineered to stably express herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1-tk) and luciferase (luc). Both 131 I-FIAU and D-luciferin were used as reporter probes. For orthotopic tumor formation, MDA-MB-435s/tk-luc cells were implanted into the first nipple of 6-week-old female NOD/SCID mice. For metastatic study, cells were injected via the lateral tail vein. Mice-bearing MDA-MB-435s/tk-luc tumors were scanned for tumor growth and metastatsis using Xenogen IVIS50 system. Gamma scintigraphy and whole-body autoradiography were also applied to confirm the tumor localization. The results of bioluminescence imaging as well as histopathological finding showed that tumors could be detected in femur, spine, ovary, lungs, kidney, adrenal gland, lymph nodes and muscle at 16 weeks post i.v. injection, and correlated photons could be quantified. This MDA-MB-435s/tk-luc human breast carcinoma-bearing mouse model combined with multimodalities of molecular imaging may facilitate studies on the molecular mechanisms of cancer invasion and metastasis

  6. Evaluation of kefir as a potential probiotic on growth performance, serum biochemistry and immune responses in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Toghyani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of milk or molasses kefir as a probiotic on growth performance, carcass traits, serum biochemistry and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens. A total of 192 one-d-old as hatched broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly allotted to 4 treatments, each with 4 replicate pens of 12 chicks. The following treatments were applied: 1 a basal diet (C and normal drinking water, 2 2% milk kefir in drinking water, 3 2% molasses kefir in drinking water, and 4 the diet C supplemented with commercial probiotic. At d 42, eight birds per treatment were killed for determination of carcass traits. Broilers at 28 days of age were bled for measuring antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus (NDV and avian influenza virus (AIV, at 30 days of age for antibody titers against sheep red blood cell (SRBC, and at 42 days of age for biochemical analysis. Supplementing 2% milk kefir increased body weight of broilers at 28 and 42 days of age (P  0.05 influenced. Broilers supplemented with molasses kefir, had a significantly lower concentration of serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated high density lipoprotein cholesterol at 42 days of age (P < 0.05. In conclusion, the results indicated that inclusion of 2% milk kefir in drinking water would improve growth performance of broiler chickens.

  7. Promotion Effect of Asian Dust on Phytoplankton Growth and Potential Dissolved Organic Phosphorus Utilization in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Qiang; Liu, Ying; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Chao; Gong, Xiang; Yao, Xiaohong; Guo, Xinyu; Gao, Huiwang

    2018-03-01

    Dust deposition is an important nutrient source to the South China Sea (SCS), but few in situ experiments were conducted on phytoplankton response to the deposition. We conducted onboard incubation experiments at three stations near Luzon Strait in the SCS, with addition of multiple dissolved inorganic nutrients, Asian dust, and rainwater. From our results, nitrogen and phosphorus were both urgently needed for phytoplankton growth in the SCS, indicated by the evident Chl a response to the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus together. Almost no evident response was observed by adding phosphorus or iron alone to incubation waters, although a delayed response of Chl a in mass concentration was observed by adding nitrogen alone. The latter implied a possible utilization of dissolved organic phosphorus because of insufficient dissolved inorganic phosphorus in incubation waters. Under such nutrient condition, Asian dust showed an apparent promotion effect on phytoplankton growth by providing sufficient amounts of nitrogen but low phosphorus. Meanwhile, it was found that large sized (> 5 μm) phytoplankton community showed different responses to dust addition at different stations. At stations A3 and A6, Chaetoceros spp. became the dominant species during the bloom period, while at station WG2, Nitzschia spp. became dominant. In combination with different initial nutrients and Chl a levels at the three stations, the different phytoplankton community evolution implied the response difference to external inputs between oligotrophic (stations A3 and A6) and ultraoligotrophic (station WG2) conditions in the SCS.

  8. Characterization of Potential Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L. in Central and Northern Benin (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège A. Agbodjato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aims to characterize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR isolated from maize roots in five agroecological zones of central and northern Benin. Sixty samples were collected at the rate of four samples per village and three villages per agroecological zone. Rhizobacteria strains were isolated from these samples and biochemically characterized. These strains were analyzed for some of their PGPR traits like ammonia production and hydrogen cyanide following conventional methods. Microbiological investigation of these samples has shown that maize rhizospheres in central and northern Benin contain a high diversity of microorganisms. A total of nine species of maize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria were identified. Those PGPR include five Bacillus species (B. polymyxa, B. pantothenticus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. circulans, three Pseudomonas species (P. cichorii, P. putida, and P. syringae, and Serratia marcescens. The microbial diversity does not depend on the soil types. The microbial density, generally high, varies according to both soil types and agroecological zones. All Serratia strains (100% have produced ammonia, whereas 80% of Bacillus and 77.77% of Pseudomonas produced this metabolite. The hydrogen cyanide was produced by all isolates (100% independent of their genus. These results suggest the possibility to use these rhizobacteria as biological fertilizers to increase maize production.

  9. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Potential Plant Growth Promoting Bacillus cereus GGBSTD1 and Pseudomonas spp. GGBSTD3 from Vermisources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balayogan Sivasankari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost was prepared from leaf materials of Gliricidia sepium + Cassia auriculata + Leucaena leucocephala with cow dung (1 : 1 : 2 using Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg and Eisenia fetida for 60 days. Nineteen bacterial strains which have the capability to fix nitrogen, solubilize inorganic phosphate, and produce phytohormones were isolated from vermicompost, vermisources, and earthworm (fore, mid, and hind guts and tested for plant growth studies. Among the bacterial strains only five strains had both activities; among the five Bacillus spp. showed more nitrogen fixing activity and Pseudomonas spp. showed more phosphate solubilizing activity. Hence these bacterial strains were selected for further molecular analysis and identified Bacillus cereus GGBSTD1 and Pseudomonas spp. GGBSTD3. Plant growth studies use these two organisms separately and as consortium (Bacillus cereus + Pseudomonas spp. in (1 : 1 ratio at different concentrations using Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. at different day intervals. The germination percent, shoot length, root length, leaf area, chlorophyll a content of the leaves, chlorophyll b content of the leaves, total chlorophyll content of the leaves, fresh weight of the whole plant, and dry weight of the whole plant were significantly enhanced by the consortium (Bacillus cereus + Pseudomonas spp. of two organisms at 5 mL concentrations on the 15th day compared to others.

  10. An Integrative Genetic Study of Rice Metabolism, Growth and Stochastic Variation Reveals Potential C/N Partitioning Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baohua; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolghasem; Huai, Dongxin; Zhou, Yongming; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-07-01

    Studying the genetic basis of variation in plant metabolism has been greatly facilitated by genomic and metabolic profiling advances. In this study, we use metabolomics and growth measurements to map QTL in rice, a major staple crop. Previous rice metabolism studies have largely focused on identifying genes controlling major effect loci. To complement these studies, we conducted a replicated metabolomics analysis on a japonica (Lemont) by indica (Teqing) rice recombinant inbred line population and focused on the genetic variation for primary metabolism. Using independent replicated studies, we show that in contrast to other rice studies, the heritability of primary metabolism is similar to Arabidopsis. The vast majority of metabolic QTLs had small to moderate effects with significant polygenic epistasis. Two metabolomics QTL hotspots had opposing effects on carbon and nitrogen rich metabolites suggesting that they may influence carbon and nitrogen partitioning, with one locus co-localizing with SUSIBA2 (WRKY78). Comparing QTLs for metabolomic and a variety of growth related traits identified few overlaps. Interestingly, the rice population displayed fewer loci controlling stochastic variation for metabolism than was found in Arabidopsis. Thus, it is possible that domestication has differentially impacted stochastic metabolite variation more than average metabolite variation.

  11. Potential of three microbial bio-effectors to promote maize growth and nutrient acquisition from alternative phosphorous fertilizers in contrasting soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thonar, Cécile; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Cozzolino, Vincenza

    2017-01-01

    regions. Pot experiments were conducted in Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland where the same variety of maize was grown in local soils deficient in P in combination with alternative fertilizers and the same set of BEs (Trichoderma, Pseudomonas, and Bacillus strains). Common...... guidelines for pot experiment implementation and performance were developed to allow data comparison, and soils were analyzed by the same laboratory. Results: Efficiency of BEs to improve maize growth and nutrient uptake differed strongly according to soil properties and fertilizer combined. Promising...... with these fertilizers to improve the nutrient use efficiency. Methods: The goal of this study was to assess the potential of three BEs in combination with alternative fertilizers (e.g., composted manure, biogas digestate, green compost) to promote plant growth and nutrient uptake in soils typical for various European...

  12. Potential Involvement of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligand Epiregulin and Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in Pathogenesis of Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Tetsuya; Kato, Atsushi; Sakashita, Masafumi; Takabayashi, Tetsuji; Norton, James E; Suh, Lydia A; Carter, Roderick G; Harris, Kathleen E; Peters, Anju T; Grammer, Leslie C; Min, Jin-Young; Shintani-Smith, Stephanie; Tan, Bruce K; Welch, Kevin; Conley, David B; Kern, Robert C; Schleimer, Robert P

    2017-09-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease of the nose and paranasal sinuses that presents without or with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Notable features of CRSwNP are the frequent presence of type 2 allergic inflammation and high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) colonization. As inflammation persists, sinus tissue undergoes epithelial damage and repair along with polyp growth, despite active medical management. Because one feature of damaged tissue is enhancement of growth factor signaling, we evaluated the presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in CRS. The objectives of this study were to analyze the expression of EGFR ligands and MMPs in patients with CRS and to investigate the possible role of SA on epithelial activation. Sinonasal tissues were collected during surgery from control subjects and patients with CRS. Tissues were processed as described previously for analysis of mRNA (RT-PCR) and proteins (ELISA) for the majority of EGFR ligands within the tissue extracts. CRS tissue was used for evaluation of the distribution of epiregulin (EREG), an EGFR ligand, and MMP-1 by immunohistochemistry. In parallel studies, expression of these genes and proteins was analyzed in cultured primary airway epithelial cells. Elevated expression of EREG and MMP-1 mRNA and protein was observed in uncinate and polyp tissue from patients with CRSwNP. Immunohistochemistry study of clinical samples revealed that airway epithelial cells expressed both of these proteins. Cultured primary human airway epithelial cells expressed MMP-1, and MMP-1 was further induced by stimulation with EREG or heat-killed SA (HKSA). The induction of MMP-1 by HKSA was blocked by an antibody against EREG, suggesting that endogenous EREG induces MMP-1 after stimulation with HKSA. EREG and MMP-1 were found to be elevated in nasal polyp and uncinate tissues in patients with CRSwNP. Elevated expression of EREG and MMP

  13. Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo, Gustavo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma del Carmen; Glick, Bernard R

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial endophytes ubiquitously colonize the internal tissues of plants, being found in nearly every plant worldwide. Some endophytes are able to promote the growth of plants. For those strains the mechanisms of plant growth-promotion known to be employed by bacterial endophytes are similar to the mechanisms used by rhizospheric bacteria, e.g., the acquisition of resources needed for plant growth and modulation of plant growth and development. Similar to rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria, endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria can act to facilitate plant growth in agriculture, horticulture and silviculture as well as in strategies for environmental cleanup (i.e., phytoremediation). Genome comparisons between bacterial endophytes and the genomes of rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria are starting to unveil potential genetic factors involved in an endophytic lifestyle, which should facilitate a better understanding of the functioning of bacterial endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential inhibitors from wet oxidation of wheat straw and their effect on growth and ethanol production by Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, Helene Bendstrup; Thomsen, A.B.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    /l), aliphatic carboxylic acids (6 g/l), phenols (0.27 g/l or 1.7 mM), and 2-furoic acid (0.007 g/l). The wet-oxidized wheat straw hydrolysate caused no inhibition of ethanol yield by the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. Nine phenols and 2-furoic acid, identified to be present...... in the hydrolysate, were each tested in concentrations of 10-100x the concentration found in the hydrolysate for their effect on fermentation by T. mathranii. At 2 mM, these aromatic compounds were not inhibitory to growth or ethanol yield in T mathranii. When the concentration of aromatics was increased to 10 m...

  15. Functional Role of PPARs in Ruminants: Potential Targets for Fine-Tuning Metabolism during Growth and Lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuowen; Khan, Muhammad J.; Loor, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization and biological roles of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes are well known in monogastrics, but not in ruminants. However, a wealth of information has accumulated in little more than a decade on ruminant PPARs including isotype tissue distribution, response to synthetic and natural agonists, gene targets, and factors affecting their expression. Functional characterization demonstrated that, as in monogastrics, the PPAR isotypes control expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, anti-inflammatory response, development, and growth. Contrary to mouse, however, the PPARγ gene network appears to controls milk fat synthesis in lactating ruminants. As in monogastrics, PPAR isotypes in ruminants are activated by long-chain fatty acids, therefore, making them ideal candidates for fine-tuning metabolism in this species via nutrients. In this regard, using information accumulated in ruminants and monogastrics, we propose a model of PPAR isotype-driven biological functions encompassing key tissues during the peripartal period in dairy cattle. PMID:23737762

  16. Transforming growth factor beta stimulation of biglycan gene expression is potentially mediated by sp1 binding factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Anne-Marie; Xie, Zhongjian; Young, Marian Frances

    2004-01-01

    Biglycan is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan which is localized in the extracellular matrix of bone and other specialized connective tissues. Both biglycan mRNA and protein are up-regulated by transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) and biglycan appears to influence TGF-beta(1) activity...... promoter upstream from the transcriptional start site, which contained several binding sites for the transcription factor Sp1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with nuclear extracts from MG-63 cells showed binding of both Sp1 and Sp3 to a site at -216 to -208. When the biglycan promoter construct....... In this study, we have investigated the mechanism by which TGF-beta(1), TGF-beta(2) and TGF-beta(3) stimulate biglycan mRNA expression in the osteoblastic cell line MG-63. The cells were transfected with a series of deletional human biglycan promoter constructs and a region in the biglycan 5' DNA was found...

  17. Growth potential of blue mussels (M. edulis) exposed to different salinities evaluated by a Dynamic Energy Budget model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Saurel, Camille; Landes, Anja

    2015-01-01

    For bluemussels,Mytilus edulis, onemajor constrain in the Baltic Sea is the low salinities that reduce the efficiency of mussel production. However, the effects of living in low and variable salinity regimes are rarely considered in models describing mussel growth. The aim of the present study...... was to incorporate the effects of low salinity into an eco-physiological model of blue mussels and to identify areas suitable for mussel production. A Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model was modified with respect to i) the morphological parameters (DW/WW-ratio, shape factor), ii) change in ingestion rate and iii......) metabolic costs due to osmoregulation in different salinity environments. Themodified DEBmodel was validated with experimental data fromdifferent locations in the Western Baltic Sea (including the Limfjorden) with salinities varying from 8.5 to 29.9 psu. The identified areas suitable for mussel production...

  18. Neutrophils with protumor potential could efficiently suppress tumor growth after cytokine priming and in presence of normal NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Luo, Jing; Li, Dong; Shu, Yu; Luo, Chao; Wang, Shan-Shan; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Feng, Zuo-Hua

    2014-12-30

    In tumor-bearing state, the function of neutrophils is converted from tumor-suppressing to tumor-promoting. Here we report that priming with IFN-γ and TNF-α could convert the potential of neutrophils from tumor-promoting to tumor-suppressing. The neutrophils with protumor potential have not lost their responsiveness to IFN-γ and TNF-α. After priming with IFN-γ and TNF-α, the potential of the neutrophils to express Bv8 and Mmp9 genes was reduced. Conversely, the tumor-promotional neutrophils recovered the expression of Rab27a and Trail, resumed the activation levels of PI3K and p38 MAPK pathways in response to stimuli, and expressed higher levels of IL-18 and NK-activating ligands such as RAE-1, MULT-1, and H60. Therefore, the anti-tumor function of the neutrophils was augmented, including the cytotoxicity to tumor cells, the capability of degranulation, and the capacity to activate NK cells. Since the function of NK cells is impaired in tumor-bearing state, the administration of normal NK cells could significantly augment the efficiency of tumor therapy based on neutrophil priming. These findings highlight the reversibility of neutrophil function in tumor-bearing state, and suggest that neutrophil priming by IFN-γ/TNF-α might be a potential approach to eliminate residual tumor cells in comprehensive strategy for tumor therapy.

  19. Exploring the Potentials of Lysinibacillus sphaericus ZA9 for Plant Growth Promotion and Biocontrol Activities against Phytopathogenic Fungi

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    Zakira Naureen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing hunt for biologically active compounds that can combat phytopathogenic fungi and improve plant growth without causing any hazards to the environment. Consequently the present study aims at deciphering the plant growth promotion and antifungal capability of Lysinibacillus sphaericus ZA9. The bacterium was previously isolated and identified in our laboratory from maize rhizosphere using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The test bacterium L. sphaericus ZA9 was found to produce high quantity of IAA (697 μg/ mL; siderophores (195.79 μg/ mL, HCN and hydrolytic enzyme as compared to the reference strain Bacillus sphaericus Z2-7. The bacterium was also capable of solubilizing silicates (Si, phosphates (P, and potassium (K. The bacterium enhanced the seedling vigor and germination of seeds pretreated with it and promoted the shoot length of both cucumber and tomato seeds in greenhouse experiment. L. sphaericus ZA9 and its cell free culture supernatant showed varied antagonistic behavior against Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus sp., Sclerotinia sp., Bipolaris spicifera, Trichophyton sp. Fermentation broth culture of L. sphaericus ZA9 was then used to isolate antifungal metabolites by silica column chromatography. Identification and determination of antifungal compounds was carried out by Thin-layer chromatography (TLC followed by NMR spectroscopy. Two compounds were isolated and identified as 2-pentyl-4-quinolinecarboxylic acid (C15H17NO2 which is a quinoline alkaloid and 1- methylcyclohexene which is a cycloalkene. Compound 1; 2-Penthyl-4-quinolinecarboxylic acid was found to be highly antagonistic against most of the fungi tested as compared to the bacterium itself. Its activity was comparable to that of fungicide Benlate, while compound 2; 1- methylcyclohexene did not show any antifungal activity.

  20. Growth of Araucaria angustifolia in the Embrapa/Epagri forest reserve, Caçador, SC, Brazil Crescimento de Araucaria angustifolia na Reserva Florestal Embrapa/ Epagri, Caçador, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria Forest is one of most threatened phyto-physiognomies in the Atlantic Forest domain,
    presenting great ecological-economical importance. Nevertheless, there are still lacks of knowledge concerning growth and dynamic of important species, as Araucaria angustifolia. The objective of this work was to recover  the past growth of Araucaria angustifolia, native from Caçador, SC, Brazil, by measuring growth rings and to estimate the average periodic diametric increment. The growth rings were counted and measured, using a stereoscope microscope, in increment cores of 0.5 cm collected from 32 adult trees. The measurements were done with LINTAB measuring table, with 0.01 mm of precision. The samples sizes were irregular, varying from 4.2 to 20.2 cm long. The trees presented average diameter breast height (DBH of 76.3 cm, varying from 10.7 to 141.3 cm. The periodic diameter increment from the last 10 years was 0.4 cm, varying from 0.11 to 1.15 cm. It was observed differences among trees, but there was a tendency of reduction of growth rhythm in larger trees, being more
    evident in trees with more than 110 cm of DBH.A Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM é uma das fitofisionomias mais ameaçadas da área de domínio da
    Mata Atlântica, apresentando grande importância ecológico-econômica. Apesar disso, ainda existem lacunas de conhecimento sobre a produtividade primária, o crescimento e a dinâmica de espécies importantes, como a Araucaria angustifolia. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo estudar o crescimento anual de Araucaria angustifolia, nativa do Município de Caçador, SC, pela medição dos anéis de crescimento. A contagem e medição dos anéis de crescimento foram feitas com o auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico, em baguetas de 0,5 cm de diâmetro, coletadas de 32 árvores adultas. As medições foram feitas com o medidor de anéis de crescimento LINTAB, com precisão de 0,01 mm. O comprimento das amostras

  1. Potential of pomegranate fruit extract (Punica granatum Linn.) to increase vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor expressions on the post-tooth extraction wound of Cavia cobaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirwana, Intan; Rachmadi, Priyawan; Rianti, Devi

    2017-08-01

    Pomegranates fruit extracts have several activities, among others, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidants that have the main content punicalagin and ellagic acid. Pomegranate has the ability of various therapies through different mechanisms. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) function was to form new blood vessels produced by various cells one of them was macrophages. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was a growth factor proven chemotactic, increased fibroblast proliferation and collagen matrix production. In addition, VEGF and PDGF synergize in their ability to vascularize tissues. The PDGF function was to stabilize and regulate maturation of new blood vessels. Activities of pomegranate fruit extract were observed by measuring the increased of VEGF and PDGF expression as a marker of wound healing process. To investigate the potential of pomegranate extracts on the tooth extraction wound to increase the expression of VEGF and PDGF on the 4 th day of wound healing process. This study used 12 Cavia cobaya , which were divided into two groups, namely, the provision of 3% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and pomegranate extract. The 12 C. cobaya would be executed on the 4 th day, the lower jaw of experimental animals was taken, decalcified about 30 days. The expression of VEGF and PDGF was examined using immunohistochemical techniques. The differences of VEGF and PDGF expression were evaluated statistically using t-test. Statistically analysis showed that there were significant differences between control and treatment groups (p<0.05). Pomegranate fruit extract administration increased VEGF and PDGF expression on post-tooth extraction wound.

  2. Recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes in temperature abused milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Yi eChen; Emma eAllard; Anna eWooten; Minji eHur; Ishani eSheth; Anna eLassri; Thomas S Hammack; Dumitru eMacarisin

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate) that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 h. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average population level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.14 log CFU/g. Mil...

  3. Exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the potentiation of exogenous growth hormone on alcohol-induced fatty liver diseases in mice

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    Tian Ya-ping

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth hormone (GH is an essential regulator of intrahepatic lipid metabolism by activating multiple complex hepatic signaling cascades. Here, we examined whether chronic exogenous GH administration (via gene therapy could ameliorate liver steatosis in animal models of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either an alcohol or a control liquid diet with or without GH therapy for 6 weeks. Biochemical parameters, liver histology, oxidative stress markers, and serum high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin were measured. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were also conducted to determine the underlying molecular mechanism. Results Serum HMW adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the GH1-treated control group than in the control group (3.98 ± 0.71 μg/mL vs. 3.07 ± 0.55 μg/mL; P P P P P Conclusions GH therapy had positive effects on AFLD and may offer a promising approach to prevent or treat AFLD. These beneficial effects of GH on AFLD were achieved through the activation of the hepatic adiponectin-SIRT1-AMPK and PPARα-AMPK signaling systems.

  4. Spatial and harvesting influence on growth, yield, quality and economic potential of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Wall Ex. Nees

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    Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata, commonly known as Kalmegh, is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines because of its immunological, antibacterial and hepatoprotective properties. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of four harvesting times (120,135,150 days after planting and at seed maturity and four planting distances (30×15, 30×10, 20×15 and 20×10 cm on growth, dry herbage biomass, seed yield and quality traits of Andrographis paniculata at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India in the two years 2005 and 2006. The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. The maximum values for dry herbage biomass yield (5.14 t ha^(-1, net returns (760.00 EUR ha^(-1, B:C ratio (2.59, andrographolide content (2.63% and total yield (135.00 kg ha^(-1 were detected 135 days after planting with an optimum planting distance of 30×15 cm. However, the maximum iron content was estimated 120 days after planting. The highest dry herbage (4.58 t ha^(-1 and maximum seed yield (19.7 kg ha^(-1 were registered at plants that were lined out with a distance of 20×10 cm.

  5. Active macropinocytosis induction by stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and oncogenic Ras expression potentiates cellular uptake efficacy of exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Ikuhiko; Kobayashi, Nahoko Bailey; Takatani-Nakase, Tomoka; Yoshida, Tetsuhiko

    2015-06-03

    Exosomes are approximately 100-nm vesicles that consist of a lipid bilayer of cellular membranes secreted in large quantities from various types of normal and disease-related cells. Endocytosis has been reported as a major pathway for the cellular uptake of exosomes; however, the detailed mechanisms of their cellular uptake are still unknown. Here, we demonstrate the active induction of macropinocytosis (accompanied by actin reorganisation, ruffling of plasma membrane, and engulfment of large volumes of extracellular fluid) by stimulation of cancer-related receptors and show that the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor significantly enhances the cellular uptake of exosomes. We also demonstrate that oncogenic K-Ras-expressing MIA PaCa-2 cells exhibit intensive macropinocytosis that actively transports extracellular exosomes into the cells compared with wild-type K-Ras-expressing BxPC-3 cells. Furthermore, encapsulation of the ribosome-inactivating protein saporin with EGF in exosomes using our simple electroporation method produces superior cytotoxicity via the enhanced cellular uptake of exosomes. Our findings contribute to the biological, pharmaceutical, and medical research fields in terms of understanding the macropinocytosis-mediated cellular uptake of exosomes with applications for exosomal delivery systems.

  6. Hops (Humulus lupulus L. Bitter Acids: Modulation of Rumen Fermentation and Potential As an Alternative Growth Promoter

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    Michael D. Flythe

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics can improve ruminant growth and efficiency by altering rumen fermentation via selective inhibition of microorganisms. However, antibiotic use is increasingly restricted due to concerns about the spread of antibiotic-resistance. Plant-based antimicrobials are alternatives to antibiotics in animal production. The hops plant (Humulus lupulus L. produces a range of bioactive secondary metabolites, including antimicrobial prenylated phloroglucinols, which are commonly called alpha- and beta-acids. These latter compounds can be considered phyto-ionophores, phytochemicals with a similar antimicrobial mechanism of action to ionophore antibiotics (e.g., monensin, lasalocid. Like ionophores, the hop beta-acids inhibit rumen bacteria possessing a classical Gram-positive cell envelope. This selective inhibition causes several effects on rumen fermentation that are beneficial to finishing cattle, such as decreased proteolysis, ammonia production, acetate: propionate ratio, and methane production. This article reviews the effects of hops and hop secondary metabolites on rumen fermentation, including the physiological mechanisms on specific rumen microorganisms, and consequences for the ruminant host and ruminant production. Further, we propose that hop beta-acids are useful model natural products for ruminants because of (1 the ionophore-like mechanism of action and spectrum of activity and (2 the literature available on the plant due to its use in brewing.

  7. Hops (Humulus lupulusL.) Bitter Acids: Modulation of Rumen Fermentation and Potential As an Alternative Growth Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flythe, Michael D; Kagan, Isabelle A; Wang, Yuxi; Narvaez, Nelmy

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotics can improve ruminant growth and efficiency by altering rumen fermentation via selective inhibition of microorganisms. However, antibiotic use is increasingly restricted due to concerns about the spread of antibiotic-resistance. Plant-based antimicrobials are alternatives to antibiotics in animal production. The hops plant ( Humulus lupulus L.) produces a range of bioactive secondary metabolites, including antimicrobial prenylated phloroglucinols, which are commonly called alpha- and beta-acids. These latter compounds can be considered phyto-ionophores, phytochemicals with a similar antimicrobial mechanism of action to ionophore antibiotics (e.g., monensin, lasalocid). Like ionophores, the hop beta-acids inhibit rumen bacteria possessing a classical Gram-positive cell envelope. This selective inhibition causes several effects on rumen fermentation that are beneficial to finishing cattle, such as decreased proteolysis, ammonia production, acetate: propionate ratio, and methane production. This article reviews the effects of hops and hop secondary metabolites on rumen fermentation, including the physiological mechanisms on specific rumen microorganisms, and consequences for the ruminant host and ruminant production. Further, we propose that hop beta-acids are useful model natural products for ruminants because of (1) the ionophore-like mechanism of action and spectrum of activity and (2) the literature available on the plant due to its use in brewing.

  8. Potential influence of dairy propionibacteria on the growth and acid metabolism of Streptococcus bovis and Megasphaera elsdenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J; Ranadheera, C S; King, S; Evans, C A; Baines, S K

    2017-02-07

    Ruminal acidosis is a prevalent disorder among dairy cows and feedlot cattle, which can significantly impair their health and productivity. This study, involving seven different strains of dairy propionibacteria, represents an in vitro investigation of the feasibility of using these organisms as direct-fed microbials to control lactic acid acumulation in the rumen. Interactions between the propionibacteria, Streptococcus bovis and Megasphaera elsden