Sample records for reserve components seek

  1. Transforming the Reserve Component: Four Essays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binnendijk, Hans; Baranick, Michael J; Bell, Raymond E., Jr; Cordero, Gina; Duncan, Stephen M; Holshek, Christopher; Wentz, Larry


    This volume contains four essays on various aspects of the Reserve Component. We publish it at a time when Reserves are serving overseas at historically high rates and when new missions like homeland security demand their attention...

  2. Active Component Responsibility in Reserve Component Pre- and Postmobilization Training (United States)


    President Lyndon Johnson refused to mobi- lize the RCs (MacCarley, 2012, pp. 38–39). 8 Active Component Responsibility in Reserve Component...ARFORGENwhitePaper1aug2011v3g2g.pdf Pernin, Christopher G., Dwayne M. Butler, Louay Constant, Lily Geyer, Duncan Long, Dan Madden, John E. Peters, James D. Powers

  3. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1991 (United States)


    utilizing WMrcha’t Marine Academy gr , ,ates and Naval Reserve Officer Training Course S’(NROTC)/Student Incentive Progrim (SIP) graduates from state...personnel gr , atly enhances the mobilization and combat readiness of the Total Force. Several new medical programs were implemented by the Reserve components...Defense Force Chief of Joint Staff, Defense Command * Mendez, Honorable Enrique Jr., M.D. Norway Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs

  4. Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers (United States)


    of one day of basic pay for each unit training assembly ( UTA ) they attend. A UTA is generally a four-hour period of instruction, and there are assembly ( UTA ), one point for each day of annual training (AT), and one point for each day of active duty. Points can also be earned for completing... on the vitality of the reserve components, such as funding, equipment, and personnel policy. This report is designed to provide an overview of key

  5. Developing Senior Leaders for the Reserve Components (United States)


    For more information on the Forces and Resources Policy Center, see or contact the director (contact information is provided on the web page ). ...some combination of experiences, education, and personal development. Each has an extensive concept of develop- ment—how they define it, what ...policy. First, in what ways can the develop- ment of RC senior leaders be improved? Second, in what ways can reserve component leader development

  6. Sustaining AMEDD Professional Strength in the Reserve Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fetter, James


    ...% Army National Guard 34% Army Reserve and 47% active component. In 2000 concerns were raised about dwindling numbers of doctors dentists physician assistants and nurse anesthetist officers in Army Reserve and Army National Guard...

  7. Improving Medical and Dental Readiness in the Reserve Components (United States)


    Dental sealants , remineralization therapy, and chewing of xylitol gum are effective for preventing and reversing early signs of dental decay. The...Improving Medical and Dental Readiness in the Reserve Components A s an integral part of the U.S. military, the reserve components (RCs) are...limit their ability to carry out their duties, whether in garrison or deployed. Medically ready reservists require less medical and dental support

  8. Ovarian Reserve Assessment in Users of Oral Contraception Seeking Fertility Advice on their Reproductive Lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K. Birch; Hvidman, H. W.; Forman, J. L.


    in the antral follicles of 5-7 and 8-10 mm with the highest number of AMH secreting granulosa cells. It is essential to be aware of the impact of OC use on ovarian reserve parameters when guiding OC users on their fertility status and reproductive lifespan. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: The FAC Clinic......STUDY QUESTION: To what extent does oral contraception (OC) impair ovarian reserve parameters in women who seek fertility assessment and counselling to get advice on whether their remaining reproductive lifespan is reduced? SUMMARY ANSWER: Ovarian reserve parameters defined by anti...... ageing. In women, AMH declines with age and data suggest a relationship with remaining reproductive lifespan and age at menopause. OC may alter parameters related to ovarian reserve assessment but the extent of the reduction is uncertain. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A cross-sectional study of 887 women...

  9. Ovarian reserve assessment in users of oral contraception seeking fertility advice on their reproductive lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch Petersen, K; Hvidman, H W; Forman, J L


    in the antral follicles of 5-7 and 8-10 mm with the highest number of AMH secreting granulosa cells. It is essential to be aware of the impact of OC use on ovarian reserve parameters when guiding OC users on their fertility status and reproductive lifespan. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: The FAC Clinic......STUDY QUESTION: To what extent does oral contraception (OC) impair ovarian reserve parameters in women who seek fertility assessment and counselling to get advice on whether their remaining reproductive lifespan is reduced? SUMMARY ANSWER: Ovarian reserve parameters defined by anti...... ageing. In women, AMH declines with age and data suggest a relationship with remaining reproductive lifespan and age at menopause. OC may alter parameters related to ovarian reserve assessment but the extent of the reduction is uncertain. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A cross-sectional study of 887 women...


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simmons, Robert


    ..., satisfaction with aspects of Guard and Reserve life, and other quality of life issues. Together with the 1999 Active Duty Surveys of Members and Spouses, the RCS provide a comprehensive picture of the Total Force...

  11. Air Force Organizational Transformation: Merging the Active and Reserve Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, Jonathan


    .... These include the active associate, reserve associate, and blended unit concepts. Finally, it provides a recommendation as to which concept will best meet the future warfighting needs of the Air Force.

  12. Tried And True Integrating Active And Reserve Components (United States)


    Components, it has a proven record of success in flying the same operational mission.28 The increased crew ratio maximizes aircraft utilization not a cookie cutter approach. The Integrated Wing cannot be instituted at all bases due to the complex associations, nor is it supposed to

  13. Reserve Component Programs. Fiscal Year 1999 Report of the Reserve Forces Policy Board (United States)


    Heavy Equipment Truck UH-1 Helicopter AH-1 Attack Helicopter PVS-5 Night Vision Goggles Army Reserve Dolly Sets Yard Truck Maintenance Contact...border collie instead of a propane canon, and agri- cultural outsourcing with 4-H sheep grazing. The Marine Corps Reserve continues to increase

  14. 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Reserve Component Members: Overview Report (United States)


    harassment and discrimination within the Reserve components. This overview report discusses findings from the 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity...developed for the 1996 Equal Opportunity Survey (1996 EOS). The 1996 EOS provided estimates of racial/ethnic-related harassment and discrimination ...Perceived Undue Punishment (2 Items) •Providers/Authorities Discrimination (3 Items) 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Reserve Component

  15. The Army Reserve: Optimally Seeking Relevance and Readiness in a Fiscally Constrained Environment (United States)


    Sea. This indirect and ingenious solution of enclosing the maximum area is what theorists commonly referred to as the Dido or isoperimetric problem...Reserve must look to ingenious solutions and identify cascading affects in a fiscally constrained environment. Thereby, avoiding the “perfect storm...between supply depots and the heavy brigade but also brings in all available external variables. Weather, road conditions, vehicle levels of

  16. 2004 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Tabulations of Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The 2004 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members was designed to both estimate the level of sexual harassment and provide information on a variety of consequences of sexual harassment...

  17. A Methodology for Modeling the Flow of Military Personnel Across Air Force Active and Reserve Components (United States)


    capability to estimate the historic impact of changes in economic conditions on the flows of labor into, between, and out of the Air Force active...C O R P O R A T I O N Research Report A Methodology for Modeling the Flow of Military Personnel Across Air Force Active and Reserve Components...or considered about the effect that those policies might have on personnel flows into and out of other components. The degree to which this is

  18. Principal Component Surface (2011) for St. Thomas East End Reserve, St. Thomas (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER) in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)....

  19. The Reserve Component Automation System (RCAS) -- A Case Study in the Evolution of an Information Management System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brady, George


    The Reserve Component Automation System (RCAS) is a Wide Area/Local Area Network system designed to provide automation support for the Reserve Components' mobilization management and sustaining-base operations...

  20. Anxiety sensitivity components in relation to alcohol and cannabis use, motives, and problems in treatment-seeking cigarette smokers. (United States)

    Guillot, Casey R; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B


    Anxiety sensitivity (AS)- fear of anxiety symptoms and their potential negative consequences-has been implicated in the development of substance use problems and motivation to use substances for coping with distress, though the AS components (physical, cognitive, and social concerns) have not been studied extensively in relation to alcohol- and cannabis-related variables. In a cross-sectional design, self-report measures of AS and alcohol and cannabis use, motives, and problems were administered to 364 treatment-seeking cigarette smokers with a history of alcohol and cannabis use. In both adjusted and unadjusted analyses, linear regression models indicated that AS cognitive concerns are related to cannabis-use conformity motives, alcohol-use coping motives, and alcohol problems; AS physical and cognitive concerns are related to greater cannabis problems specifically in males; and AS social concerns are associated with greater social, coping, enhancement, and conformity drinking motives. AS cognitive and physical concerns were also related to greater alcohol and cannabis problems, respectively, in subsamples limited to 214 current alcohol users and 170 current cannabis users. Together with prior work, current findings suggest that it may be beneficial to focus more on addressing AS cognitive concerns in individuals with tobacco-alcohol problem comorbidity, whereas it may be beneficial to focus on addressing both AS physical and cognitive concerns in males with tobacco-cannabis problem comorbidity. In addition, cigarette smokers high in AS social concerns may benefit from relaxation training to lessen their social anxiety as well as behavioral activation to enhance their positive affect. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The association between blood pressure components and cognitive functions and cognitive reserve. (United States)

    Alipour, Houman; Goldust, Mohamad


    Hypertension exerts a subtle impact on the brain that is revealed by diminished cognitive function. This study aimed at evaluating the association between blood pressure components and cognitive functions and cognitive reserve. In this cross-sectional study, 500 subjects from general population were evaluated. All neuropsychological tests were negatively associated with age; memory and executive function were also positively related with education. The hypertensives (HT) were less efficient than the normotensives (NT) in the test of memory with interference at 10 s (MI-10) (-32%, p = 0.043), clock drawing test (CLOX) (-26%, p cognitive reserve index (CRI) was 8% lower in the HT (p = 0.04) and was predicted by higher pulse BP (OR 0.86, p cognition, higher values of systolic BP being associated to impaired cognitive function.

  2. Geological component in the formation of natural - reserve fund of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyuk V.V.


    Full Text Available The part of geological component of the natural environment in the formation of Natural Reserve Fund of Ukraine, the historical aspects of the origin and development of the geological heritage, as an important part of the environment, as well as the problem of acceptance geodiversity as well as the conservation of biodiversity. It was established that during the long history in countries not only in Europe but also in the world, formed biodiversity strategy in default or unwilling recognition of the need to preserve geodiversity. Underestimating abiotic factors in the development programs of the European environmental network Natura-2000 and EECONET has led to the need to develop special programs and initiatives in the conservation of the lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. The basic stages of historical development problems of preservation of geological heritage in Ukraine and the world. It is determined that in Ukraine was established May 21, 1910 the first in Russia (which is then part Khortyts'ke Society for Nature Conservation. The Society, based on the initiative of of natural science teachers P.P. Вouzouk, had the goal of nature conservation within the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms of nature, and it was spelled out in the Charter of of society. A significant shift towards awareness of the importance of the geological component in the formation of natural reserve fund was effective collaboration with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources in the Dnipropetrovsk region on creation of new protected areas. When conducting a field and office work on reserving areas for new items Natural Heritage, the first fully studied geological and geomorphological structure of these areas. Moreover, the research facility in an unprecedented short time actually bequeathed, that have approved status of natural monuments, landscape reserves and so on.

  3. Effects of genetic deletion of endogenous opioid system components on the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in mice. (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Cuesta, Javier; Burokas, Aurelijus; Mancino, Samantha; Kummer, Sami; Martín-García, Elena; Maldonado, Rafael


    The repeated cycles of cessation of consumption and relapse remain the major clinical concern in treating drug addiction. The endogenous opioid system is a crucial component of the reward circuit that participates in the adaptive changes leading to relapse in the addictive processes. We have used genetically modified mice to evaluate the involvement of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) and their main endogenous ligands, the enkephalins derived from proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN), in the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Constitutive knockout mice of MOR, DOR, PENK, and PDYN, and their wild-type littermates were trained to self-administer cocaine or to seek for palatable food, followed by a period of extinction and finally tested on a cue-induced reinstatement of seeking behavior. The four lines of knockout mice acquired operant cocaine self-administration behavior, although DOR and PENK knockout mice showed less motivation for cocaine than wild-type littermates. Moreover, cue-induced relapse was significantly decreased in MOR and DOR knockout mice. In contrast, PDYN knockout mice showed a slower extinction and increased relapse than wild-type littermates. C-Fos expression analysis revealed differential activation in brain areas related with memory and reward in these knockout mice. No differences were found in any of the four genotypes in operant responding to obtain palatable food, indicating that the changes revealed in knockout mice were not due to unspecific deficit in operant performance. Our results indicate that MOR, DOR, and PDYN have a differential role in cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior.

  4. Postdeployment Behavioral Health Screens and Linkage to the Veterans Health Administration for Army Reserve Component Members. (United States)

    Vanneman, Megan E; Harris, Alex H S; Chen, Cheng; Adams, Rachel Sayko; Williams, Thomas V; Larson, Mary Jo


    Approximately three to six months after returning from deployment, military service members complete the Post-Deployment Health Reassessment (PDHRA), which includes screens for alcohol misuse, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To determine whether Army Reserve Component (RC) members (Army National Guard and Army Reserve) with positive screening scores on the PDHRA receive needed care, the investigators examined the association between positive scores and enrollment and utilization of care ("linkage") in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), as well as rescreening scores, diagnosis, and behavioral treatment in VHA. Mixed-effects regression models were used to predict linkage to VHA within six months after RC members (N=73,164) completed the PDHRA, with alcohol misuse, depression, and PTSD screen scores as key independent variables. Regression models were stratified by gender and National Guard versus Reserve status. Among those who linked to VHA (N=25,168), screening scores and subsequent diagnosis and treatment in VHA were also examined. Army RC members with positive PTSD and depression screening scores were more likely than those with negative screens to link to VHA, and most (54%-84%) received VHA treatment once diagnosed. Positive screens for alcohol misuse were associated with linkage to VHA for men but not for women, and treatment rates for alcohol use disorders were relatively low (0%-25%) for both men and women diagnosed as having an alcohol use disorder. The finding that Army RC members with greater indications of behavioral health problems linked to VHA is encouraging. However, more outreach and treatment engagement strategies could be directed to those with alcohol use disorder, particularly women.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ja. Rudik-Leuska


    Full Text Available Maintenance of biological diversity is the main task of modern biology. At the legislative level, Ukraine has pledged its support in ratifying the "Convention on the conservation of biological diversity." As part of the implementation of environmental policy in Ukraine preservation of rare fish fauna component is the most problematic aspect. The basic conservation lists acting in Ukraine are: Red List of threatened animals of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Ukrainian Red Book, Annex III of the "Convention on the Protection of wildlife and natural habitats", the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES, Washington, 1973. On the territory of Sula Bay located two objects of nature reserve fund - a landscape national reserve "Sulinsky" and National Park "Nizhnesulsky" that emphasizes the importance of this area for fish fauna reproduction. Its territory are spawning areas for almost all lower and middle parts of the Kremenchuk reservoir, ensuring more than half of total commercial catch of the Dnieper cascade. The article describes the species composition of the fish fauna, introduced in protected lists of different levels. The existence of seven such species was established. They belong to four families: four species - for cyprinids and one each - to sturgeon, loaches and catfishes. But we must remember that the priority activities should concern species with the highest conservation status. At the same time, four of them are only protected by Annex III of the "Convention on the Protection of wildlife and natural habitats" as poorly studied. These species require a more thorough study and not necessarily threatened with extinction. Remaining three species are under a real danger of extinction and are protected by the IUCN Red List and Ukrainian Red Book. Starlet also protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES. Environmental

  6. Requirement for Naval Reserve Component Units Not Assigned to Support Regional Contingencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas


    Our primary objective was to determine whether a valid need exists for Naval Reserve units and non-unit Reserve personnel who are not assigned to meet the needs of anticipated regional contingencies...

  7. May 2003 Status of Forces Survey of Reserve Component Members: Tabulations of Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...). HRSAP is designed to measure the attitudes and opinions of the entire DoD community--Active and Reserve Service members, their families and DoD civilian--on the full range of personnel issues...

  8. 2004 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Administration, Datasets, and Codebook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... The 2004 WGRR utilized both modes of administration-the Web as well as paper-and-pencil and was designed to document the extent to which Reserve members report experiencing unwanted, uninvited sexual...

  9. Sharing the Burden and Risk: An Operational Assessment of the Reserve Components in Operation Iraqi Freedom (United States)


    components and between Services built the foundation of trust and teamwork necessary to prosecute the campaign. In terms of operational communities...integration efforts were cultural, based on outdated organizational practices and attitudes . D. Conclusion In this chapter, IDA looked at ARC...concern with respect to professionalism and discipline were of three types. The first was discussed previously: the difference in attitude toward

  10. Assessment of DoD-Provided Healthcare for Members of the United States Armed Forces Reserve Components (United States)


    The TRICARE Dental Program covers the following services: • exams, cleanings, fluorides, sealants , and x-rays, • fillings, including white fillings...establish that programs will be in place to support the medical and dental readiness of Reserve Component (RC) service members so they comply with... dental care to RC service members for all wounds, illnesses, and injuries incurred or aggravated in the line of duty until they have recovered. Reserve

  11. 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members. Tabulation of Responses (United States)


    v L.L-r ,,_..., Approved for publ ic release; d.istribulion unlimited For Open Publication MAY_ z 0 20\\3 8 9 ffiee ~\\’ t; esl :.lrity RevieW...600 b. Teaches that sexual harassment reduces the cohesion and effectiveness of my Reserve...618 b. Teaches that the consumption of alcohol may increase the likelihood of sexual assault

  12. Differential Attendance in the Reserve Component: Causation and Recommendations for Improvement (United States)


    Reserve, 1984), 17. 18Richard W. Stewart, American Military History, CMH Publication, 2nd ed., (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2009-2010...American Military History. CMH Pub, 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2009-2010. Stultz, Jack. Memorandum Dated 17 January

  13. Reserve Component Attitude Study Wave IV. 1981 Tracking Study. Volume 1. Major Findings and Implications. (United States)


    associated attitudinal and psychographic variables. The attitudinal differences among the segments suggest that marketing strategies targeted to specific...Section 4) C ~. Demographic segmentation of the PS samples allows for identifica- tion of specific market groups with high propensity for Guard/ Reserve...programs and target them to the market groups in which they are likely to have the greatest appeal. 0 PS Sample Segments Characteristics The PS sample

  14. Insulin Biosynthetic Interaction Network Component, TMEM24, Facilitates Insulin Reserve Pool Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Pottekat


    Full Text Available Insulin homeostasis in pancreatic β cells is now recognized as a critical element in the progression of obesity and type II diabetes (T2D. Proteins that interact with insulin to direct its sequential synthesis, folding, trafficking, and packaging into reserve granules in order to manage release in response to elevated glucose remain largely unknown. Using a conformation-based approach combined with mass spectrometry, we have generated the insulin biosynthetic interaction network (insulin BIN, a proteomic roadmap in the β cell that describes the sequential interacting partners of insulin along the secretory axis. The insulin BIN revealed an abundant C2 domain-containing transmembrane protein 24 (TMEM24 that manages glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from a reserve pool of granules, a critical event impaired in patients with T2D. The identification of TMEM24 in the context of a comprehensive set of sequential insulin-binding partners provides a molecular description of the insulin secretory pathway in β cells.

  15. Deployment, PTSD Symptoms, and Co-morbid Mental Health Conditions in the Active Force and Reserve Components (United States)


    model from Simms et al. (2002). Both 4-factor models were superior to models comprised of fewer factors, including the original 3-factor DSM-IV concep ...obtain civilian care that will be covered by insurance than for AD personnel to seek similar care. It may be cost prohibitive for AD persons to not typically live in a day-to-day culture in which the anxieties associated with deployment are a way of life . Rather, their typical culture

  16. 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Reserve Component Members: Qualitative Analysis on Extremist Groups, Hate Crimes, and Gangs (United States)


    male , senior enlisted, White  “I live in a border town with Mexico and drugs cause a high gang conflict.” —USAR, female , senior enlisted...from many countries seeking jobs.” —USAR, female , senior officer, Hispanic  “Gangs are everywhere. All the schools.” —ARNG, male , senior enlisted...especially in the Lesbian, Gay, Transsexual community.” —ANG, male , junior enlisted, Hispanic  “I live in [LOCATION] well in this town we have a lot

  17. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the Autumn of 1996, consumers and Members of Congress from the Northeast expressed concern about high prices for heating oil and historically low levels of inventories. Some Members of Congress advocated building a Federal inventory of heating oil as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Regional reserves are authorized as part of the SPR for import dependent regions by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. In response, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed a series of studies related to heating fuels, including a study of the desirability, feasibility, and cost of creating a Federal reserve containing distillate fuel. This report documents that study.

  18. Mental Health Disorders, Suicide Risk, and Treatment seeking among Formerly Deployed National Guardand Reserve Service Member seen in Non VA Facilities (United States)


    sample size for veterans who have served in the National Guard or Reserves during or after 2001 in the Global War on Terror and were actually deployed...key genotypes for study, and identification of key neurological and sleep disturbance measures to be used in study. Funding Support: N/A Name

  19. Marine Corps Reserve Officer Manpower Modifications During the Long War: A Case to Achieve Parity with the Active Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaffer, Douglas


    .... To be more effective as commanders and leaders, reserve officers need to achieve parity with active duty officers in rank and command selection through education, leadership experiences, and training opportunities...

  20. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Nine appendices to the main report are included in this volume. They are: Northeastern US distillate supply systems; New England fuel oil storage capacities and inventories; Characteristics of the northeast natural gas market; Documentation of statistical models and calculation of benefits; Regional product reserve study; Other countries` experience with refined product storage; Global refining supply demand appraisal; Summary of federal authorities relevant to the establishment of petroleum product reserves; Product stability and turnover requirements.

  1. A Study of Issues Related to Accession and Retention of Enlisted Personnel in the Reserve Components. Volume 1. (United States)


    lower 9 or lowr 28 or lowr 24 or lower High enployrrert index 8 or higher 10 or higher 29 or higher 25 or higher Socio-Econatic Irsdex:2) Low, socia ...learn about the Guard/Reserve or of the efforts initiated by others (for example, friends, media , etc.). Their direct experiences will largely be limited

  2. Issues Related to Recruitment of Enlisted Personnel for the Reserve Components. Major Findings and Recommendations, 1979 Tracking Study. Volume I. (United States)


    8217Reserve Se rv i ce r’qu i r os tearlwork, and gregariou people are more, at tra cte -d to it th is fare. O tilel - tendency toward gregariousnes-, Was...Fishing l( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 9( f. Gardening l() 2( )3( )4( ) 9( g. Watching a football garre l( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 9( h. Reading about medicine 1( ) 2( ) 3...Fishing 1( ) 2( ) 3k ) 4( ) R( f. Gardening 1( ) 2() 3( ) 4( ) 9( )-41 g. Watching a football gam 1( 2( 3( ) 4( ) 9( )-L2 h. Reading about medicine 1’) 2

  3. Expertise seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten


    used sources. Studies repeatedly show the influence of the social network – of friendships and personal dislikes – on the expertise-seeking network of organisations. In addition, people are no less prominent than documentary sources, in work contexts as well as daily-life contexts. The relative......Expertise seeking is the activity of selecting people as sources for consultation about an information need. This review of 72 expertise-seeking papers shows that across a range of tasks and contexts people, in particular work-group colleagues and other strong ties, are among the most frequently...... to amplify the influence of quality on source selection. Finally, the reviewed studies identify a number of barriers to expertise seeking...

  4. Issues Related to Recruitment of Enlisted Personnel for the Reserve Components. Volume 4. Focus Group Report 1980 Tracking Study. Wave III. (United States)


    view the services as a place for the uneducated , unskilled, and unemployed. In addition, the Guard/Reserve is seen as a place where little of value is...individuals who are less qualified. Emphasizing the positive aspects of Guard/ Reserve personnel may reduce the negative stereotypes which are whether you woAuld describe yourself as: 67- 1( ) Hispanic , ( ) Other 2( ) American Indian or Alaskan Native, WRITE IN 3( ) Black, not of Hispanic

  5. Should the United States Marine Corps Refine Its System of Active Component Enlisted Recruitment in Order to Target the Needs of Select Marine Corps Reserve Units? (United States)


    on its investment by not establishing a connection between the AC recruiting missions and the needs of the proximal reserve units. By establishing this...which encourages the continuum of service. The end result of this transition is an opportunity to better meet the needs of the AC and the RC, while

  6. biojs-io-biom, a BioJS component for handling data in Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM format [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus J. Ankenbrand


    Full Text Available The Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM format is widely used to store data from high-throughput studies. It aims at increasing interoperability of bioinformatic tools that process this data. However, due to multiple versions and implementation details, working with this format can be tricky. Currently, libraries in Python, R and Perl are available, whilst such for JavaScript are lacking. Here, we present a BioJS component for parsing BIOM data in all format versions. It supports import, modification, and export via a unified interface. This module aims to facilitate the development of web applications that use BIOM data. Finally, we demonstrate its usefulness by two applications that already use this component. Availability:,

  7. Multiple sclerosis among service members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces and among other beneficiaries of the Military Health System, 2007-2016. (United States)

    Williams, Valerie F; Stahlman, Shauna; Ying, Saixia


    During 2007-2016, a total of 2,031 active component service members received incident diagnoses of multiple sclerosis (MS), for an overall unadjusted incidence rate of 14.9 cases per 100,000 p-yrs. The average overall unadjusted rate among reserve/guard members during this surveillance period was 6.9 cases per 100,000 persons. In both components, women had a higher overall incidence of MS than men across all race/ethnicity groups. Overall rates of MS were highest among non-Hispanic black service members. Crude annual incidence rates among active component members decreased slightly during 2007-2016, while rates among reserve/guard members were relatively stable. Among active component members, the annual female-to-male incidence ratios decreased during the 10-year period (3.7:1 in 2007 to 2.5:1 in 2016). Annual numbers of incident cases of MS decreased among non-service member Military Health System beneficiaries during this period. The median age at MS case-defining diagnosis was 32 years among active component members, 37 years among reserve/guard members, and 48 years among non-service member beneficiaries. The median time intervals between initial presentation and case-defining MS-related encounter ranged from 15 days among reserve/guard component members to 20 days among active component service members. This study makes a useful contribution to the literature on temporal changes in the incidence of MS by sex and race/ethnicity.

  8. Cognitive Functions and Cognitive Reserve in Relation to Blood Pressure Components in a Population-Based Cohort Aged 53 to 94 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzia Giordano


    Full Text Available In 288 men and women from general population in a cross-sectional survey, all neuropsychological tests were negatively associated with age; memory and executive function were also positively related with education. The hypertensives (HT were less efficient than the normotensives (NT in the test of memory with interference at 10 sec (MI-10 (−33%, P=0.03, clock drawing test (CLOX (−28%, P<0.01, and mini-mental state examination (MMSE (−6%, P=0.02. Lower MMSE, MI-10, and CLOX were predicted by higher systolic (odds ratio, OR, 0.97, P=0.02; OR 0.98, P<0.005; OR 0.95, P<0.001 and higher pulse blood pressure (BP (OR 0.97, P=0.02; OR 0.97, P<0.01; and 0.95, P<0.0001. The cognitive reserve index (CRI was 6% lower in the HT (P=0.03 and was predicted by higher pulse BP (OR 0.82, P<0.001. The BP vectors of lower MMSE, MI-10, and CLOX were directed towards higher values of systolic and diastolic BP, that of low CRI towards higher systolic and lower diastolic. The label of hypertension and higher values of systolic or pulse BP are associated to worse memory and executive functions. Higher diastolic BP, although insufficient to impair cognition, strengthens this association. CRI is predicted by higher systolic BP associated to lower diastolic BP.

  9. Online Health Information Seeking in Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery. (United States)

    Özkan, Sezai; Mellema, Jos J; Nazzal, Adam; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ring, David


    Information gathering is a key component of shared decision making and has a measurable effect on treatment decisions. Access to health information might improve quality of care in hand surgery. Our purpose was to identify socio-demographic, condition-related, and psychosocial factors associated with online information-seeking behavior in patients with hand and upper-extremity conditions. From June 2015 to February 2016, we enrolled 134 patients with an upper-extremity condition who presented to an outpatient hand surgery office at an urban level I trauma center in this cross-sectional study. Participants provided socio-demographic information and completed online questionnaires assessing their online information-seeking behavior, pain intensity, symptoms of depression, and pain interference, and an upper extremity-specific, patient-reported outcome measure. A total of 57 patients (43%) sought information regarding their condition online before their visit. Compared with patients with no online information-seeking behavior, patients who sought information online were more educated. Psychosocial and condition-related factors were not associated with online information seeking. In multivariable analysis, education in years and involvement of the dominant upper limb were independently associated with online information-seeking behavior. Education in years and involvement of the dominant upper limb were independently associated with online information-seeking behavior but psychosocial and condition-related factors were not. As health information seeking is becoming an integral part of the modern day clinical experience, efforts to make online information more appealing and useful to people of all education levels are merited. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Teaching information seeking


    Louise Limberg; Olof Sundin


    Introduction. The article argues for a closer association between information seeking research and the practices of teaching information seeking. Findings are presented from a research project on information seeking, didactics and learning (IDOL) investigating librarians' and teachers' experiences of teaching information seeking. Method. Thirteen teachers and five librarians, teaching 12-19 year-old students in three schools, participated. Forty-five interviews were conducted over a period ...

  11. Sensation seeking and smoking behaviors among adolescents in the Republic of Korea. (United States)

    Hwang, Heejin; Park, Sunhee


    This study aimed to explore the relationship between the four components of sensation seeking (i.e., disinhibition, thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking, and boredom susceptibility) and three types of smoking behavior (i.e., non-smoking, experimental smoking, and current smoking) among high school students in the Republic of Korea. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed using two models. In Model 1, the four subscales of sensation seeking were used as covariates, and in Model 2, other control factors (i.e., characteristics related to demographics, individuals, family, school, and friends) were added to Model 1 in order to adjust for their effects. In Model 1, the impact of disinhibition on experimental smoking and current smoking was statistically significant. In Model 2, the influence of disinhibition on both of these smoking behaviors remained statistically significant after controlling for all the other covariates. Also, the effect of thrill and adventure seeking on experimental smoking was statistically significant. The two statistically significant subscales of sensation seeking were positively associated with the risk of smoking behaviors. According to extant literature and current research, sensation seeking, particularly disinhibition, is strongly associated with smoking among youth. Therefore, sensation seeking should be measured among adolescents to identify those who are at greater risk of smoking and to develop more effective intervention strategies in order to curb the smoking epidemic among youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1987. (United States)


    Paraguay Barbuda Ecuador India Peru Argentina Egypt Israel Philippines Australia England Italy Portugal Austria Fiji Jamaica Puerto Rico Bahamas France...Baguero Commander, Ecuadoran First Air Presidente , Junta Civic Archidona, Zone Ecuador * Navarrete, Colonel William * Marsh, Honorable John 0. Jr...Mobilization Concepts (Policy) Development Center " Shiguango, Mr. Sharimiat 0 Temple, Lieutenant General Herbert Presidente , Conncejo Archidona, R. Jr

  13. Reserve Component Contribution to Imagery Intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stafford, Ann


    .... Because raw imagery has limited value until it has been exploited, the increased volume of raw imagery demands an enhanced ability for combatant commanders and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA...

  14. Medical Readiness of the Reserve Component (United States)


    51 Some Dental Plans Are Cheaper—Comparison of Five Treatment need of such care, 49 percent had more than one tooth needing treatment , 71 percent had periodontal disease, and 68 percent required one or more...preventive dental care, such as annual teeth cleaning (prophylaxis), fluo- ride treatment , and periodontal care. Complicated Nature of Medical Readiness

  15. Army Reserve Component Personalized Empowerment Program (ARCPEP) (United States)


    in U.S. hospitals—2007. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2008; 65:2244-64 2. Hardiker NR, Grant MJ. Barriers and facilitators that affect public engagement with eHealth services. Stud Health Technol Inform 2010; 160:13-7

  16. Collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten


    , the activities involved in information seeking are often performed by varying subgroups of actors. Consequently, collaborative grounding is necessary to share information among collaborating actors and, thereby, establish and maintain the common ground necessary for their collaborative work. By focusing......Since common ground is pivotal to collaboration, this paper proposes to define collaborative information seeking as the combined activity of information seeking and collaborative grounding. While information-seeking activities are necessary for collaborating actors to acquire new information...... on the collaborative level, collaborative information seeking aims to avoid both individual reductionism and group reductionism, while at the same time recognizing that only some information and understanding need be shared....

  17. Newcomer information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moring, Camilla Elisabeth


    Introduction: Research on socialization and learning processes among organizational newcomers is offering valuable insight into the role of information seeking in the workplace, and to why, and how newcomers seek information when entering a new organization. Analysis: The aim of the paper...... is to outline and discuss the significance of information seeking in newcomer socialization and learning, and analyse how different approaches influence our understanding of the role of information seeking in the workplace. Results: It is argued, that a development in research on newcomer information seeking...... can be identified ranging from approaching socialization as adaption and individual information acquisition towards a broader approach investigating information seeking as an integrated part of learning in practice. Conclusion: When applying a practice theoretical approach to knowledge and learning...

  18. Teaching information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Limberg


    Full Text Available Introduction. The article argues for a closer association between information seeking research and the practices of teaching information seeking. Findings are presented from a research project on information seeking, didactics and learning (IDOL investigating librarians' and teachers' experiences of teaching information seeking. Method. Thirteen teachers and five librarians, teaching 12-19 year-old students in three schools, participated. Forty-five interviews were conducted over a period of three years. Analysis. The IDOL project adopted a phenomenographic approach with the purpose of describing patterns of variation in experiences. The findings were also analysed by way of relating them to four competing approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Results. A gap was identified between experiences of teaching content that focused on sources and order, and experiences of assessment criteria applied to students' work that focused on the importance of correct facts and the analysis of information. These findings indicate a highly restricted range of teaching contents when compared with the four theoretical approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Conclusion. Teaching information seeking might be enhanced by a wider repertoire of contents reflecting more varied theoretical understanding developed in information seeking research, particularly as regards the importance of content and context related to user perspectives.

  19. Information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger


    A general theory of information seeking behaviour must include an outline of an evolutionary theory of how organisms have adapted their cognitive apparatus to the demands raised in order to cope with their environments. It should describe important qualitative stages in this development and expla...

  20. Supporting exploratory information seeking


    Haraty, Monasadat


    Exploratory search is a sensemaking activity that involves information seeking and iterative development of mental model of the domain under exploration. It often begins with a vague and evolving information need that is multidimensional. We designed and developed a web-browser extension to facilitate exploratory web search aiming at transforming the search activity into a meaningful learning activity. The design is based on the proposed multi-threaded model of exploratory search. According t...

  1. Trajectories of Sensation Seeking Among Puerto Rican Children and Youth. (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S; Wall, Melanie M; Eisenberg, Ruth; Blanco, Carlos; Santaella, Julian; Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R; Brown, Qiana; Duarte, Cristiane S


    To document the natural course of sensation seeking from childhood to adolescence, characterize distinct sensation seeking trajectories, and examine how these trajectories vary according to selected predictors. Data were obtained from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 2,491 children and adolescents of Puerto Rican background (3 assessments from 2000 to 2004). First, age-specific sensation seeking levels were characterized, and then age-adjusted residuals were analyzed using growth mixture models. On average, sensation seeking was stable in childhood (ages 5-10 years) and increased during adolescence (ages 11-17 years). Mean scores of sensation seeking were higher in the South Bronx versus Puerto Rico and among males versus females. Four classes of sensation seeking trajectories were observed: most study participants had age-expected sensation seeking trajectories following the average for their age ("normative," 43.8%); others (37.2%) remained consistently lower than the expected average for their age ("low" sensation seeking); some (12.0%) had an "accelerated" sensation seeking trajectory, increasing at a faster rate than expected; and a minority (7.0%) had a decreasing sensation seeking trajectory that started high but decreased, reaching scores slightly higher than the age-average sensation seeking scores ("stabilizers"). Site (South Bronx versus Puerto Rico) and gender were predictors of membership in a specific class of sensation seeking trajectory. It is important to take a developmental approach when examining sensation seeking and to consider gender and the social environment when trying to understand how sensation seeking evolves during childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...

  3. Breakdowns in collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten


    Collaborative information seeking is integral to many professional activities. In hospital work, the medication process encompasses continual seeking for information and collaborative grounding of information. This study investigates breakdowns in collaborative information seeking through analyses...... introduced risks of new kinds of breakdown in collaborative information seeking. In working to prevent and recover from breakdowns in the seeking and sharing of information a focus on collaborative information seeking will point toward collaborative, organizational, and systemic reasons for breakdown...... of the use of the electronic medication record adopted in a Danish healthcare region and of the reports of five years of medication incidents at Danish hospitals. The results show that breakdowns in collaborative information seeking is a major source of medication incidents, that most of these breakdowns...

  4. Sexual minorities seeking services. (United States)

    Rogers, Tracey L; Emanuel, Kristen; Bradford, Judith


    SUMMARY Understanding the mental health needs of lesbian and bisexual (sexual minority) women is an integral part of designing and providing appropriate mental health services and treatment for them. In an effort to understand the mental health needs of sexual minority women who seek community treatment, a chart review was conducted of the 223 lesbian and bisexual women who presented for services between July 1, 1997 and December 31, 2000 at Fenway Community Health in Boston, MA. Data are based on clients' self-reports and clinician assessments of clients' presenting problem, relevant developmental history, prior mental health and substance abuse treatment, current reports of emotional/psychological symptoms, and areas of impaired functioning. Although substance abuse and suicidal ideation were commonly reported problems, other concerns were more frequently reported. High percentages of lesbians and bisexual women reported relationship concerns and lack of adequate social networks; rates of depression and anxiety based on clinicians' assessments were also high. Overall, lesbians and bisexual women did not differ in the issues they brought to treatment or level or types of impairment. Compared with previous community survey samples, however, study participants appeared to be healthier than general, non-clinical samples of self-identified lesbians, possibly reflecting the special characteristics of sexual minority women who seek treatment in specialized community sites such as the Fenway. Although patients who come to these sites may not represent the more general population of sexual minority women, community health centers known to serve lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals may be fruitful access points for studying the mental health status and treatment needs of sexual minority women.

  5. Help-seeking intentions in college students: an exploration of eating disorder specific help-seeking and general psychological help-seeking. (United States)

    Tillman, Kathleen S; Sell, Darcie M


    This study investigated help-seeking intentions for eating disorders and general psychological problems in college students. Participants reported that they would be more likely to seek help for a friend with an eating disorder than for themselves if they were experiencing an eating disorder. Multiple factors (i.e., sex, year in college, knowledge of eating disorders, and knowledge of available resources) were assessed to determine the prediction of help-seeking intentions. Only the knowledge of eating disorders significantly predicted whether or not a student would be willing to seek help for a friend with a general psychological disorder. None of these factors predicted willingness to seek help for friends with an eating disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Goal Seeking Components for Adaptive Intelligence: An Initial Assessment. (United States)


    34 tropism " which originally described a specific class of mechanisms involving condition- )f tension in symmetrical muscles (see Fraenkel and C ,, pp...adaptive control systems with long-term memory. The second-level control law is broadened by "localizing the adaptation to regions in a plant -environment

  7. Sensation seeking and error processing. (United States)

    Zheng, Ya; Sheng, Wenbin; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Yuanyuan


    Sensation seeking is defined by a strong need for varied, novel, complex, and intense stimulation, and a willingness to take risks for such experience. Several theories propose that the insensitivity to negative consequences incurred by risks is one of the hallmarks of sensation-seeking behaviors. In this study, we investigated the time course of error processing in sensation seeking by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) while high and low sensation seekers performed an Eriksen flanker task. Whereas there were no group differences in ERPs to correct trials, sensation seeking was associated with a blunted error-related negativity (ERN), which was female-specific. Further, different subdimensions of sensation seeking were related to ERN amplitude differently. These findings indicate that the relationship between sensation seeking and error processing is sex-specific. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Preferences for Depression Help-Seeking Among Vietnamese American Adults. (United States)

    Kim-Mozeleski, Jin E; Tsoh, Janice Y; Gildengorin, Ginny; Cao, Lien H; Ho, Tiffany; Kohli, Sarita; Lam, Hy; Wong, Ching; Stewart, Susan; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T


    Culture impacts help-seeking preferences. We examined Vietnamese Americans' help-seeking preferences for depressive symptoms, through a telephone survey (N = 1666). A vignette describing an age- and gender-matched individual with depression was presented, and respondents chose from a list of options and provided open-ended responses about their help-seeking preferences. Results showed that 78.3% would seek professional help, either from a family doctor, a mental health provider, or both; 54.4% preferred to seek help from a family doctor but not from a mental health provider. Most (82.1%) would prefer to talk to family or friends, 62.2% would prefer to look up information, and 50.1% would prefer to get spiritual help. Logistic regression analysis revealed that preferences for non-professional help-seeking options (such as talking to friends or family, looking up information, and getting spiritual help), health care access, and perceived poor health, were associated with increased odds of preferring professional help-seeking. This population-based study of Vietnamese Americans highlight promising channels to deliver education about depression and effective help-seeking resources, particularly the importance of family doctors and social networks. Furthermore, addressing barriers in access to care remains a critical component of promoting professional help-seeking.

  9. Attention-Seeking Displays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Számadó

    Full Text Available Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest.

  10. Training and Organization of the U.S. Army Reserve Components: A reference Text for Total Force Trainers and a Guide to Other U.S. Military Services, 1988-1989 (United States)


    Crisis and many served in Vietnam. Today, there are 12,000 membe s of the Selected Reserve serving in virtually all Coast Guard missioh areas. 2...emergency health and sanitation efforts. Since its inception, the PHS and its Commissioned Corps have witnessed and played a major role in virtually ...initiatives and programs carried out by the following staff offices within the Office of the Asistant Secretary for Health: o The Office of Disease

  11. Sisyphus desperately seeking publisher

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As a punishment for his trickery, King Sisyphus was made to endlessly roll a huge boulder up a steep hill. The maddeningnature of the punishment was reserved for King Sisyphus due to his hubristic belief that his cleverness surpassed that ofZeus himself. Today's scientists also pay a heavy price for their hubris and ...

  12. Relapse to cocaine seeking in an invertebrate. (United States)

    Amaning-Kwarteng, Akua O; Asif-Malik, Aman; Pei, Yue; Canales, Juan J


    Addiction is characterised by cycles of compulsive drug taking, periods of abstinence and episodes of relapse. The extinction/reinstatement paradigm has been extensively used in rodents to model human relapse and explore underlying mechanisms and therapeutics. However, relapse to drug seeking behaviour has not been previously demonstrated in invertebrates. Here, we used a cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in the flatworm, planarian, followed by extinction and reinstatement of drug seeking. Once baseline preference was established for one of two distinctly textured environments (i.e. compartments with a coarse or smooth surface), planarian received pairings of cocaine (5μM) in the non-preferred, and vehicle in the most preferred, environment, and were tested for conditioning thereafter. Cocaine produced robust CPP, measured as a significant increase in the time spent in the cocaine-paired compartment. Subsequently, planarian underwent extinction training, reverting back to their original preference within three sessions. Brief exposure to cocaine (5μM) or methamphetamine (5μM) reinstated cocaine-seeking behaviour. By contrast, the high affinity dopamine transporter inhibitor, (N-(n-butyl)-3α-[bis (4-fluorophenyl) methoxy]-tropane) (JHW007), which in rodents exhibits a neurochemical and behavioural profile distinct from cocaine, was ineffective. The present findings demonstrate for the first time reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in an invertebrate model and suggest that the long-term adaptations underlying drug conditioning and relapse are highly conserved through evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mirtazapine attenuates cocaine seeking in rats. (United States)

    Barbosa-Méndez, Susana; Leff, Phillipe; Arías-Caballero, Adriana; Hernández-Miramontes, Ricardo; Heinze, Gerardo; Salazar-Juárez, Alberto


    Relapse to cocaine use is a major problem in the clinical treatment of cocaine addiction. Antidepressants have been studied for their therapeutic potential to treat cocaine use disorder. Research has suggested that antidepressants attenuate both drug craving and the re-acquisition of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. This study examined the efficacy of mirtazapine, an antidepressant/anxiolytic, in decreasing cocaine seeking in rats. We used the cocaine self-administration paradigm to assess the effects of mirtazapine on rats trained to self-administer cocaine or food under a fixed-ratio schedule. Mirtazapine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered during extinction. Mirtazapine significantly attenuated non-reinforced lever-press responses during extinction. Moreover, the mirtazapine dosed for 30 days during extinction produced sustained attenuation of lever-press responses during re-acquisition of cocaine self-administration, without changing food-seeking behavior. Our results showed that mirtazapine attenuated the re-acquisition of cocaine-seeking responses. Our study pointed to the efficacy of mirtazapine in reducing the risk of drug relapse during abstinence, suggesting for its potential use as a novel pharmacological agent to treat drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bosbus; mobile nature reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matton, T.; Kuypers, V.H.M.; Timmermans, W.


    Nature has discovered the global village. Over the years, hundreds of exotic plants and animals have made their way into the Netherlands. They take advantage of the existing urban infrastructure to seek out suitable niches in the city. People rarely think of these urban ecosystems in terms of

  15. Sensation seeking predicts brain responses in the old-new task: converging multimodal neuroimaging evidence. (United States)

    Lawson, Adam L; Liu, Xun; Joseph, Jane; Vagnini, Victoria L; Kelly, Thomas H; Jiang, Yang


    Novel images and message content enhance visual attention and memory for high sensation seekers, but the neural mechanisms associated with this effect are unclear. To investigate the individual differences in brain responses to new and old (studied) visual stimuli, we utilized event-related potentials (ERP) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measures to examine brain reactivity among high and low sensation seekers during a classic old-new memory recognition task. Twenty low and 20 high sensation seekers completed separate, but parallel, ERP and fMRI sessions. For each session, participants initially studied drawings of common images, and then performed an old-new recognition task during scanning. High sensation seekers showed greater ERP responses to new objects at the frontal N2 ERP component, compared to low sensation seekers. The ERP Novelty-N2 responses were correlated with fMRI responses in the orbitofrontal gyrus. Sensation seeking status also modulated the FN400 ERP component indexing familiarity and conceptual learning, along with fMRI responses in the caudate nucleus, which correlated with FN400 activity. No group differences were found in the late ERP positive components indexing classic old-new amplitude effects. Our combined ERP and fMRI results suggest that sensation-seeking personality affects the early brain responses to visual processing, but not the later stage of memory recognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cognitive reserve in aging. (United States)

    Tucker, A M; Stern, Y


    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.

  17. Gender differences in temporal relationships between gambling urge and cognitions in treatment-seeking adults. (United States)

    Dunsmuir, Phoebe; Smith, David; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Riley, Ben; Battersby, Malcolm


    Many gambling-specific CBT programs seek to target either gambling-related urge or cognitions or both. However, little is known of the influence of one symptom type on another across time and whether these differ for men and women help-seeking problem gamblers. The aim of this study was threefold: to determine presence of measurement invariance for urge and cognition measures over time; to investigate the effect of baseline urge on end-of-treatment gambling-related cognitions - and the reciprocal relationship; and, identify whether these pathways differ across gender. Self-reported gambling urge (GUS), and gambling-related cognitions (GRCS) data from treatment-seeking problem gamblers prior to and post treatment (N = 223; 62% men) were analyzed with cross-lagged panel models, moderated by gender. Conceptualization of urge and cognitions were found to be temporally stable. There was no significant association between baseline GUS scores and post-treatment GRCS scores, nor the reverse relationship. Putatively, this infers that coexisting urge and gambling-related cognition components of problem gambling operate independently over time. Analyses revealed gambling urge had a significantly stronger tracking correlation across time for men than women when adjusting for cognition paths. This investigation provides early evidence for tailoring CBT in response to sub-population gambling-related characteristics, demonstrated across men and women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. International students’ information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden


    This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated in the s...... and academic life and 5) social networks and support for cultural adjustment. Insights into the characteristics of international students’ information needs and behavior may help host institutions serve international students.......This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated...... in the study, including a questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The focus was on international students’ private and academic information needs and behavior ‘abroad’ in addition to their experiences of information seeking. Based on the analysis of survey data and participants’ descriptions of incidents...

  19. Army Reserve Component Personal Empowerment Program #2 (ARCPEP 2) (United States)


    College Students and Campus Dining Options Sleep Quality, not Sleep Quantity, Correlates with Academic ... sleep time. Practice Gap: In their role to promote student health and improve student performance , college health practitioners and student counselors... Performance Vegetarian-style Eating in College Students : Diet Survey Analysis and BMI Vitamin D Deficiency in College Students :

  20. Total Army Cyber Mission Force: Reserve Component Integration (United States)


    Traditional Part-Time Soldiers C2 Command and Control METL Mission Essential Task List CEH Certified Ethical Hacker MI Guard’s Cyber Backbone Network CMF...16 RC Sources and Resourcing Authorities (12301-12304) .......................................................... 16 End...terrorism and it received the highest priority for allocation of intelligence resources . In 2013, the Director National Intelligence (DNI) identified

  1. ARCPEP Project - Army Reserve Component Personal Empowerment Program (United States)


    Appendix 5 Perceived Stress Scale The questions in this scale ask you about your feelings and thoughts during the last month. In each case , you will be...5. How many servings of red meat, hamburger or meat products (ham, sausage , etc.) do you consume per day? (1 serving = 3.5-5 ounces) ə 6. How...consume chicken, turkey instead of veal, pork, hamburger or sausage ? Yes 14. How many times per week do you consume vegetables, pasta, rice or other

  2. An Investigation of B-2 Pilot Force Reserve Component Augmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathers, Russell


    ... to enter the major airline industry Due to the resulting limited number of B-2 instructor pilots the Air Force contracted for civilian B-2 academic instructors who are not as qualified to instruct...

  3. Evaluation of HRV Biofeedback as a Resilience Building Reserve Component (United States)


    3  4  5  6  7  b. Mental health professional (e.g., psychologist , psychiatrist, clinical social worker, or other mental health counselor) 1  2  3...professional at a military facility (e.g., psychologist , psychiatrist, clinical social worker, or other mental health counselor...professional (e.g., psychologist , psychiatrist, clinical social worker, or other mental health counselor

  4. Analysis of Employer Costs from Reserve Component Mobilization (United States)


    Owner Discussion. The owner has about 15 employees. One of them, his service manager , was called to active duty in 2001. The owner estimates...have received from the service manager on the job. The owner was vaguely cognizant of the existence of USERRA, but he did not have cost—the service manager has been back on the job for nearly a year—he still has not been able to recoup all of the business lost during the

  5. 2012 Survey of Reserve Components Spouses (RCSS): Tabulations of Responses (United States)


    120  o.  Loneliness ...happened ..................................... 434  i.  Wished he/she could make things different ........................................ 436  j...588  94.  What is your gender ? Constructed from administrative data ........................ 590  95.  Did you

  6. Analysis of Employer Costs from Reserve Component Mobilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, Colin M; Gotz, Glenn A; Singer, Neil M; Tyson, Karen W


    .... Evidence is presented suggesting that the most significant costs for small employers are related to lost productivity and sales rather than to the costs associated with the requirements imposed...

  7. Army Reserve Components Research Roadmap Volume 1: ARI Research Summary (United States)


    In Holz, R., Hiller , J., & McFann, H. (Eds.) Determinants of Effective Unit Performance. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the...Functions Critical to Combat Operations. In Holz, R., Hiller , J., & McFann, H. (Eds.) Determinants of Effective Unit Performance. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army...throughout mobilization for both soldiers and officers. Table 3-3. 1Previous Mobilization Arrangements and Nespondenls t Eva !.to-O O - Well Their

  8. Suitability of Missions for the Air Force Reserve Components (United States)


    Antenna Systems 116 9.2 123 6.9 1C21 Combat Control 492 9.2 35 6.1 3 1.7 1A81 Airborne Crypto Language Anal 1,365 8.9 79 5.2 28...requirements, represented by the RAP in the case of the F-16 and comparable currency and proficiency requirements for mobility units. Deployment demand and

  9. Strategic Asset Seeking by EMNEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Seifert, Jr., Rene E.


    Purpose: The chapter provides an economic explanation and perspectivation of strategic asset seeking of multinational enterprises from emerging economies (EMNEs) as a prominent feature of today’s global economy. Approach: The authors apply and extend the “springboard perspective.” This perspective...

  10. Teachers Seek Specialized Peer Networks (United States)

    Tomassini, Jason


    Within the wide expanse of social networking, educators appear to be gravitating to more protected and exclusive spaces. While teachers often use such popular mainstream social networks as Facebook, they are more likely to seek out and return to less-established networks that offer the privacy, peer-to-peer connections, and resource sharing that…

  11. Information Seeking Behaviours of Historians


    Hatice Gülşen Birinci


    Among user studies, which date to the 1940s, historians have become subject of various research since the 1970s. In this paper, historians’ information seeking behaviour is analyzed in terms of information sources, information channels, information centers, and information technology in order to determine their information use characteristics.

  12. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  13. Young tertiary students and help-seeking for health advice. (United States)

    Batten, Lesley; Dutton, Jane


    Help-seeking is an active process used by people of all ages to obtain assistance to solve problems. This research sought to investigate a component of help-seeking related to health concerns. A health related help-seeking model, was adapted to frame questions for an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. Seventy-five students aged between 16 and 24 years responded and data were analysed using content and descriptive statistical techniques. Findings indicated that young people perceived the need to seek advice when unwell, needing support or information, are resourceful, and were motivated to seek help from a variety of sources. Parents and whānau formed one usual source of advice, but young people reported one of the best sources of advice as General Practice nurses and doctors. Barriers to seeking advice included distrusting sources, and concerns about confidentiality. Unsurprisingly, many respondents used the Internet for health information, although some mistrusted that information. Nurses need to be aware of the sources of health advice and support that young people choose to use. Motivations for selecting services, providers, or sources clearly replicated what young people hold as important--sources with which they feel comfortable, have a relationship, trust, and which they perceived as maintaining confidentiality.

  14. Reserve Component Programs Fiscal Year 1993 Report of the Reserve Forces Policy Board (United States)


    Thurber suggested, "Somewhere, just be seized, or that vie%-n may never be realizeda out of sight, the Unicorns are gathering." The Bottom-Up Review...projects a shortfall of $2.8 "million in 1994 as a result of Defense Finance and Accounting fees and simulator procurement. R 7..% ’:The Air National Guard...Defense Finance and At some future time, deoxyribonucleic acid Accounting Service in July 1993, replacing the (DNA) profile analysis is expected to

  15. Ready, Reliable, and Relevant: The Army Reserve Component as an Operational Reserve (United States)


    Kurt A. Rorvik 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Advanced Military...Consequence Management Response Force CEF Contingency Expeditionary Force CJCS Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff CMH Center of Military...Treaty Organization vii NCO Non-Commissioned Officer NDAA National Defense Authorization Act NGB National Guard Bureau NOS Notification of

  16. Financial Issues of Reserve Service: A Report from the 1992 Reserve Components Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miskura, Susan


    .... The questionnaire was mailed to 76,783 members with responses received from 47%. The objective of this report was to analyze issues relating to individual and unit readiness focusing on financial aspects...

  17. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1992: Annual Report of the Reserve Forces Policy Board (United States)


    reduce the shortage of junior-grade and mid- quickly on the issue of homosexuals in the career officers in Selccted Rescrvc units. military, especially...52 Homosexuals in the Military...operational detachments, and CARIBBEAN 92-4, conducted in Grenada during space shuttle support, as well as various joint July 1992. Minor engineer efforts


    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov


    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.


    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  20. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja


    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  1. Complex relation among Health Belief Model components in TB prevention and care. (United States)

    Li, Z T; Yang, S S; Zhang, X X; Fisher, E B; Tian, B C; Sun, X Y


    This study aims to explore the relationships among components of the Health Belief Model, tuberculosis (TB) preventive behavior, and intention of seeking TB care. Cross section study. Using convenience sampling, 1154 rural-to-urban migrant workers were selected between the ages of 18-50 years in six urban areas of three provinces in China. The survey was conducted by individual, face-to-face interviews with a standardized questionnaire. Lisrel 8.7 was used to conduct path analysis. The knowledge and benefits components of the Health Belief Model predicted preventive behaviors: cover nose/mouth when coughing or sneezing (β = 0.24, 0.33 respectively), evade others' coughs (β = 0.13, 0.25) and also predicted seeking TB care (β = 0.27, 0.19). Susceptibility and severity also predicted seeking TB care (β = 0.12, 0.16). There were also important relationships among model components. Knowledge of TB predicted both susceptibility (β = 0.32-0.60) and severity (β = 0.41-0.45). Further, each of susceptibility (β = 0.30) and severity (β = 0.41) predicted perceived benefits of preventive care. Thus, a path from knowledge, through severity and susceptibility, and then through benefits predicted prevention and TB care seeking behaviors. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bone-seeking therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Suresh C.


    Full Text Available Bone-seeking therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are utilized on the basis of the radionuclide?s particulate emissions (primarily low to intermediate beta emission. The requirements therefore are different from those of bone imaging agents that consist mainly of short-lived single photon emitters. Lately, the therapeutic bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals have attained increasing importance due to their potential role in alleviating pain from osseous metastases in cancer patients, for the treatment of joint pain resulting from inflamed synovium (radiosynoviorthesis, or radiosynovectomy, or from various other forms of arthritic disease. There is, however, a paucity of published data on the bio-pharmacokinetics of these agents when used following intravenous administration for bone pain palliation. This paper will briefly review and summarize the presently available chemical and biopharmacokinetic information on the various clinically approved as well as experimental bone-localizing therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, and make projections on their clinical application for the treatment of primary/metastatic cancer in bone.

  3. Toward Collaborative Information Seeking (CIS)


    Shah, Chirag


    It is natural for humans to collaborate while dealing with complex problems. In this article I consider this process of collaboration in the context of information seeking. The study and discussion presented here are driven by two dissatisfactions: (1) the majority of IR systems today do not facilitate collaboration directly, and (2) the concept of collaboration itself is not well-understood. I begin by probing the notion of collaboration and propose a model that helps us understand the requi...

  4. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A


    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  5. Component testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, M.T.; Schofield, Peter; Seymour, W.A.J.


    A method for non-destructive testing of an industrial component to ascertain if it is a single crystal, and to find the crystal orientations of those parts of the component which are single crystals, involves irradiating the component with a monochromatic collimated neutron beam. Diffracted neutron beams are observed live by means of LiF/ZnS composite screen, an image intensifier and a television camera and screen. (author)

  6. GP trainees' in-consultation information-seeking: associations with human, paper and electronic sources. (United States)

    Magin, Parker; Morgan, Simon; Wearne, Susan; Tapley, Amanda; Henderson, Kim; Oldmeadow, Chris; Ball, Jean; Scott, John; Spike, Neil; McArthur, Lawrie; van Driel, Mieke


    Answering clinical questions arising from patient care can improve that care and offers an opportunity for adult learning. It is also a vital component in practising evidence-based medicine. GPs' sources of in-consultation information can be human or non-human (either hard copy or electronic). To establish the prevalence and associations of GP trainees' in-consultation information-seeking, and to establish the prevalence of use of different sources of information (human, hard copy and electronic) and the associations of choosing particular sources. A cross-sectional analysis of data (2010-13) from an ongoing cohort study of Australian GP trainees' consultations. Once each 6-month training term, trainees record detailed data of 60 consecutive consultations. The primary outcome was whether the trainee sought in-consultation information for a problem/diagnosis. Secondary outcomes were whether information-seeking was from a human (GP, other specialist or other health professional) or from a non-human source (electronic or hard copy), and whether a non-human source was electronic or hard copy. Six hundred forty-five trainees (response rate 94.3%) contributed data for 84,723 consultations including 131,583 problems/diagnoses. In-consultation information was sought for 15.4% (95% confidence interval=15.3-15.6) of problems/diagnoses. Sources were: GP in 6.9% of problems/diagnoses, other specialists 0.9%, other health professionals 0.6%, electronic sources 6.5% and hard-copy sources 1.5%. Associations of information-seeking included younger patient age, trainee full-time status and earlier training stage, longer consultation duration, referring the patient, organizing follow-up and generating learning goals. Associations of choosing human information sources (over non-human sources) were similar, but also included the trainee's training organization. Associations of electronic rather than hard-copy information-seeking included the trainee being younger, the training

  7. Women׳s help-seeking behaviours for depressive symptoms during the perinatal period: Socio-demographic and clinical correlates and perceived barriers to seeking professional help. (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana; Gorayeb, Ricardo; Canavarro, Maria Cristina


    This study aims to characterize the help-seeking behaviours of women who were screened positive for perinatal depression, to investigate its sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and to characterize the perceived barriers that prevent women from seeking professional help. Cross-sectional internet survey. Participants were recruited through advertisements published in pamphlets and posted on social media websites (e.g., Facebook) and websites and forums that focused on pregnancy and childbirth. 656 women (currently pregnant or who had a baby during the last 12 months) completed the survey. Participants were assessed with the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, and were questioned about sociodemographic and clinical data, help-seeking behaviours and perceived barriers to help-seeking. Different pathways of help-seeking were found, with only 13.6% of women with a perinatal depression seeking help for their emotional problems. Married women, currently pregnant women, and women without history of psychological problems had a higher likelihood of not engaging in any type of help-seeking behaviour. The majority of women who had not sought professional assistance identified several barriers to help-seeking, particularly knowledge barriers. Strategies to increase women׳s help-seeking behaviours should be implemented, namely improving mental health literacy, introducing screening procedures for mental health problems in pre/postnatal health care settings, and offering women innovative opportunities (e.g., web-based tools) that allow them to overcome the practical barriers to help-seeking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Patient expectations before arthroscopic shoulder surgery: correlation with patients' reasons for seeking treatment. (United States)

    Warth, Ryan J; Briggs, Karen K; Dornan, Grant J; Horan, Marilee P; Millett, Peter J


    Elevated expectations before orthopaedic procedures appear to correlate with inferior preoperative subjective measures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate preoperative patient expectations before arthroscopic shoulder surgery and to correlate them with preoperative subjective measures and patients' reasons for seeking treatment. We prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed data from patients before elective arthroscopic shoulder surgery for a wide range of pathologic processes. Preoperative subjective data included QuickDASH scores, pain and functional components of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and mental and physical components of the SF-12 score. Expectations data were collected and grouped on the basis of the reasons for seeking of medical treatment and ranked according to their relative importance. The study included 313 shoulders. There were 205 men and 108 women with a mean age at surgery of 48.7 years (range, 18-78 years). Overall, the most important expectations were for the "shoulder to be back to the way it was before the problem started" and to continue participation in sporting activities. Patients who presented with the "shoulder coming out" had fewer important expectations than did those who presented for other reasons. Those patients who indicated a desire to continue participation in sports had significantly less pain (improved ASES pain scores) compared with the rest of the population. Although return to sport was the most important expectation overall, the importance of other expectations varied by patients' reasons for seeking treatment. The current questionnaire may have limited use in patients with shoulder instability. Level III, cross-sectional design, epidemiology. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazanah Muhamad


    Full Text Available Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1 recommendation from family and friends, (2 sanction from family, (3 perceived benefit and compatibility, (4 healer credibility, and (5 reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities.

  10. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamad, M.; Merriam, Sh.; Merriam, Sh.; Suhami, N.


    Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or bomoh at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities

  11. Skyline Reservation System (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  12. Multiscale principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinduko, A A; Gorban, A N


    Principal component analysis (PCA) is an important tool in exploring data. The conventional approach to PCA leads to a solution which favours the structures with large variances. This is sensitive to outliers and could obfuscate interesting underlying structures. One of the equivalent definitions of PCA is that it seeks the subspaces that maximize the sum of squared pairwise distances between data projections. This definition opens up more flexibility in the analysis of principal components which is useful in enhancing PCA. In this paper we introduce scales into PCA by maximizing only the sum of pairwise distances between projections for pairs of datapoints with distances within a chosen interval of values [l,u]. The resulting principal component decompositions in Multiscale PCA depend on point (l,u) on the plane and for each point we define projectors onto principal components. Cluster analysis of these projectors reveals the structures in the data at various scales. Each structure is described by the eigenvectors at the medoid point of the cluster which represent the structure. We also use the distortion of projections as a criterion for choosing an appropriate scale especially for data with outliers. This method was tested on both artificial distribution of data and real data. For data with multiscale structures, the method was able to reveal the different structures of the data and also to reduce the effect of outliers in the principal component analysis

  13. Predicting job-seeking intensity and job-seeking intention in the sample of unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica


    Full Text Available In this study Ajzen' theory (1991 of planned behavior was used to predict job - seek intention and behavior among unemployed people (N = 650. In addition to theory of planned behavior variables (job - seek attitude, subjective norm, self - efficacy and controllability of job seek process we used several other psychological (financial pressure, self - mastery, self - esteem and depression and demographic (gender, age, education, marriage and lent of unemployment variables to build a model of predictors for both criterion variables. Financial pressure, intention to seek employment, job seek - self - efficacy, job - seek controllability, marriage and job - seek attitude predicted job - seeking behavior, while attitude toward job - seeking, subjective norm, job - seek self - efficacy and financial pressure predicted job seek - intention. Results are discussed in light of theory of planned behavior, current research of job - seeking behavior and recommendations are made for practice.

  14. A Policy Analysis of Reserve Retirement Reform (United States)


    adapted their manning requirements to this retention. Perhaps tasks and jobs have been designed to accommodate the reten - tion profile produced by the...a reward for a long career of service, a benefit to help transition to the civilian economy, and a means of securing the reten - tion of determine their likely effect on active reten - tion, reserve affiliation after leaving an active component, reserve retention, and reserve

  15. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja


    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  16. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.


    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  17. Financial Literacy, Confidence and Financial Advice Seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Marc M.


    We find that people with higher confidence in their own financial literacy are less likely to seek financial advice, but no relation between objective measures of literacy and advice seeking. The negative association between confidence and advice seeking is more pronounced among wealthy households.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 1, 2003 ... For this reason the nature of care seeking is not homogenous depending on cognitive and non-cognitive factors that call for a contextual analysis of care seeking behaviour. Context may ... seeking model will involve recognition of symptoms, perceived nature of illness, followed initially by appropriate home ...

  19. A Multivariate Genetic Analysis of Sensation Seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, J.R.; Boomsma, D.I.; Heath, A.C.; van Doornen, L.J.P.


    The genetic architecture of sensation seeking was analyzed in 1591 adolescent twin pairs. Individual differences in sensation seeking were best explained by a simple additive genetic model. Between 48 and 63% of the total variance in sensation seeking subscales was attributable to genetic factors.

  20. Understanding Together: Sensemaking in Collaborative Information Seeking (United States)

    Paul, Sharoda A.


    In recent years researchers have found that people often collaborate during information seeking activities. Collaborative information seeking (CIS) is composed of multiple different activities like seeking, sharing, understanding, and using information together. However, most studies of CIS have focused on how people find and retrieve information…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.

  2. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.


    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  3. School Shootings Stun Reservation (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean


    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  5. Foreign Exchange Reserves and the Reserve Bank’s Balance Sheet


    Christian Vallence


    The Reserve Bank of Australia holds and manages the nation’s foreign exchange reserve assets in order to meet its policy objectives. While Australia’s foreign exchange reserves are relatively modest by international standards, they nonetheless constitute a sizeable portion of the Bank’s balance sheet, and variations in the Australian dollar value of these reserves are usually the most volatile component of the Bank’s profit and loss statement. This article discusses some of the key decisions ...

  6. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  7. [Hypertrophy and coronary reserve]. (United States)

    Motz, W; Scheler, S


    Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.

  8. Adoption Decision Making among Women Seeking Abortion. (United States)

    Sisson, Gretchen; Ralph, Lauren; Gould, Heather; Foster, Diana Greene

    Little is known about how adoption factors into pregnancy decision making, particularly when abortion is unavailable. We used data from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of 956 women seeking abortion, including 231 women denied abortions owing to gestational limits. Through semiannual quantitative interviews, we assessed the frequency with which women denied abortion consider and choose adoption, and, among adoption participants, decision satisfaction. We compared differences in the demographic profiles of parenting and adoption participants using mixed effects regression models. We conducted in-depth interviews with 31 women who received or were denied wanted abortions, including 2 adoption participants, focused on understanding pregnancy decision making and feelings about their choice. Interviews were coded using inductive and deductive methods. Most women who received abortions were aware of but uninterested in adoption. A minority of women denied abortions (n = 231; 14%) were considering adoption at 1 week after denial. Of participants who gave birth (n = 161), most (91%) chose parenting. Parenting participants (n = 146) did not differ from adoption participants (n = 15) on measures of age, race, or poverty status, although adoption participants were somewhat less likely to be employed (20% vs. 43%; p = .1), and somewhat more likely to have completed high school (87% vs. 74%; p = .08). Although satisfaction with their decision was high among adoption participants, in-depth interviews revealed mixed emotions. Among women motivated to avoid parenthood, as evidenced by abortion seeking, adoption is considered or chosen infrequently. Political promotion of adoption as an alternative to abortion is likely not grounded in the reality of women's decision making. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fractional Reserve Banking


    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas


    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  10. Sex differences in methamphetamine seeking in rats: impact of oxytocin. (United States)

    Cox, Brittney M; Young, Amy B; See, Ronald E; Reichel, Carmela M


    Previous evidence in an animal model of drug self-administration and drug seeking showed that acute oxytocin decreased methamphetamine (meth) seeking in male rats, suggesting potential clinical efficacy for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, based on the well-established role of oxytocin in reproduction and pair bond formation, it is important to know how this effect extrapolates to females. Here, we tested whether oxytocin (1mg/kg, IP) would decrease meth seeking in female rats across various stages of the estrous cycle (Experiment 1). Freely cycling Long Evans female rats self-administered meth (IV) in 2-h daily sessions, followed by daily extinction sessions. Following extinction, rats received oxytocin (0, 0.3, or 1mg/kg, IP) 30min before a meth priming injection (1mg/kg, IP) to assess reinstatement of meth seeking. Next, we examined the effects of oxytocin on motivated meth- and sucrose-taking and seeking in male and female rats. In separate experiments, males and females self-administered meth (Experiment 2) or sucrose (Experiment 3) until responding was stabilized along a fixed ratio (FR) 5 schedule of reinforcement. Subsequently, rats received either oxytocin or vehicle prior to self-administration along a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. Rats were subsequently tested for cue-, meth-, and stress-induced reinstatement after pretreatment with oxytocin or vehicle. While oxytocin reduced meth seeking in females, we found that estrous cycle stage (as determined from vaginal cytology) did not influence meth-primed reinstatement or the ability of oxytocin to decrease reinstatement of meth seeking. Oxytocin reduced PR responding for meth only in females. Females responded more than males during cue-induced reinstatement of meth and sucrose seeking, and oxytocin reduced this responding only in meth females. In both sexes, oxytocin attenuated meth seeking in response to a meth prime and yohimbine (a pharmacological stressor). The

  11. Predictors of help-seeking for suicidal ideation in the community: risks and opportunities for public suicide prevention campaigns. (United States)

    Calear, Alison L; Batterham, Philip J; Christensen, Helen


    Help-seeking behaviour for suicidality is low and the reasons for this have not systematically been examined. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between suicide stigma, suicide literacy and help-seeking attitudes and intentions. One thousand two hundred seventy-four Australian adults recruited via Facebook completed an online survey assessing a range of mental health outcomes. High suicide literacy and low suicide stigma were significantly associated with more positive help-seeking attitudes and, among a subsample of 534, greater intentions to seek help. Attribution of suicide to isolation was associated with more positive attitudes toward help-seeking and greater intentions to seek help, while respondents experiencing suicidal ideation had more negative attitudes toward help-seeking and lower intentions to seek help. Lower depressive symptoms, older age and female gender were associated with more positive help-seeking attitudes and higher help-seeking intentions. However, there were differential associations of specific suicide knowledge items and specific stigmatising attitudes with help-seeking outcomes; suggesting a nuanced approach may be required to promote help seeking for suicidality. Suicide knowledge and attitudes play an important role in the help-seeking process for suicide and should be carefully considered in the development of public awareness campaigns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Component Rhinoplasty


    Mohmand, Muhammad Humayun; Ahmad, Muhammad


    BACKGROUND According to statistics of American Society of Plastic Surgeons, cosmetic rhinoplasty was the second most frequently performed cosmetic surgery. This study shares the experiences with component rhinoplasty. METHODS From 2004 to 2010, all patients underwent aesthetic nasal surgery were enrolled. The patients requiring only correction of septal deviation and those presenting with cleft lip nasal deformity were excluded. All procedures were performed under general anaesthesia with ope...

  13. Hyperfrequency components (United States)


    The document has a collection of 19 papers (11 on technologies, 8 on applications) by 26 authors and coauthors. Technological topics include: evolution from conventional HEMT's double heterojunction and planar types of pseudomorphic HEMT's; MMIC R&D and production aspects for very-low-noise, low-power, and very-low-noise, high-power applications; hyperfrequency CAD tools; parametric measurements of hyperfrequency components on plug-in cards for design and in-process testing uses; design of Class B power amplifiers and millimetric-wave, bigrid-transistor mixers, exemplifying combined use of three major types of physical simulation in electrical modeling of microwave components; FET's for power amplification at up to 110 GHz; production, characterization, and nonlinear applications of resonant tunnel diodes. Applications topics include: development of active modules for major European programs; tubes versus solid-state components in hyperfrequency applications; status and potentialities of national and international cooperative R&D on MMIC's and CAD of hyperfrequency circuitry; attainable performance levels in multifunction MMIC applications; state of the art relative of MESFET power amplifiers (Bands S, C, X, Ku); creating a hyperfrequency functions library, of parametrizable reference cells or macrocells; and design of a single-stage, low-noise, band-W amplifier toward development of a three-stage amplifier.

  14. Variants in the dopamine-4-receptor gene promoter are not associated with sensation seeking in skiers. (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia J; Rajala, Amelia K; Carlson, Scott R; Rupert, Jim L


    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that has been associated with disinhibited behaviours including substance use and gambling, but also with high-risk sport practices including skydiving, paragliding, and downhill skiing. Twin studies have shown that sensation seeking is moderately heritable, and candidate genes encoding components involved in dopaminergic transmission have been investigated as contributing to this type of behaviour. To determine whether variants in the regulatory regions of the dopamine-4-receptor gene (DRD4) influenced sport-specific sensation seeking, we analyzed five polymorphisms (-1106T/C, -906T/C, -809G/A, -291C/T, 120-bp duplication) in the promoter region of the gene in a cohort of skiers and snowboarders (n = 599) that represented a broad range of sensation seeking behaviours. We grouped subjects by genotype at each of the five loci and compared impulsive sensation seeking and domain-specific (skiing) sensation seeking between groups. There were no significant associations between genotype(s) and general or domain-specific sensation seeking in the skiers and snowboarders, suggesting that while DRD4 has previously been implicated in sensation seeking, the promoter variants investigated in this study do not contribute to sensation seeking in this athlete population.

  15. Japanese women seek reproductive rights. (United States)


    Whereas Japan has endorsed the Program of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995 and has reflected these endorsements in its international initiatives, feminist groups in the country charge that it has failed to bring a reproductive health and rights perspective to bear on its own laws. In backing up this charge, women's groups point to a recent revision of the 1948 Eugenic Protection Law that authorizes induced abortion and sterilization under certain circumstances. The revision, which occurred without any public discussion and without input from women's groups, involved removal of eugenic preconditions for the procedures but changed the name of the law to the "Law for the Protection of Mothers' Bodies." Feminists are seeking to abolish the law, which continues to impose conditions on abortion, and to establish a single law covering contraception, abortion, and sterilization to guarantee women reproductive health and rights. The Family Planning Federation of Japan is also critical of the revised law because its enactment lacked democratic process, its name is contradictory and discriminatory, and its content was not reviewed in light of existing international treaties such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women and the Programme of Action and Platform for Action.

  16. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  17. Variance Components

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R; McCulloch, Charles E


    WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PAPERBACK SERIES. The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists. ". . .Variance Components is an excellent book. It is organized and well written, and provides many references to a variety of topics. I recommend it to anyone with interest in linear models.".

  18. Environmental enrichment as a potential intervention for heroin seeking. (United States)

    Galaj, E; Manuszak, M; Ranaldi, R


    Heroin-related cues can trigger craving and relapse in addicts or heroin seeking in rats. In the present study we investigated whether environmental enrichment (EE) implemented after heroin exposure can reduce cue-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking and expression of heroin conditioned place preference. In Experiment 1, male Long Evans rats that already acquired a heroin self-administration habit, were housed in enriched or non-enriched environments, underwent extinction training and later were tested for cue-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. In Experiment 2, rats were conditioned with heroin in one compartment of a CPP apparatus and saline in the other, exposed to 30days of enrichment or no enrichment and were later tested for heroin CPP. The results showed that exposure to EE significantly reduced responding during the reinstatement test (Experiment 1) and prevented the expression of heroin CPP (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that EE can be an effective behavioral approach to diminish the effects of conditioned cues on heroin seeking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Patient knowledge and information-seeking about personalized cancer therapy. (United States)

    Rogith, Deevakar; Yusuf, Rafeek A; Hovick, Shelley R; Fellman, Bryan M; Peterson, Susan K; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Li, Yisheng; Bernstam, Elmer V; Meric-Bernstam, Funda


    Understanding patients' knowledge and prior information-seeking regarding personalized cancer therapy (PCT) may inform future patient information systems, consent for molecular testing and PCT protocols. We evaluated breast cancer patients' knowledge and information-seeking behaviors regarding PCT. Newly registered female breast cancer patients (n=100) at a comprehensive cancer center completed a self-administered questionnaire prior to their first clinic visit. Knowledge regarding cancer genetics and PCT was moderate (mean 8.7±3.8 questions correct out of 16). A minority of patients (27%) indicated that they had sought information regarding PCT. Higher education (p=0.009) and income levels (p=0.04) were associated with higher knowledge scores and with seeking PCT information (p=0.04). Knowledge was not associated with willingness to participate in PCT research. Educational background and financial status impact patient knowledge as well as information-seeking behavior. For most patients, clinicians are likely to be patients' initial source of information about PCT. Understanding patients' knowledge deficits at presentation may help inform patient education efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sensation seeking as risk factor for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in adolescence. (United States)

    Ortin, Ana; Lake, Alison M; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S


    High sensation seeking in adolescence is associated with engagement in risk-taking behaviors, especially substance use. Although depressed adolescents are prone to increased risk-taking, and suicidal behavior can be considered within the spectrum of risk-taking behaviors, the relationships between sensation seeking, depression, and suicidal behavior have not been explored. A self-report questionnaire assessing sensation seeking, depression, substance use problems, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was completed by 9th- through 12th-grade students (n=2189) in six New York State high-schools from 2002 through 2004. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine main and interaction effects between sensation seeking and the four clinical variables. High sensation seeking was positively associated with depressive symptoms and substance use problems. The main effects of sensation seeking on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts remained significant after controlling for depression and substance use. The association between sensation seeking and suicide attempts was moderated by substance use problems. The schools were suburban and predominantly white, limiting the generalizability of the results. Other mental disorders with potential implications for sensation seeking and for suicidal behavior, such as bipolar disorders, were not assessed. The finding that sensation seeking makes an independent contribution to the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts is consistent with findings in literature on novelty seeking and impulsivity. The associations between sensation seeking, depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior may be compatible with the presence of an underlying temperamental dysregulation. Screening for sensation seeking may contribute to the reduction of adolescent suicide risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Information seeking and communication behaviour of Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the findings of a study which sought insight into engineer's information seeking and communication behaviour at Kenya Railways Corporation. The study employed a user centered approach to information seeking and use unlike many past studies which were system centered. It focused broadly and ...

  2. Professional e-government seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Lykke, Marianne


    The present paper is concerned with professional e-government seeking behavior. With the digitalization of governments, expectations have been raised with regard to changes in the composition of employee work tasks. The purpose of our study is to determine whether these changes affect seeking...

  3. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon


    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  4. Information-Seeking Habits of Education Faculty (United States)

    Rupp-Serrano, Karen; Robbins, Sarah


    This study explores the information-seeking behavior of academic education faculty from twenty large public research universities. The investigation includes an examination of how frequently education faculty seek or access information, how they stay up-to-date on current developments in the field and identify less recent journal literature, how…

  5. Community perceptions and health seeking behavior

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Care of the newborn: Community perceptions and health seeking behavior. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ... national Safe Motherhood Community-Based Survey was carried out on behalf of the Family Health Department to explore community practices surrounding newborn health and care seeking behavior.

  6. Childhood malaria: mothers' perception and treatment- seeking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was noticed and time treatment was instituted was 3 days. Conclusion: The low level of awareness of mothers of the cause of malaria, the poor treatment- seeking behaviour shown by the low level of use of the health facilities as a place where treatment is first sought, and the delay in seeking treatment for childhood malaria, ...

  7. Information Need and Information Seeking Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Özenç Uçak


    Full Text Available Information need is one of the cognitive needs of humankind. Information need causes information seeking behaviour and these concepts complement each other. Information need and information seeking behaviour are effected by many factors. It is necessary to know these factors in establishing the effective information centers and services.

  8. Why not Seek Therapy? The Role of Stigma and Psychological Symptoms in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makilim Nunes Baptista

    Full Text Available Abstract: The decision to seek therapy can reduce psychological distress and factors like public stigma, self stigma, fear of self exposure to therapist, among others, may constitute barriers in this process. This study investigated: how is the group of variables described in the literature as predictors of seeking therapy, and the relationship of variables associated with stigma and depressive symptoms, anxiogenic symptoms and stress with this search. For this purpose, 272 students responded scales that assessed these variables. The principal component analysis indicated four clusters of variables (symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress; feelings of shame, inadequacy and inhibition; perception of benefits to seek therapy; self stigma and stigma by the others. These components are hierarchically inserted into the multiple regression, indicating that the symptoms have little importance compared to the attitude of seeking therapy and stigmas.

  9. Host-Seeking Behavior in the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernard R. Lewis


    Full Text Available The reemergence of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, has recently spawned a frenzy of public, media, and academic attention. In response to the growing rate of infestation, considerable work has been focused on identifying the various host cues utilized by the bed bug in search of a meal. Most of these behavioral studies examine movement within a confined environment, such as a Petri dish. This has prevented a more complete understanding of the insect’s host-seeking process. This work describes a novel method for studying host-seeking behavior, using various movement parameters, in a time-lapse photography system. With the use of human breath as an attractant, we qualitatively and quantitatively assessed how bed bugs navigate their environment between its harborage and the host. Levels of behavioral activity varied dramatically between bed bugs in the presence and absence of host odor. Bed bugs demonstrated not simply activation, but attraction to the chemical components of breath. Localized, stop-start host-seeking behavior or alternating periods of movement and pause were observed among bed bugs placed in the environment void of human breath, while those exposed to human breath demonstrated long range, stop-start host-seeking behavior. A more comprehensive understanding of bed bug host-seeking can lead to the development of traps and monitors that account for unique subtleties in their behavior. The time-lapse photography system uses a large, artificial environment and could also be employed to study other aspects of the insect’s behavioral patterns.

  10. Reserve valuation in electric power systems (United States)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  11. Smart Tools for Academic Information Seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeva Koponen


    Full Text Available Systematic information seeking is an essential part of academic work. Research and information seeking go hand in hand, and both need planning. In the academic world you can hardly avoid the research plan, but you probably won’t hear that much about the information seeking plan. The information seeking plan guides you through the research process from the first sparks of an idea to the last dot in the bibliography from the point of view of the often invisible process of systematic information seeking. Systematic Information Seeking Framework designed in the Jyväskylä University Library has its roots in Carol Kuhlthau's Guided Inquiry Design Process. Our model, designed for more contextual adjustability, is presented in our Library Tutorial (, an open self-study material. The process starts with “Defining the topic and finding search terms”. This stage requires extensive reading about the subject matter, understanding the basic differences between everyday knowledge and scientific knowledge and distinguishing information resources for different kinds of needs. Analysis of concepts and understanding of their contextuality are at the core of scientific knowledge. With the information seeking plan and a mind map one can work on the search terms, discover connections and construct search statements for different resources and the search strategies they require. The second section is about “Finding sources”, which students often understand as the starting point for systematic information seeking. Knowledge of the publication cultures in different disciplines guide the information seeker to the different types of sources needed. Finally, “Citing and managing references”. One of the most essential skills in all academic work is the appropriate use of scientific sources, citing and managing references correctly. As academic dishonesty hurts the whole community, academic fraud, e

  12. Physical therapists familiarity and beliefs about health services utilization and health seeking behaviour. (United States)

    Clewley, Derek; Rhon, Dan; Flynn, Tim; Koppenhaver, Shane; Cook, Chad


    Physical therapists' familiarity, perceptions, and beliefs about health services utilization and health seeking behaviour have not been previously assessed. The purposes of this study were to identify physical therapists' characteristics related to familiarity of health services utilization and health seeking behaviour, and to assess what health seeking behaviour factors providers felt were related to health services utilization. We administered a survey based on the Andersen behavioural model of health services utilization to physical therapists using social media campaigns and email between March and June of 2017. In addition to descriptive statistics, we performed binomial logistic regression analysis. We asked respondents to rate familiarity with health services utilization and health seeking behaviour and collected additional characteristic variables. Physical therapists are more familiar with health services utilization than health seeking behaviour. Those who are familiar with either construct tend to be those who assess for health services utilization, use health services utilization for a prognosis, and believe that health seeking behaviour is measurable. Physical therapists rated need and enabling factors as having more influence on health services utilization than predisposing and health belief factors. Physical therapists are generally familiar with health services utilization and health seeking behaviour; however, there appears to be a disconnect between what is familiar, what is perceived to be important, and what can be assessed for both health services utilization and health seeking behaviour. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between information-seeking behavior and innovative behavior in Chinese nursing students. (United States)

    Zhong, Zhuqing; Hu, Dehua; Zheng, Feng; Ding, Siqing; Luo, Aijing


    In the information-based economy, information literacy has become the foundation of scientific literacy, and provides the basis for innovative growth. Exploring the relationship between information-seeking behaviors and innovative behaviors of nursing students could help guide the development of information literacy education and training for nursing students. The relationship between information-seeking behavior and innovative behavior in nursing students has received little attention, however. This study aims to explore the relationship between information-seeking behavior and innovative behavior of nursing students. Nursing students in Xiangya Medical School, Central South University and Medical School of Hunan Normal University in the Chinese Province of Hunan were surveyed with an information-seeking behavior scale and an innovative behavior scale. A total of 1247 nursing students were included in the final analysis. The results showed that both information-seeking behavior and innovative behavior were significantly better in undergraduates than in junior college nursing students (P information-seeking behavior was positively related to innovative behavior (r = 0.63, P information-seeking behavior were also correlated with innovative behavior in varying degrees. Furthermore, information utilization was proved to be the strongest predictor of innovative behavior. Information-seeking behavior is positively associated with innovative behavior among nursing students. There is a need to integrate information literacy education with information retrieval courses, especially in the aspects of information utilization, retrieval, and assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Corticostriatal circuitry and habitual ethanol seeking (United States)

    Barker, Jacqueline M.; Corbit, Laura H.; Robinson, Donita L.; Gremel, Christina M.; Gonzales, Rueben A.; Chandler, L. Judson


    The development of alcohol-use disorders is thought to involve a transition from casual alcohol use to uncontrolled alcohol-seeking behavior. This review will highlight evidence suggesting that the shift toward inflexible alcohol seeking that occurs across the development of addiction consists, in part, of a progression from goal-directed to habitual behaviors. This shift in “response strategy” is thought to be largely regulated by corticostriatal network activity. Indeed, specific neuroanatomical substrates within the prefrontal cortex and the striatum have been identified as playing opposing roles in the expression of actions and habits. A majority of the research on the neurobiology of habitual behavior has focused on non-drug reward seeking. Here, we will highlight recent research identifying corticostriatal structures that regulate the expression of habitual alcohol seeking and a comparison will be made when possible to findings for non-drug rewards. PMID:26059221

  15. An anlaysis of engineers information seeking activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario


    to decompose the complexity of information seeking activity in order to more effectively support the evolving needs of engineering designers and design researchers. This paper addresses these issues by using an experimental study and network visualization technique to analyze Internet based information seeking......Information seeking is an important part of the engineering design process. In this context the Internet has become a significant source of information, shaping the way engineers work and interact. Current work has focused on characterizing this activity in terms of total time allocated...... to different information sources or overall tasks, such as evaluating. However, these approaches do not give an understanding of how engineers information seeking affects their problem solving activity and ultimately their performance in the context of the design process. As such, a new approach is needed...

  16. Seeking Allergy Relief: When Breathing Becomes Bothersome (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe June 2016 Print this issue Seeking Allergy Relief When Breathing Becomes Bothersome En español Send ... Preschoolers Benefit from Peanut Allergy Therapy Wise Choices Allergy Symptoms Runny or stuffy nose Sneezing Itchy nose, ...

  17. Peak-Seeking Control for Trim Optimization (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovators have developed a peak-seeking algorithm that can reduce drag and improve performance and fuel efficiency by optimizing aircraft trim in real time. The...

  18. Information seeking behavior of Greek astronomers


    Brindesi, Hara; Kapidakis, Sarantos


    This study examines three aspects of information seeking behaviour of astronomers in Greece including a) the importance they place in keeping up- to-date with current developments b) the methods they depend on for keeping up-to-date and c) the information sources they mostly use. We adopted an intradisciplinary approach in order to investigate similarities and differences in information seeking behaviour among astronomers when examining them as groups bearing different characteristics, includ...

  19. Social Work with unaccompanied aylum seeking children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal


    Review of "textbook" on social work with unaccompanied asyum seeking children. This book presents national and international research findings, case stories and interviews, is written on a high level and deserves a braod audience......Review of "textbook" on social work with unaccompanied asyum seeking children. This book presents national and international research findings, case stories and interviews, is written on a high level and deserves a braod audience...

  20. 78 FR 70542 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting (United States)


    ... identification of Defense Support of Civilian Authorities requirements. The Subcommittee on Personnel plans to..., issues impacting reserve organizations, the right balance of Active and Reserve Component forces, and...

  1. Estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo de dois estádios sucessionais de floresta estacional semidecidual na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG, Brasil Structure of the tree-shrub component in two successional stages of semideciduous forest in the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, Viçosa, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Isabel do Carmo Pinto


    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo das variações estruturais do componente arbustivo- arbóreo em dois estádios sucessionais - inicial e madura - de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, em Viçosa, MG, Brasil. A Reserva Florestal está situada nas coordenadas 20º45'S e 42º55'W e a uma altitude média de 689 m. O clima da região é classificado como Cwb pelo sistema de Köppen. As espécies arbustivo-arbóreas foram amostradas dentro de 20 parcelas de 10 x 30 m, sendo 10 parcelas em cada estádio sucessional, sendo considerados apenas os indivíduos com diâmetro a 1,30 m do solo (DAP > 4,8 cm. Na floresta inicial foram amostrados 399 indivíduos, distribuídos em 27 famílias e 55 espécies. As espécies com maior valor de importância (VI foram Piptadenia gonoacantha, Vernonanthura diffusa, Miconia cinnamomifolia, Piptocarpha macropoda e Luehea grandiflora. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,31 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade de Pielou (J', igual a 0,83. No estádio floresta madura foram amostrados 623 indivíduos, distribuídos em 31 famílias e 78 espécies. As espécies com maior valor de importância (VI foram Euterpe edulis, Piptadenia gonoacantha, Nectandra lanceolata, Myrcia sphaerocarpa e Guapira opposita. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,46 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade de Pielou (J', igual a 0,79. As distribuições diamétricas das quatro espécies mais abundantes em cada estádio sucessional apresentaram padrões distintos, aparentemente relacionados ao estádio sucessional.The study of the floristic and structural variations of the tree-shrub component was carried out in two successional stages of Semideciduous Forest, initial and mature, located in the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The Forest Reserve is located at 20º45'S and 42º55'W, with average altitude of 689 m. The regional climate is classified as Cwb by the Köppen system

  2. Safety-seeking behaviours and verbal auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Chaix, Joséphine; Ma, Edgar; Nguyen, Alexandra; Ortiz Collado, Maria Assumpta; Rexhaj, Shyhrete; Favrod, Jérôme


    Verbal auditory hallucinations can have a strong impact on the social and professional functioning of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. The safety-seeking behaviours used to reduce the threat associated with voices play a significant role in explaining the functional consequences of auditory hallucinations. Nevertheless, these safety-seeking behaviours have been little studied. Twenty-eight patients with schizophrenia and verbal auditory hallucinations were recruited for this study. Hallucinations were evaluated using the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale and the Belief About Voice Questionnaire and safety behaviours using a modified version of the Safety Behaviour Questionnaire. Our results show that the vast majority of patients relies on safety behaviours to reduce the threat associated with voices. This reliance on safety behaviours is mostly explained by beliefs about origin of voices the omnipotence attributed to hallucinations and the behavioural and emotional reactions to the voices. Safety-seeking behaviours play an important role in maintaining dysfunctional beliefs with respect to voices. They should be better targeted within the cognitive and behavioural therapies for auditory hallucinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fractional Reserve in Banking System


    Valkonen, Maria


    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  4. Automotive component failures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyes, AM


    Full Text Available [ However\\ in the presence of a stress concentration the ultimate tensile stress can be exceeded before the ultimate shear stress is reached\\ resulting in a tensile failure 0 [ 2[6[ Metallo`raphy and Ener`y Dispersive Spectroscopy "EDS# A microspecimen...\\ Vol[ 4\\ No[ 1\\ pp[ 018 030\\ 0887 0887 Elsevier Science Ltd[ All rights reserved\\ Pergamon Printed in Great Britain 0249 5296:87 ,08[99 9[99 PII] S0249 5296"87#99909 6 AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT FAILURES A[ M[ HEYES Advanced Engineering and Testing...

  5. Online maternity information seeking among lesbian, bisexual, and queer women. (United States)

    Ruppel, Emily H; Karpman, Hannah E; Delk, Carolyn E; Merryman, Mallory


    recent research has concluded that barriers to maternity health care exist for lesbian, bisexual, and queer women. This mixed methods study aims to understand patterns in seeking and sharing online health information for LBQ women attempting conception. researchers performed a qualitative content analysis of 400 discussions in lesbian-oriented Facebook groups, containing 1764 total instances of text. 400 discussions from heterosexual-oriented conception and parenting Facebook groups were examined for comparison purposes, though they will not be the focus of this analysis. This paper also presents descriptive statistics on posts observed. posts were drawn from a representative sample of lesbian-oriented conception, pregnancy, and parenting Facebook groups. Posts examined for comparison purposes were drawn from groups that appeared to primarily serve heterosexual women. many participants in lesbian-oriented Facebook groups sought and provided medical information. Their queries focused on the insemination process, and frequently related to posters' specific situations, while heterosexual women tended to seek general advice about the conception and pregnancy process. The accuracy of the content of responses varied, and group members seemed to view the prevalence of contradictory information as positive evidence of diverse perspectives. Even when information was technically correct, posters did not always apply it properly to the question at hand. barriers to maternity care, or a lack of education and initiative among primary care providers, may drive lesbian, bisexual, and queer women to seek health information from peers on the Internet when trying to become pregnant. These exchanges may contribute to misinformation, which may negatively affect lesbian, bisexual, and queer women's fertility outcomes and overall health. clinicians should be conscious of online health information seeking as both a symptom of and cause of sexuality-based disparities. Copyright © 2017

  6. Does self-stigma reduce the probability of seeking mental health information? (United States)

    Lannin, Daniel G; Vogel, David L; Brenner, Rachel E; Abraham, W Todd; Heath, Patrick J


    An important first step in seeking counseling may involve obtaining information about mental health concerns and treatment options. Researchers have suggested that some people may avoid such information because it is too threatening due to self-stigma and negative attitudes, but the link to actual help-seeking decisions has not been tested. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-stigma and attitudes negatively impact decisions to seek information about mental health concerns and counseling. Probit regression models with 370 undergraduates showed that self-stigma negatively predicted decisions to seek both mental health and counseling information, with attitudes toward counseling mediating self-stigma's influence on these decisions. Among individuals experiencing higher levels of distress, the predicted probabilities of seeking mental health information (8.5%) and counseling information (8.4%) for those with high self-stigma were nearly half of those with low self-stigma (17.1% and 15.0%, respectively). This suggests that self-stigma may hinder initial decisions to seek mental health and counseling information, and implies the need for the development of early interventions designed to reduce help-seeking barriers. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Oxytocin decreases cocaine taking, cocaine seeking, and locomotor activity in female rats. (United States)

    Leong, Kah-Chung; Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E; Reichel, Carmela M


    Oxytocin has been shown to decrease cocaine taking and seeking in male rats, suggesting potential treatment efficacy for drug addiction. In the present study, we extended these findings to the assessment of cocaine seeking and taking in female rats. Further, we made direct comparisons of oxytocin's impact on cocaine induced locomotor activity in both males and females. In females, systemic oxytocin (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg) attenuated lever pressing for cocaine during self-administration and oxytocin (1.0 mg/kg) attenuated cue-induced cocaine seeking following extinction. Cocaine increased baseline locomotor activity to a greater degree in females relative to males. Oxytocin (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg) reduced cocaine-induced locomotor activity in females, but not significantly in males. These data illustrate sex similarities in oxytocin's attenuation of cocaine seeking, but sex differences in cocaine-induced locomotor effects. While reductions in cocaine seeking cannot be attributed to a reduction in locomotor activity in males, attenuation of locomotor function cannot be entirely ruled out as an explanation for a decrease in cocaine seeking in females suggesting that oxytocin's effect on cocaine seeking may be mediated by different mechanisms in male and females. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success. (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc


    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear, uranium, reserves, sustainability, independence; Nucleaire, Uranium, reserves, durabilite, independance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C


    In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  10. Cocaine-seeking behavior in a genetic model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder following adolescent methylphenidate or atomoxetine treatments. (United States)

    Jordan, Chloe J; Harvey, Roxann C; Baskin, Britahny B; Dwoskin, Linda P; Kantak, Kathleen M


    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with cocaine abuse. Controversy exists regarding long-term consequences of ADHD medications on cocaine abuse liability. Whereas childhood methylphenidate treatment may be preventative, methylphenidate in teens appears to further increase later cocaine abuse risk. In rodents, adolescent methylphenidate treatment further increases adult cocaine self-administration in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD, whereas adolescent atomoxetine treatment does not. Effects of ADHD medications on cocaine cue reactivity, a critical component of addiction, are unknown. To investigate this, SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (inbred control) and Wistar (outbred control) rats received therapeutically relevant doses of methylphenidate (1.5 mg/kg, oral) and atomoxetine (0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), or respective vehicles from post-natal day 28-55. Cocaine seeking, reflecting cue reactivity, was measured in adulthood during self-administration maintenance and cue-induced reinstatement tests conducted under a second-order schedule. Compared to control strains, SHR earned more cocaine infusions, emitted more cocaine-seeking responses during maintenance and reinstatement testing, and required more sessions to reach the extinction criterion. Compared to vehicle, adolescent methylphenidate, but not atomoxetine, further increased cocaine intake during maintenance testing in SHR. Adolescent atomoxetine, but not methylphenidate, decreased cocaine seeking during reinstatement testing in SHR. Neither medication had effects on cocaine intake or cue reactivity in control strains. The SHR successfully model ADHD and cocaine abuse comorbidity and show differential effects of adolescent ADHD medications on cocaine intake and cue reactivity during adulthood. Thus, SHR have heuristic value for assessing neurobiology underlying the ADHD phenotype and for evaluating pharmacotherapeutics for ADHD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  11. Understanding help-seeking intentions in male military cadets: An application of perceptual mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bauerle Bass


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that men are less likely to seek help for depression, substance abuse, and stressful life events due to negative perceptions of asking for and receiving help. This may be exacerbated in male military cadets who exhibit higher levels of gender role conflict because of military culture. Methods This exploratory study examined the perceptions of 78 male military cadets toward help-seeking behaviors. Cadets completed the 31-item Barriers to Help Seeking Scale (BHSS and a component factor analysis was used to generate five composite variables and compare to validated factors. Perceptual mapping and vector modeling, which produce 3-dimensional models of a group’s perceptions, were then used to model how they conceptualize help-seeking. Results Factor analysis showed slightly different groupings than the BHSS, perhaps attributed to different characteristics of respondents, who are situated in a military school compared to general university males. Perceptual maps show that cadets perceive trust of doctors closest to them and help-seeking farthest, supporting the concept that these males have rigid beliefs about having control and its relationship to health seeking. Differences were seen when comparing maps of White and non-White cadets. White cadets positioned themselves far away from all variables, while non-White cadets were closest to “emotional control”. Conclusion To move these cadets toward help-seeking, vector modeling suggests that interventions should focus on their general trust of doctors, accepting lack of control, and decreasing feelings of weakness when asking for help. For non-White cadets a focus on self-reliance may also need to be emphasized. Use of these unique methods resulted in articulation of specific barriers that if addressed early, may have lasting effects on help-seeking behavior as these young men become adults. Future studies are needed to develop and test specific interventions

  12. Early diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated malaria and patterns of health seeking in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giao, Phan T.; Vries, Peter J.; Binh, Tran Q.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Kager, Piet A.


    Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria (EDTM) is a key component of malaria control. The success of EDTM depends on health seeking behaviour and the quality of the health service. This study assessed self-diagnosis, treatment and treatment delay after the introduction of EDTM in 1993. In southern

  13. Help seeking for cardiac symptoms: beyond the masculine-feminine binary. (United States)

    Galdas, Paul M; Johnson, Joy L; Percy, Myra E; Ratner, Pamela A


    Empirical and theoretical literature suggests that stereotypical gender roles shape men's and women's health help-seeking behavior, and plays an important role in the treatment seeking delays of cardiac patients. We were interested in exploring the ways in which gender informs the experiences and help-seeking behavior of men and women who experienced the symptoms associated with acute cardiac events. We undertook 20 in-depth interviews between October 2007 and July 2008 with 11 men and 9 women recently diagnosed with an acute coronary syndrome in British Columbia, Canada. Participants were encouraged to tell their 'story' of the event that led to hospitalization and diagnosis, with a focus on the symptoms and decision making processes that occurred before and during the activation of health services: seeking the advice of others including colleagues, family members and healthcare professionals; calling 911; and attending an emergency department. Although we anticipated that distinctive patterns of help-seeking behavior aligned with stereotypical masculine and feminine ideals might emerge from our data, this was not always the case. We found some evidence of the influence of gender role ideology on the help-seeking behavior of both male and female participants. However, men's and women's experiences of seeking health care were not easily parsed into distinct binary gender patterns. Behavior that might stereotypically be considered to be 'masculine' or 'feminine' gender practice was shared by both male and female participants. Our findings undermine simple binary distinctions about gendered help-seeking prevalent in the literature, and contribute towards setting the direction of the future health policy and research agenda addressing the issue of gender and health help-seeking behavior. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Youth Problems on Indian Reservations. (United States)

    Underhill, Ruth M., Ed.

    Juvenile delinquency was identified as the major problem affecting youth on Indian reservations. Causes for delinquency which were discussed included culture conflict, expectation of failure, unemployment, failure of homes and parents, discrimination, inadequate education, off-reservation schools, and alcoholism. Needs identified by tribal leaders…

  15. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve? (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico


    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  16. Interactive information seeking, behaviour and retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruthven, Ian


    Information retrieval (IR) is a complex human activity supported by sophisticated systems. This book covers the whole spectrum of information retrieval, including: history and background information; behaviour and seeking task-based information; searching and retrieval approaches to investigating information; and, evaluation interfaces for IR.

  17. Treatment Seeking of Malaria Patients in East

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antimalarial drugs from different sources before coming to l\\/lCLs, with 72% of them being from rural areas. Only 25.5% ofthe ... control program has been integrated into the general health services since .... l2 Elhiop. J. Health Dev. Table 2: Utilization of antimalarial drugs and mode of prescription before treatment seeking at.

  18. Physicians' Internet Information-Seeking Behaviors (United States)

    Bennett, Nancy L.; Casebeer, Linda L.; Kristofco, Robert E.; Strasser, Sheryl M.


    Introduction: Our understanding about the role of the Internet as a resource for physicians has improved in the past several years with reports of patterns for use and measures of impact on medical practice. The purpose of this study was to begin to shape a theory base for more fully describing physicians' information-seeking behaviors as they…

  19. Biodemographic And Health Seeking Behavior Factors Influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study findings show primarily - amongst the biodemographic and health seeking services factors, delivery-related maternal health complicacies, blindness, higher order births, twin births, lower household size and interaction effect of higher order live births and male child are significantly correlated with higher neonatal ...

  20. The interpersonal effects of Facebook reassurance seeking. (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Smith, April R; Hames, Jennifer L


    Social networking sites like Facebook represent a potentially valuable means for individuals with low self-esteem or interpersonal difficulties to connect with others; however, recent research indicates that individuals who are most in need of social benefits from Facebook may be ineffective in their communication strategies, and thereby sabotage their potential to benefit interpersonally. The current study tested whether reassurance seeking via Facebook negatively influenced self-esteem, and whether this change in self-esteem mediated the relationship between Facebook reassurance seeking and greater thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Participants completed measures online at two time-points approximately 24 days apart. Results provided evidence that Facebook reassurance seeking predicted lower levels of self-esteem, which in turn predicted increased feelings that one does not belong and that one is a burden. Key limitations to this study include our use of a predominantly young, female, Caucasian sample, a novel reassurance seeking measure, and only evaluating two time points. These results suggest that Facebook usage has the potential for negative and far-reaching influences on one's interpersonal functioning. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Information seeking and reciprocity: A transformational analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, M.; Perugini, M.


    The motivation to reciprocate is analyzed within the framework of interdependence theory, with focus on the process of transformation of situations. A model of transformation is presented for the motivation to reciprocate and hypotheses regarding allocation behavior and information seeking are

  2. Understanding cultural heritage experts’ information seeking needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Amin (Alia); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco); L. Hardman (Lynda); A. van Nispen


    htmlabstractWe report on our user study on the information seeking behavior of cultural heritage experts and the sources they use to carry out search tasks. Seventeen experts from nine cultural heritage institutes in the Netherlands were interviewed and asked to answer questionnaires about their

  3. Information Seeking in a Natural Stress Situation (United States)

    Vernon, David T. A.


    Compares hospitalized tuberculosis patients with informative and uninformative physicians as to their use of library books. Finds that the two groups did not differ in general reading, but that those with uninformative physicians tended to seek out books about tuberculosis and its treatment more often. (MB)

  4. Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Children: Whose Perspective? (United States)

    Wernesjo, Ulrika


    Recent years have seen increasing attention being paid to unaccompanied asylum-seeking children. This article provides an overview of research in the field and its implications for an understanding of these children as a particularly vulnerable category. The existing research focuses primarily on investigating the children's emotional well-being…

  5. Assertiveness Training for Job-Seeking Skills (United States)

    Ball, Patricia G.; McLoughlin, Mary Ellen


    Assertiveness Training for Job-Seeking Skills includes skill development in initiating the job search; arranging actual interviews; preparing a resume; articulating strengths, weaknesses, and career objectives; responding assertively in interviews; asking appropriate questions; accepting or rejecting job offers; confronting discrimination;…

  6. Cultural Environment, Health Seeking Behaviour and Survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural Environment, Health Seeking Behaviour and Survival Chances of under five Children in South East Nigeria. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review. Journal Home ... It was found that neonatal, infant, and child mortality rate is the highest among children of mothers aged less than 20 years.

  7. Changing Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Help. (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    Despite the increasing acceptance of the value of psychotherapy, there are still those who think people should solve their own problems. A study was conducted to investigate the attitudes of college students toward seeking professional help before and after taking a course in abnormal psychology to determine whether exposure to the purposes and…

  8. Selective Information Seeking after a Single Encounter (United States)

    Fitneva, Stanka A.; Dunfield, Kristen A.


    In 3 experiments, the authors examined whether a single act of testimony can inform children's subsequent information seeking. In Experiment 1, participants saw one informant give a correct and another informant give an incorrect answer to a question, assessed who was "right" ("wrong"), and decided to whom to address a 2nd question. Adults and…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the Mother's Health-seeking Behaviour and Childhood. Mortality in South East ... within the family in the right quantity (Federal Ministry of Health and Social Services,. 1992). The unfortunate .... foods, such as meat, chicken, and eggs, from infants for cultural reasons because of the. Ugwueje, E. A.: ...

  10. Programmatic correlates of maternal healthcare seeking behaviors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    be biased due to variations in some other factors between the exposure groups that influence maternal health seeking behaviors (for example, education, access to services, urbanization, among others). Accordingly, logistics regression models were implemented afterwards to get the unbiased (adjusted) program effects.

  11. Health seeking behaviour of infertile women in Gombe, north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parity significantly influenced health seeking behaviour with the parous more likely to delay seeking help (X2=71.457, P=0.000). Conclusion: Delay in seeking care and patronage of traditional healers and non specialist tend to procrastinate arrival to appropriate health facility. Key words: health seeking behaviour, infertility, ...

  12. Predicting Relationship Help Seeking Prior to a Marriage Checkup (United States)

    Fleming, C. J. Eubanks; Cordova, James V.


    Although the barriers to couples' help seeking can be daunting, to date there is only a small body of literature addressing the factors that motivate couples to seek help. This study examined the association between attitudes toward relationship help seeking and relationship help seeking behaviors, as well as the association between marital…

  13. Seasonality in seeking mental health information on Google. (United States)

    Ayers, John W; Althouse, Benjamin M; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Rosenquist, J Niels; Ford, Daniel E


    Population mental health surveillance is an important challenge limited by resource constraints, long time lags in data collection, and stigma. One promising approach to bridge similar gaps elsewhere has been the use of passively generated digital data. This article assesses the viability of aggregate Internet search queries for real-time monitoring of several mental health problems, specifically in regard to seasonal patterns of seeking out mental health information. All Google mental health queries were monitored in the U.S. and Australia from 2006 to 2010. Additionally, queries were subdivided among those including the terms ADHD (attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder); anxiety; bipolar; depression; anorexia or bulimia (eating disorders); OCD (obsessive-compulsive disorder); schizophrenia; and suicide. A wavelet phase analysis was used to isolate seasonal components in the trends, and based on this model, the mean search volume in winter was compared with that in summer, as performed in 2012. All mental health queries followed seasonal patterns with winter peaks and summer troughs amounting to a 14% (95% CI=11%, 16%) difference in volume for the U.S. and 11% (95% CI=7%, 15%) for Australia. These patterns also were evident for all specific subcategories of illness or problem. For instance, seasonal differences ranged from 7% (95% CI=5%, 10%) for anxiety (followed by OCD, bipolar, depression, suicide, ADHD, schizophrenia) to 37% (95% CI=31%, 44%) for eating disorder queries in the U.S. Several nonclinical motivators for query seasonality (such as media trends or academic interest) were explored and rejected. Information seeking on Google across all major mental illnesses and/or problems followed seasonal patterns similar to those found for seasonal affective disorder. These are the first data published on patterns of seasonality in information seeking encompassing all the major mental illnesses, notable also because they likely would have gone undetected using

  14. National Guard and Reserves: Air Force Needs to Consistently Assess Personnel Requirements to Appropriately Size Its Headquarters Reserve Components (United States)


    Columbia, Puerto Rico , the Virgin Islands, and Guam also have National Guard forces that can be activated for federal missions. Over the same period...the 54 Joint Force Headquarters – State, located in each state, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico , the Virgin Islands, and Guam, is comprised of... currency reviews be performed in conjunction with the biannual application of personnel assessment standards. Officials from the Office of the

  15. Health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature. (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas; Sheppard, James; de Wildt, Gilles


    Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease acquired through contact with infested freshwater. An essential component of its control is passive case finding, which, in order to be effective, requires a detailed understanding of health-seeking behaviour. This study aimed to systematically review evidence on health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis, in order to determine factors influencing use or non-use of modern health services for the infection. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies reporting on factors related to seeking treatment from modern health services for schistosomiasis were obtained, combining electronic and hand searching. Data extraction and quality assessment of the included articles were performed, with all studies qualitatively analysed using thematic synthesis. A total of 19 studies were included in the review. Six themes were identified from the analysis: biomedical knowledge on schistosomiasis, perceptions of modern treatment and health services, financial considerations of treatment, perceptions on the symptoms, stigma of the infection, and physical location and community. These findings were consistent across studies of different design, setting and quality. Many of the themes identified echo existing literature on health-seeking behaviour. The synthesis also highlighted the role of stigma, and aspects of the physical location and community that may affect treatment-seeking for schistosomiasis. Health education programmes that intend to improve the utilisation of modern health services for the infection need to acknowledge the multiple determinants influencing their use. Future research should move beyond describing health-seeking behaviour to identifying the factors that underlay such behaviour.

  16. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim


    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  17. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León


    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  18. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles


    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David


    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  19. Characterization of individuals seeking treatment for caffeine dependence. (United States)

    Juliano, Laura M; Evatt, Daniel P; Richards, Brian D; Griffiths, Roland R


    Previous investigations have identified individuals who meet criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) substance dependence as applied to caffeine, but there is little research on treatments for caffeine dependence. This study aimed to thoroughly characterize individuals who are seeking treatment for problematic caffeine use. Ninety-four individuals who identified as being psychologically or physically dependent on caffeine, or who had tried unsuccessfully to modify caffeine consumption participated in a face-to-face diagnostic clinical interview. They also completed measures concerning caffeine use and quitting history, reasons for seeking treatment, and standardized self-report measures of psychological functioning. Caffeine treatment seekers (mean age 41 years, 55% women) consumed an average of 548 mg caffeine per day. The primary source of caffeine was coffee for 50% of the sample and soft drinks for 37%. Eighty-eight percent reported prior serious attempts to modify caffeine use (mean 2.7 prior attempts), and 43% reported being advised by a medical professional to reduce or eliminate caffeine. Ninety-three percent met criteria for caffeine dependence when generic DSM-IV-TR substance dependence criteria were applied to caffeine use. The most commonly endorsed criteria were withdrawal (96%), persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to control use (89%), and use despite knowledge of physical or psychological problems caused by caffeine (87%). The most common reasons for wanting to modify caffeine use were health-related (59%) and not wanting to be dependent on caffeine (35%). This investigation reveals that there are individuals with problematic caffeine use who are seeking treatment and suggests that there is a need for effective caffeine dependence treatments. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  20. 32 CFR 728.23 - Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). (United States)


    ... observation, including participation in service-sponsored sports, recreational, and training activities. (ii... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). 728.23... Components, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, Navy and Marine Corps Officer Candidate Programs, and National...

  1. Individual differences in gene expression of vasopressin, D2 receptor, POMC and orexin: vulnerability to relapse to heroin-seeking in rats. (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Leri, Francesco; Cummins, Erin; Kreek, Mary Jeanne


    Individual vulnerability to stress-induced relapse during abstinence from chronic heroin exposure is a key feature of opiate addiction, with limited studies on this topic. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and its V1b receptor, components of the brain stress responsive systems, play a role in heroin-seeking behavior triggered by foot shock (FS) stress in rats. In this study, we tested whether individual differences in the FS-induced heroin-seeking were associated with alterations of AVP and V1b, as well as other stress responsive systems, including pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), orexin, plasma ACTH and corticosterone, as well as dopamine D2 receptor (D2) and plasma prolactin. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 3-hour intravenous heroin self-administration (SA) and then tested in extinction, and FS-induced and heroin priming-induced reinstatements. The rats that self-administered heroin were divided into high and low reinstatement responders induced by FS (H-RI; L-RI). Over SA sessions, both the H-RI and L-RI displayed similar active lever responding, heroin infusion and total heroin intake. Compared to the L-RI, however, the H-RI showed greater active lever responses during stress-induced reinstatement, with higher AVP mRNA levels in medial/basolateral amygdala and lower D2 mRNA levels in caudate putamen. However, heroin priming resulted in similar reinstatement in both groups and produced similarly low POMC and high orexin mRNA levels in hypothalamus. Our results indicate that: 1) enhanced amygdalar AVP and reduced striatal D2 expression may be related to individual vulnerability to stress-induced reinstatement of heroin- seeking; and 2) heroin abstinence-associated alterations of hypothalamic orexin and POMC expression may be involved in drug priming-induced heroin-seeking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of masculinity in men's help-seeking for depression: A systematic review. (United States)

    Seidler, Zac E; Dawes, Alexei J; Rice, Simon M; Oliffe, John L; Dhillon, Haryana M


    Conformity to traditional masculine gender norms may deter men's help-seeking and/or impact the services men engage. Despite proliferating research, current evidence has not been evaluated systematically. This review summarises findings related to the role of masculinity on men's help-seeking for depression. Six electronic databases were searched using terms related to masculinity, depression and help-seeking. Titles and abstracts were reviewed and data systematically extracted and examined for methodological quality. Of 1927 citations identified, 37 met inclusion criteria. Seventeen (46%) studies reported qualitative research; eighteen (49%) employed quantitative methods, and two (5%) mixed methods. Findings suggest conformity to traditional masculine norms has a threefold effect on men experiencing depression, impacting: i) their symptoms and expression of symptoms; ii) their attitudes to, intention, and, actual help-seeking behaviour; and, iii) their symptom management. Results demonstrate the problematic impact of conformity to traditional masculine norms on the way men experience and seek help for depression. Tailoring and targeting clinical interventions may increase men's service uptake and the efficacy of treatments. Future research examining factors associated with men's access to, and engagement with depression care will be critical to increasing help-seeking, treatment uptake, and effectual self-management among men experiencing depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Premeditation moderates the relation between sensation seeking and risky substance use among young adults. (United States)

    McCabe, Connor J; Louie, Kristine A; King, Kevin M


    Young adulthood is a peak period for externalizing behaviors such as substance abuse and antisocial conduct. Evidence from developmental neuroscience suggests that externalizing conduct within this time period may be associated with a "developmental asymmetry" characterized by an early peak in sensation seeking combined with a relatively immature impulse control system. Trait measures of impulsivity-sensation seeking and premeditation-are psychological manifestations of these respective systems, and multiple prior studies suggest that high sensation seeking and low premeditation independently confer risk for distinct forms of externalizing behaviors. The goal of the present study was to test this developmental asymmetry hypothesis, examining whether trait premeditation moderates the effect of sensation seeking on substance use and problems, aggression, and rule-breaking behavior. Using a cross-sectional sample of college-enrolled adults (n = 491), we applied zero-inflated modeling strategies to examine the likelihood and level of risky externalizing behaviors. Results indicated that lower premeditation enhanced the effect of higher sensation seeking on higher levels of positive and negative alcohol consequences, more frequent drug use, and more problematic drug use, but was unrelated to individual differences in antisocial behaviors. Our findings indicate that the developmental asymmetry between sensation seeking and a lack of premeditation is a risk factor for individual differences in problematic substance use among young adults, and may be less applicable for antisocial behaviors among high functioning individuals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Reserve Retirement Equality: Treating Reserves Fairly While Saving Taxpayer Dollars (United States)


    rata .121 For example, a Reserve who performs the equivalent of five years of active duty, will receive one-fourth the retired pay of his active duty...4,225 per month.124 But because reserve-retirement benefits are based on pro rata years of service, this officer’s years of service for retirement...purposes are 3,146 retirement points divided by 360.125 This results in 8.74 years pro rata years of service.126 His retirement benefits thus are

  5. Collaborative Information Seeking and Expertise Seeking: Different Discourses about Similar Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten


    Purpose – This study compares and contrasts research on collaborative information seeking (CIS) and expertise seeking (EXS) to identify focal themes, blind spots, and possibilities for cross-fertilization. Design/methodology/approach – Existing research was reviewed. The review consisted...... the information need is held by an individual but resolved by consulting other people. While the typical scope of EXS studies is source selection, CIS studies mostly concern the consultation of the sources and the use of the obtained information. CIS and EXS studies also attend differentially to the information-seeking...... and prevent duplication of effort. Topics for future research are identified. It should be noted that the findings are limited to the 142 studies reviewed. Originality/value – By analyzing CIS in the context of EXS, and vice versa, this study provides a fresh look at the information-seeking research...

  6. Online Cancer Information Seeking: Applying and Extending the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking. (United States)

    Van Stee, Stephanie K; Yang, Qinghua


    This study applied the comprehensive model of information seeking (CMIS) to online cancer information and extended the model by incorporating an exogenous variable: interest in online health information exchange with health providers. A nationally representative sample from the Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 4 was analyzed to examine the extended CMIS in predicting online cancer information seeking. Findings from a structural equation model supported most of the hypotheses derived from the CMIS, as well as the extension of the model related to interest in online health information exchange. In particular, socioeconomic status, beliefs, and interest in online health information exchange predicted utility. Utility, in turn, predicted online cancer information seeking, as did information-carrier characteristics. An unexpected but important finding from the study was the significant, direct relationship between cancer worry and online cancer information seeking. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  7. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.


    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  8. Peru seeking buyer for productive offshore tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru (Petroperu) is seeking a buyer for its Petromar offshore exploration and production unit. Peru's national oil company wants to sell Petromar acreage, production, and production installations on Block Z-2b for $200 million, payable at $10 million/year for 20 years, plus a share of future production. Petroperu is offering a full interest petroleum exploration and exploitation contract for 30 years for oil and as long as 40 years in the case of gas exploitation. The company seeking the smallest share of current and incremental future production to operate Block Z-2b will be awarded the acreage. Petromar's sale is the latest announced under Peru's privatization program ordered by President Alberto Jujimori

  9. Health-seeking challenges among homeless youth. (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L; Nyamathi, Adeline; Greengold, Barbara; Slagle, Alexandra; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Getzoff, Daniel


    Approximately 1.5 to 2 million homeless young persons live on the streets in the United States. With the current economic situation, research is needed on quality of services geared toward homeless young adults. The objective of this study was to explore homeless young adults' perspectives on barriers and facilitators of health-care-seeking behavior and their perspectives on improving existing programs for homeless persons. This article is a descriptive qualitative study using focus groups, with a purposeful sample of 24 homeless drug-using young adults. Identified themes were failing access to care based on perceived structural barriers (limited clinic sites, limited hours of operation, priority health conditions, and long wait times) and social barriers (perception of discrimination by uncaring professionals, law enforcement, and society in general). Results provide insight into programmatic and agency resources that facilitate health-seeking behaviors among homeless young adults and include implications for more research with providers of homeless health and social services.

  10. Health information seeking in the information society. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abir; Bawden, David


    This article is the second student contribution to the Dissertations into Practice feature. It reports on a study that investigated the everyday health information-seeking practices of a small group of the 'general public' and the implications for information-seeking theory and health information provision. The first student article, about the implementation of radio frequency identification (RFID) in a hospital library, was very different, and the two articles illustrate the broad spectrum of possible subjects for the Dissertations into Practice feature. This study was conducted in summer 2011 by Abir Mukherjee for his MSc dissertation in the Library and Information Sciences programme at City University London. Further information and copies of the full dissertation may be obtained from Abir Mukherjee or David Bawden. AM. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  11. Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shu-Jun


    Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking develops methods of mathematical analysis inspired by the interest in reverse engineering  and analysis of bacterial  convergence by chemotaxis and to apply similar stochastic optimization techniques in other environments. The first half of the text presents significant advances in stochastic averaging theory, necessitated by the fact that existing theorems are restricted to systems with linear growth, globally exponentially stable average models, vanishing stochastic perturbations, and prevent analysis over infinite time horizon. The second half of the text introduces stochastic extremum seeking algorithms for model-free optimization of systems in real time using stochastic perturbations for estimation of their gradients. Both gradient- and Newton-based algorithms are presented, offering the user the choice between the simplicity of implementation (gradient) and the ability to achieve a known, arbitrary convergence rate (Newton). The design of algorithms...

  12. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training. (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  13. Increased impulsivity retards the transition to dorsolateral striatal dopamine control of cocaine seeking. (United States)

    Murray, Jennifer E; Dilleen, Ruth; Pelloux, Yann; Economidou, Daina; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Belin, David; Everitt, Barry J


    Development of maladaptive drug-seeking habits occurs in conjunction with a ventral-to-dorsal striatal shift in dopaminergic control over behavior. Although these habits readily develop as drug use continues, high impulsivity predicts loss of control over drug seeking and taking. However, whether impulsivity facilitates the transition to dorsolateral striatum (DLS) dopamine-dependent cocaine-seeking habits or whether impulsivity and cocaine-induced intrastriatal shifts are additive processes is unknown. High- and low-impulsive rats identified in the five-choice serial reaction-time task were trained to self-administer cocaine (.25 mg/infusion) with infusions occurring in the presence of a cue-light conditioned stimulus. Dopamine transmission was blocked in the DLS after three stages of training: early, transition, and late-stage, by bilateral intracranial infusions of α-flupenthixol (0, 5, 10, or 15 μg/side) during 15-min cocaine-seeking test sessions in which each response was reinforced by a cocaine-associated conditioned stimulus presentation. In early-stage tests, neither group was affected by DLS dopamine receptor blockade. In transition-stage tests, low-impulsive rats showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in cocaine seeking, whereas high-impulsive rats were still unaffected by α-flupenthixol infusions. In the final, late-stage seeking test, both groups showed dose-dependent sensitivity to dopamine receptor blockade. The results demonstrate that high impulsivity is associated with a delayed transition to DLS-dopamine-dependent control over cocaine seeking. This suggests that, if impulsivity confers an increased propensity to addiction, it is not simply through a more rapid development of habits but instead through interacting corticostriatal and striato-striatal processes that result ultimately in maladaptive drug-seeking habits. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  14. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.


    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  15. Cultural influences on willingness to seek treatment for social anxiety in Chinese- and European-heritage students. (United States)

    Hsu, Lorena; Alden, Lynn E


    We examined culture-related influences on willingness to seek treatment for social anxiety in first- and second-generation students of Chinese heritage (Ns=65, 47, respectively), and their European-heritage counterparts (N=60). Participants completed measures that assessed their willingness to seek treatment for various levels of social anxiety. Results showed that participants were similar on willingness to seek treatment at low- and high-severity levels of social anxiety; however, at moderate levels, first-generation Chinese participants were significantly less willing to seek treatment compared to their European-heritage counterparts. The reluctance of first-generation Chinese participants to seek treatment was associated with greater Chinese-heritage acculturation, and was not related to perceiving symptoms of social anxiety as less impairing. The findings support the general contention that Asians in North America tend to delay treatment for mental health problems. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Bone seeking technetium 99M complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, N.; Camin, L.L.


    A method of making a metabolizable radioactive bone-seeking composition for intravenous administration to mammals comprises mixing a pyrophosphate with a stannous salt to form a stannous-phosphate complex, adjusting the pH of the complex to between 3 and 8, sterilizing the complex, and adding a sterile, non-pyrogenic solution of sup(99m)Tc to form a technetium-stannous-phosphate complex

  17. Income Inequality, Status Seeking, and Consumption


    Jin, Ye; Wu, Binzhen; Li, Hongbin


    Using the Chinese urban household survey data between 1997 and 2006, we find that income inequality has a negative (positive) impact on households’ consumption (savings), even after we control for family income. We argue that people save to improve their social status when social status is associated with pecuniary and non-pecuniary benefits. Rising income inequality can strengthen the incentives of status-seeking savings by increasing the benefit of improving status and enlarging the wealth ...

  18. Seeking to recognize order in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Do scientists seek material rewards? What are the changes in modern scientific work? Has the scientist a sense of responsibility to society? These questions were dealt with in a talk given at the Trieste Symposium on Contemporary Physics in June by E.P. Wigner, 1963 Nobel Laureate, one of the 'Grand Old Men' who took part in an evening series under the Title 'From a Life of Physics'. (author)

  19. Sunk costs, psychological symptomology, and help seeking


    Jarmolowicz, David P.; Bickel, Warren K.; Sofis, Michael J.; Hatz, Laura E.; Mueller, E. Terry


    Individuals often allow prior investments of time, money or effort to influence their current behavior. A tendency to allow previous investments to impact further investment, referred to as the sunk-cost fallacy, may be related to adverse psychological health. Unfortunately, little is known about the relation between the sunk-cost fallacy and psychological symptoms or help seeking. The current study used a relatively novel approach (i.e., Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing [AMT] servi...

  20. Circadian typology and sensation seeking in adolescents. (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana


    The relationship of circadian typology with personality has been largely studied in adults, but there are few studies exploring such relationship in adolescents. Adolescence has been associated with a greater tendency to eveningness preference, sleeping problems, poorer academic achievement, earlier substance use, or risky behaviors, and it is suggested that this association might be mediated by personality factors. Given the relevance of identifying the behavioral outcomes of young evening types to detect and prevent health problems, the present study aimed to explore, for the first time, the relationship between sensation seeking and circadian typology in an adolescent sample of 688 students (51.45% boys) from 12 to 16 yrs old. They answered the Spanish versions of the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC) and the Junior Sensation Seeking Scale (J-SSS), which includes four subscales measuring Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Experience Seeking, Disinhibition, and Boredom Susceptibility. Analyses showed that boys obtained significantly higher scores than girls on J-SSS total score and all subscales except Boredom Susceptibility, whereas evening-type adolescents of both sexes scored significantly higher than neither types and than morning types on J-SSS total score. These results indicate that evening-type adolescents show a greater desire for varied, new, complex, and intense sensations, and they are ready for experiencing more risks than morning types. The implications of this study suggest the need of being aware of individual differences in the SS trait in evening-type adolescents, as well as taking into account the wide variety of behaviors associated with it, either prosocial or antisocial, to design better preventive health and academic programs.

  1. Lateral Habenula Involvement in Impulsive Cocaine Seeking. (United States)

    Zapata, Agustin; Hwang, Eun-Kyung; Lupica, Carl R


    The lateral habenula (LHb) is a brain structure receiving inputs from limbic forebrain areas and innervating major midbrain monoaminergic nuclei. Evidence indicates LHb involvement in sleep control, reward-based decision making, avoidance of punishment, and responses to stress. Additional work has established that the LHb mediates negative feedback in response to aversive events. As a hallmark of drug addiction is the inability to limit drug use despite negative consequences, we hypothesize that LHb dysfunction may have a role in the lack of control over drug seeking. Here we examine the effects of LHb inactivation in control over drug seeking in several cocaine self-administration (SA) paradigms in rats. We find that inhibition of the LHb with GABAergic agonists did not alter cocaine SA under progressive ratio or seeking/taking chained reinforcement schedules, or during punishment-induced suppression of cocaine-reinforced responding. In contrast, LHb inhibition increased cocaine seeking when the drug was not available in rats trained to discriminate its presence using an environmental cue. This effect of LHb inhibition was selective for cocaine, as it did not impair responding for sucrose reinforcement. The effect of LHb injection of GABA agonists was mimicked by intra-LHb muscarinic cholinergic (mACh) antagonist injection, and activation of mACh receptors excited a majority of LHb neurons in in vitro electrophysiology experiments. These results indicate that the LHb participates in the suppression of impulsive responding for cocaine through the activation of a cholinergic circuit, and they suggest that LHb dysfunction may contribute to impaired impulse control associated with drug addiction.

  2. Information Seeking Behaviours on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Özenç Uçak


    Full Text Available Although the Internet has a rich content in terms of information, users are in trouble while making search on the Internet. In this study we focused on not only studies in the literature about information seeking behaviour on the Internet but also Internet users which have different features and usage patterns. In addition to this the importance of user-system interaction, common user errors and the importance of user education for reducing these errors.

  3. Information Seeking Behaviours on the Internet


    Nazan Özenç Uçak; Umut Al


    Although the Internet has a rich content in terms of information, users are in trouble while making search on the Internet. In this study we focused on not only studies in the literature about information seeking behaviour on the Internet but also Internet users which have different features and usage patterns. In addition to this the importance of user-system interaction, common user errors and the importance of user education for reducing these errors.

  4. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment


    Lin Hung-Yen; Huang Chih-Kun; Tai Chi-Ming; Lin Hung-Yu; Kao Yu-Hsi; Tsai Ching-Chung; Hsuan Chin-Feng; Lee Su-Long; Chi Shu-Ching; Yen Yung-Chieh


    Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were re...

  5. Cerebral correlates of cognitive reserve. (United States)

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Staff, Roger T; Fox, Helen C; Murray, Alison D


    Cognitive reserve is a hypothetical concept introduced to explain discrepancies between severity of clinical dementia syndromes and the extent of dementia pathology. We examined cognitive reserve in a research programme that followed up a non-clinical sample born in 1921 or 1936 and IQ-tested age 11 years in 1932 or 1947. Structural MRI exams were acquired in about 50% of the sample from whom a subsample were recruited into an additional fMRI study. Here, we summarise findings from seven inter-related studies. These support an understanding of cognitive reserve as a balance between positive life course activity-driven experiences and the negative effects of brain pathologies including cerebrovascular disease and total and regional brain volume loss. Hypothesised structural equation models illustrate the relative causal effects of these positive and negative contributions. Cognitive reserve is considered in the context of choice of interventions to prevent dementia and the opposing effects of cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer like brain appearances. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))


    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  7. Seeking health care through international medical tourism. (United States)

    Eissler, Lee Ann; Casken, John


    The purpose of this study was the exploration of international travel experiences for the purpose of medical or dental care from the perspective of patients from Alaska and to develop insight and understanding of the essence of the phenomenon of medical tourism. The study is conceptually oriented within a model of health-seeking behavior. Using a qualitative design, 15 Alaska medical tourists were individually interviewed. The data were analyzed using a hermeneutic process of inquiry to uncover the meaning of the experience. Six themes reflecting the experiences of Alaska medical tourists emerged: "my motivation," "I did the research," "the medical care I need," "follow-up care," "the advice I give," and "in the future." Subthemes further categorized data for increased understanding of the phenomenon. The thematic analysis provides insight into the experience and reflects a modern approach to health-seeking behavior through international medical tourism. The results of this study provide increased understanding of the experience of obtaining health care internationally from the patient perspective. Improved understanding of medical tourism provides additional information about a contemporary approach to health-seeking behavior. Results of this study will aid nursing professionals in counseling regarding medical tourism options and providing follow-up health care after medical tourism. Nurses will be able to actively participate in global health policy discussions regarding medical tourism trends. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  8. Consumer health information seeking as hypothesis testing. (United States)

    Keselman, Alla; Browne, Allen C; Kaufman, David R


    Despite the proliferation of consumer health sites, lay individuals often experience difficulty finding health information online. The present study attempts to understand users' information seeking difficulties by drawing on a hypothesis testing explanatory framework. It also addresses the role of user competencies and their interaction with internet resources. Twenty participants were interviewed about their understanding of a hypothetical scenario about a family member suffering from stable angina and then searched MedlinePlus consumer health information portal for information on the problem presented in the scenario. Participants' understanding of heart disease was analyzed via semantic analysis. Thematic coding was used to describe information seeking trajectories in terms of three key strategies: verification of the primary hypothesis, narrowing search within the general hypothesis area and bottom-up search. Compared to an expert model, participants' understanding of heart disease involved different key concepts, which were also differently grouped and defined. This understanding provided the framework for search-guiding hypotheses and results interpretation. Incorrect or imprecise domain knowledge led individuals to search for information on irrelevant sites, often seeking out data to confirm their incorrect initial hypotheses. Online search skills enhanced search efficiency, but did not eliminate these difficulties. Regardless of their web experience and general search skills, lay individuals may experience difficulty with health information searches. These difficulties may be related to formulating and evaluating hypotheses that are rooted in their domain knowledge. Informatics can provide support at the levels of health information portals, individual websites, and consumer education tools.

  9. Healthcare seeking behaviour among Chinese elderly. (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Wei; Xu, Ling; Li, Zhenhong; Ding, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Fei


    Purpose The Chinese population is rapidly ageing before they are rich. The purpose of this paper is to describe healthcare seeking behaviour and the critical factors associated with healthcare seeking behaviour. Design/methodology/approach Using a purposive sampling method, the authors recruited 44 adults aged 60 years or older from three provinces, representing the developed (Shanghai), undeveloped (Ningxia) regions and the regions in between (Hubei). From July to September 2008, using a semi-structured guide, the authors interviewed participants in focus group discussions. Findings The healthcare needs for chronic and catastrophic diseases were high; however, the healthcare demands were low and healthcare utilizations were even lower owing to the limited accessibility to healthcare services, particularly, in underdeveloped rural areas. "Too expensive to see a doctor" was a prime complaint, explaining substantial discrepancies between healthcare needs, demands and use. Care seeking behaviour varied depending on insurance availability, perceived performance, particularly hospital services, and prescription medications. Participants consistently rated increasing healthcare accessibility as a high priority, including offering financial aid, and improving service convenience. Improving social security fairness was the first on the elderly's wish list. Originality/value Healthcare demand and use were lower than needs, and were influenced by multiple factors, primarily, service affordability and efficiency, perceived performance and hospital service quality.

  10. Sunk costs, psychological symptomology, and help seeking. (United States)

    Jarmolowicz, David P; Bickel, Warren K; Sofis, Michael J; Hatz, Laura E; Mueller, E Terry


    Individuals often allow prior investments of time, money or effort to influence their current behavior. A tendency to allow previous investments to impact further investment, referred to as the sunk-cost fallacy, may be related to adverse psychological health. Unfortunately, little is known about the relation between the sunk-cost fallacy and psychological symptoms or help seeking. The current study used a relatively novel approach (i.e.,'s Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing [AMT] service) to examine various aspects of psychological health in internet users (n = 1053) that did and did not commit the sunk-cost fallacy. In this observational study, individuals logged on to AMT, selected the "decision making survey" amongst the array of currently available tasks, and completed the approximately 200-question survey (which included a two-trial sunk cost task, the brief symptom inventory 18, the Binge Eating Scale, portions of the SF-8 health survey, and other questions about treatment utilization). Individuals that committed the fallacy reported a greater number of symptoms related to Binge Eating Disorder and Depression, being bothered more by emotional problems, yet waited longer to seek assistance when feeling ill. The current findings are discussed in relation to promoting help-seeking behavior amongst individuals that commit this logical fallacy.

  11. Insomnia patients' help-seeking experiences. (United States)

    Cheung, Janet M Y; Bartlett, Delwyn J; Armour, Carol L; Glozier, Nicholas; Saini, Bandana


    Timely access to appropriate treatment is important for optimizing insomnia management. To date, little is known about insomnia patients' treatment experiences or how they access and engage with the available health care resources. This study sought to capture the help-seeking experiences and behavioral patterns of patients with insomnia who are seeking or receiving specialist care. A purposive sample of 26 insomnia patients from specialist sleep and mental health clinics located in metropolitan New South Wales, Australia was recruited. Participants completed a brief questionnaire, followed by an in-depth, semi-structured interview. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using framework analysis. Three key themes emerged from the data: patients' sleep beliefs, treatment beliefs, and accessing specialized care. The findings show that daytime symptoms arising from insomnia serve as important illness cues for patients to seek medical help. In addition, participants' treatment pathways highlight factors that prevent the widespread use of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), including limited awareness about CBT-I, tentative referral mechanisms, limited service providers, and the high cost of CBT-I.

  12. Information-seeking behaviors of podiatric physicians. (United States)

    Perzeski, Donna M


    The goal of this study was to evaluate the information-seeking behaviors of podiatric physicians as they search for answers to clinical questions that arise during patient care visits. Invitations to participate in an Internet survey were e-mailed to alumni of the Ohio College of Podiatric Medicine (now Kent State University College of Podiatric Medicine [KSUCPM]). Twenty-nine questions surveyed the types and frequency of information that podiatric physicians need during patient care visits, which information resources are used by podiatric physicians, and which barriers podiatric physicians encounter when seeking information in general. With 143 completed surveys, results of this study indicate a preference for searching the Internet over using colleagues and print literature. The most common need is for drug information, and common barriers include lack of time and cost of accessing information. Results are similar to those for physicians and other health-care providers seeking information. Podiatrists recognize the need to become proficient at locating high-quality information, evaluating resources, and improving their understanding and use of resources on evidence-based medicine. Furthermore, with an increased awareness of their own behaviors, practicing podiatric physicians should pursue the best methods to find, judge, and use medical information for patient care.

  13. A UML-integrated test description language for component testing


    Pickin, Simon; Jard, Claude; Heuillard, Thierry; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc; Desfray, Philippe


    International audience; A mass market in reusable components demands a high level of component quality, testing being a crucial part of software quality assurance. For components modelled in UML there are significant advantages to using UML also for the test description language. Since we wish to describe tests of non-trivial temporal ordering properties, we define our test description language based around UML interaction diagrams, seeking inspiration from the work on conformance testing of ...

  14. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  15. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  16. Reserve Component Manpower Readiness and Mobilization Policy. Volume 2. Based on the Colloquium on Mobilization with Special Emphasis on Guard and Reserve Components, 1-4 November 1983 (United States)


    make arrangements with hotels or motels to support the large influx, especially in the absence of a national emerger.ey auch as the Presidential 100K...experienced in the past decades, and more especially during the Vietnam timeframe, has begun to « bate somewhat but the direct cost of retired individuals

  17. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael


    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  18. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account (United States)


    .... The commentators represented Rural Development employees who work with the Multi-Family Housing Direct... their annual over-inflated tax bills and assessments. As a result, rent income funding that could be..., as rents cannot be raised to an amount that will cover all current and future reserve expenses...

  19. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  20. Exploration of a novel object in late adolescence predicts novelty-seeking behavior in adulthood: Associations among behavioral responses in four novelty-seeking tests. (United States)

    Cuenya, Lucas; Sabariego, Marta; Donaire, Rocío; Callejas-Aguilera, José Enrique; Torres, Carmen; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto


    The sensation/novelty seeking behavioral trait refers to the exploration/preference for a novel environment. Novelty seeking increases during late adolescence and it has been associated with several neurobehavioral disorders. In this experiment, we asked whether inbred Roman high- and low-avoidance (RHA-I, RLA-I) rats (1) differ in novelty seeking in late adolescence and (2) whether late adolescent novelty seeking predicts this trait in adulthood. Thirty six male RHA-I and 36 RLA-I rats were exposed to a novel object exploration (NOE) test during late adolescence (pnd: 52-59; contact latency, contact time, contact frequency). Head-dipping (hole-board, HB), time and visits to a novel-arm (Y-maze), and latency-in and emergence latency (emergence test) were registered in adulthood (pnd: 83-105). The results showed strain differences in all these tests (RHA-I>RLA-I). Factor analysis (RHA-I+RLA-I) revealed two clusters. The first one grouped HB and emergence test measures. The second one grouped NOE and Y-maze variables. Time exploring a novel object (NOE) was a significant predictor of novel arm time (RHA-I+RLA, RHA-I); contact latency was a significant predictor of novel arm frequency (RLA-I). Present results show consistent behavioral associations across four novelty-seeking tests and suggest that late adolescent novelty seeking predicts this genetically-influenced temperamental trait in adult Roman rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Help-seeking intentions among Asian American and White American students in psychological distress: Application of the health belief model. (United States)

    Kim, Jin E; Zane, Nolan


    Underutilization of needed mental health services continues to be the major mental health disparity affecting Asian Americans (Sue, Cheng, Saad, & Chu, 2012). The goal of this study was to apply a social psychological theoretical framework-the health belief model (Rosenstock, 1966)-to understand potential reasons why Asian Americans underutilize mental health services relative to White Americans. Using a cross-sectional online questionnaire, this study examined how perceived severity of symptoms, perceived susceptibility to mental health problems, perceived benefits of treatment, and perceived barriers to treatment influenced intentions to seek help among a sample of 395 Asian American and 261 White American students experiencing elevated levels of psychological distress. Analyses using structural equation modeling indicated that Asian Americans in distress had relatively lower intentions to seek help compared with White Americans. Perceived benefits partially accounted for differences in help-seeking intentions. Although Asian Americans perceived greater barriers to help seeking than did White Americans, this did not significantly explain racial/ethnic differences in help-seeking intentions. Perceived severity and barriers were related to help-seeking intentions in both groups. Outreach efforts that particularly emphasize the benefits of seeking mental health services may be a particularly promising approach to address underutilization. The findings have implications in help-seeking promotion and outreach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. [Determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention: information-seeking on the Internet]. (United States)

    Arai, Takashi; Fuji, Kei; Yoshida, Fujio


    This study explores determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention on the Internet, including how it was influenced by personal conversations with others. An analysis of a web survey of mothers (N = 1,040) of 3-12 years old children in Japan indicated that many mothers briefly saw basic information about crime on the Internet, while only a few mothers sought further details. Structural equation modeling indicated the following results. Overall, an increased frequency of conversations about children's safety with family and friends made mothers realize their own responsibility for crime prevention. It also encouraged mothers to seek more information about crime prevention by increasing their willingness to cooperate with neighbors. However, when individuals' realization of responsibility for crime prevention strengthened their attitudes toward the responsibility of the police and government for crime problems, then these attitudes decreased mothers' information-seeking. Finally, while a heightened frequency of conversations about news contents directly increased information-seeking about crime, such conversations could indirectly weaken mothers' information-seeking when mothers emphasized the responsibility of the police and government.

  3. Rent-seeking behaviors in property development: A literature review (United States)

    Ali, Suhaila; Aziz, Abdul Rashid Abdul


    This paper reviews the literature on rent-seeking behaviors in property development, and discusses three major areas: (1) definition and concept of rent-seeking; (2) factors for the rent-seeking behavior appeared; and (3) the impact of rent-seeking behaviors, particularly on property development. In general, there is no exact word that can define what rent-seeking is. It is found that from the reviewed studies that a few researches have adopted search tasks to predict rent-seeking behavior effects in the economy and the respective economic performance. Based on the findings of the review, rent-seeking behavior increases social cost and this might lead to problems such as corruption. This paper paves the way for future studies in examining rent-seeking behaviors in the Malaysian property development, especially for targeted actions to be taken to alleviate upward pressure on home prices.

  4. Evaluating information-seeking approaches to metacognition (United States)

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Foote, Allison L.


    Metacognition has been divided into information monitoring and control processes. Monitoring involves knowing that you know or do not know some information without taking corrective action. Control involves taking corrective action based on the knowledge that you know or do not know some information. In comparative metacognition, considerable attention has been paid toward critically assessing putative evidence for information monitoring in non-human animals. However, less attention has been paid toward critically evaluating evidence for control processes in animals. We briefly review a critique of information-monitoring in animals. Next, we apply these concepts to a number of studies that focus on information seeking in animals. The main type of evidence for control processes in animals come from tube tipping experiments. Before having the opportunity to search for the bait in these experiments, the subject sometimes observes opaque tubes being baited but is sometimes prevented from seeing the baiting. The observations that the subjects look more if baiting was not seen and are more accurate if baiting was seen have been taken as evidence for metacognition in information-seeking experiments. We propose simple alternative hypotheses that are sufficient to explain putative evidence for information seeking in animals without positing metacognition. The alternative explanation focuses on two relatively simple principles: First, an animal has a default "look before you go" response which supersedes random searches in space. Second, spatially guided behavior follows a default rule of "go where something good is." These principles can explain the results of tube tipping experiments without proposing metacognition. PMID:26779256

  5. Sensation Seeking and Adaptation in Parabonauts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Collado


    Full Text Available Evidence from extreme environments suggests that there are relationships between difficulties of adaptation and psychological factors such as personality. In the framework of microgravity research on humans, the aim of this exploratory study was to investigate inter-individual differences of parabonauts on the basis of quality of adaptation to the physical demands of parabolic flights. The personality characteristics of two groups of parabonauts with a different quality of adaptation (an Adaptive group, N = 7, and a Maladaptive group, N = 15 were assessed using the Sensation Seeking Scale, Brief COPE, and MSSQ-Short. Compared to the Maladaptive group, the individuals of the Adaptive group scored higher on Boredom Susceptibility (i.e., a subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale, lower on scales of susceptibility to motion sickness (MSSQ-Short and tended to score lower on Instrumental Support Seeking (i.e., a subscale of the Brief COPE. These results suggest that individuals of the Adaptive group are more intolerant to monotony, present an aversion to repetitive and routine activities, are less susceptible to motion sickness and less dependent on problem-focused strategies. These characteristics may have contributed to developing a certain degree of flexibility in these subjects when faced with the parabolic flight situation and thus, may have favored them. The identification of differences of personality characteristics between individuals who have expressed difficulties of adaptation from those who have adapted successfully could help to prevent the risk of maladaptation and improve the well-being of (future commercial or occupational aerospace passengers. More generally, these results could be extended to extreme environments and professional and/or sports domains likely to involve risk taking and unusual situations.

  6. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.


    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  7. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.


    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  8. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.


    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  9. Indian Reserves: Canada's Developing Nations


    Musto, Richard J.


    Indian reserves are the most visible reminder of the separation of aboriginal people from the rest of Canada and other Canadians. Illness patterns and social conditions in Native communities closely parallel those in developing nations. While they continue to have a large burden of infectious diseases, these groups also have an increased incidence of chronic and lifestyle diseases as well as environment-related conditions. Similarities can be seen in urban areas between immigrants from abroad...

  10. Supportive school climate and student willingness to seek help for bullying and threats of violence. (United States)

    Eliot, Megan; Cornell, Dewey; Gregory, Anne; Fan, Xitao


    This study investigated the relations between student perceptions of support and student willingness to seek help for bullying and threats of violence in a sample of 7318 ninth-grade students from 291 high schools who participated in the Virginia High School Safety Study. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that students who perceived their teachers and other school staff to be supportive were more likely to endorse positive attitudes toward seeking help for bullying and threats of violence. In schools with more perceived support, there was less of a discrepancy in help-seeking attitudes between girls and boys. Findings suggest that efforts by school staff to provide a supportive climate are a potentially valuable strategy for engaging students in the prevention of bullying and threats of violence. Copyright © 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of help-seeking in a blended high school Biology class (United States)

    Deguzman, Paolo

    Distance learning provides an opportunity for students to learn valuable information through technology and interactive media. Distance learning additionally offers educational institutions the flexibility of synchronous and asynchronous instruction while increasing enrollment and lowering cost. However, distance education has not been well documented within the context of urban high schools. Distance learning may allow high school students to understand material at an individualized pace for either enrichment or remediation. A successful high school student who participates in distance learning should exhibit high self regulatory skills. However, most urban high school students have not been exposed to distance learning and should be introduced to proper self regulatory strategies that should increase the likelihood of understanding the material. To help facilitate a move into distance learning, a blended distance learning model, the combination of distance learning and traditional learning, will be used. According to O'Neil's (in preparation) revised problem solving model, self regulation is a component of problem solving. Within the Blended Biology course, urban high school students will be trained in help-seeking strategies to further their understanding of genetics and Punnett Square problem solving. This study investigated the effects of help-seeking in a blended high school Biology course. The main study consisted of a help-seeking group (n=55) and a control group (n=53). Both the help-seeking group and the control group were taught by one teacher for two weeks. The help-seeking group had access to Blended Biology with Help-Seeking while the control group only had access to Blended Biology. The main study used a pretest and posttest to measure Genetics Content Understanding, Punnett Square Problem Solving, Adaptive Help-Seeking, Maladaptive Help-Seeking, and Self Regulation. The analysis showed no significant difference in any of the measures in terms of

  12. Collaborative Epistemic Discourse in Classroom Information-Seeking Tasks (United States)

    Knight, Simon; Mercer, Neil


    The authors discuss the relationship between information seeking and epistemic beliefs--beliefs about the source, structure, complexity and stability of knowledge--in the context of collaborative information-seeking discourses. They further suggest that both information seeking, and epistemic cognition research agendas, have suffered from a lack…

  13. Facilitators and barriers in treatment seeking for cannabis dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J.; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet


    Relatively few cannabis dependent people seek treatment and little is known about determinants of treatment seeking. Treatment determinants were compared among 70 DSM-IV cannabis dependent patients and 241 non-treatment seeking DSM-IV cannabis dependent community subjects. In addition, perceived

  14. Facilitators and barriers in treatment seeking for cannabis dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, P.; Liebregts, N.; de Graaf, R.; Korf, D.J.; van den Brink, W.; van Laar, M.


    Background Relatively few cannabis dependent people seek treatment and little is known about determinants of treatment seeking. Methods Treatment determinants were compared among 70 DSM-IV cannabis dependent patients and 241 non-treatment seeking DSM-IV cannabis dependent community subjects. In

  15. Stigma as a barrier to seeking health care among military personnel with mental health problems. (United States)

    Sharp, Marie-Louise; Fear, Nicola T; Rona, Roberto J; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil; Jones, Norman; Goodwin, Laura


    Approximately 60% of military personnel who experience mental health problems do not seek help, yet many of them could benefit from professional treatment. Across military studies, one of the most frequently reported barriers to help-seeking for mental health problems is concerns about stigma. It is, however, less clear how stigma influences mental health service utilization. This review will synthesize existing research on stigma, focusing on those in the military with mental health problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies between 2001 and 2014 to examine the prevalence of stigma for seeking help for a mental health problem and its association with help-seeking intentions/mental health service utilization. Twenty papers met the search criteria. Weighted prevalence estimates for the 2 most endorsed stigma concerns were 44.2% (95% confidence interval: 37.1, 51.4) for "My unit leadership might treat me differently" and 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 36.8, 49.0) for "I would be seen as weak." Nine studies found no association between anticipated stigma and help-seeking intentions/mental health service use and 4 studies found a positive association. One study found a negative association between self-stigma and intentions to seek help. Counterintuitively, those that endorsed high anticipated stigma still utilized mental health services or were interested in seeking help. We propose that these findings may be related to intention-behavior gaps or methodological issues in the measurement of stigma. Positive associations may be influenced by modified labeling theory. Additionally, other factors such as self-stigma and negative attitudes toward mental health care may be worth further attention in future investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Health-seeking behaviour in Pakistan: a narrative review of the existing literature. (United States)

    Anwar, M; Green, J; Norris, P


    This narrative review was carried out to collate the work of researchers on health-seeking behaviour in Pakistan, to discuss the methods used, highlight the emerging themes and identify areas that have yet to be studied. Review. An overview of studies on health-seeking behaviour in Pakistan, found via searches on scholarly databases intended to locate material of medical and anthropological relevance. In total, 29 articles were reviewed with a range of different methodologies. A retrospective approach was the most common. A variety of medical conditions have been studied in terms of health-seeking behaviour of people experiencing such conditions. However, a wide range of chronic illnesses have yet to be studied. Nevertheless, some studies highlighting unusual issues such as snake bites and health-seeking behaviour of street children were also found. In terms of geographical area, the majority of studies reviewed were performed in the provinces of Sind and Punjab, with little research targeting the people from the two other provinces (Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) of Pakistan. Predominant utilization of private healthcare facilities, self-medication, involvement of traditional healers in the healthcare system, women's autonomy, and superstitions and fallacies associated with health-seeking behaviour were found to be the themes that repeatedly emerged in the literature reviewed. The sociocultural and religious background of Pakistan means that health-seeking behaviour resembles a mosaic. There is a need to improve the quality of service provided by the public healthcare sector and the recruitment of female staff. Traditional healers should be trained and integrated into the mainstream to provide adequate healthcare. Serious efforts are required to increase the awareness and educational level of the public, especially women in rural areas, in order to fight against myths and superstitions associated with health-seeking behaviour. Copyright © 2012 The Royal

  17. Mitigating component performance variation (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.


    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  18. Variability and component composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Storm (Tijs)


    textabstractIn component-based product populations, feature models have to be described at the component level to be able to benefit from a product family approach. As a consequence, composition of components becomes very complex. We describe how component-level variability can be managed in the

  19. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hung-Yen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Results Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. Conclusion A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.

  20. Memory Complaints Associated with Seeking Clinical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pires


    Full Text Available Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment relies on the presence of memory complaints. However, memory complaints are very frequent in healthy people. The objective of this study was to determine the severity and type of memory difficulties presented by elderly patients who seek for clinical help, as compared to the memory difficulties reported by subjects in the community. Assessment of subjective memory complaints was done with the subjective memory complaints scale (SMC. The mini-mental state examination was used for general cognitive evaluation and the geriatric depression scale for the assessment of depressive symptoms. Eight-hundred and seventy-one nondemented subjects older than 50 years were included. Participants in the clinical setting had a higher total SMC score (10.3±4.2 than those in the community (5.1±3.0. Item 3 of the SMC, Do you ever forget names of family members or friends? contributed significantly more to the variance of the total SMC score in the clinical sample (18% as compared to the community sample (11%. Forgetting names of family members or friends plays an important role in subjective memory complaints in the clinical setting. This symptom is possibly perceived as particularly worrisome and likely drives people to seek for clinical help.

  1. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment. (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yen; Huang, Chih-Kun; Tai, Chi-Ming; Lin, Hung-Yu; Kao, Yu-Hsi; Tsai, Ching-Chung; Hsuan, Chin-Feng; Lee, Su-Long; Chi, Shu-Ching; Yen, Yung-Chieh


    Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.

  2. Memory Complaints Associated with Seeking Clinical Care (United States)

    Pires, Carolina; Silva, Dina; Maroco, João; Ginó, Sandra; Mendes, Tiago; Schmand, Ben A.; Guerreiro, Manuela; de Mendonça, Alexandre


    Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment relies on the presence of memory complaints. However, memory complaints are very frequent in healthy people. The objective of this study was to determine the severity and type of memory difficulties presented by elderly patients who seek for clinical help, as compared to the memory difficulties reported by subjects in the community. Assessment of subjective memory complaints was done with the subjective memory complaints scale (SMC). The mini-mental state examination was used for general cognitive evaluation and the geriatric depression scale for the assessment of depressive symptoms. Eight-hundred and seventy-one nondemented subjects older than 50 years were included. Participants in the clinical setting had a higher total SMC score (10.3 ± 4.2) than those in the community (5.1 ± 3.0). Item 3 of the SMC, Do you ever forget names of family members or friends? contributed significantly more to the variance of the total SMC score in the clinical sample (18%) as compared to the community sample (11%). Forgetting names of family members or friends plays an important role in subjective memory complaints in the clinical setting. This symptom is possibly perceived as particularly worrisome and likely drives people to seek for clinical help. PMID:22536537

  3. Moderated path analysis of the relationships between masculinity and men's attitudes toward seeking psychological help. (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Rankin, Thomas J; Halter, Margaret J; Mellinger, Chris; Williams, Christine M


    This study tested a theoretical model of one mediator and 4 moderators of the relationships between 2 masculinity variables (Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Gender Role Conflict) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services (Attitudes). Self-stigma was the hypothesized mediator, and the hypothesized moderators were (a) Depression, (b) General Self-efficacy, (c) Precontemplation, and (d) Barriers to Help-seeking. A sample of 654 men responded to an online survey of 9 questionnaires. After evaluating mediation in the absence of moderation, moderated path analyses were conducted for each moderator. The relationship between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes was partially mediated by Self-stigma, whereas that between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes was completely mediated. No indirect or direct paths involving Gender Role Conflict were moderated by any moderators. Both Depression and Barriers to Help-seeking demonstrated mediated moderation by moderating both Stage 1 (the path from Traditional Masculinity Ideology to Self-stigma) of the mediated relationships and the direct effects between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. Precontemplation moderated the direct effect between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. The findings suggest that the relationships between masculinity variables and men's negative help-seeking attitudes may be better understood through their relationships with other variables that serve as mediators and moderators. Findings from the present study may offer some direction in the design of interventions to remediate men's negative help-seeking attitudes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Medication information seeking behavior of patients who use multiple medicines: how does it affect adherence? (United States)

    Carter, Stephen R; Moles, Rebekah; White, Lesley; Chen, Timothy F


    This article explores medication information seeking behavior (MISB). We aimed to develop a scale for measuring MISB and use it to explore the relationships between MISB, adherence and factors, which drive information seeking. Patients (N=910) using multiple medicines completed questionnaires. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Correlations and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the relationships between variables. Respondents sought medication information mainly from health professionals and written medicines information. The medication information seeking behavior scale (MISB) had acceptable reliability and validity. Information seeking was most intense among respondents who had recent changes in their medicine regimen and worries about their medicines. Those who sought medication information from autonomous sources were more likely to be non-adherent than those who never did (OR=2.00 [1.48, 2.70]). Seeking information from health professionals had no influence on adherence. Health practitioners should carefully attend to patients' questions about medicines information. When patients mention that they are worried about their medicines and have sought medication information from television, magazines, brochures or family and friends, this could be a sign that they tend towards non-adherent behavior. The MISB scale could be used to learn more about patients' use of medication information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship of perceived campus culture to mental health help-seeking intentions. (United States)

    Chen, Jason I; Romero, Gabriela D; Karver, Marc S


    Despite mental health issues being widespread on college campuses, the majority of college students do not seek help. Prior research suggests several individual factors that may be related to mental health help-seeking including age, gender, and prior treatment experience. However, there has been little work considering the broader role of the college environment on person-level predictors of mental health help-seeking, specifically the relationship with perceived campus culture. Thus, informed by the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991), the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived campus cultural perspectives on different personal processes, such as attitudes toward treatment, stigma, and treatment barriers that are believed to relate to mental health help-seeking intentions. Participants were 212 undergraduate students from a large university in the southeastern United States. As hypothesized, we found a significant mediation relationship for personal attitudes in the relationship between perceived campus attitudes and help-seeking intentions. In contrast, analyses did not support mediation relationships for personal barriers or personal stigma. These findings suggest that perceived campus culture may serve an important role in personal mental health treatment beliefs. Campus mental health policies and prevention programming may consider targeting perceived campus culture as an important means for increasing personal positive beliefs toward mental health treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Sexual orientation and treatment-seeking for depression in a multilingual worldwide sample. (United States)

    Rutter, Tara M; Flentje, Annesa; Dilley, James W; Barakat, Suzanne; Liu, Nancy H; Gross, Margaret S; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Leykin, Yan


    Prior research has found higher rates of mental health problems among sexual minority individuals. We examine treatment-seeking for depression, as well as its relationship with sexual orientation, in a large, multilingual, international sample. Participants in an automated, quintilingual internet-based depression screening tool were screened for depression, and completed several background measures, including sexual orientation (with an option to decline to state) and past and current depression treatment seeking. 3695 participants screened positive for current or past depression and responded to the sexual orientation question. Those who declined to state their sexual orientation were far less likely to seek any treatment than individuals endorsing any orientation; they were especially unlikely to seek psychotherapy. Individuals identifying as bisexual sought both psychotherapy and alternative treatments at a higher rate than other groups. An interaction was observed between sexual orientation and gender, such that lesbian women were especially likely to have used psychotherapy. Other variables that emerged as significant predictors of treatment-seeking for depression included age and participant's language. Limitations include possible misinterpretation of translated terms due to regional differences, and possible limits to generalizability due to this study being conducted on the internet. Our results suggest that individuals who decline to state their sexual orientation may be more likely to forgo effective treatments for depression. Further studies of depression service utilization should focus on developing treatment modalities that could better engage sexual minority individuals, especially those who are reluctant to disclose their orientation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the significance of health information seeking in chronic condition management. (United States)

    Dean, Caress A; Geneus, Christian J; Rice, Shahida; Johns, Marquisha; Quasie-Woode, Delores; Broom, Kevin; Elder, Keith


    To examine the relationship between health information seeking and confidence in performing self-management activities, and to assess the influence of predisposing, enabling, and perceive need factors on confidence to perform self-management activities among adults with chronic conditions. The sample included 6724 adults from the 2007 Health Tracking Household Survey who were ≥18 years with a chronic condition. Binary logistic regression examined the relationship between health information seeking, predisposing, enabling, and perceive need factors and confidence in performing three self-management activities; prevent symptoms, tell doctor concerns, and know when to get medical care. Analyses indicated that 63.7% of adults sought health information. Rural residents who sought health information had 50% (95% CI: 0.28-0.89) lower odds of being confident to tell doctor concerns compared to urban residents who did not seek health information. The relationship between health information seeking and confidence to perform self-management varies by self-management activity. Rurality, education level, having a usual source of care, and perceived health status strongly predict confidence to perform self-management activities. Self-management strategies should incorporate health information seeking behavior that will enhance confidence to perform specific self-management activities, and should incorporate predisposing, enabling, and perceive need factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship between partner information-seeking, information-sharing, and patient medication adherence. (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Elstad, Emily A; Sage, Adam J; Geryk, Lorie L; DeVellis, Robert F; Blalock, Susan J


    We describe the medication information-seeking behaviors of arthritis patients' partners and explore whether partner medication information-seeking and information-sharing are associated with patient medication adherence. Arthritis patients and their partners (n = 87 dyads) completed an on-line questionnaire. Partners indicated how often they obtained medication information from 14 sources, how much they trusted these sources, and whether they shared medication information with the patient. Patients reported their medication adherence. Bivariate associations were calculated to explore the relationships between partner information-seeking, information-sharing, and patient medication adherence. Partners sought little information about the patient's medications. Partners sought more information if the patient's medication regimen was more complex (r = 0.33, p = 0.002). Most partners (∼ 98%) shared medication information with the patient; older partners shared more information with the patient (r = 0.25, p = 0.03). Neither partner information-seeking (r = 0.21, p = 0.06) nor partner information-sharing (r = 0.12, p = 0.31) were significantly associated with patient medication adherence. Although partners of arthritis patients do not seek large amounts of medication information, the vast majority share this information with the patient. Involving partners in medical consultations can help them better understand the patient's medications, have questions answered by providers, and engage in more informed discussions with patients about their medications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam


    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  10. Brain reserve and cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis (United States)

    Rocca, Maria A.; Leavitt, Victoria M.; Riccitelli, Gianna; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, John; Filippi, Massimo


    Objective: We first tested the brain reserve (BR) hypothesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining whether larger maximal lifetime brain volume (MLBV; determined by genetics) protects against disease-related cognitive impairment, and then investigated whether cognitive reserve (CR) gained through life experience (intellectually enriching leisure activities) protects against cognitive decline independently of MLBV (BR). Methods: Sixty-two patients with MS (41 relapsing-remitting MS, 21 secondary progressive MS) received MRIs to estimate BR (MLBV, estimated with intracranial volume [ICV]) and disease burden (T2 lesion load; atrophy of gray matter, white matter, thalamus, and hippocampus). Early-life cognitive leisure was measured as a source of CR. We assessed cognitive status with tasks of cognitive efficiency and memory. Hierarchical regressions were used to investigate whether higher BR (ICV) protects against cognitive impairment, and whether higher CR (leisure) independently protects against cognitive impairment over and above BR. Results: Cognitive status was positively associated with ICV (R2 = 0.066, p = 0.017). An ICV × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.050, p = 0.030) revealed that larger ICV attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Controlling for BR, higher education (R2 = 0.047, p = 0.030) and leisure (R2 = 0.090, p = 0.001) predicted better cognition. A leisure × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.037, p = 0.030) showed that leisure independently attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Follow-up analyses revealed that BR protected against cognitive inefficiency, not memory deficits, whereas CR was more protective against memory deficits than cognitive inefficiency. Conclusion: We provide evidence of BR in MS, and show that CR independently protects against disease-related cognitive decline over and above BR. Lifestyle choices protect against cognitive impairment independently of genetic factors outside of one's control

  11. Il bisogno di riserve monetarie. (The need for monetary reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The article addresses the question of whether it is possible to find any objective criteria for the need of monetary reserves, either for individual countries or for the world at large. The author first distinguishes between the “need for monetary reserves” and the “demand for international liquidity”. Some of the theories which seek to explain why large reserves are held and considered necessary are examined. In particular, the relations between official reserves and imports, variations of the trade balance, imports and capital outflows, past deficits, domestic money supply and current liabilities are analysed. The author then argues that reserves are not needed for any of the purposes emphasised by either theorists or practitioners, but rather are determined by the ambitions of monetary authorities. Moreover, the volume of reserves are not determined by what the authorities want to hold but rather by what they are offered and are willing to accept. Finally, three effects of increases in reserves are highlighted before an application to present-day discussions is provided.JEL: E42, F31, F33

  12. Women's intentions of informal and formal help-seeking for mental health problems during the perinatal period: The role of perceived encouragement from the partner. (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina


    perinatal period and should include women's significant others, such as their partners. Health professionals should recognize and support the prominent role of the women's partners in the help-seeking process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Offspring of depressed and anxious patients: Help-seeking after first onset of a mood and/or anxiety disorder. (United States)

    Havinga, Petra J; Hartman, Catharina A; Visser, Ellen; Nauta, Maaike H; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Boschloo, Lynn; Schoevers, Robert A


    Offspring of patients with depressive and/or anxiety disorders are at high risk of developing a similar disorder themselves. Early recognition and treatment may have substantial effects on prognosis. The main aim of this study was to examine the time to initial help-seeking and its determinants in offspring after the first onset of a mood and/or anxiety disorder. Data are presented of 215 offspring with a mood and/or anxiety disorder participating in a cohort study with 10 year follow-up. We determined age of disorder onset and age of initial help-seeking. Offspring characteristics (gender, IQ, age of onset, disorder type, suicidal ideation) and family characteristics (socioeconomic status, family functioning) were investigated as potential predictors of the time to initial help-seeking. The estimated overall proportion of offspring of depressed/anxious patients who eventually seek help after onset of a mood and/or anxiety disorder was 91.9%. The time to initial help-seeking was more than two years in 39.6% of the offspring. Being female, having a mood disorder or comorbid mood and anxiety disorder (relative to anxiety) and a disorder onset in adolescence or adulthood (relative to childhood) predicted a shorter time to initial help-seeking. Baseline information relied on retrospective reports. Age of onsets and age of initial help-seeking may therefore be subject to recall bias. Although most offspring eventually seek help after onset of a mood/anxiety disorder, delays in help-seeking were common, especially in specific subgroups of patients. This information may help to develop targeted strategies to reduce help-seeking delays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research (United States)

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert


    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  15. The Intimate Partner Violence Stigmatization Model and Barriers to Help-Seeking


    Overstreet, Nicole M.; Quinn, Diane M.


    The Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Stigmatization Model identifies how three stigma components hinder IPV help-seeking behaviors: cultural stigma, stigma internalization, and anticipated stigma. Cultural stigma highlights societal beliefs that de-legitimize people experiencing abuse. Stigma internalization involves the extent to which people come to believe that the negative stereotypes about those who experience IPV may be true of themselves. Anticipated stigma emphasizes concern about what...

  16. Relationship between ethanol preference and sensation/novelty seeking. (United States)

    Manzo, Lidia; Gómez, Ma José; Callejas-Aguilera, José E; Donaire, Rocío; Sabariego, Marta; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Cañete, Antoni; Blázquez, Gloria; Papini, Mauricio R; Torres, Carmen


    High- and low-avoidance Roman inbred rat strains (RHA-I, RLA-I) were selected for extreme differences in two-way active avoidance. RHA-I rats also express less anxiety than RLA-I rats. This study compared male Roman rats in ethanol preference and sensation/novelty seeking. Rats were first exposed in counterbalanced order to the hole-board test (forced exposure to novelty) and the Y-maze and emergence tests (free choice between novel and familiar locations). Then, rats were tested in 24-h, two-bottle preference tests with water in one bottle and ethanol (2, 4, 6, 8, or 10% in successive days). Compared to RLA-I rats, RHA-I rats showed (1) higher frequency and time in head dipping, (2) higher activity, and (3) lower frequency of rearing and grooming in the hole-board test, and (4) remained in the novel arm longer in the Y-maze test. No strain differences were observed in the emergence test. RHA-I rats exhibited higher preference for and consumed more ethanol than RLA-I rats at all concentrations. However, both strains preferred ethanol over water for 2-4% concentrations, but water over ethanol for 6-10% concentrations. Factorial analysis with all the rats pooled identified a two-factor solution, one grouping preferred ethanol concentrations (2-4%) with head dipping and grooming in the hole board, and another factor grouping the nonpreferred ethanol concentrations (6-10%) with activity in the hole board and novel-arm time in the Y-maze test. These results show that preference for ethanol is associated with different aspects of behavior measured in sensation/novelty-seeking tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Depression: an emotional obstacle to seeking medical advice for infertility. (United States)

    Herbert, Danielle L; Lucke, Jayne C; Dobson, Annette J


    To investigate the mental and general health of infertile women who had not sought medical advice for their recognized infertility and were therefore not represented in clinical populations. Longitudinal cohort study. Population based. Participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health aged 28-33 years in 2006 who had ever tried to conceive or had been pregnant (n = 5,936). None. Infertility, not seeking medical advice. Compared with fertile women (n = 4,905), infertile women (n = 1,031) had higher odds of self-reported depression (odds ratio [OR] 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.43), endometriosis (5.43, 4.01-7.36), polycystic ovary syndrome (9.52, 7.30-12.41), irregular periods (1.99, 1.68-2.36), type II diabetes (4.70, 1.79-12.37), or gestational diabetes (1.66, 1.12-2.46). Compared with infertile women who sought medical advice (n = 728), those who had not sought medical advice (n = 303) had higher odds of self-reported depression (1.67, 1.18-2.37), other mental health problems (3.14, 1.14-8.64), urinary tract infections (1.67, 1.12-2.49), heavy periods (1.63, 1.16-2.29), or a cancer diagnosis (11.33, 2.57-49.89). Infertile women who had or had not sought medical advice had similar odds of reporting an anxiety disorder or anxiety-related symptoms. Women with self-reported depression were unlikely to have sought medical advice for infertility. Depression and depressive symptoms may be barriers to seeking medical advice for infertility. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The process leading to help seeking following childhood trauma. (United States)

    Stige, Signe Hjelen; Træen, Bente; Rosenvinge, Jan H


    In this article we explore the process leading to help seeking following childhood trauma among women who were currently in treatment. We interviewed 13 participants from six treatment groups for clients exposed to human-inflicted traumas. Transcripts were analyzed using a hermeneutical-phenomenological approach. Help seeking was initiated after a prolonged period of time (13 to 58 years after first trauma exposure), during which participants relied heavily on a strategy of managing on their own. Self-management contributed to delays in help seeking, but was also an important resource. High levels of distress were reported prior to help seeking, often without help seeking being considered as an option. The participants sought help when encountering situational demands exceeding available resources, resulting in experiences of exhaustion and loss of control. We present a model of the help-seeking process, underlining the importance of respecting and exploring the individual process of seeking help when offering trauma-specific treatment.

  19. Z' reservation at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Montagna, G.; Piccinini, F.; Renard, F.M.; Verzegnassi, C.


    We consider the possibility that one extra Z\\equiv Z' exists with arbitrary mass and fermion couplings that do not violate (charged) lepton universality. We show that, in such a situation, a functional relationship is generated between the \\underline{deviations} from the SM values of three leptonic observables of two-fermion production at future e^+e^- colliders that is completely independent of the values of the Z' mass and couplings. This selects a certain region in the 3-d space of the deviations that is \\underline{characteristic} of the model (Z' "reservation"). As a specific and relevant example, we show the picture that would emerge at LEP2 under realistic experimental conditions.

  20. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Wang, Eric; Lee, Si-Chen


    Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion. According to the estimation of this paper, the reserve of wind energy, up to 29.9 kWh/d/p (i.e., kWh per day per person), is the largest one among seven kinds of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 24.27 kWh/d/p of solar energy, 4.55 kWh/d/p of biomass, 4.58 kWh/d/p of ocean energy, 0.67 kWh/d/p of geothermal energy and 16.79 kWh/d/p of hydropower. If regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy into electricity, the total power of the seven kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 78.03 kWh/d/p, which is equal to 2.75 times of 28.35 kWh/d/p of national power generation in 2008. If the reserves of 54.93 kWh/d/p estimated from other four kinds of renewable energies that have not technically matured yet are also taken into account, it will result that the reserves of renewable energy in Taiwan can be quite abundant. Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four inherent

  1. Why Cancer Patients Seek Islamic Healing. (United States)

    Suhami, Norhasmilia; Muhamad, Mazanah Bt; Krauss, Steven Eric


    Islamic healing is frequently referred to as the treatment of choice by many Muslim cancer patients in Malaysia. Despite its widespread use, there is limited information relating to patients' healing preferences. With rising cancer rates in the country, this issue has become a concern to public health policy makers. The purpose of this study was to understand why cancer patients seek Islamic healing. This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 18 cancer patients. The findings indicate three main reasons: (1) recommendations from family, friends and doctors; (2) belief in Islamic healing and (3) the perceived ineffectiveness and dissatisfaction with conventional treatments. Islamic healing will likely continue to be popular complementary cancer treatment in Malaysia as it is grounded in strong cultural and religious beliefs.

  2. The information-seeking practices of engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, M.; Pejtersen, A. M.


    Engineers get most of their information from colleagues and internal reports. This study investigates how engineers' information-seeking practices intertwine looking for informing documents with looking for informed people. Based on case studies in two product-development organisations we find...... that engineers search for documents to find people, search for people to get documents, and interact socially to get information without engaging in explicit searches, This intricate interplay between document and people sources can be explained by the nature of the design task, Many possible solutions...... are normally available to the designer and in choosing one over the others the designer must take into account a complex set of issues involving both the product as such and its context. However, design documentation seems to be biased toward technical aspects of the chosen solution, while information about...

  3. Model-free stabilization by extremum seeking

    CERN Document Server

    Scheinker, Alexander


    With this brief, the authors present algorithms for model-free stabilization of unstable dynamic systems. An extremum-seeking algorithm assigns the role of a cost function to the dynamic system’s control Lyapunov function (clf) aiming at its minimization. The minimization of the clf drives the clf to zero and achieves asymptotic stabilization. This approach does not rely on, or require knowledge of, the system model. Instead, it employs periodic perturbation signals, along with the clf. The same effect is achieved as by using clf-based feedback laws that profit from modeling knowledge, but in a time-average sense. Rather than use integrals of the systems vector field, we employ Lie-bracket-based (i.e., derivative-based) averaging. The brief contains numerous examples and applications, including examples with unknown control directions and experiments with charged particle accelerators. It is intended for theoretical control engineers and mathematicians, and practitioners working in various industrial areas ...

  4. Seeking prospects for enhanced gas recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, M.G.; Randolph, P.L.


    As part of the Institute of Gas Technology's (IGT) ongoing research on unconventional natural gas sources, a methodology to locate gas wells that had watered-out under over-pressured conditions was developed and implemented. Each year several trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas are produced from reservoirs that are basically geopressured aquifers with large gas caps. As the gas is produced, the gas-water interface moves upward in the sandstone body trapping a portion of gas at the producing reservoir pressure. The methodology for identifying such formations consisted of a computer search of a large data base using a series of screening criteria to select or reject wells. The screening criteria consisted of depth cutoff, minimum production volume, minimum pressure gradient, and minimum water production. Wells chosen by the computer search were further screened manually to seek out those wells that exhibited rapid and large increases in water production with an associated quick decline in gas production indicating possible imbibition trapping of gas in the reservoir. The search was performed in an attempt to characterize the watered-out geopressured gas cap resource. Over 475 wells in the Gulf Coast area of Louisiana and Texas were identified as possible candidates representing an estimated potential of up to about 1 Tcf (2.83 x 10/sup 10/ m/sup 3/) of gas production through enhanced recovery operations. A process to determine the suitability of a watered-out geopressured gas cap reservoir for application of enhanced recovery is outlined. This paper addresses the identification of a potential gas source that is considered an unconventional resource. The methodology developed to identify watered-out geopressured gas cap wells can be utilized in seeking other types of watered-out gas reservoirs with the appropriate changes in the screening criteria. 12 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Sensation seeking, peer deviance, and genetic influences on adolescent delinquency: Evidence for person-environment correlation and interaction. (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Patterson, Megan W; Grotzinger, Andrew D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige


    Both sensation seeking and affiliation with deviant peer groups are risk factors for delinquency in adolescence. In this study, we use a sample of adolescent twins (n = 549), 13 to 20 years old (M age = 15.8 years), in order to test the interactive effects of peer deviance and sensation seeking on delinquency in a genetically informative design. Consistent with a socialization effect, affiliation with deviant peers was associated with higher delinquency even after controlling for selection effects using a co-twin-control comparison. At the same time, there was evidence for person-environment correlation; adolescents with genetic dispositions toward higher sensation seeking were more likely to report having deviant peer groups. Genetic influences on sensation seeking substantially overlapped with genetic influences on adolescent delinquency. Finally, the environmentally mediated effect of peer deviance on adolescent delinquency was moderated by individual differences in sensation seeking. Adolescents reporting high levels of sensation seeking were more susceptible to deviant peers, a Person × Environment interaction. These results are consistent with both selection and socialization processes in adolescent peer relationships, and they highlight the role of sensation seeking as an intermediary phenotype for genetic risk for delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The role of sensation seeking and motivations for eating in female and male adolescents who binge eat. (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Pompili, Sara; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto


    Although different personality traits have been associated with the onset and maintenance of binge eating, the role of sensation seeking is still not well documented. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sensation seeking and motivations for eating in male and female adolescents who binge eat. 336 adolescents (196 boys and 140 girls, mean age 17.48) completed a survey composed of Binge Eating Scale, Motivation for Eating Scale, and Brief Sensation Seeking Scale. Our results showed that for female adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, body mass index (BMI), Environmental and Emotional Eating. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that BMI was a significant positive predictor of binge eating; Emotional and Physical Eating accounted for 34% of the variance. For male adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, BMI, Boredom susceptibility, Experience seeking, environmental, Social and Emotional Eating. The most significant variables that contribute to binge symptoms, were age and BMI (that accounted for 16% of the variance), Experience seeking and Boredom susceptibility (11%) and emotional eating (18%). Our results provided support for emotional motivations as significant triggers for binge eating behavior in both male and female adolescents. Although two sensation seeking dimensions were significant predictors of binge eating in males, sensation seeking was not associated to binge eating in the female subsample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Religiosity as a moderator of the relation between sensation seeking and substance use for college-aged individuals. (United States)

    Galbraith, Todd; Conner, Bradley T


    Substance use has been identified as a major problem on college campuses across the country, with excessive use often leading to unintended and unwanted negative health outcomes. Sensation seeking has been shown to be a consistent predictor of engagement in various health risk behaviors, including substance use. Religiosity has been shown to negatively predict substance use. However, there is mixed evidence on the relations among these risk and protective factors. This may be due to the operational definitions of religiosity in previous research. The current study investigated religiosity as a moderator of the relation between sensation seeking and substance use using robust measures of religiosity. The primary hypotheses were (a) sensation seeking would be positively associated with higher levels of heavy episodic drinking and marijuana use; (b) religiosity would be negatively associated with higher levels of substance use; and (c) religiosity would moderate the relation between sensation seeking and substance use such that, when religiosity was high, there would be no association between sensation seeking and substance use, but at low and moderate levels of religiosity, there would be a positive association between them. Religiosity was a significant moderator of the relation between risk seeking and marijuana use (p sensation seeking and heavy episodic drinking. Religiosity appears to have a stronger buffering effect for illegal drug use compared with alcohol use, perhaps in part because of the relative acceptance of alcohol consumption across major U.S. religious orientations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Factors affecting patients' online health information-seeking behaviours: The role of the Patient Health Engagement (PHE) Model. (United States)

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Barello, Serena; Bonanomi, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe


    To identify the variables affecting patients' online health information-seeking behaviours by examining the relationships between patient participation in their healthcare and online health information-seeking behaviours. A cross-sectional survey of Italian chronic patients (N=352) was conducted on patient's online health information-seeking behaviours and patient participation-related variables. Structural equation modeling analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis. This study showed how the healthcare professionals' ability to support chronic patients' autonomy affect patients' participation in their healthcare and patient's online health information-seeking behaviours. However, results do not confirm that the frequency of patients' online health-information seeking behavior has an impact on their adherence to medical prescriptions. Assuming a psychosocial perspective, we have discussed how patients' engagement - conceived as the level of their emotional elaboration of the health condition - affects the patients' ability to search for and manage online health information. To improve the effectiveness of patients' online health information-seeking behaviours and to enhance the effectiveness of technological interventions in this field, healthcare providers should target assessing and improving patient engagement and patient empowerment in their healthcare. It is important that health professionals acknowledge patients' online health information-seeking behaviours that they discuss the information offered by patients and guide them to reliable and accurate web sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reusable Component Services (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  10. Attenuation of saccharin-seeking in rats by orexin/hypocretin receptor 1 antagonist. (United States)

    Cason, Angie M; Aston-Jones, Gary


    The orexin (Orx)/hypocretin system has been implicated in reward-seeking, especially for highly salient food and drug rewards. We recently demonstrated that signaling at the OxR1 receptor is involved in sucrose reinforcement and reinstatement of sucrose-seeking elicited by sucrose-paired cues in food-restricted rats. Because sucrose reinforcement has both a hedonic and caloric component, it remains unknown what aspect of this reward drives its reinforcing value. The present study examined the involvement of the Orx system in operant responding for saccharin, a noncaloric, hedonic (sweet) reward, and in cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished saccharin-seeking in ad libitum-fed vs food-restricted male subjects. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed ad libitum or food-restricted and trained to self-administer saccharin. We determined the effects of pretreatment with the OxR1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 (SB; 10-30 mg/kg) on fixed ratio (FR) saccharin self-administration and on cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished saccharin-seeking. SB decreased responding and number of reinforcers earned during FR responding for saccharin and decreased cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished saccharin-seeking. All of these effects were obtained similarly in food-restricted and ad libitum-fed rats. These results indicate that signaling at the OxR1 receptor is involved in saccharin reinforcement and reinstatement of saccharin-seeking elicited by saccharin-paired cues regardless of food restriction. These findings lead us to conclude that the Orx system contributes to the motivational effects of hedonic food rewards, independently of caloric value and homeostatic needs.

  11. Software component quality evaluation (United States)

    Clough, A. J.


    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  12. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.


    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  13. Principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bro, R.; Smilde, A.K.


    Principal component analysis is one of the most important and powerful methods in chemometrics as well as in a wealth of other areas. This paper provides a description of how to understand, use, and interpret principal component analysis. The paper focuses on the use of principal component analysis

  14. Higher Education, Reservation and Scheduled Castes: Exploring Institutional Habitus of Professional Engineering Colleges in Kerala (United States)

    Malish, C. M.; Ilavarasan, P. V.


    This paper seeks to unravel the institutional context of the educational experience of scheduled caste engineering students in Kerala, a federal state in India. Though much has been debated about equity of access in the domain of reservation policies in higher education while studying the caste question and educational equity, process and outcome…

  15. How are perceived stigma, self-stigma, and self-reliance related to treatment-seeking? A three-path model. (United States)

    Jennings, Kristen S; Cheung, Janelle H; Britt, Thomas W; Goguen, Kandice N; Jeffirs, Stephanie M; Peasley, Allison L; Lee, Abigail C


    Many college students may experience mental health problems but do not seek treatment from mental health professionals. The present study examined how perceived stigma and self-stigma toward seeking mental health treatment, as well as perceptions of self-reliance for coping with mental health problems, relate to college student treatment-seeking. In total, 246 students completed a self-report survey that included measures of perceived stigma and self-stigma for treatment-seeking, self-reliance for addressing mental health concerns, self-reported mental health problems, symptoms of depression and alcohol-related problems, attitudes toward treatment-seeking, and treatment-seeking behavior. Regression analyses revealed that higher perceived stigma, self-stigma, and self-reliance were all related to a more negative attitude toward treatment-seeking. In a 3-path mediation model, bootstrapping results indicated an indirect effect where perceived stigma was related to attitude toward treatment-seeking and treatment-seeking behaviors through self-stigma and self-reliance. Specifically, higher perceived stigma was related to higher self-stigma, higher self-stigma was related to higher self-reliance, and higher self-reliance was associated with a more negative attitude toward treatment-seeking in the overall sample, and a decreased probability of having sought treatment among those who screened positive for a mental health problem. Perceived stigma may influence whether or not college students seek treatment for mental health problems by potentially increasing stigmatizing attitudes toward themselves and increasing preferences for handling problems on their own. Researchers and practitioners are recommended to seek a better understanding of the complex treatment barriers to reduce stigma and facilitate treatment-seeking. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Nicotine self-administration and reinstatement of nicotine-seeking in male and female rats. (United States)

    Feltenstein, Matthew W; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E


    Tobacco addiction is a relapsing disorder that constitutes a substantial worldwide health problem, with evidence suggesting that nicotine and nicotine-associated stimuli play divergent roles in maintaining smoking behavior in men and women. While animal models of tobacco addiction that utilize nicotine self-administration have become more widely established, systematic examination of the multiple factors that instigate relapse to nicotine-seeking have been limited. Here, we examined nicotine self-administration and subsequent nicotine-seeking in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats using an animal model of self-administration and relapse. Rats lever pressed for nicotine (0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg/infusion, IV) during 15 daily 2-h sessions, followed by extinction of lever responding. Once responding was extinguished, we examined the ability of previously nicotine-paired cues (tone+light), the anxiogenic drug yohimbine (2.5mg/kg, IP), a priming injection of nicotine (0.3mg/kg, SC), or combinations of drug+cues to reinstate nicotine-seeking. Both males and females readily acquired nicotine self-administration and displayed comparable levels of responding and intake at both nicotine doses. Following extinction, exposure to the previously nicotine-paired cues or yohimbine, but not the nicotine-prime alone, reinstated nicotine-seeking in males and females. Moreover, when combined with nicotine-paired cues, both yohimbine and nicotine enhanced reinstatement. No significant sex differences or estrous cycle dependent changes were noted across reinstatement tests. These results demonstrate the ability to reinstate nicotine-seeking with multiple modalities and that exposure to nicotine-associated cues during periods of a stressful state or nicotine can increase nicotine-seeking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking after punishment in a rat model. (United States)

    Marchant, Nathan J; Khuc, Thi N; Pickens, Charles L; Bonci, Antonello; Shaham, Yavin


    Rat studies have demonstrated that exposure to environments associated with alcohol intake reinstates alcohol seeking after extinction of alcohol-reinforced responding in a different context. However, extinction is limited as an abstinence model, because humans typically abstain because of negative consequences associated with excessive drinking. It is currently unknown whether alcohol-associated contexts can provoke relapse to alcohol seeking after alcohol-taking behavior is suppressed by adverse consequences in a different context. Alcohol-preferring P rats were first given home-cage access to 20% ethanol. Next, they were trained to self-administer 20% ethanol in one context (context A). Subsequently, all rats continued to self-administer alcohol in a different context (context B). For one group, 50% of alcohol-reinforced responses were punished by mild footshock; two other groups either received noncontingent shocks or no shock. A fourth group was given extinction training in context B. All rats were then tested for relapse to alcohol seeking under extinction conditions in contexts A and B. In Context B, alcohol-taking behavior was suppressed by contingent shock (punishment) and extinction training but not by noncontingent shock. In Context A, relapse to alcohol seeking was reliably observed in the punished and extinction groups; a context switch had no effect on alcohol seeking in the no-shock or noncontingent shock groups. Our data indicate that punishment-induced suppression of alcohol-taking behavior is context-dependent. We propose that our procedure can be used to explore mechanisms of context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking after alcohol-taking behavior is suppressed by adverse consequences. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. What drives UK military personnel to seek mental healthcare, work strain or something else? (United States)

    Jones, Norman; Coetzee, R


    The numbers of UK military personnel referred to military departments of community mental health (DCMH) have increased annually over recent years; the reasons for such an increase are unclear. Data for this study were derived from 549 DCMH attendees and 3682 serving regular military personnel. DCMH attendees completed a checklist of potential reasons for help-seeking. Cohort members provided data on perceived mental health problems and help-seeking from specialist mental health services. Both samples provided work strain and basic sociodemographic data. Work strain levels were compared among cohort and DCMH help seekers and non-help seekers using adjusted logistic regression analyses. Perceiving that mental health-related stigmatisation had reduced and being prompted to seek help by attending a health promotion event were among the least frequent reasons for seeking help in DCMH attendees. Realising that help was needed and being urged to seek help by one's partner, friends or family were the most common. Working very hard and experiencing excessive work were the most common work strain factors. Overall, the greatest levels of work strain were found among DCMH attendees. In all subsamples, work strain was significantly associated with experiencing a perceived mental health problem irrespective of whether help was sought or not. Work strain was significantly associated with experiencing a stressful, emotional, mental health or alcohol problem and was the highest among current DCMH help seekers. Recognising that help was required and being prompted by a significant other were the main drivers for help-seeking among DCMH attendees. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Oxytocin Acts in Nucleus Accumbens to Attenuate Methamphetamine Seeking and Demand. (United States)

    Cox, Brittney M; Bentzley, Brandon S; Regen-Tuero, Helaina; See, Ronald E; Reichel, Carmela M; Aston-Jones, Gary


    Evidence indicates that oxytocin, an endogenous peptide well known for its role in social behaviors, childbirth, and lactation, is a promising addiction pharmacotherapy. We employed a within-session behavioral-economic (BE) procedure in rats to examine oxytocin as a pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine (meth) addiction. The BE paradigm was modeled after BE procedures used to assess motivation for drugs in humans with addiction. The same BE variables assessed across species have been shown to predict later relapse behavior. Thus, the translational potential of preclinical BE studies is particularly strong. We tested the effects of systemic and microinfused oxytocin on demand for self-administered intravenous meth and reinstatement of extinguished meth seeking in male and female rats using a BE paradigm. Correlations between meth demand and meth seeking were assessed. Female rats showed greater demand (i.e., motivation) for meth compared with male rats. In both male and female rats, meth demand predicted reinstatement of meth seeking, and systemic oxytocin decreased demand for meth and attenuated reinstatement to meth seeking. Oxytocin was most effective at decreasing meth demand and seeking in rats with the strongest motivation for drug. Finally, these effects of systemic oxytocin were mediated by actions in the nucleus accumbens. Oxytocin decreases meth demand and seeking in both sexes, and these effects depend on oxytocin signaling in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, these data indicate that development of oxytocin-based therapies may be a promising treatment approach for meth addiction in humans. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Medical Licensure Questions and Physician Reluctance to Seek Care for Mental Health Conditions. (United States)

    Dyrbye, Liselotte N; West, Colin P; Sinsky, Christine A; Goeders, Lindsey E; Satele, Daniel V; Shanafelt, Tait D


    To determine whether state medical licensure application questions (MLAQs) about mental health are related to physicians' reluctance to seek help for a mental health condition because of concerns about repercussions to their medical licensure. In 2016, we collected initial and renewal medical licensure application forms from 50 states and the District of Columbia. We coded MLAQs related to physicians' mental health as "consistent" if they inquired only about current impairment from a mental health condition or did not ask about mental health conditions. We obtained data on care-seeking attitudes for a mental health problem from a nationally representative convenience sample of 5829 physicians who completed a survey between August 28, 2014, and October 6, 2014. Analyses explored relationships between state of employment, MLAQs, and physicians' reluctance to seek formal medical care for treatment of a mental health condition because of concerns about repercussions to their medical licensure. We obtained initial licensure applications from 51 of 51 (100%) and renewal applications from 48 of 51 (94.1%) medical licensing boards. Only one-third of states currently have MLAQs about mental health on their initial and renewal application forms that are considered consistent. Nearly 40% of physicians (2325 of 5829) reported that they would be reluctant to seek formal medical care for treatment of a mental health condition because of concerns about repercussions to their medical licensure. Physicians working in a state in which neither the initial nor the renewal application was consistent were more likely to be reluctant to seek help (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.07-1.37; P=.002 vs both applications consistent). Our findings support that MLAQs regarding mental health conditions present a barrier to physicians seeking help. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sote, K.


    Petroleum remains the greatest jewel of inestimable value in both the local and international treasure hunts for cheap energy source and viable investment options the world over. The diverse business potentials and favourable government policies in Nigeria aimed specifically at stimulating investments in the up streams, midstream and downstream industries need to be tapped by both indigenous and foreign investors alike. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves' is therefore our modest effort to support such policies, sensitise the Nigerian petroleum industry and promote more dynamic awareness for the varied business opportunities abound in this sector of the economy. The main objective or this publication is to bring to a wider audience within and outside the oil industry a spectrum of such salient opportunities therein. The publication further presents in a lucid and consize form the hidden potentials yet to be harnessed, captures the essence of such investments, identifies the inherent problems in Nigeria peculiar circumstance and thus provides a detailed guide to address such short-coming, viz. Inadequate and poor knowledge of petroleum industry, its operation, by products and their correct applications. - Lack of understanding of the intricacies, realities and technicalities of petroleum business in general. - Poor financial resources, management style, operational and marketing strategies man power and human resources development.- Dirge of information, lack of professional advice and technical service support on the varied business opportunities for diversification. Apathy on the part of the investors themselves to seek for professional support from competent oil consultants, technocrats, institutionalised authorities on petroleum and related matters, amongst others. In summary, the book is divided into ten chapters with illustrations, graphics, drawings, sketches and incorporating figures, statistics, business reports, marketing results, feasibility studies

  2. [Operational medical reserve within the French Mililitary Health Service]. (United States)

    Vergez-Larrouget, Claude; Roberton, Delphine; Schneider, Cindy; Reggad, Farid; Charrot, François; Cueff, Serge


    The operational reserve is an essential component of the army health service thanks to the trained and experienced healthcare professionals. From a civilian background or with prior active duty, their technical and military skills enable them to provide medical support for all types of missions, both within France and abroad.

  3. Exploring Factors Influencing Smokers' Information Seeking for Smoking Cessation. (United States)

    Noh, Ghee-Young; Lee, Sun Young; Choi, Jounghwa


    This study addressed the factors influencing smokers' information seeking pertaining to the health risks of smoking. In particular, this study aimed to extend the risk information seeking and processing model by taking into account the role of autonomous motivations used to stimulate smokers' information-seeking behavior. The results of a Web-based survey indicated that information insufficiency was positively associated with health information-seeking behavior and that negative affective responses were positively associated with information insufficiency and health information-seeking behavior. In addition, autonomous motivations were positively associated with information insufficiency and information-seeking behavior. The results indicated that risk perception was positively related to autonomous motivations and negative affective response. Finally, informational subjective norm was positively related to autonomous motivations and negative affective responses. The implications of this study for future research are discussed.

  4. Sensation Seeking Predicting Growth in Adolescent Problem Behaviors (United States)

    Byck, Gayle R.; Swann, Greg; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian


    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13-18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  5. Sleep quality in women seeking care for pelvic organ prolapse (United States)

    GHETTI, Chiara; LEE, MinJae; OLIPHANT, Sallie; OKUN, Michele; LOWDER, Jerry L.


    Objectives To identify the prevalence of sleep disturbance in women seeking treatment for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and identify correlates of poor sleep quality in this population by using a validated sleep scale. Study Design This is a cohort study of female patients with pelvic organ prolapse. Main Outcome Measures Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Pelvic Floor Disorders Inventory (PFDI), and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ) measures were completed. Demographic data, medical comorbidities, medications, and physical examinations were also recorded. Results 407 women were enrolled. Analysis was performed on the 250 subjects who completed all PSQI components. Subjects were predominantly white, with a mean age of 61±11 years and mean BMI of 28±5kg/m2. The majority (71%) had Stage III prolapse. Half (N=127) had poor sleep quality (PSQI >5). Women with poor sleep quality were younger, had more medical comorbidities, more pelvic floor symptoms, more nocturia, more depressive symptoms, and took more time to fall asleep. Factors associated with sleep quality were evaluated using multivariable linear regression models. Worse sleep scores were associated with each of the PFDI subscores (urinary, prolapse, bowel), depressive symptoms, severe nocturia symptoms, and number of comorbidities. Conclusions Poor sleep is prevalent in women with prolapse. Pelvic floor symptoms as measured by PFDI sub-scales, were associated with poor sleep quality. Future studies are needed to better understand how sleep disturbances may contribute to the impact of pelvic floor symptoms on quality of life. PMID:25465518

  6. The Association Between Household Consumer Durable Assets and Maternal Health-Seeking Behavior in Ghana. (United States)

    Ansong, Eric


    This article examined the association between household consumer durable assets and maternal health-seeking behavior. Several studies have suggested a relationship between households' socioeconomic status (SES) and health outcomes. However, SES is a multidimensional concept that encompasses variables, such as wealth, education, and income. By grouping these variables together as one construct, prior studies have not provided enough insight into possible independent associations with health outcomes. This study used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey of 2,065 women aged between 15 and 49 years to examine the association between household consumer durables (a component of SES) and maternal health-seeking behavior in Ghana. Results from a set of generalized linear models indicated that household consumer durable assets were positively associated with four measures of maternal health-seeking behaviors, namely, seeking prenatal care from skilled health personnel, delivery by skilled birth attendant, place of delivery, and the number of antenatal visits. Also, households with more assets whose residents lived in urban areas were more likely to use skilled health personnel before and during delivery, and at an approved health facility, compared those who lived in rural areas. Implications for health interventions and policies that focus on the most vulnerable households are discussed.

  7. Hypothalamic control of male aggression-seeking behavior


    Falkner, Annegret L.; Grosenick, Logan; Davidson, Thomas J.; Deisseroth, Karl; Lin, Dayu


    In many vertebrate species, certain individuals will seek out opportunities for aggression, even in the absence of threat provoking cues. While several brain areas have been implicated in generating attack in response to social threat, little is known about the neural mechanisms that promote self-initiated or ?voluntary? aggression seeking when no threat is present. To explore this directly, we utilize an aggression-seeking task wherein male mice can self-initiate aggression trials to gain br...

  8. Sex differences in methamphetamine seeking in rats: Impact of oxytocin


    Cox, Brittney M.; Young, Amy B.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.


    Previous evidence in an animal model of drug self-administration and drug seeking showed that acute oxytocin decreased methamphetamine (meth) seeking in male rats, suggesting potential clinical efficacy for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, based on the well-established role of oxytocin in reproduction and pair bond formation, it is important to know how this effect extrapolates to females. Here, we tested whether oxytocin (1 mg/kg, IP) would decrease meth seeking in female...

  9. Loss aversion and rent-seeking: An experimental study


    Kong, Xiaojing


    We report an experiment designed to evaluate the impact of loss aversion on rent-seeking contests. We find, as theoretically predicted, a negative relationship between rent-seeking expenditures and loss aversion. However, for any degree of loss aversion, levels of rent-seeking expenditure are higher than predicted. Moreover, we find that the effect of loss aversion becomes weaker with repetition of the contest.

  10. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall. (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian


    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.

  11. Subsecond dopamine release promotes cocaine seeking. (United States)

    Phillips, Paul E M; Stuber, Garret D; Heien, Michael L A V; Wightman, R Mark; Carelli, Regina M


    The dopamine-containing projection from the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens is critically involved in mediating the reinforcing properties of cocaine. Although neurons in this area respond to rewards on a subsecond timescale, neurochemical studies have only addressed the role of dopamine in drug addiction by examining changes in the tonic (minute-to-minute) levels of extracellular dopamine. To investigate the role of phasic (subsecond) dopamine signalling, we measured dopamine every 100 ms in the nucleus accumbens using electrochemical technology. Rapid changes in extracellular dopamine concentration were observed at key aspects of drug-taking behaviour in rats. Before lever presses for cocaine, there was an increase in dopamine that coincided with the initiation of drug-seeking behaviours. Notably, these behaviours could be reproduced by electrically evoking dopamine release on this timescale. After lever presses, there were further increases in dopamine concentration at the concurrent presentation of cocaine-related cues. These cues alone also elicited similar, rapid dopamine signalling, but only in animals where they had previously been paired to cocaine delivery. These findings reveal an unprecedented role for dopamine in the regulation of drug taking in real time.

  12. Women's rights, domestic violence, and recourse seeking in rural Bangladesh. (United States)

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Bates, Lisa M; Islam, Farzana


    This article seeks to deepen understanding of the reasons that abused women in a resource-poor rural setting seek recourse so seldom and with so little success. Data from in-depth interviews and group discussions are used to explore the range of responses to domestic violence and to examine barriers to recourse seeking. Findings illustrate how the combination of poverty and gender inequality, inequities in the legal framework, and patriarchal attitudes and corruption in both formal and informal institutions at the local level discourage abused women from seeking recourse and decrease the likelihood of a favorable outcome when they do.

  13. Food Seeking in a Risky Environment: A Method for Evaluating Risk and Reward Value in Food Seeking and Consumption in Mice. (United States)

    Lockie, Sarah H; McAuley, Clare V; Rawlinson, Sasha; Guiney, Natalie; Andrews, Zane B


    Most studies that measure food intake in mice do so in the home cage environment. This necessarily means that mice do not engage in food seeking before consumption, a behavior that is ubiquitous in free-living animals. We modified and validated several commonly used anxiety tests to include a palatable food reward within the anxiogenic zone. This allowed us to assess risk-taking behavior in food seeking in mice in response to different metabolic stimuli. We modified the open field test and the light/dark box by placing palatable peanut butter chips within a designated food zone inside the anxiogenic zone of each apparatus. We then assessed parameters of the interaction with the food reward. Fasted mice or mice treated with ghrelin showed increased consumption and increased time spent in the food zone immediately around the food reward compared to ad libitum fed mice or mice treated with saline. However, fasted mice treated with IP glucose before exposure to the behavioral arena showed reduced time in the food zone compared to fasted controls, indicating that acute metabolic signals can modify the assessment of safety in food seeking in a risky environment. The tests described in this study will be useful in assessing risk processing and incentive salience of food reward, which are intrinsic components of food acquisition outside of the laboratory environment, in a range of genetic and pharmacological models.

  14. Niches after cesarean section in a population seeking hysteroscopic sterilization. (United States)

    van der Voet, Lucy Lucet F; Limperg, Tobias; Veersema, Sebastiaan; Timmermans, Anne; Bij de Vaate, A Marjolein J; Brölmann, Hans A M; Huirne, Judith A F


    To study the prevalence of hysteroscopically evaluated disruptions of the integrity of the uterine wall ('niches') in women with and without a previous cesarean section. A prospective cohort study was performed in a teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Women seeking hysteroscopic sterilization were included. A hysteroscopic evaluation of the anterior wall of the uterus and cervix to identify the existence of disruptions (niches) was performed in a standard manner. Primary outcome was the presence of a uterine niche, defined as any visible defect, disruption, or concavity (gap) in the anterior wall. Secondary outcome was to develop a registration form of niche features for hysteroscopic evaluation. In total, 713 women were included, 603 without and 110 with a previous cesarean section. In women with a previous cesarean Section 83 (75%) niches were observed using hysteroscopy. Anterior wall disruptions were not observed in women without a cesarean section. The following niche features were identified and incorporated in a registration form: polyps, cysts, myometrium defect, fibrotic tissue, (abnormal) vascular pattern, lateral branches, mucus production inside the defect, and bleeding. In a prospective cohort study among women undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization, a uterine niche could be detected by hysteroscopy in 75% of women with a previous cesarean section. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. How foraging works: uncertainty magnifies food-seeking motivation. (United States)

    Anselme, Patrick; Güntürkün, Onur


    Food uncertainty has the effect of invigorating food-related responses. Psychologists have noted that mammals and birds respond more to a conditioned stimulus that unreliably predicts food delivery, and ecologists have shown that animals (especially small passerines) consume and/or hoard more food and can get fatter when access to that resource is unpredictable. Are these phenomena related? We think they are. Psychologists have proposed several mechanistic interpretations, while ecologists have suggested a functional interpretation: the effect of unpredictability on fat reserves and hoarding behavior is an evolutionary strategy acting against the risk of starvation when food is in short supply. Both perspectives are complementary, and we argue that the psychology of incentive motivational processes can shed some light on the causal mechanisms leading animals to seek and consume more food under uncertainty in the wild. Our theoretical approach is in agreement with neuroscientific data relating to the role of dopamine, a neurotransmitter strongly involved in incentive motivation, and its plausibility has received some explanatory and predictive value with respect to Pavlovian phenomena. Overall, we argue that the occasional and unavoidable absence of food rewards has motivational effects (called incentive hope) that facilitate foraging effort. It is shown that this hypothesis is computationally tenable, leading foragers in an unpredictable environment to consume more food items and to have higher long-term energy storage than foragers in a predictable environment.

  16. Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda (United States)


    ... [The Regulatory Plan and Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] [Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] Part XXI Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda... Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory...

  17. The SEEK: a platform for sharing data and models in systems biology. (United States)

    Wolstencroft, Katy; Owen, Stuart; du Preez, Franco; Krebs, Olga; Mueller, Wolfgang; Goble, Carole; Snoep, Jacky L


    , its functionalities, and the methods employed for lowering the barriers to adoption of standard formats. As the production of biological data continues to grow, in systems biology and in the life sciences in general, the need to record, manage, and exploit this wealth of information in the future is increasing. We promote the SEEK as a data and model management tool that can be adapted to the specific needs of a particular systems biology project. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reasons for and predictors of patients' online health information seeking following a medical appointment. (United States)

    Li, Na; Orrange, Sharon; Kravitz, Richard L; Bell, Robert A


    Little is known about patients' online health information seeking after a primary care or specialist medical visit. To examine predictors of patients' post-visit online health information seeking, reasons for seeking information and information sources used. Survey of online support group members (N = 311) with a recent medical visit. Measures included eHealth literacy, patient-centred communication (PCC), post-visit changes in worry, online health information seeking and reasons for seeking information. Analyses were based on descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Eighty per cent of patients went online post-visit. The most common source used was others' forum posts (91%). The most common reason was curiosity (68%). Dissatisfaction with the physician's performance motivated information seeking for 40% of respondents. In a multivariate analysis, post-visit online health information seeking was highest among patients who were more eHealth literate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 2.71), P = 0.016], gave lower PCC ratings to their providers [OR = 0.45 (0.22, 0.90), P = 0.024] and experienced increased worry due to the visit [OR = 5.19 (1.36, 19.82), P = 0.016]. eHealth literate patients made greater use of specialized medical information (e.g. online medical journal articles) than less literate patients. Primary care physicians were rated as more patient centred than specialists. Visit-induced worry led to greater use of interpersonal channels (e.g. e-mailing other forum members). Patients who saw their doctor as less patient-centred were more likely to go online due to dissatisfaction with doctor performance. Online support forum members often turn to the Internet for health information following their medical visits. Their information seeking is shaped by patient, relational and visit factors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  19. Health Belief Model deterrents of social support seeking among people coping with eating disorders. (United States)

    Akey, Jessica E; Rintamaki, Lance S; Kane, Tera L


    Eating disorders have the highest mortality rates of any psychiatric diagnosis (Sullivan, 1995). Understanding what prevents people from seeking or accessing that which can help them manage these disorders is critical to improving eating disorder outcomes. This study identifies specific barriers and deterrents individuals living with eating disorders perceive when deciding if and when they will seek eating disorder-specific social support. 34 men and women living with eating disorders were recruited and interviewed regarding their experiences with managing their disorders, including reasons why they may forego seeking social support to help cope with these conditions. Participant-reported reasons as to why they would forego seeking social support for the management of their eating disorders were framed against the five main constructs of the Health Belief Model. These include (a) perceived susceptibility to a health threat, (b) perceived severity of the health threat, (c) perceived benefit of protective health behaviors, (d) perceived self-efficacy with these protective behaviors, and (e) perceived barriers to performing these behaviors. It could be argued that since this study does not focus solely on one type of eating disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia, the barriers to social support may differ depending upon the characteristics inherent to the specific disorders. Findings can be used to inform and improve therapeutic interventions to produce better long-term outcomes among people struggling with eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Women's information-seeking behavior after receiving contraceptive versus noncontraceptive prescriptions. (United States)

    Russo, Jennefer A; Parisi, Sara M; Kukla, Kathryn; Schwarz, E Bimla


    Contraceptives are among the most commonly prescribed medications used by women of reproductive age, but little is known about women's information-seeking behavior after receiving prescriptions for medication. All reproductive-age women who visited one of four primary care clinics in Western Pennsylvania between October 2008 and April 2010 were invited to complete a follow-up survey after their visit which included questions regarding medications prescribed, information-seeking after their visit and their perceptions of the quality of the information they found. Of the 218 women prescribed contraceptives, 49% sought additional information after their visit. In models adjusted for sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics of the respondents, women who received a contraceptive prescription were twice as likely to seek additional information about their medication as women who received noncontraceptive prescriptions [odds ratio (OR)=2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47-2.90]. Women who received a contraceptive prescription were more likely to seek information from the Internet (OR=1.84, 95% CI 1.26-2.70) and from the package insert (OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.02-2.36) than women who received noncontraceptive prescriptions. Women frequently sought additional information on contraceptive prescriptions. Efforts are needed to increase the quantity and improve the quality of contraceptive counseling provided by primary care providers and the quality of the information provided by package inserts and the Internet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Profile of women seeking medical termination of pregnancy in South India. (United States)

    Holla, Ramesh; Kanchan, Tanuj; Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran; Kotian, Mangalore Shashidhar; Kumar, Nithin; Thapar, Rekha; Mithra, Prasanna; Papanna, Mohan Kumar; Kulkarni, Vaman; Darshan, Bhagawan Bhagyamma


    To investigate the demographic and obstetric profile of women seeking medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) in South India in accordance with the MTP Act of India. A registry-based retrospective study was carried out at a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India. The hospital records of all pregnant women seeking MTP over a 2-year period between January 2011 and December 2012 were reviewed. A total of 244 women underwent MTP during the study period. More than one-third (37.8%) were aged between 26 and 30 years. The majority of women underwent MTP during the first trimester (79.5%). Medical reasons were cited as the most common reason for undergoing MTP (39.3%), followed by unplanned pregnancy (34.8%). The majority of women were seeking MTP for the first time (84.8%). More than half of the women (52.9%) opted for post-MTP contraception. MTP for unplanned pregnancy can be prevented if people are well informed about methods of contraception. MTP is an opportunity for healthcare professionals to discuss fertility needs and need for contraception with women seeking MTP so that appropriate decisions can be taken for suitable family planning. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Health seeking behaviour of parents of burned children in Bangladesh is related to family socioeconomics. (United States)

    Mashreky, S R; Rahman, A; Chowdhury, S M; Svanström, L; Shafinaz, S; Khan, T F; Rahman, F


    The study was design to explore the health seeking behaviour of Bangladeshi parents for their children during burn injuries. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted between January and December 2003 in Bangladesh. Nationally representative data were collected from 171,366 rural and urban households comprising of a total population of 819,429, including 351,651 children of 0-18 years. Mothers or heads of households were interviewed with a structured questionnaire in obtaining the information. About sixty percent parents seek health care from unqualified service providers for their children during a childhood burn injury. Educated and the higher income groups parents choose qualified service provider at significantly higher rate compared to illiterate and poor. Higher proportion of parents of urban residence chooses qualified service provider compared to rural. No significant difference of health seeking behaviour of parent in choosing care provider was found in relation to sex of the children. Education, economic condition and place of residence were found as the contributory factors in choosing service provider. Education to the parents can contribute in changes in health seeking behaviour which ultimately contribute in reducing morbidity and mortality from childhood burn injuries. Including parent's education a national burn prevention program needs to be developed to combat the devastating child injury, burn. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gaps in knowledge: tracking and explaining gender differences in health information seeking. (United States)

    Manierre, Matthew J


    Self-directed health information seeking has become increasingly common in recent years, yet there is a substantial body of evidence suggesting that females are more likely to engage in information seeking than males. Previous research has largely ignored the significance of this difference as both an empirical and a theoretical finding. The current study has two goals, seeking to track this sex gap over time and to test explanations for its existence. The three explanations tested are based in past findings of gendered division of childcare labor, gendered reactivity to illness, and gendered perceived risk of illness. These were tested using multiple dependent variables from both repeated cross sectional data and 2012 data from the Health Information Trends Survey (HINTS). Results show that females are significantly more likely to look for cancer information, information in general, and information over the Internet over time than males, though the gap may be closing in the case of cancer information. The three explanations also received little clear support though perceived risk of getting cancer acted as a mediator through which men may be less likely to look for cancer information. Based on this analysis it is clear that a sex gap in information seeking is present and theories of masculinity and health may hold promise in some contexts but additional explanations are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcohol-seeking and relapse: A focus on incentive salience and contextual conditioning. (United States)

    Valyear, Milan D; Villaruel, Franz R; Chaudhri, Nadia


    Environmental stimuli that reliably accompany alcohol intake can become associated with the pharmacological effects of alcohol through classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. Of growing interest to addiction researchers is whether or not this process results in the attribution of incentive salience to alcohol-predictive cues, which could motivate alcohol-seeking behavior and relapse. To evaluate this question, we present a review of rodent behavioral studies that examined the capacity of alcohol-predictive cues to (i) support sign-tracking behavior, (ii) serve as conditioned reinforcers, and (iii) produce Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer. A second, emerging area of research is focused on delineating the role of context in alcohol-seeking behavior and relapse. Here, we review studies showing that alcohol-associated contexts (i) support conditioned place preference, (ii) renew extinguished alcohol-seeking behavior, and (iii) modulate alcohol-seeking responses elicited by discrete alcohol-predictive cues. These behavioral effects may be mediated by unique psychological processes, and have important implications for cue-reactivity studies and neurobiological research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Patient navigation pathway and barriers to treatment seeking in cancer in India: a qualitative inquiry. (United States)

    Pati, Sanghamitra; Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh; Mallick, Diptimayee; Nayak, Sukdev


    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Early diagnosis and treatment of cancer may curb the growing burden of the disease. Understanding cancer patients' navigation pathways for seeking treatment is important in order to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. With this background we conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study comprising 68 randomly selected cancer inpatients in a tertiary cancer specialty hospital in Odisha, India, to explore the treatment-seeking pathways of the cancer patients and the barriers and enablers in seeking treatment. Financial constraint is one of the major reasons for the delay in accessing treatment, even when patients are suspected of or diagnosed with cancer. Low awareness of the presenting signs and symptoms of cancer and limited knowledge of the availability of cancer diagnosis and treatment facilities are major factors contributing to delay. Family and friends' support is found to be the major enabling factor toward seeking treatment. Generation of awareness of cancer among the general population and primary-care practitioners - including those in alternative systems of medicine - is important. Information on diagnostic and treatment services appears to be a felt need. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative risk assessment and cessation information seeking among smokeless tobacco users. (United States)

    Jun, Jungmi; Nan, Xiaoli


    This research examined (1) smokeless tobacco users' comparative optimism in assessing the health and addiction risks of their own product in comparison with cigarettes, and (2) the effects of comparative optimism on cessation information-seeking. A nationally-representative sample from the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)-FDA was employed. The analyses revealed the presence of comparative optimism in assessing both health and addiction risks among smokeless tobacco users. Comparative optimism was negatively correlated with most cessation information-seeking variables. Health bias (the health risk rating gap between the subject's own tobacco product and cigarettes) was associated with decreased intent to use cessation support. However, the health bias and addiction bias (the addiction risk rating gap between the subject's own tobacco product and cigarettes) were not consistent predictors of all cessation information-seeking variables, when covariates of socio-demographics and tobacco use status were included. In addition, positive correlations between health bias and past/recent cessation-information searches were observed. Optimisic biases may negatively influence cessation behaviors not only directly but also indirectly by influencing an important moderator, cessation information-seeking. Future interventions should prioritize dispelling the comparative optimism in perceiving risks of smokeless tobacco use, as well as provide more reliable cessation information specific to smokeless tobacco users. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Information seeking and perceptions of anxiety and pain among women undergoing hysterosalpingography. (United States)

    Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Levy, Sigal; Peled, Yoav; Binyamin, Liat; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Goldzweig, Gil; Krissi, Haim


    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is an accepted diagnostic tool for infertility workup and is considered an invasive procedure that is generally regarded as uncomfortable and painful, though research on psychological consequences is scarce and outdated. The study objective was to investigate women's experience of HSG in terms of fear, anxiety and pain, as compared to colposcopy. This cross sectional questionnaire study was conducted at two public women's health clinics in Israel between January 2013 and March 2014. 137 women were included in the study. 42 consecutively sampled women referred for outpatient HSG and 95 consecutively sampled women referred for outpatient diagnostic colposcopy. The main outcome measures were: state-trait anxiety, information seeking behavior, fear of pain, fear of the results, retrospective pain. Compared to those undergoing colposcopy, women undergoing HSG expressed significantly higher anxiety prior to the procedure, feared the pain involved more, and rated the procedure as more painful retrospectively. HSG patients tended to report a higher degree of information seeking. Information seeking was correlated with higher anxiety among HSG but not colposcopy patients. HSG is a highly stressful procedure associated with fear, anxiety, pain and information seeking. Research is needed to find possible ways of ameliorating these emotions and behaviors as they may have negative impact on patient cooperation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel data sources for women's health research: mapping breast screening online information seeking through Google trends. (United States)

    Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Carlos, Ruth C; Hall, Kelli S; Dalton, Vanessa K


    Millions of people use online search engines everyday to find health-related information and voluntarily share their personal health status and behaviors in various Web sites. Thus, data from tracking of online information seeker's behavior offer potential opportunities for use in public health surveillance and research. Google Trends is a feature of Google which allows Internet users to graph the frequency of searches for a single term or phrase over time or by geographic region. We used Google Trends to describe patterns of information-seeking behavior in the subject of dense breasts and to examine their correlation with the passage or introduction of dense breast notification legislation. To capture the temporal variations of information seeking about dense breasts, the Web search query "dense breast" was entered in the Google Trends tool. We then mapped the dates of legislative actions regarding dense breasts that received widespread coverage in the lay media to information-seeking trends about dense breasts over time. Newsworthy events and legislative actions appear to correlate well with peaks in search volume of "dense breast". Geographic regions with the highest search volumes have passed, denied, or are currently considering the dense breast legislation. Our study demonstrated that any legislative action and respective news coverage correlate with increase in information seeking for "dense breast" on Google, suggesting that Google Trends has the potential to serve as a data source for policy-relevant research. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Management of Talar Component Subsidence. (United States)

    Li, Shu-Yuan; Myerson, Mark S


    Component subsidence has been found to be the top complication that leads to failure of the total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). The cause of subsidence formation is unclear, and is multifactorial. Talar subsidence is more frequently met than tibial subsidence, and the subsequent big bone loss is demanding to handle. As a revision treatment option, neither a revision TAA nor a salvage ankle and/or hindfoot arthrodesis procedure is easy to perform or can obtain a definite outcome. The Salto XT can be used to treat most of the TAA systems available for use in the United States with acceptable short-term outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Trajectory of intimate partner violence and healthcare seeking over the life course: study of Japanese women in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. (United States)

    Kamimura, A; Yoshihama, M; Bybee, D


    To describe the trajectory of, and examine factors affecting, intimate partner violence (IPV) and IPV-specific healthcare seeking among Japanese women over the life course. Life course study. One hundred and one women, aged 24-80 years, who had a lifetime history of IPV were interviewed in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan in 2005 and 2006. Life course data were collected according to the life history calendar method. Hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine IPV-specific healthcare seeking over the life course. Injury, formal or informal help seeking, public assistance, worse self-rated health status and smoking significantly increased the likelihood of IPV-specific healthcare seeking over the life course. There are significant cohort effects on healthcare seeking. The results suggest that women who experience IPV may seek healthcare services not only immediately after the first occurrence of IPV, but also later in life. IPV is not always associated with immediate healthcare seeking. In particular, sexual IPV is not significantly associated with healthcare seeking. Pursuing formal and informal help is associated with healthcare seeking. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.


    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  12. Supply chain components


    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.


    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  13. The U.S. Air Force Aeromedical Evacuation Mission: A Mission for the Air Reserve Components (United States)


    for one night of lodging for out of town members per UTA .75 With most out of town members driving up the night before to be in place for a 0700 am...had lost all objectivity. Most important, I would like to thank my wife and daughter for the amount of time they allowed me to spend on the...colossal undertaking of completing the ASCS On -Line Master’s Program, of which, this paper is the final culmination. Thank you to my wife, for reading my

  14. National Guard Special Forces: Enhancing the Contributions of Reserve Component Army Special Operations Forces (United States)


    Jackson, MS Glen Arm, MD 20 Jackson, MS Citronelle , AL Decatur, AL 20 Ft Payne, AL Louisville, KY Figure 2.3 Geographical Distribution of ARNG Special...Grenada, MS HQ/2/20th SFG BSC/2/20th SFG Jackson, MS B/1/20th SFG Citronelle , AL DET 1/B/1/20th Decatur, AL C/3/20th SFG Wauchula, FL A/3/20th SFG

  15. 2015 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Tabulations of Responses (United States)


    environment and sexual quid pro quo) and/or the gender discrimination prevalence rate...frame of “12 months prior to taking the survey.”4 3. Gender-Related MEO Violations—Experiences of MEO violations ( discrimination and sexual ...for sexual harassment, gender discrimination , and sexual assault to tailor question stems and survey responses to each respondent based on his/her

  16. 2015 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Statistical Methodology Report (United States)


    Sexual harassment, gender discrimination , and sexual assault. The 2014 RMWS nonresponse adjustment involved two steps, each of which produced a...were necessary. Using completed 2015 cases, six outcome variables were modeled for females: sexual harassment, gender discrimination , sexual quid... discrimination , and sexual assault were modeled because few incidents were reported for the other three variables. Table 5 provides a list of the candidate

  17. Army Reserve Components: Improvements Needed to Data Quality and Management Procedures to Better Report Soldier Availability (United States)


    surgery, or pregnancy . However, once a medical treatment provider determines that a soldier has a condition that does not appear to meet medical...801-7077, or TDD (202) 512-2537. Orders may be paid for using American Express, Discover Card , MasterCard, Visa, check, or money order. Call for

  18. A Nation in Need: The Air Reserve Component and Wildland Firefighting (United States)


    responsiveness i In addition to the examples to follow in this article , USNORTHCOM Wildland...argument is often made by OSD when advocating a Title 10 mandate. It is the opinion of this author that this is a gratuitous attempt to make unity...Command for No-Notice Events: Integrating the Military Response to Domestic Disasters,” Homeland Security Affairs, Vol 7, Article 4 (February 2011). 16

  19. 2015 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members. Overview Report (2015 WGRR) (United States)


    prevention and response of sexual harassment and gender discrimination . The overall goal of ODMEO is to provide an “environment in which Service members are...and MEO violations pertaining to sexual harassment and gender discrimination . Historically, to measure sexual assault, DMDC’s WGR surveys have used...experiences of a sexually hostile work environment and/or sexual quid pro quo, and gender discrimination . Chapter 1 provides additional information

  20. Reserve Component Field-Grade Officer Preparation for Natural Disaster Relief (United States)


    effects of tropical cyclone events including hurricanes that make landfall.15 The combination of large numbers of people near the coast and the...Military Duty Status The HSPD 5 slide effectively condenses the information contained in the directive. There is a hyperlink on the slide to the...National Climatic Data Center Technical Report No. 2003-01, (December 2003):7. 13 Franks Hobbs and Nicole Stoops , Demographic Trends in the 20th Century

  1. Building A Better Force: Regular Army / Reserve Components Integration In The Army Chemical Corps (United States)


    Fort Hood , TX, CPT Mike Larmore cased the colors of the 46th Chemical Company for the last time, signifying its inactivation from the Regular Army... Joshua E. Kastenberg, Shaping US Military Law: Governing a Constitutional Military, (Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2014), 204-5, accessed December 28, 2015...Kastenberg, Joshua E. Shaping US Military Law: Governing a Constitutional Military. Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2014. Accessed December 28, 2015

  2. 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Reserve Component Members: Tabulations of Responses (United States)


    560 DMDC 107. What is your religion , if any? 1. Christian (e.g., Protestant, Catholic, Orthodox, Mormon /Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day...558  107.  What is your religion , if any?.......................................................................... 560  2011 Workplace and Equal...reside and their religion . Population and Reporting Categories The population of interest for the 2011 WEOR consisted of members from the Selected

  3. Evaluation of HRV Biofeedback as a Resilience Building Intervention in the Reserve Component (United States)


    health care provider a. Primary care physician or general medical doctor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 b. Mental health professional (e.g., psychologist ...professional at a military facility (e.g., psychologist , psychiatrist, clinical social worker, or other mental health counselor...1 2 d. Civilian mental health professional (e.g., psychologist , psychiatrist, clinical social worker, or other mental

  4. Analysis of Suicide Behaviors in the Navy Active Duty and Reserve Component Population (United States)


    to Fire Arms Firearms have consistently been the primary method of suicide and the most lethal means of death for both the civilian and military...populations. Non-military firearms were used in more than 40% of all DOD reported suicides in 2008–2012. During this same time period, military... firearms caused less than 25% of all DOD suicides (Smolenski, 2013). This contradicts the belief that military firearms put service members at an

  5. 2004 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Tabulations of Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... This report gathered information on demographics, military workplace information, satisfaction and retention, military/civilian personnel categories and civilian education status, readiness, health...

  6. Reserve Component Training for Operating and Maintaining the M48A5 Tank (United States)


    assembly. . Removed retainer clip and charger assembly from projecting stud. 1*. INSPECT M219 MACHIKEGUK (AB201) . Checked all metal ...Reported any daina^e to ir.cunt to the vehicle coriander . . Adjusted the daylight and IR headrest for proper fit. . Opened ballistic...Readiness Test. c. Given an M48A5 tank with gun tube aimed at a suitable boresight target (but slightly out of allnement with respect to target), heavy

  7. Basic Training of Non-Prior Service Personnel in the Reserve Component (United States)


    For example, the Wall Street Journal recently quoted an about-to-be deployed Naval Reservist as saying she chose the Navy because it was the only...Equipment,” The Officer 80, no. 1 (January/February 2003): 24. 2 General Barry L. McCaffrey, Editorial, Wall Street Journal , 1 April 2003. 6 Greg Jaffe, “Today, Military Kids Often Say Goodbye to Dad- and Mom,” Wall Street Journal , 11 March 2003. 7 Representative Bob Stump, “The

  8. Costs of Flying Units in Air Force Active and Reserve Components (United States)


    puerto Rico ANG headquarters x Radar Evaluation Squadron x Range Control Squadron x Range Squadron x Range Support Squadron x Rapid Reaction Squadron x...Within operational units, aircrews must meet frequency and currency standards for spe- cific types of sorties and events in order to maintain mission

  9. Issues Related to Recruitment of Enlisted Personnel for the Reserve Components. Wave II. Technical Volume. Supplement. (United States)


    O I O R N R A N Z T O t%,, cte for Deeseac inD(it plicale) Defns Manoe Data-Cener-0491 .E (City, State, and ZIP Code) 10 SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS P...3() 4() 9() 1 e. Fisn l( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 9( f. Gardening 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 9( ) g. Watching a football game 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 9( ) h. Reading... football game 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 9( )L h. Reading about medicine l( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 9( )-4 1. Dining out 1() 2() 3() 4() 9( )- * j. Participating

  10. Reserve Component General and Flag Officers: A Review of Requirements and Authorized Strength (United States)


    a senior civilian—SES, Defense Intelligence Senior Executive Service ( DISES ), or Defense Intelligence Senior Level (DISL). RAND researchers selected...serve as the superior of flag or general officers or SES civil - ians.3 It is also commonly held that a flag or general officer should be the with allied and interagency communities on intelligence and counterintelligence issues, so any potential conversion to DISES /DISL would have to

  11. Hot gas path component (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward


    Various embodiments of the disclosure include a turbomachine component. and methods of forming such a component. Some embodiments include a turbomachine component including: a first portion including at least one of a stainless steel or an alloy steel; and a second portion joined with the first portion, the second portion including a nickel alloy including an arced cooling feature extending therethrough, the second portion having a thermal expansion coefficient substantially similar to a thermal expansion coefficient of the first portion, wherein the arced cooling feature is located within the second portion to direct a portion of a coolant to a leakage area of the turbomachine component.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The core component pot is an open top vessel used to hold both new and irradiated core components for storage in the IDS and for holding the components submerged in sodium while being trasported inside CLEM. The top of the CCP is equipped with a grapple lip which is engaged by the hoisting grapples. Heat for maintaining the preheat of new components and dissipation of decay heat of irradiated fuel assemblies is conducted between the wall of the pot and the surrounding environment by thermal radiation and convection.

  13. STEM Summer Academy on the Navajo Reservation (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.


    The US Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission, an ESA cornerstone mission to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. While the project's outreach efforts span multi-media, and a variety of age and ethnic groups, a special emphasis has been made to find a way to provide meaningful outreach to the reservation communities. Because language preservation is an issue of urgent concern to the reservation communities, and because Rosetta, uniquely among NASA missions, has been named after the notion that keys to missing understanding of elements of the ancient past were found in the language on the original Rosetta stone, the US Rosetta Project has embarked upon outreach with a focus on STEM vocabulary in ancient US languages of the Navajo, Hopi, Ojibwe, and other tribal communities as the project expands. NASA image and science are used and described in the native language, alongside lay English and scientific English curriculum elements. Additionally, science (geology/chemistry/botany/physics) elements drawn from the reservation environment, including geomorphology, geochemistry, soil physics, are included and discussed in the native language as much as possible — with their analogs in other planetary environments (such as Mars). In this paper we will report on the most recent Summer Science Academy [2012], a four week summer course for middle school children, created in collaboration with teachers and administrators in the Chinle Unified School District. The concept of the Academy was initiated in 2011, and the first Academy was conducted shortly thereafter, in June 2011 with 14 children, 3 instructors, and a NASA teacher workshop. The community requested three topics: geology, astronomy, and botany. The 2012 Academy built on the curriculum already developed with more robust field trips, addressed to specific science topics, additional quantitative measurements and activities, with more written material for the cultural components from

  14. What do help-seeking measures assess? Building a conceptualization framework for help-seeking intentions through a systematic review of measure content. (United States)

    White, Margaret M; Clough, Bonnie A; Casey, Leanne M


    Mental health services are underutilised by people who could benefit from treatment. Research into help-seeking intentions (HSI) is required to support interventions to increase service use. Existing HSI measures are not psychometrically robust and problems with content validity undermine research in this field. Our purpose was to create a clear conceptualization of HSI and systematically review the content of existing measures. Previous researchers had defined help-seeking and intentions separately, so the first step was to create a more comprehensive definition. Seven theoretical perspectives identified in the HSI literature were mapped onto the new definition and aggregated to form a conceptual framework that reflects expert opinion. This framework guided an analysis of item relevance and a comparison of completeness across measures. Most individual items (99.1%) were relevant, lending credibility to the proposed framework. However, no measure provided a complete assessment of the HSI construct. This study used a novel methodology to develop a definition and conceptual framework, both of which reflect sound theoretical perspectives and represent the consensus-view of experts. The current results will guide the development of stronger measures with improved construct validity and will support interventions aimed at improving help-seeking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Social Goals and Willingness to Seek Help for School Violence (United States)

    Yablon, Yaacov B.


    The relation between students' social goals and their willingness to seek help for school violence was examined. Four hundred and sixty-two students from sixth, eighth, and tenth grades responded to vignettes used to assess willingness to seek help from teachers and friends for dealing with relational and physical violence. Intimacy goals enhanced…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the information-seeking behavior of academic members of staff of the Faculty of Law, University of Dar Es Salaam. The objective of the study was to find out how staff seek information in the light of the changes introduced in the library, particularly the introduction of Information and ...

  17. Exploring University Students' Online Information Seeking about Prescription Medications (United States)

    Alkhalaf, Ahmad Abdullah


    This study explored university students' information seeking behaviors related to prescription medication (PM) information. Specifically, it examined the different sources students use for PM information, their use and perceptions of online sources, the types of PM information they seek, their concerns about, and methods they apply to verify the…

  18. The Information Seeking and Use Behaviors of Retired Investors (United States)

    O'Connor, Lisa G.


    This exploratory study examines the information seeking and use behaviors of a group of US retired or near-retirement investors from everyday life information seeking and serious leisure perspectives. Although primarily qualitative, it also collects and analyzes quantitative data to describe retired investors' information preferences and use.…

  19. A hierarchical modeling of information seeking behavior of school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the information seeking behavior of school teachers in the public primary schools of rural areas of Nigeria and to draw up a model of their information-seeking behavior. A Cross-sectional survey design research was employed to carry out the research. Findings showed that the ...

  20. The Information-Seeking Habits of Engineering Faculty (United States)

    Engel, Debra; Robbins, Sarah; Kulp, Christina


    Many studies of information-seeking habits of engineers focus on understanding the similarities and differences between scientists and engineers. This study explores the information-seeking behavior of academic engineering faculty from twenty public research universities. This investigation includes an examination of how frequently engineer- ing…

  1. Health Seeking Behavior of Patients Diagnosed with Cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 1, 2018 ... OPEN ACCESS. Citation: Zinaw Mesafint, Yemane. Berhane, Dawit Desalegn. Health Seeking. Behavior of Patients Diagnosed with. Cervical Cancer in Addis Ababa, ... explore the care seeking behavior of women with cervical cancer. METHODS: A ... gather relevant information to address the objectives of ...

  2. Factors that Influence Information Seeking Behaviour of Sandwich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors that influence the information seeking behavior of sandwich students in selected Nigerian Univ ersities. Questionnaire was used to collect data with a response rate of (97.30%). Among the factors that influence information seeking is availability of internet resources in or near the library; ...

  3. Factors that Influence Information Seeking Behaviour of Sandwich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors that influence the information seeking behavior of sandwich students in selected Nigerian Universities. Questionnaire was used to collect data with a response rate of (97.30%). Among the factors that influence information seeking is availability of internet resources in or near the library; ...

  4. Stigma in Help-Seeking: The Case of Adolescents (United States)

    Shechtman, Zipora; Vogel, David L.; Strass, Haley A.; Heath, Patrick J.


    Stigma associated with seeking help has been found to be a key help-seeking barrier, however its role is less clear for: (a) adolescents, (b) groups outside the United States and (c) different types of therapy. This study addresses these omissions by examining the relationships between perceptions of public stigma of mental illness and the…

  5. Elaborating the Conceptual Space of Information-Seeking Phenomena (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo


    Introduction: The article contributes to conceptual studies of information behaviour research by examining the conceptualisations of information seeking and related terms such as information search and browsing. Method: The study builds on Bates' integrated model of information seeking and searching, originally presented in 2002. The model was…

  6. Information-seeking behavior of social sciences scholars: A Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the information-seeking behavior of scholars in the social sciences, based on the premise that information-seeking behavior follows universally applicable stages and patterns worldwide. The study was conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER). Fifty eight active ...

  7. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.


    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  8. Bone-seeking /sup 99m/Tc complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, G.; McAfee, J.G.


    A bone-seeking, technetium-99m-tin-phosphonate complex effective as a skeletal-imaging agent has been found particularly useful for diagnostic purposes. Skeletal tissue concentrations or technetium-99m obtained with the complex compare favorably to other bone-seeking radionuclides

  9. Suicidal Behavior and Help Seeking among Diverse College Students (United States)

    Brownson, Chris; Becker, Martin Swanbrow; Shadick, Richard; Jaggars, Shanna S.; Nitkin-Kaner, Yael


    Suicidal and help-seeking behaviors of students of color remain a significant problem on college campuses. Self-reported suicidal experiences and help-seeking behavior of diverse students are examined on the basis of results from a national survey of college student mental health. The results suggest significant differences in the expression of…

  10. Hypothalamic control of male aggression-seeking behavior. (United States)

    Falkner, Annegret L; Grosenick, Logan; Davidson, Thomas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Lin, Dayu


    In many vertebrate species, certain individuals will seek out opportunities for aggression, even in the absence of threat-provoking cues. Although several brain areas have been implicated in the generation of attack in response to social threat, little is known about the neural mechanisms that promote self-initiated or 'voluntary' aggression-seeking when no threat is present. To explore this directly, we utilized an aggression-seeking task in which male mice self-initiated aggression trials to gain brief and repeated access to a weaker male that they could attack. In males that exhibited rapid task learning, we found that the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl), an area with a known role in attack, was essential for aggression-seeking. Using both single-unit electrophysiology and population optical recording, we found that VMHvl neurons became active during aggression-seeking and that their activity tracked changes in task learning and extinction. Inactivation of the VMHvl reduced aggression-seeking behavior, whereas optogenetic stimulation of the VMHvl accelerated moment-to-moment aggression-seeking and intensified future attack. These data demonstrate that the VMHvl can mediate both acute attack and flexible seeking actions that precede attack.

  11. Health seeking behaviour among Igbo women with gynaecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Determining the Health seeking behaviour of a community is necessary to identify areas of delay, miscoceptions and therefore plan for effective interventions. Objective: To determine the health seeking behaviour of women presenting with gynaecological complaints. Study design /setting: A prospective cross ...

  12. Health Seeking Behaviour among Individuals with Presumptive Tuberculosis in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Kapata, Nathan; Masiye, Felix; Maboshe, Mwendaweli; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P.


    Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys offer a unique opportunity to study health seeking behaviour at the population level because they identify individuals with symptoms that should ideally prompt a health consultation. To assess the health-seeking behaviour among individuals who were presumptive TB

  13. Procedures and Collaborative Information Seeking: A Study of Emergency Departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Reddy, Madhu


    Information seeking is a central and inherently collaborative activity in the emergency department (ED) which is the common entry point to hospitals for nearly all acute patients. In this paper, we investigate how ED clinicians’ collabo-rative information seeking (CIS) is shaped by the procedures...

  14. Measuring Feedback-Seeking Modes: An Alternative to Composite Scores. (United States)

    Bode, Rita K.

    An alternative to the use of traditional composite scales in creating scales from survey items was developed, using feedback seeking as an example. It is proposed that much more information can be obtained through Rasch techniques about feedback-seeking behaviors related to teaching. Data are from the New Faculty Project involving tenure-track…

  15. 2009 Page 23 Information seeking Behavior of lecturers in Faculties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbaje E.S

    Information seeking Behavior of lecturers in Faculties of Education in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife and University of ... Nigeria. Abstract. The study investigate the information seeking patterns and types of information sources used on the internet by ..... scientists generally require current material and use information ...

  16. Studies on asymptomatic malaria, prevention and treatment seeking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on asymptomatic malaria, prevention and treatment seeking behaviours in Abeokuta, south-west Nigeria. ... Self-diagnosis for the disease was more common (60.8%) among the participants, compared to other measures; seeking laboratory test (26.5%) and clinical diagnosis (9.1%). A good proportion of the ...

  17. Health seeking behaviours of female manual labourers towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Occupation may affect health seeking behaviour. Very little is known about this behaviour in labourers. This study assessed the health-seeking behaviour of the female manual labourers to fever in Jos, Nigeria. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 300 female manual ...

  18. Sensation seeking in males involved in recreational high risk sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Guszkowska


    Full Text Available The study examined sensation seeking intensity level in males involved in recreational high risk sports and investigated whether its level depends on type of sport practised. Additionally, in case of parachutists, sport experience of study participants were scrutinised with regard to its possible impact on the level of sensation seeking.The research involved 217 males aged 17 to 45, practising recreational high risk sports, namely: parachuting (n=98; wakeboarding (n=30; snowboarding (n=30; scuba diving (n=22; alpinism (n=20; paragliding (n=17. The control group included 54 men not involved in sports. Polish version of Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-IV of Zuckerman was applied.Results show, that high risk sports males are featured by stronger need of sensations in comparison to control group and this concerned all but one aspect of sensation seeking variable. The only exception was the need of intellectual stimulation. Except from the thrill and adventure seeking dimension, type of sport may also be an important determinant of sensation seeking. Men practising snowboard and wakeboard presented stronger need for sensations, especially in the dimension of experience seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Sport experience (number of jumps in parachuting did not differentiate the level of sensation seeking among investigated parachutists. Population of sport high risk male takers was not homogeneous, and therefore in future research one should analyse specific sports (or events in a certain sport separately.

  19. Barriers to Chinese College Students Seeking Psychological Help from Professionals (United States)

    Wang, Haiping


    Chinese students were found less likely to seek professional help for psychological problems compared to their western counterparts. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the barriers to Chinese college students seeking psychological help from professionals. Quantitative data on Asian values, social supports, self-stigma,…

  20. Understanding and Facilitating Self-Regulated Help Seeking (United States)

    Karabenick, Stuart A.; Dembo, Myron H.


    Help seeking is an important developmental skill, a form of behavioral, or social, self-regulation employed by cognitively, behaviorally, and emotionally engaged learners. Help seeking is unique among learning strategies as it may imply that learners are incapable of task completion or satisfactory performance without assistance, which can be…

  1. Determinants of patient delay in seeking treatment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients delay in seeking care increases the transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis and hence the burden of the disease. This study investigates the pattern and determinants of patients delay in seeking treatment among pulmonary tuberculosis cases attending a Government Chest Clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria. A descriptive ...

  2. 5 CFR 2635.604 - Disqualification while seeking employment. (United States)


    .... 2635.604 Section 2635.604 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH Seeking Other Employment § 2635.604... interests of a prospective employer with whom he is seeking employment within the meaning of § 2635.603(b...

  3. Help-Seeking Behaviors of Accounting Principles I Students. (United States)

    Moncada, Susan M.; Sanders, Joseph C.

    This study examined the help-seeking propensities of college students enrolled in a "Principles of Financial Accounting I" course. A total of 364 students responded to a questionnaire on various aspects of help-seeking behavior. It was found that the most frequently used source of help was friends or classmates, followed by the instructor and the…

  4. Attitude and help-seeking for hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vandenBrink, RHS; Wit, HP; Kempen, GIJM; vanHeuvelen, MJG


    The aim of the present study was to investigate help-seeking for hearing impairment in the elderly, and to compare groups showing dissimilar help-seeking on their attitude toward hearing loss and hearing aids. Attitude factors were based on a revised version of the Health Belief Model, and included

  5. Determinants of patient delay in seeking treatment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract: Patients delay in seeking care increases the transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis and hence the burden of the disease. This study investigates the pattern and determinants of patients delay in seeking treatment among pulmonary tuberculosis cases attending a Government Chest Clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria.

  6. The Role of Personality in Musicians' Information Seeking for Creativity (United States)

    Kostagiolas, Petros; Lavranos, Charilaos; Martzoukou, Konstantina; Papadatos, Joseph


    Introduction: This paper explores the relationship between musicians' information seeking behaviour and their personality traits within the context of musical creativity. Although previous research has addressed different socio-technological and behavioral aspects of music information seeking, the role of personality characteristics around…

  7. Predictors of Attitudes toward Seeking Counseling among International Students. (United States)

    Komiya, Noboru; Eells, Gregory T.


    Investigates predictors of international students' (N=121) attitudes toward seeking counseling. Results indicate that being female, having greater openness to emotions, and having had prior counseling experience were significant predictors of more open attitudes toward seeking counseling. (Contains 27 references.) (GCP)

  8. Information Seeking of Scholars in the Field of Higher Education (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Sarah Rose


    This study examines the information seeking of scholars in the field of Higher Education. I interviewed Higher Education scholars about their use of the web, library resources, and interpersonal networking for their research. I also spoke with them about how the faculty reward system shapes their information seeking habits. I drew on information…

  9. Spatial factors as contextual qualifiers of information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Savolainen


    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper investigates the ways in which spatial factors have been approached in information seeking studies. The main attention was focused on studies discussing information seeking on the level of source selection and use. Method. Conceptual analysis of about 100 articles and books thematizing spatial issues of information seeking. Due to research economy, the main attention was paid to studies on everyday life information seeking. Results. Three major viewpoints were identified with regard to the degree of objectivity of spatial factors. The objectifying approach conceives of spatial factors as external and entity-like qualifiers that primarly constrain information seeking. The realistic-pragmatic approach emphasizes the ways in which the availabilty of information sources in different places such as daily work environments orient information seeking. The perspectivist approach focuses on how people subjectively assess the significance of various sources by means of spatial constructs such as information horizons. Conclusion. Spatial factors are centrally important contextual qualifiers of information seeking. There is a need to further explore the potential of the above viewpoints by relating the spatial and temporal factors of information seeking.

  10. Family Functioning and Adolescent Help-Seeking Behavior. (United States)

    Fallon, Barry J.; Bowles, Terry V. P.


    Examined relationship between help seeking behavior and family functioning. Adolescents who sought help clustered into two groups of families - one high in conflict and low in democratic parenting style, and one low in conflict and high in democratic parenting style. Complex relationships between help seeking behavior, type of family, and type of…

  11. Seeking justice: Women's police stations in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These include “non-institutional” models that may not always insist on legal sanctions, such as those based on family values or mediation. Women seeking justice rarely follow the full judicial process; some just want to scare their husbands or to seek immediate protection. When asked, “If your partner/husband abused you, ...

  12. Avoidance of Counseling: Psychological Factors that Inhibit Seeking Help (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Wester, Stephen R.; Larson, Lisa M.


    How do counselors reach out to individuals who are reluctant to seek counseling services? To answer this question, the authors examined the research on the psychological help-seeking barriers from counseling, clinical and social psychology, as well as social work and psychiatry. Specific avoidance factors that have been identified in the mental…

  13. Understanding why women seek abortions in the US


    Biggs, M; Gould, Heather; Foster, Diana


    Abstract Background The current political climate with regards to abortion in the US, along with the economic recession may be affecting women’s reasons for seeking abortion, warranting a new investigation into the reasons why women seek abortion. Methods Data for this study were drawn from baseline quantitative and qualitative data from the Turnaway Study, an ongoing, five-year, longitudinal study evalu...

  14. Assessment of the Health Seeking Behaviour of Medical Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health seeking behavior of Medical Laboratory Scientists in developing countries is not known currently. Our study sought to describe the health seeking behavior of Medical Laboratory Scientists in Nigeria. Methodology : A cross-sectional survey was carried out among Medical Laboratory Scientists working at ...

  15. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan


    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representi...

  16. Young learners' use of social media for information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden


    information seeking activities, strategies and preferences can be identified when young learners use social media for information seeking in relation to course work and other study-related work tasks? 2) What motivations can be identified among young learners for using social media for information seeking......Background. Increased use of social media for information seeking and learning calls for more research and knowledge of how these emerging technologies can support students’ learning. Objectives. The focus is on recent studies of young learners’ use of social media for information seeking...... in a study context? Results. Seven studies were identified and reviewed. According to the reported results, use of social media tends to afford certain types of behavior. Specific strategies, tactics and criteria were used when requesting and evaluating information or formulating information needs...

  17. Information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalervo Järvelin


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the research into information seeking and its directions at a general level. We approach this topic by analysis and argumentation based on past research in the domain. We begin by presenting a general model of information seeking and retrieval (IS&R which is used to derive nine broad dimensions that are needed to analyze IS&R. Past research is then contrasted with the dimensions and shown not to cover the dimensions sufficiently. Based on an analysis of the goals of information seeking research, and a view on human task performance augmentation, it is then shown that information seeking is intimately associated with, and dependent on, other aspects of work; tasks and technology included. This leads to a discussion on design and evaluation frameworks for IS&R, based on which two action lines are proposed: information retrieval research needs extension towards more context and information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and technology.

  18. Information seeking about tool properties in great apes. (United States)

    Bohn, Manuel; Allritz, Matthias; Call, Josep; Völter, Christoph J


    Evidence suggests that great apes engage in metacognitive information seeking for food items. To support the claim that a domain-general cognitive process underlies ape metacognition one needs to show that selective information seeking extends to non-food items. In this study, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and orangutans (Pongo abelii) either had to determine the location of a desired food item or a property of a non-food item (length of a tool). We manipulated whether subjects received prior information about the item's location or property. During the test, subjects had the opportunity to seek the respective information. Results show that apes engaged in more information seeking when they had no prior knowledge. Importantly, this selective pattern of information seeking applied to food as well as to tools.

  19. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...

  20. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...

  1. Differential role of ventral tegmental area acetylcholine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in cocaine-seeking. (United States)

    Solecki, Wojciech; Wickham, Robert J; Behrens, Shay; Wang, Jie; Zwerling, Blake; Mason, Graeme F; Addy, Nii A


    Exposure to drug-associated cues evokes drug-seeking behavior and is regarded as a major cause of relapse. Cues evoke burst firing of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons and phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Cholinergic and glutamatergic input to the VTA is suggested to gate phasic DA activity. However, the role of VTA cholinergic and glutamatergic receptors in regulating phasic dopamine release and cue-induced drug-seeking in cocaine experienced subjects is not known. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, we found that VTA inactivation strongly inhibited, while VTA stimulation promoted, cocaine-seeking behavior during early withdrawal. Blockade of phasic activated D1 receptors in the NAc core also strongly inhibited cue-induced cocaine-seeking--suggesting an important role of phasic DA activity in the VTA to NAc core circuit. Next, we examined the role of VTA acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in regulating both NAc core phasic DA release and cue-induced cocaine-seeking. In cocaine naïve subjects, VTA infusion of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antagonist mecamylamine, the muscarinic AChR antagonist scopolamine, or the NMDAR antagonist AP-5, led to robust attenuation of phasic DA release in the NAc core. During early cocaine withdrawal, VTA infusion of AP-5 had limited effects on NAc phasic DA release and cue-induced cocaine-seeking while VTA infusion of mecamylamine or scopolamine robustly inhibited both phasic DA release and cocaine-seeking. The results demonstrate that VTA AChRs, but not NMDARs, strongly regulate cue-induced cocaine-seeking and phasic DA release during early cocaine withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Temporary stages and motivational variables: Two complementary perspectives in the help-seeking process for mental disorders. (United States)

    Del Valle Del Valle, Gema; Carrió, Carmen; Belloch, Amparo


    Help-seeking for mental disorders is a complex process, which includes different temporary stages, and in which the motivational variables play an especially relevant role. However, there is a lack of instruments to evaluate in depth both the temporary and motivational variables involved in the help-seeking process. This study aims to analyse in detail these two sets of variables, using a specific instrument designed for the purpose, to gain a better understanding of the process of treatment seeking. A total of 152 patients seeking treatment in mental health outpatient clinics of the NHS were individually interviewed: 71 had Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, 21 had Agoraphobia, 18 had Major Depressive Disorder), 20 had Anorexia Nervosa, and 22 had Cocaine Dependence. The patients completed a structured interview assessing the help-seeking process. Disorder severity and quality of life was also assessed. The patients with agoraphobia and with major depression took significantly less time in recognising their mental health symptoms. Similarly, patients with major depression were faster in seeking professional help. Motivational variables were grouped in 3 sets: motivators for seeking treatment, related to the negative impact of symptoms on mood and to loss of control over symptoms; motivators for delaying treatment, related to minimisation of the disorder; and stigma-associated variables. The results support the importance of considering the different motivational variables involved in the several stages of the help-seeking process. The interview designed to that end has shown its usefulness in this endeavour. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Information Seeking When Problem Solving: Perspectives of Public Health Professionals. (United States)

    Newman, Kristine; Dobbins, Maureen; Yost, Jennifer; Ciliska, Donna


    Given the many different types of professionals working in public health and their diverse roles, it is likely that their information needs, information-seeking behaviors, and problem-solving abilities differ. Although public health professionals often work in interdisciplinary teams, few studies have explored their information needs and behaviors within the context of teamwork. This study explored the relationship between Canadian public health professionals' perceptions of their problem-solving abilities and their information-seeking behaviors with a specific focus on the use of evidence in practice settings. It also explored their perceptions of collaborative information seeking and the work contexts in which they sought information. Key Canadian contacts at public health organizations helped recruit study participants through their list-servs. An electronic survey was used to gather data about (a) individual information-seeking behaviors, (b) collaborative information-seeking behaviors, (c) use of evidence in practice environments, (d) perceived problem-solving abilities, and (e) demographic characteristics. Fifty-eight public health professionals were recruited, with different roles and representing most Canadian provinces and one territory. A significant relationship was found between perceived problem-solving abilities and collaborative information-seeking behavior (r = -.44, p information seeking. The results suggested that when public health professionals take a shared, active approach to problem solving, maintain personal control, and have confidence, they are more likely collaborate with others in seeking information to complete a work task. Administrators of public health organizations should promote collaboration by implementing effective communication and information-seeking strategies, and by providing information resources and retrieval tools. Public health professionals' perceived problem-solving abilities can influence how they collaborate in

  4. Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention


    Stern, Yaakov


    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This paper reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic ev...

  5. Beyond access: barriers to internet health information seeking among the urban poor. (United States)

    McCloud, Rachel F; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Sorensen, Glorian; Viswanath, K


    Communication inequalities deepen health disparities even when internet access is achieved. The goal of this study is to understand how a range of barriers may inhibit individuals from low socioeconomic position (SEP) from engaging with online health information even when it is freely available. Detailed data were collected from 118 low-SEP individuals from a randomized controlled trial providing internet access. Measures triangulated the health-seeking experience through internet use tracked in real-time, call log data, and self-reported barriers. Negative binomial regression models were fitted with technology and perceived predictors, and our outcome, health information seeking, and then stratified by medical status. Participants experienced a median of two computer issues (median 6 days) and two internet issues (median 6.5 days). Duration of internet problems was associated with a decrease in the rate of internet health information seeking by a factor of 0.990 (P = .03) for each additional day. Participants with a medical problem who were frustrated in their search for health information had half the rate of health information seeking of those who were not frustrated (incidence rate ratio = 0.395, P = .030). Despite IT support, participants still experienced internet connectivity issues that negatively impacted their health information seeking. Frustration in their search to find information may serve as an additional barrier to those who have medical issues. After initial internet access, a second-level digital divide emerged due to connectivity issues, highlighting the need to understand the complex network of barriers experienced by low-SEP internet users. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Role of orexin/hypocretin in conditioned sucrose-seeking in female rats. (United States)

    Cason, Angie M; Aston-Jones, Gary


    The orexin/hypocretin system has recently been implicated in reward-seeking, especially for highly salient food and drug rewards. Given that eating disorders affect women more than men, we reasoned that the orexin system may be strongly engaged in female rats, and during periods of food restriction as we recently reported in male rats. Therefore, the present study examined the involvement of the orexin system in operant responding for sucrose, and in cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished sucrose-seeking, in ad libitum fed vs. food-restricted female subjects. Female Sprague Dawley rats were trained to self-administer sucrose pellets, and we determined the effects of pretreatment with the OxR1 receptor antagonist SB 334867 (SB; 10-30 mg/kg) on fixed ratio (FR) sucrose self-administration, and on cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished sucrose-seeking. SB decreased sucrose self-administration in food-restricted but not in ad libitum-fed females. SB did not alter active lever responding during cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose-seeking in either feeding group. These results confirm our previous results in male rats that signaling at the OxR1 receptor is involved in the sucrose reinforcement and self-administration in food-restricted subjects. However, the finding that SB is ineffective at attenuating cue-induced reinstatement in females, but was effective in food-restricted males, leads us to conclude that food seeking induced by conditioned stimuli engages the orexin system differentially in males and females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surrogate health information seeking in Europe: Influence of source type and social network variables. (United States)

    Reifegerste, Doreen; Bachl, Marko; Baumann, Eva


    Health information seeking on behalf of others is an important form of social support by which laypeople provide important sources of information for patients. Based on social network theory, we analyze whether this phenomenon also occurs in offline sources. We also seek to learn more about the type of relationships between information seekers and patients, as research to date indicates that surrogate seeking mostly occurs in close relationships between the seeker and the patient. Using a large-scale representative survey from the 28 member states of the European Union (N=26,566), our data comprise all respondents who reported seeking health information online or offline (n=18,750; 70.6%). Within the past year, 61.0% of the online health information seekers and 61.1% of the offline health information seekers had searched on behalf of someone else. Independent of the information channel, surrogate seekers primarily searched for health information for family members (online: 89.8%; offline: 92.8%); they were significantly less likely to search for information on behalf of someone with whom they had weaker ties, such as colleagues (online: 25.1%; offline: 24.4%). In a multilevel generalized linear model, living together with someone was by far the most relevant determinant for surrogate seeking, with differences between countries or Internet activity being less important. These results support the assumptions of social network theory. Implications are discussed, especially with regard to the provision of adequate health information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Does prenatal methamphetamine exposure affect the drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats? (United States)

    Slamberová, Romana; Schutová, Barbora; Hrubá, Lenka; Pometlová, Marie


    Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most frequently used illicit drugs worldwide and also one of the most common drugs abused by pregnant women. Repeated administration of psychostimulants induces behavioral sensitization in response to treatment of the same or related drugs in rodents. The effect of prenatal MA exposure on sensitivity to drugs in adulthood is not yet fully determined. Because our most recent studies demonstrated that prenatal MA (5mg/kg) exposure makes adult rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same drug, we were interested whether the increased sensitivity corresponds with the increased drug-seeking behavior. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal MA exposure on drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats tested in the conditioned place preference (CPP). The following psychostimulant drugs were used as a challenge in adulthood: MA (5mg/kg), amphetamine (5mg/kg) and cocaine (10mg/kg). All psychostimulant drugs induced increased drug-seeking behavior in adult male rats. However, while MA and amphetamine-induced increase in drug-seeking behavior did not differ based on the prenatal drug exposure, prenatally MA-exposed rats displayed tolerance effect to cocaine in adulthood. In addition, prenatally MA-exposed rats had decreased weight gain after administration of MA or amphetamine, while the weight of prenatally MA-exposed rats stayed unchanged after cocaine administration. Defecation was increased by all the drugs (MA, amphetamine and cocaine), while only amphetamine increased the tail temperature. In conclusion, our results did not confirm our hypothesis that prenatal MA exposure increases drug-seeking behavior in adulthood in the CPP test. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Internet health information seeking is a team sport: analysis of the Pew Internet Survey. (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Kinney, Rebecca L; Lemon, Stephenie C; Shimada, Stephanie L; Allison, Jeroan J; Houston, Thomas K


    Previous studies examining characteristics of Internet health information seekers do not distinguish between those who only seek for themselves, and surrogate seekers who look for health information for family or friends. Identifying the unique characteristics of surrogate seekers would help in developing Internet interventions that better support these information seekers. To assess differences between self seekers versus those that act also as surrogate seekers. We analyzed data from the cross-sectional Pew Internet and American Life Project November/December 2008 health survey. Our dependent variable was self-report of type of health information seeking (surrogate versus self seeking). Independent variables included demographics, health status, and caregiving. After bivariate comparisons, we then developed multivariable models using logistic regression to assess characteristics associated with surrogate seeking. Out of 1250 respondents who reported seeking health information online, 56% (N=705) reported being surrogate seekers. In multivariable models, compared with those who sought information for themselves only, surrogate seekers were more likely both married and a parent (OR=1.57, CI=1.08, 2.28), having good (OR=2.05, CI=1.34, 3.12) or excellent (OR=2.72, CI=1.70, 4.33) health status, being caregiver of an adult relative (OR=1.76, CI=1.34, 2.30), having someone close with a serious medical condition (OR=1.62, CI=1.21, 2.17) and having someone close to them facing a chronic illness (OR=1.55, CI=1.17, 2.04). Our findings provide evidence that information needs of surrogate seekers are not being met, specifically of caregivers. Additional research is needed to develop new functions that support surrogate seekers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between perceived discrimination and healthcare-seeking behavior in people with a disability. (United States)

    Moscoso-Porras, Miguel G; Alvarado, German F


    Experiences of discrimination lead people from vulnerable groups to avoid medical healthcare. It is yet to be known if such experiences affect people with disabilities (PWD) in the same manner. To determine the association between perceived discrimination and healthcare-seeking behavior in people with disabilities and to explore differences of this association across disability types. We performed a cross-sectional study with data from a national survey of people with disabilities. Perceived discrimination and care-seeking behavior were measured as self-reports from the survey. Dependence for daily life activities, possession of health insurance, and other disability-related variables were included and considered as confounders. We used Poisson regression models and techniques for multistage sampling in the analyses. A stratified analysis was used to explore effects of discrimination across types of disability. Most of PWD were 65 years or older (67.1%). Prevalence of healthcare seeking was 78.8% in those who perceived discrimination, and 86.1% in those who did not. After adjusting for potential confounders, the probability of not seeking care was higher in people who reported perceived discrimination (adjusted PR = 1.15; 95%CI: 1.04-1.28). In a stratified analysis, significant effects of discrimination were found in people with communication disability (adjusted PR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.07-1.67) and with physical disability (adjusted PR = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.03-1.34). People with disabilities who perceive discrimination are less likely to seek healthcare. This association was higher for people with communication and physical disabilities. These results provide evidence to institutions who attempt to tackle discrimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensation seeking and drunk driving: the mediational role of social norms and self-efficacy. (United States)

    González-Iglesias, Beatriz; Gómez-Fraguela, José Antonio; Luengo, Ma Ángeles


    The aim of this work was to examine the role of sensation seeking in drunk driving by youths, and the potential mediational effect of social, cognitive and emotional variables on their relationship. To this end, a survey was conducted on 274 drivers (164 females and 110 males) aged 24.36±2.96 years (range 18-30 years). The results obtained confirm the significance of sensation seeking to drunk driving by youths and the mediating role of biased self-efficacy perceptions in their relationship. The important practical implications of this finding on the development of effective interventions to prevent the risks of drunk driving in youths are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oak Ridge reservation, annual site environmental report summary for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The U.S. Department of Energy requires annual site environmental reports from facilities that operate under its auspices. To fulfill that requirement, such an annual report is published for the Oak Ridge Reservation, which comprises three major sites, each of which has unique monitoring requirements in addition to many shared obligations. As a result, the report is complex and highly detailed. Annual site environmental reports are public documents that are read by government regulators, scientists, engineers, business people, special interest groups, and members of the public at large. For that reason, the reports need to be accessible to a variety of audiences in addition to being accurate and complete. This pamphlet summarizes environmental activities on the reservation, which for some readers may be adequate; for those who seek more detail, it will lend coherence to their approach to the report itself. The content of this summary was taken from Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report for 1993. Results of the many environmental monitoring and surveillance activities are detailed in this report

  13. Endangered Species Program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) is operated by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA (CUSA). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one federally-threatened plant species are known to occur on the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC): the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides), and Hoover's wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (as amended) (Public Law 93-205), which declaresthat it is the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act. DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. Endangered Species Program on NPR-1 and NPR-2 is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise and continuity of programs necessary for continued compliance with the Endangered SpeciesAct. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during Fiscal Year 1992 (FY92)

  14. Information Seek and Retrieval in Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximov, N.; Pryakhin, A.; Golitsyna, O.; Kupriyanov, V.


    Full text: Information search is considered as a complex self-consistent process of constructing new knowledge, where knowledge is introduced as information related to context (specific circumstances). Operational space of such environment includes documentary components (implicit knowledge) and conceptual and terminological systems (glossaries, thesauri, and ontologies) as tools of cognitive process and semantic context. In the process of information search, context is injected by using a pre-coordinated linguistic structures (taxonomies, dictionaries of application domain) that is an adequate image for well-defined information, and by a cognitive tree taxonomy for new information needs, that is dynamically formed for each project or point of view in search task. A node of this structure can have as a properties both information (documents, queries, references to associated resources) and meta-information (application domain local dictionaries, corresponding parts of classifications, subject headings, thesauri, ontologies), and,in addition, the results of analytical processing. (author

  15. Offshore fresh groundwater reserves as a global phenomenon (United States)

    Post, Vincent E. A.; Groen, Jacobus; Kooi, Henk; Person, Mark; Ge, Shemin; Edmunds, W. Mike


    The flow of terrestrial groundwater to the sea is an important natural component of the hydrological cycle. This process, however, does not explain the large volumes of low-salinity groundwater that are found below continental shelves. There is mounting evidence for the global occurrence of offshore fresh and brackish groundwater reserves. The potential use of these non-renewable reserves as a freshwater resource provides a clear incentive for future research. But the scope for continental shelf hydrogeology is broader and we envisage that it can contribute to the advancement of other scientific disciplines, in particular sedimentology and marine geochemistry.

  16. Explosive Components Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  17. Impact of ground control on mining reserve estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, G. [AMC Resource Consultants Pty Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    The estimation of coal resources and reserves is an important and often critical component of the assessment of a mining operation or project. An accurate estimation of reserves in particular is essential for many stages of a mining project - from initial evaluation of the project potential, commitment to a mine development, approval of capital expenditure and/or project finance, through to mine valuation for sale or public listing. Accurate estimation of reserves is also a compulsory reporting requirement for public listed companies as set out in the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX), listing rules. Under these rules, resources and reserves are reported under the JOC Code that incorporates the 'Australian Code for Reporting Identified Coal Resources and Reserves'. These rules are now also used more frequently for non public listed companies. A number of geotechnical parameters play an important role in the process of converting insitu resources to economically recoverable reserves. Whilst these parameters play a role in opencut mining, this paper covers a number of key geotechnical issues that influence the estimation of underground reserves. 11 figs.

  18. A Review on Information Seeking Behaviour Literature in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shiva yari


    Full Text Available This article reviews the condition of information seeking behavior in Iran with analytical and qualittatire approaches to exhibit a clear, scientific, and read condition of it. Published literature has been reviewed both in theoretical bases and accomplished researches. So, all published literature including books, articles, theses, and research plans that has been released and distributed in Iran and were effective in this domain, has been studied. Reviews showed that the information seeking behavior has had a developing trend in quality and quantity form the last seventeen years of its emerging in Iran. Lower than 4% of published literature has been translated. Most resources have studied the information seeking behavior in research form. Scholar’s information seeking behavior has been done in most researches (about 34% of all researches. Then students’ information seeking behavior (about 17% and researches’ information seeking behavior (about 14% has been done. The least attention has been about examination of publics’ information seeking behavior and public library members. Reviews show that most researches have been at science and research units of Azad University in Tehran and Ahvaz. According to accomplished analysis, most articles has been published in National Studies of Librarianship and Information quarterly (previously Faslname Ketab, Processing and management of Information quarterly, and Librarianship and Information quarterly, respectively. This domain has been focused by librarians and somewhat by specialists of agricultural, social communication science, course planning, and government management fields.

  19. Health seeking behaviour in general population with psychological symptoms. (United States)

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Kersnik, Janko


    Health seeking behaviour is a complex construct in patients with psychological symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine a one-month prevalence of psychological symptoms in Slovenian general population and to identify correlates of health seeking behaviour. This study was conducted in a representative sample of 1,002 randomly selected Slovenian citizens, stratified according to sex and age. We used a method of computer assisted telephone interview (CATI). The questionnaire consisted of demographic questions, questions about the prevalence and duration of preselected symptoms in the past month (irritability, nervousness), questions about the presence of chronic diseases, EQ-5D questionnaire and the questions on health seeking behaviour (self-treatment, lay advice seeking and medical advice seeking). The self-reported prevalence of psychological symptoms in the past month was 38.0% (381/1,002). Multivariate analysis for the presence of self-reported psychological symptoms revealed that female sex, higher age, the presence of chronic disease, primary education, lay-advice seeking, pain and the presence of anxiety/depression on EQ-5D questionnaire were independently associated with psychological symptoms. Psychological symptoms are a major public health problem in Slovenian general adult population and the self-reported utilization of professional health care services by Slovenian population is high. Other patterns such as lay referral system might have a crucial influence on the final decision to seek medical help.

  20. Sex differences in sensation-seeking: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Cross, Catharine P; Cyrenne, De-Laine M; Brown, Gillian R


    Men score higher than women on measures of sensation-seeking, defined as a willingness to engage in novel or intense activities. This sex difference has been explained in terms of evolved psychological mechanisms or culturally transmitted social norms. We investigated whether sex differences in sensation-seeking have changed over recent years by conducting a meta-analysis of studies using Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, version V (SSS-V). We found that sex differences in total SSS-V scores have remained stable across years, as have sex differences in Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility. In contrast, the sex difference in Thrill and Adventure Seeking has declined, possibly due to changes in social norms or out-dated questions on this sub-scale. Our results support the view that men and women differ in their propensity to report sensation-seeking characteristics, while behavioural manifestations of sensation-seeking vary over time. Sex differences in sensation-seeking could reflect genetically influenced predispositions interacting with socially transmitted information.

  1. Assessment of secondary aluminum reserves of nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maung, Kyaw Nyunt; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Liu, Gang


    A classification framework of the secondary resources was applied to evaluate the framework's applicability and to assess secondary aluminum reserves for 19 countries. Estimated amounts of secondary aluminum reserves in 2010 were 85 million tonnes in the United States, 65 million tonnes in China......, 29 million tonnes in Japan, and 413 million tonnes globally. For the United States, its secondary reserves are larger than its primary reserves, although the global primary reserves (28,000 million tonnes) are much larger than the estimated secondary reserves. Considerable amounts of secondary...

  2. Space laser components reliability


    Riede, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Helmut


    Space environment presents unique challenges for operation of optics and optical coatings as part of laser systems. Besides testing components and sub-systems on the component qualification level, the extended testing of complete laser systems like flight modules under acceptance level conditions is an effective way to determine the reliability and long term stability, mitigating the mission risk. Hence, optics as part of high power space laser systems have to be extensively tested in view...

  3. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.R.


    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  4. Component fragility research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.


    To demonstrate how ''high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Impact test of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsoi, L.; Buland, P.; Labbe, P.


    Stops with gaps are currently used to support components and piping: it is simple, low cost, efficient and permits free thermal expansion. In order to keep the nonlinear nature of stops, such design is often modeled by beam elements (for the component) and nonlinear springs (for the stops). This paper deals with the validity and the limits of these models through the comparison of computational and experimental results. The experimental results come from impact laboratory tests on a simplified mockup. (orig.)

  6. Treatment seeking for problematic pornography use among women. (United States)

    Lewczuk, Karol; Szmyd, Joanna; Skorko, Maciej; Gola, Mateusz


    Background and aims Previous studies examined psychological factors related to treatment seeking for problematic pornography use (PU) among males. In this study, we focused on females who seek treatment for problematic PU and compared them with non-problematic pornography users with regard to variables related to problematic PU. Second, we investigated the relationships between critical constructs related to problematic PU with the path analysis method, emphasizing the predictors for treatment seeking among women. We also compared our results with previous studies on males. Methods A survey study was conducted on 719 Polish-speaking Caucasian females, 14-63 years old, including 39 treatment seekers for problematic PU. Results The positive relationship between the mere amount of PU and treatment seeking loses its significance after introducing two other predictors of treatment-seeking: religiosity and negative symptoms associated with PU. This pattern is different from the results obtained in previous studies on males. Discussion Different from previous studies on male samples, our analysis showed that in the case of women, mere amount of PU may be related to treatment-seeking behavior even after accounting for negative symptoms associated with PU. Moreover, religiousness is a significant predictor of treatment seeking among women, which may indicate that in the case of women, treatment seeking for problematic PU is motivated not only by experienced negative symptoms of PU but also by personal beliefs about PU and social norms. Conclusion For females, negative symptoms associated with PU, the amount of PU and religiosity is associated with treatment seeking. Those factors should be considered in treatment.

  7. Infidelity in couples seeking marital therapy. (United States)

    Atkins, David C; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H; Christensen, Andrew


    The revelation of an affair is often an emotionally explosive event for a couple, yet little is known about specific individual and relationship factors that accompany infidelity. The present study examined the qualities of individuals and couples that differentiate couples with (n = 19) and without (n = 115) infidelity using couples from a randomized clinical trial of marital therapy. Findings indicated that couples with infidelity showed greater marital instability, dishonesty, arguments about trust, narcissism, and time spent apart. Gender also proved to be a significant moderator of several effects. Men who had participated in affairs showed increased substance use, were older, and were more sexually dissatisfied. Results offer initial clues to concomitants of affairs for couple therapists. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Variation in general practitioners' information-seeking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbæk Le, Jette; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov; Riisgaard, Helle


    after adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: A total of 1580 GPs (46.4%) responded to the questionnaire. GPs' information-seeking behaviour is associated with gender, age and practice form. Single-handed GPs use their colleagues as an information source significantly less than GPs working...... characteristics. Further insights could provide opportunities for targeting information dissemination strategies. Single-handed GPs seek information from colleagues less frequently than GPs in partnerships and do not use other sources more frequently. GPs aged above 44 years do not seek information as frequently...

  9. Modeling Inertia and Variety Seeking Tendencies in Brand Choice Behavior


    Kapil Bawa


    Theories of exploratory behavior suggest that inertia and variety-seeking tendencies may coexist within the individual, implying that the same individual may exhibit inertia and variety-seeking at different times depending on his/her choice history. Past research has not allowed for such -consumer variability in these tendencies. The purpose of this study is to present a choice model that allows us to identify such “hybrid” behavior (i.e., a mixture of inertia and variety-seeking), and to dis...

  10. Health care information seeking and seniors: determinants of Internet use. (United States)

    Sheng, Xiaojing; Simpson, Penny M


    While seniors are the most likely population segment to have chronic diseases, they are the least likely to seek information about health and diseases on the Internet. An understanding of factors that impact seniors' usage of the Internet for health care information may provide them with tools needed to improve health. This research examined some of these factors as identified in the comprehensive model of information seeking to find that demographics, trust in health information websites, perceived usefulness of the Internet, and internal locus of control each significantly impact seniors' use of the Internet to seek health information.

  11. Online nutrition information seeking among Australian primigravid women. (United States)

    Maher, Judith; Robichaud, Catherine; Swanepoel, Elizabeth


    optimal nutrition in pregnancy is crucial for short and long term health in both mother and child. While a large proportion of pregnant women utilise the internet for informational support during pregnancy, little is known about online practices relating to food and nutrition in pregnancy. a qualitative study; Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 16 primigravid women to explore their approaches and preferences when accessing and engaging with pregnancy-related nutrition information online. Women who had accessed the Internet for pregnancy related nutrition and food information were recruited via snowball sampling from South East Queensland, Australia. Data were analysed in accordance with descriptive phenomenology. food and nutrition information-seeking practices were highly varied but followed a similar overall pathway. Six broad themes were identified "triggers", "access and navigation", "appraisal", "changes in searching frequency", "preferred features" and "engagement with communication approaches". Women preferred online sources that were easy to navigate and presented information clearly. Experience as well as fact based communication appeared to satisfy different informational needs. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: women search for food and nutrition information online in similar ways to other pregnancy issues. Opportunity for engaging with women online regarding a range of food and nutrition topics may be limited to early in pregnancy unless prompted to via conversations with antenatal service providers. Health practitioners have a role to play in helping women source evidence-based web sites. There is opportunity for organisations with mandates to support women to optimise diet quality during pregnancy, to improve user experience building on key preferences identified in this study to increase appeal and engagement by pregnant women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention (United States)

    Stern, Yaakov


    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This paper reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that a set of life exposures including higher educational and occupational attainment, and engaging in leisure activities is associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, suggesting that these life exposures may enhance cognitive reserve. This provides a basis for controlled clinical studies can test specific exposures that may enhance reserve. The concept of cognitive reserve also has important implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:23941972

  13. Clipboard: Unraveling the mystery of cognitive reserve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 40; Issue 2. Clipboard : Unraveling the mystery of cognitive reserve ... Keywords. Aging; Alzheimer's; bilingualism; cognitive reserve; dementia; Down's; education; enrichment; environment; learning; long term potentiation; LTP; memory; neuroepigenetics; plasticity ...

  14. 5 CFR 330.610 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.610 Section 330.610 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.610 [Reserved] ...

  15. 5 CFR 330.603 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.603 Section 330.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.603 [Reserved] ...

  16. Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim (United States)

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana


    The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.

  17. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves. (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane


    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  18. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 572.125...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to...

  19. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602... Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an interest-bearing account to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items. (1) Part...

  20. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.745 Replacement reserve. The general requirements for the replacement reserve are provided in § 891.605. For projects funded under §§ 891.655 through 891.790, the...

  1. Reserve evaluation of minerals at NUCLEBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.; Guerra, P.A.G.; Vinha, C.A.G. da


    The method used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used worldwide, and specially at NUCLEBRAS is described. This is done through a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (conventional, statistical and geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification and evaluation of reserves. (Author) [pt

  2. John Brainerd and the First Indian Reservation. (United States)

    Harper, Susanne Banta


    Describes the humanitarian founding in 1758 of the nation's first reservation--the Brotherton reservation for New Jersey's Lenni Lenape (Algonquin) Indians. The people were demoralized, sick, and decimated in numbers; and so the venture failed. In 1801 those few remaining sold the reservation and moved to join related tribes in New York. (DS)

  3. Influence of motivations for seeking ISO 14001 certification on perceptions of EMS effectiveness in China. (United States)

    Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Chung, Shan Shan


    This study examines the motivations of mainland Chinese facilities in seeking ISO 14001 certification and examines the linkages between these motivations and self-reports of the effectiveness of major environmental management system (EMS) components. In a sample of 128 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, the main drivers for certification were reported to be to ensure regulatory compliance, to enhance the firm's reputation, and to improve environmental performance, in that order. Although motivation to achieve cost reductions were least emphasized, a broad range of motivations appears to be considered in the decision to seek certification to ISO 14001. Regression models linking these motivations to the EMS components suggests that internal motivations have an influence on most EMS components. One interesting exception to this, however, is that no significant relationship was observed between internal motivations and the promulgation of environmental objectives and targets. The relationships associated with external motivations for certification (i.e., those in response to customer and other stakeholder pressures) and EMS components, on the other hand, are weaker and tend to occur earlier in the process cycle. No significant relationships were found between motivations to reduce costs and perceptions of the effectiveness of EMS components. Overall, these findings suggest that ISO 14001, as currently being implemented in mainland China, may have a modestly useful role when used in combination with other policy mechanisms to move the Chinese economy toward more sustainable practices. It is asserted that the ISO standard could provide even greater benefits if Chinese registrars were more proactive in developing EMS in conjunction with even more rigorous third-party audits.

  4. Encyclopedia of Software Components (United States)

    Warren, Lloyd V. (Inventor); Beckman, Brian C. (Inventor)


    Intelligent browsing through a collection of reusable software components is facilitated with a computer having a video monitor and a user input interface such as a keyboard or a mouse for transmitting user selections, by presenting a picture of encyclopedia volumes with respective visible labels referring to types of software, in accordance with a metaphor in which each volume includes a page having a list of general topics under the software type of the volume and pages having lists of software components for each one of the generic topics, altering the picture to open one of the volumes in response to an initial user selection specifying the one volume to display on the monitor a picture of the page thereof having the list of general topics and altering the picture to display the page thereof having a list of software components under one of the general topics in response to a next user selection specifying the one general topic, and then presenting a picture of a set of different informative plates depicting different types of information about one of the software components in response to a further user selection specifying the one component.

  5. Students seeking technical internships as part of an exchange program


    Nystrom, Lynn A.


    Virginia Tech students are seeking the support of research centers, academic departments, and area businesses to provide opportunities for technical internships through the International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience (IAESTE).

  6. Help-seeking by substance dependants presenting to healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benzodiazepine, ecstasy, cocaine and inhalant dependency at general practitioners, private psychiatrists, treatment centres and non-prescribing therapists was compared. Different patterns of help seeking for substance dependence from the various professional groups were detected. Regarding alcohol dependence ...

  7. Articulation and oromyofunctional behavior in children seeking orthodontic treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Fonteyne; E. D'haeseleer; Anke Luyten; G. Becue; K. van Lierde; G. van Maele; G. de Pauw; P. Corthals


    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this controlled study is to document articulation and oromyofunctional behavior in children seeking orthodontic treatment. In addition, relations between malocclusions, articulation, and oromyofunctional behavior are studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 56

  8. Seeking Drug Abuse Treatment: Know What to Ask (United States)

    ... Abuse Treatment: Know What To Ask » Introduction Seeking Drug Abuse Treatment: Know What To Ask Email Facebook Twitter Introduction The goal of drug abuse treatment is to stop drug use and allow ...

  9. Preferences in help-seeking among Chinese students. (United States)

    Cheung, F M


    Chinese university students were asked to indicate their inclination to seek help and the resources for consultation on the 22 problems listed on the Langner Scale. Results showed that the Chinese students were generally not inclined to seek help and when they did, would most often seek help from medical doctors. However, when items were grouped in terms of clinical content, it was found that friends were predominantly preferred for psychological problems while the doctor was preferred for psychophysiological, physiological, and ambiguous problems. More female than male students tended to rely on friends and family members while the reverse pattern was found in the preference for doctors. The mental health professional was rarely cited as a resource for any of the problems. The results provide some explanation for observations made in previous studies on symptom presentation and help-seeking behavior among Chinese psychiatric patients.

  10. Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually transmitted infections - the importance of traditional healers. R Zachariah, W Nkhoma, AD Harries, V Arendt,, A Chantulo, MP Spielmann, MP Mbereko, L Buhendwa ...

  11. Rabies Exposure: When Should I Seek Medical Attention? (United States)

    ... Rabies and Kids! When should I seek medical attention? Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... with soap and water. See your doctor for attention for any trauma due to an animal attack ...

  12. Gay men seeking surrogacy to achieve parenthood. (United States)

    Norton, Wendy; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine


    Assisted reproduction technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate in recent years. This, combined with the changing landscape of legal, technical and social possibilities, enables gay men to consider their options for fatherhood as new opportunities emerge for them to create families. Media coverage of gay celebrities embracing surrogacy as a way of having a family and high-profile legal cases have raised awareness of surrogacy across the world. However, gay fatherhood achieved through assisted reproduction is a highly under-researched area, both in the UK and internationally. The research that currently exists on gay fatherhood is largely related to gay men who become parents through processes such as adoption and fostering and children conceived through previous heterosexual relationships. Much of this evidence has centred on parenting experiences, the outcomes for children or the legal perspectives. This paper outlines the different types of surrogacy and the legal issues facing gay men who choose this route to parenthood, summarizes the limited research on gay men and surrogacy and discusses gaps in the current knowledge base. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment seeking behaviour of STI clients in a tertiary care centre of North India: A cross sectional study. (United States)

    Suvirya, Swastika; Singh, Rohit; Senthamizh, Prasad; Sharma, Vishal


    (1) To determine the treatment seeking behaviour of STI clients. (2) To ascertain the relationship of socio-demographic factors and sexual behaviours with the treatment seeking component in STI clients. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. After obtaining approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee, the data collected daily from master register, STI/RTI patient wise register and counsellor's patient diary during the study period August 2013 to July 2015 was processed by Microsoft Excel program. The counsellor also recorded the source of information regarding STI Clinic. The information collected regarding bio-social characteristics, high risk sexual behaviours and source of knowledge about Suraksha clinic was analysed. Our results showed that literacy, male sex, urban residence and employment were some of the parameters which significantly improved the health seeking behaviour of STI clients. These variables were associated with higher odds for seeking treatment when adjusted for other variables. Similarly group with bisexual and homosexual behaviour had significantly lower odds for seeking treatment when adjusted for other variables. The optimal use of information, education and communication (IEC) techniques needs to be strengthened to further improve the utilization of STI clinic services at tertiary care teaching hospitals.

  14. Health and oral health care needs and health care-seeking behavior among homeless injection drug users in San Francisco. (United States)

    Robbins, Jonathan Leserman; Wenger, Lynn; Lorvick, Jennifer; Shiboski, Caroline; Kral, Alex H


    Few existing studies have examined health and oral health needs and treatment-seeking behavior among the homeless and injection drug users (IDUs). This paper describes the prevalence and correlates of health and oral health care needs and treatment-seeking behaviors in homeless IDUs recruited in San Francisco, California, from 2003 to 2005 (N = 340). We examined sociodemographic characteristics, drug use patterns, HIV status via oral fluid testing, physical health using the Short Form 12 Physical Component Score, self-reported needs for physical and oral health care, and the self-reported frequency of seeking medical and oral health care. The sample had a lower health status as compared to the general population and reported a frequent need for physical and oral health care. In bivariate analysis, being in methadone treatment was associated with care-seeking behavior. In addition, being enrolled in Medi-Cal, California's state Medicaid program, was associated with greater odds of seeking physical and oral health care. Methamphetamine use was not associated with higher odds of needing oral health care as compared to people who reported using other illicit drugs. Homeless IDUs in San Francisco have a large burden of unmet health and oral health needs. Recent cuts in Medi-Cal's adult dental coverage may result in a greater burden of oral health care which will need to be provided by emergency departments and neighborhood dental clinics.

  15. Ghrelin influences novelty seeking behavior in rodents and men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hansson

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries indicate an important role for ghrelin in drug and alcohol reward and an ability of ghrelin to regulate mesolimbic dopamine activity. The role of dopamine in novelty seeking, and the association between this trait and drug and alcohol abuse, led us to hypothesize that ghrelin may influence novelty seeking behavior. To test this possibility we applied several complementary rodent models of novelty seeking behavior, i.e. inescapable novelty-induced locomotor activity (NILA, novelty-induced place preference and novel object exploration, in rats subjected to acute ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor; GHSR stimulation or blockade. Furthermore we assessed the possible association between polymorphisms in the genes encoding ghrelin and GHSR and novelty seeking behavior in humans. The rodent studies indicate an important role for ghrelin in a wide range of novelty seeking behaviors. Ghrelin-injected rats exhibited a higher preference for a novel environment and increased novel object exploration. Conversely, those with GHSR blockade drastically reduced their preference for a novel environment and displayed decreased NILA. Importantly, the mesolimbic ventral tegmental area selective GHSR blockade was sufficient to reduce the NILA response indicating that the mesolimbic GHSRs might play an important role in the observed novelty responses. Moreover, in untreated animals, a striking positive correlation between NILA and sucrose reward behavior was detected. Two GHSR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs2948694 and rs495225, were significantly associated with the personality trait novelty seeking, as assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, in human subjects. This study provides the first evidence for a role of ghrelin in novelty seeking behavior in animals and humans, and also points to an association between food reward and novelty seeking in rodents.

  16. Physical Self Perception and Sensation seeking tendency in gym gores


    Schlegel, Petr


    Annotation: The work deals with the relationship between physical self-concept and experience of the search terms sensation seeking. It contains theoretical research of these areas, their position in the discourse of fitness and also presents a starting points for comparison. The research was conducted on a group of gym-goers and analyzed the relationship of concepts Physical Self Perception Profile and Sensation Seeking Scale version V including individual subscales. Comparison showed a weak...

  17. Health Seeking Behavior among Mothers of Sick Children. (United States)

    Shrestha, P D


    Infant and under-five mortality rate in Nepal are 46 and 54 deaths per 1,000 live births, respectively. These mortality indicates, one in every 22 Nepalese children dies before reaching age 1, and one in every 19 does not survive to his or her fifth birthday. Delay in seeking appropriate care and not seeking any care contributes to the large number of child deaths. Existing interventions could prevent many deaths among children if they are presented at health facility and timely care. A descriptive research was carried out in Lele VDC, ward no.7, Lalitpur. The objective of this study was to find out health seeking behavior among mothers of sick children. Non probability, purposive sampling method was used. Sample size was 102 mothers who had sick children from 0 to 59 months. A set of semi structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The mean age of the respondent was 25.8 years and child was 29 months. Respondents' children who suffered with pneumonia, diarrhoea and malnutrition were 64(62.7%),29(28%), 9(8.8%) respectively. Majority 84(81.4%) mothers had sought treatment and among them 58(69%) sought treatment from health facility whereas 26(31%) sought treatment from traditional healer. There was significant relationship between education of the mother(p=0.05), sex of the child (p=0.004), type of sickness of children (p=0.001) of the mother and health seeking behaviour of mothers. However occupation of the mothers for seeking treatment (p=0.66) and treatment seeking at first (p=0.82) were not significant. So there was no relationship between occupation of the mothers and health seeking behaviour. Majority of the mothers sought treatment from health facility, yet around one fourth went at traditional healers. Education of the mother, sex of the child, sickness of child and mother's awareness are the factors affecting health seeking behavior of the mothers.

  18. Gender Differences in Treatment-Seeking British Pathological Gamblers


    Ronzitti, Silvia; Lutri, Vittorio; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta


    Background and aim Gambling is a widespread recreational activity in the UK. A significant percentage of gamblers develop subclinical or clinically relevant problem gambling issues, but only a low percentage of them seek treatment. Although characteristics of pathological gamblers from treatment-seeking population have been examined in some research, only a few studies have explored the differences between females and males. This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demogr...

  19. Health care help seeking behaviour among prisoners in Norway


    Nesset, Merete Berg; Rustad, ?se-Bente; Kjelsberg, Ellen; Almvik, Roger; Bj?rngaard, Johan H?kon


    Background: Prisoners are associated with high health care needs compared with the general population. This study aims to investigate prisoners' use of health service. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 29 prisons in central and southern parts of Norway. A questionnaire was distributed to 1, 454 prisoners (90% response rate). Multilevel analyses were employed to analyse help seeking behaviour among the prisoners. Results: Help seeking was substantially associated with sleep ...

  20. Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling


    of audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined......This dissertation concerns the investigation of the consistency of statistical regularities in a signaling ecology and human cognition, while inferring appropriate actions for a speech-based perceptual task. It is based on unsupervised Independent Component Analysis providing a rich spectrum...... as the process of unsupervised grouping of generic data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. Its hypothesis runs ecologically: features which are essentially independent in a context defined ensemble, can be efficiently coded as sparse...

  1. Solid state lighting component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Ibbetson, James; Morgan, Frederick; Dowling, Kevin; Lys, Ihor


    An LED component according to the present invention comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The array can comprise LED chips emitting at two colors of light wherein the LED component emits light comprising the combination of the two colors of light. A single lens is included over the array of LED chips. The LED chip array can emit light of greater than 800 lumens with a drive current of less than 150 milli-Amps. The LED chip component can also operate at temperatures less than 3000 degrees K. In one embodiment, the LED array is in a substantially circular pattern on the submount.

  2. Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer's disease (United States)

    Stern, Yaakov


    The concept of reserve accounts for individual differences in susceptibility to age-related brain changes or Alzheimer's disease-related pathology. There is evidence that some people can tolerate more of these changes than others and still maintain function. Epidemiologic studies suggest that lifetime exposures including educational and occupational attainment, and leisure activities in late life, can increase this reserve. For example, there is a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in individuals with higher educational or occupational attainment. It is convenient to think of two types of reserve: brain reserve, which refers to actual differences in the brain itself that may increase tolerance of pathology, and cognitive reserve. Cognitive reserve refers to individual differences in how tasks are performed that may allow some people to be more resilient than others. The concept of cognitive reserve holds out the promise of interventions that could slow cognitive aging or reduce the risk of dementia. PMID:23079557

  3. Metabolic reserve as a determinant of cognitive aging. (United States)

    Stranahan, Alexis M; Mattson, Mark P


    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) represent points on a continuum of cognitive performance in aged populations. Cognition may be impaired or preserved in the context of brain aging. One theory to account for memory maintenance in the context of extensive pathology involves 'cognitive reserve', or the ability to compensate for neuropathology through greater recruitment of remaining neurons. In this review, we propose a complementary hypothesis of 'metabolic reserve', where a brain with high metabolic reserve is characterized by the presence of neuronal circuits that respond adaptively to perturbations in cellular and somatic energy metabolism and thereby protects against declining cognition. Lifestyle determinants of metabolic reserve, such as exercise, reduced caloric intake, and intake of specific dietary components can promote neuroprotection, while pathological states arising from sedentary lifestyles and excessive caloric intake contribute to neuronal endangerment. This bidirectional relationship between metabolism and cognition may be mediated by alterations in central insulin and neurotrophic factor signaling and glucose metabolism, with downstream consequences for accumulation of amyloid-β and hyperphosphorylated tau. The metabolic reserve hypothesis is supported by epidemiological findings and the spectrum of individual cognitive trajectories during aging, with additional data from animal models identifying potential mechanisms for this relationship. Identification of biomarkers for metabolic reserve could assist in generating a predictive model for the likelihood of cognitive decline with aging.

  4. Older adults who use or have used marijuana: Help-seeking for marijuana and other substance use problems. (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan


    Increasing numbers of older adults are using marijuana and may experience problems related to marijuana use. This study examined relationships (1) between help-seeking for marijuana use and the presence of other substance use and/or mental disorders and (2) between help-seeking for other substance use disorders and marijuana use among adults aged 50+. The 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions provided data (N=14.715). Bivariate analyses were used to compare never, past-year, and ex-marijuana users on lifetime substance use and mental disorders and help-seeking for associated problems. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine the correlates of help-seeking for marijuana and other substance use problems. 21.20% of past-year and 13.72% of ex-marijuana users with lifetime marijuana use disorder sought help for marijuana problems. The odds of help-seeking were higher for those with lifetime marijuana use disorders if they also had other drug (OR=2.84, 95% CI=1.39-5.80) and/or nicotine use disorder (OR=2.96, 95% CI=1.28-6.87). The odds of help-seeking for alcohol problems among those with alcohol use disorder were significantly higher if they were also ex- or past-year marijuana users. The odds of help-seeking for nicotine problems among those with nicotine use disorder were significantly higher only if they were ex-marijuana users. Adults aged 50+ with marijuana use disorder often have other substance use and mental disorders. Healthcare providers should screen for marijuana and other substance use along with mental disorders and provide education about harms from polysubstance use and referrals for treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. What Matters: Quantity or Quality of Pornography Use? Psychological and Behavioral Factors of Seeking Treatment for Problematic Pornography Use. (United States)

    Gola, Mateusz; Lewczuk, Karol; Skorko, Maciej


    Pornography has become popular with Internet technology. For most people, pornography use (PU) is entertainment; for some, it can result in seeking treatment for out-of-control behavior. Previous studies have suggested that PU can influence sexual behaviors, but the direct relation between frequency of PU and treatment-seeking behaviors has not been examined. To investigate whether individuals seeking treatment as a consequence of their problematic PU do so because of their quantity of pornography consumption or because of more complex psychological and behavioral factors related to PU, such as the severity of negative symptoms associated with PU and/or subjective feeling of loss of control over one's behavior. A survey study was conducted of 569 heterosexual Caucasian men 18 to 68 years old, including 132 seeking treatment for problematic PU (referred by psychotherapists after their initial visit). The main outcome measures were self-reported PU, its negative symptoms, and actual treatment-seeking behavior. We tested models explaining sources of seeking treatment for problematic PU with negative symptoms associated with PU and additional factors (eg, onset and number of years of PU, religiosity, age, dyadic sexual activity, and relationship status). Seeking treatment was significantly, yet weakly, correlated solely with the frequency of PU (r = 0.21, P pornography consumption. Thus, treatment of problematic PU should address qualitative factors, rather than merely mitigating the frequency of the behavior, because frequency of PU might not be a core issue for all patients. Future diagnostic criteria for problematic PU should consider the complexity of this issue. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H


    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  7. Component Reengineering Workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak


    In mature domains, a number of competing product lines may emerge, and from the point of view of customers of such product lines, reengineering and reuse of assets across product lines from different vendors becomes important. To address this issue we present a low-cost approach, component...... reengineering workshops, for assessing reengineering costs of reusing components between different product lines. The approach works on the level of software architectures, and relies critically on input from various (technical) stakeholders. It has been validated through case studies that are also presented...

  8. Impact of Health Literacy on Time Spent Seeking Hand Care. (United States)

    Alokozai, Aaron; Bernstein, David N; Sheikholeslami, Nicole; Uhler, Lauren; Ring, David; Kamal, Robin N


    Patients with limited health literacy may have less knowledge and fewer resources for efficient access and navigation of the health care system. We tested the null hypothesis that there is no correlation between health literacy and total time spent seeking hand surgery care. New patients visiting a hand surgery clinic at a suburban academic medical center were asked to complete a questionnaire to determine demographics, total time spent seeking hand surgery care, and outcomes. A total of 112 patients were included in this study. We found health literacy levels did not correlate with total time seeking hand surgery care or from booking an appointment to being evaluated in clinic. In this suburban academic medical center, patients with low health literacy do not spend more time seeking hand surgery care and do have longer delays between seeking and receiving care. The finding that-at least in this setting-health literacy does not impact patient time seeking hand care suggests that resources to improve health disparities can be focused elsewhere in the care continuum.

  9. Treatment-seeking decisions of women with acute myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia


    Women who experience symptoms of an acute myocardial infarction (MI) are less likely than men to seek medical attention after the onset of initial symptoms. The purpose of this study was to facilitate a better understanding of the treatment-seeking decisions of women who seek emergency evaluation for symptoms suggestive of MI. A qualitative, semi-structured, feminist, post structuralist interview approach was used to explore the treatment-seeking decisions of ten women hospitalized for a MI. The oral descriptions were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using the Morse and Field method. Content analysis revealed ten important issues that influenced women's treatment-seeking decisions: associating symptoms with non-cardiac causes, minimizing symptoms, experiencing non-classic symptoms, mass media portrayal, male family member experience, knowledge deficit, family insistence, experiencing increased pain, experiencing difficulty breathing, and having expectations different from realities. Based on their language and subjectivity, participants revealed the power of the meaning of heart disease on treatment-seeking decisions.

  10. Predictors of Delayed Healthcare Seeking Among American Muslim Women. (United States)

    Vu, Milkie; Azmat, Alia; Radejko, Tala; Padela, Aasim I


    Delayed care seeking is associated with adverse health outcomes. For Muslim women, delayed care seeking might include religion-related motivations, such as a preference for female clinicians, concerns about preserving modesty, and fatalistic beliefs. Our study assesses associations between religion-related factors and delayed care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Surveys were distributed to Muslim women attending mosque and community events in Chicago. Survey items included measures of religiosity, religious fatalism, discrimination, modesty, and alternative medicine utilization and worship practices. The outcome measure asked for levels of agreement to the statement "I have delayed seeking medical care when no woman doctor is available to see me." Two hundred fifty-four women completed the survey with nearly equal numbers of African Americans (26%), Arab Americans (33%), and South Asians (33%). Fifty-three percent reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. In multivariate analysis adjusting for sociodemographic factors, higher religiosity (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2, p 20 years (OR = 0.22, p Muslim women reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Women with higher levels of modesty and self-rated religiosity had higher odds of delaying care. Women who had lived in the United States for longer durations had lower odds of delaying care. Our research highlights the need for gender-concordant providers and culturally sensitive care for American Muslims.

  11. Health-care-seeking behaviour among university students in Lebanon. (United States)

    El Kahi, H A; Abi Rizk, G Y; Hlais, S A; Adib, S M


    This cross-sectional study assessed the health-care-seeking behaviour, barriers to accessing care and associated factors among a sample of 543 Lebanese students at Saint-Joseph University. Data were collected on health-care-seeking behaviour for health issues in the previous 12 months using an anonymous questionnaire. Health-care-seeking behaviour was categorized as: formal (professional help sought); informal relational (help sought from friends/family); informal personal (self-help). The health issues examined were: physical, psychological, social and relational, sexual, drug, alcohol and smoking. When facing health-related issues, the students tended to seek informal health care. Formal health-care-seeking behaviour was almost non-existent for psychological issues (3.3%), relational and social issues (1.8%), and issues related to substance use (5.1%). The barriers to seeking formal health care fell into 2 categories: accessibility and relational. To encourage young people to access formal health care, specific health services should be provided for them where they are assured of confidentiality and understanding.

  12. The association of hand preference and sensation seeking behavior. (United States)

    Kuderer, Sonja; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    Although the human body shows a superficial symmetry, the disparate functions and skills of both body halves lead to an asymmetrical use. As a result, lateral preferences are detectable, which also include the favoured use of one hand ('handedness'). The collection of questionnaire data on sensation seeking and the conduction of behavioral handedness tasks by 55 research participants enabled the investigation of the interaction of handedness and sensation seeking. For this procedure the age-homogeneous study population is divided according to the Handedness-Index (HI) - a calculated value, indicating the practical hand preference. The results reveal a stronger lateralization in right-handed participants as well as a difference in the mean value of hand use in the three handedness groups. Sensation seeking behavior shows significant negative correlations with age as well as with the HI. Higher scores of left-handers in Experience Seeking (ES), Sensation Seeking (SS) as well as in Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TAS) indicate a larger risk investment in this handedness group. Hence, the results of this study suggest that handedness is a strong indicator of risk behavior.

  13. Children's Attentional Processing of Mother and Proximity Seeking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bosmans

    Full Text Available Attachment expectations regarding the availability of mother as a source for support are supposed to influence distressed children's support seeking behavior. Because research is needed to better understand the mechanisms related to support seeking behavior, this study tested the hypothesis that the cognitive processing of mother-related information is linked to proximity and support seeking behavior. Uncertainty in maternal support has been shown to be characterized by a biased attentional encoding of mother, reducing the breadth of children's attentional field around her. We investigated whether this attentional bias is related to how long distressed children wait before seeking their mother's proximity. Thirty-three children (9-11 years participated in this study that consisted of experimental tasks to measure attentional breadth and to observe proximity seeking behavior and of questionnaires to measure confidence in maternal support and experienced distress. Results suggested that distressed children with a more narrow attentional field around their mother wait longer to seek her proximity. Key Message: These findings provide a first support for the hypothesis that the attentional processing of mother is related to children's attachment behavior.

  14. Women Empowerment through Health Information Seeking: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Sabzevari, Sakineh; Negahban Bonabi, Tayebeh


    Today, women empowering is an important issue.  Several methods have been introduced to empower women. Health information seeking is one of the most important activities in this regard. A wide range of capabilities have been reported as outcomes of health information seeking in several studies. As health information seeking is developed within personal-social interactions and also the health system context, it seems that the qualitative paradigm is appropriate to use in studies in this regard. This study aimed to explore how women's empowerment through health information seeking is done. In this qualitative content analysis study, data collection was done with regard to inclusion criteria, through purposive sampling by semi-structured interviews with 17 women and using documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneous with data collection. Four central themes were emerged to explain women's empowerment through health information seeking that included: a) Health concerns management with three subcategories of Better coping, Stress management, Control of situation, b) Collaborative care with two subcategories of Effective interaction with health professions and Participation in health decision making c) Individual development d) Self-protection with four sub- categories of Life style modification,  Preventive behaviors promoting, Self-care promoting, and  medication adherence. The results of this study indicate the importance of women empowerment through foraging their health information seeking rights and comprehensive health information management.

  15. Parental health information seeking and re-exploration of the 'digital divide'. (United States)

    Malone, Mary; While, Alison; Roberts, Julia


    perceived access to primary health care. Complex patterns of health information seeking relate to each of the 'divides'--digital and preferential. Patterns of health information seeking reflect differing perceptions of information availability and usefulness as experienced by parents within their local physical, social, cultural and psychosocial worlds. Access to primary care services is a key component of this local environment.

  16. Intolerance for smoking abstinence among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers. (United States)

    Germeroth, Lisa J; Baker, Nathaniel L; Saladin, Michael E


    The Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Discomfort Questionnaire (IDQ-S) assesses distress tolerance specific to nicotine withdrawal. Though developed to assess withdrawal-related distress, the IDQ-S has not been validated among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers. The present study extended previous research by examining the predictive utility of the IDQ-S among abstinent, motivated-to-quit smokers. Abstinent, treatment-seeking smokers completed the IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance and Lack of Cognitive Coping scales, assessments of nicotine dependence and reinforcement, and smoking history at baseline. At baseline and at 24-h, 2-week, and 1-month follow-up, participants completed a smoking cue-reactivity task (collection of cue-elicited craving and negative affect), and assessments of cigarettes per day (CPD; daily diaries at follow-up), carbon monoxide (CO), and cotinine. Greater IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance was associated with younger age, higher nicotine dependence and reinforcement, and less smoking years (ps  .10). Withdrawal intolerance and lack of cognitive coping did not predict smoking outcomes among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers, but were associated with smoking characteristics, including nicotine dependence and reinforcement. Withdrawal intolerance and lack of cognitive coping may not be especially useful in predicting craving and smoking behavior, but future studies should replicate the present study's findings and assess the stability of the IDQ-S before forming firm conclusions about its predictive utility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Health literacy and barriers to health information seeking: A nationwide survey in South Korea. (United States)

    Jeong, Seok Hee; Kim, Hyun Kyung


    To identify the level of health literacy and barriers to information seeking and to explore the predictors of health literacy. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. A total of 1000 Korean adults were recruited through proportional quota sampling. Health literacy, barriers to health information seeking, sociodemographics, and health-related characteristics were surveyed. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were performed for data analysis. About 61% of participants were classified as inadequately health literate. "No health fairs/activities near home" was the most frequently reported barrier. Older age, lower education, living in the capital city, barriers regarding how to get information and access to expensive books and magazines were predictors of inadequate health literacy. Strategies for improving health literacy and reducing barriers to health information seeking should be designed. Education on how to access health-related information with easily accessible sources either free or inexpensive could be a way to help adults with limited health literacy. Health care professionals should assess clients' health literacy levels, particularly amongst those who are older or have less education. They should provide clients with information on how to access credible and readily available sources of health-related information, considering their health literacy level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Generalization of effects of environmental enrichment on seeking for different classes of drugs of abuse. (United States)

    Sikora, Magdalena; Nicolas, Céline; Istin, Marine; Jaafari, Nematollah; Thiriet, Nathalie; Solinas, Marcello


    Addiction is a chronic disease characterized by persistent vulnerability to relapse during abstinence. In animal models of addiction, accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) during periods of abstinence can have curative effects on addiction and reduce the risks of relapse. However, until present most studies have mainly focused on cocaine. In this study, we investigated whether EE could have beneficial effects on cue-induced seeking for several psychoactive drugs belonging to different pharmacological classes such as methamphetamine (METH), heroin (HER) and nicotine (NIC). After self-administration training of METH, HER and NIC, rats were housed in enriched (EE) or standard environments (SE) for 21-28 days of forced abstinence and then drug-seeking behavior was assessed in the absence of the drug. We found that, compared to SE housing, exposure to EE reduced drug seeking behavior for all drugs tested. These findings suggest that the anti-craving effects of EE are general for a wide variety of drugs and support the hypothesis that environmental stimulation may be a general intervention for attenuating relapse in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxytocin differentially affects sucrose taking and seeking in male and female rats. (United States)

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E; Reichel, Carmela M


    Oxytocin has a modulatory role in natural and drug reward processes. While the role of oxytocin in pair bonding and reproduction has been extensively studied, sex differences in conditioned and unconditioned behavioral responses to oxytocin treatment have not been fully characterized. Here, we determined whether male and female rats would show similar dose response curves in response to acute oxytocin on measures of locomotor activity, sucrose seeking, and sucrose intake. Male and freely cycling female rats received vehicle or oxytocin (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3mg/kg, IP) injections before behavioral tests designed to assess general motor activity, as well as sucrose self-administration and seeking. Lower doses of oxytocin decreased motor activity in a novel environment in females relative to males. Likewise, lower doses of oxytocin in females decreased responding for sucrose during maintenance of sucrose self-administration and reinstatement to sucrose-conditioned cues. However, sucrose seeking in response to a sucrose prime was only decreased by the highest oxytocin dose in both sexes. In general, oxytocin had similar effects in both sexes. However, females were more sensitive to lower doses of oxytocin than males. These findings are consistent with the notion that oxytocin regulates many of the same behaviors in males and females, but that the effects are typically more profound in females. Therapeutic use of oxytocin should include sex as a factor in determining dose regimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment seeking and health financing in selected poor urban neighbourhoods in India, Indonesia and Thailand. (United States)

    Seeberg, Jens; Pannarunothai, Supasit; Padmawati, Retna Siwi; Trisnantoro, Laksono; Barua, Nupur; Pandav, Chandrakant S


    This article presents a comparative analysis of socio-economic disparities in relation to treatment-seeking strategies and healthcare expenditures in poor neighbourhoods within larger health systems in four cities in India, Indonesia and Thailand. About 200 households in New Delhi, Bhubaneswar, Jogjakarta and Phitsanulok were repeatedly interviewed over 12 months to relate health problems with health seeking and health financing at household level. Quantitative data were complemented with ethnographic studies involving the same neighbourhoods and a number of private practitioners at each site. Within each site, the higher and lower income groups among the poor were compared. The lower income group was more likely than the higher income group to seek care from less qualified health providers and incur catastrophic health spending. The study recommends linking quality control mechanisms with universal health coverage (UHC) policies; to monitor the impact of UHC among the poorest; intervention research to reach the poorest with UHC; and inclusion of private providers without formal medical qualification in basic healthcare. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Activation of AMPA receptor in the infralimbic cortex facilitates extinction and attenuates the heroin-seeking behavior in rats. (United States)

    Chen, Weisheng; Wang, Yiqi; Sun, Anna; Zhou, Linyi; Xu, Wenjin; Zhu, Huaqiang; Zhuang, Dingding; Lai, Miaojun; Zhang, Fuqiang; Zhou, Wenhua; Liu, Huifen


    Infralimbic cortex (IL) is proposed to suppress cocaine seeking after extinction, but whether the IL regulates the extinction and reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior is unknown. To address this issue, the male SD rats were trained to self-administer heroin under a FR1 schedule for consecutive 14 days, then the rats underwent 7 daily 2h extinction session in the operant chamber. The activation of IL by microinjection PEPA, an allosteric AMPA receptor potentiator into IL before each of extinction session facilitated the extinction responding after heroin self-administration, but did not alter the locomotor activity in an open field testing environment. Other rats were first trained under a FR1 schedule for heroin self-administration for 14 days, followed by 14 days of extinction training, and reinstatement of heroin-seeking induced by cues was measured for 2h. Intra-IL microinjecting of PEPA at 15min prior to test inhibited the reinstatement of heroin-seeking induced by cues. Moreover, the expression of GluR1 in the IL and NAc remarkably increased after treatment with PEPA during the reinstatement. These finding suggested that activation of glutamatergic projection from IL to NAc shell may be involved in the extinction and reinstatement of heroin-seeking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Why bother about health? A study on the factors that influence health information seeking behaviour among Malaysian healthcare consumers. (United States)

    Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Ainin, Sulaiman; Yeong, Mun Wai


    The general improvement of socio-economic conditions has resulted in people becoming more educated to make better-informed decisions in health related matters. Individual's perspective on health increases with better understanding of ways to improve lifestyle for better health and living. With the increase in lifestyle related diseases that lead to health problems, there is an increase in the availability of healthcare information. Thus, it is important to identify the factors that influence information seeking behaviour in the area of healthcare and lifestyle. This exploratory study examines the relationship between the factors that affect online health information-seeking behaviour among healthcare product in the capital city of Malaysia. Survey questionnaire was used to collect empirical data. A survey was conducted among 300 healthcare consumers in three main cities in Malaysia where questionnaires were personally distributed through snowball sampling. A total of 271 questionnaire forms were used in the analysis. Health Behaviour of the consumers influences Health Information Seeking Behaviour. And this relationship is strongly affected by Gender whereby the affect is strongly among females compared to males. The findings indicate that Health Behaviour influences Health Information Seeking Behaviour. Marketers can find out which target segment of population to target when devising information channels for consumers, especially through the Internet. However, message that promotes positive health behaviour to a target audience who already has positive Health Behaviour increase the motivation to Health Information Seeking Behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensation seeking in a community sample of French gamblers: Comparison between strategic and non-strategic gamblers. (United States)

    Bonnaire, Céline; Bungener, Catherine; Varescon, Isabelle


    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between sensation seeking and gambling disorder (GD) in a community sample of gamblers (when controlling for the effect of substance use, gender and age) and see whether sensation seeking scores depend on the gambling activity when comparing strategic and non-strategic gamblers. A total of 380 gamblers was recruited. First, pathological gamblers (PGs) (n =143) were compared to non-pathological gamblers (NPGs) (n =237). Second, strategic gamblers (n =93) were compared to non-strategic gamblers (n =110). Sociodemographic data, gambling behavior (SOGS, DSM-IV), tobacco and alcohol use (CAGE), and sensation seeking (SSS) were evaluated. PGs have higher boredom susceptibility scores than NPGs and this factor is associated with GD. Nevertheless, the relationship between sensation seeking and GD depends on the gambling activity. In fact, sensation seeking is associated with GD in strategic gamblers only. PGs playing strategic games display different profiles from non-strategic PGs. Thus, factors associated with GD differ when the gambling activity is taken into account. These findings are consistent with the idea of it being essential to identify clinically distinct subgroups of PGs in the treatment of GD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Endangered Species Program Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA. (CUSA). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides) and Hoover's Wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (as amended) (Public Law 93-205), which declares that it is the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act. DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the Endangered Species Program on NPR-1 and NPR-2 is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise and continuity of programs necessary for the continued compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during Fiscal Year 1991 (FY91)

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

  6. Demand for International Reserves in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimaz Sinem


    Full Text Available Having an important place in the international monetary system, international reserves held by central bank usually reflect country’s economic strength in terms of international finance and trade. There are many reasons for holding international reserves by central banks such as financing the deficit in the balance of payment, managing the monetary and exchange rate policies, minimizing the negative effects of external shocks and reducing the cost of borrowing. Continuously changing and diversifying characteristics of these reasons affect the demand for reserves depending to the economic conditions of the country. Over the last ten years, there has been a tremendous increase in international reserves held by Turkish Central Bank. From 2002 to 2012, the reserves of the bank have risen from 20 billion dollars to 96 billion dollars, showing an increase more than four times. This sudden and huge increase in the foreign reserves drove us to determine and investigate the factors which induce the Turkish Central Bank to hold high level of reserves. Thus, the purpose of this study is to estimate and analyze the demand for international reserves held by central banks using the buffer stock model in the case of Turkey. The data used in the study is monthly and cover the period of 1990:03-2012:10. The buffer stock model was econometrically estimated by using the OLS method for three different models. Our findings indicate that the opportunity cost affected reserve demand much stronger than the reserve volatility in Turkish case.

  7. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  8. Spain's nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaibel, E.


    Spanish industrial participation in supply of components for nuclear power plants has grown steadily over the last fifteen years. The share of Spanish companies in work for the five second generation nuclear power plants increased to 50% of total capital investments. The necessity to maintain Spanish technology and production in the nuclear field is emphasized

  9. Component-oriented programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Szyperski, C; Weck, W; Buschmann, F; Buchmann, AP; Cilia, MA


    This report covers the eighth Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP). WCOP has been affiliated with ECOOP since its inception in 1996. The report summarizes the contributions made by authors of accepted position papers as well as those made by all attendees of the workshop sessions.

  10. Grey component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, J.A.; Derks, E.P.P.A.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Smilde, A.K.


    The interpretation of principal component analysis (PCA) models of complex biological or chemical data can be cumbersome because in PCA the decomposition is performed without any knowledge of the system at hand. Prior information of the system is not used to improve the interpretation. In this paper

  11. Molecular Models Candy Components (United States)

    Coleman, William F.


    An explanation of various principles of chemistry in a paper by Fanny Ennever by the use of candy is described. The paper explains components of sucrose and the invert sugar that results from the hydrolysis of sucrose and will help students in determining whether the products are indeed hydrates of carbon.

  12. Component lifetime modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.F.; Verweij, J.F.; Brombacher, A.C.; Brombacher, A.C.; Lunenborg, M.M.; Lunenborg, M.M.


    There are two approaches to component lifetime modelling. The first one uses a reliability prediction method as described in the (military) handbooks with the appropriate models and parameters. The advantages are: (a) It takes into account all possible failure mechanisms. (b) It is easy to use. The

  13. Euler principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liwicki, Stephan; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is perhaps the most prominent learning tool for dimensionality reduction in pattern recognition and computer vision. However, the ℓ 2-norm employed by standard PCA is not robust to outliers. In this paper, we propose a kernel PCA method for fast and robust PCA,

  14. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur


    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  15. ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.; Vieider, G.; Akiba, M.


    This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Developing a Model Component (United States)

    Fields, Christina M.


    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  17. Stimulation of α2-adrenergic receptors in the central nucleus of the amygdala attenuates stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking in rats. (United States)

    Yamada, Hidetaka; Bruijnzeel, Adrie W


    Tobacco addiction is a chronic disorder that is characterized by craving for tobacco products, withdrawal upon smoking cessation, and relapse after periods of abstinence. Previous studies demonstrated that systemic administration of α2-adrenergic receptor agonists attenuates stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking in rats. The aim of the present experiments was to investigate the role of noradrenergic transmission in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) in stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. Rats self-administered nicotine for 14-16 days and then nicotine seeking was extinguished by substituting saline for nicotine. The effect of the intra-CeA infusion of the α2-adrenergic receptor agonists clonidine and dexmedetomidine, the nonselective β1/β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol, and the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin on stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking was investigated. In all the experiments, exposure to footshocks reinstated extinguished nicotine seeking. The administration of clonidine or dexmedetomidine into the CeA attenuated stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. The administration of propranolol or prazosin into the CeA did not affect stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. Furthermore, intra-CeA administration of clonidine or dexmedetomidine did not affect operant responding for food pellets. This suggests that the effects of clonidine and dexmedetomidine on stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking were not mediated by motor impairments or sedation. Taken together, these findings indicate that stimulation of α2-adrenergic receptors, but not blockade of α1 or β-adrenergic receptors, in the CeA attenuates stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. These findings suggest that α2-adrenergic receptor agonists may at least partly attenuate stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking by stimulating α2-adrenergic receptors in the CeA. Copyright © 2010

  18. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid


    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  19. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã


    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  20. UK military doctors; stigma, mental health and help-seeking: a comparative cohort study. (United States)

    Jones, Norman; Whybrow, D; Coetzee, R


    Studies suggest that medical doctors can suffer from substantial levels of mental ill-health. Little is known about military doctors' mental health and well-being; we therefore assessed attitudes to mental health, self-stigma, psychological distress and help-seeking among UK Armed Forces doctors. Six hundred and seventy-eight military doctors (response rate 59%) completed an anonymous online survey. Comparisons were made with serving and ex-military personnel (n=1448, response rate 84.5%) participating in a mental health-related help-seeking survey. Basic sociodemographic data were gathered, and participants completed measures of mental health-related stigmatisation, perceived barriers to care and the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire. All participants were asked if in the last three years they had experienced stress, emotional, mental health, alcohol, family or relationship problems, and whether they had sought help from formal sources. Military doctors reported fewer mental disorder symptoms than the comparison groups. They endorsed higher levels of stigmatising beliefs, negative attitudes to mental healthcare, desire to self-manage and self-stigmatisation than each of the comparison groups. They were most concerned about potential negative effects of and peer perceptions about receiving a mental disorder diagnosis. Military doctors reporting historical and current relationship, and alcohol or mental health problems were significantly and substantially less likely to seek help than the comparison groups. Although there are a number of study limitations, outcomes suggest that UK military doctors report lower levels of mental disorder symptoms, higher levels of stigmatising beliefs and a lower propensity to seek formal support than other military reference groups. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.