WorldWideScience

Sample records for reserve components common

  1. Transforming the Reserve Component: Four Essays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binnendijk, Hans; Baranick, Michael J; Bell, Raymond E., Jr; Cordero, Gina; Duncan, Stephen M; Holshek, Christopher; Wentz, Larry

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains four essays on various aspects of the Reserve Component. We publish it at a time when Reserves are serving overseas at historically high rates and when new missions like homeland security demand their attention...

  2. Active Component Responsibility in Reserve Component Pre- and Postmobilization Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    President Lyndon Johnson refused to mobi- lize the RCs (MacCarley, 2012, pp. 38–39). 8 Active Component Responsibility in Reserve Component...ARFORGENwhitePaper1aug2011v3g2g.pdf Pernin, Christopher G., Dwayne M. Butler, Louay Constant, Lily Geyer, Duncan Long, Dan Madden, John E. Peters, James D. Powers

  3. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-28

    utilizing WMrcha’t Marine Academy gr , ,ates and Naval Reserve Officer Training Course S’(NROTC)/Student Incentive Progrim (SIP) graduates from state...personnel gr , atly enhances the mobilization and combat readiness of the Total Force. Several new medical programs were implemented by the Reserve components...Defense Force Chief of Joint Staff, Defense Command * Mendez, Honorable Enrique Jr., M.D. Norway Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs

  4. Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    of one day of basic pay for each unit training assembly ( UTA ) they attend. A UTA is generally a four-hour period of instruction, and there are usually...training assembly ( UTA ), one point for each day of annual training (AT), and one point for each day of active duty. Points can also be earned for completing... on the vitality of the reserve components, such as funding, equipment, and personnel policy. This report is designed to provide an overview of key

  5. Developing Senior Leaders for the Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    For more information on the Forces and Resources Policy Center, see http://www.rand.org/nsrd/ndri/centers/frp.html or contact the director (contact information is provided on the web page ). ...some combination of experiences, education, and personal development. Each has an extensive concept of develop- ment—how they define it, what ...policy. First, in what ways can the develop- ment of RC senior leaders be improved? Second, in what ways can reserve component leader development

  6. Common and distinct components in data fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilde, Age Klaas; Mage, Ingrid; Næs, Tormod

    2016-01-01

    measurements are obtained. Data fusion is concerned with analyzing such sets of data simultaneously to arrive at a global view of the system under study. One of the upcoming areas of data fusion is exploring whether the data sets have something in common or not. This gives insight into common and distinct...... and understanding their relative merits. This paper provides a unifying framework for this subfield of data fusion by using rigorous arguments from linear algebra. The most frequently used methods for distinguishing common and distinct components are explained in this framework and some practical examples are given...

  7. Component Commonality and Its Cost Implications - Increasing the Commonality of the Right Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyly-Yrjänäinen, Jouni; Suomala, Petri; Israelsen, Poul

    Component commonality (Labro 2004, Zhou & Gruppström 2004) can be defined as the use of the same version of a component across multiple products. It is usually seen as a means to manage costs without sacrificing product variety. However, when managing costs with component commonality, the managers...... should be able to identify rather rapidly which group of components would enable the most significant cost reductions. Unfortunately, the existing literature lacks profound discussion of how to identify the right components for increased component commonality. The objective of the paper is to discuss how...... constructions was identified as the most important bottleneck for the delivery process causing many indirect costs, especially with respect to project-management-related activities. Interestingly, by eliminating the need for mechanical engineering, the context starts to approach assembly-to-order context, also...

  8. Sustaining AMEDD Professional Strength in the Reserve Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fetter, James

    2004-01-01

    ...% Army National Guard 34% Army Reserve and 47% active component. In 2000 concerns were raised about dwindling numbers of doctors dentists physician assistants and nurse anesthetist officers in Army Reserve and Army National Guard...

  9. The Ecological Reserve: Towards a common understanding for river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The legal requirement for an Ecological Reserve established in South Africa\\'s water law is commonly regarded by stakeholders as being in direct competition with the needs of humans. This has resulted in much debate and varying interpretations of the meaning and purpose of the Ecological Reserve. However, the ...

  10. Improving Medical and Dental Readiness in the Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Dental sealants , remineralization therapy, and chewing of xylitol gum are effective for preventing and reversing early signs of dental decay. The...Improving Medical and Dental Readiness in the Reserve Components A s an integral part of the U.S. military, the reserve components (RCs) are...limit their ability to carry out their duties, whether in garrison or deployed. Medically ready reservists require less medical and dental support

  11. Common components analysis: An adapted approach for evaluating programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Nicole R; Davis, Kelly D; Richardson, Cameron; Perkins, Daniel F

    2018-04-01

    Common Components Analysis (CCA) summarizes the results of program evaluations that utilize randomized control trials and have demonstrated effectiveness in improving their intended outcome(s) into their key elements. This area of research has integrated and modified the existing CCA approach to provide a means of evaluating components of programs without a solid evidence-base, across a variety of target outcomes. This adapted CCA approach (a) captures a variety of similar program characteristics to increase the quality of the comparison within components; (b) identifies components from four primary areas (i.e., content, process, barrier reduction, and sustainability) within specific programming domains (e.g., vocation, social); and (c) proposes future directions to test the extent to which the common components are associated with changes in intended program outcomes (e.g., employment, job retention). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of this adapted CCA approach. To illustrate the utility of this technique, researchers used CCA with two popular employment programs that target successful Veteran reintegration but have limited program evaluation - Hire Heroes USA and Hire Our Heroes. This adapted CCA could be applied to longitudinal research designs to identify all utilized programs and the most promising components of these programs as they relate to changes in outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Ecological Reserve: Towards a common understanding for river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... tem, not only water (Box 1). The importance of the way that the resource has been redefined lies in the recognition that the water in rivers provides benefits to people without ever leaving the water course. The Reserve allocation therefore gives effect to the definition of the Reserve (Box 1) through its role of ...

  13. A General Solution Framework for Component-Commonality Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Boysen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Component commonality - the use of the same version of a component across multiple products - is being increasingly considered as a promising way to offer high external variety while retaining low internal variety in operations. However, increasing commonality has both positive and negative cost effects, so that optimization approaches are required to identify an optimal commonality level. As components influence to a greater or lesser extent nearly every process step along the supply chain, it is not surprising that a multitude of diverging commonality problems is being investigated in literature, each of which are developing a specific algorithm designed for the respective commonality problem being considered. The paper on hand aims at a general framework which is flexible and efficient enough to be applied to a wide range of commonality problems. Such a procedure based on a two-stage graph approach is presented and tested. Finally, flexibility of the procedure is shown by customizing the framework to account for different types of commonality problems.

  14. 2000 SURVEY OF RESERVE COMPONENT PERSONNEL: ADMINISTRATION, DATASETS, AND CODEBOOK

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simmons, Robert

    2002-01-01

    ..., satisfaction with aspects of Guard and Reserve life, and other quality of life issues. Together with the 1999 Active Duty Surveys of Members and Spouses, the RCS provide a comprehensive picture of the Total Force...

  15. Air Force Organizational Transformation: Merging the Active and Reserve Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    .... These include the active associate, reserve associate, and blended unit concepts. Finally, it provides a recommendation as to which concept will best meet the future warfighting needs of the Air Force.

  16. Parallel PDE-Based Simulations Using the Common Component Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInnes, Lois C.; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert; Benson, Steven J.; Bernholdt, David E.; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Diachin, Lori; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Kohl, James A.; Larson, J. Walter; Lefantzi, Sophia; Nieplocha, Jarek; Norris, Boyana; Parker, Steven G.; Ray, Jaideep; Zhou, Shujia

    2006-01-01

    The complexity of parallel PDE-based simulations continues to increase as multimodel, multiphysics, and multi-institutional projects become widespread. A goal of component based software engineering in such large-scale simulations is to help manage this complexity by enabling better interoperability among various codes that have been independently developed by different groups. The Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum is defining a component architecture specification to address the challenges of high-performance scientific computing. In addition, several execution frameworks, supporting infrastructure, and general purpose components are being developed. Furthermore, this group is collaborating with others in the high-performance computing community to design suites of domain-specific component interface specifications and underlying implementations. This chapter discusses recent work on leveraging these CCA efforts in parallel PDE-based simulations involving accelerator design, climate modeling, combustion, and accidental fires and explosions. We explain how component technology helps to address the different challenges posed by each of these applications, and we highlight how component interfaces built on existing parallel toolkits facilitate the reuse of software for parallel mesh manipulation, discretization, linear algebra, integration, optimization, and parallel data redistribution. We also present performance data to demonstrate the suitability of this approach, and we discuss strategies for applying component technologies to both new and existing applications

  17. Tried And True Integrating Active And Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Components, it has a proven record of success in flying the same operational mission.28 The increased crew ratio maximizes aircraft utilization ...is not a cookie cutter approach. The Integrated Wing cannot be instituted at all bases due to the complex associations, nor is it supposed to

  18. Reserve Component Programs. Fiscal Year 1999 Report of the Reserve Forces Policy Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Heavy Equipment Truck UH-1 Helicopter AH-1 Attack Helicopter PVS-5 Night Vision Goggles Army Reserve Dolly Sets Yard Truck Maintenance Contact...border collie instead of a propane canon, and agri- cultural outsourcing with 4-H sheep grazing. The Marine Corps Reserve continues to increase

  19. Common Genetic Components of Obesity Traits and Serum Leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann L; Benyamin, Beben; Visscher, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    To estimate common and distinct genetic influences on a panel of obesity-related traits and serum leptin level in adults. In a cross-sectional study of 625 Danish, adult, healthy, monozygotic, and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs of both genders, we carried out detailed anthropometry (height, weight...... components, which suggests that it is important to distinguish between the different phenotypes in the search for genes involved in the development of obesity.Obesity (2008) doi:10.1038/oby.2008.440........ For leptin vs. the various measures of overall and local fatness the correlations ranged from 0.54 to 0.74 in men and from 0.48 to 0.75 in women. All correlations were significantly different genetic...

  20. 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Reserve Component Members: Overview Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-06

    harassment and discrimination within the Reserve components. This overview report discusses findings from the 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity...developed for the 1996 Equal Opportunity Survey (1996 EOS). The 1996 EOS provided estimates of racial/ethnic-related harassment and discrimination ...Perceived Undue Punishment (2 Items) •Providers/Authorities Discrimination (3 Items) 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Reserve Component

  1. 2004 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Tabulations of Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    The 2004 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members was designed to both estimate the level of sexual harassment and provide information on a variety of consequences of sexual harassment...

  2. Sulfate Storage and Stability on Common Lean NOx Trap Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottinger, Nathan A [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Roop, Justin T [ORNL; Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Components found in a commercial lean NO{sub x} trap have been studied in order to determine their impact on sulfate storage and release. A micro-reactor and a diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (DRIFTS) were used to compare components MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Pt/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/Ba/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, and Pt/Ba/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, as well as physical mixtures of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Pt/Ba/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} + MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Desulfation temperature profiles as well as DRIFTS NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} storage spectra are presented for all components. This systematic approach highlighted the ability of the underlying support to impact sulfate stability, in particular when Ba was supported on ceria-zirconia rather than alumina the desulfation temperature decreased by 60-120 C. A conceptual model of sulfation progression on the ceria-zirconia support is proposed that explains the high uptake of sulfur and low temperature release when it is employed. It was also determined that the close proximity of platinum is not necessary for much of the sulfation and desulfation chemistry that occurs, as physical mixtures with platinum dispersed on only one phase displayed similar behavior to samples with platinum dispersed on both phases.

  3. A Methodology for Modeling the Flow of Military Personnel Across Air Force Active and Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    capability to estimate the historic impact of changes in economic conditions on the flows of labor into, between, and out of the Air Force active...C O R P O R A T I O N Research Report A Methodology for Modeling the Flow of Military Personnel Across Air Force Active and Reserve Components...or considered about the effect that those policies might have on personnel flows into and out of other components. The degree to which this is

  4. RARE COMPONENT OF THE FISH FAUNA OF THE 'SULINSKY' NATIONAL LANDSCAPE RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ja. Rudik-Leuska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of biological diversity is the main task of modern biology. At the legislative level, Ukraine has pledged its support in ratifying the "Convention on the conservation of biological diversity." As part of the implementation of environmental policy in Ukraine preservation of rare fish fauna component is the most problematic aspect. The basic conservation lists acting in Ukraine are: Red List of threatened animals of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Ukrainian Red Book, Annex III of the "Convention on the Protection of wildlife and natural habitats", the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES, Washington, 1973. On the territory of Sula Bay located two objects of nature reserve fund - a landscape national reserve "Sulinsky" and National Park "Nizhnesulsky" that emphasizes the importance of this area for fish fauna reproduction. Its territory are spawning areas for almost all lower and middle parts of the Kremenchuk reservoir, ensuring more than half of total commercial catch of the Dnieper cascade. The article describes the species composition of the fish fauna, introduced in protected lists of different levels. The existence of seven such species was established. They belong to four families: four species - for cyprinids and one each - to sturgeon, loaches and catfishes. But we must remember that the priority activities should concern species with the highest conservation status. At the same time, four of them are only protected by Annex III of the "Convention on the Protection of wildlife and natural habitats" as poorly studied. These species require a more thorough study and not necessarily threatened with extinction. Remaining three species are under a real danger of extinction and are protected by the IUCN Red List and Ukrainian Red Book. Starlet also protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES. Environmental

  5. Principal Component Surface (2011) for St. Thomas East End Reserve, St. Thomas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER) in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)....

  6. The Reserve Component Automation System (RCAS) -- A Case Study in the Evolution of an Information Management System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brady, George

    1998-01-01

    The Reserve Component Automation System (RCAS) is a Wide Area/Local Area Network system designed to provide automation support for the Reserve Components' mobilization management and sustaining-base operations...

  7. Resting and energy reserves of Aedes albopictus collected in common landscaping vegetation in St. Augustine, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Dayana M; Qualls, Whitney A; Roque, Deborah; Naranjo, Diana P; Alimi, Temitope; Arheart, Kristopher L; Müller, Günter C; Beier, John C; Xue, Rui-De

    2013-09-01

    The resting behavior of Aedes albopictus was evaluated by aspirating diurnal resting mosquitoes from common landscape vegetation in residential communities in St. Augustine, FL. Energy reserves of the resting mosquitoes were analyzed to determine if there was a correlation between mosquito resting habitat and energy accumulation. Six species of plants were selected and 9 collections of resting mosquitoes were aspirated from each plant using a modified John W. Hock backpack aspirator during June and July 2012. Eight mosquito species were collected, with Ae. albopictus representing 74% of the overall collection. The number of Ae. albopictus collected varied significantly with the species of vegetation. When comparing the vegetation and abundance of resting mosquitoes, the highest percentages of Ae. albopictus were collected resting on Ruellia brittoniana (Mexican petunia), Asplenium platyneuron (fern), Gibasis geniculate (Tahitian bridal veil), followed by Plumba goauriculata (plumbago), Setcreasea pallida (purple heart), and Hibiscus tiliaceus (hibiscus). There were significant differences in lipid and glycogen accumulation based on type of vegetation Ae. albopictus was found resting in. Resting mosquitoes' sugar reserves were not influenced by species of vegetation. However, there was an overall correlation between vegetation that serves as a resting habitat and energy reserve accumulation. The results of our study demonstrate the potential to target specific vegetation for control of diurnal resting mosquitoes.

  8. The association between blood pressure components and cognitive functions and cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Houman; Goldust, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension exerts a subtle impact on the brain that is revealed by diminished cognitive function. This study aimed at evaluating the association between blood pressure components and cognitive functions and cognitive reserve. In this cross-sectional study, 500 subjects from general population were evaluated. All neuropsychological tests were negatively associated with age; memory and executive function were also positively related with education. The hypertensives (HT) were less efficient than the normotensives (NT) in the test of memory with interference at 10 s (MI-10) (-32%, p = 0.043), clock drawing test (CLOX) (-26%, p cognitive reserve index (CRI) was 8% lower in the HT (p = 0.04) and was predicted by higher pulse BP (OR 0.86, p cognition, higher values of systolic BP being associated to impaired cognitive function.

  9. Geological component in the formation of natural - reserve fund of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyuk V.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The part of geological component of the natural environment in the formation of Natural Reserve Fund of Ukraine, the historical aspects of the origin and development of the geological heritage, as an important part of the environment, as well as the problem of acceptance geodiversity as well as the conservation of biodiversity. It was established that during the long history in countries not only in Europe but also in the world, formed biodiversity strategy in default or unwilling recognition of the need to preserve geodiversity. Underestimating abiotic factors in the development programs of the European environmental network Natura-2000 and EECONET has led to the need to develop special programs and initiatives in the conservation of the lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. The basic stages of historical development problems of preservation of geological heritage in Ukraine and the world. It is determined that in Ukraine was established May 21, 1910 the first in Russia (which is then part Khortyts'ke Society for Nature Conservation. The Society, based on the initiative of of natural science teachers P.P. Вouzouk, had the goal of nature conservation within the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms of nature, and it was spelled out in the Charter of of society. A significant shift towards awareness of the importance of the geological component in the formation of natural reserve fund was effective collaboration with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources in the Dnipropetrovsk region on creation of new protected areas. When conducting a field and office work on reserving areas for new items Natural Heritage, the first fully studied geological and geomorphological structure of these areas. Moreover, the research facility in an unprecedented short time actually bequeathed, that have approved status of natural monuments, landscape reserves and so on.

  10. Postdeployment Behavioral Health Screens and Linkage to the Veterans Health Administration for Army Reserve Component Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneman, Megan E; Harris, Alex H S; Chen, Cheng; Adams, Rachel Sayko; Williams, Thomas V; Larson, Mary Jo

    2017-08-01

    Approximately three to six months after returning from deployment, military service members complete the Post-Deployment Health Reassessment (PDHRA), which includes screens for alcohol misuse, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To determine whether Army Reserve Component (RC) members (Army National Guard and Army Reserve) with positive screening scores on the PDHRA receive needed care, the investigators examined the association between positive scores and enrollment and utilization of care ("linkage") in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), as well as rescreening scores, diagnosis, and behavioral treatment in VHA. Mixed-effects regression models were used to predict linkage to VHA within six months after RC members (N=73,164) completed the PDHRA, with alcohol misuse, depression, and PTSD screen scores as key independent variables. Regression models were stratified by gender and National Guard versus Reserve status. Among those who linked to VHA (N=25,168), screening scores and subsequent diagnosis and treatment in VHA were also examined. Army RC members with positive PTSD and depression screening scores were more likely than those with negative screens to link to VHA, and most (54%-84%) received VHA treatment once diagnosed. Positive screens for alcohol misuse were associated with linkage to VHA for men but not for women, and treatment rates for alcohol use disorders were relatively low (0%-25%) for both men and women diagnosed as having an alcohol use disorder. The finding that Army RC members with greater indications of behavioral health problems linked to VHA is encouraging. However, more outreach and treatment engagement strategies could be directed to those with alcohol use disorder, particularly women.

  11. Group Component Analysis for Multiblock Data: Common and Individual Feature Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoxu; Cichocki, Andrzej; Zhang, Yu; Mandic, Danilo P

    2016-11-01

    Real-world data are often acquired as a collection of matrices rather than as a single matrix. Such multiblock data are naturally linked and typically share some common features while at the same time exhibiting their own individual features, reflecting the underlying data generation mechanisms. To exploit the linked nature of data, we propose a new framework for common and individual feature extraction (CIFE) which identifies and separates the common and individual features from the multiblock data. Two efficient algorithms termed common orthogonal basis extraction (COBE) are proposed to extract common basis is shared by all data, independent on whether the number of common components is known beforehand. Feature extraction is then performed on the common and individual subspaces separately, by incorporating dimensionality reduction and blind source separation techniques. Comprehensive experimental results on both the synthetic and real-world data demonstrate significant advantages of the proposed CIFE method in comparison with the state-of-the-art.

  12. Requirement for Naval Reserve Component Units Not Assigned to Support Regional Contingencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Our primary objective was to determine whether a valid need exists for Naval Reserve units and non-unit Reserve personnel who are not assigned to meet the needs of anticipated regional contingencies...

  13. Common components of evidence-based parenting programs for preventing maltreatment of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temcheff, Caroline E; Letarte, Marie-Josée; Boutin, Stéphanie; Marcil, Katherine

    2018-04-06

    Child maltreatment can lead to a variety of negative outcomes in childhood including physical and mental health problems that can extend into adulthood. Given the transactional nature of child maltreatment and the difficulties that many maltreating families experience, child protection services typically offer various kinds of programs to maltreated children, their parents, and/or their families. Although the specific difficulties experienced by these families may vary, sub-optimal parenting practices are typically part of the picture and may play a central role in maltreated children's development. Hence, to deal with child maltreatment, programs that focus on parenting practices are essential, and identifying the common components of effective programs is of critical importance. The objectives of the present study were to: 1) describe the components of evidence-based parenting programs aimed at parents who have maltreated their elementary school-aged children or are at-risk for doing so and 2) identify the components that are common to these programs, using the approach proposed by Barth and Liggett-Creel (2014). Fourteen evidence-based parenting programs aimed at parents who had maltreated their elementary school-aged children (ages 6-12) or were at-risk for doing so were identified using both a review of relevant online databases of evidence-based programs (California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development, Youth.gov, and the National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices). Common components were identified (operationalized as components present in two thirds of programs) and discussed. The identification of common components of evidence-based programs may help clinicians choose the best intervention methods. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Statistical intercomparison of global climate models: A common principal component approach with application to GCM data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, S.K.; Boyle, J.S.

    1993-05-01

    Variables describing atmospheric circulation and other climate parameters derived from various GCMs and obtained from observations can be represented on a spatio-temporal grid (lattice) structure. The primary objective of this paper is to explore existing as well as some new statistical methods to analyze such data structures for the purpose of model diagnostics and intercomparison from a statistical perspective. Among the several statistical methods considered here, a new method based on common principal components appears most promising for the purpose of intercomparison of spatio-temporal data structures arising in the task of model/model and model/data intercomparison. A complete strategy for such an intercomparison is outlined. The strategy includes two steps. First, the commonality of spatial structures in two (or more) fields is captured in the common principal vectors. Second, the corresponding principal components obtained as time series are then compared on the basis of similarities in their temporal evolution

  15. Estimation of the common cause failure probabilities on the component group with mixed testing scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Meejeong; Kang, Dae Il

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper presents a method to estimate the common cause failure probabilities on the common cause component group with mixed testing schemes. ► The CCF probabilities are dependent on the testing schemes such as staggered testing or non-staggered testing. ► There are many CCCGs with specific mixed testing schemes in real plant operation. ► Therefore, a general formula which is applicable to both alternate periodic testing scheme and train level mixed testing scheme was derived. - Abstract: This paper presents a method to estimate the common cause failure (CCF) probabilities on the common cause component group (CCCG) with mixed testing schemes such as the train level mixed testing scheme or the alternate periodic testing scheme. In the train level mixed testing scheme, the components are tested in a non-staggered way within the same train, but the components are tested in a staggered way between the trains. The alternate periodic testing scheme indicates that all components in the same CCCG are tested in a non-staggered way during the planned maintenance period, but they are tested in a staggered way during normal plant operation. Since the CCF probabilities are dependent on the testing schemes such as staggered testing or non-staggered testing, CCF estimators have two kinds of formulas in accordance with the testing schemes. Thus, there are general formulas to estimate the CCF probability on the staggered testing scheme and non-staggered testing scheme. However, in real plant operation, there are many CCCGs with specific mixed testing schemes. Recently, Barros () and Kang () proposed a CCF factor estimation method to reflect the alternate periodic testing scheme and the train level mixed testing scheme. In this paper, a general formula which is applicable to both the alternate periodic testing scheme and the train level mixed testing scheme was derived.

  16. Estimating and interpreting a common stochastic component for the Brazilian industrial production index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Picchetti

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs a state-space formulation to model a common stochastic component in four different series that constitute the aggregate index of industrial production in Brazil. This estimated common component is then interpreted as a measurement of behavior of fundamentals in the brazilian economy and compared to the actual aggregate index.A partir de uma formulação em espaço de estado, modelamos um componente estocástico comum para quatro séries distintas que compõem o índice agregado de produção industrial calculado pelo IBGE para o Brasil. Esse componente estocástico comum estimado é então interpretado como uma medida do comportamento de fundamentos da economia brasileira, e comparado com o índice agregado efetivo.

  17. Controversy Associated With the Common Component of Most Transgenic Plants – Kanamycin Resistance Marker Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Jelenić, Srećko

    2003-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering is a powerful tool for producing crops resistant to pests, diseases and abiotic stress or crops with improved nutritional value or better quality products. Currently over 70 genetically modified (GM) crops have been approved for use in different countries. These cover a wide range of plant species with significant number of different modified traits. However, beside the technology used for their improvement, the common component of most GM crops is the neomycin phosp...

  18. Common and Critical Components Among Community Health Assessment and Community Health Improvement Planning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennel, Cara L; Burdine, James N; Prochaska, John D; McLeroy, Kenneth R

    Community health assessment and community health improvement planning are continuous, systematic processes for assessing and addressing health needs in a community. Since there are different models to guide assessment and planning, as well as a variety of organizations and agencies that carry out these activities, there may be confusion in choosing among approaches. By examining the various components of the different assessment and planning models, we are able to identify areas for coordination, ways to maximize collaboration, and strategies to further improve community health. We identified 11 common assessment and planning components across 18 models and requirements, with a particular focus on health department, health system, and hospital models and requirements. These common components included preplanning; developing partnerships; developing vision and scope; collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data; identifying community assets; identifying priorities; developing and implementing an intervention plan; developing and implementing an evaluation plan; communicating and receiving feedback on the assessment findings and/or the plan; planning for sustainability; and celebrating success. Within several of these components, we discuss characteristics that are critical to improving community health. Practice implications include better understanding of different models and requirements by health departments, hospitals, and others involved in assessment and planning to improve cross-sector collaboration, collective impact, and community health. In addition, federal and state policy and accreditation requirements may be revised or implemented to better facilitate assessment and planning collaboration between health departments, hospitals, and others for the purpose of improving community health.

  19. May 2003 Status of Forces Survey of Reserve Component Members: Tabulations of Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ...). HRSAP is designed to measure the attitudes and opinions of the entire DoD community--Active and Reserve Service members, their families and DoD civilian--on the full range of personnel issues...

  20. 2004 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Administration, Datasets, and Codebook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... The 2004 WGRR utilized both modes of administration-the Web as well as paper-and-pencil and was designed to document the extent to which Reserve members report experiencing unwanted, uninvited sexual...

  1. Sharing the Burden and Risk: An Operational Assessment of the Reserve Components in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    components and between Services built the foundation of trust and teamwork necessary to prosecute the campaign. In terms of operational communities...integration efforts were cultural, based on outdated organizational practices and attitudes . D. Conclusion In this chapter, IDA looked at ARC...concern with respect to professionalism and discipline were of three types. The first was discussed previously: the difference in attitude toward

  2. Assessment of DoD-Provided Healthcare for Members of the United States Armed Forces Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-08

    The TRICARE Dental Program covers the following services: • exams, cleanings, fluorides, sealants , and x-rays, • fillings, including white fillings...establish that programs will be in place to support the medical and dental readiness of Reserve Component (RC) service members so they comply with... dental care to RC service members for all wounds, illnesses, and injuries incurred or aggravated in the line of duty until they have recovered. Reserve

  3. 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members. Tabulation of Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    v L.L-r ,,_..., Approved for publ ic release; d.istribulion unlimited For Open Publication MAY_ z 0 20\\3 8 9 ffiee ~\\’ t; esl :.lrity RevieW...600 b. Teaches that sexual harassment reduces the cohesion and effectiveness of my Reserve...618 b. Teaches that the consumption of alcohol may increase the likelihood of sexual assault

  4. Differential Attendance in the Reserve Component: Causation and Recommendations for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Reserve, 1984), 17. 18Richard W. Stewart, American Military History, CMH Publication, 2nd ed., (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2009-2010...American Military History. CMH Pub, 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2009-2010. Stultz, Jack. Memorandum Dated 17 January

  5. Shifting between mental sets: An individual differences approach to commonalities and differences of task switching components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bastian, Claudia C; Druey, Michel D

    2017-09-01

    Switching between mental sets has been extensively investigated in both experimental and individual differences research using a wide range of task-switch paradigms. However, it is yet unclear whether these different tasks measure a unitary shifting ability or reflect different facets thereof. In this study, 20 task pairs were administered to 119 young adults to assess 5 proposed components of mental set shifting: switching between judgments, stimulus dimensions, stimulus-response mappings, response sets, and stimulus sets. Modeling latent factors for each of the components revealed that a model with 5 separate yet mostly correlated factors fit the data best. In this model, the components most strongly related to the other latent factors were stimulus-response mapping shifting and, to a lesser degree, response set shifting. In addition, both factors were statistically indistinguishable from a second-order general shifting factor. In contrast, shifting between judgments as well as stimulus dimensions consistently required separate factors and could, hence, not fully be accounted for by the general shifting factor. Finally, shifting between stimulus sets was unrelated to any other shifting component but mapping shifting. We conclude that tasks assessing shifting between mappings are most adequate to assess general shifting ability. In contrast, shifting between stimulus sets (e.g., as in the Trail Making Test) probably reflects shifts in visual attention rather than executive shifting ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Reserve Component Attitude Study Wave IV. 1981 Tracking Study. Volume 1. Major Findings and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    associated attitudinal and psychographic variables. The attitudinal differences among the segments suggest that marketing strategies targeted to specific...Section 4) C ~. Demographic segmentation of the PS samples allows for identifica- tion of specific market groups with high propensity for Guard/ Reserve...programs and target them to the market groups in which they are likely to have the greatest appeal. 0 PS Sample Segments Characteristics The PS sample

  7. Reserve Component General and Flag Officers: A Review of Requirements and Authorized Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    a senior civilian—SES, Defense Intelligence Senior Executive Service ( DISES ), or Defense Intelligence Senior Level (DISL). RAND researchers selected...serve as the superior of flag or general officers or SES civil - ians.3 It is also commonly held that a flag or general officer should be the superior...ing with allied and interagency communities on intelligence and counterintelligence issues, so any potential conversion to DISES /DISL would have to

  8. Insulin Biosynthetic Interaction Network Component, TMEM24, Facilitates Insulin Reserve Pool Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Pottekat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Insulin homeostasis in pancreatic β cells is now recognized as a critical element in the progression of obesity and type II diabetes (T2D. Proteins that interact with insulin to direct its sequential synthesis, folding, trafficking, and packaging into reserve granules in order to manage release in response to elevated glucose remain largely unknown. Using a conformation-based approach combined with mass spectrometry, we have generated the insulin biosynthetic interaction network (insulin BIN, a proteomic roadmap in the β cell that describes the sequential interacting partners of insulin along the secretory axis. The insulin BIN revealed an abundant C2 domain-containing transmembrane protein 24 (TMEM24 that manages glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from a reserve pool of granules, a critical event impaired in patients with T2D. The identification of TMEM24 in the context of a comprehensive set of sequential insulin-binding partners provides a molecular description of the insulin secretory pathway in β cells.

  9. Common and distinct genetic properties of ESCRT-II components in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Martin Herz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic studies in yeast have identified class E vps genes that form the ESCRT complexes required for protein sorting at the early endosome. In Drosophila, mutations of the ESCRT-II component vps25 cause endosomal defects leading to accumulation of Notch protein and increased Notch pathway activity. These endosomal and signaling defects are thought to account for several phenotypes. Depending on the developmental context, two different types of overgrowth can be detected. Tissue predominantly mutant for vps25 displays neoplastic tumor characteristics. In contrast, vps25 mutant clones in a wild-type background trigger hyperplastic overgrowth in a non-autonomous manner. In addition, vps25 mutant clones also promote apoptotic resistance in a non-autonomous manner. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we genetically characterize the remaining ESCRT-II components vps22 and vps36. Like vps25, mutants of vps22 and vps36 display endosomal defects, accumulate Notch protein and--when the tissue is predominantly mutant--show neoplastic tumor characteristics. However, despite these common phenotypes, they have distinct non-autonomous phenotypes. While vps22 mutations cause strong non-autonomous overgrowth, they do not affect apoptotic resistance. In contrast, vps36 mutations increase apoptotic resistance, but have little effect on non-autonomous proliferation. Further characterization reveals that although all ESCRT-II mutants accumulate Notch protein, only vps22 and vps25 mutations trigger Notch activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ESCRT-II components vps22, vps25 and vps36 display common and distinct genetic properties. Our data redefine the role of Notch for hyperplastic and neoplastic overgrowth in these mutants. While Notch is required for hyperplastic growth, it appears to be dispensable for neoplastic transformation.

  10. EVALUATION OF VIBRATION LOAD ON COMMON RAIL FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS FOR DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharonak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to develop a program, a methodology and execute vibration load tests of Common Rail fuel system components for a diesel engine. The paper contains an analysis of parameters that characterize vibration activity of research object and determine its applicability as a part of the specific mechanical system. A tests program has been developed that includes measurements of general peak values of vibration acceleration in the fuel system components, transformation of the obtained data while taking into account the fact that peak vibration acceleration values depend on crank-shaft rotation frequency and spectrum of vibration frequency, comparison of these dependences with the threshold limit values obtained in the process of component tests with the help of vibration shaker. The investigations have been carried out in one of the most stressed elements of the Common Rail fuel system that is a RDS 4.2-pressure sensor in a fuel accumulator manufactured by Robert Bosch GmbH and mounted on the MMZ D245.7E4-engines.According to the test methodology measurements have been performed on an engine test bench at all fullload engine curves. Vibration measurements have resulted in time history of the peak vibration acceleration values in three directions from every accelerometer and crank-shaft rotation frequency.It has been proposed to increase a diameter of mounting spacers of the fuel accumulator and install a damping clamp on high pressure tubes from a high pressure fuel pump to the fuel accumulator that permits to reduce a maximum peak vibration acceleration value on the pressure sensor in the fuel accumulator by 400 m/s2 and ensure its application in the given engine.

  11. Neuroinformatic analyses of common and distinct genetic components associated with major neuropsychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Amit; Fenckova, Michaela; Bralten, Janita; Alttoa, Aet; Dixson, Luanna; Williams, Robert W.; van der Voet, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Major neuropsychiatric disorders are highly heritable, with mounting evidence suggesting that these disorders share overlapping sets of molecular and cellular underpinnings. In the current article we systematically test the degree of genetic commonality across six major neuropsychiatric disorders—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders (Anx), autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). We curated a well-vetted list of genes based on large-scale human genetic studies based on the NHGRI catalog of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A total of 180 genes were accepted into the analysis on the basis of low but liberal GWAS p-values (<10−5). 22% of genes overlapped two or more disorders. The most widely shared subset of genes—common to five of six disorders–included ANK3, AS3MT, CACNA1C, CACNB2, CNNM2, CSMD1, DPCR1, ITIH3, NT5C2, PPP1R11, SYNE1, TCF4, TENM4, TRIM26, and ZNRD1. Using a suite of neuroinformatic resources, we showed that many of the shared genes are implicated in the postsynaptic density (PSD), expressed in immune tissues and co-expressed in developing human brain. Using a translational cross-species approach, we detected two distinct genetic components that were both shared by each of the six disorders; the 1st component is involved in CNS development, neural projections and synaptic transmission, while the 2nd is implicated in various cytoplasmic organelles and cellular processes. Combined, these genetic components account for 20–30% of the genetic load. The remaining risk is conferred by distinct, disorder-specific variants. Our systematic comparative analysis of shared and unique genetic factors highlights key gene sets and molecular processes that may ultimately translate into improved diagnosis and treatment of these debilitating disorders. PMID:25414627

  12. Neuroinformatic Analyses of Common and Distinct Genetic Components Associated with Major Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eLotan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major neuropsychiatric disorders are highly heritable, with mounting evidence suggesting that these disorders share overlapping sets of molecular and cellular underpinnings. In the current article we systematically test the degree of genetic commonality across six major neuropsychiatric disorders—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, autistic spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. We curated a well-vetted list of genes based on large-scale human genetic studies and verified their appearance on the NHGRI catalog of published genome-wide association studies. A total of 180 genes were accepted into the analysis on the basis of low but liberal GWAS p-values (<10-5. 22% of genes overlapped two or more disorders. The most widely shared subset of genes—common to five of six disorders–included ANK3, AS3MT, CACNA1C, CACNB2, CNNM2, CSMD1, DPCR1, ITIH3, NT5C2, PPP1R11, SYNE1, TCF4, TENM4, TRIM26, and ZNRD1. Using a suite of neuroinformatic resources, we showed that many of the shared genes are implicated in the postsynaptic density, expressed in immune tissues and co-expressed in developing human brain.. Using a translational cross-species approach, we detected two distinct genetic components that were both shared by each of the six disorders; the 1st component is involved in CNS development, neural projections and synaptic transmission, while the 2nd is implicated in various cytoplasmic organelles and cellular processes. Combined, these genetic components account for 20–30% of the genetic load. The remaining risk is conferred by distinct, disorder-specific variants. Nevertheless, the convergence of different analytical approaches on similar targets may bear important implications. Thus, although adding mostly confirmatory findings, higher resolution of shared and unique genetic factors provided in this manuscript could ultimately translate into improved diagnosis and treatment of

  13. Antibacterial interactions of monolaurin with commonly used antimicrobials and food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wei, Hewen; Cui, Yinan; Zhao, Guoqun; Feng, Fengqin

    2009-09-01

    Monolaurin is a nontraditional antimicrobial agent that possesses better antimicrobial activities but causes no health problems to consumers, but the use of monolaurin in the food industry as a preservative is still limited. Using a microtiter plate assay, the minimum inhibitory concentrations for monolaurin were 25 microg/mL against Escherichia coli, 12.5 microg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, and 30 microg/mL against Bacillus subtilis. The interaction with commonly used antimicrobials revealed that monolaurin and nisin acted synergistically against the test microorganisms, monolaurin in combination with sodium dehydroacetate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was synergistic against E. coli and B. subtilis but not S. aureus, and monolaurin combined with calcium propionate or sodium lactate showed no synergistic effects against any test microorganism. The interaction with food components revealed that the antibacterial effectiveness of monolaurin was reduced by fat or starch while the monolaurin activity remained unchanged in the presence of protein. This study contributes to a better understanding on the use of monolaurin as a nontraditional preservative in food products. Results from this study suggest the potential use of monolaurin as a nontraditional preservative in combination with commonly used antimicrobials, such as nisin, sodium dehydroacetate, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and suggest that the antibacterial effectiveness of monolaurin may be reduced significantly in high-fat or low-starch food products.

  14. Progress on Plant-Level Components for Nuclear Fuel Recycling: Commonality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Progress made in developing a common mathematical modeling framework for plant-level components of a simulation toolkit for nuclear fuel recycling is summarized. This ongoing work is performed under the DOE Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program, which has an element focusing on safeguards and separations (SafeSeps). One goal of this element is to develop a modeling and simulation toolkit for used nuclear fuel recycling. The primary function of the SafeSeps simulation toolkit is to enable the time-dependent coupling of separation modules and safeguards tools (either native or third-party supplied) that simulate and/or monitor the individual separation processes in a separations plant. The toolkit integration environment will offer an interface for the modules to register in the toolkit domain based on the commonality of diverse unit operations. This report discusses the source of this commonality from a combined mathematical modeling and software design perspectives, and it defines the initial basic concepts needed for development of application modules and their integrated form, that is, an application software. A unifying mathematical theory of chemical thermomechanical network transport for physicochemical systems is proposed and outlined as the basis for developing advanced modules. A program for developing this theory from the underlying first-principles continuum thermomechanics will be needed in future developments; accomplishment of this task will enable the development of a modern modeling approach for plant-level models. Rigorous, advanced modeling approaches at the plant-level can only proceed from the development of reduced (or low-order) models based on a solid continuum field theory foundation. Such development will pave the way for future programmatic activities on software verification, simulation validation, and model uncertainty quantification on a scientific basis; currently, no satisfactory foundation exists for

  15. Controversy Associated With the Common Component of Most Transgenic Plants – Kanamycin Resistance Marker Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Jelenić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic engineering is a powerful tool for producing crops resistant to pests, diseases and abiotic stress or crops with improved nutritional value or better quality products. Currently over 70 genetically modified (GM crops have been approved for use in different countries. These cover a wide range of plant species with significant number of different modified traits. However, beside the technology used for their improvement, the common component of most GM crops is the neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (nptII, which confers resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and neomycin. The nptII gene is present in GM crops as a marker gene to select transformed plant cells during the first steps of the transformation process. The use of antibiotic-resistance genes is subject to controversy and intense debate, because of the likelihood that clinical therapy could be compromised due to inactivation of the oral dose of the antibiotic from consumption of food derived from the transgenic plant, and because of the risk of gene transfer from plants to gut and soil microorganisms or to consumer’s cells. The present article discusses these possibilities in the light of current scientific knowledge.

  16. Independent vector analysis for capturing common components in fMRI group analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Astrid Margareta Elisabet; Andersen, Kasper W.; Mørup, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a widely used blind source separation method for decomposing resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data into latent components. However, it can be challenging to obtain subject-specific component representations in multi-subject stud...

  17. Optimizing Safety Stock Levels in Modular Production Systems Using Component Commonality and Group Technology Philosophy: A Study Based on Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Edgar Hernandez-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modular production and component commonality are two widely used strategies in the manufacturing industry to meet customers growing needs for customized products. Using these strategies, companies can enhance their performance to achieve optimal safety stock levels. Despite the importance of safety stocks in business competition, little attention has been paid to the way to reduce them without affecting the customer service levels. This paper develops a mathematical model to reduce safety stock levels in organizations that employ modular production. To construct the model, we take advantage of the benefits of aggregate inventories, standardization of components, component commonality, and Group Technology philosophy in regard to stock levels. The model is tested through the simulation of three years of operation of two modular product systems. For each system, we calculated and compared the safety stock levels for two cases: (1 under the only presence of component commonality and (2 under the presence of both component commonality and Group Technology philosophy. The results show a reduction in safety stock levels when we linked the component commonality with the Group Technology philosophy. The paper presents a discussion of the implications of each case, features of the model, and suggestions for future research.

  18. Common and dissociable prefrontal loci associated with component mechanisms of analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soohyun; Moody, Teena D; Fernandino, Leonardo; Mumford, Jeanette A; Poldrack, Russell A; Cannon, Tyrone D; Knowlton, Barbara J; Holyoak, Keith J

    2010-03-01

    The ability to draw analogies requires 2 key cognitive processes, relational integration and resolution of interference. The present study aimed to identify the neural correlates of both component processes of analogical reasoning within a single, nonverbal analogy task using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants verified whether a visual analogy was true by considering either 1 or 3 relational dimensions. On half of the trials, there was an additional need to resolve interference in order to make a correct judgment. Increase in the number of dimensions to integrate was associated with increased activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex as well as lateral frontal pole in both hemispheres. When there was a need to resolve interference during reasoning, activation increased in the lateral prefrontal cortex but not in the frontal pole. We identified regions in the middle and inferior frontal gyri which were exclusively sensitive to demands on each component process, in addition to a partial overlap between these neural correlates of each component process. These results indicate that analogical reasoning is mediated by the coordination of multiple regions of the prefrontal cortex, of which some are sensitive to demands on only one of these 2 component processes, whereas others are sensitive to both.

  19. Speaking with a Commonality Language: A Lexicon for System and Component Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Abdullahil Azeem, “Impact of Commonality and Flexibility on Manufacturing Performance: A Simulation Study,” International Journal of Production Economics , Vols...Cycle Costs of Products,” International Journal of Production Economics , Vols. 60–61, April 1999, pp. 109–116. Robertson, David, and Karl Ulrich

  20. Relationship Between Two Common Lipoprotein Lipase Variants and the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Individual Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K. K.; Hansen, Tine W; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    known cardiovascular disease. Carrier status for the two common LPL variants: 447Ter (low TG/high HDL-C) and 291Ser (high TG/low HDL-C) was determined. The prevalence of MetS according to the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria was 16.6%. RESULTS: Of the 2348 participants, 19.8% had the 447......, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and highest sex-specific insulin quartile, the relative risk of MetS was 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45-0.89, P  0.05) for carriers of the 291Ser variant. Both LPL variants were...

  1. Toxic and nontoxic components of botulinum neurotoxin complex are evolved from a common ancestral zinc protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inui, Ken; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Miyata, Keita; Miyashita, Shin-Ichiro; Suzuki, Tomonori; Shikamori, Yasuyuki; Ohyama, Tohru; Niwa, Koichi; Watanabe, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► BoNT and NTNHA proteins share a similar protein architecture. ► NTNHA and BoNT were both identified as zinc-binding proteins. ► NTNHA does not have a classical HEXXH zinc-coordinating motif similar to that found in all serotypes of BoNT. ► Homology modeling implied probable key residues involved in zinc coordination. -- Abstract: Zinc atoms play an essential role in a number of enzymes. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the most potent toxin known in nature, is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase. Here we identify the nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA), one of the BoNT-complex constituents, as a zinc-binding protein, along with BoNT. A protein structure classification database search indicated that BoNT and NTNHA share a similar domain architecture, comprising a zinc-dependent metalloproteinase-like, BoNT coiled-coil motif and concanavalin A-like domains. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that every single NTNHA molecule contains a single zinc atom. This is the first demonstration of a zinc atom in this protein, as far as we know. However, the NTNHA molecule does not possess any known zinc-coordinating motif, whereas all BoNT serotypes possess the classical HEXXH motif. Homology modeling of the NTNHA structure implied that a consensus K-C-L-I-K-X 35 -D sequence common among all NTNHA serotype molecules appears to coordinate a single zinc atom. These findings lead us to propose that NTNHA and BoNT may have evolved distinct functional specializations following their branching out from a common ancestral zinc protein.

  2. Toxic and nontoxic components of botulinum neurotoxin complex are evolved from a common ancestral zinc protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inui, Ken [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 1-8 Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Sagane, Yoshimasa [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan); Miyata, Keita [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 1-8 Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Miyashita, Shin-Ichiro [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan); Suzuki, Tomonori [Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Shikamori, Yasuyuki [Agilent Technologies International Japan, Ltd. Takaura-cho 9-1, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0033 (Japan); Ohyama, Tohru; Niwa, Koichi [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan); Watanabe, Toshihiro, E-mail: t-watana@bioindustry.nodai.ac.jp [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BoNT and NTNHA proteins share a similar protein architecture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NTNHA and BoNT were both identified as zinc-binding proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NTNHA does not have a classical HEXXH zinc-coordinating motif similar to that found in all serotypes of BoNT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homology modeling implied probable key residues involved in zinc coordination. -- Abstract: Zinc atoms play an essential role in a number of enzymes. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the most potent toxin known in nature, is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase. Here we identify the nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA), one of the BoNT-complex constituents, as a zinc-binding protein, along with BoNT. A protein structure classification database search indicated that BoNT and NTNHA share a similar domain architecture, comprising a zinc-dependent metalloproteinase-like, BoNT coiled-coil motif and concanavalin A-like domains. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that every single NTNHA molecule contains a single zinc atom. This is the first demonstration of a zinc atom in this protein, as far as we know. However, the NTNHA molecule does not possess any known zinc-coordinating motif, whereas all BoNT serotypes possess the classical HEXXH motif. Homology modeling of the NTNHA structure implied that a consensus K-C-L-I-K-X{sub 35}-D sequence common among all NTNHA serotype molecules appears to coordinate a single zinc atom. These findings lead us to propose that NTNHA and BoNT may have evolved distinct functional specializations following their branching out from a common ancestral zinc protein.

  3. Components of coated vesicles and nuclear pore complexes share a common molecular architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Devos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous features distinguish prokaryotes from eukaryotes, chief among which are the distinctive internal membrane systems of eukaryotic cells. These membrane systems form elaborate compartments and vesicular trafficking pathways, and sequester the chromatin within the nuclear envelope. The nuclear pore complex is the portal that specifically mediates macromolecular trafficking across the nuclear envelope. Although it is generally understood that these internal membrane systems evolved from specialized invaginations of the prokaryotic plasma membrane, it is not clear how the nuclear pore complex could have evolved from organisms with no analogous transport system. Here we use computational and biochemical methods to perform a structural analysis of the seven proteins comprising the yNup84/vNup107-160 subcomplex, a core building block of the nuclear pore complex. Our analysis indicates that all seven proteins contain either a beta-propeller fold, an alpha-solenoid fold, or a distinctive arrangement of both, revealing close similarities between the structures comprising the yNup84/vNup107-160 subcomplex and those comprising the major types of vesicle coating complexes that maintain vesicular trafficking pathways. These similarities suggest a common evolutionary origin for nuclear pore complexes and coated vesicles in an early membrane-curving module that led to the formation of the internal membrane systems in modern eukaryotes.

  4. A POLICY MIX TO PREVENT A NON-COMMONS TRAGEDY FOR COLLECTIVE FOREST RESERVES IN AGRARIAN SETTLEMENTS IN NORTHWEST MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Davenport

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agrarian reform settlements have recently been identified as a major contributor to ongoing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Collective forest reserves were established in some settlements to thwart forest loss, but settlers usually do not recognize forest commons, opting instead for continued private accumulation through forest clearing, or a "non-commons" tragedy. Pathways toward ensuring the viability of common-pool management in settlements remain unclear. Our case study focused on two similarly sized settlements in neighboring municipalities in Northwest Mato Grosso, Brazil, each with formally designated collective forest areas. In one, deforestation shifted into the collective reserve and intensified; in the other, deforestation stabilized and the collective reserve was protected. In the latter, settlers understood their collective forest reserve as a commonly held asset, with two commercially viable settlement cooperatives involved in Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa extractivism and added value processing. We analyze differences between the two settlements using Elinor Ostrom's framework for analysis of socio-ecological systems, and identify the locally applied policy mix ensuring the viability of a forest commons. The study concludes that "top-down" efforts to institutionalize collective governance over remaining forests will likely fail in most settlements, without a focus on alternative livelihood opportunities synergetic with forest tenure.

  5. Limits of principal components analysis for producing a common trait space: implications for inferring selection, contingency, and chance in evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Parsons

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparing patterns of divergence among separate lineages or groups has posed an especially difficult challenge for biologists. Recently a new, conceptually simple methodology called the "ordered-axis plot" approach was introduced for the purpose of comparing patterns of diversity in a common morphospace. This technique involves a combination of principal components analysis (PCA and linear regression. Given the common use of these statistics the potential for the widespread use of the ordered axis approach is high. However, there are a number of drawbacks to this approach, most notably that lineages with the greatest amount of variance will largely bias interpretations from analyses involving a common morphospace. Therefore, without meeting a set of a priori requirements regarding data structure the ordered-axis plot approach will likely produce misleading results.Morphological data sets from cichlid fishes endemic to Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi, and Victoria were used to statistically demonstrate how separate groups can have differing contributions to a common morphospace produced by a PCA. Through a matrix superimposition of eigenvectors (scale-free trajectories of variation identified by PCA we show that some groups contribute more to the trajectories of variation identified in a common morphospace. Furthermore, through a set of randomization tests we show that a common morphospace model partitions variation differently than group-specific models. Finally, we demonstrate how these limitations may influence an ordered-axis plot approach by performing a comparison on data sets with known alterations in covariance structure. Using these results we provide a set of criteria that must be met before a common morphospace can be reliably used.Our results suggest that a common morphospace produced by PCA would not be useful for producing biologically meaningful results unless a restrictive set of criteria are met. We therefore suggest biologists be aware

  6. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    In the Autumn of 1996, consumers and Members of Congress from the Northeast expressed concern about high prices for heating oil and historically low levels of inventories. Some Members of Congress advocated building a Federal inventory of heating oil as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Regional reserves are authorized as part of the SPR for import dependent regions by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. In response, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed a series of studies related to heating fuels, including a study of the desirability, feasibility, and cost of creating a Federal reserve containing distillate fuel. This report documents that study.

  7. Marine Corps Reserve Officer Manpower Modifications During the Long War: A Case to Achieve Parity with the Active Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaffer, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    .... To be more effective as commanders and leaders, reserve officers need to achieve parity with active duty officers in rank and command selection through education, leadership experiences, and training opportunities...

  8. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Nine appendices to the main report are included in this volume. They are: Northeastern US distillate supply systems; New England fuel oil storage capacities and inventories; Characteristics of the northeast natural gas market; Documentation of statistical models and calculation of benefits; Regional product reserve study; Other countries` experience with refined product storage; Global refining supply demand appraisal; Summary of federal authorities relevant to the establishment of petroleum product reserves; Product stability and turnover requirements.

  9. A Study of Issues Related to Accession and Retention of Enlisted Personnel in the Reserve Components. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    lower 9 or lowr 28 or lowr 24 or lower High enployrrert index 8 or higher 10 or higher 29 or higher 25 or higher Socio-Econatic Irsdex:2) Low, socia ...learn about the Guard/Reserve or of the efforts initiated by others (for example, friends, media , etc.). Their direct experiences will largely be limited

  10. Healthcare Coverage and Disability Evaluation for Reserve Component Personnel: Research for the 11th Quadrennial Review of Military Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Employee Health Benefits FPL federal poverty level HMO health maintenance organization IDES Integrated Disability Evaluation System IET initial entry...conditions, including common chronic con- ditions such as diabetes , are not considered service-connected unless there is evidence that the condition...to but not completed by the PEB); EPTS (medical condi- tion determined to be existing prior to service); or IET (medical separation during initial

  11. Issues Related to Recruitment of Enlisted Personnel for the Reserve Components. Major Findings and Recommendations, 1979 Tracking Study. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    8217Reserve Se rv i ce r’qu i r os tearlwork, and gregariou people are more, at tra cte -d to it th is fare. O tilel - tendency toward gregariousnes-, Was...Fishing l( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 9( f. Gardening l() 2( )3( )4( ) 9( g. Watching a football garre l( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 9( h. Reading about medicine 1( ) 2( ) 3...Fishing 1( ) 2( ) 3k ) 4( ) R( f. Gardening 1( ) 2() 3( ) 4( ) 9( )-41 g. Watching a football gam 1( 2( 3( ) 4( ) 9( )-L2 h. Reading about medicine 1’) 2

  12. Common characterization of variability and forecast errors of variable energy sources and their mitigation using reserves in power system integration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menemenlis, N.; Huneault, M. [IREQ, Varennes, QC (Canada); Robitaille, A. [Dir. Plantif. de la Production Eolienne, Montreal, QC (Canada). HQ Production; Holttinen, H. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    This In this paper we define and characterize the two random variables, variability and forecast error, over which uncertainty in power systems operations is characterized and mitigated. We show that the characterization of both these variables can be carried out with the same mathematical tools. Furthermore, this common characterization of random variables lends itself to a common methodology for the calculation of non-contingency reserves required to mitigate their effects. A parallel comparison of these two variables demonstrates similar inherent statistical properties. They depend on imminent conditions, evolve with time and can be asymmetric. Correlation is an important factor when aggregating individual wind farm characteristics in forming the distribution of the total wind generation for imminent conditions. (orig.)

  13. Components of the plasminogen activation system promote engraftment of porous polyethylene biomaterial via common and distinct effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Christoph A; Hessenauer, Maximilian E T; Pflieger, Kerstin; Rehberg, Markus; Kanse, Sandip M; Zahler, Stefan; Krombach, Fritz; Berghaus, Alexander; Strieth, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Rapid fibrovascularization is a prerequisite for successful biomaterial engraftment. In addition to their well-known roles in fibrinolysis, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or their inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have recently been implicated as individual mediators in non-fibrinolytic processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Since these events are critical for fibrovascularization of biomaterial, we hypothesized that the components of the plasminogen activation system contribute to biomaterial engraftment. Employing in vivo and ex vivo microscopy techniques, vessel and collagen network formation within porous polyethylene (PPE) implants engrafted into dorsal skinfold chambers were found to be significantly impaired in uPA-, tPA-, or PAI-1-deficient mice. Consequently, the force required for mechanical disintegration of the implants out of the host tissue was significantly lower in the mutant mice than in wild-type controls. Conversely, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, non-catalytic uPA, or PAI-1, but not with non-catalytic tPA, accelerated implant vascularization in wild-type mice. Thus, uPA, tPA, and PAI-1 contribute to the fibrovascularization of PPE implants through common and distinct effects. As clinical perspective, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, or PAI-1 might provide a novel strategy for accelerating the vascularization of this biomaterial.

  14. Investigation of isolation conditions and ion-exchange purification of protein coagulation components from common bean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antov Mirjana G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of an extraction procedure of protein coagulants from common bean seed regarding concentration of NaCl and pH was performed. High values of protein concentration and coagulation activity in crude extract (9.19 g/l and 23.9%, respectively were obtained when the extraction was performed using 0.5 mol/l NaCl and water as solvent, which represents an advantage for economic and environmental reasons. Crude extract of common bean seed was purified by precipitation at two different percentages of (NH42SO4 saturation, followed by batch ion-exchange chromatography. The highest obtained coagulation activity, 45%, was determined in fraction that was eluated at 1.75 mol/l NaCl from resin loaded with proteins precipitated upon 80-100% (NH42SO4 saturation. High values of coagulation activity showed by some eluates suggest their application as natural coagulant for water purification. .

  15. Is Increased Intracellular Calcium in Red Blood Cells a Common Component in the Molecular Mechanism Causing Anemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hertz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For many hereditary disorders, although the underlying genetic mutation may be known, the molecular mechanism leading to hemolytic anemia is still unclear and needs further investigation. Previous studies revealed an increased intracellular Ca2+ in red blood cells (RBCs from patients with sickle cell disease, thalassemia, or Gardos channelopathy. Therefore we analyzed RBCs' Ca2+ content from 35 patients with different types of anemia (16 patients with hereditary spherocytosis, 11 patients with hereditary xerocytosis, 5 patients with enzymopathies, and 3 patients with hemolytic anemia of unknown cause. Intracellular Ca2+ in RBCs was measured by fluorescence microscopy using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Fluo-4 and subsequent single cell analysis. We found that in RBCs from patients with hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary xerocytosis the intracellular Ca2+ levels were significantly increased compared to healthy control samples. For enzymopathies and hemolytic anemia of unknown cause the intracellular Ca2+ levels in RBCs were not significantly different. These results lead us to the hypothesis that increased Ca2+ levels in RBCs are a shared component in the mechanism causing an accelerated clearance of RBCs from the blood stream in channelopathies such as hereditary xerocytosis and in diseases involving defects of cytoskeletal components like hereditary spherocytosis. Future drug developments should benefit from targeting Ca2+ entry mediating molecular players leading to better therapies for patients.

  16. Bacterial components are the major contributors to the macrophage stimulating activity exhibited by extracts of common edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Heather L; Haron, Mona H; Pugh, Nirmal D; Zhang, Jin; Jackson, Colin R; Pasco, David S

    2016-10-12

    Recent studies have indicated that a major contributor to the innate immune enhancing properties of some medicinal plants is derived from the cell wall components of bacteria colonizing these plants. The purpose of the current study was to assess if the bacteria present within edible and medicinal mushrooms substantially contribute to the innate immune stimulating potential of these mushrooms. Whole mushrooms from thirteen types of edible fungi and individual parts from Agaricus bisporus were analyzed for in vitro macrophage activation as well as bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) content, cell load, and community composition. Substantial variation between samples was observed in macrophage activation (over 500-fold), total bacterial load (over 200-fold), and LPS content (over 10 million-fold). Both LPS content (ρ = 0.832, p mushroom extracts. Extract activity was negated by treatment with NaOH, conditions that inactivate LPS and other bacterial components. Significant correlations between macrophage activation and total bacterial load (ρ = 0.723, p = 0.0001) and LPS content (ρ = 0.951, p mushroom associated bacteria contribute substantially to the innate immune enhancing activity exhibited by mushrooms and may result in similar therapeutic actions as reported for ingestion of bacterial preparations such as probiotics.

  17. Parallel, Multigrid Finite Element Simulator for Fractured/Faulted and Other Complex Reservoirs based on Common Component Architecture (CCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milind Deo; Chung-Kan Huang; Huabing Wang

    2008-08-31

    Black-oil, compositional and thermal simulators have been developed to address different physical processes in reservoir simulation. A number of different types of discretization methods have also been proposed to address issues related to representing the complex reservoir geometry. These methods are more significant for fractured reservoirs where the geometry can be particularly challenging. In this project, a general modular framework for reservoir simulation was developed, wherein the physical models were efficiently decoupled from the discretization methods. This made it possible to couple any discretization method with different physical models. Oil characterization methods are becoming increasingly sophisticated, and it is possible to construct geologically constrained models of faulted/fractured reservoirs. Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) simulation provides the option of performing multiphase calculations on spatially explicit, geologically feasible fracture sets. Multiphase DFN simulations of and sensitivity studies on a wide variety of fracture networks created using fracture creation/simulation programs was undertaken in the first part of this project. This involved creating interfaces to seamlessly convert the fracture characterization information into simulator input, grid the complex geometry, perform the simulations, and analyze and visualize results. Benchmarking and comparison with conventional simulators was also a component of this work. After demonstration of the fact that multiphase simulations can be carried out on complex fracture networks, quantitative effects of the heterogeneity of fracture properties were evaluated. Reservoirs are populated with fractures of several different scales and properties. A multiscale fracture modeling study was undertaken and the effects of heterogeneity and storage on water displacement dynamics in fractured basements were investigated. In gravity-dominated systems, more oil could be recovered at a given pore

  18. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  19. THE MIOCENE AND DEVONIAN MAGMATISM AT THE JUNCTION BETWEEN THE TUVA-MONGOLIAN MASSIF AND SIBERIAN CRATON: COMMON COMPONENT OF MANTLE SOURCES AND ITS ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Rasskazov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Devonian dikes of the Urik-Belaya and Shagayte-Gol-Urik zones and Miocene lavas of the Urik volcanic field are spatially associated with each other at the structural junction between the Neoproterozoic Tuva-Mongolian massif and Siberian craton. The former dike belt is represented by basalts and basaltic andesites of tholeiitic series and the latter one by trachybasalts, trachyandesitic basalts of moderately alkaline series and trachybasalts, phonotephrites of highly alkaline one. The Urik volcanic field is composed of trachybasalts and trachyandesitic basalts of moderately alkaline series. A partial similarity between magmatic series of different age is found in terms of major oxides, trace elements, and Sr, Pb isotopes. The common component corrected for age was defined through its converging mixing trends with those of the lithospheric mantle and crust. The component identification was a basis for deciphering the nature of isotopic and geochemical heterogeneity of evolved magmatic sources. It was inferred that the common component characterizes either a modified (depleted reservoir of the lower mantle or, more likely, a local region of the convecting asthenospheric mantle that underlies the Tuva-Mongolian massif. The latter interpretation assumes the formation of a locally convecting asthenosphere in the middle Neoproterozoic, along with the development of the Oka zone at the massif, and puts constrains on later sufficient processing of the asthenosphere due to rising plumes or subducting slabs.

  20. Issues Related to Recruitment of Enlisted Personnel for the Reserve Components. Volume 4. Focus Group Report 1980 Tracking Study. Wave III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    view the services as a place for the uneducated , unskilled, and unemployed. In addition, the Guard/Reserve is seen as a place where little of value is...individuals who are less qualified. Emphasizing the positive aspects of Guard/ Reserve personnel may reduce the negative stereotypes which are currently...me whether you woAuld describe yourself as: 67- 1( ) Hispanic , ( ) Other 2( ) American Indian or Alaskan Native, WRITE IN 3( ) Black, not of Hispanic

  1. Functional uniqueness of a small carnivore as seed dispersal agents: a case study of the common palm civets in the Tabin Wildlife Reserve, Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Abd Sukor, Jum Rafiah

    2010-11-01

    Many carnivorous mammals consume fruits and disperse the intact seeds to specific sites. Few studies have attempted to quantify this seed dispersal or evaluate its effectiveness, despite its potential importance and functional uniqueness. In the study reported here, we found that a frugivorous carnivore, the common palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus), generated seed shadows that are distinct from those of the sympatric frugivore, the pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina), and played a unique and important role in the regeneration of Leea aculeata (Leeaceae). We found that macaques dispersed the seeds randomly, while civets dispersed them non-randomly to sites such as the banks of small rivers, rain-flow paths, abandoned trails, and treefall gaps, which are characterized by low stem density and canopy cover. Seeds of L. aculeata that were dispersed by civets to the banks of rivers and gaps had significantly higher survival and growth rates than those dispersed to rain-flow paths or abandoned trails. Seeds dispersed by macaques or to random locations also had low survival. Although the effects of the civets on seed fate were not straightforward, compared with macaques and random dispersal, civets significantly enhanced the survival and growth of L. aculeata seeds after 1 year. These results indicate that non-random dispersal by civets is important for the persistence of L. aculeata. Civets may disperse other plant species and thus could have profound effects on forest dynamics.

  2. Should the United States Marine Corps Refine Its System of Active Component Enlisted Recruitment in Order to Target the Needs of Select Marine Corps Reserve Units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    on its investment by not establishing a connection between the AC recruiting missions and the needs of the proximal reserve units. By establishing this...which encourages the continuum of service. The end result of this transition is an opportunity to better meet the needs of the AC and the RC, while

  3. biojs-io-biom, a BioJS component for handling data in Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM format [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus J. Ankenbrand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM format is widely used to store data from high-throughput studies. It aims at increasing interoperability of bioinformatic tools that process this data. However, due to multiple versions and implementation details, working with this format can be tricky. Currently, libraries in Python, R and Perl are available, whilst such for JavaScript are lacking. Here, we present a BioJS component for parsing BIOM data in all format versions. It supports import, modification, and export via a unified interface. This module aims to facilitate the development of web applications that use BIOM data. Finally, we demonstrate its usefulness by two applications that already use this component. Availability: https://github.com/molbiodiv/biojs-io-biom, https://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.218277

  4. Multiple sclerosis among service members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces and among other beneficiaries of the Military Health System, 2007-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Valerie F; Stahlman, Shauna; Ying, Saixia

    2017-08-01

    During 2007-2016, a total of 2,031 active component service members received incident diagnoses of multiple sclerosis (MS), for an overall unadjusted incidence rate of 14.9 cases per 100,000 p-yrs. The average overall unadjusted rate among reserve/guard members during this surveillance period was 6.9 cases per 100,000 persons. In both components, women had a higher overall incidence of MS than men across all race/ethnicity groups. Overall rates of MS were highest among non-Hispanic black service members. Crude annual incidence rates among active component members decreased slightly during 2007-2016, while rates among reserve/guard members were relatively stable. Among active component members, the annual female-to-male incidence ratios decreased during the 10-year period (3.7:1 in 2007 to 2.5:1 in 2016). Annual numbers of incident cases of MS decreased among non-service member Military Health System beneficiaries during this period. The median age at MS case-defining diagnosis was 32 years among active component members, 37 years among reserve/guard members, and 48 years among non-service member beneficiaries. The median time intervals between initial presentation and case-defining MS-related encounter ranged from 15 days among reserve/guard component members to 20 days among active component service members. This study makes a useful contribution to the literature on temporal changes in the incidence of MS by sex and race/ethnicity.

  5. Cognitive Functions and Cognitive Reserve in Relation to Blood Pressure Components in a Population-Based Cohort Aged 53 to 94 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzia Giordano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 288 men and women from general population in a cross-sectional survey, all neuropsychological tests were negatively associated with age; memory and executive function were also positively related with education. The hypertensives (HT were less efficient than the normotensives (NT in the test of memory with interference at 10 sec (MI-10 (−33%, P=0.03, clock drawing test (CLOX (−28%, P<0.01, and mini-mental state examination (MMSE (−6%, P=0.02. Lower MMSE, MI-10, and CLOX were predicted by higher systolic (odds ratio, OR, 0.97, P=0.02; OR 0.98, P<0.005; OR 0.95, P<0.001 and higher pulse blood pressure (BP (OR 0.97, P=0.02; OR 0.97, P<0.01; and 0.95, P<0.0001. The cognitive reserve index (CRI was 6% lower in the HT (P=0.03 and was predicted by higher pulse BP (OR 0.82, P<0.001. The BP vectors of lower MMSE, MI-10, and CLOX were directed towards higher values of systolic and diastolic BP, that of low CRI towards higher systolic and lower diastolic. The label of hypertension and higher values of systolic or pulse BP are associated to worse memory and executive functions. Higher diastolic BP, although insufficient to impair cognition, strengthens this association. CRI is predicted by higher systolic BP associated to lower diastolic BP.

  6. Psychological distress and common mental disorders among immigrants: results from the Israeli-based component of the World Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsky, Julia; Kohn, Robert; Levav, Itzhak; Grinshpoon, Alexander; Ponizovsky, Alexander M

    2008-11-01

    The Israel National Health Survey (INHS), the local component of the World Mental Health Survey, was designed to estimate the prevalence rates of common mental disorders and psychological distress in the total adult population. This report focuses on the immigrant population and explores 2 alternative hypotheses about the association between migration and psychiatric morbidity-the migration-morbidity hypothesis and the healthy-immigrant hypothesis. The INHS included face-to-face interviews, conducted from May 2003 to April 2004, with 2114 Israeli-born Jewish respondents and 844 post-1990 immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Psychological distress was measured with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, and psychiatric disorders were diagnosed with the World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Psychological distress among FSU immigrants was significantly higher than among their Israeli-born counterparts for both genders. Twelve-month prevalence rates of common mental disorders were generally higher in the FSU group of immigrants than in the comparison group (any disorder: men, 9.5% vs. 8.7%, OR = 1.57 [95% CI = 1.44 to 1.71]; women, 12.5% vs. 9.5%, OR = 1.42 [95% CI = 1.33 to 1.53] and mood disorders: men, 5.6% vs. 4.4%, OR = 1.37 [95% CI = 1.27 to 1.54]; women, 8.6% vs. 7.3%, OR = 1.17 [95% CI = 1.07 to 1.28]). The findings, which generally support the migration-morbidity hypothesis, are discussed in light of the nonselective migration policy implemented in Israel. Additional factors such as length of residence in the host country, immigration circumstances, and ethnicity are associated with immigrants' mental health and need further investigation. Copyright 2008 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  7. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Paraguay Barbuda Ecuador India Peru Argentina Egypt Israel Philippines Australia England Italy Portugal Austria Fiji Jamaica Puerto Rico Bahamas France...Baguero Commander, Ecuadoran First Air Presidente , Junta Civic Archidona, Zone Ecuador * Navarrete, Colonel William * Marsh, Honorable John 0. Jr...Mobilization Concepts (Policy) Development Center " Shiguango, Mr. Sharimiat 0 Temple, Lieutenant General Herbert Presidente , Conncejo Archidona, R. Jr

  8. Reserve Component Contribution to Imagery Intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stafford, Ann

    2003-01-01

    .... Because raw imagery has limited value until it has been exploited, the increased volume of raw imagery demands an enhanced ability for combatant commanders and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA...

  9. Medical Readiness of the Reserve Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    51 Some Dental Plans Are Cheaper—Comparison of Five Treatment Sources...in need of such care, 49 percent had more than one tooth needing treatment , 71 percent had periodontal disease, and 68 percent required one or more...preventive dental care, such as annual teeth cleaning (prophylaxis), fluo- ride treatment , and periodontal care. Complicated Nature of Medical Readiness

  10. Army Reserve Component Personalized Empowerment Program (ARCPEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    in U.S. hospitals—2007. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2008; 65:2244-64 2. Hardiker NR, Grant MJ. Barriers and facilitators that affect public engagement with eHealth services. Stud Health Technol Inform 2010; 160:13-7

  11. A Hybrid Model for Research on Subjective Well-Being: Examining Common- and Component-Specific Sources of Variance in Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, and Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busseri, Michael; Sadava, Stanley; DeCourville, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The primary components of subjective well-being (SWB) include life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). There is little consensus, however, concerning how these components form a model of SWB. In this paper, six longitudinal studies varying in demographic characteristics, length of time between assessment periods,…

  12. Individuality, phenotypic differentiation, dormancy and ‘persistence’ in culturable bacterial systems: commonalities shared by environmental, laboratory, and clinical microbiology [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Kell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For bacteria, replication mainly involves growth by binary fission. However, in a very great many natural environments there are examples of phenotypically dormant, non-growing cells that do not replicate immediately and that are phenotypically ‘nonculturable’ on media that normally admit their growth. They thereby evade detection by conventional culture-based methods. Such dormant cells may also be observed in laboratory cultures and in clinical microbiology. They are usually more tolerant to stresses such as antibiotics, and in clinical microbiology they are typically referred to as ‘persisters’. Bacterial cultures necessarily share a great deal of relatedness, and inclusive fitness theory implies that there are conceptual evolutionary advantages in trading a variation in growth rate against its mean, equivalent to hedging one’s bets. There is much evidence that bacteria exploit this strategy widely. We here bring together data that show the commonality of these phenomena across environmental, laboratory and clinical microbiology. Considerable evidence, using methods similar to those common in environmental microbiology, now suggests that many supposedly non-communicable, chronic and inflammatory diseases are exacerbated (if not indeed largely caused by the presence of dormant or persistent bacteria (the ability of whose components to cause inflammation is well known. This dormancy (and resuscitation therefrom often reflects the extent of the availability of free iron. Together, these phenomena can provide a ready explanation for the continuing inflammation common to such chronic diseases and its correlation with iron dysregulation. This implies that measures designed to assess and to inhibit or remove such organisms (or their access to iron might be of much therapeutic benefit.

  13. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  14. Chronic granulomatous disease caused by mutations other than the common GT deletion in NCF1, the gene encoding the p47phox component of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Dirk; de Boer, Martin; Köker, M. Yavuz; Dekker, Jan; Singh-Gupta, Vinita; Ahlin, Anders; Palmblad, Jan; Sanal, Ozden; Kurenko-Deptuch, Magdalena; Jolles, Stephen; Wolach, Baruch

    2006-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited immunodeficiency caused by defects in any of four genes encoding components of the leukocyte nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate, reduced (NADPH) oxidase. One of these is the autosomal neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (NCF1) gene encoding the p47phox

  15. Neuropathic pain components are common in patients with painful cervical radiculopathy, but not in patients with nonspecific neck-arm pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampin, Brigitte; Slater, Helen; Briffa, Noelle K

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, using quantitative sensory testing (QST) parameters and the painDETECT (PD-Q) screening questionnaire, the presence of neuropathic pain (NeP) in patients with unilateral painful cervical radiculopathy (CxRAD) and in patients with unilateral nonspecific neck-arm pain associated with heightened nerve mechanosensitivity (NSNAP). All patients completed the PD-Q before QST. QST was performed bilaterally in the maximal pain area and the affected dermatome in 23 patients with painful C6 or C7 radiculopathy and in 8 patients with NSNAP following a C6/7 dermatomal pain distribution. Patients with CxRAD demonstrated a significant loss of sensory function in mechanical (P≤0.021) and vibration sense (P≤0.003) on the symptomatic side compared with the asymptomatic side in both tested body regions and in the dermatome reduced cold detection (P=0.021) and pressure pain sensitivity (P=0.005), findings consistent with nerve root damage. These sensory alterations in the maximal pain area/symptomatic side are confirmative for the presence of NeP. In contrast to these QST data, only 30% of patients with CxRAD demonstrated a NeP component according to the PD-Q score. In patients with NSNAP, a significant side-to-side difference was demonstrated for warm detection threshold in the dermatome (P=0.030). The PD-Q score indicated that NeP components were unlikely in this group. QST data suggest that NeP is likely to be observed in patients with painful CxRAD, but not in patients with NSNAP.

  16. Report on the Regulatory Experience of Risk-Informed In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components and Common Views (consensus document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    The present report represents the work product of the activities conducted by the Task Force. The TF performed a review and inventory of the existing approaches to risk-informed inservice inspection and testing, and completed its work in 1999 with a Current Practices Document 2, titled Report on risk-informed in-service inspection and in-service testing (EUR 19153 EN). In November 2001, the NRWG held a Special session on risk-informed applications, with emphasis on risk-informed inservice inspection, where results and experiences from pilot studies on risk-informed inservice inspection (RI-ISI), performed in several European countries, were presented and discussed. As a follow-up in May 2002, the TF was reconvened with the objectives to analyse from the regulatory point of view key aspects associated with the application of risk-informed inservice inspection, and to go beyond a state of the art report, presenting a series of recommendations of good practices or common positions reached by the regulators represented in the Task Force. (author)

  17. Training and Organization of the U.S. Army Reserve Components: A reference Text for Total Force Trainers and a Guide to Other U.S. Military Services, 1988-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Crisis and many served in Vietnam. Today, there are 12,000 membe s of the Selected Reserve serving in virtually all Coast Guard missioh areas. 2...emergency health and sanitation efforts. Since its inception, the PHS and its Commissioned Corps have witnessed and played a major role in virtually ...initiatives and programs carried out by the following staff offices within the Office of the Asistant Secretary for Health: o The Office of Disease

  18. Plant biostimulant associated with a resistance inducer in the production components of the common bean = Bioestimulante vegetal associado a indutor de resistência nos componentes da produção de feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João William Bossolani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the search for increased productivity in the common bean and in various other crops of economic interest, much research has been carried out using growth regulators, hormones and nutrients, especially in foliar application, with the aim of accelerating plant development, improving agronomic characteristics, and ensuring better plant health and performance in the field. The application of biostimulant plant regulators with the purpose of increasing crop productivity is a still not a common practice in agriculture. The aim of this study therefore, was to evaluate the effect of the application of plant biostimulants together with a resistance inducer on the production components of the common bean. Five doses of a biostimulant (indolebutyric acid, kinetin and gibberellic acid were used (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 L ha-1, combined with four doses of a resistance inducer (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 L ha-1 in the common bean “IAC Formoso” under a no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in Selvíria, in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, during the 2013/14 agricultural year. The experimental design was of randomised blocks, in a 5x4 factorial scheme, with four replications. Production components and seed productivity were evaluated in the crop. The resistance inducer gave higher values for green matter (52.08 g plant-1 and dry matter (17.29 g plant-1 in the common bean at a dose of 2.04 L ha-1 and 2.15 L ha-1 respectively. The greatest productivity (3,756 kg ha-1 was obtained with a dose of 0.78 L ha-1 of biostimulant. The use of vegetable biostimulant can be a viable alternative for increasing productivity in the common bean. Em busca do aumento da produtividade do feijoeiro e de várias outras culturas de interesse econômico, foram realizadas inúmeras pesquisas utilizando reguladores de crescimento, hormônios e nutrientes, principalmente em aplicações foliares com a finalidade de acelerar o desenvolvimento da planta, melhorar suas

  19. Common Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from spreading Common warts Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  20. Common Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with HIV/AIDS or people who've had organ transplants Prevention To reduce your risk of common warts: Avoid direct contact with warts. This includes your own warts. Don't pick at warts. Picking may spread the ...

  1. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  2. The Commons

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, D.

    2004-01-01

    Over a three-year period, David Moore made repeated early morning visits to the chamber of the House of Commons, making photographs of unseen and overlooked areas and submitting this political environment to the scrutiny of the document. The Commons pursues archaeology of our most important debating chamber, exploring how an environment can act as a metaphor for wider societal issues. In doing so Moore creates an incisive survey of the epicentre of British politics.

  3. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  5. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  6. Cognitive reserve in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A M; Stern, Y

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.

  7. Army Reserve Component Personal Empowerment Program #2 (ARCPEP 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    College Students and Campus Dining Options Sleep Quality, not Sleep Quantity, Correlates with Academic ... sleep time. Practice Gap: In their role to promote student health and improve student performance , college health practitioners and student counselors... Performance Vegetarian-style Eating in College Students : Diet Survey Analysis and BMI Vitamin D Deficiency in College Students :

  8. Total Army Cyber Mission Force: Reserve Component Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Traditional Part-Time Soldiers C2 Command and Control METL Mission Essential Task List CEH Certified Ethical Hacker MI Guard’s Cyber Backbone Network CMF...16 RC Sources and Resourcing Authorities (12301-12304) .......................................................... 16 End...terrorism and it received the highest priority for allocation of intelligence resources . In 2013, the Director National Intelligence (DNI) identified

  9. ARCPEP Project - Army Reserve Component Personal Empowerment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Appendix 5 Perceived Stress Scale The questions in this scale ask you about your feelings and thoughts during the last month. In each case , you will be...5. How many servings of red meat, hamburger or meat products (ham, sausage , etc.) do you consume per day? (1 serving = 3.5-5 ounces) ə 6. How...consume chicken, turkey instead of veal, pork, hamburger or sausage ? Yes 14. How many times per week do you consume vegetables, pasta, rice or other

  10. An Investigation of B-2 Pilot Force Reserve Component Augmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathers, Russell

    2001-01-01

    ... to enter the major airline industry Due to the resulting limited number of B-2 instructor pilots the Air Force contracted for civilian B-2 academic instructors who are not as qualified to instruct...

  11. Evaluation of HRV Biofeedback as a Resilience Building Reserve Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    3  4  5  6  7  b. Mental health professional (e.g., psychologist , psychiatrist, clinical social worker, or other mental health counselor) 1  2  3...professional at a military facility (e.g., psychologist , psychiatrist, clinical social worker, or other mental health counselor...professional (e.g., psychologist , psychiatrist, clinical social worker, or other mental health counselor

  12. Analysis of Employer Costs from Reserve Component Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Owner Discussion. The owner has about 15 employees. One of them, his service manager , was called to active duty in 2001. The owner estimates...have received from the service manager on the job. The owner was vaguely cognizant of the existence of USERRA, but he did not have cost numbers...run—the service manager has been back on the job for nearly a year—he still has not been able to recoup all of the business lost during the

  13. 2012 Survey of Reserve Components Spouses (RCSS): Tabulations of Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    120  o.  Loneliness ...happened ..................................... 434  i.  Wished he/she could make things different ........................................ 436  j...588  94.  What is your gender ? Constructed from administrative data ........................ 590  95.  Did you

  14. Analysis of Employer Costs from Reserve Component Mobilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, Colin M; Gotz, Glenn A; Singer, Neil M; Tyson, Karen W

    2004-01-01

    .... Evidence is presented suggesting that the most significant costs for small employers are related to lost productivity and sales rather than to the costs associated with the requirements imposed...

  15. Army Reserve Components Research Roadmap Volume 1: ARI Research Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    In Holz, R., Hiller , J., & McFann, H. (Eds.) Determinants of Effective Unit Performance. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the...Functions Critical to Combat Operations. In Holz, R., Hiller , J., & McFann, H. (Eds.) Determinants of Effective Unit Performance. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army...throughout mobilization for both soldiers and officers. Table 3-3. 1Previous Mobilization Arrangements and Nespondenls t Eva !.to-O O - Well Their

  16. Suitability of Missions for the Air Force Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Antenna Systems 116 9.2 123 6.9 1C21 Combat Control 492 9.2 35 6.1 3 1.7 1A81 Airborne Crypto Language Anal 1,365 8.9 79 5.2 28...requirements, represented by the RAP in the case of the F-16 and comparable currency and proficiency requirements for mobility units. Deployment demand and

  17. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  18. Reserve Component Programs Fiscal Year 1993 Report of the Reserve Forces Policy Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Thurber suggested, "Somewhere, just be seized, or that vie%-n may never be realizeda out of sight, the Unicorns are gathering." The Bottom-Up Review...projects a shortfall of $2.8 "million in 1994 as a result of Defense Finance and Accounting fees and simulator procurement. R 7..% ’:The Air National Guard...Defense Finance and At some future time, deoxyribonucleic acid Accounting Service in July 1993, replacing the (DNA) profile analysis is expected to

  19. Ready, Reliable, and Relevant: The Army Reserve Component as an Operational Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Kurt A. Rorvik 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Advanced Military...Consequence Management Response Force CEF Contingency Expeditionary Force CJCS Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff CMH Center of Military...Treaty Organization vii NCO Non-Commissioned Officer NDAA National Defense Authorization Act NGB National Guard Bureau NOS Notification of

  20. Financial Issues of Reserve Service: A Report from the 1992 Reserve Components Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miskura, Susan

    1997-01-01

    .... The questionnaire was mailed to 76,783 members with responses received from 47%. The objective of this report was to analyze issues relating to individual and unit readiness focusing on financial aspects...

  1. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1992: Annual Report of the Reserve Forces Policy Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    reduce the shortage of junior-grade and mid- quickly on the issue of homosexuals in the career officers in Selccted Rescrvc units. military, especially...52 Homosexuals in the Military...operational detachments, and CARIBBEAN 92-4, conducted in Grenada during space shuttle support, as well as various joint July 1992. Minor engineer efforts

  2. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591

  3. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  4. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  5. Component testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, M.T.; Schofield, Peter; Seymour, W.A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A method for non-destructive testing of an industrial component to ascertain if it is a single crystal, and to find the crystal orientations of those parts of the component which are single crystals, involves irradiating the component with a monochromatic collimated neutron beam. Diffracted neutron beams are observed live by means of LiF/ZnS composite screen, an image intensifier and a television camera and screen. (author)

  6. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  7. A Policy Analysis of Reserve Retirement Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    adapted their manning requirements to this retention. Perhaps tasks and jobs have been designed to accommodate the reten - tion profile produced by the...a reward for a long career of service, a benefit to help transition to the civilian economy, and a means of securing the reten - tion of career...to determine their likely effect on active reten - tion, reserve affiliation after leaving an active component, reserve retention, and reserve

  8. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  9. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  10. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.

  11. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  12. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  13. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  14. Foreign Exchange Reserves and the Reserve Bank’s Balance Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Vallence

    2012-01-01

    The Reserve Bank of Australia holds and manages the nation’s foreign exchange reserve assets in order to meet its policy objectives. While Australia’s foreign exchange reserves are relatively modest by international standards, they nonetheless constitute a sizeable portion of the Bank’s balance sheet, and variations in the Australian dollar value of these reserves are usually the most volatile component of the Bank’s profit and loss statement. This article discusses some of the key decisions ...

  15. Efficiency in Optimal Auctions with Common Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Lester M.K. Kwong

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers optimal auctions where individuals' valuations have both a private and common value component. We show that when the set of potential buyers and seller are symmetrically uninformed regarding the common value component, it may be socially optimal not to resolve this common uncertainty. Under the sufficient conditions provided to generate this outcome, efficiency will be restored in the optimal auction.

  16. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  17. [Hypertrophy and coronary reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, W; Scheler, S

    2008-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.

  18. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  19. Component Rhinoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mohmand, Muhammad Humayun; Ahmad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND According to statistics of American Society of Plastic Surgeons, cosmetic rhinoplasty was the second most frequently performed cosmetic surgery. This study shares the experiences with component rhinoplasty. METHODS From 2004 to 2010, all patients underwent aesthetic nasal surgery were enrolled. The patients requiring only correction of septal deviation and those presenting with cleft lip nasal deformity were excluded. All procedures were performed under general anaesthesia with ope...

  20. Hyperfrequency components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The document has a collection of 19 papers (11 on technologies, 8 on applications) by 26 authors and coauthors. Technological topics include: evolution from conventional HEMT's double heterojunction and planar types of pseudomorphic HEMT's; MMIC R&D and production aspects for very-low-noise, low-power, and very-low-noise, high-power applications; hyperfrequency CAD tools; parametric measurements of hyperfrequency components on plug-in cards for design and in-process testing uses; design of Class B power amplifiers and millimetric-wave, bigrid-transistor mixers, exemplifying combined use of three major types of physical simulation in electrical modeling of microwave components; FET's for power amplification at up to 110 GHz; production, characterization, and nonlinear applications of resonant tunnel diodes. Applications topics include: development of active modules for major European programs; tubes versus solid-state components in hyperfrequency applications; status and potentialities of national and international cooperative R&D on MMIC's and CAD of hyperfrequency circuitry; attainable performance levels in multifunction MMIC applications; state of the art relative of MESFET power amplifiers (Bands S, C, X, Ku); creating a hyperfrequency functions library, of parametrizable reference cells or macrocells; and design of a single-stage, low-noise, band-W amplifier toward development of a three-stage amplifier.

  1. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  2. Variance Components

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R; McCulloch, Charles E

    1992-01-01

    WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PAPERBACK SERIES. The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists. ". . .Variance Components is an excellent book. It is organized and well written, and provides many references to a variety of topics. I recommend it to anyone with interest in linear models.".

  3. Statistics of Shared Components in Complex Component Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolini, Andrea; Gherardi, Marco; Caselle, Michele; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco; Osella, Matteo

    2018-04-01

    Many complex systems are modular. Such systems can be represented as "component systems," i.e., sets of elementary components, such as LEGO bricks in LEGO sets. The bricks found in a LEGO set reflect a target architecture, which can be built following a set-specific list of instructions. In other component systems, instead, the underlying functional design and constraints are not obvious a priori, and their detection is often a challenge of both scientific and practical importance, requiring a clear understanding of component statistics. Importantly, some quantitative invariants appear to be common to many component systems, most notably a common broad distribution of component abundances, which often resembles the well-known Zipf's law. Such "laws" affect in a general and nontrivial way the component statistics, potentially hindering the identification of system-specific functional constraints or generative processes. Here, we specifically focus on the statistics of shared components, i.e., the distribution of the number of components shared by different system realizations, such as the common bricks found in different LEGO sets. To account for the effects of component heterogeneity, we consider a simple null model, which builds system realizations by random draws from a universe of possible components. Under general assumptions on abundance heterogeneity, we provide analytical estimates of component occurrence, which quantify exhaustively the statistics of shared components. Surprisingly, this simple null model can positively explain important features of empirical component-occurrence distributions obtained from large-scale data on bacterial genomes, LEGO sets, and book chapters. Specific architectural features and functional constraints can be detected from occurrence patterns as deviations from these null predictions, as we show for the illustrative case of the "core" genome in bacteria.

  4. acid on growth and yield components of common beans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pods perplant, 100-seed mass and harvest index. The highest seed yields were equi valient to 1854 kg ha1 in 1997 ... In pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) (Singh et ah, 1978), and broad beans (Diethelm et al, 1986) ...... growth, chemical composition, flowering, pod yield and chemical composition of green seeds of pea plant ...

  5. Eye evolution: common use and independent recruitment of genetic components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vopálenský, Pavel; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 364, č. 1531 (2009), s. 2819-2832 ISSN 0962-8436 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520908; GA AV ČR IAA500520604; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : eye * evolution * pax Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.117, year: 2009

  6. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  7. Commonality in Military Equipment. A Framework to Improve Acquisition Decisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Held, Thomas; Newsome, Bruce; Lewis, Matthew W

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, the U.S. Army and the Department of Defense (DoD) as a whole are developing families of systems built around common components, For instance, the Army has procured a common model of tire (a component...

  8. Reserve selection using nonlinear species distribution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Atte

    2005-06-01

    Reserve design is concerned with optimal selection of sites for new conservation areas. Spatial reserve design explicitly considers the spatial pattern of the proposed reserve network and the effects of that pattern on reserve cost and/or ability to maintain species there. The vast majority of reserve selection formulations have assumed a linear problem structure, which effectively means that the biological value of a potential reserve site does not depend on the pattern of selected cells. However, spatial population dynamics and autocorrelation cause the biological values of neighboring sites to be interdependent. Habitat degradation may have indirect negative effects on biodiversity in areas neighboring the degraded site as a result of, for example, negative edge effects or lower permeability for animal movement. In this study, I present a formulation and a spatial optimization algorithm for nonlinear reserve selection problems in grid-based landscapes that accounts for interdependent site values. The method is demonstrated using habitat maps and nonlinear habitat models for threatened birds in the Netherlands, and it is shown that near-optimal solutions are found for regions consisting of up to hundreds of thousands grid cells, a landscape size much larger than those commonly attempted even with linear reserve selection formulations.

  9. 78 FR 70542 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... identification of Defense Support of Civilian Authorities requirements. The Subcommittee on Personnel plans to..., issues impacting reserve organizations, the right balance of Active and Reserve Component forces, and...

  10. Estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo de dois estádios sucessionais de floresta estacional semidecidual na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG, Brasil Structure of the tree-shrub component in two successional stages of semideciduous forest in the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, Viçosa, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Isabel do Carmo Pinto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo das variações estruturais do componente arbustivo- arbóreo em dois estádios sucessionais - inicial e madura - de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, em Viçosa, MG, Brasil. A Reserva Florestal está situada nas coordenadas 20º45'S e 42º55'W e a uma altitude média de 689 m. O clima da região é classificado como Cwb pelo sistema de Köppen. As espécies arbustivo-arbóreas foram amostradas dentro de 20 parcelas de 10 x 30 m, sendo 10 parcelas em cada estádio sucessional, sendo considerados apenas os indivíduos com diâmetro a 1,30 m do solo (DAP > 4,8 cm. Na floresta inicial foram amostrados 399 indivíduos, distribuídos em 27 famílias e 55 espécies. As espécies com maior valor de importância (VI foram Piptadenia gonoacantha, Vernonanthura diffusa, Miconia cinnamomifolia, Piptocarpha macropoda e Luehea grandiflora. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,31 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade de Pielou (J', igual a 0,83. No estádio floresta madura foram amostrados 623 indivíduos, distribuídos em 31 famílias e 78 espécies. As espécies com maior valor de importância (VI foram Euterpe edulis, Piptadenia gonoacantha, Nectandra lanceolata, Myrcia sphaerocarpa e Guapira opposita. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,46 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade de Pielou (J', igual a 0,79. As distribuições diamétricas das quatro espécies mais abundantes em cada estádio sucessional apresentaram padrões distintos, aparentemente relacionados ao estádio sucessional.The study of the floristic and structural variations of the tree-shrub component was carried out in two successional stages of Semideciduous Forest, initial and mature, located in the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The Forest Reserve is located at 20º45'S and 42º55'W, with average altitude of 689 m. The regional climate is classified as Cwb by the Köppen system

  11. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  12. Automotive component failures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyes, AM

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available [ However\\ in the presence of a stress concentration the ultimate tensile stress can be exceeded before the ultimate shear stress is reached\\ resulting in a tensile failure 0 [ 2[6[ Metallo`raphy and Ener`y Dispersive Spectroscopy "EDS# A microspecimen...\\ Vol[ 4\\ No[ 1\\ pp[ 018 030\\ 0887 0887 Elsevier Science Ltd[ All rights reserved\\ Pergamon Printed in Great Britain 0249 5296:87 ,08[99 9[99 PII] S0249 5296"87#99909 6 AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT FAILURES A[ M[ HEYES Advanced Engineering and Testing...

  13. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  14. Effects of marine reserves on the reproductive biology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We tested the effects of marine reserve status on the reproductive biology and recruitment rates of two commonly exploited (Helcion concolor, Scutellastra longicosta) and two rarely exploited (Cellana capensis, Scutellastra granularis) limpet species using two reserve and two non-reserve sites on the south coast of South ...

  15. Nuclear, uranium, reserves, sustainability, independence; Nucleaire, Uranium, reserves, durabilite, independance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C

    2007-06-15

    In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  16. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  17. Youth Problems on Indian Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Ruth M., Ed.

    Juvenile delinquency was identified as the major problem affecting youth on Indian reservations. Causes for delinquency which were discussed included culture conflict, expectation of failure, unemployment, failure of homes and parents, discrimination, inadequate education, off-reservation schools, and alcoholism. Needs identified by tribal leaders…

  18. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  19. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...

  20. Some Common Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/appendixb.html Appendix B: Some Common Abbreviations To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. This is a list of some common abbreviations and acronyms. Abbreviation Stands for More information ABG ...

  1. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions KidsHealth / For Parents / Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions What's in this article? Flatfeet Toe Walking ...

  2. Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases (PIDDs) Primary ... PIDDs Genetics & Inheritance Talking to Your Doctor Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by low levels of ...

  3. National Guard and Reserves: Air Force Needs to Consistently Assess Personnel Requirements to Appropriately Size Its Headquarters Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Columbia, Puerto Rico , the Virgin Islands, and Guam also have National Guard forces that can be activated for federal missions. Over the same period...the 54 Joint Force Headquarters – State, located in each state, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico , the Virgin Islands, and Guam, is comprised of... currency reviews be performed in conjunction with the biannual application of personnel assessment standards. Officials from the Office of the

  4. OPINIONS ON INTERNATIONAL RESERVES MANAGEMENT - POST CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERCEA (HANDRO PATRICIA AMALIA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent crisis demonstrated once again the importance of maintaining an adequate level of the international reserves as part of the defense of a country against the shocks internationally transmitted. Liquidity buffers aided the good functioning of financial systems, and allowed countries to cope with sudden foreign capital stops or to manage massive outflows without facing a costly crisis. This logic has been strengthened in the context of the crisis from 2008, when countries with lots of reserves, such as China or Brazil, came through better than those with lower liquid assets. Economists have argued that developing countries need reserves mainly to cover urgent imports and short-term debts. The current level of global reserves far exceeds this traditional postulate. In this context, it is necessary to rethink the adequacy of the level of constituting the reserves portfolio. The dominance of the dollar as a reserve currency, another important feature of the current reserves portfolio, makes the holders become vulnerable to the monetary policy of FED. A greater flexibility of the currency will also be needed. The often called the “trilemma” of international economics dictates: when capital is mobile, countries must choose between fixing their currencies and controlling their domestic monetary conditions. They cannot do both. The domestic currency inflexibility will ultimately lead to asset bubbles and inflation. The pressure of capital flows will depend on the prospects of rich economies, especially America’s. The increment of emerging economies availability to allow the exchange rate to move will depend on what China does - and China may remain forever linked to the dollar. The emergence of a global currency that constitute a genuine means of exchange or the use of cross-border multifaceted cash pools common to IMF members would reduce systemic risks. International regulations for countries with persistent trade surpluses could be a

  5. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  6. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  7. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  8. 32 CFR 728.23 - Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... observation, including participation in service-sponsored sports, recreational, and training activities. (ii... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). 728.23... Components, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, Navy and Marine Corps Officer Candidate Programs, and National...

  9. Reserve Retirement Equality: Treating Reserves Fairly While Saving Taxpayer Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    rata .121 For example, a Reserve who performs the equivalent of five years of active duty, will receive one-fourth the retired pay of his active duty...4,225 per month.124 But because reserve-retirement benefits are based on pro rata years of service, this officer’s years of service for retirement...purposes are 3,146 retirement points divided by 360.125 This results in 8.74 years pro rata years of service.126 His retirement benefits thus are

  10. Chondrites and their Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.

    2003-12-01

    What are Chondrites?Chondrites are meteorites that provide the best% clues to the origin of the solar system. They are the oldest known rocks - their components formed during the birth of the solar system ca. 4,567 Ma - and their abundances of nonvolatile elements are close to those in the solar photosphere. Chondrites are broadly ultramafic in composition, consisting largely of iron, magnesium, silicon, and oxygen. The most abundant constituents of chondrites are chondrules, which are igneous particles that crystallized rapidly in minutes to hours. They are composed largely of olivine and pyroxene, commonly contain metallic Fe,Ni and are 0.01-10 mm in size. Some chondrules are rounded as they were once entirely molten but many are irregular in shape because they were only partly melted or because they accreted other particles as they solidified. Chondrites themselves were never molten. The definition of a chondrite has expanded recently with the discovery in Antarctica and the Sahara Desert of extraordinary meteorites with chondrules 10-100 μm in size, and chondrites so rich in metallic Fe,Ni that they were initially classified as iron meteorites with silicate inclusions. Thus, in meteoritics, as in other fields of planetary science, new discoveries sometimes require definitions to be modified.Chondrites are so diverse in their mineralogical and textural characteristics that it is not possible to describe a typical chondrite. We show one with diversely textured chondrules including prominent, aesthetically pleasing, rounded chondrules (Figure 1(a)), and another with more uniformly textured chondrules (Figure 1(b)). Owing to the high abundance of rounded or droplet chondrules in the abundant, so-called "ordinary" chondrites ( Figure 1(a)), studies of the origin of chondrules have commonly been based on these chondrites. (7K)Figure 1. Maps showing magnesium concentrations in two chondrites: (a) PCA91082, a CR2 carbonaceous chondrite, and (b) Tieschitz, an H/L3

  11. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  12. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  13. Development of standard components for remote handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Kou; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The core of Fusion Experimental Reactor consists of various components such as superconducting magnets and forced-cooled in-vessel components, which are remotely maintained due to intense of gamma radiation. Mechanical connectors such as cooling pipe connections, insulation joints and electrical connectors are commonly used for maintenance of these components and have to be standardized in terms of remote handling. This paper describes these mechanical connectors developed as the standard component compatible with remote handling and tolerable for radiation. (author)

  14. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  15. Cerebral correlates of cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Staff, Roger T; Fox, Helen C; Murray, Alison D

    2016-01-30

    Cognitive reserve is a hypothetical concept introduced to explain discrepancies between severity of clinical dementia syndromes and the extent of dementia pathology. We examined cognitive reserve in a research programme that followed up a non-clinical sample born in 1921 or 1936 and IQ-tested age 11 years in 1932 or 1947. Structural MRI exams were acquired in about 50% of the sample from whom a subsample were recruited into an additional fMRI study. Here, we summarise findings from seven inter-related studies. These support an understanding of cognitive reserve as a balance between positive life course activity-driven experiences and the negative effects of brain pathologies including cerebrovascular disease and total and regional brain volume loss. Hypothesised structural equation models illustrate the relative causal effects of these positive and negative contributions. Cognitive reserve is considered in the context of choice of interventions to prevent dementia and the opposing effects of cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer like brain appearances. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  17. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  18. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  19. Reserve Component Manpower Readiness and Mobilization Policy. Volume 2. Based on the Colloquium on Mobilization with Special Emphasis on Guard and Reserve Components, 1-4 November 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-16

    make arrangements with hotels or motels to support the large influx, especially in the absence of a national emerger.ey auch as the Presidential 100K...experienced in the past decades, and more especially during the Vietnam timeframe, has begun to « bate somewhat but the direct cost of retired individuals

  20. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  1. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    .... The commentators represented Rural Development employees who work with the Multi-Family Housing Direct... their annual over-inflated tax bills and assessments. As a result, rent income funding that could be..., as rents cannot be raised to an amount that will cover all current and future reserve expenses...

  2. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  3. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  4. ANÁLISE DE TRILHA DO RENDIMENTO DO FEIJOEIRO E SEUS COMPONENTES PRIMÁRIOS EM MONOCULTIVO E EM CONSÓRCIO COM A CULTURA DO MILHO PATH ANALYSIS OF GRAIN YIELD OF COMMON BEAN AND ITS PRIMARY COMPONENTS IN MONOCULTURE AND INTERCROPPED WITH MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ribeiro Furtado

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se análise de trilha do rendimento de grãos (variável básica vs. seus componentes primários (variáveis explicativas, em monocultivo e em consórcio com a cultura do milho. De modo geral, os resultados foram semelhantes nos dois sistemas de cultivo. Das três variáveis explicativas envolvidas no estudo, o número de vagens por parcela foi a única que apresentou boa combinação de coeficiente de trilha e correlação, ambos altos, tanto no monocultivo como no consórcio. Concluiu-se que o caráter número de vagens por parcela tem influência marcante na produção de grãos, podendo ser de grande valor nos progressos genéticos deste caráter, via seleção indireta.Path analysis of grain yield (basic variable and its primary components (explicatory variables was worked in common bean in monoculture and intercropped with maize. In general, the results were similar in both cropping systems. Among the explicatory variables studied, only the number of pods per plot showed a good combination of path coefficient and correlation, both high, in monoculture and intercropped. It could be concluded that the character number of pods per plot has an important influence on grain yield, which may be of great value for genetic gains in this character, by indirect selection.

  5. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  6. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  7. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  8. Indian Reserves: Canada's Developing Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Musto, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    Indian reserves are the most visible reminder of the separation of aboriginal people from the rest of Canada and other Canadians. Illness patterns and social conditions in Native communities closely parallel those in developing nations. While they continue to have a large burden of infectious diseases, these groups also have an increased incidence of chronic and lifestyle diseases as well as environment-related conditions. Similarities can be seen in urban areas between immigrants from abroad...

  9. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...... educational background and job rotation....

  10. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  11. Common Elements of Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberts, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    .... It is now common for multiple organizations to work collaboratively in pursuit of a single mission, which creates a degree of programmatic and process complexity that can be difficult to manage effectively...

  12. The Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    At present voluntary and philanthropic organisations are experiencing significant public attention and academic discussions about their role in society. Central to the debate is on one side the question of how they contribute to “the common good”, and on the other the question of how they can avoid...... being "polluted" by the state and market logic and maintain their distinctness rooted in civil society´s values and logics. Through a historical case analysis of the Egmont Foundation from Denmark (a corporate philanthropic foundation from 1920), the paper shows how concrete gift-giving practices...... and concepts continuously over time have blurred the different sectors and “polluted” contemporary definitions of the “common good”. The analysis shows that “the common good” is not an autonomous concept owned or developed by specific spheres of society. The analysis stresses that historically, “the common...

  13. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  14. Optical communication components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldada, Louay

    2004-03-01

    We review and contrast key technologies developed to address the optical components market for communication applications. We first review the component requirements from a network perspective. We then look at different material systems, compare their properties, and describe the functions achieved to date in each of them. The material systems reviewed include silica fiber, silica on silicon, silicon on insulator, silicon oxynitride, sol-gels, polymers, thin-film dielectrics, lithium niobate, indium phosphide, gallium arsenide, magneto-optic materials, and birefringent crystals. We then describe the most commonly used classes of optical device technology and present their pros and cons as well as the functions achieved to date in each of them. The technologies reviewed include passive, actuation, and active technologies. The passive technologies described include fused fibers, dispersion-compensating fiber, beam steering, Bragg gratings, diffraction gratings, holographic elements, thin-film filters, photonic crystals, microrings, and birefringent elements. The actuation technologies include thermo-optics, electro-optics, acousto-optics, magneto-optics, electroabsorption, liquid crystals, total internal reflection technologies, and mechanical actuation. The active technologies include heterostructures, quantum wells, rare-earth doping, dye doping, Raman amplification, and semiconductor amplification. We also investigate the use of different material systems and device technologies to achieve building-block functions, including lasers, amplifiers, detectors, modulators, polarization controllers, couplers, filters, switches, attenuators, isolators, circulators, wavelength converters, chromatic dispersion compensators, and polarization mode dispersion compensators. Some of the technologies presented are well established in the industry and in some cases have reached the commodity stage, others have recently become ready for commercial introduction, while some others

  15. Mitigating component performance variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.

    2018-01-09

    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  16. Variability and component composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn component-based product populations, feature models have to be described at the component level to be able to benefit from a product family approach. As a consequence, composition of components becomes very complex. We describe how component-level variability can be managed in the

  17. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  18. Brain reserve and cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Maria A.; Leavitt, Victoria M.; Riccitelli, Gianna; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, John; Filippi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We first tested the brain reserve (BR) hypothesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining whether larger maximal lifetime brain volume (MLBV; determined by genetics) protects against disease-related cognitive impairment, and then investigated whether cognitive reserve (CR) gained through life experience (intellectually enriching leisure activities) protects against cognitive decline independently of MLBV (BR). Methods: Sixty-two patients with MS (41 relapsing-remitting MS, 21 secondary progressive MS) received MRIs to estimate BR (MLBV, estimated with intracranial volume [ICV]) and disease burden (T2 lesion load; atrophy of gray matter, white matter, thalamus, and hippocampus). Early-life cognitive leisure was measured as a source of CR. We assessed cognitive status with tasks of cognitive efficiency and memory. Hierarchical regressions were used to investigate whether higher BR (ICV) protects against cognitive impairment, and whether higher CR (leisure) independently protects against cognitive impairment over and above BR. Results: Cognitive status was positively associated with ICV (R2 = 0.066, p = 0.017). An ICV × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.050, p = 0.030) revealed that larger ICV attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Controlling for BR, higher education (R2 = 0.047, p = 0.030) and leisure (R2 = 0.090, p = 0.001) predicted better cognition. A leisure × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.037, p = 0.030) showed that leisure independently attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Follow-up analyses revealed that BR protected against cognitive inefficiency, not memory deficits, whereas CR was more protective against memory deficits than cognitive inefficiency. Conclusion: We provide evidence of BR in MS, and show that CR independently protects against disease-related cognitive decline over and above BR. Lifestyle choices protect against cognitive impairment independently of genetic factors outside of one's control

  19. Ecological Reserve: Towards a common understanding for river management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, E

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available implementation, and in particular the development of a new decision-making process for resource allocation, has faced many obstacles. This is not surprising, since the objectives of legislation are ambitious and the changes required to achieve them... are largely unprecedented. It has become clear that progressive new policy, new knowl- edge generated by science and wide commitment and energy for change, are not necessarily sufficient to achieve equity, efficiency and sustainability in the allocation...

  20. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  1. Z' reservation at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Montagna, G.; Piccinini, F.; Renard, F.M.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the possibility that one extra Z\\equiv Z' exists with arbitrary mass and fermion couplings that do not violate (charged) lepton universality. We show that, in such a situation, a functional relationship is generated between the \\underline{deviations} from the SM values of three leptonic observables of two-fermion production at future e^+e^- colliders that is completely independent of the values of the Z' mass and couplings. This selects a certain region in the 3-d space of the deviations that is \\underline{characteristic} of the model (Z' "reservation"). As a specific and relevant example, we show the picture that would emerge at LEP2 under realistic experimental conditions.

  2. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Wang, Eric; Lee, Si-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion. According to the estimation of this paper, the reserve of wind energy, up to 29.9 kWh/d/p (i.e., kWh per day per person), is the largest one among seven kinds of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 24.27 kWh/d/p of solar energy, 4.55 kWh/d/p of biomass, 4.58 kWh/d/p of ocean energy, 0.67 kWh/d/p of geothermal energy and 16.79 kWh/d/p of hydropower. If regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy into electricity, the total power of the seven kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 78.03 kWh/d/p, which is equal to 2.75 times of 28.35 kWh/d/p of national power generation in 2008. If the reserves of 54.93 kWh/d/p estimated from other four kinds of renewable energies that have not technically matured yet are also taken into account, it will result that the reserves of renewable energy in Taiwan can be quite abundant. Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four inherent

  3. Analysis of common mode inductors and optimization aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roc'h, A.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Zare, Firuz

    2011-01-01

    The common mode inductors, or common mode chokes, are a key component of electromagnetic interference filters. Engineers usually face significant design challenges such as size, cost and weight while working with these components. To avoid the construction of several prototypes, often oversized,

  4. Antihistamines for the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sutter, An I M; Saraswat, Avadhesh; van Driel, Mieke L

    2015-11-29

    The common cold is an upper respiratory tract infection, most commonly caused by a rhinovirus. It affects people of all age groups and although in most cases it is self limiting, the common cold still causes significant morbidity. Antihistamines are commonly offered over the counter to relieve symptoms for patients affected by the common cold, however there is not much evidence of their efficacy. To assess the effects of antihistamines on the common cold. We searched CENTRAL (2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1948 to July week 4, 2015), EMBASE (2010 to August 2015), CINAHL (1981 to August 2015), LILACS (1982 to August 2015) and Biosis Previews (1985 to August 2015). We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using antihistamines as monotherapy for the common cold. We excluded any studies with combination therapy or using antihistamines in patients with an allergic component in their illness. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We collected adverse effects information from the included trials. We included 18 RCTs, which were reported in 17 publications (one publication reports on two trials) with 4342 participants (of which 212 were children) suffering from the common cold, both naturally occurring and experimentally induced. The interventions consisted of an antihistamine as monotherapy compared with placebo. In adults there was a short-term beneficial effect of antihistamines on severity of overall symptoms: on day one or two of treatment 45% had a beneficial effect with antihistamines versus 38% with placebo (odds ratio (OR) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60 to 0.92). However, there was no difference between antihistamines and placebo in the mid term (three to four days) to long term (six to 10 days). When evaluating individual symptoms such as nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea and sneezing, there was some beneficial effect of the sedating antihistamines compared to placebo (e.g. rhinorrhoea on day three: mean difference (MD) -0

  5. A Language in Common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963

    This collection of articles reprinted from the "London Times Literary Supplement" indicates the flexibility of English as a common literary language in its widespread use outside the United States and England. Major articles present the thesis that English provides an artistic medium which is enriched through colloquial idioms in the West Indies…

  6. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjunctival naevus (Fig. 11). Conjunctival naevi are common and are located in the interpalpebral bulbar conjunctiva close to the limbus or at the caruncle. The naevus is a discrete, flat or slightly elevated sessile lesion. The colour can be from pale to brown to a dark black. If present from birth to 6 months it is considered a ...

  7. Common eye emergencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-10-11

    Oct 11, 2007 ... episcleritis, scleritis, uveitis and acute-angle closure glaucoma. Acute conjunctivitis. Acute conjunctivitis may be bacterial, viral or allergy related. Bacterial conjunctivitis. Acute bacterial conjunctivitis begins unilaterally with hyperaemia, irritation, tearing, and a mucopurulent discharge. Common pathogens ...

  8. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  9. Common Influence Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Mamoulis, Nikos; Karras, Panagiotis

    2008-01-01

    We identify and formalize a novel join operator for two spatial pointsets P and Q. The common influence join (CIJ) returns the pairs of points (p,q),p isin P,q isin Q, such that there exists a location in space, being closer to p than to any other point in P and at the same time closer to q than...

  10. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  11. Is Context Common Ground?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jens Sand

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore the relation between the how’s and why’s of humour, by gradually moving from the contextual compositionality of conversational implication to a broadened perspective on the open- ended nature of conversation and the purpose humour serves in developing ‘common ground’....

  12. Common mistakes of investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Wai Pong Raymond

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral finance is an actively discussed topic in the academic and investment circle. The main reason is because behavioral finance challenges the validity of a cornerstone of the modern financial theory: rationality of investors. In this paper, the common irrational behaviors of investors are discussed

  13. Reusable Component Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  14. Software component quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  15. Are deterministic methods suitable for short term reserve planning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorspools, Kris R.; D'haeseleer, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Although deterministic methods for establishing minutes reserve (such as the N-1 reserve or the percentage reserve) ignore the stochastic nature of reliability issues, they are commonly used in energy modelling as well as in practical applications. In order to check the validity of such methods, two test procedures are developed. The first checks if the N-1 reserve is a logical fixed value for minutes reserve. The second test procedure investigates whether deterministic methods can realise a stable reliability that is independent of demand. In both evaluations, the loss-of-load expectation is used as the objective stochastic criterion. The first test shows no particular reason to choose the largest unit as minutes reserve. The expected jump in reliability, resulting in low reliability for reserve margins lower than the largest unit and high reliability above, is not observed. The second test shows that both the N-1 reserve and the percentage reserve methods do not provide a stable reliability level that is independent of power demand. For the N-1 reserve, the reliability increases with decreasing maximum demand. For the percentage reserve, the reliability decreases with decreasing demand. The answer to the question raised in the title, therefore, has to be that the probability based methods are to be preferred over the deterministic methods

  16. Common-Reliability Cumulative-Binomial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest, M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CROSSER, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CROSSER, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and NEWTONP (NPO-17556), used independently of one another. Point of equality between reliability of system and common reliability of components found. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Program written in C.

  17. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  18. Principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bro, R.; Smilde, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis is one of the most important and powerful methods in chemometrics as well as in a wealth of other areas. This paper provides a description of how to understand, use, and interpret principal component analysis. The paper focuses on the use of principal component analysis

  19. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  20. The artifacts of component-based development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizwan, M.; Qureshi, J.; Hayat, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Component based development idea was floated in a conference name Mass Produced Software Components in 1968 (1). Since then engineering and scientific libraries are developed to reuse the previously developed functions. This concept is now widely used in SW development as component based development (CBD). Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is used to develop/ assemble software from existing components (2). Software developed using components is called component where (3). This paper presents different architectures of CBD such as Active X, common object request broker architecture (CORBA), remote method invocation (RMI) and simple object access protocol (SOAP). The overall objective of this paper is to support the practice of CBD by comparing its advantages and disadvantages. This paper also evaluates object oriented process model to adapt it for CBD. (author)

  1. 'Historicising common sense'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstone, Noah

    2012-12-01

    This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought.

  2. Common sense codified

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    At CERN, people of more than a hundred different nationalities and hundreds of different professions work together towards a common goal. The new Code of Conduct is a tool that has been designed to help us keep our workplace pleasant and productive through common standards of behaviour. Its basic principle is mutual respect and common sense. This is only natural, but not trivial…  The Director-General announced it in his speech at the beginning of the year, and the Bulletin wrote about it immediately afterwards. "It" is the new Code of Conduct, the document that lists our Organization's values and describes the basic standards of behaviour that we should both adopt and expect from others. "The Code of Conduct is not going to establish new rights or new obligations," explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department (HR). But what it will do is provide a framework for our existing rights and obligations." The aim of a co...

  3. [Operational medical reserve within the French Mililitary Health Service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergez-Larrouget, Claude; Roberton, Delphine; Schneider, Cindy; Reggad, Farid; Charrot, François; Cueff, Serge

    2014-09-01

    The operational reserve is an essential component of the army health service thanks to the trained and experienced healthcare professionals. From a civilian background or with prior active duty, their technical and military skills enable them to provide medical support for all types of missions, both within France and abroad.

  4. Common Vestibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G. Balatsouras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The three most common vestibular diseases, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Meniere's disease (MD and vestibular neuritis (VN, are presented in this paper. BPPV, which is the most common peripheral vestibular disorder, can be defined as transient vertigo induced by a rapid head position change, associated with a characteristic paroxysmal positional nystagmus. Canalolithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal is considered the most convincing theory of its pathogenesis and the development of appropriate therapeutic maneuvers resulted in its effective treatment. However, involvement of the horizontal or the anterior canal has been found in a significant rate and the recognition and treatment of these variants completed the clinical picture of the disease. MD is a chronic condition characterized by episodic attacks of vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, aural pressure and a progressive loss of audiovestibular functions. Presence of endolymphatic hydrops on postmortem examination is its pathologic correlate. MD continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Patients with the disease range from minimally symptomatic, highly functional individuals to severely affected, disabled patients. Current management strategies are designed to control the acute and recurrent vestibulopathy but offer minimal remedy for the progressive cochlear dysfunction. VN is the most common cause of acute spontaneous vertigo, attributed to acute unilateral loss of vestibular function. Key signs and symptoms are an acute onset of spinning vertigo, postural imbalance and nausea as well as a horizontal rotatory nystagmus beating towards the non-affected side, a pathological headimpulse test and no evidence for central vestibular or ocular motor dysfunction. Vestibular neuritis preferentially involves the superior vestibular labyrinth and its afferents. Symptomatic medication is indicated only during the acute phase to relieve the vertigo and nausea

  5. Of urban commons

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Erling

    2016-01-01

    The paper is part of a joint presentation with Marius Grønning at the 5th International and Interdisciplinary Symposium of the European Academy of Land Use and Development (EALD) held in Oslo 3-5 September 2015. Last summer visitors to the Oslo opera house were met with the following announcement: “Here comes the “Opera Commons” explaining: “Operaallmenningen”, the Opera Commons, “will be a multi-functional meeting place for cultural events, recreational activities and people passing throu...

  6. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel

    2013-01-01

    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  7. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  8. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  9. Common Sense Biblical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  10. Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... [The Regulatory Plan and Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] [Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] Part XXI Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda... Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory...

  11. Management of Talar Component Subsidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Yuan; Myerson, Mark S

    2017-06-01

    Component subsidence has been found to be the top complication that leads to failure of the total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). The cause of subsidence formation is unclear, and is multifactorial. Talar subsidence is more frequently met than tibial subsidence, and the subsequent big bone loss is demanding to handle. As a revision treatment option, neither a revision TAA nor a salvage ankle and/or hindfoot arthrodesis procedure is easy to perform or can obtain a definite outcome. The Salto XT can be used to treat most of the TAA systems available for use in the United States with acceptable short-term outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  13. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  14. The U.S. Air Force Aeromedical Evacuation Mission: A Mission for the Air Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    for one night of lodging for out of town members per UTA .75 With most out of town members driving up the night before to be in place for a 0700 am...had lost all objectivity. Most important, I would like to thank my wife and daughter for the amount of time they allowed me to spend on the...colossal undertaking of completing the ASCS On -Line Master’s Program, of which, this paper is the final culmination. Thank you to my wife, for reading my

  15. National Guard Special Forces: Enhancing the Contributions of Reserve Component Army Special Operations Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Jackson, MS Glen Arm, MD 20 Jackson, MS Citronelle , AL Decatur, AL 20 Ft Payne, AL Louisville, KY Figure 2.3 Geographical Distribution of ARNG Special...Grenada, MS HQ/2/20th SFG BSC/2/20th SFG Jackson, MS B/1/20th SFG Citronelle , AL DET 1/B/1/20th Decatur, AL C/3/20th SFG Wauchula, FL A/3/20th SFG

  16. 2015 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Tabulations of Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    environment and sexual quid pro quo) and/or the gender discrimination prevalence rate...frame of “12 months prior to taking the survey.”4 3. Gender-Related MEO Violations—Experiences of MEO violations ( discrimination and sexual ...for sexual harassment, gender discrimination , and sexual assault to tailor question stems and survey responses to each respondent based on his/her

  17. 2015 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Statistical Methodology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Sexual harassment, gender discrimination , and sexual assault. The 2014 RMWS nonresponse adjustment involved two steps, each of which produced a...were necessary. Using completed 2015 cases, six outcome variables were modeled for females: sexual harassment, gender discrimination , sexual quid... discrimination , and sexual assault were modeled because few incidents were reported for the other three variables. Table 5 provides a list of the candidate

  18. Army Reserve Components: Improvements Needed to Data Quality and Management Procedures to Better Report Soldier Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    surgery, or pregnancy . However, once a medical treatment provider determines that a soldier has a condition that does not appear to meet medical...801-7077, or TDD (202) 512-2537. Orders may be paid for using American Express, Discover Card , MasterCard, Visa, check, or money order. Call for

  19. A Nation in Need: The Air Reserve Component and Wildland Firefighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    responsiveness i In addition to the examples to follow in this article , USNORTHCOM Wildland...argument is often made by OSD when advocating a Title 10 mandate. It is the opinion of this author that this is a gratuitous attempt to make unity...Command for No-Notice Events: Integrating the Military Response to Domestic Disasters,” Homeland Security Affairs, Vol 7, Article 4 (February 2011). 16

  20. 2015 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members. Overview Report (2015 WGRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    prevention and response of sexual harassment and gender discrimination . The overall goal of ODMEO is to provide an “environment in which Service members are...and MEO violations pertaining to sexual harassment and gender discrimination . Historically, to measure sexual assault, DMDC’s WGR surveys have used...experiences of a sexually hostile work environment and/or sexual quid pro quo, and gender discrimination . Chapter 1 provides additional information

  1. Reserve Component Field-Grade Officer Preparation for Natural Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    effects of tropical cyclone events including hurricanes that make landfall.15 The combination of large numbers of people near the coast and the...Military Duty Status The HSPD 5 slide effectively condenses the information contained in the directive. There is a hyperlink on the slide to the...National Climatic Data Center Technical Report No. 2003-01, (December 2003):7. 13 Franks Hobbs and Nicole Stoops , Demographic Trends in the 20th Century

  2. Building A Better Force: Regular Army / Reserve Components Integration In The Army Chemical Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Fort Hood , TX, CPT Mike Larmore cased the colors of the 46th Chemical Company for the last time, signifying its inactivation from the Regular Army... Joshua E. Kastenberg, Shaping US Military Law: Governing a Constitutional Military, (Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2014), 204-5, accessed December 28, 2015...Kastenberg, Joshua E. Shaping US Military Law: Governing a Constitutional Military. Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2014. Accessed December 28, 2015

  3. 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Reserve Component Members: Tabulations of Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    560 DMDC 107. What is your religion , if any? 1. Christian (e.g., Protestant, Catholic, Orthodox, Mormon /Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day...558  107.  What is your religion , if any?.......................................................................... 560  2011 Workplace and Equal...reside and their religion . Population and Reporting Categories The population of interest for the 2011 WEOR consisted of members from the Selected

  4. Evaluation of HRV Biofeedback as a Resilience Building Intervention in the Reserve Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    health care provider a. Primary care physician or general medical doctor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 b. Mental health professional (e.g., psychologist ...professional at a military facility (e.g., psychologist , psychiatrist, clinical social worker, or other mental health counselor...1 2 d. Civilian mental health professional (e.g., psychologist , psychiatrist, clinical social worker, or other mental

  5. Analysis of Suicide Behaviors in the Navy Active Duty and Reserve Component Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    to Fire Arms Firearms have consistently been the primary method of suicide and the most lethal means of death for both the civilian and military...populations. Non-military firearms were used in more than 40% of all DOD reported suicides in 2008–2012. During this same time period, military... firearms caused less than 25% of all DOD suicides (Smolenski, 2013). This contradicts the belief that military firearms put service members at an

  6. 2004 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Tabulations of Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... This report gathered information on demographics, military workplace information, satisfaction and retention, military/civilian personnel categories and civilian education status, readiness, health...

  7. Reserve Component Training for Operating and Maintaining the M48A5 Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    assembly. . Removed retainer clip and charger assembly from projecting stud. 1*. INSPECT M219 MACHIKEGUK (AB201) . Checked all metal ...Reported any daina^e to ir.cunt to the vehicle coriander . . Adjusted the daylight and IR headrest for proper fit. . Opened ballistic...Readiness Test. c. Given an M48A5 tank with gun tube aimed at a suitable boresight target (but slightly out of allnement with respect to target), heavy

  8. Basic Training of Non-Prior Service Personnel in the Reserve Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    For example, the Wall Street Journal recently quoted an about-to-be deployed Naval Reservist as saying she chose the Navy because it was the only...Equipment,” The Officer 80, no. 1 (January/February 2003): 24. 2 General Barry L. McCaffrey, Editorial, Wall Street Journal , 1 April 2003. 3...www.npsac.navy.mil. 6 Greg Jaffe, “Today, Military Kids Often Say Goodbye to Dad- and Mom,” Wall Street Journal , 11 March 2003. 7 Representative Bob Stump, “The

  9. Costs of Flying Units in Air Force Active and Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    puerto Rico ANG headquarters x Radar Evaluation Squadron x Range Control Squadron x Range Squadron x Range Support Squadron x Rapid Reaction Squadron x...Within operational units, aircrews must meet frequency and currency standards for spe- cific types of sorties and events in order to maintain mission

  10. Issues Related to Recruitment of Enlisted Personnel for the Reserve Components. Wave II. Technical Volume. Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    O I O R N R A N Z T O t%,, cte for Deeseac inD(it plicale) Defns Manoe Data-Cener-0491 .E (City, State, and ZIP Code) 10 SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS P...3() 4() 9() 1 e. Fisn l( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 9( f. Gardening 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 9( ) g. Watching a football game 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 9( ) h. Reading... football game 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 9( )L h. Reading about medicine l( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 9( )-4 1. Dining out 1() 2() 3() 4() 9( )- * j. Participating

  11. Starlight: a common heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Cipriano

    2011-06-01

    The Starlight Initiative brings a new view of the night sky and of its value enhancement, claiming the access to starlight as a scientific, environmental, and cultural right of humankind. Night sky quality has been seriously damaged in the last years because of light and atmospheric pollution, and an international action in favour of intelligent outdoor lighting is urgently needed. After the promulgation of the Starlight Declaration, we are jointly working with UNESCO, the World Heritage Centre, the MaB Programme, and other international institutions in the development of Starlight Reserves as exemplary areas that would act as models for the recovery of the heritage associated to star observation. The possibility arises to design and launch new tourist products and destinations based on astronomy and starry sceneries.

  12. Hot gas path component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward

    2017-09-12

    Various embodiments of the disclosure include a turbomachine component. and methods of forming such a component. Some embodiments include a turbomachine component including: a first portion including at least one of a stainless steel or an alloy steel; and a second portion joined with the first portion, the second portion including a nickel alloy including an arced cooling feature extending therethrough, the second portion having a thermal expansion coefficient substantially similar to a thermal expansion coefficient of the first portion, wherein the arced cooling feature is located within the second portion to direct a portion of a coolant to a leakage area of the turbomachine component.

  13. CORE COMPONENT POT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTIN RL; OMBERG RP

    1975-12-19

    The core component pot is an open top vessel used to hold both new and irradiated core components for storage in the IDS and for holding the components submerged in sodium while being trasported inside CLEM. The top of the CCP is equipped with a grapple lip which is engaged by the hoisting grapples. Heat for maintaining the preheat of new components and dissipation of decay heat of irradiated fuel assemblies is conducted between the wall of the pot and the surrounding environment by thermal radiation and convection.

  14. STEM Summer Academy on the Navajo Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The US Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission, an ESA cornerstone mission to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. While the project's outreach efforts span multi-media, and a variety of age and ethnic groups, a special emphasis has been made to find a way to provide meaningful outreach to the reservation communities. Because language preservation is an issue of urgent concern to the reservation communities, and because Rosetta, uniquely among NASA missions, has been named after the notion that keys to missing understanding of elements of the ancient past were found in the language on the original Rosetta stone, the US Rosetta Project has embarked upon outreach with a focus on STEM vocabulary in ancient US languages of the Navajo, Hopi, Ojibwe, and other tribal communities as the project expands. NASA image and science are used and described in the native language, alongside lay English and scientific English curriculum elements. Additionally, science (geology/chemistry/botany/physics) elements drawn from the reservation environment, including geomorphology, geochemistry, soil physics, are included and discussed in the native language as much as possible — with their analogs in other planetary environments (such as Mars). In this paper we will report on the most recent Summer Science Academy [2012], a four week summer course for middle school children, created in collaboration with teachers and administrators in the Chinle Unified School District. The concept of the Academy was initiated in 2011, and the first Academy was conducted shortly thereafter, in June 2011 with 14 children, 3 instructors, and a NASA teacher workshop. The community requested three topics: geology, astronomy, and botany. The 2012 Academy built on the curriculum already developed with more robust field trips, addressed to specific science topics, additional quantitative measurements and activities, with more written material for the cultural components from

  15. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  16. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representi...

  17. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...

  18. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...

  19. Reformulating the commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrom Elinor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The western hemisphere is richly endowed with a diversity of natural resource systems that are governed by complex local and national institutional arrangements that have not, until recently, been well understood. While many local communities that possess a high degree of autonomy to govern local resources have been highly successful over long periods of time, others fail to take action to prevent overuse and degradation of forests, inshore fisheries, and other natural resources. The conventional theory used to predict and explain how local users will relate to resources that they share makes a uniform prediction that users themselves will be unable to extricate themselves from the tragedy of the commons. Using this theoretical view of the world, there is no variance in the performance of self-organized groups. In theory, there are no self-organized groups. Empirical evidence tells us, however, that considerable variance in performance exists and many more local users self-organize and are more successful than it is consistent with the conventional theory . Parts of a new theory are presented here.

  20. Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This paper reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic ev...

  1. Social Justice and the Environmental Commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance A; Byington, Rachel; Gallay, Erin; Sambo, Allison

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we build on the scholarship on youth civic engagement by turning attention to the environmental commons as a space for political action. We begin with a definition of the term and arguments about ways that social justice is implied in it. Following that, we raise several psychological challenges to motivating action on behalf of the environmental commons and discuss the critical experiences and actions that can defy those challenges. Finally, drawing from Ostrom's empirical evidence opposing a tragedy of the commons, we discuss practices consistent with a social justice approach that nurture in younger generations an identification with and commitment to the environmental commons and discuss how this orientation would benefit human beings, democracies, and the earth. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Urban green commons: Insights on urban common property systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colding, J.; Barthel, S.; Bendt, P.; Snep, R.P.H.; Knaap, van der W.G.M.; Ernstson, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed new light on urban common property systems. We deal with urban commons in relation to urban green-space management, referring to them as urban green commons. Applying a property-rights analytic perspective, we synthesize information on urban green commons from three

  3. Threads of common knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information

  4. Control of common symptoms in advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, M T; Hanks, G W

    1994-03-01

    In common with any medical problem, careful assessment and an analytical approach are the keystones to effective symptom control in advanced cancer. When dealing with such symptoms the multi-faceted pathophysiology must be considered, and due attention paid to the affective component of pain and other symptoms. Adequate care given to history taking and a knowledge of the likely pathogenesis of symptoms in advanced cancer can prevent unnecessary investigations and fruitless trials of inappropriate symptomatic remedies. The treatment chosen should be the simplest effective regimen tailored to the individual patient. The importance of explanation to the patient cannot be overstated and is an integral part of any treatment and the sole component of many. This paper reviews the management of common symptoms in advanced cancer (dyspnoea, nausea and vomiting, constipation, anorexia-cachexia syndrome, hypercalcaemia, confusion, insomnia and depression.

  5. A radiographic analysis of implant component misfit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sharkey, Seamus

    2011-07-01

    Radiographs are commonly used to assess the fit of implant components, but there is no clear agreement on the amount of misfit that can be detected by this method. This study investigated the effect of gap size and the relative angle at which a radiograph was taken on the detection of component misfit. Different types of implant connections (internal or external) and radiographic modalities (film or digital) were assessed.

  6. Strategic Wholesale Pricing and Commonality Strategy in a Supply Chain with Quality Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop two game models of a one-supplier and one-manufacturer supply chain to investigate the supplier’s strategic wholesale pricing decision and the manufacturer’s commonality strategy. The manufacturer has three commonality strategies for the high-end and low-end products: common high-quality component, common low-quality component, and dedicated components. We consider both wholesale price first scenario and commonality strategy first scenario. Under the wholesale price first scenario, we identify the range of each commonality strategy and find that (i the common low-quality component strategy is harmful to the supplier; (ii if the quality of low-quality component and the unit production cost of high-quality component are sufficiently low, the supplier induces the common high-quality component strategy by strategically decreasing the unit wholesale price of high-quality component, while if they are sufficiently high, the supplier induces the dedicated components strategy by increasing the unit wholesale price of high-quality component and decreasing that of low-quality one. Under the commonality strategy first scenario, the common low-quality component strategy may exist. By comparing the two scenarios, we find that (i if the unit production cost of low-quality component is medium, the equilibrium outcomes under both scenarios are identical; (ii there exists a first-mover advantage for the two players.

  7. Offshore fresh groundwater reserves as a global phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Vincent E. A.; Groen, Jacobus; Kooi, Henk; Person, Mark; Ge, Shemin; Edmunds, W. Mike

    2013-12-01

    The flow of terrestrial groundwater to the sea is an important natural component of the hydrological cycle. This process, however, does not explain the large volumes of low-salinity groundwater that are found below continental shelves. There is mounting evidence for the global occurrence of offshore fresh and brackish groundwater reserves. The potential use of these non-renewable reserves as a freshwater resource provides a clear incentive for future research. But the scope for continental shelf hydrogeology is broader and we envisage that it can contribute to the advancement of other scientific disciplines, in particular sedimentology and marine geochemistry.

  8. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  9. Impact of ground control on mining reserve estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, G. [AMC Resource Consultants Pty Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2001-07-01

    The estimation of coal resources and reserves is an important and often critical component of the assessment of a mining operation or project. An accurate estimation of reserves in particular is essential for many stages of a mining project - from initial evaluation of the project potential, commitment to a mine development, approval of capital expenditure and/or project finance, through to mine valuation for sale or public listing. Accurate estimation of reserves is also a compulsory reporting requirement for public listed companies as set out in the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX), listing rules. Under these rules, resources and reserves are reported under the JOC Code that incorporates the 'Australian Code for Reporting Identified Coal Resources and Reserves'. These rules are now also used more frequently for non public listed companies. A number of geotechnical parameters play an important role in the process of converting insitu resources to economically recoverable reserves. Whilst these parameters play a role in opencut mining, this paper covers a number of key geotechnical issues that influence the estimation of underground reserves. 11 figs.

  10. Assessment of secondary aluminum reserves of nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maung, Kyaw Nyunt; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    A classification framework of the secondary resources was applied to evaluate the framework's applicability and to assess secondary aluminum reserves for 19 countries. Estimated amounts of secondary aluminum reserves in 2010 were 85 million tonnes in the United States, 65 million tonnes in China......, 29 million tonnes in Japan, and 413 million tonnes globally. For the United States, its secondary reserves are larger than its primary reserves, although the global primary reserves (28,000 million tonnes) are much larger than the estimated secondary reserves. Considerable amounts of secondary...

  11. Space laser components reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Space environment presents unique challenges for operation of optics and optical coatings as part of laser systems. Besides testing components and sub-systems on the component qualification level, the extended testing of complete laser systems like flight modules under acceptance level conditions is an effective way to determine the reliability and long term stability, mitigating the mission risk. Hence, optics as part of high power space laser systems have to be extensively tested in view...

  12. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  13. Component fragility research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how ''high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs

  14. Impact test of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsoi, L.; Buland, P.; Labbe, P.

    1987-01-01

    Stops with gaps are currently used to support components and piping: it is simple, low cost, efficient and permits free thermal expansion. In order to keep the nonlinear nature of stops, such design is often modeled by beam elements (for the component) and nonlinear springs (for the stops). This paper deals with the validity and the limits of these models through the comparison of computational and experimental results. The experimental results come from impact laboratory tests on a simplified mockup. (orig.)

  15. Humanism as a common factor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2012-12-01

    There are many forms of psychotherapies, each distinctive in its own way. From the origins of psychotherapy, it has been suggested that psychotherapy is effective through factors that are common to all therapies. In this article, I suggest that the commonalities that are at the core of psychotherapy are related to evolved human characteristics, which include (a) making sense of the world, (b) influencing through social means, and (c) connectedness, expectation, and mastery. In this way, all psychotherapies are humanistic. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Tritium decontamination of machine components and walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.; Wong, K.Y.; Jalbert, R.A.; Shmayda, W.T.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium decontamination techniques for machine components and their application at tritium handling facilities are reviewed. These include commonly used methods such as vacuuming, purging, thermal desorption and isotopic exchange as well as less common methods such as chemical/electrochemical etching, plasma discharge cleaning, and destructive methods. Problems associated with tritium contamination of walls and use of protective coatings are reviewed. Tritium decontamination considerations at fusion facilities are discussed

  17. Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This paper reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that a set of life exposures including higher educational and occupational attainment, and engaging in leisure activities is associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, suggesting that these life exposures may enhance cognitive reserve. This provides a basis for controlled clinical studies can test specific exposures that may enhance reserve. The concept of cognitive reserve also has important implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:23941972

  18. Clipboard: Unraveling the mystery of cognitive reserve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 40; Issue 2. Clipboard : Unraveling the mystery of cognitive reserve ... Keywords. Aging; Alzheimer's; bilingualism; cognitive reserve; dementia; Down's; education; enrichment; environment; learning; long term potentiation; LTP; memory; neuroepigenetics; plasticity ...

  19. 5 CFR 330.610 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.610 Section 330.610 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.610 [Reserved] ...

  20. 5 CFR 330.603 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.603 Section 330.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.603 [Reserved] ...

  1. Reserve estimation and the influence of coal seams on coal seam gas productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creech, Michael; McConachie, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    SRK has undertaken coal seam gas (CSG) reserve and resource estimation for many companies and has consistently found that the influence of the coal seam setting and coal quality is commonly underestimated. This can significantly impact production risks and can result in the failure to achieve mean outcomes for the most commonly assessed proved and probable (2P) reserves and contingent resources.

  2. Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana

    2017-03-01

    The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.

  3. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  4. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 572.125...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to...

  5. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602... Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an interest-bearing account to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items. (1) Part...

  6. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.745 Replacement reserve. The general requirements for the replacement reserve are provided in § 891.605. For projects funded under §§ 891.655 through 891.790, the...

  7. Reserve evaluation of minerals at NUCLEBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.; Guerra, P.A.G.; Vinha, C.A.G. da

    1980-10-01

    The method used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used worldwide, and specially at NUCLEBRAS is described. This is done through a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (conventional, statistical and geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification and evaluation of reserves. (Author) [pt

  8. John Brainerd and the First Indian Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Susanne Banta

    1979-01-01

    Describes the humanitarian founding in 1758 of the nation's first reservation--the Brotherton reservation for New Jersey's Lenni Lenape (Algonquin) Indians. The people were demoralized, sick, and decimated in numbers; and so the venture failed. In 1801 those few remaining sold the reservation and moved to join related tribes in New York. (DS)

  9. Themata in science and in common sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marková Ivana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human thinking is heterogeneous, and among its different forms, thinking in dyadic oppositions is associated with the concept of themata. Gerald Holton characterises themata as elements that lie beneath the structure and development of physical theories as well as of non-scientific thinking. Themata have different uses, such as a thematic concept, or a thematic component of the concept; a methodological (or epistemological thema; and a propositional thema. Serge Moscovici has placed the concept of themata in the heart of his theory of social representations which is based on ‘natural thinking’ and on forms of daily knowing, including common sense. In this article I shall explore some features of thematic concepts and of methodological themata in scientific theories and in common sense. More specifically, I shall refer to the significance of the methodological (or epistemological thema the Self and Other(s in common-sense thinking and in social practices.

  10. Obesity and common respiratory diseases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulos, Melissa; Tapia, Ignacio E

    2017-06-01

    Obesity has become an important public health problem worldwide that disproportionally affects the underserved. Obesity has been associated with many diseases and unfortunately has not spared the respiratory system. Specifically, the prevalence of common respiratory problems, such as asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea, is higher in obese children. Further, the treatment outcomes of these frequent conditions is also worse in obese children compared to lean controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Encyclopedia of Software Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Lloyd V. (Inventor); Beckman, Brian C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Intelligent browsing through a collection of reusable software components is facilitated with a computer having a video monitor and a user input interface such as a keyboard or a mouse for transmitting user selections, by presenting a picture of encyclopedia volumes with respective visible labels referring to types of software, in accordance with a metaphor in which each volume includes a page having a list of general topics under the software type of the volume and pages having lists of software components for each one of the generic topics, altering the picture to open one of the volumes in response to an initial user selection specifying the one volume to display on the monitor a picture of the page thereof having the list of general topics and altering the picture to display the page thereof having a list of software components under one of the general topics in response to a next user selection specifying the one general topic, and then presenting a picture of a set of different informative plates depicting different types of information about one of the software components in response to a further user selection specifying the one component.

  12. Multiscale principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinduko, A A; Gorban, A N

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is an important tool in exploring data. The conventional approach to PCA leads to a solution which favours the structures with large variances. This is sensitive to outliers and could obfuscate interesting underlying structures. One of the equivalent definitions of PCA is that it seeks the subspaces that maximize the sum of squared pairwise distances between data projections. This definition opens up more flexibility in the analysis of principal components which is useful in enhancing PCA. In this paper we introduce scales into PCA by maximizing only the sum of pairwise distances between projections for pairs of datapoints with distances within a chosen interval of values [l,u]. The resulting principal component decompositions in Multiscale PCA depend on point (l,u) on the plane and for each point we define projectors onto principal components. Cluster analysis of these projectors reveals the structures in the data at various scales. Each structure is described by the eigenvectors at the medoid point of the cluster which represent the structure. We also use the distortion of projections as a criterion for choosing an appropriate scale especially for data with outliers. This method was tested on both artificial distribution of data and real data. For data with multiscale structures, the method was able to reveal the different structures of the data and also to reduce the effect of outliers in the principal component analysis

  13. Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling

    2008-01-01

    of audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined......This dissertation concerns the investigation of the consistency of statistical regularities in a signaling ecology and human cognition, while inferring appropriate actions for a speech-based perceptual task. It is based on unsupervised Independent Component Analysis providing a rich spectrum...... as the process of unsupervised grouping of generic data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. Its hypothesis runs ecologically: features which are essentially independent in a context defined ensemble, can be efficiently coded as sparse...

  14. Solid state lighting component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Ibbetson, James; Morgan, Frederick; Dowling, Kevin; Lys, Ihor

    2017-10-17

    An LED component according to the present invention comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The array can comprise LED chips emitting at two colors of light wherein the LED component emits light comprising the combination of the two colors of light. A single lens is included over the array of LED chips. The LED chip array can emit light of greater than 800 lumens with a drive current of less than 150 milli-Amps. The LED chip component can also operate at temperatures less than 3000 degrees K. In one embodiment, the LED array is in a substantially circular pattern on the submount.

  15. Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reserve accounts for individual differences in susceptibility to age-related brain changes or Alzheimer's disease-related pathology. There is evidence that some people can tolerate more of these changes than others and still maintain function. Epidemiologic studies suggest that lifetime exposures including educational and occupational attainment, and leisure activities in late life, can increase this reserve. For example, there is a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in individuals with higher educational or occupational attainment. It is convenient to think of two types of reserve: brain reserve, which refers to actual differences in the brain itself that may increase tolerance of pathology, and cognitive reserve. Cognitive reserve refers to individual differences in how tasks are performed that may allow some people to be more resilient than others. The concept of cognitive reserve holds out the promise of interventions that could slow cognitive aging or reduce the risk of dementia. PMID:23079557

  16. Metabolic reserve as a determinant of cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranahan, Alexis M; Mattson, Mark P

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) represent points on a continuum of cognitive performance in aged populations. Cognition may be impaired or preserved in the context of brain aging. One theory to account for memory maintenance in the context of extensive pathology involves 'cognitive reserve', or the ability to compensate for neuropathology through greater recruitment of remaining neurons. In this review, we propose a complementary hypothesis of 'metabolic reserve', where a brain with high metabolic reserve is characterized by the presence of neuronal circuits that respond adaptively to perturbations in cellular and somatic energy metabolism and thereby protects against declining cognition. Lifestyle determinants of metabolic reserve, such as exercise, reduced caloric intake, and intake of specific dietary components can promote neuroprotection, while pathological states arising from sedentary lifestyles and excessive caloric intake contribute to neuronal endangerment. This bidirectional relationship between metabolism and cognition may be mediated by alterations in central insulin and neurotrophic factor signaling and glucose metabolism, with downstream consequences for accumulation of amyloid-β and hyperphosphorylated tau. The metabolic reserve hypothesis is supported by epidemiological findings and the spectrum of individual cognitive trajectories during aging, with additional data from animal models identifying potential mechanisms for this relationship. Identification of biomarkers for metabolic reserve could assist in generating a predictive model for the likelihood of cognitive decline with aging.

  17. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  18. Component Reengineering Workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2004-01-01

    In mature domains, a number of competing product lines may emerge, and from the point of view of customers of such product lines, reengineering and reuse of assets across product lines from different vendors becomes important. To address this issue we present a low-cost approach, component...... reengineering workshops, for assessing reengineering costs of reusing components between different product lines. The approach works on the level of software architectures, and relies critically on input from various (technical) stakeholders. It has been validated through case studies that are also presented...

  19. Cofunctional Subpathways Were Regulated by Transcription Factor with Common Motif, Common Family, or Common Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissecting the characteristics of the transcription factor (TF regulatory subpathway is helpful for understanding the TF underlying regulatory function in complex biological systems. To gain insight into the influence of TFs on their regulatory subpathways, we constructed a global TF-subpathways network (TSN to analyze systematically the regulatory effect of common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs on subpathways. We performed cluster analysis to show that the common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs that regulated the same pathway classes tended to cluster together and contribute to the same biological function that led to disease initiation and progression. We analyzed the Jaccard coefficient to show that the functional consistency of subpathways regulated by the TF pairs with common motif, common family, or common tissue was significantly greater than the random TF pairs at the subpathway level, pathway level, and pathway class level. For example, HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha and NR1I3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 were a pair of TFs with common motif, common family, and common tissue. They were involved in drug metabolism pathways and were liver-specific factors required for physiological transcription. In short, we inferred that the cofunctional subpathways were regulated by common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs.

  20. Principal component analysis of psoriasis lesions images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A set of RGB images of psoriasis lesions is used. By visual examination of these images, there seem to be no common pattern that could be used to find and align the lesions within and between sessions. It is expected that the principal components of the original images could be useful during future...

  1. Crystal Structure of a Group I Energy Coupling Factor Vitamin Transporter S Component in Complex with Its Cognate Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josts, Inokentijs; Almeida Hernandez, Yasser; Andreeva, Antonina; Tidow, Henning

    2016-07-21

    Energy coupling factor (ECF) transporters are responsible for the uptake of essential scarce nutrients in prokaryotes. This ATP-binding cassette transporter family comprises two subgroups that share a common architecture forming a tripartite membrane protein complex consisting of a translocation component and ATP hydrolyzing module and a substrate-capture (S) component. Here, we present the crystal structure of YkoE from Bacillus subtilis, the S component of the previously uncharacterized group I ECF transporter YkoEDC. Structural and biochemical analyses revealed the constituent residues of the thiamine-binding pocket as well as an unexpected mode of vitamin recognition. In addition, our experimental and bioinformatics data demonstrate major differences between YkoE and group II ECF transporters and indicate how group I vitamin transporter S components have diverged from other group I and group II ECF transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Common Czech vs colloquial Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Иванович Изотов

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a phenomenon of Common Czech in respect to Standard Czech is regarded. Main features of Common Czech are described. Linguistic situation in Czech Republic is compared to the classical diglossia situation.

  3. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...

  4. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-16

    During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

  5. Demand for International Reserves in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimaz Sinem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Having an important place in the international monetary system, international reserves held by central bank usually reflect country’s economic strength in terms of international finance and trade. There are many reasons for holding international reserves by central banks such as financing the deficit in the balance of payment, managing the monetary and exchange rate policies, minimizing the negative effects of external shocks and reducing the cost of borrowing. Continuously changing and diversifying characteristics of these reasons affect the demand for reserves depending to the economic conditions of the country. Over the last ten years, there has been a tremendous increase in international reserves held by Turkish Central Bank. From 2002 to 2012, the reserves of the bank have risen from 20 billion dollars to 96 billion dollars, showing an increase more than four times. This sudden and huge increase in the foreign reserves drove us to determine and investigate the factors which induce the Turkish Central Bank to hold high level of reserves. Thus, the purpose of this study is to estimate and analyze the demand for international reserves held by central banks using the buffer stock model in the case of Turkey. The data used in the study is monthly and cover the period of 1990:03-2012:10. The buffer stock model was econometrically estimated by using the OLS method for three different models. Our findings indicate that the opportunity cost affected reserve demand much stronger than the reserve volatility in Turkish case.

  6. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  7. Spain's nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaibel, E.

    1985-01-01

    Spanish industrial participation in supply of components for nuclear power plants has grown steadily over the last fifteen years. The share of Spanish companies in work for the five second generation nuclear power plants increased to 50% of total capital investments. The necessity to maintain Spanish technology and production in the nuclear field is emphasized

  8. Component-oriented programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Szyperski, C; Weck, W; Buschmann, F; Buchmann, AP; Cilia, MA

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the eighth Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP). WCOP has been affiliated with ECOOP since its inception in 1996. The report summarizes the contributions made by authors of accepted position papers as well as those made by all attendees of the workshop sessions.

  9. Grey component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, J.A.; Derks, E.P.P.A.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Smilde, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The interpretation of principal component analysis (PCA) models of complex biological or chemical data can be cumbersome because in PCA the decomposition is performed without any knowledge of the system at hand. Prior information of the system is not used to improve the interpretation. In this paper

  10. Molecular Models Candy Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, William F.

    2007-01-01

    An explanation of various principles of chemistry in a paper by Fanny Ennever by the use of candy is described. The paper explains components of sucrose and the invert sugar that results from the hydrolysis of sucrose and will help students in determining whether the products are indeed hydrates of carbon.

  11. Component lifetime modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.F.; Verweij, J.F.; Brombacher, A.C.; Brombacher, A.C.; Lunenborg, M.M.; Lunenborg, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    There are two approaches to component lifetime modelling. The first one uses a reliability prediction method as described in the (military) handbooks with the appropriate models and parameters. The advantages are: (a) It takes into account all possible failure mechanisms. (b) It is easy to use. The

  12. Euler principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liwicki, Stephan; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is perhaps the most prominent learning tool for dimensionality reduction in pattern recognition and computer vision. However, the ℓ 2-norm employed by standard PCA is not robust to outliers. In this paper, we propose a kernel PCA method for fast and robust PCA,

  13. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  14. ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.; Vieider, G.; Akiba, M.

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Components of attention in synesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Nordfang, Maria; Pedersen, Michael Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common forms of synesthesia is between colors and graphemes (Colizoli, Murre, & Rouw, 2012). Numerous studies have investigated different aspects of attention and synesthesia, e.g. effects of Stroop-like interference by colors that are incongruent with the synesthetic experience...... synesthesia (Mattingley, 2009). Results from the present experiment show that synesthesia affects both speed of processing (C) and the number of objects that can be retained in visual short-term memory (K). Participants were faster at encoding characters that were colored congruently with their synesthesia....... Here we attempt to isolate how speci¿ c components of attention are affected by grapheme-color synesthesia. Eight carefully screened healthy participants with synesthesia reported the letters in brie¿ y presented, post-masked arrays of letters and digits. On half the trials, the letters and digits were...

  16. Rosin components identified in diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlberg, A T; Magnusson, K

    1996-03-01

    As part of the investigation of sources of exposure to rosin allergens, disposable diapers (napkins) common on the Swedish market were analyzed, using gas chromatography, to detect the main rosin compounds. Rosin components were detected in all diapers, the highest amounts in those from the 2 major producers. In these diapers, more rosin was found in the top layer, which is in close contact with the skin than in the fluff. Despite the possibly minimal risk of induction of sensitization to rosin allergens in diapers, there is a real risk of elicitation of dermatitis in sensitive individuals, especially since penetration is enhanced by occlusion and irritation. Such material is not only used for infant diapers, but also for adult incontinence products and feminine hygiene products.

  17. resistance in the common bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Two studies, one on performance of six common bean parental genotypes and another on inheritance of resistance to Phaeosariopsis griseola (Pg) in the common bean were carried out in Malawi. Common bean entries namely; Chimbamba, Nasaka, RC 15, CAL 143 and Mexico 54 were evaluated on ...

  18. Developing a Model Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  19. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  20. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  1. IGT calculates world reserves of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has published the IGT World Reserves Survey, giving their latest tabulation of world reserves of fossil fuels and uranium. The report contains 120 Tables and 41 Figures. Estimates are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, and life indexes of the non-renewable energy sources of the US and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided in many cases. The data are summarized here. 2 figures, 5 tables

  2. Reserve reporting from a banker's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.O.

    1996-01-01

    A banker's perspective of oil and gas reserve reporting was presented. Topics chosen for discussion emphasized oil and gas lending, and the type of capital which is most relevant to the oil and gas industry. The concept of capital differentiation, potential worst case, and least specialization, were explained. An explanation of the reasons for the lender's different perspective on reserves was given. Methods that banks use to limit risk, and the role that reserve reports play in loan approvals were also reviewed

  3. When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source. (author)

  4. Reservation system with graphical user interface

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid

    2012-01-05

    Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with a selected interval of time and a compressed view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with one or more additional intervals of time, maintaining a visual context between the expanded view and the compressed view within the visualization object, and enabling a user to switch between the expanded view and the compressed view to facilitate use of the reservation system.

  5. An approach to studying the neural correlates of reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Yaakov

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to review my current understanding of the concepts of cognitive reserve (CR), brain reserve and brain maintenance, and to describe our group’s approach to using imaging to study their neural basis. I present a working model for utilizing data regarding brain integrity, clinical status, cognitive activation and CR proxies to develop analyses that can explore the neural basis of cognitive reserve and brain maintenance. The basic model assumes that the effect of brain changes on cognition is mediated by task-related activation. We treat CR as a moderator to understand how task-related activation might vary as a function of CR, or how CR might operate independently of these differences in task-related activation. My hope is that this presentation will spark discussion across groups that study these concepts, allowing us to come to some common agreement on definitions, methodology and approaches. PMID:27450378

  6. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...... in a Matlab toolbox, is demonstrated for non-negative decompositions and compared with non-negative matrix factorization.......In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...

  7. Adaptable component frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki; Simonsen, Bo

    2009-01-01

    for vector, which is undoubtedly the most used container of the C++ standard library. In particular, we specify the details of a vector implementation that is safe with respect to referential integrity and strong exception safety. Additionally, we report the experiences and lessons learnt from......The CPH STL is a special edition of the STL, the containers and algorithms part of the C++ standard library. The specification of the generic components of the STL is given in the C++ standard. Any implementation of the STL, e.g. the one that ships with your standard-compliant C++ compiler, should...... the development of component frameworks which we hope to be of benefit to persons engaged in the design and implementation of generic software libraries....

  8. Bacterial Cell Wall Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Cynthia; Brown, Stephanie; Walker, Suzanne

    Bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides cells are surrounded by a variety of cell-surface structures that allow them to thrive in extreme environments. Components of the cell envelope and extracellular matrix are responsible for providing the cells with structural support, mediating intercellular communication, allowing the cells to move or to adhere to surfaces, protecting the cells from attack by antibiotics or the immune system, and facilitating the uptake of nutrients. Some of the most important cell wall components are polysaccharide structures. This review discusses the occurrence, structure, function, and biosynthesis of the most prevalent bacterial cell surface polysaccharides: peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, arabinogalactan, and lipoarabinomannan, and capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. The roles of these polysaccharides in medicine, both as drug targets and as therapeutic agents, are also described.

  9. Updating ARI Educational Benefits Usage Data Bases for Army Regular, Reserve, and Guard: 2005 - 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Winnie

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the updating of ARI's educational benefits usage database with Montgomery GI Bill and Army College Fund data for Army Regular, Reserve, and Guard components over the 2005 and 2006 period...

  10. Components of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    This report of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic deals with the components of the environment. The results of monitoring of air (emission situation), ambient air quality, atmospheric precipitation, tropospheric ozone, water (surface water, groundwater resources, waste water and drinking water), geological factors (geothermal energy, fuel deposits, ore deposits, non-metallic ore deposits), soil (area statistics, soil contamination. soil reaction and active extractable aluminium, soil erosion), flora and fauna (national strategy of biodiversity protection) are presented

  11. Fabricating nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Activities of the Nuclear Engineering Division of Vickers Ltd., particularly fabrication of long slim tubular components for power reactors and the construction of irradiation loops and rigs, are outlined. The processes include hydraulic forming for fabrication of various types of tubes and outer cases of fuel transfer buckets, various specialised welding operations including some applications of the TIG process, and induction brazing of specialised assemblies. (U.K.)

  12. University students' reservations about dietetics as a career choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordly, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Dietetics students' reservations about their career choice were investigated. In several dietetics programs in various provinces, an in-class or online survey was administered to students in the early or late stages of their education (n=397). Data were coded and analyzed, using descriptive statistics. Chi-square testing for independence was used to establish significant relationships. Forty-three percent (n=149) of those responding to the research question (n=344) indicated they had reservations about a dietetics career, primarily because of internship, salary, and employment concerns. Students enrolled in a coordinated internship/degree program experienced no reservations about internship. Students experienced fewer career reservations when they had made their career decision before grade 12, were influenced by a dietitian, or were in the later stages of their education. Findings have implications for dietetics recruitment, retention, research, and education. An understanding of sources of reservations about career choice will allow policy-makers, researchers, and educators to address issues to ensure that potential professionals are well informed about career components and that educational programs meet students' needs.

  13. High-seas fish wars generate marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Guillermo E; Moeller, Holly V; Neubert, Michael G

    2016-04-05

    The effective management of marine fisheries is an ongoing challenge at the intersection of biology, economics, and policy. One way in which fish stocks-and their habitats-can be protected is through the establishment of marine reserves, areas that are closed to fishing. Although the potential economic benefits of such reserves have been shown for single-owner fisheries, their implementation quickly becomes complicated when more than one noncooperating harvester is involved in fishery management, which is the case on the high seas. How do multiple self-interested actors distribute their fishing effort to maximize their individual economic gains in the presence of others? Here, we use a game theoretic model to compare the effort distributions of multiple noncooperating harvesters with the effort distributions in the benchmark sole owner and open access cases. In addition to comparing aggregate rent, stock size, and fishing effort, we focus on the occurrence, size, and location of marine reserves. We show that marine reserves are a component of many noncooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria. Furthermore, as the number of harvesters increases, (i) both total unfished area and the size of binding reserves (those that actually constrain behavior) may increase, although the latter eventually asymptotically decreases; (ii) total rents and stock size both decline; and (iii) aggregate effort used (i.e., employment) can either increase or decrease, perhaps nonmonotonically.

  14. Surface mount component jig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1990-08-07

    A device for bending and trimming the pins of a dual-inline-package component and the like for surface mounting rather than through mounting to a circuit board comprises, in a first part, in pin cutter astride a holder having a recess for holding the component, a first spring therebetween, and, in a second part, two flat members pivotally interconnected by a hinge and urged to an upward peaked position from a downward peaked position by a second spring. As a downward force is applied to the pin cutter it urges the holder downward, assisted by the first spring and a pair of ridges riding on shoulders of the holder, to carry the component against the upward peaked flat members which guide the pins outwardly. As the holder continues downwardly, the flat members pivot to the downward peaked position bending the pins upwardly against the sides of the holder. When the downward movement is met with sufficient resistance, the ridges of the pin cutter ride over the holder's shoulders to continue downward to cut any excess length of pin.

  15. Inkjet deposited circuit components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidoki, S. M.; Nouri, J.; Heidari, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    All-printed electronics as a means of achieving ultra-low-cost electronic circuits has attracted great interest in recent years. Inkjet printing is one of the most promising techniques by which the circuit components can be ultimately drawn (i.e. printed) onto the substrate in one step. Here, the inkjet printing technique was used to chemically deposit silver nanoparticles (10-200 nm) simply by ejection of silver nitrate and reducing solutions onto different substrates such as paper, PET plastic film and textile fabrics. The silver patterns were tested for their functionality to work as circuit components like conductor, resistor, capacitor and inductor. Different levels of conductivity were achieved simply by changing the printing sequence, inks ratio and concentration. The highest level of conductivity achieved by an office thermal inkjet printer (300 dpi) was 5.54 × 105 S m-1 on paper. Inkjet deposited capacitors could exhibit a capacitance of more than 1.5 nF (parallel plate 45 × 45 mm2) and induction coils displayed an inductance of around 400 µH (planar coil 10 cm in diameter). Comparison of electronic performance of inkjet deposited components to the performance of conventionally etched items makes the technique highly promising for fabricating different printed electronic devices.

  16. The population condition and the food availability of cuscus in the Arfak Mountains Nature Reserve, West Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTON SILAS SINERY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sinery AS, Boer C, Farida WR. 2012. The population condition and availability of feed of cuscus in the Arfak Mountain Nature Reserve, West Papua. Biodiversitas 13: 86-91. The cuscus is a pouched marsupial grouped in the Phalangeridae family, which is nocturnal, arboreal, herbivore, and in most cases the tail is prehensile. The animals are legally protected due to low reproduction, limited distribution area, and high rate of illegal hunting. The illegal hunting happened not only in the production forest areas but also in the reserve areas such as Nature Reserve of Arfak Mountain, directly or indirectly, affects the life quality of the ecosystem, mainly cuscuses population. Therefore, it is necessary to do efforts to have a better management of the region to ensure the sustenance of many components in it. This research is aimed to know the population density of cuscus in Arfak Mountain Nature Reserve and carried out for two months. The method used was descriptive by using direct and indirect observation. The result shows that cuscuses existing in the Arfak Mountain conservation area were northern common cuscus (Phalanger orientalis, ground cuscus (Phalanger gymnotis and common spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus. The biggest individual number is of P. orientalis with 39 individuals consisting of 18 males and 21 females, the second is of P. gymnotis with 10 individuals consisting of 4 males and 6 females, and the smallest is of S. maculatus with 9 individuals consisting of 4 males and 5 females. From the total of 58 cuscuses, there are 38 adult and 20 young cuscuses. There are 20 forest plant species identified as feed resources of cuscus in Arfak Mountain Nature Reserve. The parts of forest plant consumed by cuscus are fruits and young leaves. P. gymnotis also consumes small insects such as grasshopper. The cuscuses spread from lowland forest to highland forest (2,900 m asl.

  17. 48 CFR 4.501 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 4.501 Section 4.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Electronic Commerce in Contracting 4.501 [Reserved...

  18. 7 CFR 300.1 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 300.1 Section 300.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE § 300.1 [Reserved...

  19. 7 CFR 305.4 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 305.4 Section 305.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.4 [Reserved...

  20. 50 CFR 216.42 - Photography. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Photography. [Reserved] 216.42 Section 216.42 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.42 Photography. [Reserved] ...

  1. 9 CFR 73.1a - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 73.1a Section 73.1a Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1a [Reserved] ...

  2. 12 CFR 614.4710 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 614.4710 Section 614.4710 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4710 [Reserved] ...

  3. 40 CFR 406.43 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.43 Section 406.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.43 [Reserved] ...

  4. 40 CFR 406.23 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.23 Section 406.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.23 [Reserved] ...

  5. 40 CFR 406.13 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.13 Section 406.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.13 [Reserved] ...

  6. 24 CFR 891.855 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 891.855... § 891.855 Replacement reserves. (a) The mixed-finance owner shall establish and maintain a replacement... the funds will be used to pay for capital replacement costs for the Section 202 or 811 supportive...

  7. 22 CFR 40.69 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 40.69 Section 40.69 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Illegal Entrants and Immigration Violators § 40.69 [Reserved] ...

  8. Body reserves in intra-African migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nwaogu, Chima; Cresswell, Will

    Avian migration has been shown to be a life history strategy for surviving environmental resource variability, but it requires increased body reserves for long distance flight. Fat reserves make excellent energy stores for barrier crossing, whereas proteins generate less energy for the same mass of

  9. 21 CFR 211.170 - Reserve samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserve samples. 211.170 Section 211.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL... of deterioration unless visual examination would affect the integrity of the reserve sample. Any...

  10. 8 CFR 325.1 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 325.1 Section 325.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS NATIONALS BUT NOT CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES; RESIDENCE WITHIN OUTLYING POSSESSIONS § 325.1 [Reserved] ...

  11. 30 CFR 253.44 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 253.44 Section 253.44 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Requirements for Submitting OSFR Information § 253.44 [Reserved] ...

  12. 14 CFR 33.13 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 33.13 Section 33.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.13 [Reserved] ...

  13. 14 CFR 35.13 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 35.13 Section 35.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.13 [Reserved] ...

  14. 14 CFR 35.11 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 35.11 Section 35.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.11 [Reserved] ...

  15. 7 CFR 1709.2 Policy. - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1709.2 Policy. Section 1709.2 Policy. Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.2 Policy. [Reserved] ...

  16. 7 CFR 1709.202 Policy. - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1709.202 Policy. Section 1709.202 Policy... AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES Bulk Fuel Revolving Fund Grant Program § 1709.202 Policy. [Reserved] ...

  17. 7 CFR 3560.65 - Reserve account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.65 Section 3560.65 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.65 Reserve account... account that meets requirements of § 3560.306. At a minimum, the borrower must agree to make monthly...

  18. 21 CFR 720.5 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 720.5 Section 720.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.5 [Reserved] ...

  19. 39 CFR 111.5 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 111.5 Section 111.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] GENERAL INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.5 [Reserved] ...

  20. 75 FR 44067 - Conservation Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... amending the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) regulations to implement provisions of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008 Farm Bill). The 2008 Farm Bill generally extends the existing... Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1410 RIN 0560-AH80 Conservation Reserve Program AGENCY: Commodity...

  1. 7 CFR 1780.8 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1780.8 Section 1780.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS General Policies and Requirements § 1780.8 [Reserved] ...

  2. 7 CFR 1779.79 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.79 Section 1779.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.79 [Reserved] ...

  3. 7 CFR 1780.5 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1780.5 Section 1780.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS General Policies and Requirements § 1780.5 [Reserved] ...

  4. 7 CFR 1779.82 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.82 Section 1779.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.82 [Reserved] ...

  5. 7 CFR 1779.74 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.74 Section 1779.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.74 [Reserved] ...

  6. 7 CFR 1780.12 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1780.12 Section 1780.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS General Policies and Requirements § 1780.12 [Reserved] ...

  7. 7 CFR 1779.26 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.26 Section 1779.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.26 [Reserved] ...

  8. 20 CFR 410.394 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 410.394 Section 410.394 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.394 [Reserved] ...

  9. 40 CFR 26.1124 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 26.1124 Section 26.1124 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical...-nursing Adults § 26.1124 [Reserved] ...

  10. 26 CFR 1.46-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true [Reserved] 1.46-10 Section 1.46-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-10 [Reserved] ...

  11. 34 CFR 97.121 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 97.121 Section 97.121 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.121 [Reserved] ...

  12. Running on Empty? The Compensatory Reserve Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and HR,31 more blood pressure oscillations,32 and greater vasoconstrictor reserve,33 compared with low-tolerant individuals. By leveraging recent... vasoconstrictor reserves. Clin Auton Res. 2012; 22:123Y130. 32. Rickards CA, Ryan KL, Cooke WH, Convertino VA. Tolerance to central hypovolemia: the

  13. 77 FR 66980 - Federal Reserve Bank Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... earn net income of $15.3 million, compared with the target of $9.1 million. While the check service and... upgrades, and increase product revenue. 4. 2013 Pricing--The following summarizes the Reserve Banks... the office closed. The Reserve Banks also will introduce incentive pricing for depository institutions...

  14. 15 CFR 2003.3 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 2003.3 Section 2003.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS OF TRADE POLICY STAFF COMMITTEE § 2003.3 [Reserved] ...

  15. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs are well-noted but not well-understood, and there is little evidence that they are decreasing in frequency or amount over time. The need to control spending has led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns, and many program control efforts are being implemented to attempt to prevent or mitigate the problem (NPR 7120). However, cost overruns have not abated, and while some direct causes of increased spending may be obvious (requirements creep, launch delays, directed changes, etc.), the underlying impetus to spend past the original budget may be more subtle. Gaining better insight into the causes of cost overruns will help NASA and its contracting organizations to avoid .them. This paper hypothesizes that one cause of NASA mission cost overruns is that the availability of reserves gives project team members an incentive to make decisions and behave in ways that increase costs. We theorize that the presence of reserves is a contributing factor to cost overruns because it causes organizations to use their funds less efficiently or to control spending less effectively. We draw a comparison to the insurance industry concept of moral hazard, the phenomenon that the presence of insurance causes insureds to have more frequent and higher insurance losses, and we attempt to apply actuarial techniques to quantifY the increase in the expected cost of a mission due to the availability of reserves. We create a theoretical model of reserve spending motivation by defining a variable ReserveSpending as a function of total reserves. This function has a positive slope; for every dollar of reserves available, there is a positive probability of spending it. Finally, the function should be concave down; the probability of spending each incremental dollar of reserves decreases progressively. We test the model against available NASA CADRe data by examining missions with reserve dollars initially available and testing whether

  16. 76 FR 64250 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification and Private Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... D; Docket No. R-1433] RIN No. 7100 AD 83 Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification and Private Sector Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System... public comment on proposed amendments to Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions...

  17. Five Theses on the Common

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigi Roggero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available I present five theses on the common within the context of the transformations of capitalist social relations as well as their contemporary global crisis. My framework involves ‘‘cognitive capitalism,’’ new processes of class composition, and the production of living knowledge and subjectivity. The commons is often discussed today in reference to the privatizationand commodification of ‘‘common goods.’’ This suggests a naturalistic and conservative image of the common, unhooked from the relations of production. I distinguish between commons and the common: the first model is related to Karl Polanyi, the second to Karl Marx. As elaborated in the postoperaista debate, the common assumes an antagonistic double status: it is boththe plane of the autonomy of living labor and it is subjected to capitalist ‘‘capture.’’ Consequently, what is at stake is not the conservation of ‘‘commons,’’ but rather the production of the common and its organization into new institutions that would take us beyond the exhausted dialectic between public and private.

  18. Cognitive reserve and appraisal in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Snook, Erin; Quaranto, Brian; Benedict, Ralph H B; Rapkin, Bruce D; Vollmer, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive appraisal processes underlying self-report affect the interpretation of patient-reported outcomes. These processes are relevant to resilience and adaptability, and may relate to how cognitive reserve protects against disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). To describe how passive and active indicators of cognitive reserve relate to QOL appraisal processes in MS. Cross-sectional data (n=860) were drawn from the North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) Registry, from whom additional survey data were collected. Cognitive reserve was measured using the Stern and Sole-Padulles measures. Using the quality of life appraisal profile (QOLAP), we assessed how MS patients conceptualize their experiences and how that impacts how they report their quality of life. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare groups within sets of appraisal parameters, and t-tests or chi-square tests were used to compare mean item responses within appraisal parameters for continuous or dichotomous variables, respectively. People high in passive or active reserve report different conceptualizations of QOL, different types of goals, and considering different types of experiences and standards of comparison in responding to QOL questionnaires, as compared to low-reserve individuals. Although item response patterns were slightly different between passive and active indicators, they generally reflect a tendency in high-reserve individuals to emphasize the positive, focus on aspects of their life that are more controllable, and less based in fantasy. MS patients high in cognitive reserve differ in their cognitive appraisals from their low reserve counterparts. These appraisal metrics may predict disease course and other important clinical outcomes in MS patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis Components Investigation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    ssification a the marg ford and h ures such ge of this l s integratio PREVIOUS WRI ities. For in annotating ame meanin ck by valid rest. These ansion...ent to rder. order. rder el has d to the val, and learning , which ibrary is oo! and feature ovides a Analys 4 4 1 is Component THIS DOCU... learn m tor Machin sed to give to re-rank be execut he model w s the follow ed by any the trainin ciated with ation of the the docume all terms

  20. Impedance of accelerator components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.N.

    1996-05-01

    As demands for high luminosity and low emittance particle beams increase, an understanding of the electromagnetic interaction of these beams with their vacuum chamber environment becomes more important in order to maintain the quality of the beam. This interaction is described in terms of the wake field in time domain, and the beam impedance in frequency domain. These concepts are introduced, and related quantities such as the loss factor are presented. The broadband Q = 1 resonator impedance model is discussed. Perturbation and coaxial wire methods of measurement of real components are reviewed

  1. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    .g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines...... acting as carcinogens) to health-protective effects (e.g., flavonoids ameliorating detrimental effects of mitochondrial oxidative stress). In particular, secondary plant metabolites along with vitamins, specific types of macronutrients and live bacteria (probiotics) as well as substances promoting...

  2. Mesh Retrieval by Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Ayellet; Zuckerberger, Emanuel

    This paper examines the application of the human vision theories of Marr and Biederman to the retrieval of three-dimensional objects. The key idea is to represent an object by an attributed graph that consists of the object's meaningful components as nodes, where each node is fit to a basic shape. A system that realizes this approach was built and tested on a database of about 400 objects and achieves promising results. It is shown that this representation of 3D objects is very compact. Moreover, it gives rise to a retrieval algorithm that is invariant to non-rigid transformations and does not require normalization.

  3. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  4. Prognostics for Microgrid Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Abhinav

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics is the science of predicting future performance and potential failures based on targeted condition monitoring. Moving away from the traditional reliability centric view, prognostics aims at detecting and quantifying the time to impending failures. This advance warning provides the opportunity to take actions that can preserve uptime, reduce cost of damage, or extend the life of the component. The talk will focus on the concepts and basics of prognostics from the viewpoint of condition-based systems health management. Differences with other techniques used in systems health management and philosophies of prognostics used in other domains will be shown. Examples relevant to micro grid systems and subsystems will be used to illustrate various types of prediction scenarios and the resources it take to set up a desired prognostic system. Specifically, the implementation results for power storage and power semiconductor components will demonstrate specific solution approaches of prognostics. The role of constituent elements of prognostics, such as model, prediction algorithms, failure threshold, run-to-failure data, requirements and specifications, and post-prognostic reasoning will be explained. A discussion on performance evaluation and performance metrics will conclude the technical discussion followed by general comments on open research problems and challenges in prognostics.

  5. Interactions between photodegradation components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Yadollah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of p-cresol photocatalytic degradation components were studied by response surface methodology. The study was designed by central composite design using the irradiation time, pH, the amount of photocatalyst and the p-cresol concentration as variables. The design was performed to obtain photodegradation % as actual responses. The actual responses were fitted with linear, two factor interactions, cubic and quadratic model to select an appropriate model. The selected model was validated by analysis of variance which provided evidences such as high F-value (845.09, very low P-value (2 = 0.999, adjusted R-squared (Radj2 = 0.998, predicted R-squared (Rpred2 = 0.994 and the adequate precision (95.94. Results From the validated model demonstrated that the component had interaction with irradiation time under 180 min of the time while the interaction with pH was above pH 9. Moreover, photocatalyst and p-cresol had interaction at minimal amount of photocatalyst (p-cresol. Conclusion These variables are interdependent and should be simultaneously considered during the photodegradation process, which is one of the advantages of the response surface methodology over the traditional laboratory method.

  6. Computerized reserves assessment improves colliery planning. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozor, L.; Wrobel, R.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe systems developed in Poland for the computerised assessment of coal reserves. The Zasoby system calculates coal reserves and evaluates selected natural properties of seams within the boundaries of an arbitrary mining property, based entirely on exploratory borehole data. The IOS-10 system is based on the Polish data bank for bituminous coal deposits. It is not suitable for use in mine design procedures, but is widely used for the statistical recording of reserves in areas currently being worked. The major part of the paper is devoted to a description of the Geo-3 system, used for the computation of reserves in prospective areas from borehole data, as well as in active mining areas or partially worked-out deposits. The computation method is explained and examples of the results obtained are given.

  7. Operational Army Reserve Implications for Organizational Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dahms, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    The Army Reserve has been in a constant state of mobilization since 1995 with the advent of the Bosnia crisis and the pace of mobilization increased exponentially after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001...

  8. Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E.; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management. PMID:20427745

  9. 48 CFR 9904.404-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.404-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-10 [Reserved] ...

  10. 48 CFR 9904.401-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.401-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-10 [Reserved] ...

  11. 48 CFR 9904.400 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.400 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.400 [Reserved] ...

  12. 48 CFR 9904.402-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.402-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-10 [Reserved] ...

  13. 48 CFR 9904.405-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.405-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-10 [Reserved] ...

  14. 48 CFR 9904.407-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.407-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-10 [Reserved] ...

  15. 48 CFR 9904.408-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.408-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.408-10 [Reserved] ...

  16. 48 CFR 9904.406-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.406-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-10 [Reserved] ...

  17. 48 CFR 9904.403-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.403-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-10 [Reserved] ...

  18. 10 CFR 51.110 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Rulemaking § 51.110 [Reserved] Public Notice of and Access to Environmental Documents ...

  19. U.S. Federal Reserve Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset is comprised of forty-five entities that are part of the United States Federal Reserve System according to the United States Department of Treasury. The...

  20. Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D

    2010-10-26

    As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management.

  1. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs have led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns as well as mitigation and prevention attempts. This paper hypothesizes that one cause is that the availability of reserves may reduce incentives to control costs. We draw a comparison to the insurance concept of moral hazard, and we use actuarial techniques to better understand the increase in mission costs due to the availability of reserves. NASA's CADRe database provided the data against which we tested our hypothesis and discovered that there is correlation between the amount of available reserves and project overruns, particularly for mission hardware cost increases. We address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects.

  2. 40 CFR 63.131 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.131 [Reserved] ...

  3. The Tragedy of the Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  4. Why Common Ground Thinking Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Modesto (California) City Schools discovered common-ground thinking during a crisis over a safe-schools policy. Instead of shunning controversy, schools should face issues, invite all stakeholders, get training, formulate and approve policy, and train staff and the community to understand common-ground (religious neutrality) thinking. (MLH)

  5. Reserves and cash flows under stochastic retirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Kamille Sofie Tågholt; Nielsen, Jeppe Woetmann

    2016-01-01

    and the guarantees provided. Stochastic retirement creates a need to rethink the construction of disability products for high ages and ways to handle this are discussed. We show how to calculate market reserves and how to use modified transition probabilities to calculate expected cash flows without significantly...... more complexity than in the traditional model. At last, we demonstrate the impact of stochastic retirement on market reserves and expected cash flow in numerical examples....

  6. Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reserve accounts for individual differences in susceptibility to age-related brain changes or Alzheimer's disease-related pathology. There is evidence that some people can tolerate more of these changes than others and still maintain function. Epidemiologic studies suggest that lifetime exposures including educational and occupational attainment, and leisure activities in late life, can increase this reserve. For example, there is a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's diseas...

  7. Exploration report in mining reserve XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoturno Pioppo, J.; Lara Vigil, P.

    1991-01-01

    This report has been referred to the antecedents and works developed in the mining Reservation XIV. This Reservation, covered a 1900 km2 surface, involving the aerial photography Valentines Cerro Chato, Chileno, Rossel y Rius, Sarandi del Yi and Cuchilla del Pescado. It has been reduced this area to western part of the aerial phothograpy Pavas, releasing other areas such as Chileno, Rossel y Rius, Cuchilla del Pescado y Cerro Chato. Finally, gold, sulphures, pirite and carbonates iron oxides findings have been found.

  8. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB) system is possible and that precautionary...

  9. Optimum operating regimes of common paramagnetic refrigerants

    CERN Document Server

    Wikus, P; Figueroa-Feliciano, E

    2011-01-01

    Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs) are commonly used in cryogenic laboratories to achieve subkelvin temperatures. ADRs are also the technology of choice for several space borne instruments which make use of cryogenic microcalorimeters or bolometers {[}1-4]. For these applications, refrigerants with high ratios of cooling capacity to volume, or cooling capacity to mass are usually required. In this manuscript, two charts for the simple selection of the most suitable of several common refrigerants (CAA, CMN, CPA, DGG, FAA, GGG, GLF and MAS) are presented. These graphs are valid for single stage cycles. The selection of the refrigerants is uniquely dependent on the starting conditions of the refrigeration cycle (temperature and magnetic field density) and the desired final temperature. Only thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants have been taken into account, and other important factors such as availability and manufacturability have not been considered. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserve...

  10. Headings for an EEC common energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.

    1976-01-01

    Although self-sufficiency in energy supplies during the 1980s may make a purely national UK energy policy look attractive, the author argues that it is in the long-term interest of all nine community members if policy is coordinated on an EEC scale. Any possible common energy policy would probably consist of separate policies for coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear power. It would follow the same general principles as the Common Agricultural Policy in maximising production of coal, natural gas and nuclear power but oil would be covered by negotiating with OPEC for current supplies and treating indigenous supplies as a strategic reserve, with Community finance available for development of marginal fields. (author)

  11. Factor structure underlying components of allostatic load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne M McCaffery

    Full Text Available Allostatic load is a commonly used metric of health risk based on the hypothesis that recurrent exposure to environmental demands (e.g., stress engenders a progressive dysregulation of multiple physiological systems. Prominent indicators of response to environmental challenges, such as stress-related hormones, sympatho-vagal balance, or inflammatory cytokines, comprise primary allostatic mediators. Secondary mediators reflect ensuing biological alterations that accumulate over time and confer risk for clinical disease but overlap substantially with a second metric of health risk, the metabolic syndrome. Whether allostatic load mediators covary and thus warrant treatment as a unitary construct remains to be established and, in particular, the relation of allostatic load parameters to the metabolic syndrome requires elucidation. Here, we employ confirmatory factor analysis to test: 1 whether a single common factor underlies variation in physiological systems associated with allostatic load; and 2 whether allostatic load parameters continue to load on a single common factor if a second factor representing the metabolic syndrome is also modeled. Participants were 645 adults from Allegheny County, PA (30-54 years old, 82% non-Hispanic white, 52% female who were free of confounding medications. Model fitting supported a single, second-order factor underlying variance in the allostatic load components available in this study (metabolic, inflammatory and vagal measures. Further, this common factor reflecting covariation among allostatic load components persisted when a latent factor representing metabolic syndrome facets was conjointly modeled. Overall, this study provides novel evidence that the modeled allostatic load components do share common variance as hypothesized. Moreover, the common variance suggests the existence of statistical coherence above and beyond that attributable to the metabolic syndrome.

  12. Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Diagnosis, Management, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jordan K; Gelfand, Erwin W

    2015-11-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) refers to a grouping of antibody deficiencies that lack a more specific genetic or phenotypic classification. It is the immunodeficiency classification with the greatest number of constituents, likely because of the numerous ways in which antibody production can be impaired and the frequency in which antibody production becomes impaired in human beings. CVID comprises a heterogeneous group of rare diseases. Consequently, CVID presents a significant challenge for researchers and clinicians. Despite these difficulties, both our understanding of and ability to manage this grouping of complex immune diseases has advanced significantly over the past 60 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Component-Based Application for GAMESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Fang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    GAMESS, a quantum chetnistry program for electronic structure calculations, has been freely shared by high-performance application scientists for over twenty years. It provides a rich set of functionalities and can be run on a variety of parallel platforms through a distributed data interface. While a chemistry computation is sophisticated and hard to develop, the resource sharing among different chemistry packages will accelerate the development of new computations and encourage the cooperation of scientists from universities and laboratories. Common Component Architecture (CCA) offers an enviromnent that allows scientific packages to dynamically interact with each other through components, which enable dynamic coupling of GAMESS with other chetnistry packages, such as MPQC and NWChem. Conceptually, a cotnputation can be constructed with "plug-and-play" components from scientific packages and require more than componentizing functions/subroutines of interest, especially for large-scale scientific packages with a long development history. In this research, we present our efforts to construct cotnponents for GAMESS that conform to the CCA specification. The goal is to enable the fine-grained interoperability between three quantum chemistry programs, GAMESS, MPQC and NWChem, via components. We focus on one of the three packages, GAMESS; delineate the structure of GAMESS computations, followed by our approaches to its component development. Then we use GAMESS as the driver to interoperate integral components from the other tw"o packages, arid show the solutions for interoperability problems along with preliminary results. To justify the versatility of the design, the Tuning and Analysis Utility (TAU) components have been coupled with GAMESS and its components, so that the performance of GAMESS and its components may be analyzed for a wide range of systetn parameters.

  14. Natural radioactivity as indicator of petroleum reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, T.; Viloriab, L.; Sajo Bohusa, K.; Gomez, A.

    2001-01-01

    The possibilities of the measurement method of Radon emanation from the ground, using passive detectors, to identify oil-saturated beds in reserves or well-known deposit was evaluated in the North part of the Orinoco river and in some areas of Zulia Sate, Venezuela. The existence of Negative anomalies of radon emanation in regions of proven petroleum reserves was shown. The Space variability of emanated Radon concentration from the ground was measured and maps of three-dimensional contour curves applying different surface models were obtained, which allowed to locate the anomalies of radon emanation and to compare them with the location of reserves reported by other methods. In both regions it was obtained that the area having the lowest radon value is surrounded by an annular region of high radon values, being able to identify a locally decreased emanation over petroleum reserves as compared to the surroundings. The cause of such anomalies is not identified but they can provide useful information for locating the deeply buried oil reserves. Both regions showed a decrease in gamma activity and in upward flow of gases CH4 and C02 over the geologic structures which contain petroleum reserves Underneath. An applicable experimental routine was proposed to other regions. We conclude that the method of etched track detection can be useful in recognizing the subsurface oil-bearing structures and the technique is relatively simple and inexpensive

  15. Drosophila learn opposing components of a compound food stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gaurav; Klappenbach, Martín; Vrontou, Eleftheria; Perisse, Emmanuel; Clark, Christopher M; Burke, Christopher J; Waddell, Scott

    2014-08-04

    Dopaminergic neurons provide value signals in mammals and insects. During Drosophila olfactory learning, distinct subsets of dopaminergic neurons appear to assign either positive or negative value to odor representations in mushroom body neurons. However, it is not known how flies evaluate substances that have mixed valence. Here we show that flies form short-lived aversive olfactory memories when trained with odors and sugars that are contaminated with the common insect repellent DEET. This DEET-aversive learning required the MB-MP1 dopaminergic neurons that are also required for shock learning. Moreover, differential conditioning with DEET versus shock suggests that formation of these distinct aversive olfactory memories relies on a common negatively reinforcing dopaminergic mechanism. Surprisingly, as time passed after training, the behavior of DEET-sugar-trained flies reversed from conditioned odor avoidance into odor approach. In addition, flies that were compromised for reward learning exhibited a more robust and longer-lived aversive-DEET memory. These data demonstrate that flies independently process the DEET and sugar components to form parallel aversive and appetitive olfactory memories, with distinct kinetics, that compete to guide learned behavior. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Theoretical and methodological approaches to the diagnosis of the region's state material reservation system status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Anatol'evich Kuklin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the structural components of the state reserve theory with elements of decomposition and tools for studies in separate directions. The system of state material reserve, which includes the following components: economy - people - natural environment - is a necessary and sufficient reserve for their operation and development which is having the ability to respond to short-, medium- and long-term fluctuations in the economy and consider the risks of adverse factors appliance. It was determined that a necessary and sufficient reserve for the operation and development of the region is a major factor in ensuring its economic security. A method of diagnostics for the state material reserve system within the economic security of the region is presented and described. The approbation of the methodological apparatus for the assessment of the state material reserve by the example on the Ural Federal District was done.

  17. Lipedema: A Relatively Common Disease with Extremely Common Misconceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Donald W.; Herbst, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Lipedema, or adiposis dolorosa, is a common adipose tissue disorder that is believed to affect nearly 11% of adult women worldwide. It is characterized most commonly by disproportionate adipocyte hypertrophy of the lower extremities, significant tenderness to palpation, and a failure to respond to extreme weight loss modalities. Women with lipedema report a rapid growth of the lipedema subcutaneous adipose tissue in the setting of stress, surgery, and/or hormonal changes. Women with later sta...

  18. Multi-component optical solitary waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivshar, Y. S.; Sukhorukov, A. A.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss several novel types of multi-component (temporal and spatial) envelope solitary waves that appear in fiber and waveguide nonlinear optics. In particular, we describe multi-channel solitary waves in bit-parallel-wavelength fiber transmission systems for highperformance computer networks......, multi-color parametric spatial solitary waves due to cascaded nonlinearities of quadratic materials, and quasiperiodic envelope solitons due to quasi-phase-matching in Fibonacci optical superlattices. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Component Based Testing with ioco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bijl, H.M.; Rensink, Arend; Tretmans, G.J.

    Component based testing concerns the integration of components which have already been tested separately. We show that, with certain restrictions, the ioco-test theory for conformance testing is suitable for component based testing, in the sense that the integration of fully conformant components is

  20. Component Composition Using Feature Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Klose, Karl; Mitschke, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    In general, components provide and require services and two components are bound if the first component provides a service required by the second component. However, certain variability in services - w.r.t. how and which functionality is provided or required - cannot be described using standard i...

  1. Biosphere reserves in action: Case studies of the American experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-06-26

    For nearly 20 years, biosphere reserves have offered a unique framework for building the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems. The 12 case studies in this volume chronicle many of the cooperative efforts to implement the biosphere reserve concept in the United States. Considered together, these efforts involve more than 20 types of protected areas, and the participation of all levels of government, and many private organizations, academic institutions, citizens groups, and individuals. Biosphere reserves are multi-purpose areas that are nominated by the national committee of the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB) and designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to serve as demonstration areas for cooperation in building harmonious relationships between human activities and the conservation of ecosystems and biological diversity. Each biosphere reserve exemplifies the characteristic ecosystems of one of the worlds biogeographical regions. It is a land or coas%arine area involving human communities as integral components and including resources managed for objectives ranging from complete protection to intensive, yet sustainable development. A biosphere reserve is envisioned as a regional ''landscape for learning'' in which monitoring, research, education, and training are encouraged to support sustainable conservation of natural and managed ecosystems. It is a framework for regional cooperation involving government decisionmakers, scientists, resource managers, private organizations and local people (i.e., the biosphere reserve ''stakeholders''). Finally, each biosphere reserve is part of a global network for sharing information and experience to help address complex problems of conservation and development. The 12 case studies presented in this report represent only a few of the possible evolutions of a biosphere reserve in

  2. Biomass relations for components of five Minnesota shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard R. Buech; David J. Rugg

    1995-01-01

    Presents equations for estimating biomass of six components on five species of shrubs common to northeastern Minnesota. Regression analysis is used to compare the performance of three estimators of biomass.

  3. Component failure data handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentillon, C.D.

    1991-04-01

    This report presents generic component failure rates that are used in reliability and risk studies of commercial nuclear power plants. The rates are computed using plant-specific data from published probabilistic risk assessments supplemented by selected other sources. Each data source is described. For rates with four or more separate estimates among the sources, plots show the data that are combined. The method for combining data from different sources is presented. The resulting aggregated rates are listed with upper bounds that reflect the variability observed in each rate across the nuclear power plant industry. Thus, the rates are generic. Both per hour and per demand rates are included. They may be used for screening in risk assessments or for forming distributions to be updated with plant-specific data

  4. Impedance and component heating

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E; Mounet, N; Pieloni, T; Salvant, B

    2015-01-01

    The impedance is a complex function of frequency, which represents, for the plane under consideration (longitudinal, horizontal or vertical), the force integrated over the length of an element, from a “source” to a “test” wave, normalized by their charges. In general, the impedance in a given plane is a nonlinear function of the test and source transverse coordinates, but it is most of the time sufficient to consider only the first few linear terms. Impedances can influence the motion of trailing particles, in the longitudinal and in one or both transverse directions, leading to energy loss, beam instabilities, or producing undesirable secondary effects such as excessive heating of sensitive components at or near the chamber wall, called beam-induced RF heating. The LHC performance limitations linked to impedances encountered during the 2010-2012 run are reviewed and the currently expected situation during the HL-LHC era is discussed.

  5. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients...... can interact with enzyme systems related to xenobiotic metabolism either by regulation of their expression or direct interference with their enzymatic activity. During food consumption, we consume a wide range of xenobiotics along with the consumable food, either as an original part of the food (e...

  6. High thermal load component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Toshiaki; Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1996-01-01

    A cooling tube made of a pure copper is connected to the inner portion of an armour (heat resistant member) made of an anisotropic carbon/carbon composite (CFC) material. The CFC material has a high heat conductivity in longitudinal direction of fibers and has low conductivity in perpendicular thereto. Fibers extending in the armour from a heat receiving surface just above the cooling tube are directly connected to the cooling tube. A portion of the fibers extending from a heat receiving surface other than portions not just above the cooling tube is directly bonded to the cooling tube. Remaining fibers are disposed so as to surround the cooling tube. The armour and the cooling tube are soldered using an active metal flux. With such procedures, high thermal load components for use in a thermonuclear reactor are formed, which are excellent in a heat removing characteristic and hardly causes defects such as crackings and peeling. (I.N.)

  7. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem......Low-power base stations such as e.g. Femto-cells are one of the candidates for high data rate provisioning in local areas, such as residences, apartment complexes, business offices and outdoor hotspot scenarios. Unfortunately, the benefits are not without new challenges in terms of interference...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  8. Solar bowl component efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hair, E.A.; Green, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory has published two volumes on the economic evaluation of various proposed configurations and plant sizes for the four solar thermal technologies. These are the latest in a series of publications sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) on plant and operational costs and are more complete in that they include calculations of electrical output. These latest Battelle volumes use the 1976 solar data from Barstow, Calif., and by calculating or estimating the energy conversion efficiency of each element in the process from sun to electricity predict the output and cost of electricity from different plant sizes for each of the four technologies. In this paper a comparison is presented of the component efficiencies developed by Battelle and those of the solar bowl at Crosbyton, Tex

  9. Does cognitive reserve shape cognitive decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmot, Michael G; Glymour, Maria; Sabia, Séverine; Kivimäki, Mika; Dugravot, Aline

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Cognitive reserve is associated with a lower risk of dementia but the extent to which it shapes cognitive aging trajectories remains unclear. Our objective is to examine the impact of three markers of reserve from different points in the lifecourse on cognitive function and decline in late adulthood. Methods Data are from 5234 men and 2220 women, mean age 56 years (standard deviation=6) at baseline, from the Whitehall II cohort study. Memory, reasoning, vocabulary, phonemic and semantic fluency were assessed three times over 10 years. Linear mixed models were used to assess the association between markers of reserve (height, education, and occupation) and cognitive decline, using the 5 cognitive tests and a global cognitive score composed of these tests. Results All three reserve measures were associated with baseline cognitive function, with strongest associations with occupation and the weakest with height. All cognitive functions except vocabulary declined over the 10 year follow-up period. On the global cognitive test, there was greater decline in the high occupation group (−0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.28, −0.26) compared to the intermediate (−0.23; 95% CI: −0.25, −0.22) and low groups (−0.21; 95% CI: −0.24, −0.19); p=0.001. The decline in reserve groups defined by education (p=0.82) and height (p=0.55) was similar. Interpretation Cognitive performance over the adult lifecourse was remarkably higher in the high reserve groups. However, rate of cognitive decline did not differ between reserve groups except occupation where there was some evidence of greater decline in the high occupation group. PMID:21563209

  10. ANALYSIS OF RELIABILITY OF NONRECTORABLE REDUNDANT POWER SYSTEMS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT COMMON FAILURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability Analysis of nonrestorable redundant power Systems of industrial plants and other consumers of electric energy was carried out. The main attention was paid to numbers failures influence, caused by failures of all elements of System due to one general reason. Noted the main possible reasons of common failures formation. Two main indicators of reliability of non-restorable systems are considered: average time of no-failure operation and mean probability of no-failure operation. Modeling of failures were carried out by mean of division of investigated system into two in-series connected subsystems, one of them indicated independent failures, but the other indicated common failures. Due to joined modeling of single and common failures resulting intensity of failures is the amount incompatible components: intensity statistically independent failures and intensity of common failures of elements and system in total.It is shown the influence of common failures of elements on average time of no-failure operation of system. There is built the scale of preference of systems according to criterion of  average time maximum of no-failure operation, depending on portion of common failures. It is noticed that such common failures don’t influence on the scale of preference, but  change intervals of time, determining the moments of systems failures and excepting them from the number of comparators. There were discussed two problems  of conditionally optimization of  systems’  reservation choice, taking into account their reliability and cost. The first problem is solved due to criterion of minimum cost of system providing mean probability of no-failure operation, the second problem is solved due to criterion of maximum of mean probability of no-failure operation with cost limitation of system.

  11. Component characterization and predictive modeling for green roof substrates optimized to adsorb P and improve runoff quality: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennett, Tyson S; Zheng, Youbin

    2017-12-14

    This review is a synthesis of the current knowledge regarding the effects of green roof substrate components and their retentive capacity for nutrients, particularly phosphorus (P). Substrates may behave as either sources or sinks of P depending on the components they are formulated from, and to date, the total P-adsorbing capacity of a substrate has not been quantified as the sum of the contributions of its components. Few direct links have been established among substrate components and their physicochemical characteristics that would affect P-retention. A survey of recent literature presented herein highlights the trends within individual component selection (clays and clay-like material, organics, conventional soil and sands, lightweight inorganics, and industrial wastes and synthetics) for those most common during substrate formulation internationally. Component selection will vary with respect to ease of sourcing component materials, cost of components, nutrient-retention capacity, and environmental sustainability. However, the number of distinct components considered for inclusion in green roof substrates continues to expand, as the desires of growers, material suppliers, researchers and industry stakeholders are incorporated into decision-making. Furthermore, current attempts to characterize the most often used substrate components are also presented whereby runoff quality is correlated to entire substrate performance. With the use of well-described characterization (constant capacitance model) and modeling techniques (the soil assemblage model), it is proposed that substrates optimized for P adsorption may be developed through careful selection of components with prior knowledge of their chemical properties, that may increase retention of P in plant-available forms, thereby reducing green roof fertilizer requirements and P losses in roof runoff. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Governing of common cause failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, H.W.

    1998-01-01

    Agreed strategy is to govern common cause failures by the application of diversity, to assure that the overall plant safety objectives are met even in the case that a common cause failure of a system with all redundant trains is assumed. The presented strategy aims on the application of functional diversity without the implementation of equipment diversity. In the focus are the design criteria which have to be met for the design of independent systems in such a way that the time-correlated failure of such independent systems according a common cause can be excluded deterministically. (author)

  13. Forming of Polymeric Tubular Micro-components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Yi; Zhao, Jie; Anyasodor, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    platform for the production of functional polymeric tubular micro-components. The chapter gives background on the current market and process development trends, followed by description of materials, process configuration, tool design and machine development for each processing technology as well...... as strategy for integration of the technologies and equipment into a common platform. Finally, potential applications of the technologies and facilities developed are highlighted....

  14. Raman active components of skin cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xu; Moy, Austin J; Nguyen, Hieu T. M.; Zhang, Jason; Fox, Matthew C.; Sebastian, Katherine R.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Markey, Mia K.; Tunnell, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) has shown great potential in noninvasive cancer screening. Statistically based algorithms, such as principal component analysis, are commonly employed to provide tissue classification; however, they are difficult to relate to the chemical and morphological basis of the spectroscopic features and underlying disease. As a result, we propose the first Raman biophysical model applied to in vivo skin cancer screening data. We expand upon previous models by utilizing in situ...

  15. SEAL: Common Core Libraries and Services for LHC Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Generowicz, J; Moneta, L; Roiser, S; Marino, M; Tuura, L A

    2003-01-01

    The CERN LHC experiments have begun the LHC Computing Grid project in 2001. One of the project's aims is to develop common software infrastructure based on a development vision shared by the participating experiments. The SEAL project will provide common foundation libraries, services and utilities identified by the project's architecture blueprint report. This requires a broad range of functionality that no individual package suitably covers. SEAL thus selects external and experiment-developed packages, integrates them in a coherent whole, develops new code for missing functionality, and provides support to the experiments. We describe the set of basic components identified by the LHC Computing Grid project and thought to be sufficient for development of higher level framework components and specializations. Examples of such components are a plug-in manager, an object dictionary, object whiteboards, an incident or event manager. We present the design and implementation of some of these components and the und...

  16. Verifying the correct composition of distributed components: Formalisation and Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Henrio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article provides formal definitions characterizing well-formed composition of components in order to guarantee their safe deployment and execution. Our work focuses on the structural aspects of component composition; it puts together most of the concepts common to many component models, but never formalized as a whole. Our formalization characterizes correct component architectures made of functional and non-functional aspects, both structured as component assemblies. Interceptor chains can be used for a safe and controlled interaction between the two aspects. Our well-formed components guarantee a set of properties ensuring that the deployed component system has a correct architecture and can run safely. Finally, those definitions constitute the formal basis for our Eclipse-based environment for the development and specification of component-based applications.

  17. Adolescents' theories of the commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance; Gallay, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from research on civic engagement and environmental commitment, we make a case for the processes inherent in how adolescents' ideas about the commons (those things that bind a polity together) develop. Engagement in the public realm with a plethora of perspectives and a goal of finding common ground is fundamental. Adolescents participate in the public realm through mini-polities (e.g., schools, community organizations). Practices in those settings can reinforce or challenge dominant political narratives. Special attention is given to the natural environment as a commons that transcends generations and to the opportunities in schools and in community partnerships that enable adolescents to realize their interdependence with nature and to author decisions about the commons.

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  19. Communication, timing, and common learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub; Stewart, C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 1 (2011), s. 230-247 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : common knowledge * learning * communication Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2011

  20. The illusion of common ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Harvey, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    When people talk about “common ground”, they invoke shared experiences, convictions, and emotions. In the language sciences, however, ‘common ground’ also has a technical sense. Many taking a representational view of language and cognition seek to explain that everyday feeling in terms of how...... isolated individuals “use” language to communicate. Autonomous cognitive agents are said to use words to communicate inner thoughts and experiences; in such a framework, ‘common ground’ describes a body of information that people allegedly share, hold common, and use to reason about how intentions have...... language to synergetic coordination between biological agents who draw on wordings to act within cultural ecosystems. Crucially, human coordination depends on, not just bodies, but also salient patterns of articulatory movement (‘wordings’). These rich patterns function as non-local resources that...

  1. Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)supports the PMA-209 Air Combat Electronics Program Office. CSIL also supports development, test, integration and life cycle...

  2. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States. The two most common types are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (the names ... You may need a procedure called surgical lymph node biopsy to check if the cancer has spread ...

  3. Facts about the Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different viruses. Rhinovirus is the most common cause, accounting for 10 to 40 percent of colds. Other ... Current Pathway Introduction Treatment Options Side Effects Emotional Challenges Life Planning Summary '; if (window.location.href.indexOf(" ...

  4. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  5. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  6. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pinson, Pierre; Morais, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their re......The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase...... dayahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors....

  7. Forest commons and local enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the inf...

  8. Sustainability of common pool resources

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepales...

  9. Right hemisphere role in cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Ian H

    2014-06-01

    High levels of education, occupational complexity, and/or premorbid intelligence are associated with lower levels of cognitive impairment than would be expected from a given brain pathology. This has been observed across a range of conditions including Alzheimer's disease (Roe et al., 2010), stroke (Ojala-Oksala et al., 2012), traumatic brain injury (Kesler et al., 2003), and penetrating brain injury (Grafman, 1986). This cluster of factors, which seemingly protect the brain from expressing symptoms of damage, has been termed "cognitive reserve" (Stern, 2012). The current review considers one possible neural network, which may contribute to cognitive reserve. Based on the evidence that the neurotransmitter, noradrenaline mediates cognitive reserve's protective effects (Robertson, 2013) this review identifies the neurocognitive correlates of noradrenergic (NA) activity. These involve a set of inter-related cognitive processes (arousal, sustained attention, response to novelty, and awareness) with a strongly right hemisphere, fronto-parietal localization, along with working memory, which is also strongly modulated by NA. It is proposed that this set of processes is one plausible candidate for partially mediating the protective effects of cognitive reserve. In addition to its biological effects on brain structure and function, NA function may also facilitate networks for arousal, novelty, attention, awareness, and working memory, which collectively provide for a set of additional, cognitive, mechanisms that help the brain adapt to age-related changes and disease. It is hypothesized that to the extent that the lateral surface of the right prefrontal lobe and/or the right inferior parietal lobe maintain structural (white and gray matter) and functional integrity and connectivity, cognitive reserve should benefit and behavioral expression of pathologic damage should thus be mitigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cerebral small vessel disease, cognitive reserve and cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Daniela; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz

    2015-11-01

    The concept of cognitive reserve describes differences between individuals in the ability to compensate age-related brain changes or pathology as a result of greater intellectual enrichment. Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a common age-related vascular disease of the brain associated with slowly accumulating tissue damage and represents a leading cause of functional loss, disability and cognitive decline in the elderly. The promotion of cognitive reserve might be a valuable possibility to moderate the negative impact of accumulating brain changes associated with CSVD on cognitive function and thus limit the functional consequences of CSVD. We here review existing studies investigating this topic in CSVD and provide conceptual considerations why future research is needed. Relevant studies were identified using the electronic databases PubMed and MEDLINE. Six studies including 7893 subjects were found that all focused on a single feature of CSVD only, i.e., white matter hyperintensities (WMH). We also included one study investigating 247 CADASIL patients. In general, they confirm that higher cognitive reserve (i.e., educational attainment) attenuates the negative impact of WMH on cognition. Further studies should attempt to replicate this association for all features of CSVD and to expand the concept to other areas of functional loss like disordered gait. Finally intervention studies will be needed to define when and how we can still increase our cognitive reserve and what kind and magnitude of protective effects this may offer.

  11. Forest commons and local enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2008-09-09

    This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the influence of a number of other factors such as user group size, subsistence, and commercial importance of forests, size of forest, and collective action for forest improvement activities is taken into account. Although several of the above factors have a statistically significant relationship to changes in the condition of forest commons, differences in levels of local enforcement strongly moderate their link with forest commons outcomes. The research, using data from diverse political, social, and ecological contexts, shows both the importance of enforcement to forest commons and some of the limits of forest governance through commons arrangements.

  12. Casuistry as common law morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    This article elaborates on the relation between ethical casuistry and common law reasoning. Despite the frequent talk of casuistry as common law morality, remarks on this issue largely remain at the purely metaphorical level. The article outlines and scrutinizes Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin's version of casuistry and its basic elements. Drawing lessons for casuistry from common law reasoning, it is argued that one generally has to be faithful to ethical paradigms. There are, however, limitations for the binding force of paradigms. The most important limitations--the possibilities of overruling and distinguishing paradigm norms--are similar in common law and in casuistry, or so it is argued. These limitations explain why casuistry is not necessarily overly conservative and conventional, which is one line of criticism to which casuists can now better respond. Another line of criticism has it that the very reasoning from case to case is extremely unclear in casuistry. I suggest a certain model of analogical reasoning to address this critique. All my suggestions to understand and to enhance casuistry make use of common law reasoning whilst remaining faithful to Jonsen and Toulmin's main ideas and commitments. Further developed along these lines, casuistry can appropriately be called "common law morality."

  13. Risk spreading, connectivity, and optimal reserve spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowes, Shane A; Connolly, Sean R

    2012-01-01

    Two important processes determining the dynamics of spatially structured populations are dispersal and the spatial covariance of demographic fluctuations. Spatially explicit approaches to conservation, such as reserve networks, must consider the tension between these two processes and reach a balance between distances near enough to maintain connectivity, but far enough to benefit from risk spreading. Here, we model this trade-off. We show how two measures of metapopulation persistence depend on the shape of the dispersal kernel and the shape of the distance decay in demographic covariance, and we consider the implications of this trade-off for reserve spacing. The relative rates of distance decay in dispersal and demographic covariance determine whether the long-run metapopulation growth rate, and quasi-extinction risk, peak for adjacent patches or intermediately spaced patches; two local maxima in metapopulation persistence are also possible. When dispersal itself fluctuates over time, the trade-off changes. Temporal variation in mean distance that propagules are dispersed (i.e., propagule advection) decreases metapopulation persistence and decreases the likelihood that persistence will peak for adjacent patches. Conversely, variation in diffusion (the extent of random spread around mean dispersal) increases metapopulation persistence overall and causes it to peak at shorter inter-patch distances. Thus, failure to consider temporal variation in dispersal processes increases the risk that reserve spacings will fail to meet the objective of ensuring metapopulation persistence. This study identifies two phenomena that receive relatively little attention in empirical work on reserve spacing, but that can qualitatively change the effectiveness of reserve spacing strategies: (1) the functional form of the distance decay in covariance among patch-specific demographic rates and (2) temporal variation in the shape of the dispersal kernel. The sensitivity of metapopulation

  14. Estimating Quartz Reserves Using Compositional Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Taboada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine spatial distribution and volume of four commercial quartz grades, namely, silicon metal, ferrosilicon, aggregate, and kaolin (depending on content in impurities in a quartz seam. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the reserves in the seam were determined from samples collected from outcrops, blasting operations, and exploratory drilling, and compositional kriging was used to calculate the volume and distribution of the reserves. A more accurate knowledge of the deposit ensures better mine planning, leading to higher profitability and an improved relationship with the environment.

  15. Teaching Principal Components Using Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Peter H; Arias, Andrea L; Fulton, Lawrence V

    2017-01-01

    Introducing principal components (PCs) to students is difficult. First, the matrix algebra and mathematical maximization lemmas are daunting, especially for students in the social and behavioral sciences. Second, the standard motivation involving variance maximization subject to unit length constraint does not directly connect to the "variance explained" interpretation. Third, the unit length and uncorrelatedness constraints of the standard motivation do not allow re-scaling or oblique rotations, which are common in practice. Instead, we propose to motivate the subject in terms of optimizing (weighted) average proportions of variance explained in the original variables; this approach may be more intuitive, and hence easier to understand because it links directly to the familiar "R-squared" statistic. It also removes the need for unit length and uncorrelatedness constraints, provides a direct interpretation of "variance explained," and provides a direct answer to the question of whether to use covariance-based or correlation-based PCs. Furthermore, the presentation can be made without matrix algebra or optimization proofs. Modern tools from data science, including heat maps and text mining, provide further help in the interpretation and application of PCs; examples are given. Together, these techniques may be used to revise currently used methods for teaching and learning PCs in the behavioral sciences.

  16. Optimization of the compressive strength of five-component-concrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents the report of an investigation carried out to optimize some mechanical properties of a five-component-concrete mix. Mound soil (MS), randomly selected from some habitats of a common tropical specie of termites from Iyeke-Ogba, Nigeria was investigated as a fifth component in concrete. The work ...

  17. Volatile components of fruits of Ligustrum lucidum Ait. stimulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... The fruits of Ligustrum lucidum Ait., (FLL), which contain rich volatile components, are commonly used as tonic for kidney ... proliferation and increased the ALP activity of rat calvarial osteoblasts which indicated that volatile components of .... Data were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. Statistical.

  18. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta: Model and forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.; Cook, T.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth is recognized as a major component of additions to reserves in most oil provinces around the world, particularly in mature provinces. It takes place as a result of the discovery of new pools/reservoirs and extensions of known pools within existing fields, improved knowledge of reservoirs over time leading to a change in estimates of original oil-in-place, and improvement in recovery factor through the application of new technology, such as enhanced oil recovery methods, horizontal/multilateral drilling, and 4D seismic. A reserve growth study was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada, with the following objectives: 1) evaluate historical oil reserve data in order to assess the potential for future reserve growth; 2) develop reserve growth models/ functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes; 3) study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters (for example, pool size, porosity, and oil gravity); and 4) compare reserve growth in oil pools and fields in Alberta with those from other large petroleum provinces around the world. The reported known recoverable oil exclusive of Athabasca oil sands in Alberta increased from 4.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) in 1960 to 17 BBO in 2005. Some of the pools that were included in the existing database were excluded from the present study for lack of adequate data. Therefore, the known recoverable oil increased from 4.2 to 13.9 BBO over the period from 1960 through 2005, with new discoveries contributing 3.7 BBO and reserve growth adding 6 BBO. This reserve growth took place mostly in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of known recoverable oil. Pools with light oil accounted for most of the total known oil volume, therefore reflecting the overall pool growth. Smaller pools, in contrast, shrank in their total recoverable volumes over the years. Pools with heavy oil (gravity less than 20o API) make up only a small share (3.8 percent) of the total recoverable oil; they showed a 23-fold growth compared to

  19. Radiation damage in components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Tomehachi

    1977-01-01

    The performance change of typical capacitors and resistors in electronic components by Co-60 γ-irradiation from the 1320 Ci source was examined in the range of 10 5 to 10 8 R. Specifically, the characteristic change during irradiation and the recovery after irradiation were continuously observed. The capacity change is +2.4% at maximum in ceramic and metallized paper capacitors, and -2.4% at maximum in mylar and paper capacitors. It is also +-0.4% at maximum in mica and polystyrene capacitors. Some of these capacitors showed the recovery of the capacity change, but the others did not. Dielectric loss varied by 15% at larger dose in some capacitors, and the recovery was not observed. While, the insulation resistance of the resistors of 10 15 Ω or more lowered to 10 13 Ω or less after 10 to 30 sec. irradiation, but recovered soon nearly to the initial values after irradiation was interrupted. The resistance change of carbon film resistors is about 0.2 to 2%, and recovered to the initial values in 100 hours after irradiation. The resistance change of composition resistors is large over the range of -13 to +35%, besides, no sign of recovery was seen. In carbon film resistors, the surface insulated type indicated far better results which are assumed to be caused by the selection of element materials and the forming of coating materials. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Control component structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    This invention provides a control component structure comprising: a spider having a plurality of arms, at least one spider bore formed in said plurality of arms, said spider bore including an enlarged recess and a small recess with an upright truncated conical section forming a transition from the enlarged recess to the small recess, and a burnable poison rod including a tube terminating in transverse end, a plug with a chamfered end that leads into a cylindrical portion, said cylindrical portion of the plug snugly fitting within the tube and terminating in a radially protruding shoulder which engages the transverse end of the tube to which it is welded, and a stem protruding in the longitudinal direction from the central portion of the shoulder having a longitudinal stem bore extending through about half of the length of the stem, at least part of the stem which defines the stem bore being fixed within the truncated conical section, the enlarged recess and the small recess of the spider by outward deformation of that part of the stem in order to releasably attach the rod to the spider, said stem being adapted to substantially reshape itself by movement of the rod in a longitudinal direction with respect to the spider bore, while maintaining the structural integrity of the poison rod and maintaining the structural integrity of the spider

  1. Magnesium for Crashworthy Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, T.; Easton, M.; Schmidt, R.

    Most applications of magnesium in automobiles are for nonstructural components. However, the light weight properties of magnesium make it attractive in structural applications where energy absorption in a crash is critical. Because most deformation in a crash occurs as bending rather than simple tension or compression, the advantages of magnesium are greater than anticipated simply from tensile strength to weight ratios. The increased thickness possible with magnesium strongly influences bending behavior and theoretical calculations suggest almost an order of magnitude greater energy absorption with magnesium compared to the same weight of steel. The strain rate sensitivity of steel is of concern for energy absorption. Mild steels exhibit a distinct yield point which increases with strain rate. At strain rates typical of vehicle impact, this can result in strain localization and poor energy absorption. Magnesium alloys with relatively low aluminum contents exhibit strain rate sensitivity, however, this is manifest as an increase in work hardening and tensile / yield ratio. This behavior suggests that the performance of magnesium alloys in terms of energy absorption actually improves at high strain rates.

  2. Transportation of Large Wind Components: A Permitting and Regulatory Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report summarizes permitting and regulatory issues associated with transporting wind turbine blades, towers, and nacelles as well as large transformers (wind components). These wind components are commonly categorized as oversized and overweight (OSOW) and require specific permit approvals from state and local jurisdictions. The report was developed based on a Quadrennial Energy Review (QER) recommendation on logistical requirements for the transportation of 'oversized or high-consequence energy materials, equipment, and components.'

  3. A Common Definition of the System Operators' Core Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    In this report a common definition of the system operator's core activities in the Nordic countries is identified and also a list of non-core activities is introduced. As a starting point the common tasks for system responsibility as identified by Nordel has been used for the work. The term TSO (Transmission System Operator) is employed as a common denominator in the report. It is found out that the TSOs carry out common core activities in the roles as a transmission operator, a system operator and a balance settlement responsible. The core activities for the TSO as a transmission network operator are: Maintain the adequate transmission system in the long run and network development plan on the national as well as on the Nordic level using sophisticated analysis and planning methods and tools. Plan the transmission network on the national as well as on the Nordic level utilising new investments, renewal and maintenance of existing network components so that the network is secure to operate and adequate transmission capacity is guaranteed. Aim at timely network expansions using enhanced information exchange between the Nordic TSOs, and on the national level between the TSO and distribution and regional network operators, large consumers and large producers. Secure the technical compatibility with networks across the border and within a country by establishing connection requirements on the national level and ensuring that the national requirements are compatible across the Nordic power system. The core activities for the TSO as a system operator are: Define common technical requirements for the secure system operation using common planning, operation, connection and data exchange procedures. Secure the system operation with the operational planning for the following year by using information exchange between TSOs enabling the TSOs to make the best possible forecast of the global grid situation in order to assess the flows in their network and the available

  4. Demand as Frequency-controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian Brandt; Østergaard, Jacob

    electric loads to provide frequency controlled primary reserves. The devices collected data from domestic households and industrial loads covering i.e. circulation pumps, electrical domestic heating, bottle coolers, a wastewater treatment plant etc., that have been analysed and used for the papers...

  5. 34 CFR 300.811 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 300.811 Section 300.811 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  6. 34 CFR 300.805 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 300.805 Section 300.805 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  7. Use of reserve substances by irradiated tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Tabares, Francisco; Perez Talavera, Susana

    1999-01-01

    The response of tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosun L.) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) to gamma radiation from 60 Co were investigated. The use of reserve substances by the tubers increased when the irradiation dose raise up to the level of GR10-20 and then decreased down to the values lower than the control non-irradiated tubers

  8. Diminished ovarian reserve in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Tuğrul Ayanoğlu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psoriasis is a multi-systemic chronic inflammatory skin disease. Previous data suggests that women with some chronic inflammatory diseases have diminished ovarian reserve. This study explores ovarian reserve in patients with psoriasis. Materials and methods: We prospectively analyzed 14 female patients with psoriasis and 35 healthy age and body mass index matched controls. An interview explored demographic characteristics, obstetrical history and menstrual characteristics. Psoriatic area severity index (PASI in patients was assessed. Estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, thyroid stimulating hormone and with gynecologic ultrasonography, ovarian volume and antral follicular count (AFC were measured in both study and control groups. These values were analyzed with changes of the PASI in the patient group. Results: Patients with psoriasis had significantly higher levels of FSH and FSH/LH ratio than healthy controls (p = 0.039, p = 0.005 respectively. AFC of psoriasis patients were significantly lower than healthy controls (p = 0.002.There were no significant difference among other hormone levels and ovarian volumes (p > 0.05. The hormone levels, ovarian volume and AFC were not correlated with PASI of the patients. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that patients with psoriasis may have diminished ovarian reserve. Keywords: Psoriasis, Ovarian reserve, Psoriatic area severity index, Antral follicular count, Follicle-stimulating hormone

  9. 49 CFR 236.533 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 236.533 Section 236.533 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  10. 49 CFR 236.704 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 236.704 Section 236.704 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  11. 49 CFR 236.561 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 236.561 Section 236.561 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  12. 49 CFR 236.530 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 236.530 Section 236.530 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  13. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

  14. Optimization of Marine Forces Reserve Equipment Redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    industry as an example. Bertrand and Bookbinder begin with a basic supply chain logistics model of a large warehouse supplying a number of retail...solutions, and perform fast sensitivity analysis on the competing objectives. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Optimization, Marine Forces Reserve, redistribution...reallocation, equipment supply , logistics 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 61 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY

  15. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  16. Clipboard: Unraveling the mystery of cognitive reserve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aging; Alzheimer's; bilingualism; cognitive reserve; dementia; Down's; education; enrichment; environment; learning; long term potentiation; LTP; memory; neuroepigenetics; plasticity ... Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London Alexandra House, 17-19 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, England ...

  17. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year

  18. 40 CFR 80.605 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.605 Section 80.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA...

  19. 40 CFR 80.609 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.609 Section 80.609 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA...

  20. 40 CFR 80.534 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.534 Section 80.534 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA...

  1. Study on Online Hotel Reservation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alleweldt, Frank; Tonner, Klaus; McDonald, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This study, conducted by Civic Consulting, looks at both pre-contractual and contractual matters concerning online hotel reservation systems, examines relevant Community rules, identifies gaps and, where needed, discusses possible policy options. Key conclusions The study shows that the impact of Community law on online hotel

  2. 10 CFR 51.99 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 51.99 Section 51.99 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental...

  3. 27 CFR 27.205 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 27.205 Section 27.205 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Requirements for Liquor Bottles...

  4. Your Money and the Federal Reserve System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, Minn.

    The booklet explores various roles which money has played throughout history and examines the relationship between money and the Federal Reserve System. The major objective is to increase understanding of the performance of various functions such as making money work as a medium of exchange and as a measure of value and of storing value for future…

  5. Mental Reservation and Military Testimony before Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Gordon R

    2008-01-01

    .... The cause for this apparent mental reservation on the part of military leaders can be found in their organizational bias and environmental influences, but the solution can be found in history. It is vital for the military to understand that a currency of truth is the most important contribution it can make to the civilian-military relationship.

  6. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) As projects age, the required reserve account level may be adjusted to meet anticipated “life-cycle...) Purpose. To meet the major capital expense needs of a housing project, borrowers must establish and... be deemed to contain surplus funds when the balance at the end of the housing project's fiscal year...

  7. 18 CFR 4.91 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 4.91 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT LICENSES, PERMITS, EXEMPTIONS, AND DETERMINATION OF PROJECT COSTS Exemption of Small Conduit Hydroelectric Facilities § 4.91 [Reserved] ...

  8. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB system is possible and that precautionary reserves consequently do not pose a necessary limit. We discuss various instances in which a FRFB system may expand credit without a prior increase in real savings. These facets all demonstrate why a fractional reserve banking system – even a free banking one – is inherently unstable, and incentivized to impose a stabilizing central bank. We find that at the root of our disagreements with Selgin lies a different approach to monetary theory. Selgin subscribes to the aggregative equation of exchange, which impedes him from seeing the microeconomic problems that the stabilization of “MV” by a FRFB system causes.

  9. 78 FR 66715 - Federal Reserve Bank Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... imputed costs and earn net income of $24.6 million, compared with the target of $4.2 million. Although the... initiatives, and to increase product revenue. 4.2014 Pricing--The following summarizes the Reserve Banks... Banks will discontinue the Choice Receiver program, which provides pricing incentives to those customers...

  10. 40 CFR 427.84 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 427.84 Section 427.84 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.84...

  11. 40 CFR 86.220-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.220-94 Section 86.220-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  12. 40 CFR 86.217-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.217-94 Section 86.217-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  13. 40 CFR 86.212-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.212-94 Section 86.212-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  14. 40 CFR 86.241-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.241-94 Section 86.241-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  15. 40 CFR 86.207-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.207-94 Section 86.207-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  16. 40 CFR 86.243-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.243-94 Section 86.243-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  17. 40 CFR 428.64 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 428.64 Section 428.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber...

  18. 40 CFR 86.210-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.210-94 Section 86.210-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  19. 40 CFR 86.245-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.245-94 Section 86.245-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  20. 40 CFR 86.225-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.225-94 Section 86.225-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...