surgery, or pregnancy . However, once a medical treatment provider determines that a soldier has a condition that does not appear to meet medical...801-7077, or TDD (202) 512-2537. Orders may be paid for using American Express, Discover Card , MasterCard, Visa, check, or money order. Call for
McKenzie, Wendy; Healy-Morrow, Isabel
...? Is there an overlap in organizational cultures, or does military leadership need to provide special attention for these unique soldiers? The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a deeper understanding of the overlap between civilian and military organizational culture can improve the psychological preparedness of Reserve Force soldiers who are mobilized for full-time military operations.
Williams, Alun G; Evans, Paul
The main objective of this research was to compare the materials handling ability, aerobic power, and body composition of fully trained Reserve and Regular male British Army soldiers (approximately 6-7 years of military experience). Twenty-one Reserve soldiers and 15 Regular soldiers completed fitness tests, including a maximal box lift to 1.45 m and a repetitive 22-kg box lift-and-carry test. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two groups in any parameter measured. The performance levels observed in these fully trained soldiers (maximal box lift approximately 63 kg, repetitive lift and carry approximately 34 repetitions) were broadly comparable to those reported previously for new recruits. The physical training performed by the Regular soldiers (both within and beyond their military service) and the Reserve soldiers (predominantly outside their military duties) seems to be of sufficient volume and intensity to maintain performance levels comparable with each other and equivalent new army recruits.
Lech, Marcel Lysgaard
War, armies and soldiers were omnipresent in the ancient Greek society, and thus these phenomena are equally present in the worlds of ancient Greek comedy. However, the comic outlook on war differs from Old to New Comedy. While the citizen soldier remains the norm, but mainly at periphery of Old ...
Binnendijk, Hans; Baranick, Michael J; Bell, Raymond E., Jr; Cordero, Gina; Duncan, Stephen M; Holshek, Christopher; Wentz, Larry
This volume contains four essays on various aspects of the Reserve Component. We publish it at a time when Reserves are serving overseas at historically high rates and when new missions like homeland security demand their attention...
President Lyndon Johnson refused to mobi- lize the RCs (MacCarley, 2012, pp. 38–39). 8 Active Component Responsibility in Reserve Component...ARFORGENwhitePaper1aug2011v3g2g.pdf Pernin, Christopher G., Dwayne M. Butler, Louay Constant, Lily Geyer, Duncan Long, Dan Madden, John E. Peters, James D. Powers
utilizing WMrcha’t Marine Academy gr , ,ates and Naval Reserve Officer Training Course S’(NROTC)/Student Incentive Progrim (SIP) graduates from state...personnel gr , atly enhances the mobilization and combat readiness of the Total Force. Several new medical programs were implemented by the Reserve components...Defense Force Chief of Joint Staff, Defense Command * Mendez, Honorable Enrique Jr., M.D. Norway Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs
of one day of basic pay for each unit training assembly ( UTA ) they attend. A UTA is generally a four-hour period of instruction, and there are usually...training assembly ( UTA ), one point for each day of annual training (AT), and one point for each day of active duty. Points can also be earned for completing... on the vitality of the reserve components, such as funding, equipment, and personnel policy. This report is designed to provide an overview of key
For more information on the Forces and Resources Policy Center, see http://www.rand.org/nsrd/ndri/centers/frp.html or contact the director (contact information is provided on the web page ). ...some combination of experiences, education, and personal development. Each has an extensive concept of develop- ment—how they define it, what ...policy. First, in what ways can the develop- ment of RC senior leaders be improved? Second, in what ways can reserve component leader development
During the Lebanon War (1982), many Israeli reserve soldiers disobeyed the command to join their units for service in Lebanon. Several of these soldiers were publicly labeled "sarvanim" meaning "refusers" in Hebrew, and were jailed in military prisons. Kohlberg's (1976) cognitive developmental approach to moralization, which…
Vest, Bonnie M; Hoopsick, Rachel A; Homish, D Lynn; Daws, Rachel C; Homish, Gregory G
The goal of this work was to examine associations among childhood trauma, combat trauma and substance use (alcohol problems, frequent heavy drinking (FHD), current cigarette smoking, and current/lifetime drug use) and the interaction effects of childhood trauma and combat exposure on those associations among National Guard/Reserve soldiers. Participants (n = 248) completed an electronic survey asking questions about their military experiences, physical and mental health, and substance use. Childhood trauma and combat exposure were examined jointly in regression models, controlling for age, marital satisfaction, and number of deployments. Childhood trauma was associated with current drug use (trend level, OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 0.97, 2.14; p = .072) in the main effect model; however, there was not a significant interaction with combat. Combat exposure had a significant interaction with childhood trauma on alcohol problems (b = -0.56, 95% CI: -1.12, -0.01; p = .048), FHD (b = -0.27, 95% CI: -0.47, -0.08; p = .007), and lifetime drug use (OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.04; p = .035). There were no associations with either of the trauma measures and current cigarette smoking. Our results demonstrate that childhood and combat trauma have differential effects on alcohol use, such that combat trauma may not add to the effect on alcohol use in those with greater child maltreatment, but may contribute to greater alcohol use among those with low child maltreatment. As expected, childhood and combat trauma had synergistic effects on lifetime drug use. Screening for multiple types of trauma prior to enlistment and/or deployment may help to identify at-risk individuals and allow time for early intervention to prevent future adverse outcomes.
...% Army National Guard 34% Army Reserve and 47% active component. In 2000 concerns were raised about dwindling numbers of doctors dentists physician assistants and nurse anesthetist officers in Army Reserve and Army National Guard...
Dental sealants , remineralization therapy, and chewing of xylitol gum are effective for preventing and reversing early signs of dental decay. The...Improving Medical and Dental Readiness in the Reserve Components A s an integral part of the U.S. military, the reserve components (RCs) are...limit their ability to carry out their duties, whether in garrison or deployed. Medically ready reservists require less medical and dental support
Traditional Part-Time Soldiers C2 Command and Control METL Mission Essential Task List CEH Certified Ethical Hacker MI Guard’s Cyber Backbone Network CMF...16 RC Sources and Resourcing Authorities (12301-12304) .......................................................... 16 End...terrorism and it received the highest priority for allocation of intelligence resources . In 2013, the Director National Intelligence (DNI) identified
In Holz, R., Hiller , J., & McFann, H. (Eds.) Determinants of Effective Unit Performance. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the...Functions Critical to Combat Operations. In Holz, R., Hiller , J., & McFann, H. (Eds.) Determinants of Effective Unit Performance. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army...throughout mobilization for both soldiers and officers. Table 3-3. 1Previous Mobilization Arrangements and Nespondenls t Eva !.to-O O - Well Their
Mynster Christensen, Maya
The thesis is an inquiry into what is at stake for a surplus population of militia soldiers in the aftermaths of the civil war in Sierra Leone. The analysis takes its point of departure in how militarised networks are transformed and gradualy morph into new constellations of soldiering. The central......, or in the margins of official political economies. Rather, shadow soldiering is a phenomenon that is becoming increasingly central in the context of security outsourcing and militarisation in a global economy....
..., satisfaction with aspects of Guard and Reserve life, and other quality of life issues. Together with the 1999 Active Duty Surveys of Members and Spouses, the RCS provide a comprehensive picture of the Total Force...
.... These include the active associate, reserve associate, and blended unit concepts. Finally, it provides a recommendation as to which concept will best meet the future warfighting needs of the Air Force.
Components, it has a proven record of success in flying the same operational mission.28 The increased crew ratio maximizes aircraft utilization ...is not a cookie cutter approach. The Integrated Wing cannot be instituted at all bases due to the complex associations, nor is it supposed to
Heavy Equipment Truck UH-1 Helicopter AH-1 Attack Helicopter PVS-5 Night Vision Goggles Army Reserve Dolly Sets Yard Truck Maintenance Contact...border collie instead of a propane canon, and agri- cultural outsourcing with 4-H sheep grazing. The Marine Corps Reserve continues to increase
As community colleges welcome an influx of veterans returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan, administrators must focus on helping these soldiers--many who are pursuing higher education for the first time--obtain the knowledge and skills necessary to thrive in a changing economy. The process starts the moment these men and women set foot on…
Mynster Christensen, Maya
question the thesis pursues is how the processes of mobilisation connecting these constellations are facilitated, and how the constellations are constituted in the intersection between local and global formations. Shadow soldiering, it is argued, is not a phenomenon existing in parallel with...
harassment and discrimination within the Reserve components. This overview report discusses findings from the 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity...developed for the 1996 Equal Opportunity Survey (1996 EOS). The 1996 EOS provided estimates of racial/ethnic-related harassment and discrimination ...Perceived Undue Punishment (2 Items) •Providers/Authorities Discrimination (3 Items) 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Reserve Component
The 2004 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members was designed to both estimate the level of sexual harassment and provide information on a variety of consequences of sexual harassment...
capability to estimate the historic impact of changes in economic conditions on the flows of labor into, between, and out of the Air Force active...C O R P O R A T I O N Research Report A Methodology for Modeling the Flow of Military Personnel Across Air Force Active and Reserve Components...or considered about the effect that those policies might have on personnel flows into and out of other components. The degree to which this is
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER) in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)....
The Reserve Component Automation System (RCAS) is a Wide Area/Local Area Network system designed to provide automation support for the Reserve Components' mobilization management and sustaining-base operations...
Alipour, Houman; Goldust, Mohamad
Hypertension exerts a subtle impact on the brain that is revealed by diminished cognitive function. This study aimed at evaluating the association between blood pressure components and cognitive functions and cognitive reserve. In this cross-sectional study, 500 subjects from general population were evaluated. All neuropsychological tests were negatively associated with age; memory and executive function were also positively related with education. The hypertensives (HT) were less efficient than the normotensives (NT) in the test of memory with interference at 10 s (MI-10) (-32%, p = 0.043), clock drawing test (CLOX) (-26%, p cognitive reserve index (CRI) was 8% lower in the HT (p = 0.04) and was predicted by higher pulse BP (OR 0.86, p cognition, higher values of systolic BP being associated to impaired cognitive function.
Full Text Available The part of geological component of the natural environment in the formation of Natural Reserve Fund of Ukraine, the historical aspects of the origin and development of the geological heritage, as an important part of the environment, as well as the problem of acceptance geodiversity as well as the conservation of biodiversity. It was established that during the long history in countries not only in Europe but also in the world, formed biodiversity strategy in default or unwilling recognition of the need to preserve geodiversity. Underestimating abiotic factors in the development programs of the European environmental network Natura-2000 and EECONET has led to the need to develop special programs and initiatives in the conservation of the lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. The basic stages of historical development problems of preservation of geological heritage in Ukraine and the world. It is determined that in Ukraine was established May 21, 1910 the first in Russia (which is then part Khortyts'ke Society for Nature Conservation. The Society, based on the initiative of of natural science teachers P.P. Вouzouk, had the goal of nature conservation within the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms of nature, and it was spelled out in the Charter of of society. A significant shift towards awareness of the importance of the geological component in the formation of natural reserve fund was effective collaboration with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources in the Dnipropetrovsk region on creation of new protected areas. When conducting a field and office work on reserving areas for new items Natural Heritage, the first fully studied geological and geomorphological structure of these areas. Moreover, the research facility in an unprecedented short time actually bequeathed, that have approved status of natural monuments, landscape reserves and so on.
Vanneman, Megan E; Harris, Alex H S; Chen, Cheng; Adams, Rachel Sayko; Williams, Thomas V; Larson, Mary Jo
Approximately three to six months after returning from deployment, military service members complete the Post-Deployment Health Reassessment (PDHRA), which includes screens for alcohol misuse, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To determine whether Army Reserve Component (RC) members (Army National Guard and Army Reserve) with positive screening scores on the PDHRA receive needed care, the investigators examined the association between positive scores and enrollment and utilization of care ("linkage") in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), as well as rescreening scores, diagnosis, and behavioral treatment in VHA. Mixed-effects regression models were used to predict linkage to VHA within six months after RC members (N=73,164) completed the PDHRA, with alcohol misuse, depression, and PTSD screen scores as key independent variables. Regression models were stratified by gender and National Guard versus Reserve status. Among those who linked to VHA (N=25,168), screening scores and subsequent diagnosis and treatment in VHA were also examined. Army RC members with positive PTSD and depression screening scores were more likely than those with negative screens to link to VHA, and most (54%-84%) received VHA treatment once diagnosed. Positive screens for alcohol misuse were associated with linkage to VHA for men but not for women, and treatment rates for alcohol use disorders were relatively low (0%-25%) for both men and women diagnosed as having an alcohol use disorder. The finding that Army RC members with greater indications of behavioral health problems linked to VHA is encouraging. However, more outreach and treatment engagement strategies could be directed to those with alcohol use disorder, particularly women.
Reserve Component.”91 While this is a step toward Total Force integration , there are certain limitations. One of the most significant disadvantages to...AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY TOTAL FORCE INTEGRATION : PROVIDING STABILITY FOR CITIZEN SOLDIERS IN AN EVER...CHANGING AIR FORCE by Patricia M. Adams, Major, USAFR A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation
Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn
the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased......Using data from an occupational medical health surveillance program, we studied the associations between mental stressors and social support and the two outcome measures postdeployment psychological distress and multiple physical symptoms among Danish soldiers deployed to Iraq. The study was cross......-sectional and questionnaire-based with soldiers returning from the mission as the target group. Witnessing atrocities, fear of being physically harmed, feeling of insecurity, feeling of meaninglessness, and having been in touch with prisoners were associated with both outcome measures. In conclusion, our findings support...
Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn
Using data from an occupational medical health surveillance program, we studied the associations between mental stressors and social support and the two outcome measures postdeployment psychological distress and multiple physical symptoms among Danish soldiers deployed to Iraq. The study was cross......-sectional and questionnaire-based with soldiers returning from the mission as the target group. Witnessing atrocities, fear of being physically harmed, feeling of insecurity, feeling of meaninglessness, and having been in touch with prisoners were associated with both outcome measures. In conclusion, our findings support...... the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased...
N. Ja. Rudik-Leuska
Full Text Available Maintenance of biological diversity is the main task of modern biology. At the legislative level, Ukraine has pledged its support in ratifying the "Convention on the conservation of biological diversity." As part of the implementation of environmental policy in Ukraine preservation of rare fish fauna component is the most problematic aspect. The basic conservation lists acting in Ukraine are: Red List of threatened animals of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Ukrainian Red Book, Annex III of the "Convention on the Protection of wildlife and natural habitats", the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES, Washington, 1973. On the territory of Sula Bay located two objects of nature reserve fund - a landscape national reserve "Sulinsky" and National Park "Nizhnesulsky" that emphasizes the importance of this area for fish fauna reproduction. Its territory are spawning areas for almost all lower and middle parts of the Kremenchuk reservoir, ensuring more than half of total commercial catch of the Dnieper cascade. The article describes the species composition of the fish fauna, introduced in protected lists of different levels. The existence of seven such species was established. They belong to four families: four species - for cyprinids and one each - to sturgeon, loaches and catfishes. But we must remember that the priority activities should concern species with the highest conservation status. At the same time, four of them are only protected by Annex III of the "Convention on the Protection of wildlife and natural habitats" as poorly studied. These species require a more thorough study and not necessarily threatened with extinction. Remaining three species are under a real danger of extinction and are protected by the IUCN Red List and Ukrainian Red Book. Starlet also protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES. Environmental
Juracek, Kyle E.
The availability of adequate water to meet the present (2017) and future needs of humans, fish, and wildlife is a fundamental issue for the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation in northeast Kansas. Because Soldier Creek flows through the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Reservation, it is an important tribal resource. An understanding of historical Soldier Creek streamflow conditions is required for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages along Soldier Creek were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends by Juracek (2017). Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to compute annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow. Results of the assessment are summarized in this fact sheet.
Our primary objective was to determine whether a valid need exists for Naval Reserve units and non-unit Reserve personnel who are not assigned to meet the needs of anticipated regional contingencies...
...). HRSAP is designed to measure the attitudes and opinions of the entire DoD community--Active and Reserve Service members, their families and DoD civilian--on the full range of personnel issues...
.... The 2004 WGRR utilized both modes of administration-the Web as well as paper-and-pencil and was designed to document the extent to which Reserve members report experiencing unwanted, uninvited sexual...
acquisition processes into a single concept known as Soldier as a System (SaaS). This research paper looks at the creation of SaaS, what SaaS means, current SaaS initiatives, and what SaaS actions still need to be completed.
components and between Services built the foundation of trust and teamwork necessary to prosecute the campaign. In terms of operational communities...integration efforts were cultural, based on outdated organizational practices and attitudes . D. Conclusion In this chapter, IDA looked at ARC...concern with respect to professionalism and discipline were of three types. The first was discussed previously: the difference in attitude toward
Full Text Available Background: Corynebacterial infection is a common condition in soldiers. Pitted keratolysis (PK, a bacterial infection confined to the plantar stratum corneum, does not severely impede patient activity but can be unpleasant and embarrassing because of its ‘‘rotten’’ odor. The incidence of PK in soldiers has been reported to be between 1,5% and 77.1%. Erythrasma is a superficial infection caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum and affects the major skin folds and the interdigital regions of the feet. It is characterized by erythematous, brown, scaly patches and maceration, and exhibits coral-red fluorescence under Wood light. Trichomycosis axillaris (TMA is caused by the Corynebacterium tenuis. Patients affected by trichomycosis axillaris present with complaints of a disagreeable underarm odor and a history of hyperhidrosis and poor hygiene. Examination reveals the underarm hair to be coated with black, yellow-white or reddish deposits.Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency corynebacterium triad in soldiers (pitted keratolysis, erythrasma, trichomycosis axillarisMethods: The study involved 1694 men, soldiers in age about 23 years, (in period 5 months (-8-12.2008. 103 persons, whose dermatologic symptoms/changes were analysed, were qualified for the research. Reconnaissance put on base of characteristic clinical sign and under Wood light.Results: Incidence of PK observed at 103 patients (which make up 6,08% of 1694 soldiers. EA diagnosed at 15 soldiers (14,56% of 103 patients, and TMA was diagnosed of 3 patients (2,91% of 103 patients. The coexistence are summarized as follows: erythrasma and PK; 15 of 103 patients (14,56%, TMA and PK in 3 of 103 patients (2,91%. The coexistence of rythrasma, TMA, and PK was noted in 1 patients (0,97%.Conclusions: Corynebacterial infection is a common condition in soldiers. In most cases/most often development of PK is observed. Our results demonstrate that either erythrasma or TMA
The TRICARE Dental Program covers the following services: • exams, cleanings, fluorides, sealants , and x-rays, • fillings, including white fillings...establish that programs will be in place to support the medical and dental readiness of Reserve Component (RC) service members so they comply with... dental care to RC service members for all wounds, illnesses, and injuries incurred or aggravated in the line of duty until they have recovered. Reserve
v L.L-r ,,_..., Approved for publ ic release; d.istribulion unlimited For Open Publication MAY_ z 0 20\\3 8 9 ffiee ~\\’ t; esl :.lrity RevieW...600 b. Teaches that sexual harassment reduces the cohesion and effectiveness of my Reserve...618 b. Teaches that the consumption of alcohol may increase the likelihood of sexual assault
Reserve, 1984), 17. 18Richard W. Stewart, American Military History, CMH Publication, 2nd ed., (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2009-2010...American Military History. CMH Pub, 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2009-2010. Stultz, Jack. Memorandum Dated 17 January
associated attitudinal and psychographic variables. The attitudinal differences among the segments suggest that marketing strategies targeted to specific...Section 4) C ~. Demographic segmentation of the PS samples allows for identifica- tion of specific market groups with high propensity for Guard/ Reserve...programs and target them to the market groups in which they are likely to have the greatest appeal. 0 PS Sample Segments Characteristics The PS sample
Full Text Available Insulin homeostasis in pancreatic β cells is now recognized as a critical element in the progression of obesity and type II diabetes (T2D. Proteins that interact with insulin to direct its sequential synthesis, folding, trafficking, and packaging into reserve granules in order to manage release in response to elevated glucose remain largely unknown. Using a conformation-based approach combined with mass spectrometry, we have generated the insulin biosynthetic interaction network (insulin BIN, a proteomic roadmap in the β cell that describes the sequential interacting partners of insulin along the secretory axis. The insulin BIN revealed an abundant C2 domain-containing transmembrane protein 24 (TMEM24 that manages glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from a reserve pool of granules, a critical event impaired in patients with T2D. The identification of TMEM24 in the context of a comprehensive set of sequential insulin-binding partners provides a molecular description of the insulin secretory pathway in β cells.
2004. 27 Soldier System Power Sources Final Project Report 23. Z. Jiang, R. Dougal, "Multiobjective MPPT /Charging Controller for Standalone PV Power...composed variously of batteries, fuel cells, and super capacitors, it developed control al- gorithms for those hybrid power sources, it assessed the...coupling, this model can control signal dependent source models. * Reference mission scenarios and test beds. A probabilistic load profile generator was
prioritized many attributes related to creating conditions conducive to quality sleep . This includes bed type (the overall most important attribute...optimal sleep conditions. Overall, dinner was the most important meal of the day in terms of Soldier preferences for having freshly cooked, non-ration...TECHNICAL REPORT AD ________________ NATICK/TR-16/022 SOLDIER QUALITY OF LIFE
Pikkel, Yoav Y; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Eliahou, Ruth; Honig, Asaf
Meningitis and meningoencephalitis pose major risks of morbidity and mortality. To describe 20 years of experience treating infections of the central nervous system in Israel Defense Force (IDF) soldiers, including the common presentations, pathogens and sequelae, and to identify risk groups among soldiers. All soldiers who were admitted to the Hadassah University Medical Center (both campuses: Ein Kerem and Mt. Scopus) due to meningitis and meningoencephalitis from January 1993 to January 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, laboratory and radiologic data were reviewed from their hospital and army medical corps files. Attention was given to patients' military job description, i.e., combat vs. non-combat soldier, soldiers in training, and medical personnel. We identified 97 cases of suspected meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Six were mistakenly filed and these patients were found to have other disorders. Four soldiers were diagnosed with epidural abscess and five with meningitis due to non-infectious in flammatory diseases. Eighty-two soldiers in active and reserve duty had infectious meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Of these, 46 (56.1%) were combat soldiers and 31 (37.8%) non-combat; 20 (29.2%) were soldiers in training, 10 (12.2%) were training staff and 8 (9.8%) were medical staff. The main pathogens were enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus an d Neisseria meningitidis. In our series, soldiers in training, combat soldiers and medical personnel had meningitis and meningoencephalitis more than other soldiers. Enteroviruses are highly infectious pathogens and can cause outbreaks. N. meningitidis among IDF soldiers is still a concern. Early and aggressive treatment with steroids should be considered especially in robust meningoencephalitis cases.
Almeida, Camilla S; Cristaldo, Paulo F; Florencio, Daniela F; Cruz, Nayara G; Santos, Abraão A; Oliveira, Alexandre P; Santana, Alisson S; Ribeiro, Efrem J M; Lima, Ana P S; Bacci, Leandro; Araújo, Ana P A
A range of behavioural strategies and sensory abilities allows animals to minimize costs involved in food search. By building a network of tunnels and presenting a large number of soldiers (i.e., trophically dependent individuals), Nasutitermes spp. termites feature behaviours that imply additional costs during this process. Here we evaluated N. aff. coxipoensis foraging strategies focusing on the role of soldiers during foraging. Field experiments were carried out via nests transplantation to dune areas, and laboratory experiments evaluated termite responses to sternal gland chemical signals from workers and soldiers. N. aff. coxipoensis presented primarily nocturnal foraging. Soldiers typically initiated foraging; however, in established trails, the number of workers was always higher than that of soldiers. The number of trails remained constant over time, while the number of tunnels increased linearly over time. A higher proportion of tunnels originated in surrounding areas than directly from the nests. At observation points with tunnels, there were more stationary than walking soldiers; the opposite was true at observation points without tunnels. In mixed groups, the workers chose to follow soldier chemical signals, and in these groups, soldiers were the first to follow trails. Our results allowed us to identify a not common foraging strategy in termite species; which included the establishment of trails followed by construction of tunnels. Such foraging strategies occur predominantly at night and soldiers play a key role in the foraging process. This foraging strategy reported here seems to be employed to optimize energetic gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the prevalence of skin diseases among soldiers who were assigned duties in Kahramanmaras, a province of east Mediterranean region of Turkey. One hundred eighty-eight soldiers were assessed for skin diseases by a complete dermatological examination and the findings were recorded to a form. Apart from the low number of older ones, the soldiers were of 20–22 years. The diagnosis of superficial fungal infections was made by the use of potassium hydroxide preparations in addition to clinical appearance. On completion of the study period, the data were evaluated, and patients were grouped. Pitted keratolysis was the primary dermatologic disease in 34.5% of the soldiers, 29.2% were diagnosed with oral candidiasis, and 25.5% suffered from tinea pedis. Among the soldiers suffering from a cutaneous disease, dyshidrotic eczema (18.6%, intertrigo (excluding candidal intertrigo (17%, acne (17%, seborrheic dermatitis (14.9%, plantar hyperkeratosis (14.3%, contact dermatitis (13.8%, and folliculitis (12.2% were the other most frequent dermatoses. Other less frequent dermatoses were asteatotic eczema, callus, onychomycosis, traumatic onychodystrophy, and so on. We conclude that the prevalence of skin diseases in soldiers is very high and is one of the major public health problems that have a significant burden on our nation.
PHYSICAL FITNESS SOLDIER READINESS INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS FEEDBACK PSYCHOLOGY ARMY PERSONNEL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY MORALS(SOCIAL... PSYCHOLOGY ) STRESSORS MOTIVATION GROUP DYNAMICS BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES CONFLICT( PSYCHOLOGY ) U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development...during a mission? • What psychological states, traits, and behaviors are associated with SE aspects of Soldier Readiness? • What training practices
Lieberman, Harris R; Stavinoha, Trisha; McGraw, Susan; White, Alan; Hadden, Louise; Marriott, Bernadette P
Eighty-percent of the US adult population regularly consumes caffeine, but limited information is available on the extent and patterns of use. Caffeine use is a public health issue and its risks and benefits are regularly considered in scientific literature and the lay media. Recently, new caffeine-containing products have been introduced and are widely available on Army bases and are added to rations to maintain cognitive performance. This study surveyed caffeine consumption and demographic characteristics in 990 US Army soldiers. Data were weighted by age, sex, rank, and Special Forces status. Total caffeine intake and intake from specific products were estimated. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between caffeine use and soldier demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Eighty-two percent of soldiers consumed caffeine at least once a week. Mean daily caffeine consumption was 285 mg/day (347 mg/day among regular caffeine consumers). Male soldiers consumed, on average, 303 mg/day and females 163 mg/day (regular consumers: 365 mg/day for male soldiers, 216 mg/day for female soldiers). Coffee was the main source of caffeine intake. Among young males, energy drinks were the largest source of caffeine intake, but their intake was not greater than older males. Regression analysis indicated an association of higher caffeine intake with male sex, white race, and tobacco use (Pcaffeine in levels accepted as safe, but some consume greater quantities than recommended, although definitive information on safe upper limits of caffeine intake is not available. Labels of caffeine-containing products should provide caffeine content so individuals can make informed decisions. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
separate pieces of prototype equipment. The sights were good, but the visor was so onerous that the soldiers forgot to think about the benefits of the...don’t change it. 21. Did your LOAD BEARING EQUIPMi1 (pack) cause any problems? Yes 7 No 3 How should it be cianged? Explain Back and knee; like ALIC
In the Autumn of 1996, consumers and Members of Congress from the Northeast expressed concern about high prices for heating oil and historically low levels of inventories. Some Members of Congress advocated building a Federal inventory of heating oil as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Regional reserves are authorized as part of the SPR for import dependent regions by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. In response, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed a series of studies related to heating fuels, including a study of the desirability, feasibility, and cost of creating a Federal reserve containing distillate fuel. This report documents that study.
.... To be more effective as commanders and leaders, reserve officers need to achieve parity with active duty officers in rank and command selection through education, leadership experiences, and training opportunities...
Nine appendices to the main report are included in this volume. They are: Northeastern US distillate supply systems; New England fuel oil storage capacities and inventories; Characteristics of the northeast natural gas market; Documentation of statistical models and calculation of benefits; Regional product reserve study; Other countries` experience with refined product storage; Global refining supply demand appraisal; Summary of federal authorities relevant to the establishment of petroleum product reserves; Product stability and turnover requirements.
Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund
have been designed by the soldiers and their families, memorialize soldiers as professionals with a military belonging as well as persons with numerous social attachments. And they most directly address the war, violence, and suffering that the emergence of a ‘war-fighting nation’ and a ‘warrior......This article takes a point of departure in Denmark’s decision to use the armed forces as a tool of foreign policy, even when this implies deployment to regions where combat and casualties must be expected. Since war, combat, and violence contradict traditional self-understandings of being Danish....... All memorials, I argue, relate to a recent public discourse about the ‘war-fighting nation’ and the ‘warrior generation’. The national monument eschews references to war and violence to produce a national narrative focusing on ‘effort’ as the core collective value. One grassroots memorial subtly...
lower 9 or lowr 28 or lowr 24 or lower High enployrrert index 8 or higher 10 or higher 29 or higher 25 or higher Socio-Econatic Irsdex:2) Low, socia ...learn about the Guard/Reserve or of the efforts initiated by others (for example, friends, media , etc.). Their direct experiences will largely be limited
...) has conducted research in using virtual environments (VE) to train dismounted soldiers. While showing that some dismounted soldiers skills can be trained in VE, the research has also identified problems in using VE for soldier training...
Hanus, Robert; Šobotník, Jan; Čížek, Lukáš
Roč. 52, - (2005), 357-359 ISSN 0020-1812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/2146 Grant - others:NSF(US) DEB-97-07928; NSF(US) DEB-02-11591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termite soldier * egg transport Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.618, year: 2005
8217Reserve Se rv i ce r’qu i r os tearlwork, and gregariou people are more, at tra cte -d to it th is fare. O tilel - tendency toward gregariousnes-, Was...Fishing l( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 9( f. Gardening l() 2( )3( )4( ) 9( g. Watching a football garre l( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 9( h. Reading about medicine 1( ) 2( ) 3...Fishing 1( ) 2( ) 3k ) 4( ) R( f. Gardening 1( ) 2() 3( ) 4( ) 9( )-41 g. Watching a football gam 1( 2( 3( ) 4( ) 9( )-L2 h. Reading about medicine 1’) 2
children were killed in armed conflicts" in the ten years following the end of the Cold. War (5). While such statistics are ... child soldiers, i.e., the roles of parents, if alive, relatives, school principals and teachers ...... situation is responsible for the desertion of rehabilitation camps by child soldiers at the slightest opportunity, to ...
The duration and intensity of the fighting, the soldiers' difficult daily living conditions and the high number of men involved in the First World War resulted in the appearance of specific mental disorders for some soldiers. At first considered to be faking their symptoms, they were later able to be diagnosed and treated thanks to psychiatrists' interest in the condition.
Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh
Recent research in military sociology has shown that in addition to their strong peer motivation modern soldiers are oriented toward contributing to society. It has not, however, been tested how soldier motivation differs from the motivation of other citizens in this respect. In this paper......, by means of public service motivation, a concept developed within the public administration literature, we compare soldier and civilian motivation. The contribution of this paper is an analysis of whether and how Danish combat soldiers differs from other Danes in regard to public service motivation? Using...... to the representativity of the military. If soldiers are less empathetic than other citizens, it might amplify differences between armed forces and society, making the individual’s transition from the one to the other even more difficult....
game allows the Soldier to rule a remote island during the Cold War. The Soldier takes on the role of “El Presidente ” and must manage the island’s...Soldiers try to meet the expectations of the population in the games Tropico 3 and PeaceMaker. Soldiers play the role of “El Presidente ” and must
Askew, Graham N; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E
In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (C(met)) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. C(met) for locomotion in armour was 2.1-2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with C(met) for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles.
Chisholm, Shelley A
... in sustaining personnel readiness while supporting on going operations. In response to meeting these personnel readiness concerns, the Army Reserve will require the call-up of Soldiers currently serving in the IRR...
Full Text Available The story of child soldiers in the Western imagination is a story of symbolic reversals. Where the image of the child soldier once denoted public virtue and the nobility of sacrifice, it now stands for virtually everything that is wrong with war. Children were frequently present in the military through much of the 19th century (Aries 1962, p. 193. But by the middle of the 19th century, most Western nations had begun to reduce or eliminate the presence of children in their armed forces. The change was slow and erratic, however, so that even during World War I the heroic and patriotic child soldier, typically a boy sailor or soldier, remained a central image in the ideology of war and conflict (Conley 2009.
Knerr, Bruce W
A study was conducted to document the need for immersive dismounted virtual Soldier and leader training and the available research evidence regarding the effectiveness of virtual training for training...
Flanagan, Stephen C; Kotwal, Russ S; Forsten, Robert D
Protracted use of stressors during military training courses does not necessarily enhance a Soldier?s ability to regulate stress on the battlefield. Extensive stress during training can be a contributing factor to suboptimal neurologic and overall long-term health. Prolonged high-stress military training programs, as well as extended duration combat deployments, should be comprehensively scrutinized for opportunities to preserve health and increase combat effectiveness. Contemporary research in neuroscience and psychology can provide insight into training techniques that can be used to control stress and optimize performance in combat. Physical fitness training programs can elevate the stress threshold. Extensive situational training can also inoculate Soldiers to specific combat stressors. Training methods such as these will enable Soldiers to achieve higher levels of performance while under enemy fire and are encouraged for units deploying to combat. combat stress, military training, military deployment, physical training, post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep deprivation, stress inoculation training. 2012.
2 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0152 TITLE: Soldier Mental Fitness Psychological Construct Development PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael A...AND SUBTITLE Soldier Mental Fitness Psychological Construct Development Solider Mental Fitness Psychological Construct Development Solider Mental...Fitness Psychological Construct Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael A. Pickering 5d
Gunderson, C H
Based on improvement in our understanding of the prognosis of young adults with new onset seizures, and cumulative experience with the rules in effect for the last 30 years, a substantial change in the regulations affecting the fitness and profiling of these soldiers has been made. In general, these liberalize retention and profiling, set limits on the duration of trials of duty, provide for fitness determinations in soldiers with pseudo-seizures, and specify when neurologic consultation is required.
Cotton, Simon L.; Scanlon, W.G.; Madahar, Bhopinder K.
Mobile ad hoc networking of dismounted combat personnel is expected to play an important role in the future of network-centric operations. High-speed, short-range, soldier-to-soldier wireless communications will be required to relay information on situational awareness, tactical instructions, and
Seligman, Martin E P; Fowler, Raymond D
Psychology responded to the national needs in World War I and World War II and was itself transformed. National need calls a third time: unprecedented levels of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, suicide, and anxiety along with a need for a resilient Army capable of meeting the persistent warfare of the foreseeable future. As a large part of the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program, positive psychology is meeting this need with new tests, with new fitness courses, and with resilience training. These developments may transform the practice of psychology and psychology's relation to medicine and education. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Li, Wu; Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Yanlin
Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220.71 mL/g VS(added) by anaerobic digestion. Besides, 3.17 g of biodiesel was produced from grease after inoculating black soldier fly larvae into 400 g biogas residue. Meanwhile, the results showed that the addition of black soldier fly larvae could be effective for the degradation of lignocellulose and the accumulation of grease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McClung, James P; Scrimgeour, Angus G
.... This review highlights the importance of adequate zinc nutrition to soldiers and discusses the potential benefits of supplemental zinc to protect soldiers against a number of diseases currently affecting them, including diarrhea, respiratory diseases, malaria, and leishmaniasis.
Today's world is used to all sorts of inter-group violent conflicts, but definitely not the type in the post military Nigeria where soldiers and policemen fatally combat each other; soldiers claiming superiority over policemen who, in turn, want to seize every opportunity to act that in a democracy, they, no longer the soldiers, are ...
The development of a successful exoskeleton for human performance augmentation (EHPA) will require a multi-disciplinary systems approach based upon sound biomechanics, power generation and actuation systems, controls technology, and operator interfaces. The ability to integrate key components into a system that enhances performance without impeding operator mobility is essential. The purpose of this study and report are to address the issue of feasibility of building a fieldable EHPA. Previous efforts, while demonstrating progress and enhancing knowledge, have not approached the level required for a fully functional, fieldable system. It is doubtless that the technologies required for a successful exoskeleton have advanced, and some of them significantly. The question to be addressed in this report is have they advanced to the point of making a system feasible in the next three to five years? In this study, the key technologies required to successfully build an exoskeleton have been examined. The primary focus has been on the key technologies of power sources, actuators, and controls. Power sources, including internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, and hybrid sources have been investigated and compared with respect to the exoskeleton application. Both conventional and non-conventional actuator technologies that could impact EHPA have been assessed. In addition to the current state of the art of actuators, the potential for near-term improvements using non-conventional actuators has also been addressed. Controls strategies, and their implication to the design approach, and the exoskeleton to soldier interface have also been investigated. In addition to these key subsystems and technologies, this report addresses technical concepts and issues relating to an integrated design. A recommended approach, based on the results of the study is also presented.
Piccirillo, Amanda L; Packnett, Elizabeth R; Cowan, David N; Boivin, Michael R
The rate of permanent disability retirement in U.S. Army soldiers and the prevalence of combat-related disabilities have significantly increased over time. Prior research on risk factors associated with disability retirement included soldiers retired prior to conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. To identify risk factors for disability discharge among soldiers enlisted in the U.S. Army during military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. In this case-control study, cases included active duty soldiers evaluated for disability discharge. Controls, randomly selected from soldiers with no history of disability evaluation, were matched to cases based on enlistment year and sex. Conditional logistic regression models calculated odds of disability discharge. Attributable fractions estimated burden of disability for specific pre-existing condition categories. Poisson regression models compared risk of disability discharge related to common disability types by deployment and combat status. Characteristics at military enlistment with increased odds of disability discharge included a pre-existing condition, increased age or body mass index, white race, and being divorced. Musculoskeletal conditions and overweight contributed the largest proportion of disabilities. Deployment was protective against disability discharge or receiving a musculoskeletal-related disability, but significantly increased the risk of disability related to a psychiatric or neurological condition. Soldiers with a pre-existing condition at enlistment, particularly a musculoskeletal condition, had increased odds of disability discharge. Risk of disability was dependent on condition category when stratified by deployment and combat status. Additional research examining conditions during pre-disability hospitalizations could provide insight on specific conditions that commonly lead to disability discharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carano, Kenneth T.; Bailey, Robert W.
The forceful induction of children as child soldiers is an abhorrent violation of human rights. It is very disturbing that while many children are forcibly recruited into armed conflicts, others actually volunteer, due to their nightmarish alternatives. Although the practice has recently gained worldwide attention, awareness alone will not end the…
Child Soldiers Initiative. The involvement of children in fighting forces continues to be widespread, undercutting security and blocking development in many fragile states. Failure to prevent children from being recruited - and effectively reintegrate those who have been - results in their continued vulnerability, undermines ...
This study focused on identifying whether certain factors affected the academic performance of Soldiers attending an Army educational institution. Academic performance was measured by the grade percentile average of the participant upon the completion of their course of enrollment. Factors that were considered within the study through…
Zimmermann, Peter; Kröger, Norbert; Willmund, Gerd; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Hahne, Hans Heiner
Objective: This study is to assess the efficacy of short-term group psychotherapy rooted in depth psychology for Bundeswehr soldiers suffering from depressive, neurotic, stress, or personality disorders. Method: 103 participants in the in-patient, closed group setting were evaluated prospectively and compared with a non-randomized waitlisted control group. Results: In all relevant SCL-90-R (Symptom-Check-List-90) and MMPI-K (Minnesota-Multiphasic-Personality-Inventory short-form) scales therapy resulted in significant improvements as compared with the initial values. The control group did not show any significant changes, the therapy group was significantly superior to the control group in the scales of MMPI-K and the GSI-Scale of the SCL-90-R. For soldiers with a stress-reactive disorder (F43), no differences in efficacy could be identified compared with the other diagnosis groups. Conclusion: The results were considered to indicate that in-patient, short-term group psychotherapy may, in combination with additional setting components, be helpful in improving psychological symptoms in German soldiers. The indication range of group therapy offered to Bundeswehr soldiers should be expanded to also include primary prophylaxis and the treatment of mental-health problems following deployments abroad, if applicable. PMID:19742280
Zimmermann, Peter; Kröger, Norbert; Willmund, Gerd; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Hahne, Hans Heiner
This study is to assess the efficacy of short-term group psychotherapy rooted in depth psychology for Bundeswehr soldiers suffering from depressive, neurotic, stress, or personality disorders. 103 participants in the in-patient, closed group setting were evaluated prospectively and compared with a non-randomized waitlisted control group. In all relevant SCL-90-R (Symptom-Check-List-90) and MMPI-K (Minnesota-Multiphasic-Personality-Inventory short-form) scales therapy resulted in significant improvements as compared with the initial values. The control group did not show any significant changes, the therapy group was significantly superior to the control group in the scales of MMPI-K and the GSI-Scale of the SCL-90-R. For soldiers with a stress-reactive disorder (F43), no differences in efficacy could be identified compared with the other diagnosis groups. The results were considered to indicate that in-patient, short-term group psychotherapy may, in combination with additional setting components, be helpful in improving psychological symptoms in German soldiers. The indication range of group therapy offered to Bundeswehr soldiers should be expanded to also include primary prophylaxis and the treatment of mental-health problems following deployments abroad, if applicable.
Lin, Naiqing; Roberts, Kevin R
Using hand sanitizers can reduce bacterial contamination and is an efficient and inexpensive method of preventing infections. The purpose of this study was to explore the behavioral intention (low and absolute), attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers. A questionnaire was developed following an expert panel (N = 5) review and 2 pilot studies (N = 35) to ensure questionnaire validity and clarity. Surveys were distributed among nontrainee soldiers during lunch periods. A total of 201 surveys were collected. Results indicated that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral controls explained 64% of the variance in behavioral intention. Attitude remained the strongest predictor of behavior (β = 0.70, P sanitizers hold significantly different behavioral and normative beliefs than low intenders. Other soldiers create negative social pressure about using hand sanitizers, indicating that if other soldiers use hand sanitizers, they will refuse to do so. Intervention to ensure use of hand sanitizer should focus on strengthening behavioral and normative beliefs among low intenders. This should increase the overall well being of the military. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Loverro, Kari L; Brown, Tyler N; Coyne, Megan E; Schiffman, Jeffrey M
The purpose of this evaluation was to examine how increasing body armor protection with and without a fighting load impacted soldiers' performance and mobility. Thirteen male soldiers performed one performance (repeated 30-m rushing) and three mobility tasks (walk, walk over and walk under) with three different body armor configurations and an anterior fighting load. Increasing body armor protection, decreased soldier performance, as individual and total 30-m rush times were significantly longer with greater protection. While increasing body armor protection had no impact on mobility, i.e. significant effect on trunk and lower limb biomechanics, during the walk and walk over tasks, greater protection did significantly decrease maximum trunk flexion during the walk under task. Adding fighting load may negatively impact soldier mobility, as greater maximum trunk extension was evident during the walk and walk over tasks, and decreased maximum trunk flexion exhibited during the walk under task with the fighting load. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
examine how training technologies can be used to support the educational principles outlined in the ALM. Training developers and leadership at TRADOC...platforms. The first phase of training was delivered on a tablet ( iPad ) and focused on training Soldiers on the basic components, features, and...to face-to-face instruction. Their findings demonstrated that on-line/blended learning had a greater mean effect size over live classroom education
organization of the body that may be related to the amount of sensory cortex sub-serving the loci in question. 6 Later work by Craig (1985...side, Braille readers learn to rapidly perceive and process what they touch quite differently than most, showing unique activity in the visual cortex ...weapons ( M4 ). After a short training session with the tactile systems, each Soldier completed the static and dynamic tests three times, once with each
dietetic and nutrition events. Among the topics discussed were fad diets , sport drinks, supplements, and nutrition myths. Soldiers were informed...providing a one week view, adding calorie requirements, including a weight and diet history, and displaying the number of days until the next APFT...visual estimation of portion sizes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Sep;103:1139-45. 3. Williamson DA, Martin PD, Allen HR, Most MM, Alfonso AJ, Thomas V
job – 2 – To help soldiers translate their KSAs for civilian employ- ers, we highlighted survey questions associated with soft skills —such as...This occurs partly because soft skills identified in our approach—such as leadership, teamwork, and train- ing, coaching, and mentoring others—are...of soldiers leaving the Regular Army each year, exacerbating challenges for soldiers entering the civilian workplace . This brief highlights the
Eamsila, C; Singsawat, P; Duangvaraporn, A; Strickman, D
Thai soldiers who were conscripted, Royal Thai Army forces, professional Border Patrol Police, or local militia (Thai Rangers) located in any of seven provinces of Thailand were bled in April and again, four months later, in July 1989. In 1991, soldiers from five different locations in southern Thailand were bled once, in July. Serum samples were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody assay for antibody to Orientia (formerly Rickettsia) tsutsugamushi, etiologic agent of scrub typhus, with any titer > or = 1:50 considered positive. Prior to field exercises, prevalence of antibody varied significantly between different types of units, ranging between 18.6% for Thai Rangers and 6.8% for the Royal Thai Army. The April prevalence, July prevalence, and incidence varied significantly by province in 1989, with highest incidence being 14.5% in Kanchanaburi and the lowest 0% in Utraladit. The prevalence in southern Thailand in 1991 varied between 1.6% and 6.8%. The data demonstrate that O. tsutsugamushi is widely distributed in Thailand and that military activity consisting of field exercises that simulate combat conditions significantly expose soldiers to infection.
.... Fifty active duty female soldiers with exercise induced urinary incontinence and ten asymptomatic controls underwent conventional multi-channel cystometry and then ambulatory monitoring during work or exercise...
view the services as a place for the uneducated , unskilled, and unemployed. In addition, the Guard/Reserve is seen as a place where little of value is...individuals who are less qualified. Emphasizing the positive aspects of Guard/ Reserve personnel may reduce the negative stereotypes which are currently...me whether you woAuld describe yourself as: 67- 1( ) Hispanic , ( ) Other 2( ) American Indian or Alaskan Native, WRITE IN 3( ) Black, not of Hispanic
Ippolito, Jessica; Adler, Amy B; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Litz, Brett T; Hölzl, Rupert
The purpose of this study was to extend the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek, 1979) by examining coping as an additional factor. It was hypothesized that perceived job control only buffered the demand-strain relationship when individuals used active coping and exacerbated the relationship when individuals used passive coping. Soldiers (N=638) were surveyed before and during a 6-month peacekeeping deployment to Kosovo. Results partially confirmed the hypotheses. Even after controlling for general psychological health at predeployment, job control moderated the relationship between demands and psychological health during deployment when soldiers used active coping. No significant 3-way interactions were found for religious coping and passive coping. Implications for demand-control modeling and potential applications of the findings to soldier and leader training are discussed. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
de l'Escalopier, Nicolas; Barbier, Olivier; Demoures, Thomas; Ollat, Didier; Versier, Gilbert
Stabilizing surgery of the shoulder with a coracoid graft according to Latarjet is a recognized surgical treatment for anterior instability of the shoulder. This pathology frequently affects soldiers. Postoperatively, the potential risk of recurrence or of secondary shoulder arthritis can limit the practitioner in their ability assessment. The aim of this study is to analyze the long-term outcomes of this surgery in a military population, in order to assess the possible implications for French soldiers' medical ability. Twenty soldiers operated on the shoulder by Latarjet procedure by the same surgeon were retrospectively reviewed after more than 15 yr. All of them did regular physical activity for leisure or competitions. None had preoperative osteoarthritis injuries. The number of dislocation recurrences, the functional score, and the rate of radiographic osteoarthritis were assessed. After more than 16.3 yr (extremes: 15-24 yr), none displayed a dislocation recurrence. The average Rowe's score was 91.8 ± 9.9. The average subjective shoulder value was 89.2 ± 9.7. All patients had resumed sport. Three of them developed level 1 or 2 radiological signs of osteoarthritis according to Samilson. No level 3 or 4 osteoarthritis was found. Among all the patients, 14 still did regular physical activity. In view of our results and of those from the literature, the results of treatment for anterior shoulder instability with the Latarjet procedure are good, even very good in the long term. These data must be considered to favor this procedure for soldiers with shoulder instability and from a medico-administrative viewpoint for military patients in order to pursue their careers without any job restrictions. © Association of Military Surgeons of the United States 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
on its investment by not establishing a connection between the AC recruiting missions and the needs of the proximal reserve units. By establishing this...which encourages the continuum of service. The end result of this transition is an opportunity to better meet the needs of the AC and the RC, while
Markus J. Ankenbrand
Leichtentritt, Ronit D; Leichtentritt, Judy; Barzilai, Yael; Pedatsur-Sukenik, Nomi
This qualitative study examined the loss experience of 15 Israeli bereaved girlfriends of fallen soldiers. The girlfriends of fallen Israeli soldiers are socially unacknowledged as being bereaved. This disenfranchised experience of grief is conveyed through social exclusion components and personal experiences of grief that were conceptualized into four themes: (a) learning about the loss; (b) loneliness and lack of social support; (c) intensifying initial experiences while creating alternative social networks; and (d) missed opportunities. The results provide new insight into the concept of disenfranchised grief suggesting it is a multidimensional experience that includes personal, interpersonal, and social dimensions, each of which falls along a continuum ranging from a sense of acceptance to a sense of exclusion. Results also suggest that there are various depths to the experience of disenfranchised grief, which changes over time. Thus, disenfranchised grief is an ongoing and temporal personal, interpersonal, and social experience. Practical implications are discussed.
traumatic stress disorder among individual soldiers who had faced child soldiers. Along these lines, as ... keeping forces (Ben-Ari 1998; Ben-Ari, Michael and Kellen 2009), my work on childhood (Ben-Ari 1997), and on a .... of military induction, codes of military conduct and the structuring of relations within the military unit” ...
purpose. Unfortunately, a couple of soldiers who were among the passengers in the bus ... ordered all the passengers to stay put rather than disembark as ordered by the policemen. A "man pass man" struggle ensued, with the result that the unarmed soldiers were beaten into submission and hauled off to the police station.
Full Text Available In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA and tyramine (TA, as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes.
for individuals Dietary Intake of Army Soldiers in Occupation Specialties Re... : Medici ... http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2011/05001...0070/W81XWH-09-2-0095 ©2011The American College of Sports Medicine Dietary Intake of Army Soldiers in Occupation Specialties Re... : Medici ... http
Williams, Valerie F; Stahlman, Shauna; Ying, Saixia
During 2007-2016, a total of 2,031 active component service members received incident diagnoses of multiple sclerosis (MS), for an overall unadjusted incidence rate of 14.9 cases per 100,000 p-yrs. The average overall unadjusted rate among reserve/guard members during this surveillance period was 6.9 cases per 100,000 persons. In both components, women had a higher overall incidence of MS than men across all race/ethnicity groups. Overall rates of MS were highest among non-Hispanic black service members. Crude annual incidence rates among active component members decreased slightly during 2007-2016, while rates among reserve/guard members were relatively stable. Among active component members, the annual female-to-male incidence ratios decreased during the 10-year period (3.7:1 in 2007 to 2.5:1 in 2016). Annual numbers of incident cases of MS decreased among non-service member Military Health System beneficiaries during this period. The median age at MS case-defining diagnosis was 32 years among active component members, 37 years among reserve/guard members, and 48 years among non-service member beneficiaries. The median time intervals between initial presentation and case-defining MS-related encounter ranged from 15 days among reserve/guard component members to 20 days among active component service members. This study makes a useful contribution to the literature on temporal changes in the incidence of MS by sex and race/ethnicity.
Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez
Full Text Available Current armed conflicts are asymmetrical and are developed m urban areas. These new requirements have not been studied for current literature. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in cortical arousal, blood lactate, muscle strength, autonomic modulation and rate of perceived exertion in a simulated urban combat. We analyzed 20 soldiers before and after an urban combat simulation. The results showed how urban combat produced high sympathetic nervous system activation, increasing the muscle strength, heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the soldiers. Despite this effort, rate of perceived exertion were not consistent with the physiological response that soldiers presented, the rate of perceived exertion was lower than the physiological response evaluated. Furthermore, the information processing and cortical arousal decreased after the urban combat simulation. These results have showed the psycho-physiological response of soldiers in combat, helping to better understanding and enabling an improvement of current training methods of soldiers.
Meurman, K.O.A.; Somer, K.; Lamminen, A.
Amongst 936 stress fractures found in soldiers, there were 58 in the femora (6%); of these 31 were in the neck and 27 in the shaft. Two were bilateral, and two patients had other stress fractures. Three displacements were found in the necks. In the shaft, 20 fractures were proximal, four were in the middle third and three in the distal third. In the latter group, it is necessary to differentiate from a sarcoma. CT is a new aid in this respect. Sport in highly motivated individuals appears to contribute particularly to fractures of the shaft. The symptoms from these fractures are relatively mild. (orig.) [de
Full Text Available In 288 men and women from general population in a cross-sectional survey, all neuropsychological tests were negatively associated with age; memory and executive function were also positively related with education. The hypertensives (HT were less efficient than the normotensives (NT in the test of memory with interference at 10 sec (MI-10 (−33%, P=0.03, clock drawing test (CLOX (−28%, P<0.01, and mini-mental state examination (MMSE (−6%, P=0.02. Lower MMSE, MI-10, and CLOX were predicted by higher systolic (odds ratio, OR, 0.97, P=0.02; OR 0.98, P<0.005; OR 0.95, P<0.001 and higher pulse blood pressure (BP (OR 0.97, P=0.02; OR 0.97, P<0.01; and 0.95, P<0.0001. The cognitive reserve index (CRI was 6% lower in the HT (P=0.03 and was predicted by higher pulse BP (OR 0.82, P<0.001. The BP vectors of lower MMSE, MI-10, and CLOX were directed towards higher values of systolic and diastolic BP, that of low CRI towards higher systolic and lower diastolic. The label of hypertension and higher values of systolic or pulse BP are associated to worse memory and executive functions. Higher diastolic BP, although insufficient to impair cognition, strengthens this association. CRI is predicted by higher systolic BP associated to lower diastolic BP.
Full Text Available Background: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which soldiers’ PTSD symptoms and their trauma-related guilt and shame may be affected as a function of their ability to develop compassionate imagery between their CURRENT SELF (today and their TRAUMATIZED SELF (back then. Method: The sample comprised 24 male German soldiers diagnosed with PTSD who were examined on the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS and two additional measures: the Emotional Distress Inventory (EIBE and the Quality of Interaction between the CURRENT SELF and the TRAUMATIZED SELF (QUI-HD: Qualität der Interaktion zwischen HEUTIGEN ICH und DAMALIGEN ICH at pre- and post-treatment and again at follow-up. The treatment used was imagery rescripting and reprocessing therapy (IRRT. Results: Eighteen of the 24 soldiers showed significant improvement in their PTSD symptoms at post-treatment and at follow-up (on their reliable change index. A significant change in trauma-associated guilt and shame emerged when compassionate imagery was developed towards one’s TRAUMATIZED SELF. The degree and intensity of the guilt and shame felt at the beginning of treatment and the degree of compassionate imagery developed toward the TRAUMATIZED SELF were predictors for change on the PDS scores. Conclusions: For soldiers suffering from specific war-related trauma involving PTSD, the use of self-nurturing, compassionate imagery that fosters reconciling with the traumatized part of the self can effectively diminish trauma-related symptoms, especially when guilt and shame are central emotions.
Alliger-Horn, Christina; Zimmermann, Peter Lutz; Schmucker, Mervyn
Background: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which soldiers’ PTSD symptoms and their trauma-related guilt and shame may be affected as a function of their ability to develop compassionate imagery between their CURRENT SELF (today) and their TRAUMATIZED SELF (back then). Method: The sample comprised 24 male German soldiers diagnosed with PTSD who were examined on the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and two additional measures: the Emotional Distress Inventory (EIBE) and the Quality of Interaction between the CURRENT SELF and the TRAUMATIZED SELF (QUI-HD: Qualität der Interaktion zwischen HEUTIGEN ICH und DAMALIGEN ICH) at pre- and post-treatment and again at follow-up. The treatment used was imagery rescripting and reprocessing therapy (IRRT). Results: Eighteen of the 24 soldiers showed significant improvement in their PTSD symptoms at post-treatment and at follow-up (on their reliable change index). A significant change in trauma-associated guilt and shame emerged when compassionate imagery was developed towards one’s TRAUMATIZED SELF. The degree and intensity of the guilt and shame felt at the beginning of treatment and the degree of compassionate imagery developed toward the TRAUMATIZED SELF were predictors for change on the PDS scores. Conclusions: For soldiers suffering from specific war-related trauma involving PTSD, the use of self-nurturing, compassionate imagery that fosters reconciling with the traumatized part of the self can effectively diminish trauma-related symptoms, especially when guilt and shame are central emotions. PMID:27775587
Adler, Amy B; Bliese, Paul D; Pickering, Michael A; Hammermeister, Jon; Williams, Jason; Harada, Coreen; Csoka, Louis; Holliday, Bernie; Ohlson, Carl
Cognitive skills training has been linked to greater skills, self-efficacy, and performance. Although research in a variety of organizational settings has demonstrated training efficacy, few studies have assessed cognitive skills training using rigorous, longitudinal, randomized trials with active controls. The present study examined cognitive skills training in a high-risk occupation by randomizing 48 platoons (N = 2,432 soldiers) in basic combat training to either (a) mental skills training or (b) an active comparison condition (military history). Surveys were conducted at baseline and 3 times across the 10-week course. Multilevel mixed-effects models revealed that soldiers in the mental skills training condition reported greater use of a range of cognitive skills and increased confidence relative to those in the control condition. Soldiers in the mental skills training condition also performed better on obstacle course events, rappelling, physical fitness, and initial weapons qualification scores, although effects were generally moderated by gender and previous experience. Overall, effects were small; however, given the rigor of the design, the findings clearly contribute to the broader literature by providing supporting evidence that cognitive training skills can enhance performance in occupational and sports settings. Future research should address gender and experience to determine the need for targeting such training appropriately. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
This article challenges conventional theories about the role of medical photography in the early twentieth century. Some scholars argue that the camera intensified the Foucauldian medical gaze, reducing patients to mere pathologies. Others maintain that with the rise of the new modern hospital and its state-of-the-art technologies, the patient fell from view entirely, with apertures pointing toward streamlined operating rooms rather than the human subjects who would go under the knife. The Army Surgeon General's World War I rehabilitation journal, Carry On: A Magazine on the Reconstruction of Disabled Soldiers and Sailors, problematizes these assumptions. Hoping to persuade a skeptical public that the Army's new programs in medical rehabilitation for disabled soldiers provided the best means of veteran welfare, the editorial officials at Carry On photographed patients fully clothed, wounds hidden, engaged in everyday activities in order to give the impression that the medical sciences of the day could cure permanent disabilities. In the end, Carry On shows us that medical doctors could, and did, use photography to conceal as well as reveal the reality faced by injured soldiers. In doing so, they (like other Progressive reformers at the time) hoped to persuade the public that rehabilitation had the power to make the wounds of war disappear. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Nandi, Corina; Elbert, Thomas; Bambonye, Manassé; Weierstall, Roland; Reichert, Manfred; Zeller, Anja; Crombach, Anselm
Past research revealed war trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as potential predictors for domestic and community violence in crisis regions and among soldiers in different armed conflicts. The impact of family violence and other adversities experienced in childhood as well as of a combat-enhanced appeal for aggressive behavior (appetitive aggression) remains to be specified. In the present study, the authors separately predicted violence against children, intimate partner violence and community violence in 381 Burundian soldiers returning from foreign deployment and living in a post- conflict region. Using path analysis, they aimed to disentangle the independent contributions and pathways of the following variables: Exposure to war trauma and childhood familial violence, PTSD and depression symptom severity, and appetitive aggression. Childhood familial violence had an independent effect on all contexts of violence and was the only significant predictor for violence against the soldiers' own children. Intimate partner violence was additionally predicted by depression symptom severity, while community violence was additionally predicted by PTSD symptom severity and appetitive aggression. Besides war-related mental ill-health and appetitive aggression, violent experiences during childhood development must not be overlooked as a factor fueling the cycle of violence in conflict regions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Long gone are the days that the law pertaining to children essentially dealt with the position of children within the parent-child relationship. On the contrary it has become a highly specialised legal discipline in which international and regional conventions progressively establish norms and standards to be adhered to. This book by Waschefort, the 53rd volume in the series Studies in International Law, bears ample testimony to this. It reviews all of the international instruments containing proscriptive norms to prohibit the use and recruitment of child soldiers. It commences with an analysis of the current state of child soldiering internationally, after which relevant international instruments are comprehensively discussed with a clear focus on the question of whether or not the prohibitive norms are optimally enforced – are they capable of better enforcement? The author adopts an “issues-based approach” in terms of which no specific regime of law, for instance International Humanitarian Law, is considered dominant. He assesses universal and regional human rights law together with International Human Rights Law and International Criminal Law to establish a mutually reinforcing web of protection for children. He also critically assesses the international judicial, quasi-judicial and non-judicial entities most relevant to child soldier prevention. He argues that the effective implementation of child soldier prohibitive norms does not require fundamental changes to any entity or functionary engaged in such prevention. In fact, what is required according to the author is the constant reassessment and refinement of all such entities and functionaries. The conclusions which are reached are ultimately tested against the background of a comprehensive case study on the use and recruitment of child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. International Law and Child Soldiers is to be welcomed as a timely contribution to the evaluation
Independence: Military Attitudes , Policies, and Practice, 1763-1789 (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1971), 1. 18 Carr, Seeds of Discontent, 2... attitude , was the primary reason British officers viewed provincial soldiers as inferior to British regulars. The thoughts and statements by British... abortive attempt at Oswego, provincial forces won the first great victory of the French and Indian War. Four of the Rhode Island companies, under
Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.
Abstract. Book review: From soldiers to citizens: Demilitarization of conflict and society. João Gomes Porto, Chris Alden and Imogen Parsons 2007. Aldershot. Ashgate, 192 pp.ISBN 978-0-7546-7210-4 ...
...) Investigate the projected Knowledge, Skills and Attributes (KSA) required for Future Combat Systems tasks and assess the match/mismatch between the projected skill set of soldiers and required skills based on FCS tasks; (3) Assess the Army...
.... Also expectancies about a job influence attrition and job satisfaction. This paper uses results of several studies to describe the image of the soldiers job and its effects on recruitment, early attrition and job satisfaction.
Huang, Peng; Zhang, Tengxiao; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia
To examine Chinese soldiers' acute stress responses, we did this study. The soldiers completed the Acute Stress Response Scale (ASRS) when engaged in major tasks, such as earthquake rescue in Wenchuan, Sichuan, and maintaining social stability in Urumchi, Xinjiang. The ASRS has good reliability and validity. The study enrolled 1,832 male soldiers. The results showed significant differences among five dimensions and the overall response index when comparing four diverse military tasks. Further analysis found that reduced work efficiency and 24 symptom clusters were significantly positively correlated. The acute stress response of soldiers performing various tasks was influenced by many factors, including the task characteristics and external factors. In addition, the acute stress response affected their work efficiency.
Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer
Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbance...
among the two battalions that have been assigned to participate in the study. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mental Health Treatment, Military, Stigma ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-2-0010 TITLE: Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas W. Britt...SUBTITLE Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Sb. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0010 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT
Handbook, (Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, 2007), 52. 16 parents ’ permission. Children are then incorporated into...information of tactical value. Questions about past operations that a child soldier may have been forced to conduct could only intimidate or alienate ...that numerous child soldiers are forced to kill family members when they are abducted from their villages, in an attempt to alienate them from being
recommended 7 hr of sleep per night on average throughout the duration of the course. This suggests that the sleep habits of Soldiers while attending these...USAARL Report No. 2009-13 Sleep and Performance Measures in Soldiers Undergoing Military Relevant Training Warfighter Performance and Health Division...ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 26-06-2009 Final Sleep and Performance
Askew, Graham N.; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E.
In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined...
Huang, Peng; Zhang, Tengxiao; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia
Background To examine Chinese soldiers’ acute stress responses, we did this study. Methods The soldiers completed the Acute Stress Response Scale (ASRS) when engaged in major tasks, such as earthquake rescue in Wenchuan, Sichuan, and maintaining social stability in Urumchi, Xinjiang. The ASRS has good reliability and validity. The study enrolled 1,832 male soldiers. Results The results showed significant differences among five dimensions and the overall response index when comparing four dive...
MacLeish, Kenneth T
For many civilians, the high-tech weapons, armor, and military medicine with which U.S. soldiers are equipped present an image of lethal capacity and physical invulnerability. But, as this article explores, soldiers themselves just as often associate the life-sustaining technology of modern warfare with feelings that range from a pragmatic ambivalence about exposure to harm all the way to profoundly unsettling vulnerability. This article, based on fieldwork among soldiers and military families at the U.S. Army's Ft. Hood, examines sensory and affective dimensions of soldiers' intimate bodily relationships with the technologies that alternately or even simultaneously keep them alive and expose them to harm. I argue that modern military discipline and technology conspire to cultivate soldiers as highly durable, capable, unfeeling, interchangeable bodies, or what might be called, after Susan Buck-Morss (1992), anesthetic subjects. But for soldiers themselves, their training, combat environment, protective gear, and weapons are a rich font of both emotional and bodily feeling that exists in complex tension with the also deeply felt military imperative to carry on in the face of extreme discomfort and danger.
Paraguay Barbuda Ecuador India Peru Argentina Egypt Israel Philippines Australia England Italy Portugal Austria Fiji Jamaica Puerto Rico Bahamas France...Baguero Commander, Ecuadoran First Air Presidente , Junta Civic Archidona, Zone Ecuador * Navarrete, Colonel William * Marsh, Honorable John 0. Jr...Mobilization Concepts (Policy) Development Center " Shiguango, Mr. Sharimiat 0 Temple, Lieutenant General Herbert Presidente , Conncejo Archidona, R. Jr
.... Because raw imagery has limited value until it has been exploited, the increased volume of raw imagery demands an enhanced ability for combatant commanders and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA...
51 Some Dental Plans Are Cheaper—Comparison of Five Treatment Sources...in need of such care, 49 percent had more than one tooth needing treatment , 71 percent had periodontal disease, and 68 percent required one or more...preventive dental care, such as annual teeth cleaning (prophylaxis), fluo- ride treatment , and periodontal care. Complicated Nature of Medical Readiness
in U.S. hospitals—2007. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2008; 65:2244-64 2. Hardiker NR, Grant MJ. Barriers and facilitators that affect public engagement with eHealth services. Stud Health Technol Inform 2010; 160:13-7
Hoggatt, Katherine J; Prescott, Marta R; Goldmann, Emily; Tamburrino, Marijo; Calabrese, Joseph R; Liberzon, Israel; Galea, Sandro
Previous studies have reported that risky driving is associated with deployment and combat exposure in military populations, but there is limited research on risky driving among soldiers in the National Guard and Reserves, a group increasingly deployed to active international conflicts. The goal of this analysis was to assess the prevalence of risky driving and its demographic, mental health, and deployment-related correlates among members of the Ohio Army National Guard (OHARNG). The study group comprised 2,616 eligible OHARNG soldiers enlisted as of June 2008, or who enlisted between June 2008 and February 2009. The main outcome of interest was the prevalence of risky driving behavior assessed using six questions: "How often do you use seat belts when you drive or ride in a car?"; "In the past 30 days, how many times have you driven when you've had perhaps too much to drink?"; "In the past year, have you ever become impatient with a slow driver in the fast lane and passed them on the right?"; "In the past year have you crossed an intersection knowing that the traffic lights have already changed from yellow to red?"; "In the past year have you disregarded speed limits late at night or early in the morning?"; and "In the past year have you underestimated the speed of an oncoming vehicle when attempting to pass a vehicle in your own lane?" We fit multiple logistic regression models and derived the adjusted prevalence of risky driving behavior for soldiers with mental health conditions, deployment experience, exposure to combat or trauma, and psychosocial stressors or supports. The prevalence of risky driving was higher in soldiers with a history of mental health conditions, deployment to a conflict area, deployment-related traumatic events, and combat or post-combat stressors. In contrast, the prevalence of risky driving was lower for soldiers who reported high levels of psychosocial support. Efforts to mitigate risky driving in military populations may be more
Nock, Matthew K; Ursano, Robert J; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B; Jain, Sonia; Raman, Rema; Sun, Xiaoying; Chiu, Wai Tat; Colpe, Lisa J; Fullerton, Carol S; Gilman, Stephen E; Hwang, Irving; Naifeh, James A; Rosellini, Anthony J; Sampson, Nancy A; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C
We examined the associations between mental disorders and suicidal behavior (ideation, plans, and attempts) among new soldiers using data from the New Soldier Study (NSS) component of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS; N = 38,507). Most new soldiers with a pre-enlistment history of suicide attempt reported a prior mental disorder (59.0%). Each disorder examined was associated with increased odds of suicidal behavior (ORs = 2.6-8.6). Only PTSD and disorders characterized by irritability and impulsive/aggressive behavior (i.e., bipolar disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) predicted unplanned attempts among ideators. Mental disorders are important predictors of pre-enlistment suicidal behavior among new soldiers and should figure prominently in suicide screening and prevention efforts. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.
Florig, William R
.... To make it relevant for the nation building operations of the future, the Active force needs to be greatly expanded while the Reserve Component must be right-sized and realigned to reflect recruiting...
.... The purpose of this paper titled, "The Utility and Consequences of Using Impressed Child Soldiers in Africa's Contemporary Wars," is to examine the practice of using children as soldiers by various...
Bowden, Tim; Keenan, Patricia; Ramli, Masayu; Heffner, Tonia
.... The goal of the AISA is to gauge the Soldier's aptitude to effectively manage interpersonal interactions and to identify Soldiers who may be well suited for positions where effective interpersonal...
Bovill, Maria E; Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R
...%) reported current supplement use with more SF (90%) than non-SF, support soldiers (76%) using supplements (p Supplements that SF soldiers reported using most were multivitamins, sports bars or sports drinks, and vitamin C...
Brumley, Donald W
.... The abdication of the monarchy in 1918 forced the professional soldier to look for a substitute sovereign who would insure the survival of the privileged role of the soldier in republican state and society...
Based on over 400 in-depth interviews with child soldiers and their commanders, this research reveals how rebel group socialization leads to allegiance among child soldiers and how this contributes to the creation of a cohesive group.
Tian, Li; Zhou, Xuguo
The presence of reproductively altruistic castes is one of the primary traits of the eusocial societies. Adaptation and regulation of the sterile caste, to a certain extent, drives the evolution of eusociality. Depending on adaptive functions of the first evolved sterile caste, eusocial societies can be categorized into the worker-first and soldier-first lineages, respectively. The former is marked by a worker caste as the first evolved altruistic caste, whose primary function is housekeeping, and the latter is highlighted by a sterile soldier caste as the first evolved altruistic caste, whose task is predominantly colony defense. The apparent functional differences between these two fundamentally important castes suggest worker-first and soldier-first eusociality are potentially driven by a suite of distinctively different factors. Current studies of eusocial evolution have been focused largely on the worker-first Hymenoptera, whereas understanding of soldier-first lineages including termites, eusocial aphids, gall-dwelling thrips, and snapping shrimp, is greatly lacking. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge on biology, morphology, adaptive functions, and caste regulation of the soldier caste. In addition, we discuss the biological, ecological and genetic factors that might contribute to the evolution of distinct caste systems within eusocial lineages. PMID:24644427
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-08-1-0726 TITLE: Family Functioning and Soldier PTSD: Correlates of Treatment Engagement and Military Job Satisfaction ...and Military Job Satisfaction 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0726 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Leyla Stambaugh, Ph.D.; Dawn Ohse, Ph.D. 5d...engagement, and Soldier job satisfaction in active duty Soldiers with PTSD. The specific aim was to identify facilitators of Soldier treatment
Spellings, Carolyn R.
Over 300,000 children are estimated to be conscripted participants in conflicts throughout the world. Depending on the particular armed group that employs child soldiers, girls represent 6 to 50% of child soldiers. Despite this prevalence of involvement, the experience of girls as soldiers in war and political conflict has rarely been…
Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C; Stein, Murray B; Naifeh, James A; Nock, Matthew K; Aliaga, Pablo A; Fullerton, Carol S; Wynn, Gary H; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Dinh, Hieu M; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; McCarroll, James E; Cox, Kenneth L; Heeringa, Steven G
We used administrative data to examine predictors of medically documented suicide ideation (SI) among Regular Army soldiers from 2006 through 2009 (N = 10,466 ideators, 124,959 control person-months). Enlisted ideators (97.8% of all cases) were more likely than controls to be female, younger, older when entering service, less educated, never or previously deployed, and have a recent mental health diagnosis. Officer ideators were more likely than controls to be female, younger, younger when entering service, never married, and have a recent mental health diagnosis. Risk among enlisted soldiers peaked in the second month of service and declined steadily, whereas risk among officers remained relatively stable over time. Risk of SI is highest among enlisted soldiers early in Army service, females, and those with a recent mental health diagnosis. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.
Johannessen, Steinar; Holgersen, Helge
With this article, we explore how staff working at transit centers and vocational training centers in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo experienced the problems and needs of former child soldiers. We argued that the staff's experience of the children's daily lives and their understanding of the sociocultural context of the conflict make their perspective a valuable source of information when trying to understand the phenomenon of child soldiering. Additionally, we reasoned that how the staff frame these children's problems influences how they attempt to aid the children. We conducted 11 semistructured interviews and analyzed these using a hermeneutical-phenomenological approach. We clustered our findings around six themes: unfavorable contextual factors, acting as if still in the army, addiction, symptoms of psychopathology, social rejection, and reintegration needs. The overarching message we observed was that the informants experienced that former child soldiers require help to be transformed into civilians who participate proactively in their society.
Kennedy Scott, Will
The ability to accurately and rapidly know the precise location of enemy fire would be a substantial capability enhancement to the dismounted soldier. Acoustic gun-shot detections systems can provide an approximate bearing but it is desired to precisely know the location (direction and range) of enemy fire; for example to know from `which window' the fire is coming from. Funded by the UK MOD (via Roke Manor Research) QinetiQ is developing an imaging solution built around an InGaAs camera. This paper presents work that QinetiQ has undertaken on the Muzzle Flash Locator system. Key technical challenges that have been overcome are explained and discussed in this paper. They include; the design of the optical sensor and processing hardware to meet low size, weight and power requirements; the algorithm approach required to maintain sensitivity whilst rejecting false alarms from sources such as close passing insects and sun glint from scene objects; and operation on the move. This work shows that such a sensor can provide sufficient sensitivity to detect muzzle flash events to militarily significant ranges and that such a system can be combined with an acoustic gunshot detection system to minimize the false alarm rate. The muzzle flash sensor developed in this work operates in real-time and has a field of view of approximately 29° (horizontal) by 12° (vertical) with a pixel resolution of 0.13°. The work has demonstrated that extension to a sensor with realistic angular rotation rate is feasible.
Honey, James R
The Army Selected Reserve Dental Readiness System (ASDRS) is a key dental program directed by the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Manpower & Reserve Affairs) starting in fiscal year 09. The Army National Guard and Army Reserve have steadily implemented ASDRS over the past 3 years as a means to improve the historically abysmal dental readiness of the Army Reserve Component (RC). Dental readiness is essential for sustaining an Army RC Operational Force. ASDRS is a tool for RC commanders to provide contract dental readiness care in support of over 558 thousand nonmobilized Selected Reserve Citizen-Soldiers dispersed throughout the 54 states and U.S. territories, at home station before alert, and if necessary after alert (throughout the Army force generation cycle). This article examines the status of ASDRS implementation, assesses its effectiveness in improving Army RC Dental Readiness, and provides Army leadership recommendations regarding the following focus areas: (1) command emphasis, (2) program execution, and (3) synergy with the Military Health System and Department of Veterans Affairs. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Shelef, Leah; Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Yavnai, Nirit; Shahar, Golan
Intent to die is an important component of suicide risk assessment. The authors compared the predictive effect of two forms of stress - military and perceived - in intent to die by suicide among young adult Israeli soldiers with a history of suicide attempts. Depression, suicide ideation, and habituation/acquired capacity for suicidality served as covariates. Participants were 60 young adult soldiers in the Israeli Defense Force (ISF; aged 18-21 years), who made a suicide attempt during their military service. Study variables were assessed using self-report measures. Intent to die by suicide correlated with suicide ideation, habituation/acquired capacity, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress. In a multiple regression analysis, perceived stress predicted intent to die (b = .44, p = .002) over and above the prediction by suicide ideation (b = .42, p = .013) and acquired capacity/habituation (b = .28, p = .023). The cross-sectional design restricts causal inference. In addition, an exclusive reliance on self-report measures might have inflated shared method variance. Perceived stress captures a unique dimension of intent to die by suicide among young suicide attempters.
The broad narrative describes this methodology and how to interpret the data and provides any Soldier with a red score a hyperlink and phone number... Psychoanalysis Professor Stephen Soldz, stated “the problems identified with CSF are legion. It is time for the Army to step back from uncritically
Sammito, S; Hartmann, V; Kerschowski, J; Klein, B
In this case report we describe a 24-year-old German KFOR soldier who was injured in the night of New Year's Eve 2009/2010 during the Kosovo Mission by a falling bullet in the right shoulder. The falling bullet was a full metal jacket probably shot during a "happy shooting" by a civilian.
Gewald, J.B.; Bechhaus-Gerst, M.; Klein-Arendt, R.
Between 1904 and 1908 imperial German troops committed genocide in German South West Africa, present-day Namibia. African survivors of the war were cruelly treated, placed in camps and put to work as forced labourers. This paper addresses the question of why German soldiers and settlers committed
This article focuses on the dilemma of using child soldiers in violent conflicts throughout Africa and on ways of resolving it in the future. The first section briefly examines some important domestic and international aspects and dimensions of the problem. Then, attention is shifted to particular individual countries on the ...
Roč. 24, č. 3 (2016), s. 71-83 ISSN 0354-6497 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : first world war * Austria-Hungary * Czech soldiers * eastern (Russian) front * southwest (Italian) front * Czechoslovak legionnaries * Czechoslovakia Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)
TERMS Chapels, Chaplains, Postmodern, Postmodernism, Generations, Generation X, Millenial Generation, Emergent Chruch, Emerging Churches, Seeker...new trends . Chapter One has six sections that introduce the problem, research question, assumptions, definitions, delimitations, and significance of... trending in any direction? Who are the majority of soldiers? 2 Society demographics. What is known about that majority from examining the
Background: There is a popular belief among the general population that Nigerian soldiers tend to have large families but this has not been substantiated with evidence-based research. The Nigerian military health authority implements femaletargetted contraception strategies, with less focus on their husbands; who are the ...
Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Clipp, Brian; Russler, Patrick; Cook, James; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Church, William; Mauger, Jennifer; Volpe, Chris; Argenta, Chris; Wille, Mark; Snarski, Stephen; Sherrill, Todd; Lupo, Jasper; Hobson, Ross; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Heinly, Jared
This paper describes the development and demonstration of a soldier-worn augmented reality system testbed that provides intuitive 'heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a robust soldier pose estimation capability with a helmet mounted see-through display to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (i.e., navigation waypoints, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. Applied Research Associates (ARA), in partnership with BAE Systems and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), has developed this testbed system in Phase 2 of the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program. The ULTRA-Vis testbed system functions in unprepared outdoor environments and is robust to numerous magnetic disturbances. We achieve accurate and robust pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, and computer vision data acquired from helmet kit sensors. Icons are rendered on a high-brightness, 40°×30° field of view see-through display. The system incorporates an information management engine to convert CoT (Cursor-on-Target) external data feeds into mil-standard icons for visualization. The user interface provides intuitive information display to support soldier navigation and situational awareness of mission-critical tactical information.
Matthew Reilly's roundabout journey to college took a painful, decisive turn after a nighttime crash in Iraq. In 2008, six months into his first combat tour with the Army, Mr. Reilly and nine soldiers from his platoon were pursuing an insurgent when their armored fighting vehicle slammed into a roadblock. It was 2 o'clock in the morning, and fresh…
Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Bramsen, I.; Ploeg, H.M. van der
This study aimed to investigate positive and negative consequences of peacekeeping operations, help-seeking behaviour among peacekeepers, PTSD prevalence rates and factors associated with PTSD symptoms. A sample of 3,481 peacekeeping soldiers who participated in various peacekeeping operations was
Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Bramsen, I.; van der Ploeg, H.M.
This study aimed to investigate positive and negative consequences of peacekeeping operations, help-seeking behaviour among peacekeepers, PTSD prevalence rates and factors associated with PTSD symptoms. A sample of 3,481 peacekeeping soldiers who participated in various peacekeeping operations was
Juracek, Kyle E.
Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages along Soldier Creek in northeast Kansas were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends. This information is required by the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to assess annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow.Annual mean streamflows along Soldier Creek were characterized by substantial year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trends. On average, annual mean base flow accounted for about 20 percent of annual mean streamflow. Mean monthly flows followed a general seasonal pattern that included peak values in spring and low values in winter. Annual peak flows, which were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability, were most likely to occur in May and June and least likely to occur during November through February. With the exception of a weak yet statistically significant increasing trend at the Soldier Creek near Topeka, Kansas, streamgage, there were no pronounced long-term trends in annual peak flows. Annual 1-day, 30-day, and 90-day mean minimum flows were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trend. During an extreme drought, as was the case in the mid-1950s, there may be zero flow in Soldier Creek continuously for a period of one to several months.
“This is how wars are fought now: by children, traumatized, hopped-up on drugs and wielding AK-47s. Children have ... It also challenges the military professional who romanticises deployment in Sub-. Saharan African states and who sees it as a means of stockpiling easy cash; of killing boredom as a career soldier in a ...
history of alcohol abuse. Children who experienced 10 or more traumatic war events were more likely than the rest to experience depressed mood. Return through a reception center or through a cleansing ritual did not protect against depression. Discussion: Post-traumatic stress disorder among former LRA child soldiers at ...
The end of the cold war gave rise to expectations that Africa would benefit from the peace dividend. The euphoria was however short lived. In Liberia, a bloody civil war broke out in 1989 in which thousands of children were used as child soldiers. Surprisingly, not much is known about how they are settling back into civil ...
Meyer, Vanessa M
Competitive athletes train body and mind in preparation for competition with mental fortitude often providing the "winning edge." Similarly, the current-day warfighter faces significant physical and psychological challenges and must be prepared to respond to life-threatening danger with mental and physical agility. Sport Psychology for the Soldier Athlete recognizes the soldier as an elite athlete and provides training required to perform at the highest caliber. Through this curriculum, mental skills coaching in goal setting, imagery, positive self-talk, and heart rate control is integrated into routine physical fitness training. These skills commonly used by professional and Olympic athletes for optimal performance provide soldiers with the ability to manage every day military stressors. Sport Psychology for the Soldier Athlete supports GEN Milley's top priority of readiness and decreases the cost of Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) failures. Soldiers from a large military treatment facility participated in a 6-wk sport psychology mental skills training program led by an Army occupational therapist. The training that was integrated into regularly scheduled physical training consisted of 10 min of physical readiness training, 10 min of mental skills coaching followed by push-up, sit-up, and running drills focusing on the mental skills learned. Semi-annual APFT scores following the sport psychology training were compared with the five previous semi-APFT scores for the same company using analysis of variance. Results comparing company APFT scores to the previous five semi-annual tests showed statistical significance of 0.001 with the intervention group achieving an average 13- to 14-point improvement. Post-training survey showed 91% of participants recognizing the benefit of these "life skills" in other Army tasks such as weapons qualification, combat medic tasks, and career planning. Soldiers acknowledged this curriculum as quality hands-on training with the
Rosellini, Anthony J; Monahan, John; Street, Amy E; Hill, Eric D; Petukhova, Maria; Reis, Ben Y; Sampson, Nancy A; Benedek, David M; Bliese, Paul; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C
Growing concerns exist about violent crimes perpetrated by U.S. military personnel. Although interventions exist to reduce violent crimes in high-risk populations, optimal implementation requires evidence-based targeting. The goal of the current study was to use machine learning methods (stepwise and penalized regression; random forests) to develop models to predict minor violent crime perpetration among U.S. Army soldiers. Predictors were abstracted from administrative data available for all 975,057 soldiers in the U.S. Army 2004-2009, among whom 25,966 men and 2728 women committed a first founded minor violent crime (simple assault, blackmail-extortion-intimidation, rioting, harassment). Temporally prior administrative records measuring socio-demographic, Army career, criminal justice, medical/pharmacy, and contextual variables were used to build separate male and female prediction models that were then tested in an independent 2011-2013 sample. Final model predictors included young age, low education, early career stage, prior crime involvement, and outpatient treatment for diverse emotional and substance use problems. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.79 (for men and women) in the 2004-2009 training sample and 0.74-0.82 (men-women) in the 2011-2013 test sample. 30.5-28.9% (men-women) of all administratively-recorded crimes in 2004-2009 were committed by the 5% of soldiers having highest predicted risk, with similar proportions (28.5-29.0%) when the 2004-2009 coefficients were applied to the 2011-2013 test sample. These results suggest that it may be possible to target soldiers at high-risk of violence perpetration for preventive interventions, although final decisions about such interventions would require weighing predicted effectiveness against intervention costs and competing risks. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dela Cruz Fajarito, Cariñez; De Guzman, Rosalito G
Few studies demonstrate how the index trauma may influence subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, especially among soldiers. There is still no consensus on specific trauma types and their corresponding PTSD symptom profiles. Furthermore, varied PTSD symptom manifestations that may yield to PTSD trauma subtypes are yet to be known. Importantly, the significance of the military culture's possible influence on soldiers' PTSD has also been underexplored. And the dominant PTSD construct may possibly be unable to capture the essential aspects of the military context in understanding combat-related PTSD. Hence, this study aims to reach an understanding into how index trauma and military culture may possibly shape participants' PTSD expressions. Case study design was used, wherein multiple sources of data-such as PTSD assessments, and interviews with the participants and key informants-enabled data triangulation. The three case reports are the outcomes of the corroboration of evidences that reveal an enriched and holistic understanding of the phenomenon under study. The Ethics Review Board Committee of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Medical Center approved the study. The participants were three Filipino active duty combat soldiers. Although all participants had similar index traumas, their PTSD symptom expressions are unique from one another, in that they differ in terms of their most incapacitating PTSD symptoms and other symptoms that have been potentially shaped by military culture. Their most incapacitating symptoms: hypervigilance (case 1), negative belief in oneself and negative emotions (case 2), prolonged distress, and marked physiological reactions to trauma-related cues (case 3), may be understood in the light of how they personally experienced different circumstances of their index traumas. The way participants have anchored specific components of their sworn soldier's creed (i.e., not leaving a fallen comrade) into some of their PTSD
have concerns about changes in a Soldier‘s demeanor and escort the Soldier to a healthcare facility, if needed.46 NCOERs: - Inform my Soldiers...Center for PTSD indicates that ―Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), and Selective Serotonin...assignments that the individual must complete independently. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), is another psychotherapy
Pettigrew, Judith; Robinson, Katie; Moloney, Stephanie
More is known about the experience of occupational therapists than the experience of patients during the profession's early years. We examined soldiers' experiences of occupational therapy in American Base Hospital 9 in France during World War I through analysis of a 53-line poem by Corporal Frank Wren contained in the unpublished memoir of occupational therapy reconstruction aide Lena Hitchcock. Historical documentary research methods and thematic analysis were used to analyze the poem, the memoir, and the hospital's published history. The poem describes the activities engaged in during occupational therapy, equipment used, and the context of therapy. It articulates positive dimensions of the experience of engaging in activities, including emotional benefits, diversion, and orthopedic benefits. Previous historical research has identified core philosophical premises about the use of occupational therapy; in this article, the enactment of these principles is established through the analysis of a soldier's account of receiving occupational therapy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Full Text Available The family Cantharidae is a worldwide distributed group of flattened and soft-bodied beetles displaying aposematic colouration. These beetles, commonly known as soldier beetles, have an extensive fossil record dating back to the Lower Cretaceous. The majority of fossil material, referred to Cantharidae, is known from amber inclusions. In this paper we describe and illustrate a new soldier beetle Kuskaella macroptera gen. et sp. nov. from the Baltic amber. It is characterised by pronotum of the male parallel-sided in basal third and abruptly narrowed towards apex, and of the female gradually and steadily narrowing from the basal margin to the apex; globular head; unequal maxillary palpomeres with the last segment elongated-globular and pointed; long elytra slightly surpassing the last abdominal segment. This finding is the first described species of both sexes preserved in a single amber piece.
Full Text Available Education plays a key role in the process of rehabilitation and reintegracion of child soldiers and helps them to overcome the psysologial and moral impact of the war. Children see education as their gateway to a different life away from the violence and suffering they experienced during the years lived with the armed grups. The desire to change life makes children strive in this activity devouting great effort to stand out above the rest of their classmates. The disruption of the educational process generates great frustration for former child soldiers. Therefore, all reintegration and rehabilitation programs must invest time and resources to ensure that these children have secured their training until the end.
Kelley, Christie L; Britt, Thomas W; Adler, Amy B; Bliese, Paul D
Research has shown that perceived organizational support (POS), or how much employees believe their organizations value their contributions and well-being, is an important predictor of employee mental health outcomes. To support employee mental health in high-risk occupations, organizations may want to identify variables that explain the relationship between POS and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Using a longitudinal design and a military sample, the present study found a relationship between POS and stigma as well as PTSD symptoms. Stigma partially mediated the relationship between POS at Time 1 and PTSD symptoms at Time 2. The partial mediation indicates that a supportive environment may also create a climate of reduced stigma in which soldiers may be comfortable addressing PTSD symptoms. Both results suggest positive actions that organizations can take to support employee mental health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Attention - Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( ADHD ) was diagnosed exclusively in those soldiers who deployed on ADHD medication and required refills...Insomnia 8 3 ADHD 3 1 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 3 1 Generalized Anxiety Disorder 3 1 R/O Psychotic Disorder 3 1 Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia 2 1...of physical injury, expe- riencing traumatic events may trigger psychological disor- ders most notably, post-traumatic stress disorder
Schwartz, Dagan; Glassberg, Elon; Nadler, Roy; Hirschhorn, Gil; Marom, Ophir Cohen; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor
In the second Lebanon war in 2006, the Israeli Defense Forces fought against well-prepared and well-equipped paramilitary forces. The conflict took place near the Israeli border and major Israeli medical centers. Good data records were maintained throughout the campaign, allowing accurate analysis of injury characteristics. This study is an in-depth analysis of injury mechanisms, severity, and anatomic locations. Data regarding all injured soldiers were collected from all care points up to the definitive care hospitals and were cross-referenced. In addition, trauma branch physicians and nurses interviewed medical teams to validate data accuracy. Injuries were analyzed using Injury Severity Score (ISS) (when precise anatomic data were available) and multiple injury patterns scoring for all. A total of 833 soldiers sustained combat-related injury during the study period, including 119 fatalities (14.3%). Although most soldiers (361) sustained injury only to one Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) region, the average number of regions per soldier was 2.0 but was 1.5 for survivors versus 4.2 for fatalities. Current war injury classifications have limitations that hinder valid comparisons between campaigns and settings. In addition, limitation on full autopsy in war fatalities further hinders data use. To partly compensate for those limitations, we have looked at the correlation between fatality rates and number of involved anatomic regions and found it to be strong. We have also found high fatality rates in some "combined" injuries such as head and chest injuries (71%) or in the abdomen and an extremity (75%). The use of multiinjury patterns analysis may help understand fatality rates and improve the utility of war injury analysis. Epidemiologic study, level III.
Hanus, Robert; Šobotník, Jan; Valterová, Irena; Lukáš, J.
Roč. 53, č. 3 (2006), s. 249-257 ISSN 0020-1812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/2146; GA ČR GA206/06/1643 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termite soldiers * ontogeny * biochemistry * defensive secretion Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.481, year: 2006
includes personalized eating , fitness, and APFT tools to help Soldiers stay fit and meet AR600-9 and APFT standards, and 2) a promotion program designed...Pennington Biomedical Research Center (PBRC) is delivering a program to the Louisiana Army National Guard (LANG) called Healthy Eating , Activity, and...and the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) (3), i.e., height, weight, fatness estimates, and measures of fitness, 2) assess the unique health risk
equipment items. Capitalizing on requirements and ideas of military units, deployed in combat and facing complex reconnaissance, security, and...operator so they remember to apply it to the robot. Another example is recognizing an IED. A Soldier might already know about telltale signs of...employ the ground robotic vehicle imposes a cognitive load on top of other military skills, perceptual decision-making skills, and communication
Lev-Tzion, Raffi; Friedman, Tal; Shochat, Tzippy; Gazala, Eliyahu; Wohl, Yonit
Numerous studies have shown an association between asthma and mental disorders. While elevated rates of asthma have been noted among psychiatric patients with anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder, several studies have found elevated rates of mental disorders among asthma patients. Such studies, however, have generally relied upon questionnaires and assessment by non-specialist physicians to diagnose mental disorders and asthma. To examine a possible association between asthma and psychiatric diagnoses in Israeli military recruits and soldiers. In this cross-sectional study we compared the prevalence of mental diagnoses in asthmatic recruits and soldiers with that in non-asthmatic recruits and soldiers. A total of 195,903 recruits and soldiers were examined by Israel Defense Forces recruiting offices and fitness boards. Diagnoses of asthma were based on a pulmonologist's diagnosis, including spirometry at rest and exercise testing as indicated; diagnoses of mental disorders were based on examination by a psychiatrist. The prevalence of asthma was found to be 7.8% (current) and 9.8% (lifetime). The prevalence of mental disorders was 13.4%. Current asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of any mental disorder (OR = 1.20, 95% Cl = 1.15-1.26), and specifically with mood and anxiety disorders (1.31, 1.19-1.46), introvert personality disorders (1.20, 1.12-1.28) and adjustment disorder (1.43, 1.26-1.62). Lifetime asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of the same disorders, but the association was not as powerful. The results validate the previously documented association between asthma and mental disorders, using a sample of unprecedented size and improved methodology. A multidisciplinary approach to asthma that incorporates mental health professionals in the treatment of poorly controlled asthma and perhaps of asthma in general is recommended.
Health Support Predictive - Genetics , allergies, specific medications Preventive - Acting proactively with preventive medicine Point of care...Make soldier invisible across the EM spectrum (passive)❍ Adaptive camouflage ( chameleon )❍ ● Interactive textile/clothing Power/data...and imaging of the surrounding and mimicking it ( chameleon effect) 12. ANTENNA Appendix A http://www.aro.army.mil/phys/Nanoscience/sec4nano.htm (1
Full Text Available Objective: Military service is a highly stressful period both for the soldiers serving and for their parents. Surprisingly, parents’ experience has been mostly ignored in the research. This study’s goal is to shed light on the experience and distress levels of parents of active duty combat soldiers during Operation Protective Edge, a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces during July and August of 2014.Methods: During the advanced stages of the operation, 69 parents of Israeli male combat soldiers (55 mothers and 14 fathers completed an online survey measuring symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-Checklist-5 and distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Participants were recruited using a convenience sample, by posting ads on the public Facebook pages of the researchers and of the groups dedicated to parents of Israeli soldiers.Results: Parents’ depression and anxiety symptom levels were higher than depression and anxiety symptom levels of the adult community norms in Israel. General distress rates of parents were similar to those presented by adults in southern Israel who were exposed for 7 years to the ongoing threat of daily rocket fire from Gaza, and higher than rates of a non-threatened Israeli population. Finally, 20.2% of the parents presented PTSD-like symptoms, a higher percentage than the probable PTSD diagnosis rates that were found in the general population in Israel during previous terror waves.Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of soldiers’ parents’ distress and indicates the need for a better understanding of the impact of military service on soldiers’ parents.
initiating the task, each Soldier practiced proper lifting technique using a pair of kettlebells . Then on the platform, while wearing a fighting load...body power) Soldiers held a 24-kg kettlebell attached to a fixed resistance of 100 lb and pulled it for 20 m and/or 90 s, whichever came first. The...Columbia, SC) on the rubber flooring described in the casualty drag. Soldiers were instructed to pull on the kettlebell attached to the rope while stepping
Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Brownlow, Janeese A; Boland, Elaine M; Mosti, Caterina; Gehrman, Philip R
The objective of this study was to investigate the rates, predictors and correlates of insomnia in a national sample of US Army soldiers. Data were gathered from the cross-sectional survey responses of the All-Army Study, of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members. Participants were a representative sample of 21 499 US Army soldiers who responded to the All-Army Study self-administered questionnaire between 2011 and 2013. Insomnia was defined by selected DSM-5 criteria using the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire. The results highlight significant functional difficulties associated with insomnia among US soldiers, as well as insights into predictors of insomnia specific to this population. Insomnia was present in 22.76% of the sample. Predictors of insomnia status in logistic regression included greater number of current mental health disorders, less perceived open lines of communication with leadership, less unit member support and less education. Insomnia had global, negative associations with health, social functioning, support, morale, work performance and Army career intentions. The results provide the strongest evidence to-date that insomnia is common in a military population, and is associated with a wide array of negative factors in the domains of health, military readiness and intentions to remain in military careers. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.
Friedl, Karl E; Breivik, Torbjorn J; Carter, Robert; Leyk, Dieter; Opstad, Per Kristian; Taverniers, John; Trousselard, Marion
Human performance enhancement was the subject of a NATO workshop that considered the direct benefits of individual soldier health and fitness habits to brain health and performance. Some of the important health and fitness include physical activity and purposeful exercise, nutritional intake, sleep and rest behaviors, psychological outlook and mindfulness, and other physiologically based systemic challenges such as thermal exposure. These influences were considered in an integrated framework with insights contributed by each of five participating NATO member countries using representative research to highlight relevant interrelationships. Key conclusions are that (1) understanding the neurobiological bases and consequences of personal health behaviors is a priority for soldier performance research, and this also involves long-term brain health consequences to veterans and (2) health and fitness habits have been underappreciated as reliably effective performance enhancers and these should be preferred targets in the development of scientifically based recommendations for soldier brain health and performance. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Garcia-Vedrenne, A. E.
Although not traditionally recognized as such, trematode infections in molluscan first intermediate hosts comprise colonies. When two trematode species simultaneously infect a snail host, one generally kills the other. Thus, there can be strong selective pressure for established trematode colonies to protect and defend against new infections. Recent findings demonstrate that some trematode species have a reproductive division of labor involving a reproductive and a soldier caste. Reproductives are larger and filled with offspring, while soldiers lack developing embryos, and are specialized for inter-trematode antagonism. This reproductive division of labor has now been documented for intramolluscan stages of fourteen trematode species from different geographic regions and host species. Further, literature descriptions of the life history of several species suggest that this phenomenon is widespread, although there are important intra- and inter-specific differences in colony structure. It has been predicted that trematode soldier castes would most likely evolve in taxa that are typically dominant in interspecific hierarchies, in situations of invasion risk, and among trematodes that infect longer lived hosts. Here I address these hypotheses and present the extent of evidence for trematode social organization.
Le Sueur, Philippe
Sagem Defense Securite has been awarded a 800M euro contract for the French infantrymen modernisation programme. This programme covers the development, the qualification and the production of about 32 000 soldier systems to equip all the French infantry starting fielding in 2008. The FELIN soldier system provides the infantryman with an integrated system increasing dramatically the soldier capability in any dismounted close combat domains. Man remains at the centre of the system, which can interface equipments or systems already fielded and future equipments to match any customer's needs. Urban operations are carefully addressed thanks to a versatile and modular solution and a dedicated C4I system, Sagem Defense Securite is a European leader in defence electronics and takes part of this major French Army transformation programme, which will play a key role in the Info Centric Network initiatives promoted in France and other countries. This paper summarises the system solutions selected by the French Army with a focus on the networked capabilities and the optronic devices.
Bush, Nigel E; Fullerton, Nicole; Crumpton, Rosa; Metzger-Abamukong, Melinda; Fantelli, Emily
Personal technologies such as smartphones, computers, and gaming devices, are ubiquitous in the civilian world. Consequently they represent ideal vehicles for disseminating psychological and other health resources and interventions. However, almost nothing is known about personal technology use in the U.S. military. We conducted the most comprehensive survey to date of the use, availability, and need for personal technologies by U.S. military service members. Our survey asked detailed questions about computers and the Internet, phones and smartphones, other mobile or portable technologies, gaming devices, and TV and video media used during deployment and at permanent duty station or home. We collected data by paper-and-pencil survey in 2010 and 2011 from 331 active Army service members at a processing and registration center in a large military installation in the western United States. Two cohorts were surveyed: Soldiers who had previously been deployed to a warzone and soldiers who had never been deployed. We measured high rates of personal technology use by service members at home across all popular electronic media. Soldiers at home essentially resembled civilian consumers in their use of popular technologies. Some technologies, including the Internet, gaming, and TV, were widespread on deployment. Others, most notably cellphones, were more restricted by availability, connectivity, opportunity, and military regulation in the warzone. Results will enable researchers and technology developers target their efforts on the most promising and popular technologies for psychological health in the military.
Lewandowski-Romps, Lisa; Schroeder, Heather M; Berglund, Patricia A; Colpe, Lisa J; Cox, Kenneth; Hauret, Keith; Hay, Jeffrey D; Jones, Bruce; Little, Roderick J A; Mitchell, Colter; Schoenbaum, Michael; Schulz, Paul; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J; Heeringa, Steven G
Accidents are a leading cause of deaths in U.S. active duty personnel. Understanding accident deaths during wartime could facilitate future operational planning and inform risk prevention efforts. This study expands prior research, identifying health risk factors associated with U.S. Army accident deaths during the Afghanistan and Iraq war. Military records for 2004-2009 enlisted, active duty, Regular Army soldiers were analyzed using logistic regression modeling to identify mental health, injury, and polypharmacy (multiple narcotic and/or psychotropic medications) predictors of accident deaths for current, previously, and never deployed groups. Deployed soldiers with anxiety diagnoses showed higher risk for accident deaths. Over half had anxiety diagnoses prior to being deployed, suggesting anticipatory anxiety or symptom recurrence may contribute to high risk. For previously deployed soldiers, traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicated higher risk. Two-thirds of these soldiers had first TBI medical-encounter while non-deployed, but mild, combat-related TBIs may have been undetected during deployments. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) predicted higher risk for never deployed soldiers, as did polypharmacy which may relate to reasons for deployment ineligibility. Health risk predictors for Army accident deaths are identified and potential practice and policy implications discussed. Further research could test for replicability and expand models to include unobserved factors or modifiable mechanisms related to high risk. PTSD predicted high risk among those never deployed, suggesting importance of identification, treatment, and prevention of non-combat traumatic events. Finally, risk predictors overlapped with those identified for suicides, suggesting effective intervention might reduce both types of deaths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In 1763, a regiment of mercenary soldiers stationed on the border of Suriname and Berbice in South America, rebelled. The men had been sent to help subdue a large slave rebellion. Instead, they mutinied and joined the rebelling slaves. This paper reconstructs the mutiny from Dutch records and uses it to look at the role of soldiers as border crosser in the Atlantic world. Colonial historians have usually studied soldiers in their capacity of border enforcers, men who maintained the cultural and legal divisions that supported colonial authority. However, as I show, soldiers with great regularity crossed those same borders, threatening the very foundations of colonialism.
To assess, maintain or improve a soldier's physical/ physiological/psychological capability to function effectively under environmental and emotional stress and to minimize adverse effects of stress...
To assess, maintain, or improve a soldier's physical/physiological/psychological capability to function effectively under environmental and operational stress and to minimize adverse effects of stress...
Metcalfe, Jason S; Davis, Jr., , James A; Tauson, Richard A; McDowell, Kaleb
.... Because vehicle motion is a primary influence on the Soldier's performance, understanding the relationship between vehicle motion and performance is considered essential to solving the human factors...
Full Text Available Social insects exhibit a variety of caste-specific behavioral tendencies that constitute the basis of division of labor within the colony. In termites, the soldier caste display distinctive defense behaviors, such as aggressively attacking enemies with well-developed mandibles, while the other castes retreat into the colony without exhibiting any aggressive response. It is thus likely that some form of soldier-specific neuronal modification exists in termites. In this study, the authors compared the brain (cerebral ganglion and the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG of soldiers and pseudergates (workers in the damp-wood termite, Hodotermopsis sjostedti. The size of the SOG was significantly larger in soldiers than in pseudergates, but no difference in brain size was apparent between castes. Furthermore, mandibular nerves were thicker in soldiers than in pseudergates. Retrograde staining revealed that the somata sizes of the mandibular motor neurons (MdMNs in soldiers were more than twice as large as those of pseudergates. The enlargement of MdMNs was also observed in individuals treated with a juvenile hormone analogue (JHA, indicating that MdMNs become enlarged in response to juvenile hormone (JH action during soldier differentiation. This enlargement is likely to have two functions: a behavioral function in which soldier termites will be able to defend more effectively through relatively faster and stronger mandibular movements, and a developmental function that associates with the development of soldier-specific mandibular muscle morphogenesis in termite head. The soldier-specific enlargement of mandibular motor neurons was observed in all examined species in five termite families that have different mechanisms of defense, suggesting that such neuronal modification was already present in the common ancestor of termites and is significant for soldier function.
Brownlow, Janeese A; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Boland, Elaine M; Brewster, Glenna S; Gehrman, Philip R
There has been a great deal of research on the comorbidity of insomnia and psychiatric disorders, but much of the existing data is based on small samples and does not assess the full diagnostic criteria for each disorder. Further, the exact nature of the relationship between these conditions and their impact on cognitive problems are under-researched in military samples. Data were collected from the All Army Study of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members (unweighted N = 21, 449; weighted N = 674,335; 18-61 years; 13.5% female). Participants completed the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire to assess for insomnia disorder and a self-administered version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Screening Scales to assess for psychiatric disorders and cognitive problems. Military soldiers with current major depressive episode (MDE) had the highest prevalence of insomnia disorder (INS; 85.0%), followed by current generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 82.6%) and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 69.7%), respectively. Significant interactions were found between insomnia and psychiatric disorders; specifically, MDE, PTSD, and GAD status influenced the relationship between insomnia and memory/concentration problems. Cross-sectional nature of the assessment and the absence of a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Psychiatric disorders moderated the relationship between insomnia and memory/concentration problems, suggesting that psychiatric disorders contribute unique variance to cognitive problems even though they are associated with insomnia disorder. Results highlight the importance of considering both insomnia and psychiatric disorders in the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive deficits in military soldiers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
were geared toward reducing anxiety and 7 depression in middle schools, high...and teens can compare, and ultimately be transposed through the CSF, to developing resiliency of deployed Soldiers in combat zones. These studies...issues that Soldiers were having, mostly during or returning from deployments. Issues such as PTSD, depression , and suicide. Seligman helped the
The present study had two main objectives; first, to discover the relationships between job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers, second, to find out the age, salary, marital status, and education differences on job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers. In the present study two questionnaires; Job Satisfaction Scale JSS (Macdonald & Maclntyre, 1997) and Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, ...
Maringira, G.; Gibson, D.; Richters, A.
This article examines the habitus of soldiers who either deserted or resigned from the Zimbabwe National Army in the post-2000 crisis in Zimbabwe and now live in exile in Johannesburg, South Africa. It is based on the information provided by forty-four former soldiers who related their life
collaborate with Army partners on injury prevention /human performance optimization projects, and enhance communication of evidence- based lessons learned to...6.2 APHC Injury Prevention contributions to SMRC IP 10.0: Improve Soldier Injury Prevention /Human Performance ...Soldier Medical Readiness Campaign Plan (SMR-CP), objectives to inform evidence- based injury prevention /human performance optimization programs and
Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus
The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home.
Explores the circumstances surrounding the creation of education schemes in the armies of the British Empire. Discusses attitudes toward war and toward the soldier's role in the early 1900s, attitudes of the soldiers toward war, the University of Vimy Ridge, the Canadian Khaki University, the Oatlands program, and education for the New Zealand…
Bell, Nicole S.; Harford, Thomas C.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Hollander, Ilyssa E.; Kay, Ashley B.
Suicides among U.S. Army soldiers are increasing and, in January 2009, outpaced deaths due to combat. For this study, 1,873 army suicides identified through death, inpatient, and emergency room records were matched with 5,619 controls. In multivariate models, older, male, White, single, and enlisted soldiers with a prior injury (OR = 2.04, 95% CI…
Song, S.; Tol, W.; de Jong, J.
Since many former child soldiers are aging and having children of their own, this study aimed to understand how the effects of trauma are passed to the next generation. In this qualitative study, semistructured interviews, focus groups, and observations were conducted with 25 former child soldiers
Hyatt, Kyong; Davis, Linda L; Barroso, Julie
One of the most common, yet most difficult to detect injuries sustained by U.S. soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan is mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Left untreated, mTBI can negatively impact soldiers' postdeployment adjustment. This research describes the rehabilitation experiences of soldiers with a history of mTBI and their spouses. Nine soldiers with mTBI and their spouses participated in the study. A total of 27 interviews were conducted exploring couples' post-mTBI rehabilitation experiences. Participants consisted of active duty soldiers with mTBI who had returned from deployment within 2 years, and their civilian spouses. Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology was used to collect and analyze the data. The majority of the soldiers and spouses who participated (16/18) indicated that uncertain prognosis and symptom management were the greatest challenges of post-mTBI. Other challenges, such as delayed diagnosis, limited access to mental health care, and difficulty navigating an unfamiliar military health care system was also reported. Because of mTBI's lack of visible manifestation, soldiers may confuse their mTBI symptoms with those of other deployment-related injuries and this leads to a delay in treatment. Future research should explore the standardization of post-mTBI rehabilitation programs and the effectiveness of soldier education to promote early detection and treatment. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Full Text Available Background: Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression. Objective: To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants in the DR Congo. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews concerning military experiences, experienced and perpetrated violence, and mental health. Results: Former child soldiers reported more experienced and perpetrated violence, a greater severity of trauma-related suffering, as well as higher appetitive aggression than adult ex-combatants. Appetitive aggression was related to more perpetrated violence, higher military ranks, voluntary recruitment and higher rates of reenlistments in former child soldiers. Conclusions: Our results indicate that growing up in an armed group is related to higher levels of trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior. This may explain the challenge of reintegrating former child soldiers. It is thus important to consider mental health problems, particularly trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior, of former child soldiers for designing adequate reintegration programs.
Jager, H.; Schrijer, G.; Wegdam, F.; Houwelingen, T. van; Bree, J.L.M.J. van; Verhagen, T.L.; Reffeltrath, P.; Reulink, H.
This presentation describes the concept for a clothing system that is under development in the framework of the Netherlands Soldier Modernisation Programme. Changes in the operational profile of the Netherlands combat soldier prompted the development of a new clothing system. The main objective is
Christensen, Anna M; Pietralczyk, Elizabeth; Lopez, Job E; Brooks, Christopher; Schriefer, Martin E; Wozniak, Edward; Stermole, Benjamin
In August 2015, a soldier returned from field exercises in Texas, USA, with nonspecific febrile illness. Culture and sequencing of spirochetes from peripheral blood diagnosed Borrelia turicatae infection. The patient recovered after receiving doxycycline. No illness occurred in asymptomatic soldiers potentially exposed to the vector tick and prophylactically given treatment.
van der Snoek, E. M.; Lammers, A. M.; Kortbeek, L. M.; Roelfsema, J. H.; Bart, A.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.
We report two Dutch infantry soldiers who acquired American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) during military jungle training in Surinam. The lesions had existed for 3 and 5 months, respectively, before the soldiers presented for treatment. The lesions occurred on the head and right thigh, and were
Khoe, Y.S.; Horst, M.J. van der; Weiden, M.C. van der
The introduction, analysis or development of soldier systems presents many questions regarding the optimum of possible combinations of burden, effectiveness and safety of the soldier system. The soldier is subject to a broad spectrum of physical loads as a consequence of the threats being
Long, Frederick H.; Larkin, Gabriella; Bisordi, Danielle; Dorsey, Shauna; Marianucci, Damien; Goss, Lashawnta; Bastawros, Michael; Misiuda, Paul; Rodgers, Glenn; Mazz, John P.
Target recognition and identification is a problem of great military and scientific importance. To examine the correlation between target recognition and optical magnification, ten U.S. Army soldiers were tasked with identifying letters on targets at 800 and 1300 meters away. Letters were used since they are a standard method for measuring visual acuity. The letters were approximately 90 cm high, which is the size of a well-known rifle. Four direct view optics with angular magnifications of 1.5x, 4x, 6x, and 9x were used. The goal of this approach was to measure actual probabilities for correct target identification. Previous scientific literature suggests that target recognition can be modeled as a linear response problem in angular frequency space using the established values for the contrast sensitivity function for a healthy human eye and the experimentally measured modulation transfer function of the optic. At the 9x magnification, the soldiers could identify the letters with almost no errors (i.e., 97% probability of correct identification). At lower magnification, errors in letter identification were more frequent. The identification errors were not random but occurred most frequently with a few pairs of letters (e.g., O and Q), which is consistent with the literature for letter recognition. In addition, in the small subject sample of ten soldiers, there was considerable variation in the observer recognition capability at 1.5x and a range of 800 meters. This can be directly attributed to the variation in the observer visual acuity.
This, coupled with a lack of European power in the area immediately after war, gave the people of Southeast Asia the courage to try and claim their...CI O DO ML Map 2 Indchin show g te 16h parllel [SORCEt Pte Denni, Trobled ays o peac (NewYork:St.BartnsPes 1987),P. 18 40 they arrived after the...January even the pretext that the soldiers could determine the difference was removed when they were ordered to "arrest every male ."’ 17 16 War Diary
is the resistance to killing one’s own species . Combat is like a roller coaster with highs being an adrenaline rush and lows coming after the rush...2001). Further discussion of “human psychology” can be found in appendix D. 4.5 Leadership Field Manual (FM) 6-22 is the Army’s keystone FM on...to assure the welfare of his/her Soldiers (Field Manual 6-22, 2006). b. Topic Definition: FM 6-22 is the U.S. Army’s keystone Field Manual on
Immunizations will be monitored and kept current. Pass: Current for Total Force/All Services vaccines including hepatitis A, tetanus-diphtheria ( Td ...reserve soldiers required to sustain current and future operations. Endnotes 1 LTG Jack C. Stultz and CSM Michael D. Schultz, The United States...11 LTG Jack C. Stultz and CSM Michael D. Schultz, The United States Army Reserve 2011 Posture Statement, Fiscal Year 2011, Posture Statement
Kesharaju, Manasa; Nagarajah, Romesh
The motivation for this research stems from a need for providing a non-destructive testing method capable of detecting and locating any defects and microstructural variations within armour ceramic components before issuing them to the soldiers who rely on them for their survival. The development of an automated ultrasonic inspection based classification system would make possible the checking of each ceramic component and immediately alert the operator about the presence of defects. Generally, in many classification problems a choice of features or dimensionality reduction is significant and simultaneously very difficult, as a substantial computational effort is required to evaluate possible feature subsets. In this research, a combination of artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms are used to optimize the feature subset used in classification of various defects in reaction-sintered silicon carbide ceramic components. Initially wavelet based feature extraction is implemented from the region of interest. An Artificial Neural Network classifier is employed to evaluate the performance of these features. Genetic Algorithm based feature selection is performed. Principal Component Analysis is a popular technique used for feature selection and is compared with the genetic algorithm based technique in terms of classification accuracy and selection of optimal number of features. The experimental results confirm that features identified by Principal Component Analysis lead to improved performance in terms of classification percentage with 96% than Genetic algorithm with 94%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter
The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.
Carter, Sarah; Loew, Benjamin; Allen, Elizabeth; Stanley, Scott; Rhoades, Galena; Markman, Howard
Social support, including support from spouses, may buffer against posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The current study assessed whether the frequency of spousal communication during a recent deployment, a potentially important source of support for soldiers, was related to postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Data came from 193 married male Army soldiers who returned from military deployment within the past year. For communication modalities conceptualized as delayed (i.e., letters, care packages, and e-mails), greater spousal communication frequency during deployment was associated with lower postdeployment PTSD symptom scores, but only at higher levels of marital satisfaction (p = .009). At lower marital satisfaction, more delayed spousal communication during deployment was associated with more PTSD symptoms (p = .042). For communication modalities conceptualized as interactive (i.e., phone calls, instant messaging, instant messaging with video), the same general direction of effects was seen, but the interaction between communication frequency and marital satisfaction predicting PTSD symptoms did not reach significance. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Araszkiewicz, A; Florkowski, A; Lucki, Z
Environmental conditions cause neuroses and symptoms of personality disorders in regular soldiers. Military service in highly formalized and hierarchical conditions makes it impossible to: express emotions (particularly negative ones), to arrange one's own time, to choose the position and place of work. Another important psychotraumatic factor is excessive load of work and responsibility for the sake of "the service". Psychotherapy is the main part of neurotic and personality disorder therapy in regular soldiers. The social context is the bass for theoretical assumptions of psychotherapy carried out by the authors. Based on the theory of learning, the aims of the applied psychotherapy are: eagerness for the elimination of symptoms and changing the mode of behaviour. Group psychotherapy is carried out in stationary conditions, in groups of 8 to 13 patients, for 8-9 weeks. The applied methods are: debating psychotherapy, interaction-communicative methods, psychodrawing, musicotherapy, choreotherapy and relaxation techniques. As the result of the therapy, about 89% of symptomatic improvement and about 81% of the change of attitude and behaviour were obtained.
Habibi, Mojtaba; Darharaj, Mohammad; Kelly, Adrian B; Shahmiri, Hasan; Malekianjabali, Mona; Kheirolomoom, Seyedeh Leili
Given the stressful nature of military life, people in the armed forces are vulnerable to substance use. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between family and peers with drug use among military forces in Iran. Convenience sampling was used to recruit a total of 422 draftees doing military service in army units in Tehran, Iran. Measures of family and peers' risk and protective factors, alcohol use, and other drug use were administered. Findings indicated significant relationships between family (i.e., family models for risk behavior, parent sanctions, and family controls) and peers (i.e., peer modeling for risk behavior, peer controls, support from friends) with drug use. A multiple regression analysis revealed that peer modeling for risk behavior, family models for risk behavior, and parent sanctions were significant predictors of drug use in soldiers. These results were consistent with the influence of family and peer on drug use amongst soldiers. Programs designed to reduce alcohol and other drug use may benefit from tailoring to fit risk and protective files amongst peer and family networks.
Frickmann, H; Schwarz, N G; Holtherm, H-U; Maassen, W; Vorderwülbecke, F; Erkens, K; Fischer, M; Morwinsky, T; Hagen, R M
Since 1992, German soldiers have been deployed in areas where malaria is endemic. Antimalarial chemoprophylaxis (CP) is directed according to the assessed risk and is provided free of charge. Compliance is crucial if its effect is to be reliable. This study analysed compliance with directed CP in German soldiers as well as its determinants. Between 2003 and 2009, standardized questionnaire-based interviews were performed with 2,149 out of approximately 100,000 German soldiers who were deployed during this period in areas where malaria is endemic. The questionnaires dealt with information that the soldiers had received about malaria prior to their missions, with their adherence to mosquito-protective and antimalarial chemoprophylactic procedures, and their estimations of their individual level of exposure. About 1,308 out of 2,149 interviewed soldiers had been ordered to take CP, allowing for an assessment of the outcome parameter "CP-compliance". About 76.9 % out of 1,308 soldiers to whom regular CP was directed took it regularly. The exposure variables "age", "satisfaction with malaria counselling", "perceived threat due to insects or mosquitoes" and "use of insect repellents" were positively associated with compliance with directed antimalarial CP. The study confirms the findings of the French and US armies that even free-of-charge access to antimalarial medication will not lead to 100 % acceptance. The compliance problem is aggravated by the generally low age of deployed soldiers. Adequate counselling is crucial to increase adherence to antimalarial CP.
Taylor, Christine M; Ross, Michelle E; Wood, Joanne N; Griffis, Heather M; Harb, Gerlinde C; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G; Rubin, David M
We described the risk for maltreatment among toddlers of US Army soldiers over different deployment cycles to develop a systematic response within the US Army to provide families appropriate supports. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated maltreatment reports and medical diagnoses among children of 112,325 deployed US Army soldiers between 2001 and 2007. Risk of maltreatment was elevated after deployment for children of soldiers deployed once but not for children of soldiers deployed twice. During the 6 months after deployment, children of soldiers deployed once had 4.43 substantiated maltreatment reports and 4.96 medical diagnoses per 10,000 child-months. The highest maltreatment rate among children of soldiers deployed twice occurred during the second deployment for substantiated maltreatment (4.83 episodes per 10,000 child-months) and before the first deployment for medical diagnoses of maltreatment (3.78 episodes per 10,000 child-months). We confirmed an elevated risk for child maltreatment during deployment but also found a previously unidentified high-risk period during the 6 months following deployment, indicating elevated stress within families of deployed and returning soldiers. These findings can inform efforts by the military to initiate and standardize support and preparation to families during periods of elevated risk.
Ross, Michelle E.; Wood, Joanne N.; Griffis, Heather M.; Harb, Gerlinde C.; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G.; Rubin, David M.
Objectives. We described the risk for maltreatment among toddlers of US Army soldiers over different deployment cycles to develop a systematic response within the US Army to provide families appropriate supports. Methods. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated maltreatment reports and medical diagnoses among children of 112 325 deployed US Army soldiers between 2001 and 2007. Results. Risk of maltreatment was elevated after deployment for children of soldiers deployed once but not for children of soldiers deployed twice. During the 6 months after deployment, children of soldiers deployed once had 4.43 substantiated maltreatment reports and 4.96 medical diagnoses per 10 000 child-months. The highest maltreatment rate among children of soldiers deployed twice occurred during the second deployment for substantiated maltreatment (4.83 episodes per 10 000 child-months) and before the first deployment for medical diagnoses of maltreatment (3.78 episodes per 10 000 child-months). Conclusions. We confirmed an elevated risk for child maltreatment during deployment but also found a previously unidentified high-risk period during the 6 months following deployment, indicating elevated stress within families of deployed and returning soldiers. These findings can inform efforts by the military to initiate and standardize support and preparation to families during periods of elevated risk. PMID:26562128
Crisis and many served in Vietnam. Today, there are 12,000 membe s of the Selected Reserve serving in virtually all Coast Guard missioh areas. 2...emergency health and sanitation efforts. Since its inception, the PHS and its Commissioned Corps have witnessed and played a major role in virtually ...initiatives and programs carried out by the following staff offices within the Office of the Asistant Secretary for Health: o The Office of Disease
Davis, Benny; Huebner, Larry; Kuhns, Richard
The Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (SWORDS) project was a joint project between the U.S. Army Space & Missile Defense Command (SMDC) and NASA. The effort, lead by SMDC, was intended to develop a three-stage liquid bipropellant (liquid oxygen/liquid methane), pressure-fed launch vehicle capable of inserting a payload of at least 25 kg to a 750-km circular orbit. The vehicle design was driven by low cost instead of high performance. SWORDS leveraged commercial industry standards to utilize standard hardware and technologies over customized unique aerospace designs. SWORDS identified broadly based global industries that have achieved adequate levels of quality control and reliability in their products and then designed around their expertise and business motivations.
Aharon S. Finestone
Full Text Available A few countries permit women to serve in combat roles, but their long term performance in these positions has not been reported. The incidences of overuse injuries and attrition of 85 male and 235 female recruits in a light infantry brigade was followed in a three-year prospective study. Females were shorter (162 cm, CI 161–163 cm than males (174 cm, CI 173–176, had more body fat (18.9 kg, CI 18.2–19.6 kg than males (12.6 kg, 11.3–13.8 kg, had lower V˙O2max (36.8 mL·min−1·kg−1, CI 35.8–37.78 mL·min−1·kg−1 than males (50.48 mL·min−1·kg−1, CI 48.4 to 52.48 mL·min−1·kg−1, had more stress fractures (21.0%, 95% CI 16.2–26.5% than males (2.3%, CI 0.3–8.2%, and had more anterior knee pain (41.2%, CI 34.9–47.7% than males (24.7%, CI 16.0–35.2%. Three-year attrition was 28% CI 22–34% for females and 37% CI 26–48% for males. The females in this study successfully served as light infantry soldiers. Their lower fitness and high incidence of overuse injuries might impede service as regular infantry soldiers.
Szema, Anthony M
Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe-positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health.
.... Bliss, Biggs Army Airfield, and Fort Leonard Wood during 1997 to understand how soldiers perceive Meal, Ready-to-Eat portion size and MRE variety and to begin to determine what types of trade offs...
Knerr, Bruce W
Research on the use of virtual simulation to train Soldiers and leaders in small dismounted units has largely focused on the use of specially developed, relatively high-fidelity PC-based simulators...
...). The assessment of the effectiveness of these programs is based on their ability to enhance soldier performance and increase the prospects of promotion, as well as to reduce attrition and increase reenlistment...
Brumley, Donald W
This study of civil-military relations addresses the parallel development of the professional soldier and the Prussian-German Army from 1806 until 1945, as well as the rise of nationalism in central...
...). A prototype CFA trial, conducted using 64 male soldiers of 3 Brigade, Townsville, allowed for the evaluation of both the CFA and the severity of heat strain experienced during physical training...
Weisz, George M
Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments.
.... In a recent study of U.S. Army units deployed to Kosovo in support of a multinational peacekeeping mission, soldier attitudes and health were surveyed on site, mid-way during a 6-month deployment...
Hoge, Charles W; McGurk, Dennis; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Cox, Anthony L; Engel, Charles C; Castro, Carl A
.... Validated clinical instruments were used to compare soldiers reporting mild traumatic brain injury, defined as an injury with loss of consciousness or altered mental status (e.g., dazed or confused...
Redman, Edwin H
.... Huntington, and Eliot Cohen. Clausewitz maintains that, because war is an extension of policy, both dialog and action must be two-way, even to the extent that the soldier become a statesman during war...
.... Garrison units based in Germany. This report compares the Garrison data with data collected from 41,992 soldiers redeploying from Bosnia from November 1997 through March 1998 using scales to assess symptoms of post-traumatic stress...
Full Text Available The objective of the research was to find a correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency of soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenia Armed Forces (SAF. The subject consisted of 115 soldiers (age = 27,1 ± 3,7 years who were serving in the first brigade of the SAF. Motor abilities were measured with 11 motor tests, assessing the level of flexibility, speed, strength and coordination. To evaluate working efficiency of soldiers a special questionnaire was used, which consisted of 19 statements. Superior officer was asked to fill a questionnaire for each inferior soldier with values from 1 to 5. The correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency was assessed with the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We have found 5 statistically significant correlations. Motor tests correlating most with working performance were tests of arm strength.
This report describes a field study designed to measure the effects of an auditory versus a visual presentation of position information on soldier performance of land navigation and target acquisition tasks...
... (alcohol consumption, sick days, and sleep). Findings indicated that soldiers reporting high levels of exposure to peacekeeping experiences reported more post-traumatic symptoms, greater use of conflict-related tactics, more alcohol consumption...
Knichel, David G.; Bruemmer, David J.
The Army Future Combat System (FCS) Operational Requirement Document has identified a number of advanced robot tactical behavior requirements to enable the Future Brigade Combat Team (FBCT). The FBCT advanced tactical behaviors include Sentinel Behavior, Obstacle Avoidance Behavior, and Scaled Levels of Human-Machine control Behavior. The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, (TRADOC) Maneuver Support Center (MANSCEN) has also documented a number of robotic behavior requirements for the Army non FCS forces such as the Infantry Brigade Combat Team (IBCT), Stryker Brigade Combat Team (SBCT), and Heavy Brigade Combat Team (HBCT). The general categories of useful robot tactical behaviors include Ground/Air Mobility behaviors, Tactical Mission behaviors, Manned-Unmanned Teaming behaviors, and Soldier-Robot Interface behaviors. Many DoD research and development centers are achieving the necessary components necessary for artificial tactical behaviors for ground and air robots to include the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM), Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center, US Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and non DoD labs such as Department of Energy (DOL). With the support of the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE) through DoD and non DoD labs the Army Maneuver Support Center has recently concluded successful field trails of ground and air robots with specialized tactical behaviors and sensors to enable semi autonomous detection, reporting, and marking of explosive hazards to include Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) and landmines. A specific goal of this effort was to assess how collaborative behaviors for multiple unmanned air and ground vehicles can reduce risks to Soldiers and increase efficiency for on and off route explosive hazard detection, reporting, and marking. This paper discusses experimental results achieved with a robotic countermine system
Full Text Available In order to study morphometric variations in Odontotermes obesus (Rambur, samples from nineteen nests were statistically analyzed for mean, standard deviation, standard error, coefficient of variability and confidence interval (95% and analysis of variance (Model II ANOVA, The mean values of the different population samples were compared with the student t-test, following the Minitab version and Sokal & Rohlf (1973. In the study of external characters, measurements form a very important component, particularly for identification of species. However, the reliability of the measurements depends on the extent of variability which the structures show within and between colonies. For each individual soldier, the following nine parameters were measured: i length of head; ii width of head at mandibles; iii width of head at the posterolateral ends of antennal carinae; iv maximum width of head; v length of left mandible; vi tooth of left mandible from tip; vii length of pronotum; viii width of pronotum; ix length of postmentum; and x width of postmentum.
Luxton, David D; Greenburg, David; Ryan, Jenny; Niven, Alexander; Wheeler, Gary; Mysliwiec, Vincent
Short sleep duration (SSD) is common among deployed soldiers. The prevalence of SSD during redeployment, however, is unknown. Cross-sectional study of a brigade combat team (n = 3152 US Army soldiers) surveyed 90-180 days after completing a 6-15 month deployment to Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Survey items targeted sleep habits and comorbid medical conditions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios of medical comorbidities associated with SSD. US Army Infantry Post. All soldiers from a redeploying brigade combat team participated in a health assessment between 90 and 180 days upon return to Ft. Lewis from Iraq. None. A total of 2738 (86.9%) soldiers answered questions regarding self-perceived sleep and were included in the analysis. Mean sleep duration was 5.8 ± 1.2 hours. Nineteen hundred fifty-nine (72%) slept ≤ 6 h, but only 16% reported a daytime nap or felt their job performance was affected due to lack of sleep. Short sleep was more common among soldiers who reported combat exposure. After controlling for combat exposure, short sleep duration (SSD) was associated with symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic syndrome, and with high-risk health behaviors such as abuse of tobacco and alcohol products, and suicide attempts. SSD is common among redeployed soldiers. Soldiers who experienced combat are at increased risk for persistent SSD and comorbidities associated with SSD. Efforts to reestablish good sleep habits and aggressive evaluation of soldiers with persistent SSD following deployment may aid in the prevention and management of associated medical conditions.
December 5, 2013, Revised: March 13, 2014, Accepted: March 31, 2014. From the Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation (M.A.N., J.C.R., T.C.B...Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation , San Antonio Military Medical Center, 3551 Roger Brooke Dr, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX 78234; email...soldiers. Clin Infect Diseases. 2004;39:971 979. 20. Stinner DJ, Burns TC, Kirk KL, Ficke JR. Return to duty rate of amputee soldiers in current conflicts
Adel Mahmoud Khattab
Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is a common habit among soldiers and it starts in a relatively young age mainly due to social influence. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are the most frequent encountered complaints among soldiers. Main causes that led them to try quitting were health concerns and financial issues; as most of them spend a considerable percentage of their monthly income to obtain cigarettes. Unfortunately there was no organized positive support to help the quitters.
Peter Zimmermann; Susanne Firnkes; Jens T. Kowalski; Johannes Backus; Stefan Siegel; Gerd Willmund; Andreas Maercker
Background: After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context.Method: Schwartz’s Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11) were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanist...
Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Bushman, Timothy; Anderson, Morgan; North, William; Jones, Bruce H
Minimalist running shoes (MRS) are lightweight, are extremely flexible, and have little to no cushioning. It has been thought that MRS will enhance running performance and decrease injury risk. To compare physical characteristics, fitness performance, and injury risks associated with soldiers wearing MRS and those wearing traditional running shoes (TRS). Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Participants were men in a United States Army brigade (N = 1332). Physical characteristics and Army Physical Fitness Test data were obtained by survey. Fitness performance testing was administered at the brigade, and the types of footwear worn were identified by visual inspection. Shoe types were categorized into 2 groups: TRS (stability, cushioning, and motion control) and MRS. Injuries from the previous 12 months were obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. A t test was used to determine mean differences between personal characteristics, training, and fitness performance metrics by shoe type. Hazard ratios and 95% CIs were calculated to determine injury risk by shoe type, controlling for other risk factors. A majority of soldiers wore cushioning shoes (57%), followed by stability shoes (24%), MRS (17%), and motion control shoes (2%). Soldiers wearing MRS were slightly younger than those wearing TRS (P shoe type between soldiers wearing MRS compared with TRS. Soldiers who chose to wear MRS were younger and had higher physical performance scores compared with soldiers wearing TRS. When these differences are controlled, use of MRS does not appear to be associated with higher or lower injury risk in this population. © 2016 The Author(s).
Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, Thomas; Carrijo, Tiago F; Bordereau, Christian; Robert, Alain; Křížková, Barbora; Constantini, Joice P; Cancello, Eliana M
Termites have developed many exocrine glands, generally dedicated to defence or communication. Although a few of these glands occur in all termite species, or represent synapomorphies of larger clades, others are morphological innovations of a single species, or a few related species. Here, we describe the nasus gland, a new gland occurring at the base of the nasus of Angularitermes soldiers. The nasus gland is composed of class 1, 2, and 3 secretory cells, a rare combination that is only shared by the sternal and tergal glands of some termites and cockroaches. The ultrastructural observations suggest that the secretion is produced by class 2 and 3 secretory cells, and released mostly by class 3 cells. The base of the nasus has a rough appearance due to numerous pits bearing openings of canals conducting the secretion from class 3 secretory cells to the exterior. We tentatively assign a defensive function to the nasus gland, although further research is needed to confirm this function. Although the gland is described only from species of Angularitermes, other genera of Nasutitermitinae also present a rough nasus base, suggesting the presence of a similar, possibly homologous, gland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rosen, L N; Martin, L
This study examines the effects of three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace on the psychological well-being of male and female U.S. Army soldiers, and the mediating or moderating roles of appraisal of sexual harassment, organizational climate, and the sociodemographic profile of victims. A survey was administered to 1,060 male soldiers and 305 female soldiers between May and July, 1995, at three Army posts in the United States. Unwanted sexual experiences were found to be significant predictors of psychological symptoms for male and female soldiers. Certain aspects of organizational climate and appraisal of sexual harassment were also significant predictors of psychological symptoms.
Elliman, Toby D; Shannahoff, Molly E; Metzler, Jonathan N; Toblin, Robin L
The bystander intervention model is one approach utilized to reduce risky behaviors within the U.S. Army; however, it is unclear how frequently soldiers experience opportunities to intervene and whether they already intervene in such situations. The present analysis aims to ascertain frequencies for opportunities to intervene and the rates at which soldiers intervene when presented with such opportunities. Soldiers ( N = 286) were asked whether they had witnessed particular risky behavior scenarios of interest to the Army (i.e., suicide-related behaviors, alcohol misuse, or sexual harassment/assault) during the previous 2 months and whether they had intervened in those scenarios. Prevalence rates within this sample were calculated to determine the frequency of such situations and subsequent interventions. Logistic regression was used to ascertain any differences in witnessing scenarios by demographic groups. Nearly half (46.8%) of the soldiers reported witnessing at least one scenario involving risky behaviors. Most soldiers who witnessed an event relating to suicide or alcohol misuse also reported consistently intervening (87.9% and 74.4%, respectively), whereas just half consistently intervened in response to scenarios relating to sexual harassment/assault (49.2%). Lower ranking soldiers were twice as likely as higher ranks to witness scenarios involving alcohol misuse (odds ratio = 2.18, 95% confidence interval [1.11, 4.26]) and sexual harassment/assault (odds ratio = 2.21, 95% confidence interval [1.05, 4.62]). These data indicate that soldiers regularly encounter opportunities to intervene in risky behaviors, and while a majority intervened in such scenarios, more training is warranted, particularly around sexual assault and harassment. This supports the notion that bystander intervention training is a worthwhile investment for the Army.
Tucker, A M; Stern, Y
Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.
Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C; Naifeh, James A; Herberman Mash, Holly; Fullerton, Carol S; Bliese, Paul D; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Aliaga, Pablo A; Wynn, Gary H; Dinh, Hieu M; McCarroll, James E; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B
Mental health of soldiers is adversely affected by the death and injury of other unit members, but whether risk of suicide attempt is influenced by previous suicide attempts in a soldier's unit is unknown. To examine whether a soldier's risk of suicide attempt is influenced by previous suicide attempts in that soldier's unit. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (STARRS), this study identified person-month records for all active-duty, regular US Army, enlisted soldiers who attempted suicide from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009 (n = 9650), and an equal-probability sample of control person-months (n = 153 528). Data analysis was performed from August 8, 2016, to April 10, 2017. Logistic regression analyses examined the number of past-year suicide attempts in a soldier's unit as a predictor of subsequent suicide attempt, controlling for sociodemographic features, service-related characteristics, prior mental health diagnosis, and other unit variables, including suicide-, combat-, and unintentional injury-related unit deaths. The study also examined whether the influence of previous unit suicide attempts varied by military occupational specialty (MOS) and unit size. Of the final analytic sample of 9512 enlisted soldiers who attempted suicide and 151 526 control person-months, most were male (86.4%), 29 years or younger (68.4%), younger than 21 years when entering the army (62.2%), white (59.8%), high school educated (76.6%), and currently married (54.8%). In adjusted models, soldiers were more likely to attempt suicide if 1 or more suicide attempts occurred in their unit during the past year (odds ratios [ORs], 1.4-2.3; P < .001), with odds increasing as the number of unit attempts increased. The odds of suicide attempt among soldiers in a unit with 5 or more past-year attempts was more than twice that of soldiers in a unit with no previous attempts (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 2.1-2.6). The
College Students and Campus Dining Options Sleep Quality, not Sleep Quantity, Correlates with Academic ... sleep time. Practice Gap: In their role to promote student health and improve student performance , college health practitioners and student counselors... Performance Vegetarian-style Eating in College Students : Diet Survey Analysis and BMI Vitamin D Deficiency in College Students :
Appendix 5 Perceived Stress Scale The questions in this scale ask you about your feelings and thoughts during the last month. In each case , you will be...5. How many servings of red meat, hamburger or meat products (ham, sausage , etc.) do you consume per day? (1 serving = 3.5-5 ounces) ə 6. How...consume chicken, turkey instead of veal, pork, hamburger or sausage ? Yes 14. How many times per week do you consume vegetables, pasta, rice or other
... to enter the major airline industry Due to the resulting limited number of B-2 instructor pilots the Air Force contracted for civilian B-2 academic instructors who are not as qualified to instruct...
3 4 5 6 7 b. Mental health professional (e.g., psychologist , psychiatrist, clinical social worker, or other mental health counselor) 1 2 3...professional at a military facility (e.g., psychologist , psychiatrist, clinical social worker, or other mental health counselor...professional (e.g., psychologist , psychiatrist, clinical social worker, or other mental health counselor
Owner Discussion. The owner has about 15 employees. One of them, his service manager , was called to active duty in 2001. The owner estimates...have received from the service manager on the job. The owner was vaguely cognizant of the existence of USERRA, but he did not have cost numbers...run—the service manager has been back on the job for nearly a year—he still has not been able to recoup all of the business lost during the
120 o. Loneliness ...happened ..................................... 434 i. Wished he/she could make things different ........................................ 436 j...588 94. What is your gender ? Constructed from administrative data ........................ 590 95. Did you
Doyle, Colin M; Gotz, Glenn A; Singer, Neil M; Tyson, Karen W
.... Evidence is presented suggesting that the most significant costs for small employers are related to lost productivity and sales rather than to the costs associated with the requirements imposed...
Antenna Systems 116 9.2 123 6.9 1C21 Combat Control 492 9.2 35 6.1 3 1.7 1A81 Airborne Crypto Language Anal 1,365 8.9 79 5.2 28...requirements, represented by the RAP in the case of the F-16 and comparable currency and proficiency requirements for mobility units. Deployment demand and
Ursano, Robert J; Stein, Murray B; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Naifeh, James A; Fullerton, Carol S; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Aliaga, Pablo A; Wynn, Gary H; Dinh, Hieu M; McCarroll, James E; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G; Kessler, Ronald C
Suicide attempt (SA) rates in the U.S. Army increased substantially during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. This study examined associations of family violence (FV) history with SA risk among soldiers. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), we identified person-month records of active duty, Regular Army, enlisted soldiers with medically documented SAs from 2004 to 2009 (n = 9650) and a sample of control person-months (n = 153,528). Logistic regression analyses examined associations of FV with SA, adjusting for socio-demographics, service-related characteristics, and prior mental health diagnosis. Odds of SA were higher in soldiers with a FV history and increased as the number of FV events increased. Soldiers experiencing past-month FV were almost five times as likely to attempt suicide as those with no FV history. Odds of SA were elevated for both perpetrators and those who were exclusively victims. Male perpetrators had higher odds of SA than male victims, whereas female perpetrators and female victims did not differ in SA risk. A discrete-time hazard function indicated that SA risk was highest in the initial months following the first FV event. FV is an important consideration in understanding risk of SA among soldiers. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Campbell-Sills, Laura; Kessler, Ronald C; Ursano, Robert J; Rosellini, Anthony J; Afifi, Tracie O; Colpe, Lisa J; Heeringa, Steven G; Nock, Matthew K; Sampson, Nancy A; Sareen, Jitender; Schoenbaum, Michael; Sun, Xiaoying; Jain, Sonia; Stein, Murray B
Prior studies have documented associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors. However, many failed to adjust for concomitant risk factors and none investigated this relationship in military personnel. This study aimed to estimate independent associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors among U.S. Army soldiers. Soldiers reporting for basic training completed a cross-sectional survey assessing mental disorders, suicidal behaviors, and childhood adversities including two types of bullying victimization: (1) Physical Assault/Theft and (2) Bullying Comments/Behaviors. Associations of childhood bullying experiences with suicidal behaviors were estimated using discrete-time survival analysis of person-year data from 30,436 soldiers. Models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, childhood maltreatment by adults, and mental disorders. After comprehensive adjustment for other risk factors, more frequent Physical Assault/Theft by peers during childhood was associated with increased odds of lifetime suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.11-1.26, P Bullying Comments/Behaviors were associated with increased risk of ideation (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.35, P bullying victimization, exposure to the most persistent bullying was associated with two- to fourfold increase in risk for suicidal behaviors. Childhood bullying victimization is associated with lifetime suicidal behaviors among new soldiers. Exposure to Bullying Comments/Behaviors during childhood is associated with progression from suicidal ideation to plan. Improved recognition of these relationships may inform risk mitigation interventions for soldiers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gibbs, Deborah A; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Johnson, Ruby E
Deployment represents a significant potential strain on military families. The impact of postdeployment stresses may be increased if family coping resources are diminished by returning service members' physical injuries, mental health issues, or substance abuse. This article examines the health and mental health correlates of self-reported concerns regarding interpersonal conflict among married soldiers following return from deployment and the likelihood that soldiers acknowledging such concerns are referred to counseling services. Among 20,166 married Army soldiers completing Post-Deployment Health Reassessments, 18% reported having experienced serious interpersonal conflict with their spouse, family members, close friends, or coworkers. Results indicate that interpersonal conflict was more common among those who reported health problems, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and alcohol abuse. Among soldiers reporting interpersonal conflict and not already receiving services, 11% were referred to service. Findings support the need to communicate with soldiers and their spouses about the availability of services following return from deployment and to continue efforts to reduce stigma associated with seeking treatment.
Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Zombie soldier beetles: Epizootics in the goldenrod soldier beetle, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) caused by Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina: Entomophthoraceae).
Steinkraus, Donald C; Hajek, Ann E; Liebherr, Jim K
Adult goldenrod soldier beetles, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus, were found infected by the fungus Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina) in Arkansas during September - October (1996, 2001, 2015 and 2016). Living and dead infected beetles were found on flowering frost aster, Symphyotrichum pilosum, common boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Live and dead beetles (n=446) were collected in 1996 from S. pilosum flowers and held individually in the laboratory for determination of fungal prevalence. Of the beetles collected, 281 (63%) were males and 165 (37%) were females. A total of 90 beetles were infected with E. lampyridarum, an overall prevalence of 20.2%. Prevalence in males was 19.6% (n=55 infected/281 males total) and prevalence in females was 21.2% (n=35 infected /165 females total). Conidia were produced from 57% of the infected beetles, 23% of the infected beetles produced resting spores, and 20% contained the hyphal body stage. Infected beetles produced either conidia or resting spores but never both in the same host. Post-mortem morphological changes in the hosts due to E. lampyridarum were observed periodically for 24h. Shortly before death, by unknown mechanisms, dying infected beetles tightly clamped their mandibles into flower heads and ca. 15-22h later (between 2400 and 0700h) the fungus caused dead beetles to raise their elytra and expand their metathoracic wings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Conclusions: To reduce burnout in the Slovenian Army, it may be of great benefit to provide training of effective stress-coping mechanisms, and create peer support groups among soldiers. Such intervention should be especially beneficial for soldiers with a vulnerable personality structure (high neuroticism and psychoticism and low extraversion.
and/or issued; degrees obtained that are supported by this award; development of cell lines, tissue or serum repositories; infomatics such as...be managed outpatient; he admitted the Soldier into Coastal Harbor for residential treatment. 4. (N=5) The Soldier was separating/PCS/TDY within 12
This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components
Attwells, Renee L; Birrell, Stewart A; Hooper, Robin H; Mansfield, Neil J
Military personnel are required to carry heavy loads whilst marching; this load carriage represents a substantial component of training and combat. Studies in the literature mainly concentrate on physiological effects, with few biomechanical studies of military load carriage systems (LCS). This study examines changes in gait and posture caused by increasing load carriage in military LCS. The four conditions used during this study were control (including rifle, boots and helmet carriage, totalling 8 kg), webbing (weighing 8 kg), backpack (24 kg) and a light antitank weapon (LAW; 10 kg), resulting in an incremental increase in load carried from 8, 16, 40 to 50 kg. A total of 20 male soldiers were evaluated in the sagittal plane using a 3-D motion analysis system. Measurements of ankle, knee, femur, trunk and craniovertebral angles and spatiotemporal parameters were made during self-paced walking. Results showed spatiotemporal changes were unrelated to angular changes, perhaps a consequence of military training. Knee and femur ranges of motion (control, 21.1 degrees +/- 3.0 and 33.9 degrees +/- 7.1 respectively) increased (p < 0.05) with load (LAW, 25.5 degrees +/- 2.3 and 37.8 degrees +/- 1.5 respectively). The trunk flexed significantly further forward, confirming results from previous studies. In addition, the craniovertebral angle decreased (p < 0.001) indicating a more forward position of the head with load. It is concluded that the head functions in concert with the trunk to counterbalance load. The higher muscular tensions necessary to sustain these changes have been associated with injury, muscle strain and joint problems.
Full Text Available Black soldier fly (BSF larvae, Hermetia illucens L., develops on organic wastes, reducing ecological pollution and converting waste biomass into protein and fat rich insect biomass. BSF can replace increasingly expensive protein sources used in poultry, aquaculture and livestock compound diet formulation, such as fish meal and soybean meal, which holds the potential to alleviate future food and feed insecurity. The fate of nutritional spectra in BSF during its life cycle phases is still poorly understood. This study assessed metabolic changes in nutrition composition of BSF from egg to adult. A rapid increase of crude fat content was observed since the development of 4-14 days of larvae with its maximum level reaching 28.4% in dry mass, whereas the crude protein displayed a continuous decreasing trend in the same development phases with minimum level of 38% at larval phase (12 days and peak level of 46.2% at early pupa stage. A sharp drop in crude fat was noticed from early prepupae to late pupae (24.2%, 8.2% respectively. However crude protein shows its maximum value being 57.6% at postmortem adult stage with 21.6% fat level. In addition, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals and vitamins composition in different development stages of BSF were presented and compared. Findings from this study could provide podium to food and feed industry for framing a strategy for specific molecular nutritional component intake into the diets of humans, aquaculture and animals. It is also indicated that BSF is a possible insect which can be applied to combating the food scarcity of countries where micronutrient deficiency is prevalent. Moreover it contributes to advance exploring for developmental and metabolic biology of this edible insect.
Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens; Backus, Johannes; Alliger-Horn, Christina; Willmund, Gerd; Hellenthal, Andrea; Bauer, Amanda; Petermann, Franz; Maercker, Andreas
Soldiers are at increased risk of developing mental health disorders after military deployment. The impact of personal values on psychological symptomatology based on an empirical working model has not yet been studied in a military environment. 117 German Armed Forces soldiers completed the Portrait-Values-Questionnaire (PVQ), the Patient-Health-Questionnaire (PHQ) and the Resilience-Scale (RS-11) after their deployment to Afghanistan. In the regression analyses the values hedonism, benevolence, tradition, self-direction and universalism had a differential significant impact on depression, anxiety and somatoform symptoms of the PHQ. The RS-11 sum scale values were negatively correlated with symptomatology. Personal values and resilience seem to be associated with psychological symptomatology in soldiers after military deployment. The results can contribute to the further development of both preventive and therapeutic approaches. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens T; Backus, Johannes; Siegel, Stefan; Willmund, Gerd; Maercker, Andreas
After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11) were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated). Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (-), power (-), tradition (+), and universalism (+) were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches.
Full Text Available Background: After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Method: Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS, and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11 were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated. Results: Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (−, power (−, tradition (+, and universalism (+ were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Conclusions: Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches.
In order to identify potential training to enhance comprehensive soldier fitness, this analysis searched MEDLINE via PubMed and elsewhere for 33 reasonably significant modalities, screening over 11,500 articles for relevance regarding soldier resilience. Evaluation of modalities that are exclusively educational or cognitive/behavioral in nature is deferred. Using the volume and quality of research over 40 parameters distributed among the five domains of resilience (physical, emotional, spiritual, social, and family life), these data allow culling of most of the meditative modalities and discrimination among the remaining techniques. The resulting order of merit is Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and progressive muscle relaxation. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and progressive muscle relaxation, in that order, have the most supporting data. Fortuitously, they also represent a cross section of the domain of techniques regarded as meditation, stress management, or relaxation, with three very different mechanisms of action. They are suitable potential options for improving soldier resilience.
Full Text Available The present study had two main objectives; first, to discover the relationships between job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers, second, to find out the age, salary, marital status, and education differences on job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers. In the present study two questionnaires; Job Satisfaction Scale JSS (Macdonald & Maclntyre, 1997 and Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, et al., 1985; were administered to a sample (N=400 along with a demographic sheet. The results of the study revealed a significant positive correlation between job satisfaction and life satisfaction of Pakistani army soldiers. The findings of the study also showed a significant age, education, salary, and marital status differences in job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Age, marital status, and salary variables had positive correlation with job satisfaction and life satisfaction but education had a negative association with job satisfaction and life satisfaction
Vie, Loryana L; Griffith, Kevin N; Scheier, Lawrence M; Lester, Paul B; Seligman, Martin E P
The Department of Defense (DoD) strives to efficiently manage the large volumes of administrative data collected and repurpose this information for research and analyses with policy implications. This need is especially present in the United States Army, which maintains numerous electronic databases with information on more than one million Active-Duty, Reserve, and National Guard soldiers, their family members, and Army civilian employees. The accumulation of vast amounts of digitized health, military service, and demographic data thus approaches, and may even exceed, traditional benchmarks for Big Data. Given the challenges of disseminating sensitive personal and health information, the Person-Event Data Environment (PDE) was created to unify disparate Army and DoD databases in a secure cloud-based enclave. This electronic repository serves the ultimate goal of achieving cost efficiencies in psychological and healthcare studies and provides a platform for collaboration among diverse scientists. This paper provides an overview of the uses of the PDE to perform command surveillance and policy analysis for Army leadership. The paper highlights the confluence of both economic and behavioral science perspectives elucidating empirically-based studies examining relations between psychological assets, health, and healthcare utilization. Specific examples explore the role of psychological assets in major cost drivers such as medical expenditures both during deployment and stateside, drug use, attrition from basic training, and low reenlistment rates. Through creation of the PDE, the Army and scientific community can now capitalize on the vast amounts of personnel, financial, medical, training and education, deployment, and security systems that influence Army-wide policies and procedures.
Thurber suggested, "Somewhere, just be seized, or that vie%-n may never be realizeda out of sight, the Unicorns are gathering." The Bottom-Up Review...projects a shortfall of $2.8 "million in 1994 as a result of Defense Finance and Accounting fees and simulator procurement. R 7..% ’:The Air National Guard...Defense Finance and At some future time, deoxyribonucleic acid Accounting Service in July 1993, replacing the (DNA) profile analysis is expected to
Kurt A. Rorvik 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Advanced Military...Consequence Management Response Force CEF Contingency Expeditionary Force CJCS Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff CMH Center of Military...Treaty Organization vii NCO Non-Commissioned Officer NDAA National Defense Authorization Act NGB National Guard Bureau NOS Notification of
.... The questionnaire was mailed to 76,783 members with responses received from 47%. The objective of this report was to analyze issues relating to individual and unit readiness focusing on financial aspects...
reduce the shortage of junior-grade and mid- quickly on the issue of homosexuals in the career officers in Selccted Rescrvc units. military, especially...52 Homosexuals in the Military...operational detachments, and CARIBBEAN 92-4, conducted in Grenada during space shuttle support, as well as various joint July 1992. Minor engineer efforts
Kim, Hyung Jin; Shin, Y S; Choi, H; Kim, M K; Jeong, Y B; Park, J K
We present a case of undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus as a cause of acute urinary retention in a 21-year-old male soldier. Soldiers live in close quarters, and have a regimented lifestyle that may not allow for frequent voiding; therefore, undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus may result in acute urinary retention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available In all countries around the world, the duties of the soldier are codified in detail, but in very different ways, according to the various histories, and cultural backgrounds of the respective Nations. As this soldier has the right to legally use a powerful lethal force, a lot is required from him, which is normal. He is now most often a professional. He has mainly to master perfectly his weapons, to respect the Law of Armed Conflicts and to apply the principle of humanity. But his leaders have to guide him and his Nation to understand and support him.
Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov
Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591
Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.
Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)
Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja
2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...
Colwell, Morris A
Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful
Hutchings, M.T.; Schofield, Peter; Seymour, W.A.J.
A method for non-destructive testing of an industrial component to ascertain if it is a single crystal, and to find the crystal orientations of those parts of the component which are single crystals, involves irradiating the component with a monochromatic collimated neutron beam. Diffracted neutron beams are observed live by means of LiF/ZnS composite screen, an image intensifier and a television camera and screen. (author)
Kim, Hee Sung; Kang, Gilwon; Lee, Sunmi; Yoon, Chang Gyo; Kim, Minyoung
Chemoprophylaxis has been used to prevent malaria among soldiers and secondary transmission, as it effectively facilitates a decline in disease occurrence and secondary prevention. However, poor compliance and decreased risk of exposure to malaria necessitate that control strategies be reestablished. To predict the incidence of malaria according to a control strategy, we proposed a mathematical model for its transmission using epidemiological data from 2010 to 2012. The benefit component included in the analyses was the averted cost with each control strategy, and the cost components were the cost of implementing chemoprophylaxis and early diagnosis. The chemoprophylaxis regimen with hydroxychloroquine sulfate and primaquine was Intervention 1, the regimen with primaquine only was Intervention 2, and diagnosis with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit within 5 days of fever was Intervention 3. The simulation indicated that the combined control program with chemoprophylaxis and early diagnosis would be the most effective strategy, whereas sole early diagnosis would be the least effective strategy. However, the cost-benefit ratio of chemoprophylaxis was less than Intervention 1, irrespective of the varying range of chemoprophylaxis compliance, and that of early diagnosis was more than Intervention 1, regardless of the varying early diagnosis rate and demand for the RDT kit. Although chemoprophylaxis would be more effective at reducing the incidence of malaria than early diagnosis, it is less economical due to the higher cost. Our results support the introduction of early diagnosis with a RDT kit to control malaria in the Republic of Korea Army. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.
US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...
Raquel Braz Assunção Botelho
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research is to evaluate the nutritional adequacy of meals served and consumed by soldiers in a construction unit (army and civil employees of the Brazilian Army Construction. METHODS: Body mass index, fat percentage (bioimpedance and the physical activity level were evaluated. Furthermore, the nutritional evaluation of meals offered and consumed by soldiers was evaluated, in relation to the macronutrients, sodium, fibers and total energetic value. RESULTS: Through the results, we verified that 76% of the soldiers were eutrophic, and that the population's energetic requirement was approximately 3.600 kcal. We verified that the energetic consumption of this population was below the required value (3.200 kcal and with inadequacy regarding the distribution of macronutrients: percentage of carbohydrates above the recommended one, percentage of lipid below the minimum value recommended and percentage of proteins within the recommendation. Moreover, the amount of fibers was in accordance to the standards; however, there was an excessive amount of sodium, which may put this population in danger. CONCLUSION: We concluded that it is necessary to improve the quality of the meals offered in relation to the nutritional aspect, by promoting the adequacy to the soldiers' needs. Other types of quality were not studied, but they are important when evaluating acceptability of meals.
Casey, George W., Jr.
The stress and strain on the U.S. Army's community due to nearly a decade of protracted war is well documented in the press and in scientific literature. In response, the Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program is a preventive program that seeks to enhance psychological resilience among all members of the Army community, which includes…
Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G; Griffis, Heather M; Taylor, Christine M; Harb, Gerlinde C; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; French, Benjamin; Rubin, David M
Soldier deployment can create a stressful environment for U.S. Army families with young children. Prior research has identified elevated rates of child maltreatment in the 6 months immediately following a soldier's return home from deployment. In this study, we longitudinally examine how other child- and family-level characteristics influence the relationship of deployment to risk for maltreatment of dependent children of U.S. Army soldiers. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated reports and medical diagnoses of maltreatment among the 73,404 children of 56,087 U.S. Army soldiers with a single deployment between 2001 and 2007. Cox proportional hazard models estimated hazard rates of maltreatment across deployment periods and simultaneously considered main effects for other child- and family-level characteristics across periods. In adjusted models, maltreatment hazard was highest in the 6 months following deployment (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.63, p Army to better direct resources that prevent and address child maltreatment. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
strategies that will discourage the use of child soldiers and punish those groups and governments that do. It is extremely important that the United States support these endeavours in their early stages so that effective .... the Mozambican National Resistance group RENAMO during the 1980s at the age of 10 explains,.
Ohlson, Carl; Hammermeister, Jon
This study explored the hypothesis that the presence of anxiety symptoms is less related to simulated basic rifle marksmanship (S-BRM) performance than is cognitive disruption. The sample was comprised of 82 Stryker Brigade Soldiers at a large military post in the Pacific Northwest. Simulated rifle marksmanship was assessed using the Engagement…
Gans, Eric; Lee, Kang; Jannson, Tomasz; Walter, Kevin
In addition to military radios, modern warfighters carry cell phones, GPS devices, computers, and night-vision aids, all of which require electrical cables and connectors for data and power transmission. Currently each electrical device operates via independent cables using conventional cable and connector technology. Conventional cables are stiff and difficult to integrate into a soldier-worn garment. Conventional connectors are tall and heavy, as they were designed to ensure secure connections to bulkhead-type panels, and being tall, represent significant snag-hazards in soldier-worn applications. Physical Optics Corporation has designed a new, lightweight and low-profile electrical connector that is more suitable for body-worn applications and operates much like a standard garment snap. When these connectors are mated, the combined height is <0.3 in. - a significant reduction from the 2.5 in. average height of conventional connectors. Electrical connections can be made with one hand (gloved or bare) and blindly (without looking). Furthermore, POC's connectors are integrated into systems that distribute data or power from a central location on the soldier's vest, reducing the length and weight of the cables necessary to interconnect various mission-critical electronic systems. The result is a lightweight power/data distribution system offering significant advantages over conventional electrical connectors in soldier-worn applications.
In many ways the Palestinian civilian is the ultimate or significant ‘other' for the Israeli soldier serving in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). (S)he is the one who will be stopped, checked, controlled and at times arrested. (S)he is the one who negotiates, pleads, begs and sometimes
Sutcliffe, Marcella P.
This paper focuses on the reading and educational practices of common soldiers during the First World War. It argues that the question of how war libraries were imagined and constructed by civilians needs to be framed in the larger context of pre-war Edwardian debates surrounding the "value of books" in society. Indeed, it was within…
Kohrt, Brandon A; Worthman, Carol M; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Luitel, Nagendra P; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; McCreath, Heather; Seeman, Teresa E; Crimmins, Eileen M; Cole, Steven W
Adverse social conditions in early life have been linked to increased expression of proinflammatory genes and reduced expression of antiviral genes in circulating immune cells-the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). However, it remains unclear whether such effects are specific to the Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) cultural environments in which previous research has been conducted. To assess the roles of early adversity and individual psychological resilience in immune system gene regulation within a non-WEIRD population, we evaluated CTRA gene-expression profiles in 254 former child soldiers and matched noncombatant civilians 5 y after the People's War in Nepal. CTRA gene expression was up-regulated in former child soldiers. These effects were linked to the degree of experienced trauma and associated distress-that is, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity-more than to child soldier status per se. Self-perceived psychological resilience was associated with marked buffering of CTRA activation such that PTSD-affected former child soldiers with high levels of personal resilience showed molecular profiles comparable to those of PTSD-free civilians. These results suggest that CTRA responses to early life adversity are not restricted to WEIRD cultural contexts and they underscore the key role of resilience in determining the molecular impact of adverse environments.
Olesya M. Dolidovich
Full Text Available Authors examine the question of the types, scale, efficiency of public aid and social support of soldiers' families in Yenisei province during the First World War. Particular attention is paid to the activities of cities and urban guardianship organizations that have paid to families of the mobilized amount exceeding the amount of state benefits. It is shown that in the rural guardianship organizations did not have more money. They failed to organize labor help with the agricultural work. Soldiers' families reduced tillage, many of them wanted to move to the provincial center. Siberian city were not a major commercial and industrial centers, their budgets have been modest. Siberia had no zemstvo institutions, therefore, the city suffered heavy costs for the solution of many other problems caused by wartime (the organization of assistance to refugees and the injured, the fight against the high cost and lack of, the development of cooperatives, and others, they were making regular payments for all-Russian charitable societies. The flow of donations to urban guardianship and charitable organizations has decreased dramatically in 1916, and the number in need has increased significantly, the municipal government began to curtail payments to soldiers' families. The discontent of the soldiers' wives resulted in the pogroms of malls and attacks against members of municipal self-government bodies of Minusinsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kansk in 1916–1917.
Kyjaková, Pavlína; Dolejšová, Klára; Krasulová, Jana; Bednárová, Lucie; Hadravová, Romana; Pohl, Radek; Hanus, Robert
Roč. 115, č. 4 (2015), s. 818-825 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-25354P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : termites * soldiers * chemical defence * diterpene * cavitene * frontal gland Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.984, year: 2015
Levesque, J.; Banko, K.; Binsch, O.
The miniaturization of digital image acquisition and processing hardware, positional sensors, and batteries has enabled the creation of assisted targeting systems light enough to be integrated onto small firearms to increase the probability of soldiers detecting and hitting targets. As well, the
Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.
An experiment was conducted to compare the suitability of chicken, pig, and cow manure as feed for larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (L.); Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Newly hatched larvae were inoculated on moistened manure (33% dry matter). Water and dried manure were added three
Jones, Franca R; Sanchez, Jose L; Meza, Rina; Batsel, Tanis M; Burga, Rosa; Canal, Enrique; Block, Karla; Perez, Juan; Bautista, Christian T; Escobedo, Jorge
...). Most (83 of 90; 92%) of the Shigella isolates were S. flexneri, of which 57 (69%) were serotype 2a. Seventy-six percent of Shigella isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim and all were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Peruvian soldiers may be an excellent population in which to test the efficacy of S. flexneri vaccines in advanced development.
Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; Meulenaer, De Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; Clercq, De Patrick; Smet, De Stefaan
BACKGROUND: Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and
Caton, Jay; And Others
This social studies unit provides an impressionistic study of the Civil War soldier and of his changing attitudes toward that war. It contrasts the periods of his optimism early in the war and his nostalgic recollection of events after the war with the despair he experienced from 1862 to 1865. The materials are essentially anecdotal in character…
Background: Gait retraining as part of a treatment programme for exercise-related leg pain (ERLP) was introduced in the sports medicine department of the Royal ... Conclusion: Soldiers with exercise-related leg pain (ERLP), among them patients with Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome, respond well to a treatment programme ...
Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Sauter, Cornelia; Kowalski, Jens T; Kropp, Stefan; Ströhle, Andreas; Wesemann, Ulrich; Zimmermann, Peter L
In this prospective study, subjective sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness prior to, during and after deployment of German soldiers in Afghanistan were examined. Sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSQI) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; ESS) were assessed in 118 soldiers of the German army, who were deployed in Afghanistan for 6 months (deployment group: DG) and in 146 soldiers of a non-deployed control group (CG) at baseline. Results of the longitudinal analysis are reported, based on assessments conducted prior to, during the deployment and afterwards in the DG, and in the CG in parallel. Sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in the DG were already impaired during the predeployment training phase and remained at that level during the deployment phase, which clearly indicates the need for more attention on sleep in young soldiers, already at this early stage. The percentage of impaired sleepers decreased significantly after deployment. Programmes to teach techniques to improve sleep and reduce stress should be implemented prior to deployment to reduce sleep difficulties and excessive daytime sleepiness and subsequent psychiatric disorders. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.
chamber–modeled after the framework set forth by former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in response in Sierra Leone–would incorporate principles of Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) to encourage both domestic political transition and a changed understanding of what is a child soldier ...
Full Text Available Abstract Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS. If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars. This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor ability of coordination and personality traits of Slovenian soldiers. The subject sample consisted of 94 soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF who were serving in the first brigade (age 26,5 ± 3,4 years. Motor ability of coordination was assessed with two motor tasks (polygon bac- kwards and figure 8 duck test. The structure of personality traits was measured with a FPI (Freiburg Personality Inventory included 114 items and measured 9 personality traits of order I (neuroticism, impulsivity, depression, irritability, sociability, calmness, dominance, suppression, sincerity and 3 personality traits of order II (extroversion, emotional istability, masculinity. The correlation between coordination and personality traits was estimated by the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The results show that soldiers who did worse in motor test polygon backwards were more neurotic, suppressed, and impulsive. They also tend to be more sociable. The correlation between second test of coordination shows that better soldiers in this test are more extrovert or less introvert.
Song, S.; de Jong, J.; O'Hara, R.; Koopman, C.
Studies around the world show that former child soldiers (FCSs) have mental health strengths and limitations, and highlight the important role of families and communities in reintegration to society. However, there are limited data that examine the mental health risks and protective factors of the
Draijer, N.; Van Zon, P.
This article describes the application of transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) to the treatment of former child soldiers suffering from dissociative identity disorder. It focuses on the problems with aggression faced in psychotherapy. TFP provides a psychodynamic, object relations model to
Franks, Bridget A.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was first included in the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders" in 1980. Long used to describe the reactions of soldiers affected by stress in combat situations, PTSD is now recognised as a disorder affecting abused and neglected infants and…
Engelhard, Iris M.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; de Jung, Peter J.
Although the DSM-IV recognizes that events can traumatize by evoking horror, not just fear, the role of disgust in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received little research attention. In a study of soldiers deployed to Afghanistan, we examined whether reports of
Dyrstad, Sindre M; Miller, Blake W; Hallén, Jostein
The goal was to register physical training volume and to measure changes in physical fitness in soldiers during a peacekeeping mission. The relationship between these factors and motivation for physical training was also investigated. Physical training volume was registered and maximal oxygen uptake, 3-km run time, sit-ups, push-ups, and chin-ups were tested before and after 1 year of service for 71 Norwegian soldiers in the international Kosovo Force. Self-determined motivation was measured at the end of the service. Physical training volume was 117 +/- 77 minutes/week. The average maximal oxygen uptake decreased by 2.5 +/- 0.8% (p < 0.01). Intrinsic motivation positively predicted physical training volume (p < 0.01). A large variation in training volume was found, and only one-third of the soldiers improved physical fitness and maintained body weight. Fostering intrinsic motivation toward physical training is key to increasing training volume. However, obligatory training could ensure a minimum of physical training among the soldiers who were least motivated for physical training.
Westwood, Marvin J.; Black, Timothy G.; McLean, Holly B.
Describes a program developed to assist with military personnel's transition back into Canadian society by aiding with their personal and career readjustment. Group-based life review and therapeutic enactment counseling interventions are used to identify critical incidents and facilitate the resolution of stress-related reactions soldiers have…
Vitzthum, Karin; Mache, Stefanie; Joachim, Ricarda; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A
Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars. This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers. PMID:19643016
Albrecht, Peter; Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie; Haugegaard, Rikke
African and European soldiers in the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Mali (MINUSMA) work under very different conditions regarding levels of training, equipment, general support from their governments and the fact that African troops are deployed in the most dangerous areas. The UN should...
Vitzthum, Karin; Mache, Stefanie; Joachim, Ricarda; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A
Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars.This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers.
Krasulová, Jana; Hanus, Robert; Kutalová, Kateřina; Šobotník, Jan; Sillam-Dusses, David; Tichý, Michal; Valterová, Irena
Roč. 38, č. 5 (2012), s. 557-565 ISSN 0098-0331 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termites * frontal gland of soldiers * chemical defense * Rhinotermitidae * Psammotermes hybostoma Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2012
Sierra Leonean (1991-2002) civil wars that ensued there-from caused untold consequences on sub-Saharan Africa: violation of the African. Charter on the Right of the African Child, child soldier phenomenon and their atrocities, refugees resulting from internal displacement, a threatened sub-regional peace, etc (see Sriram ...
Maguen, Shira; Skopp, Nancy A; Zhang, Ying; Smolenski, Derek J
In order to best tailor suicide prevention initiatives and programs, it is critical to gain an understanding of how service members׳ suicide risk factors may differ by gender. We aimed to better understand gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among soldiers, including demographic, military, mental health, and other risk factors. We also examined risk factors uniquely associated with suicide and suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective study of 1857 US Army soldiers who died by suicide or attempted suicide between 2008 and 2010 and had a Department of Defense Suicide Event Report. Female and male soldiers had more similarities than differences when examining risk factors associated with suicide. The only gender difference approaching significance was workplace difficulties, which was more strongly associated with suicide for female soldiers, compared to their male counterparts. Among suicide decedents, the most common risk factor was having a failed intimate relationship in the 90 days prior to suicide. Among those who attempted suicide, the most common risk factor was a major psychiatric diagnosis. Better understanding both gender differences and risk factors uniquely associated with suicide has critical prevention and public health implications as we work to better understand preventable mortality in our youngest generation of service members. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Christopher Stachowiak , Susan Hill, and Krishna Pillalamarri ARL-TR-5222 June 2010 Approved for...Interfaces and Algorithms for Soldier-Robotic Swarm Interaction, Year 2 Ellen C. Haas, Christopher Stachowiak , Susan Hill, and Krishna Pillalamarri Human...Haas, Susan Hill, Christopher Stachowiak , Krishna Pillalamarri, and MaryAnne Fields 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER
as AT&T) in each SQ if host nation telephone service (such as TELEKOM in Germany) cable pairs are available. s. Install official military telephones...t. When such services are available, permit soldiers to contract with a host nation telephone service (such as TELEKOM ) for private telephones in
adapted their manning requirements to this retention. Perhaps tasks and jobs have been designed to accommodate the reten - tion profile produced by the...a reward for a long career of service, a benefit to help transition to the civilian economy, and a means of securing the reten - tion of career...to determine their likely effect on active reten - tion, reserve affiliation after leaving an active component, reserve retention, and reserve
This paper purports to identify and analyze the medical information of the frontline soldiers in the Northwest borderland provinces of Han Dynasty, especially Juyan and Dunhuang region, through an heuristic reading of the Juyan Bamboo Slips and the Dunhuang Bamboo Slips of the Han Dynasty. My findings are as follows. The most frequent disease found in the bamboo slips was the external injury. The injury of the frontline soldiers mainly occurred from the quarrels among armed soldiers using weapons. The bamboo slips also demonstrate that the quarrels usually arose due to the fierce tension caused by the frontier line service such as heavy guard activity and labour duty. Undernourishment and chronic stress the soldiers suffered might be another reasons. The second most common disease harassing the soldiers was exogenous febrile disease. In most cases reviewed in this paper, the exogenous febrile disease was usually concurrent with complex symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, etc. The bamboo slips show that the exogenous febrile disease was related to the harsh climate of the Northwest provinces, featuring extremely dry weather and the large magnitude of diurnal temperature fluctuations. In addition, the annual temperature range in the Northwest province was huge, fluctuating between very cold and dry winter and very hot and dry summer. The third most common disease this study identified was the disorder of the digestive system and respiratory system. However, these two types of disease were virtually indistinguishable in the bamboo slips, because the ancient Chinese chroniclers did not distinguish them, usually dubbing both diseases simply 'abdominal pain.' It should be mentioned that a few slips mention contagious disease such as dysentery and dermatolosis, and sudden death, as well. Overall, the bamboo slips demonstrate extremely poor status of the soldiers' heath condition and poor medical environment surrounding the soldiers stationing in the Northwest
Obwaller, Adelheid G; Köhsler, Martina; Poeppl, Wolfgang; Herkner, Harald; Mooseder, Gerhard; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia
The incidence of leishmaniasis is known to increase in conflict areas. The aim of this study was to determine the exposure to Leishmania species in Austrian soldiers returning from missions abroad also assessing possible risk factors. A retrospective explorative cross-sectional serological study was conducted in 225 healthy Austrian soldiers returning from UN or EU peace-keeping missions in Syria, the Lebanon and Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH), respectively. Sera were tested for anti-Leishmania antibodies using a commercial ELISA. All positive individuals were screened for Leishmania DNA by PCR targeting the ITS1 region using EDTA blood samples. In total, 13.3% (30/225) of the individuals tested were either positive (8%=18/225) or borderline (5.3%=12/225) in the ELISA, with highest seroprevalence in soldiers returning from Syria (17.8%=18/101; 12 positive, 6 borderline), second from the Lebanon (11.1%=7/63; 4 positive, 3 borderline), and lowest from BIH (8.2%=5/61; 2 positive, 3 borderline). Ten soldiers returning from Syria and one from BIH were also positive for Leishmania DNA. Six of these were identified as Leishmania donovani/infantum complex, two as L. tropica, and another three as mixed infections by DNA sequencing. Epidemiological data were collected with a questionnaire, seropositivity correlated with a history of lengthy-healing insect bites (OR 5.33, 95% CI 1.23-23.04, p = 0.025). Although, pre-travel serological data was not available in this study, the exposure of soldiers to Leishmania spp. during their missions can be assumed to be considerable. As even asymptomatic infections may resurge in case of emerging immunodeficiencies, adequate prevention measures seem important. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja
This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...
Ümit Baran Metin
Full Text Available Soldiering is defined as engaging behaviourally or cognitively into non-work-related activities during working hours with no intention of harming the employer, co-workers, and/or clients. The present study will investigate this phenomenon using the Job-Demands Resources Model. The proposed model will consider the influence of job demands and resources on soldiering, as well as the relationship of soldiering with employee wellbeing and performance. The data, collected via online questionnaires across seven European countries, will be analysed using structural equation modelling in order to explore the goodness-of-fit of the proposed model as well as its potential cross cultural variations.
Dalack, Gregory W; Blow, Adrian J; Valenstein, Marcia; Gorman, Lisa; Spinner, Jane; Marcus, Sheila; Kees, Michelle; McDonough, Susan; Greden, John F; Ames, Barbara; Francisco, Burton; Anderson, James R; Bartolacci, James; Lagrou, Robert
The conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq have greatly increased the number of veterans returning home with combat exposure, reintegration issues, and psychiatric symptoms. National Guard soldiers face additional challenges. Unlike active duty soldiers, they do not return to military installations with access to military health services or peers. The authors describe the formation and activities of a partnership among two large state universities in Michigan and the Michigan Army National Guard, established to assess and develop programming to meet the needs of returning soldiers. The process of forming the partnership and the challenges, opportunities, and benefits arising from it are described.
As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)
Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.
Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.
The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)
Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean
This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…
reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...
The Reserve Bank of Australia holds and manages the nation’s foreign exchange reserve assets in order to meet its policy objectives. While Australia’s foreign exchange reserves are relatively modest by international standards, they nonetheless constitute a sizeable portion of the Bank’s balance sheet, and variations in the Australian dollar value of these reserves are usually the most volatile component of the Bank’s profit and loss statement. This article discusses some of the key decisions ...
The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)
Motz, W; Scheler, S
Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.
Killgore, William D. S; Stetz, Melba C; Castro, Carl A; Hoge, Charles W
...: Although the percentage of soldiers scoring positive for PTSD was nearly identical for the experienced and inexperienced groups, scores on the Affective and Somatic scales differed as a function of prior combat history...
Love, Heather A; Durtschi, Jared A; Ruhlmann, Lauren M; Nelson Goff, Briana S
Suicide among United States active-duty Army soldiers rapidly increased over the past two decades. Using a sample of 322 soldiers from the Army STARRS study, the researchers examined if romantic relationship factors (i.e., hostile disagreements and relationship distress) were linked with suicidal thoughts in Army soldiers, and if these associations were moderated by a recent separation or divorce. Hostile disagreements and relational distress were both significantly associated with higher rates of suicidal ideation. These associations were significantly amplified in magnitude when in the context of a recent separation or divorce. Implications include novel assessment, prevention, and treatment efforts focused on romantic relationships that may reduce the likelihood of soldiers experiencing thoughts of suicide. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Hoffman, Kenneth; Costello, Cory; Menich, Mark; Grabenstein, John D; Engler, Renata J. M
.... The objective of this analysis is to capture the experience of soldiers receiving anthrax vaccine to assist in better patient-provider communications and clarify the safety profile of the vaccine...
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the changes of serum protein expression in soldiers under mental stress,who have undergone different psychological trainings,and to evaluate the effect of the psychological training.Methods Ninety-six male commando soldiers were randomly assigned into the common psychological training group,the circulation psychological training group,and the control group(each group comprising 32 soldiers.After four weeks of training,the soldiers in the three groups attended a high-intensity simulated anti-riot exercise.The changes in their serum protein expression were then determined using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry(SELDI-TOF-MS combined with ProteinChip technology.Results The variance analysis showed that significant differences existed among the three groups(P < 0.05 in the relative contents of proteins,with M/Z values of 6417.8,9134.2,15171.9,and 14972.7 Da.The expression of proteins with M/Z values 9134.2 and 15171.9 Da increased in the common psychological training group compared with the control group(P < 0.05.The expression of all four proteins increased in the circulation psychological training group compared with the control group(P < 0.05.The expression of proteins with M/Z values 6417.8 and 14972.7 Da increased in the circulation psychological training group compared with the common psychological training group(P < 0.05.The classification tree formed by proteins with M/Z values 6417.8 and 14972.7 Da classified the 96 soldiers correctly,both in the learning mode and in the test mode.Conclusion Psychological training may upregulate the expression of proteins that are downregulated after stress and may improve the adaptability of soldiers to psychological stress.The effect of circulation psychological training is better than that of common psychological training.
Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, P; Spitzer, C; Freyberger, H J; Maercker, Andreas
Objectives: To examine posttraumatic growth and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence, trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. Participants: 103 former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years, 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Measurement: Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth ...
Reuters, 19 June. —. Congo’s Street Kids Could Be Election Winning Group. Reuters, 4 April, 2006. Security Council Report. 2008. Cross Cutting Report...UNITED NATIONS IMPACT ON CHILD SOLDIER USE IN EASTERN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO : 1999-2007 A thesis presented to the Faculty...To) FEB 2008 – DEC 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE United Nations Impact on Child Soldier Use in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo : (1999-2007
Foulis, Stephen A; Redmond, Jan E; Frykman, Peter N; Warr, Bradley J; Zambraski, Edward J; Sharp, Marilyn A
Foulis, SA, Redmond, JE, Frykman, PN, Warr, BJ, Zambraski, EJ, and Sharp, MA. U.S. Army physical demands study: reliability of simulations of physically demanding tasks performed by combat arms soldiers. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3245-3252, 2017-Recently, the U.S. Army has mandated that soldiers must successfully complete the physically demanding tasks of their job to graduate from their Initial Military Training. Evaluating individual soldiers in the field is difficult; however, simulations of these tasks may aid in the assessment of soldiers' abilities. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of simulated physical soldiering tasks relevant to combat arms soldiers. Three cohorts of ∼50 soldiers repeated a subset of 8 simulated tasks 4 times over 2 weeks. Simulations included: sandbag carry, casualty drag, and casualty evacuation from a vehicle turret, move under direct fire, stow ammunition on a tank, load the main gun of a tank, transferring ammunition with a field artillery supply vehicle, and a 4-mile foot march. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard errors of measurement (SEMs), and 95% limits of agreement. Performance of the casualty drag and foot march did not improve across trials (p > 0.05), whereas improvements, suggestive of learning effects, were observed on the remaining 6 tasks (p ≤ 0.05). The ICCs ranged from 0.76 to 0.96, and the SEMs ranged from 3 to 16% of the mean. These 8 simulated tasks show high reliability. Given proper practice, they are suitable for evaluating the ability of Combat Arms Soldiers to complete the physical requirements of their jobs.
observed the Soldiers. Quantifiable task details were recorded, including quantity and weights of loads being moved or lifted, distances traveled ...battery (11), Soldiers also performed the task once solo , with the bag weighted at 103.5 lb. Army Standard: Casualty removed from vehicle in 2...than males for the carry phase of a fighting position. Of the strength tasks, females took longer to complete the casualty drag, solo casualty
deployment except DMOSQ. Availability of DMOSQ institutional training, Soldier absentees as it relates to missed DMOSQ training, and employer... labor intensive exercise. Human error resulting from a manually produced DMOSQ rate makes using this problematic source of data difficult to analyze
Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas
Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...
Nina S Liland
Full Text Available Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.
Liland, Nina S; Biancarosa, Irene; Araujo, Pedro; Biemans, Daan; Bruckner, Christian G; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Lock, Erik-Jan
Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.
Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Jones, Peter; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Abbott, Rosemary; Ayella-Ataro, Paul Stephen; Amone, Jackson; Ovuga, Emilio
Exposure to war is associated with considerable risks for long-term mental health problems (MHP) and poor functioning. Yet little is known about functioning and mental health service (MHS) use among former child soldiers (FCS). We assessed whether different categories of war experiences predict functioning and perceived need for, sources of and barriers to MHS among FCS. Data were drawn from an on-going War-affected Youths (WAYS) cohort study of FCS in Uganda. Participants completed questionnaires about war experiences, functioning and perceived need for, sources of and barriers to MHS. Regression analyses and parametric tests were used to assess between-group differences. Deaths, material losses, threat to loved ones and sexual abuse significantly predicted poor functioning. FCS who received MHS function better than those who did not. Females reported more emotional and behavioural problems and needed MHS more than males. FCS who function poorly indicated more barriers to MHS than those who function well. Stigma, fear of family break-up and lack of health workers were identified as barriers to MHS. Various war experiences affect functioning differently. A significant need for MHS exists amidst barriers to MHS. Nevertheless, FCS are interested in receiving MHS and believe it would benefit them. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Vogel, Heiko; Müller, Ariane; Heckel, David G; Gutzeit, Herwig; Vilcinskas, Andreas
The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens is used for the bioconversion of organic waste into feed for livestock and aquaculture, and is economically among the most important farmed insects in the world. The larvae can be fed on agricultural waste and even liquid manure, resulting in highly unpredictable pathogen levels and dietary conditions. Here we show that H. illucens larvae express a remarkably expanded spectrum of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), many of which are induced by feeding on a diet containing high bacterial loads. The addition of sulfonated lignin, cellulose, chitin, brewer's grains or sunflower oil revealed the diet-dependent expression profiles of AMPs in the larvae. The highest number of AMPs and the highest levels of AMP expression were induced by feeding larvae on diets supplemented with protein or sunflower oil. Strikingly, the diet-dependent expression of AMPs translated into diet-dependent profiles of inhibitory activities against a spectrum of bacteria, providing an intriguing example for the emerging field of nutritional immunology. We postulate that the fine-tuned expression of the expanded AMP repertoire mediates the adaptation of the gut microbiota to the digestion of unusual diets, and this feature could facilitate the use of H. illucens for the bioconversion of organic waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Le Bailly, Matthieu; Landolt, Michaël; Mauchamp, Leslie; Dufour, Benjamin
Paleoparasitological investigations revealed the presence of intestinal helminths in samples taken from the abdominal cavities of two German soldiers, recovered in the First World War site named "Kilianstollen" in Carspach, France. Eggs from roundworm, whipworm, tapeworm and capillariids were identified. The morphological and morphometrical comparison, followed by statistical analyses, showed that the Carspach capillariid eggs are similar to rodent parasites. Poor sanitary conditions in the trenches, the lack of knowledge of parasites, and the widespread presence of commensal animals, can explain the occurrence of such parasites in human intestines. This study is the second dealing with 20th century human samples. It confirms the presence of intestinal worms in First World War German soldiers. In this case study, the application of statistics to precise measurements facilitated the diagnosis of ancient helminth eggs and completed the microscopic approach.
Palmer, Christopher J; Bigelow, Carol; Van Emmerik, Richard E A
Soldier equipment compromises task performance as temporal constraints during critical situations and load increase inertial and interactive forces during movement. Methods are necessary to optimise equipment that relate task performance to underlying coordination and perception-action coupling. Employing ecological task analysis and methods from dynamical systems theory, equipment load and coordination was examined during two sub-tasks embedded in combat performance, threat discrimination and dynamic marksmanship. Perception-action coupling was degraded with load during threat discrimination, leading to delays in functional reaction time. Reduced speed and accuracy during dynamic marksmanship under load was related to disrupted segmental coordination and adaptability during postural transitions between targets. These results show how reduced performance under load relates to coordination changes and perception-action coupling. These changes in functional capability are directly related to soldier survivability in combat. The methods employed may aid equipment design towards more optimised performance by modifying equipment or its distribution on humans.
Ganocy, Stephen J; Goto, Toyomi; Chan, Philip K; Cohen, Gregory H; Sampson, Laura; Galea, Sandro; Liberzon, Israel; Fine, Thomas; Shirley, Edwin; Sizemore, James; Calabrese, Joseph R; Tamburrino, Marijo B
Research exploring spirituality in military populations is a relatively new field with limited published reports. This study used the Spiritual Well-Being Scale to examine the association of spiritual well-being with suicidal ideation/behavior, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression and alcohol use disorders in a randomized sample of Ohio Army National Guard soldiers. The participants were 418 soldiers, mostly white and male, with nearly three-quarters indicating that they had been deployed at least once during their careers. Higher spirituality, especially in the existential well-being subscale, was associated with significantly less lifetime PTSD, depression, and alcohol use disorders and with less suicidal ideation over the past year. Future research in this area may benefit from a longitudinal design that can assess spirituality and mental health behaviors in addition to diagnoses at different time points, to begin to explore spirituality in a larger context.
Britt, Thomas W; Davison, James; Bliese, Paul D; Castro, Carl Andrew
The present review addresses the importance of leader behaviors in influencing the extent to which various stressors soldiers experience (e.g., high workload and lack of sleep) are related to different types of strains (e.g., psychological health, poor job satisfaction, and low morale). Research conducted by the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) in the area of leadership is reviewed. Researchers at the WRAIR have examined the role of leadership as a predictor of stress, as a buffer against the negative effects of stress, and as a variable that predicts or enables variables that have been found to decrease the adverse effects of stress (e.g., role clarity, self-efficacy, and job engagement). A key strength of the WRAIR program of research is the use of multilevel modeling to examine how perceptions of leadership at the unit level are related to unit and individual soldier well-being and motivation.
van der Snoek, E M; Lammers, A M; Kortbeek, L M; Roelfsema, J H; Bart, A; Jaspers, C A J J
We report two Dutch infantry soldiers who acquired American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) during military jungle training in Surinam. The lesions had existed for 3 and 5 months, respectively, before the soldiers presented for treatment. The lesions occurred on the head and right thigh, and were small, uncomplicated and symptomless. PCR for Leishmania revealed Leishmania naiffi in both patients. No treatment was given, and the lesions in both men healed spontaneously within 4 and 6 weeks, respectively, after presentation to our clinic. CL is one of the important 'tropical' diseases in The Netherlands, primarily due to the increasing numbers of cases in travellers and in military personnel serving overseas. ACL due to L. naiffi is thought to be a mild expression of CL with a self-limiting nature. Lesions seem to be single, mostly small, ulcerating and usually appear on the hands, arms and legs. No case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis has yet been attributed to this parasite.
The years 1914-18 engendered a "sudden and irrepressible boulimia" of letter-writing, a diluvian outpouring which defied all attempts at administrative control. The massive correspondence of French soldiers, analysed and quoted in the archives of the Commission de Contrôle Postal, has already been mined by war historians. They have normally used it to carry out a kind of historical opinion poll on the mood of the trenches. This article, however, focuses less on the content of soldiers' correspondence, and more on the nature and history of letter-writing itself. It examines letters as letters, their frequency, their destinations and all the unwritten codes to which they are subject. At a time of newly acquired mass literacy, the poilus experienced the urgent need to write. Their "laconic writing" raises important questions about historical sources, their transparency and their silences. It also offers a perspective on the much debated integration of the peasantry into national life and culture.
Mohmand, Muhammad Humayun; Ahmad, Muhammad
BACKGROUND According to statistics of American Society of Plastic Surgeons, cosmetic rhinoplasty was the second most frequently performed cosmetic surgery. This study shares the experiences with component rhinoplasty. METHODS From 2004 to 2010, all patients underwent aesthetic nasal surgery were enrolled. The patients requiring only correction of septal deviation and those presenting with cleft lip nasal deformity were excluded. All procedures were performed under general anaesthesia with ope...
reflection of the education received as part of the course content in the MOVE! program, as well as the reinforcement from the RD and nurse health coach ... Coaching vs. Herbal CAM for Soldier Weight Reduction 5b. GRANT NUMBER HT9404-12-1-TS03 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d... coaching intervention and an herbal supplement for Service Member (SM) weight reduction over a 12-week period to evaluate their effectiveness
Jovanović, Dalibor; Karkalić, Radovan; Zeba, Snjezana; Pavlović, Miroslav; Radaković, Sonja S
In military services, emergency situations when soldiers are exposed to a combination of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) contamination combined with heat stress, are frequent and complex. In these specific conditions, usage of personal body cooling systems may be effective in reducing heat stress. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the efficiency of four various types of contemporary personal body cooling systems based on the "Phase Change Material" (PCM), and its effects on soldiers' subjective comfort and physiological performance during exertional heat stress in hot environments. Ten male soldiers were voluntarily subjected to exertional heat stress tests (EHSTs) consisted of walking on a treadmill (5.5 km/h) in hot conditions (40 degreesC) in climatic chamber, wearing NBC isolating impermeable protective suits. One of the tests was performed without any additional cooling solution (NOCOOL), and four tests were performed while using different types of cooling systems: three in a form of vests and one as underwear. Physiological strain was determined by the mean skin temperature (Tsk), tympanic temperature (Tty), and heart rate values (HR), while sweat rates (SwR) indicated changes in hydration status. In all the cases EHST induced physiological response manifested through increasing Tty, HR and SwR. Compared to NOCOOL tests, when using cooling vests, Tty and Tsk were significantly lower (on 35th min, for 0.44 +/- 0.03 and 0.49 +/- 0.05 degrees C, respectively; p stress manifested by increased core and skin temperatures and heart rate values. These effects directly improve heat tolerance, hydration state, decrease in the risk of heat illness, and extends the duration of soldiers' exposure to extreme conditions.
soldiers have a high school diploma or equivalent and perform specific job functions, while most commissioned officers have college degrees or...for us to do our job . When you’re new, you’re not used as effectively. Another issue raised by every MFLC we interviewed was the rota- tion schedule...Measuring the Social Embeddedness of Routine Family Work,” Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 62, No. 4, 2000, pp. 1208–1233. Conger, D., and M
I’ ~ I I i .... j ! .;...) INSTRUCCIONES GENERALES Este manual de encuesta consta de cuatro tipos diferentes de cuestionarios, Cada uno...civil molesta a los de mi grupo etnico. 58. Mis superiores demuestran el mismo respeto a mi inteligencia que a Ia de los miembros de otros grupos...47,000 Spanish.:..speakirig soldiers u.s. Army, there is .little informati~m on how they experience CArmy present study was de ~igned .to obtain data
people who share hobbies or church activities. Formal support systems included ARNG programs , medical personnel, veteran’s organizations and the...avenues of social support to soldiers, from informal relationship building opportunities to more formal programs throughout the soldiers’ deployment...Michael Wade, Vanessa Tirone, Mark A. Greenbaum, Rachel Kimerling, Charlene Laffaye, Julie E. Fitt , and Craig S. Rosen. “Perceived Barriers to Care
randomized, controlled trial. Outcomes included anthropometrics, bone density, bone turnover, dietary intake, and frequency/ intensity of work, sport , and...There were no significant differences between groups upon return, except an increase in body fat (BF) (p=.003) and sport activities (p=.015) for the...obstacles to a balanced diet and exercise regimen in the deployed environment may have longstanding consequences for the soldier, and a fit-and-ready
Background: The versatility of military physical therapist practice enables them not only to diagnose knee injuries but also to provide a wide range of definitive care and rehabilitation, reducing the need for costly evacuation. The aim this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) in the functional knee rehabilitation in soldiers and describe the main predictors and determinants in each intervention. Methods: A systematic search ...
6 If an amputee soldier wishes to remain on active duty, he or she must demonstrate a higher level of function with a prosthesis and have the...elbow disartic- ulation), below elbow, wrist disarticulation (includes hand proximal to the metacarpals), above knee (includes hip dis- articulation...94% of senior enlisted and senior officers returned to duty after total hip replacement. Senior enlisted personnel usually have more time in service
because moltnm e gmo ,p. so Ow partlelpet Weito b* Mai& his children were going to college soon. The Soldier said, "For me it was because my son’s a senior...That entire community is labeled as "Ghetto". I have no idea what that term is other than something 54 bad. I’ve not grown up in the Ghetto so
Full Text Available The study has aimed to evaluate results of reproductive health training in the First army as a part the Reproductive Health Program of Turkish Armed Forces (TAF. Hard copies of training results from the a sample of 9 reproductive health classrooms between November 2006 and February 2007 have been collected and analyzed after entering in a SPSS file. A Pre-test and a post-test included the same 25 questions on RH issues were given to the soldiers. Total mean scores and scores for 5 modules of Sexual Health, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs, Contraceptives, Safe Motherhood, and Gender, were estimated. By deciding 60 as cutting point, achievement of soldiers was also evaluated. Total Pre and posttest mean scores were compared between groups according to the achievement, hometown, and region of residency, educational level, and marital status. Furthermore, Relative efficiency, Efficiency attributed to training course and Efficiency Ratio has been also calculated. The mean pre-test score of soldiers is 60.4 ± 21.0 and it has been significantly increased up to 82.8 ± 14.5 after the training course (p<0.05. This significant increase was also found for each of sub dimensions similar to total score (p<0.05. While 52.5 % of soldiers have been successful on pretest, this percent has been rise up to 93.1% for the post test (p<0.05.. The relative efficiency of intervention as 6.9, efficiency attributed to training as 40.6%, and efficiency ratio as 85.5% have been estimated. Involving in reproductive health training has improved soldiers� awareness particularly on women�s health. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 41-48
psychopathic is almost zero, and the residual organization underlying their group makes irrational behavior similarly unlikely. These anomalous soldiers...dearly and he is not a pedophile. Hearst would love to raise children of his own with his wife Chantal. Complications within his marriage currently...prevent that possibility, so he resorts to photography of the neighborhood children as a way of envisioning his dream nuclear family. This is also the
Radaković Sonja S.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Exertional heat stress is a common problem in military services. The aim of this study was to examine changes in body water and serum concentrations of some electrolites in soldiers during exertional heat stress (EHST, as well as effects of 10-day passive or active acclimation in a climatic chamber. Methods. Forty male soldiers with high aerobic capacity, performed EHST either in cool (20 ºC, 16 ºC WBGT-wet bulb globe temperature, or hot (40 ºC, 25 ºC WBGT environment, unacclimatized, or after 10 days of passive or active acclimation. The subjects were allowed to drink tap water ad libitum during EHST. Mean skin (Tsk and tympanic (Tty temperatures and heart rates (HR measured physiological strain, while sweat rate (SwR, and serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and osmolality measured changes in water and electrolyte status. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after the EHST. Results. Exertional heat stress in hot conditions induced physiological heat stress (increase in Tty, HR, and SwR, with significant decrease in serum sodium concentration (140.6±1.52 before vs 138.5±1.0 mmol/l after EHST, p < 0.01 and osmolality (280.7±3.8 vs 277.5±2.6 mOsm/kg, p < 0.05 in the unacclimatized group. The acclimated soldiers suffered no such effects of exertional heat stress, despite almost the same degree of heat strain, measured by Tty, HR and SwR. Conclusion. In the trained soldiers, 10-day passive or active acclimation in a climatic chamber can prevent disturbances in water and electrolytic balance, i.e. decrease in serum sodium concentrations and osmolality induced by exertional heat stress.
disrupt the menstrual cycles of women soldiers. Biological clocks will gradually adjust to local time, although it may take four to seven days. Sleep...Information regarding the use of birth control pills to regulate menstrual cycle and prevent pregnancy should be disseminated. Information for...Garrison Recipe One cup (8 ounces) of fruit juice (orange or apple) with one-half teaspoon of sugar or honey and a pinch of salt, followed by one cup
The document has a collection of 19 papers (11 on technologies, 8 on applications) by 26 authors and coauthors. Technological topics include: evolution from conventional HEMT's double heterojunction and planar types of pseudomorphic HEMT's; MMIC R&D and production aspects for very-low-noise, low-power, and very-low-noise, high-power applications; hyperfrequency CAD tools; parametric measurements of hyperfrequency components on plug-in cards for design and in-process testing uses; design of Class B power amplifiers and millimetric-wave, bigrid-transistor mixers, exemplifying combined use of three major types of physical simulation in electrical modeling of microwave components; FET's for power amplification at up to 110 GHz; production, characterization, and nonlinear applications of resonant tunnel diodes. Applications topics include: development of active modules for major European programs; tubes versus solid-state components in hyperfrequency applications; status and potentialities of national and international cooperative R&D on MMIC's and CAD of hyperfrequency circuitry; attainable performance levels in multifunction MMIC applications; state of the art relative of MESFET power amplifiers (Bands S, C, X, Ku); creating a hyperfrequency functions library, of parametrizable reference cells or macrocells; and design of a single-stage, low-noise, band-W amplifier toward development of a three-stage amplifier.
Hussain, N A; Akande, T M; Osagbemi, G K; Olasupo, S T; Salawu, K Y; Adebayo, E T
There is a popular belief among the general population that Nigerian soldiers tend to have large families but this has not been substantiated with evidence-based research. The Nigerian military health authority implements female-targetted contraception strategies, with less focus on their husbands; who are the dominant fertility determinants. To determine the perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers of Sobi Cantonment, Ilorin, Nigeria, with a view to instituting male-targeted contraceptive/family planning strategies. A cross-sectional survey of 334 male soldiers using multistage sampling technique and pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaires. The respondents' approval of contraception (73.6%) and willingness to discuss it with their spouses/partners (71.6%) were high. Fear of wives/partner's sexual promiscuity (55.7%), cultural and religious beliefs (43.2%), fear of the side effects of contraceptives (29.5%) and the desire for more children (21.6%) were reported reasons for the non-approval of contraception. The prevalence of contraceptive use among the respondents was low (12.3%). There was a significant relationship between the respondents' educational level and contraceptive use (pcontraception with their spouses/partners but low contraceptive use.
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the potential contribution of informal community initiatives and formal interventions in support of former child soldiers' resilience in the wake of armed conflict. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a stratified random sample of 330 formerly recruited and 677 nonrecruited young people was consulted about their perspective on desirable support for former child soldiers provided by close support figures, communities, humanitarian organizations, and governments. Data analysis occurred by conducting qualitative thematic analysis and statistical chi-square analysis to explore clusters, similarities, and variations in reported support across the different “agents,” hereby comparing the perspectives of formerly recruited and non-recruited participants. The results indicated that formerly recruited and non-recruited participants had comparable perspectives that call for the contribution of various informal and formal support systems to former child soldiers' human capacities and the communal sociocultural fabric of war-affected societies. This highlights the importance of community-based, collective, and comprehensive support of formerly recruited young people and their surroundings in the aftermath of armed conflict.
Vindevogel, Sofie; Wessells, Michael; De Schryver, Maarten; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse
This study aimed to evaluate the potential contribution of informal community initiatives and formal interventions in support of former child soldiers' resilience in the wake of armed conflict. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a stratified random sample of 330 formerly recruited and 677 nonrecruited young people was consulted about their perspective on desirable support for former child soldiers provided by close support figures, communities, humanitarian organizations, and governments. Data analysis occurred by conducting qualitative thematic analysis and statistical chi-square analysis to explore clusters, similarities, and variations in reported support across the different “agents,” hereby comparing the perspectives of formerly recruited and non-recruited participants. The results indicated that formerly recruited and non-recruited participants had comparable perspectives that call for the contribution of various informal and formal support systems to former child soldiers' human capacities and the communal sociocultural fabric of war-affected societies. This highlights the importance of community-based, collective, and comprehensive support of formerly recruited young people and their surroundings in the aftermath of armed conflict. PMID:23346023
Grüter, Christoph; Segers, Francisca H I D; Menezes, Cristiano; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Falcón, Tiago; von Zuben, Lucas; Bitondi, Márcia M G; Nascimento, Fabio S; Almeida, Eduardo A B
The differentiation of workers into morphological castes represents an important evolutionary innovation that is thought to improve division of labor in insect societies. Given the potential benefits of task-related worker differentiation, it is puzzling that physical worker castes, such as soldiers, are extremely rare in social bees and absent in wasps. Following the recent discovery of soldiers in a stingless bee, we studied the occurrence of worker differentiation in 28 stingless bee species from Brazil and found that several species have specialized soldiers for colony defence. Our results reveal that worker differentiation evolved repeatedly during the last ~ 25 million years and coincided with the emergence of parasitic robber bees, a major threat to many stingless bee species. Furthermore, our data suggest that these robbers are a driving force behind the evolution of worker differentiation as targets of robber bees are four times more likely to have nest guards of increased size than non-targets. These findings reveal unexpected diversity in the social organization of stingless bees.Although common in ants and termites, worker differentiation into physical castes is rare in social bees and unknown in wasps. Here, Grüter and colleagues find a guard caste in ten species of stingless bees and show that the evolution of the guard caste is associated with parasitization by robber bees.
Sell, Timothy C; Pederson, Jonathan J; Abt, John P; Nagai, Takashi; Deluzio, Jennifer; Wirt, Michael D; McCord, Larry J; Lephart, Scott M
Poor postural stability has been identified as a risk factor for lower extremity musculoskeletal injury. The additional weight of body armor carried by Soldiers alters static postural stability and may predispose Soldiers to lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries. However, static postural stability tasks poorly replicate the dynamic military environment, which places considerable stress on the postural control system during tactical training and combat. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of body armor on dynamic postural stability during single-leg jump landings. Thirty-six 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) Soldiers performed single-leg jump landings in the anterior direction with and without wearing body armor. The dynamic postural stability index and the individual stability indices (medial-lateral stability index, anterior-posterior stability index, and vertical stability index) were calculated for each condition. Paired sample t-tests were performed to determine differences between conditions. Significant differences existed for the medial-lateral stability index, anterior-posterior stability index, vertical stability index, and dynamic postural stability index (p armor resulted in diminished dynamic postural stability, which may result in increased lower extremity injuries. Training programs should address the altered dynamic postural stability while wearing body armor in attempts to promote adaptations that will result in safer performance during dynamic tasks.
Duda, Aleksandra; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Lanocha, Aleksandra
Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal parasite found in humans living in poor sanitary conditions, living in tropical and subtropical climates, exposed to infected animals, or consuming contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. hominis in Polish military personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. In total, 1,826 stool samples were examined. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 17% of the soldiers. The examined stool samples most frequently contained vacuolar forms of B. hominis (15.3%) and cysts of Entamoeba coli (1.0%) or Giardia lamblia (0.7%). In 97.1% of stool samples from infected soldiers, we observed less than five developmental forms of B. hominis in the field of view (40×). The parasite infections in soldiers were diagnosed in the autumn and the spring. There was no statistical correlation between age and B. hominis infection. Our results show that peacekeeping missions in countries with tropical or subtropical climates could be associated with risk for parasitic diseases, including blastocystosis. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Krasulová, Jana; Hanus, Robert; Kutalová, Kateřina; Šobotník, Jan; Sillam-Dussès, David; Tichý, Michal; Valterová, Irena
A great diversity of defensive chemicals has been described in termite soldiers equipped with a unique defensive organ, the frontal gland. Along with the functional diversity of these compounds, reflecting the evolutionary history of particular lineages and their defensive strategies, a considerable degree of chemical variability often occurs among species and populations. Thus, the chemistry of termite defense may provide information on the phylogeny and geographic dispersal of species and populations. In this paper, we report on the anatomy of the frontal gland and on the diversity of soldier defensive chemicals in the sand termite, Psammotermes hybostoma, from nine colonies and five different localities in Egypt. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, a total of 30 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, or their oxygenated derivatives, were detected, and the chemical identity of most of them identified. In addition, a ketone, an ester, and a diterpene were identified in some colonies. Within colonies, the chemical composition was stable and did not differ among soldier size categories. However, there were pronounced quantitative and qualitative differences in frontal gland chemicals among colonies and geographic locations. The findings are discussed in a broader comparison with other termite taxa.
Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Andersen, Søren B; Bertelsen, Mette; Madsen, Trine
In the years following military deployment, soldiers may experience problems integrating into the community. However, little is known about the nature and prevalence of these problems and if they relate to posttraumatic symptomatology. In a prospective, longitudinal study of Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 (N = 743), we assessed community reintegration difficulties 2.5 years after home coming (study sample: N = 454). Furthermore, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were assessed before, during, and after deployment. Trajectories of PTSD symptoms from a previously published latent growth mixture modeling analysis were used to address whether community reintegration difficulties differ as a result of course and level of PTSD symptoms. Between 3.6 and 18.0% reported to have some, a lot, or extreme difficulties in reintegration domains such as interpersonal functioning, productivity, community involvement, and self-care. Mean level of reintegration difficulties differed significantly across six PTSD symptom trajectories (range 6.35-36.00); with more symptomatic trajectories experiencing greater community reintegration difficulties. Reintegration difficulties after deployment are present in less than 20% of Danish soldiers who return from Afghanistan. Difficulties are greater in individuals who follow symptomatic PTSD trajectories in the first years following deployment than in those who follow a low-stable trajectory with no or few symptoms.
Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper
Searle, Shayle R; McCulloch, Charles E
WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PAPERBACK SERIES. The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists. ". . .Variance Components is an excellent book. It is organized and well written, and provides many references to a variety of topics. I recommend it to anyone with interest in linear models.".
Bae, Kyoung Ki; Kim, Ho; Cho, Sung Il
This study was designed to describe the trends in body mass index (BMI) during 6 years (2002 - 2008) and to identify associations between these trends and the amount of physical activity of South Korean career soldiers. This study targeted the 40 993 (38 857 men and 2136 women) of the 58 657 career soldiers who had undergone four (2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008) biennial medical examinations conducted by the National Health Insurance Corporation; 17 664 soldiers with missing data on height, weight, and physical activity were excluded. A linear mixed-regression model was used to categorize changes in BMI due to age versus those due to amount of physical activity. Career soldiers experienced significant increases in BMI compared with baseline data gathered in 2002. The increases in each age group were as follows: men aged 20-29: 1.16, men aged 30-39: 0.61, men aged 40-49: 0.05, women aged 20-29: 0.35, women aged 30-39: 0.30, women aged 40-49: 0.26, and women aged 50-59: 0.21. However, men aged 50 or older showed significant decreases (as high as 0.5) in BMI compared with baseline data obtained in 2002. They also experienced significant decreases in BMI compared with those who reported no physical activity. The differences between baseline and final BMIs were: 0.02 for men exercising 1-2 times per week, -0.07 for men exercising 3-4 times per week, -0.19 for men exercising 5-6 times per week, -0.21 for men exercising seven times per week, -0.05 for women exercising 1-2 times per week, -0.19 for women exercising 3-4 times per week, -0.30 for women exercising 5-6 times per week, and -0.30 for women exercising seven times per week. Obesity in South Korean career soldiers increased markedly between 2002 and 2008, and our data showed that the amount of physical activity was inversely related to increases in BMI. Policies to prevent obesity are needed to reduce this trend.
Ruiz, Pablo Ariel
Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.
Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Bramsen, Inge; Adèr, Herman; van der Ploeg, Henk M
This study examines secondary traumatization among 708 partners and 332 parents of Dutch peacekeepers (i.e., personnel who participated in military actions implemented by international organizations such as the United Nations). Partners or parents of peacekeepers with 4 levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms were compared on posttraumatic stress, health problems, the quality of the marital relationship, and social support. In comparison with partners of peacekeepers without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, partners of peacekeepers with PTSD symptoms reported more sleeping and somatic problems, reported more negative social support, and judged the marital relationship as less favorable. No significant differences were found for parents. Thus, peacekeepers' stress reactions were related to various problems of their partners. A systemic approach to the treatment of persons with PTSD appears appropriate. 2005 APA, all rights reserved
Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 FIT MOBILITY RUCKSACKS BIOMECHANICS ENERGY HARVESTING...system. The new system significantly increases soldier mobility and agility over the standard issue system. The new system increases Soldier...describing walking gait. Ergonomics , 28, 1347-1362. Knapik, J., & Reynolds, K. (2012). Load carriage in military operations: A review of
Lowest Price, Technically Acceptable Evaluation Criteria Used in the November 2014 Request for Proposal for the Program Executive Office Soldier Systems Engineering and Technical Assistance (SETA) Contract
65 APPENDIX C. ENGINEER/ SCIENTIST POSITION DESCRIPTIONS FROM THE NOVEMBER 2014 PEO SOLDIER SETA SOLICITATION FOR LEVELS II...November 2014 solicitation for SETA support for PEO Soldier is not a unique requirement. In fact , the November 2014 solicitation is the sixth such effort...Task Manager, Management/Program/Acquisition Analyst, Engineer/ Scientist , Life Cycle Logistics Management Analyst, Technical Analyst, Software
Bunch, Ann W; Shiroma, Calvin Y
In Quang Nam Province, then South Vietnam, on August 26, 1971, a convoy of United States Army armored patrol cars was returning to base at the end of the day. A rocket-propelled grenade struck one of the vehicles, and subsequently five of the soldiers were killed in action (KIA) while one was missing in action (MIA). After-action reports from eyewitnesses to the event described the MIA soldier as "vaporized" and his remains as "completely destroyed" since he had been seated on boxes of claymore mines, and the vehicle was said to contain white phosphorous as well. Search efforts nonetheless ensued for the MIA beginning 2 days after the attack and finally ending 29 years later when a U.S. Army search and recovery element (RE) discovered dental remains and a dental prosthesis which were used to identify the soldier positively.
Angela De Jong
Full Text Available Although HIV occurs in all social groups in South African society, certain populations are more vulnerable to HIV through risky behaviour patterns. Of relevance to the present study are the high risk situations that deployed soldiers are exposed to. Three issues indicated the necessity for a study of this kind to be conducted; (a the statistics pointing to a higher incidence of HIV infections among military personnel than among the general population, (b military personnel’s unique vulnerability profile, and (c the South African National Defence Force’s (SANDF increasing participation in international peacekeeping missions. The knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning HIV/AIDS of deployed soldiers were analysed. Results indicated that soldiers were taking sexual risks, although they had high levels of knowledge and had healthy attitudes concerning HIV/AIDS.
Tonguc Utku Yilmaz
Full Text Available AIM: Cancer prevention is the most important public cancer management. Although the preventive methods have been known, they havent been performed in practice. Beside the education, consultation should be given. A descriptive study which was performed in military where the adolescents younger than 25 years of age with the capability of developing behaviour styles exist more, was presented in order to evaluate the effects of cancer prevention education to the practice. METHOD: After the evaluation of demographic features and knowledge of soldiers in Ulucinar Special Education Commadership, cancer preventive methods were told by the doctor. Following th lesson, consultation was given about healthy nutrition, quiting smoking, weight control, and determination of risk factors. Nutritional and smoking habits were evaluated after the consultation. RESULTS: Among the soldiers, %20 of them thought that cancer was contagious and %23 of them thought that cancer was fetal. Media is the major source of information. Although they knew preventive methods like stop smoking, healthy nutrition, exersize, medical follow-up, they didnt carry out them. After the consultation, some of them quit smoking but the rate of healthy nutrition didnt improved. 20 participants whose body mass index greater than 25, achieved ideal body weight. The followup is told to the 44 participants with family histories. CONCLUSION: Results of cancer prevention education can be seen in pratice among the soldiers which were tought to be lack of health responsibilities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 475-480
Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Konior, Monika; Augustynowicz, Alina; Lass, Anna; Kowalska, Ewa
Members of the Polish Military Contingent (PMC) have been stationed in Afghanistan since 2002. They typically serve in areas characterised by low standards of sanitation which often leads to the development of food- and waterborne diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis infections among Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan. The research study was conducted as part of a programme for prevention of parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract run by the Polish Armed Forces. The study was carried out in August 2011; it involved 630 asymptomatic Polish soldiers serving in the Forward Operational Base (FOB) Ghazni in eastern Afghanistan. Stool specimens obtained from members of the PMC were first tested in FOB Ghazni (detection of Giardia intestinalis by Rida Quick Giardia immunochromatographic tests and Ridascreen Giardia immunoenzymatic tests - single samples). Next, the same biological material and two other faecal specimens fixed in 10% formalin were transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland, where they were tested for Giardia intestinalis under light microscopy (direct smear, decantation in distilled water). Parasitological tests performed under light microscopy showed that 2.7% (17/630) of the study group were infected with Giardia intestinalis. Some of these results were confirmed by immunochromatographic tests (6/630). In contrast, immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) demonstrated a significantly higher detection rate reaching 18.1% (114/630). Immunoenzymatic tests confirmed all the positive results given by light microscopy and by immunochromatographic tests. The prevalence rate of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan was found to be high. Microscopic methods exhibit low sensitivity and therefore may result in the underestimation of the true parasite prevalence. Immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) showing a much higher sensitivity in comparison to light microscopy
Bartsch, Adam; Samorezov, Sergey
Nearly 2 million Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) occur in the U.S. each year, with societal costs approaching $60 billion. Including mild TBI and concussion, TBI's are prevalent in soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan as well as in domestic athletes. Long-term risks of single and cumulative head impact dosage may present in the form of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicide, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Quantifying head impact dosage and understanding associated risk factors for the development of long-term sequelae is critical toward developing guidelines for TBI exposure and post-exposure management. The current knowledge gap between head impact exposure and clinical outcomes limits the understanding of underlying TBI mechanisms, including effective treatment protocols and prevention methods for soldiers and athletes. In order to begin addressing this knowledge gap, Cleveland Clinic is developing the "Intelligent Mouthguard" head impact dosimeter. Current testing indicates the Intelligent Mouthguard can quantify linear acceleration with 3% error and angular acceleration with 17% error during impacts ranging from 10g to 174g and 850rad/s2 to 10000rad/s2, respectively. Correlation was high (R2 > 0.99, R2 = 0.98, respectively). Near-term development will be geared towards quantifying head impact dosages in vitro, longitudinally in athletes and to test new sensors for possible improved accuracy and reduced bias. Long-term, the IMG may be useful to soldiers to be paired with neurocognitive clinical data quantifying resultant TBI functional deficits.
Ragel, Brian T; Allred, C Dain; Brevard, Sid; Davis, Richard T; Frank, Edmund H
Retrospective analysis. To analyze the types of orthopedic spine fractures sustained by North Atlantic Treaty Organization soldiers when vehicles are attacked by improvised explosive devices (IEDs), with specific focus on the flexion-distraction type thoracolumbar fracture (Chance fracture). Operation Enduring Freedom is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's effort in Afghanistan. IED attacks on armored vehicles are common and account for high proportion of soldiers' deaths and injuries. Retrospective record review was accomplished on soldiers admitted to a military hospital with orthopedic spine fractures after IED attacks on vehicles from January 1, 2008 to May 15, 2008. Thoracolumbar fractures were classified using the McAfee classification system. Twelve male patients with 16 thoracolumbar fractures were identified (3 patients with multiple fractures). The 16 thoracolumbar fractures included 6 flexion-distraction fractures in 5 patients (38%, 6/16: two T12, two L1, one L3, and one L4), 7 compression fractures in 5 patients (44%, 5/16; one T7, one T8, two L1, one L2, one L3, and one L4), and 3 burst fractures (19%, 3/16; two L1 and one L2). The incidence of flexion-distraction thoracolumbar (Chance) fractures has been reported to be between 1.0% and 2.5% in most spine fracture series. In this small study, Chance fractures represented 38% of all tho-racolumbar fractures sustained after IED attack on armored vehicles. The blast pattern associated with IED explosion may be responsible for the high rate of these injuries in vehicle occupants.
Nelson, D. Alan; Deuster, Patricia A.; Carter, Robert; Hill, Owen T.; Wolcott, Vickee L.; Kurina, Lianne M.
Background Studies have suggested that sickle cell trait elevates the risks of exertional rhabdomyolysis and death. We conducted a study of sickle cell trait in relation to these outcomes, controlling for known risk factors for exertional rhabdomyolysis, in a large population of active persons who had undergone laboratory tests for hemoglobin AS (HbAS) and who were subject to exertional-injury precautions. Methods We used Cox proportional-hazards models to test whether the risks of exertional rhabdomyolysis and death varied according to sickle cell trait status among 47,944 black soldiers who had undergone testing for HbAS and who were on active duty in the U.S. Army between January 2011 and December 2014. We used the Stanford Military Data Repository, which contains comprehensive medical and administrative data on all active-duty soldiers. Results There was no significant difference in the risk of death among soldiers with sickle cell trait, as compared with those without the trait (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 2.13; P = 0.97), but the trait was associated with a significantly higher adjusted risk of exertional rhabdomyolysis (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.12; P = 0.008). This effect was similar in magnitude to that associated with tobacco use, as compared with no use (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.94; Prhabdomyolysis. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.) PMID:27518662
Mo, Jong Hyun; Moon, Sung Hee; Kim, Young Bok; Park, Yang Hee [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyoon [Chonnam National Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)
To evaluate the MR imaging findings of fatigue fractures of the lower extremity in young soldiers. In 22 cases of fatigue fractures of the lower extremity in young soldiers proven by clinical findings and radiological follow up, the MRI findings were retrospectively evalvated. All patients were male and aged between 19 and 21 years. As seen on MRI, the bone marrow edema, intramedullary low signal intensity band, cortical fracture line, periosteal reaction, surrounding soft tissue edema, and enhancement pattern were analyzed and the site of involvement was determined in the axial plane. The locations of fatigue fractures of the lower extremity were the tibia (n=12), fibula (n=8), femur (n=1) and second metatarsus (n=1). All occurred in diaphyses: the junction of the proximal and middle (n=10), middle (n=9), proximal (n=2), and distal shaft (n=1). The sites of involvement were the posteromedial (n=6) and medial side (n=6) of the tibia, and the entire portion of the fibula(n=5) in the axial plane. MRI findings were bone marrow edema in 20 cases, intramedullary low signal intensity band in 14 (which were continuous with the cortex or cortical fracture line), cortical fracture line in 13, and periosteal reaction and surrounding soft tissue edema in all. On gadolinium-enhanced images, enhancement was seen in the bone marrow in 19 cases, in the subperiosteal region in 18, and in the surrounding soft tissue in 22. In fatigue fractures of the lower extremity in young soldiers, the main locations were the tibia and fibula, and characteristic MR imaging findings were intramedullary low signal intensity bands, which were continuous with the cortex or cortical fracture line and often accompanied by bone marrow edema, periosteal reaction, and surrounding soft tissue edema.
Loehr, John; O'Hara, Robert B
We investigated fitness, military rank and survival of facial phenotypes in large-scale warfare using 795 Finnish soldiers who fought in the Winter War (1939-1940). We measured facial width-to-height ratio-a trait known to predict aggressive behaviour in males-and assessed whether facial morphology could predict survival, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and social status. We found no difference in survival along the phenotypic gradient, however, wider-faced individuals had greater LRS, but achieved a lower military rank.
M. García Silgo
Antecedentes: En enero de 2011, la revista de Psicología American Psychologist, publicación oficial de la Asociación Americana de Psicología, publicó un monográfico sobre el programa de entrenamiento Comprehensive Soldier Fitness desarrollado por el ejército de los Estados Unidos. Este programa contempla el entrenamiento de diversas variables, entre otras, psicosociales. Dicha publicación suscitó cinco réplicas de psicólogos civiles del ámbito académico norteamericano, comenzando así una polé...
Johannessen, Kim Berg; Bohn, Annette; Staugaard, Søren Risløv
This study compares the characteristics of positive and negative memories in 610 Danish soldiers across three measurement points (before, during and after deployment). Participants were asked to report the most positive and most negative memory from their lives before deployment, and to report...... the most positive and most negative memories concerning their deployment (during deployment and right after deployment). The memory narratives were coded by two independent raters for specificity, coherence, and degree of desorganisation. For all three time points, these ratings were compared across time...
commission on care for America’s returning wounded warrior ," 2007). The current deployments have involved a significant number of soldiers engaged in ground...Am Board Fam Pract, 14(2), 95-106. Buysse, D. J., Reynolds, C. F., 3rd, Monk , T. H., Berman, S. R., & Kupfer, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep...wounded warrior [Electronic (2007). Version]. Retrieved February 17, 2008 from http://www.pccww.gov/docs/Kit/Main_Book_ CC%5BJULY26%5D.pdf. Shaver, J
Chisholm, Shelley A
.... With the implementation of the 12 month mobilization policy, which will transfer training tasks from post mobilization to pre-mobilization, it is more critical than ever that Soldiers currently...
Loryana L. Vie
Full Text Available The Department of Defense (DoD strives to efficiently manage the large volumes of administrative data collected and repurpose this information for research and analyses with policy implications. This need is especially present in the United States Army, which maintains numerous electronic databases with information on more than one million Active-Duty, Reserve, and National Guard soldiers, their family members, and Army civilian employees. The accumulation of vast amounts of digitized health, military service, and demographic data thus approaches, and may even exceed, traditional benchmarks for Big Data. Given the challenges of disseminating sensitive personal and health information, the Person-Event Data Environment (PDE was created to unify disparate Army and DoD databases in a secure cloud-based enclave. This electronic repository serves the ultimate goal of achieving cost efficiencies in psychological and healthcare studies and provides a platform for collaboration among diverse scientists. This paper provides an overview of the uses of the PDE to perform command surveillance and policy analysis for Army leadership. The paper highlights the confluence of both economic and behavioral science perspectives elucidating empirically-based studies examining relations between psychological assets, health, and healthcare utilization. Specific examples explore the role of psychological assets in major cost drivers such as medical expenditures both during deployment and stateside, drug use, attrition from basic training, and low reenlistment rates. Through creation of the PDE, the Army and scientific community can now capitalize on the vast amounts of personnel, financial, medical, training and education, deployment and security systems that influence Army-wide policies and procedures.
Perneger, Thomas V; Poncet, Antoine; Carpentier, Marc; Agoritsas, Thomas; Combescure, Christophe; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle
How researchers' contributions relate to author order on the byline remains unclear. We sought to identify researchers' contributions associated with author order, and to explore the existence of author profiles. Observational study. Published record. 1139 authors of 119 research articles published in 2015 in the Annals of Internal Medicine . Presence or absence of 10 contributions, reported by each author, published in the journal. On average, first authors reported 7.1 contributions, second authors 5.2, middle authors 4.0, penultimate authors 4.5 and last authors 6.4 (p<0.001). The first author made the greatest contributions to drafting the article, designing the study, analysing and interpreting the data, and providing study materials or patients. The second author contributed to data analysis as well and to drafting the article. The last author was most involved in obtaining the funding, critically revising the article, designing the study and providing support. Factor analysis yielded three author profiles- Thinker (study design, revision of article, obtaining funding), Soldier (providing material or patients, providing administrative and logistical support, collecting data) and Scribe (analysis and interpretation of data, drafting the article, statistical expertise). These profiles do not strictly correspond to byline position. First, second and last authors of research articles made distinct contributions to published research. Three authorship profiles can be used to summarise author contributions. These findings shed light on the organisation of clinical research teams and may help researchers discuss, plan and report authorship in a more transparent way. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Muschalla, Beate; Rau, Heinrich; Willmund, Gerd Dieter; Knaevelsrud, Christine
Posttraumatic mental disorders may occur with different affect qualities. Best known is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a conditioned anxiety reaction with intrusions. Another event-related mental disorder is posttraumatic embitterment (PTED), characterized by affect of embitterment and thoughts of revenge, occurring after an event deeply hurting basic beliefs. Knowing about associated disability is important for treatment and sociomedical decisions. This is the first study to explore work-disability in patients with PTSD, PTED, and not-event-related common mental disorder (CMD). In this observational study, 101 soldiers (85% men, 31 years, 50% experienced expedition abroad) with different mental disorders were investigated concerning common mental disorders (MINI) and accompanying work capacity impairment (Mini-ICF-APP). Interviews were conducted by a state-licensed psychotherapist with expertise in sociomedical description of (work) capacity impairment. Patients with PTSD, PTED, and other CMD were compared concerning their degrees and pattern of work capacity impairment. PTSD patients (n = 23) were more strongly impaired in mobility as compared to patients with other CMD (n = 64) or PTED. Patients with PTED (n = 14) were more impaired in interactional capacities (contacts with others, group integration) as compared to patients with other CMD or PTSD. PTSD patients need support to improve mobility in (work-relevant) traffic situations. Apart from this, they are not specifically more or less impaired than patients with other CMD. PTED patients should get attention concerning their interactional problems as these may disturb esprit de corps, which is an essential requirement for service in the armed forces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Statnikov, Alexander; Andersen, Søren Bo
the development of chronic psychopathology. Both hold significant public health benefits given large numbers of deployed soldiers, but has so far not been achieved. Here, we aim to assess the potential for pre- and early post-deployment prediction of resilience or posttraumatic stress development in soldiers......- and early postdeployment risk indicators were identified, and included individual PTSD symptoms as well as total level of PTSD symptoms, previous trauma and treatment, negative emotions, and thought suppression. The predictive performance of these risk indicators combined was assessed by cross...
Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Tol, Wietse A; Speckman, Rebecca A; Maharjan, Sujen M; Worthman, Carol M; Komproe, Ivan H
Former child soldiers are considered in need of special mental health interventions. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the mental health of child soldiers compared with civilian children in armed conflicts. To compare the mental health status of former child soldiers with that of children who have never been conscripts of armed groups. Cross-sectional cohort study conducted in March and April 2007 in Nepal comparing the mental health of 141 former child soldiers and 141 never-conscripted children matched on age, sex, education, and ethnicity. Depression symptoms were assessed via the Depression Self Rating Scale, anxiety symptoms via the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) via the Child PTSD Symptom Scale, general psychological difficulties via the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, daily functioning via the Function Impairment tool, and exposure to traumatic events via the PTSD Traumatic Event Checklist of the Kiddie Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Participants were a mean of 15.75 years old at the time of this study, and former child soldiers ranged in age from 5 to 16 years at the time of conscription. All participants experienced at least 1 type of trauma. The numbers of former child soldiers meeting symptom cutoff scores were 75 (53.2%) for depression, 65 (46.1%) for anxiety, 78 (55.3%) for PTSD, 55 (39.0%) for psychological difficulties, and 88 (62.4%) for function impairment. After adjusting for traumatic exposures and other covariates, former soldier status was significantly associated with depression (odds ratio [OR], 2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-4.44) and PTSD among girls (OR, 6.80; 95% CI, 2.16-21.58), and PTSD among boys (OR, 3.81; 95% CI, 1.06-13.73) but was not associated with general psychological difficulties (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 0.86-5.02), anxiety (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 0.77-3.45), or function impairment (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0
... identification of Defense Support of Civilian Authorities requirements. The Subcommittee on Personnel plans to..., issues impacting reserve organizations, the right balance of Active and Reserve Component forces, and...
Estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo de dois estádios sucessionais de floresta estacional semidecidual na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG, Brasil Structure of the tree-shrub component in two successional stages of semideciduous forest in the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, Viçosa, MG, Brazil
Sheila Isabel do Carmo Pinto
Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo das variações estruturais do componente arbustivo- arbóreo em dois estádios sucessionais - inicial e madura - de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, em Viçosa, MG, Brasil. A Reserva Florestal está situada nas coordenadas 20º45'S e 42º55'W e a uma altitude média de 689 m. O clima da região é classificado como Cwb pelo sistema de Köppen. As espécies arbustivo-arbóreas foram amostradas dentro de 20 parcelas de 10 x 30 m, sendo 10 parcelas em cada estádio sucessional, sendo considerados apenas os indivíduos com diâmetro a 1,30 m do solo (DAP > 4,8 cm. Na floresta inicial foram amostrados 399 indivíduos, distribuídos em 27 famílias e 55 espécies. As espécies com maior valor de importância (VI foram Piptadenia gonoacantha, Vernonanthura diffusa, Miconia cinnamomifolia, Piptocarpha macropoda e Luehea grandiflora. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,31 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade de Pielou (J', igual a 0,83. No estádio floresta madura foram amostrados 623 indivíduos, distribuídos em 31 famílias e 78 espécies. As espécies com maior valor de importância (VI foram Euterpe edulis, Piptadenia gonoacantha, Nectandra lanceolata, Myrcia sphaerocarpa e Guapira opposita. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,46 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade de Pielou (J', igual a 0,79. As distribuições diamétricas das quatro espécies mais abundantes em cada estádio sucessional apresentaram padrões distintos, aparentemente relacionados ao estádio sucessional.The study of the floristic and structural variations of the tree-shrub component was carried out in two successional stages of Semideciduous Forest, initial and mature, located in the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The Forest Reserve is located at 20º45'S and 42º55'W, with average altitude of 689 m. The regional climate is classified as Cwb by the Köppen system
This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...
Dretsch, Michael N; Silverberg, Noah; Gardner, Andrew J; Panenka, William J; Emmerich, Tanja; Crynen, Gogce; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Chaytow, Helena; Mathura, Venkat; Crawford, Fiona C; Iverson, Grant L
Risk factors for concussion in active-duty military service members are poorly understood. The present study examined the association between self-reported concussion history and genetics (apolipoprotein E [APOE], brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], and D2 dopamine receptor genes [DRD2]), trait personality measures (impulsive-sensation seeking and trait aggression-hostility), and current alcohol use. The sample included 458 soldiers who were preparing to deploy for Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. For those with the BDNF Met/Met genotype, 57.9% (11/19) had a history of one or more prior concussions, compared with 35.6% (154/432) of those with other BDNF genotypes (p = 0.049, odds ratio [OR] = 2.48). APOE and DRD2 genotypes were not associated with risk for past concussions. Those with the BDNF Met/Met genotype also reported greater aggression and hostility personality characteristics. When combined in a predictive model, prior military deployments, being male, and having the BDNF Met/Met genotype were independently associated with increased lifetime history of concussions in active-duty soldiers. Replication in larger independent samples is necessary to have more confidence in both the positive and negative genetic associations reported in this study.
Full Text Available This essay is an account of the making of England and her Soldiers (1859 by Harriet Martineau and Florence Nightingale. The book is a literary account of the Crimean War, written by Martineau and based on Nightingale’s statistical studies of mortality during the conflict. Nightingale was passionate about statistics and healthcare. Whilst working as a nurse in the Crimea, she witnessed thousands of soldiers die of infectious diseases that might have been prevented with proper sanitation. After the war, she launched a campaign to convince the British government to make permanent reforms to military healthcare, compiling a dataset on mortality in the Crimea. She worked with the government’s Royal Commission investigating healthcare during the war, but also worked privately with Martineau to publicise her findings. Martineau and Nightingale grasped that the lay reader was more receptive to statistical information in a literary format than in dense statistical reports. As such, Nightingale’s data was interwoven with Martineau’s text. The pair illustrated their book with Nightingale’s ‘Rose Diagram’, a statistical graphic which simply illustrated the rate of mortality.
DeLany, J.P.; Schoeller, D.A.; Hoyt, R.W.; Askew, E.W.; Sharp, M.A.
To test the application of doubly labeled water under adverse field conditions, energy expenditures of 16 special operations soldiers were measured during a 28-day field training exercise. Subjects were matched by fat-free mass and divided equally between an ad libitum ready-to-eat meal diet and a 2,000 kcal/day lightweight ration. Subjects recorded intakes daily, and body composition was measured before and after the exercise. At the beginning of the study, subjects moved to a new northerly location and, therefore, a new water supply. To compensate for this, a group of soldiers who did not receive heavy water was followed to measure isotopic base-line changes. Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was in agreement with intake/balance (3,400 ± 260 vs. 3,230 ± 520 kcal/day). The overall coefficient of variation of energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was half that of intake/balance (7.6 vs. 16.1%). The coefficient of variation of repeat measures with doubly labeled water was 7.3%. Energy expenditure of the ready-to-eat meal group, 3,540 ± 180 kcal/day, was not significantly different from the lightweight ration group, 3,330 ± 301 kcal/day. Doubly labeled water was valid under field conditions
Anjali Gera Roy
Full Text Available The geography of Punjab, a land-locked region divided between India and Pakistan, makes it an unlikely player in oceanic sojourns. But imperial interventions in Punjab in the middle of the 19th century triggered movements from Punjab that inserted this region in the littoral narrative of the Indian Ocean. Unlike the movements of lascars and traders, who have been central to the revisionist histories of the Indian Ocean, those from Punjab have not featured in oceanic dialogues. The absence of Sikhs in Indian Ocean studies is largely due to the silence of Sikh soldiers, skilled craftsmen and cultivators with largely rural roots who were uprooted to strange lands. The confusion of Sikhs with Hindus, Muslims and, even Afghans, in the colonial era, as well as the classification of Punjabi Muslims as Pakistani in the post-colonial, further problematizes the Sikh migration narrative. Drawing on a wide range of official and unofficial historical sources, this essay argues that twin developments in Punjab, namely the construction of Sikhs as ‘a martial race’ and their integration into the imperial capitalist economy, connects the movements of soldiers and policemen to Shanghai, Hong Kong, the Straits Settlements and Kenya with those of skilled artisans to Mombasa and Uganda. Keywords: Sikhs, Indian Ocean, labour migration, cultural identity
Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; De Clercq, Patrick; De Smet, Stefaan
Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and substrates were freeze-dried and proximate, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral analyses were performed. Protein content of prepupae varied between 399 and 431 g kg -1 dry matter (DM) among treatments. Differences in amino acid profile of prepupae were small. On the other hand, the ether extract (EE) and ash contents differed substantially. Prepupae reared on digestate were low in EE and high in ash (218 and 197 g kg -1 DM, respectively) compared to those reared on vegetable waste (371 and 96 g kg -1 DM, respectively), chicken feed (336 and 100 g kg -1 DM, respectively) and restaurant waste (386 and 27 g kg -1 DM, respectively). Prepupal fatty acid profiles were characterised by high levels of C12:0 in all treatments. Since protein content and quality were high and comparable for prepupae reared on different substrates, black soldier fly could be an interesting protein source for animal feeds. However, differences in EE and ash content as a function of substrate should be considered. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Anderson, Julie; Perry, Heather R
This article offers a comparative analysis of the evolution of orthopaedics and rehabilitation within German and British military medicine during the Great War. In it, we reveal how the field of orthopaedics became integral to military medicine by tracing the evolution of the discipline and its practitioners in each nation during the war. In doing so, however, we document not only when and why both medical specialists and military officials realized that maintaining their respective national fighting forces depended upon the efficient rehabilitation of wounded soldiers, but also how these rehabilitative practices and goals reflected the particularities of the military context, civilian society and social structure of each nation. Thus, while our comparison reveals a number of similarities in the orthopaedic developments within each nation as a response to the Great War, we also reveal significant national differences in war-time medical goals, rehabilitation treatments and soldierly 'medical experiences'. Moreover, as we demonstrate, a social and cultural re-conceptualization of the disabled body accompanied the medical advancements developed for him; however, this re-conceptualization was not the same in each nation. Thus, what our article reveals is that although the guns of August fell silent in 1918, the war's medical experiences lingered long thereafter shaping the future of disability medicine in both nations.
Morgan, Charles A; Doran, Anthony; Steffian, George; Hazlett, Gary; Southwick, Steven M
Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown acute stress may impair working memory and visuo-spatial ability. This study was designed to clarify the nature of stress-induced cognitive deficits in soldiers and how such deficits may contribute to operational or battlefield errors. One hundred eighty-four Special Operations warfighters enrolled in Survival School completed pre-stress measures of dissociation and trauma exposure. Subjects were randomized to one of three assessment groups (Pre-stress, Stress, Post-stress) and were administered the Rey Ostereith Complex Figure (ROCF). All subjects completed post-stress measures of dissociation. ROCF copy and recall were normal in the Pre- and Post-stress groups. ROCF copy and recall were significantly impaired in the Stress Group. Stress group ROCF copy performance was piecemeal, and ROCF recall was impaired. Symptoms of dissociation were negatively associated with ROCF recall in the Stress group. Baseline dissociation and history of traumatic stress predicted cognitive impairment during stress. Stress exposure impaired visuo-spatial capacity and working memory. In rats, monkeys, and humans, high dopamine and NE turnover in the PFC induce deficits in cognition and spatial working memory. Improved understanding of stress-induced cognitive deficits may assist in identification of soldiers at risk and lead to the development of better countermeasures.
Full Text Available We have conducted an empirical study of the dynamics of the level of moral judgments in the military. Two groups of Missile Defense Force soldiers present the sample: preparing for demobilization (n=30 and new recruits (n=25. As the methods we used specially developed semi-structured interview modeling the situation of moral choice, and the questionnaire in order to assess the socio-psychological characteristics of the military and their attitude to service. The young soldiers have a positive trend in the development of moral judgments and a greater differentiation in the estimates. It is shown that the old-timers in comparison with newcomers have intensive development of group-oriented and prosocial moral reasoning. It presumably connected with successful adaptation to military service, following the manual, the ability to cope with aggressive impulses, flexibility and value assessments in decision-making. It is noted that educational work with young recruits should include measures to increase group cohesion in the army.
Gibson, Stephen; Condor, Susan
Theory and research deriving from social identity or self-categorization perspectives often starts out with the presumption that social actors necessarily view societal objects such as nations or states as human categories. However, recent work suggests that this may be only one of a number of forms that societal representation may take. For example, nations may be understood variously as peoples, places, or institutions. This paper presents findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in England, in which soldiers and civilians talked about nationhood in relation to military service. Analysis indicated that, in this context, speakers were often inclined to use the terms 'Britain', 'nation', and 'country' as references to a political institution as opposed to a category of people. In addition, there were systematic differences between the ways in which the two samples construed their nation in institutional terms. The civilians were inclined to treat military service as a matter of obedience to the dictates of the Government of the day. In contrast, the soldiers were more inclined to frame military service as a matter of loyalty to state as symbolically instantiated in the body of the sovereign. Implications for work adopting a social identity perspective are discussed.
Barber, Daniel J.; Howard, Thomas M.; Walter, Matthew R.
Recent research and advances in robotics have led to the development of novel platforms leveraging new sensing capabilities for semantic navigation. As these systems becoming increasingly more robust, they support highly complex commands beyond direct teleoperation and waypoint finding facilitating a transition away from robots as tools to robots as teammates. Supporting future Soldier-Robot teaming requires communication capabilities on par with human-human teams for successful integration of robots. Therefore, as robots increase in functionality, it is equally important that the interface between the Soldier and robot advances as well. Multimodal communication (MMC) enables human-robot teaming through redundancy and levels of communications more robust than single mode interaction. Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies released in recent years for smart-phones and gaming provide tools for the creation of portable interfaces incorporating MMC through the use of speech, gestures, and visual displays. However, for multimodal interfaces to be successfully used in the military domain, they must be able to classify speech, gestures, and process natural language in real-time with high accuracy. For the present study, a prototype multimodal interface supporting real-time interactions with an autonomous robot was developed. This device integrated COTS Automated Speech Recognition (ASR), a custom gesture recognition glove, and natural language understanding on a tablet. This paper presents performance results (e.g. response times, accuracy) of the integrated device when commanding an autonomous robot to perform reconnaissance and surveillance activities in an unknown outdoor environment.
Wainwright, Verity; McDonnell, Sharon; Lennox, Charlotte; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane
Little is known about why some ex-armed forces personnel become involved in the criminal justice system, however, they represent the largest known occupational group in prison. In-depth interviews were employed to explore possible pathways to offending. Twenty ex-armed forces personnel in prison were recruited from five prisons in England. Data were analysed using a combination of thematic analysis and constant comparison methods rooted in grounded theory. Four predominant themes were identified: experiences of trauma and adversity; belonging; impulsivity and creating a soldier . Participants had experienced a number of traumatic incidents and adversity in their lives, encompassing pre, during and post-service but felt a sense of belonging in the armed forces. Participants demonstrated impulsivity in a number of areas with links to both their service in the armed forces and offending behaviour. The creation of the identity of 'soldier' was perceived to impact participants' lives in a number of ways, including their offending, alcohol use and coping with trauma. The interplay of these themes and their potential impact on participants' pathways to offending are discussed.
de Vries, M; Soetekouw, P M; van Bergen, L F; van der Meer, J W; Bleijenberg, G
Dutch soldiers who have participated in the peace keeping operation United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) have reported various somatic and psychological symptoms since their return. Their symptoms show similarities to the Gulf War Syndrome. The question arises whether Gulf War Syndrome, symptoms in UNTAC soldiers and other symptoms after acts of war and peace operations are unique syndromes or comparable complaints? From an historical overview it is not plausible that new and unique syndromes will occur with each war or peace operation. On the other hand it also seems unlikely that war syndromes can be reduced to one diagnostic category. The post-Cambodia complaints may be described in four hypothetical models: the somatic start model, the psychotrauma start model, the premorbidity model and the complaints-not-related-to-Cambodia model. These models are expected to be applicable, after further validation, to other symptoms after acts of war and peace operations. Also they will provide points of application for prevention and treatment of symptoms after future wars and peace operations.
Adler, Jessica L
In this article, I examine how African American soldiers and veterans experienced and shaped federally sponsored health care during and after World War I. Building on studies of the struggles of Black leaders and health care providers to win professional and public health advancement in the 1920s and 1930s, and of advocates to mobilize for health care rights in the mid-20th century, I focus primarily on the experiences and activism of patients in the interwar years. Private and government correspondence, congressional testimony, and reports from Black newspapers reveal that African American soldiers and veterans communicated directly with policymakers and bureaucrats regarding unequal treatment, assuming roles as "policy actors" who viewed health and medical care as "politics by other means." In the process, they drew attention to the paradoxes inherent in expanding government entitlements in the era of Jim Crow, and helped shape a veterans' health system that emerged in the 1920s and remained in place for the following century. They also laid the groundwork for the system's precedent-setting desegregation, referred to by advocates of the time as "a shining example to the rest of the country."
Full Text Available [ However\\ in the presence of a stress concentration the ultimate tensile stress can be exceeded before the ultimate shear stress is reached\\ resulting in a tensile failure 0 [ 2[6[ Metallo`raphy and Ener`y Dispersive Spectroscopy "EDS# A microspecimen...\\ Vol[ 4\\ No[ 1\\ pp[ 018 030\\ 0887 0887 Elsevier Science Ltd[ All rights reserved\\ Pergamon Printed in Great Britain 0249 5296:87 ,08[99 9[99 PII] S0249 5296"87#99909 6 AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT FAILURES A[ M[ HEYES Advanced Engineering and Testing...
Guy, Kitwe Mulunda
This article sets medico legal light on torture of three former child soldiers by comparing torture methods, consequences of torture and medical observations. It is focused on these child soldiers as representatives of the many abuses of children as soldiers in armed groups. The three persons were child soldiers during 12 years in The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) as members of three different armed groups. They were exposed to armed conflict events, experienced torture, and participated in atrocities, sexual abuse and traditional rituals during their role in armed conflict. They were psychologically distressed with unhealthy physical and mental states. The principles for working with child soldiers are described. The model addresses basic items: The confluence of the dimensions of the items will determine the specifics of medico legal evidence of torture in child soldiers, taking into consideration inputs that are required at the macro, community and individual levels. A primary goal is to prevent violence from occurring in child soldiers. Thus, much more deliberate effort is made to address the underlying causes of recruitment of children in armed groups in DRC and to invest more resources in conflict resolution before there is an outbreak of violence. Peace education tends to be introduced too late and does little to alleviate the use of children in armed conflict in DRC.
Sell, Timothy C; Lovalekar, Mita T; Nagai, Takashi; Wirt, Michael D; Abt, John P; Lephart, Scott M
Postural stability is essential for injury prevention and performance. Differences between genders may affect training focus. To examine static and dynamic postural stability in male and female soldiers. Descriptive laboratory study. Biomechanics laboratory. 25 healthy female soldiers (26.4 ± 5.3 y) and 25 healthy male soldiers (26.4 ± 4.9 y) matched on physical demand rating and years of service from the Army's 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault). Each person underwent static and dynamic postural stability testing. Standard deviation of the ground reaction forces during static postural stability and the dynamic stability index for dynamic postural stability. Female soldiers had significantly better static postural stability than males but no differences were observed in dynamic postural stability. Postural stability is important for injury prevention, performance optimization, and tactical training. The differences observed in the current study may indicate the need for gender-specific training emphasis on postural stability.
IV-3 Basically, the soldier will use these reading materiala to supplement what is stated in a lecture by integrating the information from the...0178 Observe Prisoners in Close Confinement 191-381-0179 Conduct Physical Training Within Close Confinement 191-381-0180 Control Shower and Shave Call
Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Andersen, Soren Bo
Since the beginning of the 1990s, the Danish military has deployed more than 40,000 soldiers to war zones, especially to the Balkans, Iraq, and Afghanistan. To the war in Afghanistan alone, the Danish Defense has to date deployed 9,918 unique soldiers with a total of 18,015 deployments. The total...... focusing on the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in this sample will be presented, and the relevance and generalizability of these findings to military populations from other countries will be discussed....... population of Denmark is 5.66 million, resulting in a relatively high deployed-to-population ratio. Since research in the field have found deployed soldiers to be at increased risk for mental health problems following deployment this large number entails a potential public health problem for the Danish...... society. The Research and Knowledge Center in the Danish Veteran Center has over the last years conducted a longitudinal study of Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan from February to August 2009 on potential mental health problems that might arise in this population. In the following, a few highlights...
Abt, John P; Perlsweig, Katherine; Nagai, Takashi; Sell, Timothy C; Wirt, Michael D; Lephart, Scott M
Soldiers must maintain tactical performance capabilities over the course of their career. Loss in physical readiness may be a function of age and the operational demands associated with increasing years of service. The purpose of this study was to assess strength and physiological characteristics in different cohorts of U.S. Army Soldiers based on years of service and age. A total of 253 Soldiers (age: 28.1 ± 6.8 years; height: 1.76 ± 0.11 m; mass: 84.1 ± 12.2 kg) participated. Individual subject cohorts were created based on years of service (1-5 years, 6-10 years, 11-15 years) and age (20-24 years, 25-29 years, 30-34 years, 35-39 years, 40-44 years). Testing included shoulder, knee, ankle, and torso strength, aerobic capacity/lactate threshold, anaerobic power/capacity, and body composition/total mass. Those with 11 to 15 years of service and between ages 30 and 34 had a higher percentage of body fat, and lower aerobic capacity and lactate threshold than younger Soldiers with fewer years of service. Physical training interventions should focus on maintenance of physiological characteristics to offset the loss of readiness at the similar time point of 11 to 15 years of service and 30 to 34 years of age. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 233 / Wednesday, December 4, 2013 /#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Memorandum of August 2, 2013 Delegation of Authority Pursuant to Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008, as Amended...
... 2012 Star- Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin Program Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department... Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012 Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin Program products. Prices... include gold coins based on the market price of gold. Product Introductory price Regular price 2012...
... 2012 Star- Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the... Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012 Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin products: Introductory... period for the 2012 Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin Program begins March 5, 2012, and ends April...
to examine Soldier performance. For the rush task, two padded gym mats (Mats A and B), separated by 30 m, were placed at either end of the hallway...pelvis and torso) using double sided and athletic tape wrapped around the segment. The thigh and pelvis clusters were placed over tight fitting spandex
Straková, Petra; Rudolf, Ivo; Pavlis, O.; Hubálek, Zdeněk
Roč. 83, č. 2 (2014), s. 67-72 ISSN 0372-7025 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : ELISA method * zoonoses * soldiers * Afghanistan Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology http://www.mmsl.cz/archive/dl/266
Barragan-Fonseca, K.B.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.
The black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens L.; Diptera: Stratiomyidae) has been studied for its capability to convert organic waste to high quality protein, control certain harmful bacteria and insect pests, provide potential chemical precursors to produce biodiesel and for its use as feed for
Jayne, Julianna M; Frongillo, Edward A; Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Emerson, Dawn M; Glover, Saundra H; Blake, Christine E
Promoting healthy eating among Soldiers is a priority to the Army due to the link between nutrition and performance. The Army typically uses nutrition education to encourage Soldiers to make healthier food choices with low emphasis on other psychosocial determinants of food choice behaviors. Drill Sergeant Candidates (n = 575) completed surveys assessing nutrition knowledge, eating identity type, and food choice behaviors including fruit and vegetable intake, skipping meals, and eating out frequency. In multiple linear regression models using full-information maximum likelihood estimation while controlling for race/ethnicity, education, and marital status, we examined relationships between nutrition knowledge, a healthy eating identity, and Soldiers' food choice behaviors. The study was approved by the Department of Defense and University of South Carolina's Institutional Review Boards. A healthy eating identity was positively associated with greater fruit and vegetable consumption (p eating out frequency (p eating identity may be more effective for promoting healthy food choice behaviors than nutrition education alone. Determining if various points in a Soldier's career could be leveraged to influence a healthy eating identity and behaviors could be an important strategy to improve compliance with health promotion programs.
and their Applications: Validation and Pilot Steven N. Aude Kenneth Nicely Michael A. Lodato ICF International Christopher L. Vowels ...Lodato; Christopher L. Vowels 5c. PROJECT NUMBER A790 5d. TASK NUMBER 370 5e. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING... Vowels 14. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words): The U.S. Army Research Institute is developing and piloting measures of Soldier initiative and
Full Text Available On the example of Perm province the public activity on helping the sick and wounded soldiers during the World War I is analyzed. On the basis of wide scope of sources, the author investigates the participants, the scales and the forms of social help. The accent is made on the sources of financing organizations which carried out this activity. It is shown that all population layers in Perm province took part in rendering help to sick and wounded soldiers. The society often took the initiative in providing the charity events created by authorized structures that revealed the civil activity. The civil charity initiative gets further development during the war in mining plants. The state was interested and contributed to the civil independent actions, and it was caused by the wartime conditions. The author also determines the peculiarities of the assistance to sick and wounded soldiers in Perm province. All-Russian State Union became the body through which this help got better organized official registration during the war. It attracted major human resources and accumulated considerable monetary and clothing donations to the benefit of sick and wounded soldiers, thus providing the state with the possibility to control and coordinate this activity in the province.
Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc
Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fajfrová, Jana; Pavlík, Vladimír; Psutka, Jan; Husarová, Michaela; Krutišová, Pavla; Fajfr, Miroslav
Obesity is currently considered to be the most frequent metabolic disease worldwide, not only in developed but also in developing countries. The aim of this work was to describe the development of health status in soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (ACR) and to emphasizethe markers of non-communicable diseases. Our study describes the anthropometric and biochemical parameters of a large group of Czech Army professional soldiers. Data were obtained over a period of 11 years. During the monitored period, from 1999 to 2009, military physicians carried out on the average 6,360 examinations on professional soldiers per year and monitored their health and nutritional status with the aim of preventing the risk factors of non-communicable diseases. These examinations are compulsory for all professional soldiers at the age of 25, 30, 33, and 36 years. From the age of 39, these examinations are carried out every year till the end of their career. Besides taking personal histories and carrying out standard physical examinations, blood was taken for biochemical examination. The following anthropometric parameters were monitored: body constitution using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Our study describes only part of the data concerning anthropometric and biochemical parameters of professional soldiers which were obtained over a period of 11 years. Average BMI values in men were in the overweight range (26.5-27 kg/m2). Average values of waist circumference, however, ranged from 91.9 cm to 93.4 cm. Between the first and the last year of monitoring a statistically significant decrease in these values ranging from 93.4 ± 9.8 cm to 92.7 ± 9.5 cm (p values of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol was observed; from 5.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L to 5.1 ± 1.0 mmol/L (p values in the overweight range was observed. Although the number of overweight soldiers was overestimated as a result of the inclusion of individuals with increased body weight due
In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)
Vindevogel, Sofie; Schryver, Maarten de; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse
Armed conflict imposes huge hardship on young people living in war zones. This study assessed former child soldiers' experience and perception of stress in common war events during the armed conflict in northern Uganda and compares it with their non-recruited counterparts. To investigate whether child soldiers experienced more severe exposure to war events, and explore how war might affect youths differently, depending on the co-occurrence of these events. The study was undertaken in four northern Ugandan districts in 22 secondary schools with a sample size of 981 youths, about half of whom had been child soldiers. The participants completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and stressful war events which was analyzed using descriptive statistics, a probabilistic index and correlation network analysis. Former child soldiers had significantly greater experience of war events than their non-recruited counterparts. The violence of war is more central in their experience and perception of stress, whereas the scarcity of resources and poor living conditions are most central for non-recruited participants. The extent to which a war event, such as separation from the family, is perceived as stressful depends on the experience and perception of other stressful war events, such as confrontation with war violence for former child soldiers and life in an Internally Displaced Persons' camp for non-recruited participants. The network approach permitted demonstration of the many ways in which war-affected youths encounter and appraise stressful war events. War events might function as moderators or mediators of the effect that other war events exert on the lives and well-being of young people living in war zones. This demands comprehensive and individualized assessment.
Hoffman, Jay R; Landau, Geva; Stout, Jeffrey R; Dabora, Matan; Moran, Daniel S; Sharvit, Nurit; Hoffman, Mattan W; Ben Moshe, Yuval; McCormack, William P; Hirschhorn, Gil; Ostfeld, Ishay
There are no known studies that have examined β-alanine supplementation in military personnel. Considering the physiological and potential neurological effects that have been reported during sustained military operations, it appears that β-alanine supplementation may have a potential benefit in maintaining physical and cognitive performance during high-intensity military activity under stressful conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 28 days of β-alanine ingestion in military personnel while fatigued on physical and cognitive performance. Twenty soldiers (20.1 ± 0.9 years) from an elite combat unit were randomly assigned to either a β-alanine (BA) or placebo (PL) group. Soldiers were involved in advanced military training, including combat skill development, navigational training, self-defense/hand-to-hand combat and conditioning. All participants performed a 4-km run, 5-countermovement jumps using a linear position transducer, 120-m sprint, a 10-shot shooting protocol with assault rifle, including overcoming a misfire, and a 2-min serial subtraction test to assess cognitive function before (Pre) and after (Post) 28 days of supplementation. The training routine resulted in significant increases in 4-km run time for both groups, but no between group differences were seen (p = 0.597). Peak jump power at Post was greater for BA than PL (p = 0.034), while mean jump power for BA at Post was 10.2% greater (p = 0.139) than PL. BA had a significantly greater (p = 0.012) number of shots on target at Post (8.2 ± 1.0) than PL (6.5 ± 2.1), and their target engagement speed at Post was also significantly faster (p = 0.039). No difference in serial subtraction performance was seen between the groups (p = 0.844). Results of this study indicate that 4-weeks of β-alanine ingestion in young, healthy soldiers did not impact cognitive performance, but did enhance power performance, marksmanship and target
provides summary information regarding the prevalence of hearing injury experienced by U.S. Army Soldiers in 2016. Soldiers who completed a DD Form...broken out by Service component and will be updated annually. TOTAL ARMY STATISTICS FOR CY16 24% of Soldiers have some degree of hearing...loss: 21% Active Duty 27% Army National Guard 28% Army Reserve 5% of Soldiers have a clinically significant hearing loss: 4% Active Duty 8% Army
The author describes the history of the spectrometer installed at the SLAC 20-GeV-linac and its use from the study of the electroproduction of resonances to the study of the EMC effect with electrons. (HSI).
Underhill, Ruth M., Ed.
Juvenile delinquency was identified as the major problem affecting youth on Indian reservations. Causes for delinquency which were discussed included culture conflict, expectation of failure, unemployment, failure of homes and parents, discrimination, inadequate education, off-reservation schools, and alcoholism. Needs identified by tribal leaders…
Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico
Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…
Jessica J. Behm
Full Text Available This paper forwards a theory of silhouetting in relation to technological augmenta-tion in U.S. Military uniforms and suggests that the increasing utilization of metamaterials, nanotechnology, and surveillance technologies operates under a rhetoric of invisibility that complicates the technologies' visible destruction. Methodologically, the paper attends to three general technological developments in the evolution of the U.S. Army uniform: the design of the new Army Combat Uniform (ACU; the technological advances in the uniform, including embedded wearables, biometric identification devices, and 3D combat enhancement systems; and the bio-networking, GPS, and digital communication arrays that physically link digital uniforms to a larger geopolitical network of U.S. military strategy and surveillance. Throughout, the work traces the aforementioned theory of silhouet-ting in relation to select sociopolitical consequences of linking digitally enhanced soldiers into a transnational grid of surveillance.
Jennette, John; Tauferner, Dustin
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is an endocrine disorder presenting with proximal motor weakness, typically greatest in the lower extremities, hypokalemia, and signs or laboratory findings consistent with hyperthyroidism. The incidence of TPP is highest in Asian males. This is a case report of a 30-year-old male active duty Soldier who presented to the emergency department complaining of several recent episodes of lower extremity paralysis. The patient underwent a workup which included serum and cerebrospinal fluid studies, and was found to be hypokalemic and hyperthyroid. Following consultation with neurology, the patient was admitted to the medicine service and treated for thyrotoxic periodic paralysis with potassium replacement and treatment of his hyperthyroidism. Since achieving a euthyroid state, he has had no recurrences of TPP. This disease should be considered in patients presenting with symmetric motor weakness and hypokalemia, whether or not symptoms of hyperthyroidism are elicited during the review of systems.
Full Text Available This study tries to evaluate Rupert Brooke’s “The Soldier,” Edward Thomas’ “Adlestrop” and Isaac Rosenberg’s “Break of Day in the Trenches” by demonstrating the three poets’ ideological stances during WWI. The difficulties of the trench life are apparent in their poems but what makes their poems different from each other is the ideology lying behind the poems. Brooke, Thomas, and Rosenberg represent three different perspectives on the popular patriotism and Englishness during the war period. While Brooke’s poems function as a deliberate representation of the dominant government policies, the poems of Thomas and Rosenberg create an opponent voice by delineating the harsh conditions of the war period and hollowness of the policies about war.
Narayana, P L; Gupta, A K; Sharma, P K
In a search for an effective 'anti-alcohol pill', three modern anti-craving agents have been studied in alcoholics of Army/ DSC, Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard. 129 patients of alcohol dependence syndrome were randomly assigned to three groups where topiramate, acamprosate and naltrexone were used as anti-craving agents in a year long prospective study. Of these 92 patients completed the study. Topiramate (76.3%) appears to be significantly more effective (p<0.01) in sustaining abstinence, though naltrexone (57.7%) and acamprosate (60.70%) offer moderate relapse-prevention efficacy. Side effects of all the three agents have been mild, transient and self-limiting. We recommend a trial of topiramate, before invaliding out of any alcoholic soldier.
Brønd, Thomas Vladimir
In the aftermath of military engagements in Iraq and Afghanistan, Western militaries have been grabbling not only with these – for many – ‘failed missions’, but also with how to deal with a contemporary moment of hybrid wars and ‘chronic crisis’ (Vigh 2008). While numerous political commissions...... have issued reports evaluating these military engagements (e.g. the Chilcot Report 42 in Britain), Western militaries have also evaluated their own performances – sometimes cast in vocabularies of public administration as ‘best practices’, ‘lessons learned’, etc. The question arises, however, what...... characterizes a ‘best practice’, who defines it and how? Against the backdrop of management reports and the critique of political commissions, this paper hones in on the lived experience of Danish soldiers engaged in CIMIC (Civil-Military Cooperation) on the tactical and higher tactical levels in these past...
Full Text Available Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758 is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production, egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, which reduced future broodstock by almost 72%. This is the first time D. giffardii is reported as a parasitoid of H. illucens pupae and one of the first reports of parasitism in this commercially important fly species. The introduction of precautionary measures is highly recommended for the success of H. illucens production systems in West Africa.
Sevig, Umit; Yilmaz, Senay; Başer, Mürüvvet; Taşci, Sultan
The Turkish Armed Forces Commando Brigade has started a continuous and systematic education program, called the Patriotic Awareness Acquirement Project (PCAP), to inform soldiers who will be demobilized. Within the PCAP, topics such as Turkish history, the Armenian question, and manners/etiquette, as well as healthy living, reproductive health, family planning, general hygiene, and sexually transmitted diseases were included. The aim of Reproductive Health Education (RHE) conducted within the PCAP is to inform male individuals about reproductive health and to increase their knowledge, awareness, and sensitivity. In the RHE, the privates were provided with information regarding male and female reproductive organs, the menstruation mechanism, pregnancy, determination of gender, fertility-infertility, and sexually transmitted diseases. After the evaluation, it was reported that the privates indicated they were satisfied with RHE, were informed, took notice of the incorrect information, and, for postmilitary life, would visit health clinics for counseling.
Asaf Durakovic; Isaac Zimmerman; Axel Gerdes
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the concentration and precise isotopic composition and ratios of four uranium isotopes ( 234 U, 235 U, 236 U, and 238 U) in the urine of United States soldiers deployed in Samawah, Iraq during the second Gulf War. Methods: Seven active duty US soldiers deployed as military police unit 442 presenting with non-specific symptoms of intractable headaches, excessive fatigue, intermittent fevers, musculoskeletal pains, respiratory impairment, affect changes, urinary tract symptoms, and neurological alterations were clinically evaluated. Each soldier signed a consent form to participate in our study. The collection of 24-hour urine samples of each subject was performed under controlled conditions. The urine samples were personally carried to the laboratory of the Institute of Geochemistry, JW Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany. Each sample was analyzed in duplicate by multicollector inductively coupled plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Control samples consisting of an internal urine standard were also analyzed by the same procedure. The analytical methodology included pre-concentration of the urine samples using evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, uranium purification by ion-exchange chromatography, and analysis by mass spectrometry. The final analysis of the specimens was performed by using a double-focusing Thermo Finnigan Neptune multicollector ICP-MS equipped with retarding potential quadrupole lens and a secondary electron multiplier for ion counting. Results: The mean concentration of total uranium was 3.6±1.3 ng/L. The average 238 U/ 235 U ratio was 146.2±10.2. The ratio of 238 U/ 235 U, being considered as the single most important parameter in determining the quantitative state of depletion of the natural uranium ratio, demonstrates a significant internal contamination with depleted uranium in four soldiers. The 234 U/ 238 U ratio was 6.5 x 10 -5 ±5.7 x 10 -6 . The 236 U/ 238 U ratio was
Hellerup, Janne; Andersen, Søren Bo; Høgh (Hogh), Annie
Understanding the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicates research regarding factors besides the preceding traumatic event. This study investigated the influence of predisposing personality traits on development of PTSD in a group of Danish Soldiers deployed to Afghanistan (N......, and Spearman¡'s rho significant relationships were identified between pre-existing personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness with development of PTSD symptoms 2.5 years after homecoming, however, a number of additional cofounders were identified....... = 445). Using a prospective design data was collected using questionnaires including the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The results showed a PTSD-prevalence of 9.2% in the total sample 2.5 years after homecoming. Using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U...
Kelly, Janet C
Using a three-dimensional ethical role-specific model, this article considers the dual loyalty conflict between following military orders and professional codes of practice in an operational military environment when a patient soldier refuses life-saving medical treatment and where their legal capacity is questionable. The article suggests that although every competent patient has the right to refuse medical treatment even though they may die as a consequence. Ordinarily, it is unethical to exert any undue influence on a patient to accept medical treatment, in a military operational environment where attack from the enemy is likely, it may be reasonable and understandable to exert undue influence over a patient when they lack legal capacity.
Sullivan, Jill M
This study is an investigation of the contributions of women's military bands in the United States to the reconditioning of the injured American troops during World War II. Primary and secondary sources revealed that these bands welcomed home hospital ships, performed for convalescing soldiers in hospitals, and provided music for hospital dances. While each of the bands investigated served in similar capacities, only one, the 403rd Women's Army Corps (WAC) Band, was stationed at a hospital. While entertainment by women's bands was an important part of the Army Reconditioning Program for the injured, the study also revealed a working partnership that developed between these musicians and the medical community. Sixty years after the war, band members believe their performances in hospitals were the most important contribution of their service. Some historians have concluded that music used in military hospitals during the war was the impetus for the music therapy profession.
Saxena, Pulkit; Chavarria, Christopher; Thurlow, John
Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a complication of sickle cell trait (SCT) likely first reported in the military population over 40 years ago. Although commonly a benign condition, numerous studies and case reports have identified SCT positive patients to be at increased risk for rhabdomyolysis, compartment syndrome and sudden cardiac death. We report a recent case of an SCT positive African American active duty male Soldier who suffered exertional rhabdomyolysis following an Army Physical Fitness Test. His course was complicated by acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis, and he eventually recovered renal function. The diagnosis was significantly delayed despite a typical clinical presentation and available SCT screening results. The case highlights the importance of the recognition of SCT as a risk factor for severe rhabdomyolysis, and suggests more must be done for an effective SCT screening program for the active duty military population.
It is widely recognized that military service during wartime can take a toll on a soldier's psychological health. Recent work has revealed effects on the families left behind as well, as reflected, for example, in an increase in child abuse and neglect in these families. My interest in studying the transgenerational transmission of trauma led me to offer the National Guard a pro bono group therapy for women whose husbands had been deployed overseas. A slightly unorthodox approach paved the way not only to group treatment but, ultimately, individual treatment for these women and their children. My hope is that this work can serve as a model for other therapists who share my interest in treating the intergenerational transmission of trauma by implementing group and mother-child psychotherapy.
"Soldiers of Peace" examines Canadian nursing experiences with the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) in Occupied Germany from 1945 to 1947. Whether their practice setting was in UNRRA hospitals, camps, or as members of the flying squads that dealt with epidemics or accompanied the repatriation trains, Canadian UNRRA nurses forged new professional frontiers and encountered unprecedented nursing challenges, calling for even greater diplomatic acumen than demanded by their previous experience. Giving voice to Canadian UNRRA nurses' stories provides an instructive lens into the history of the first postwar internal organization and into the contemporary challenges presented by the seemingly insatiable demands for nursing services in the wake of war, natural disasters, and epidemics within the global health community.
Teyhen, Deydre S; Childs, John D; Dugan, Jessica L; Wright, Alison C; Sorge, Joshua A; Mello, Jeremy L; Marmolejo, Michael G; Taylor, Adam Y; Wu, Samuel S; George, Steven Z
Limited evidence exists on how strength and endurance exercises commonly used to prevent low back pain affect muscle morphometry and endurance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of 2 exercise regimens on the morphometry and endurance of key trunk musculature in a healthy population. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted in a military training setting. A random subsample (n=340; 72% men, 28% women; mean [±SD] age=21.9±4.2 years; mean [±SD] body mass index=24.8±2.8 kg/m2) from the larger Prevention of Low Back Pain in the Military trial (N=4,325) was included. The core stabilization exercise program (CSEP) included low-load/low-repetition motor control exercises, whereas the traditional exercise program (TEP) included exercises conducted at a fast pace, with the use of high-load, high-repetition trunk strengthening exercises. Baseline and follow-up examinations included ultrasound imaging of the trunk muscles and endurance tests. Linear mixed models were fitted to study the group and time effect and their interactions, accounting for the clustering effect. Symmetry generally improved in the rest and contracted states, but there were no differences suggestive of muscle hypertrophy or improved ability to contract the trunk muscles between soldiers receiving the CSEP or the TEP. Total trunk endurance time decreased over the 12-week period, but endurance performance favored soldiers in the CSEP group. Endurance time was not associated with future episodes of low back pain. The lack of morphological changes may not be detectable in an already-active cohort, or a more intensive dose was needed. Although improved symmetry was noted, neither the CSEP nor the TEP resulted in muscle hypertrophy. Longer endurance times were noted in individuals who completed the CSEP but were not strongly predictive of future low back pain episodes.
Rangaprakash, D; Dretsch, Michael N; Venkataraman, Archana; Katz, Jeffrey S; Denney, Thomas S; Deshpande, Gopikrishna
Brain connectivity studies report group differences in pairwise connection strengths. While informative, such results are difficult to interpret since our understanding of the brain relies on region-based properties, rather than on connection information. Given that large disruptions in the brain are often caused by a few pivotal sources, we propose a novel framework to identify the sources of functional disruption from effective connectivity networks. Our approach integrates static and time-varying effective connectivity modeling in a probabilistic framework, to identify aberrant foci and the corresponding aberrant connectomics network. Using resting-state fMRI, we illustrate the utility of this novel approach in U.S. Army soldiers (N = 87) with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and combat controls. Additionally, we employed machine-learning classification to identify those significant connectivity features that possessed high predictive ability. We identified three disrupted foci (middle frontal gyrus [MFG], insula, hippocampus), and an aberrant prefrontal-subcortical-parietal network of information flow. We found the MFG to be the pivotal focus of network disruption, with aberrant strength and temporal-variability of effective connectivity to the insula, amygdala and hippocampus. These connectivities also possessed high predictive ability (giving a classification accuracy of 81%); and they exhibited significant associations with symptom severity and neurocognitive functioning. In summary, dysregulation originating in the MFG caused elevated and temporally less-variable connectivity in subcortical regions, followed by a similar effect on parietal memory-related regions. This mechanism likely contributes to the reduced control over traumatic memories leading to re-experiencing, hyperarousal and flashbacks observed in soldiers with PTSD and mTBI. Hum Brain Mapp 39:264-287, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017
Hendricks, Terry J.; Hogan, Tim; Case, Eldon D.; Cauchy, Charles J.
The U.S. military uses large amounts of fuel during deployments and battlefield operations. This project sought to develop a lightweight, small form-factor, soldier-portable advanced thermoelectric (TE) system prototype to recover and convert waste heat from various deployed military equipment (i.e., diesel generators/engines, incinerators, vehicles, and potentially mobile kitchens), with the ultimate purpose of producing power for soldier battery charging, advanced capacitor charging, and other battlefield power applications. The technical approach employed microchannel technology, a unique “power panel” approach to heat exchange/TE system integration, and newly-characterized LAST (lead-antimony-silver-telluride) and LASTT (lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride) TE materials segmented with bismuth telluride TE materials in designing a segmented-element TE power module and system. This project researched never-before-addressed system integration challenges (thermal expansion, thermal diffusion, electrical interconnection, thermal and electrical interfaces) of designing thin “power panels” consisting of alternating layers of thin, microchannel heat exchangers (hot and cold) sandwiching thin, segmented-element TE power generators. The TE properties, structurally properties, and thermal fatigue behavior of LAST and LASTT materials were developed and characterized such that the first segmented-element TE modules using LAST / LASTT materials were fabricated and tested at hot-side temperatures = 400 °C and cold-side temperatures = 40 °C. LAST / LASTT materials were successfully segmented with bismuth telluride and electrically interconnected with diffusion barrier materials and copper strapping within the module electrical circuit. A TE system design was developed to produce 1.5-1.6 kW of electrical energy using these new TE modules from the exhaust waste heat of 60-kW Tactical Quiet Generators as demonstration vehicles.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Obesity is currently considered to be the most frequent metabolic disease worldwide, not only in developed but also in developing countries. The aim of this work was to describe the development of health status in soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (ACR and to emphasize the markers of non-communicable diseases. Our study describes the anthropometric and biochemical parameters of a large group of Czech Army professional soldiers. Data were obtained over a period of 11 years. Methods. During the monitored period, from 1999 to 2009, military physicians carried out on the average 6,360 examinations on professional soldiers per year and monitored their health and nutritional status with the aim of preventing the risk factors of non-communicable diseases. These examinations are compulsory for all professional soldiers at the age of 25, 30, 33, and 36 years. From the age of 39, these examinations are carried out every year till the end of their career. Besides taking personal histories and carrying out standard physical examinations, blood was taken for biochemical examination. The following anthropometric parameters were monitored: body constitution using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference. Our study describes only part of the data concerning anthropometric and biochemical parameters of professional soldiers which were obtained over a period of 11 years. Results. Average BMI values in men were in the overweight range (26.5-27 kg/m2. Average values of waist circumference, however, ranged from 91.9 cm to 93.4 cm. Between the first and the last year of monitoring a statistically significant decrease in these values ranging from 93.4 ± 9.8 cm to 92.7 ± 9.5 cm (p < 0.001 was observed. All monitored anthropometric parameters in female professional soldiers were within normal limits. During the monitored period the proportion of overweight men gradually increased from 52% to 57.1% (p < 0.001. There were no
Columbia, Puerto Rico , the Virgin Islands, and Guam also have National Guard forces that can be activated for federal missions. Over the same period...the 54 Joint Force Headquarters – State, located in each state, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico , the Virgin Islands, and Guam, is comprised of... currency reviews be performed in conjunction with the biannual application of personnel assessment standards. Officials from the Office of the
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhesus-positive and rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. This protein is a component of NH(3 or CO(2 pump whose physiological role is unknown. Several recent studies have shown that RhD positivity protects against effects of latent toxoplasmosis on motor performance and personality. It is not known, however, whether the RhD phenotype modifies exclusively the response of the body to toxoplasmosis or whether it also influences effects of other factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present cohort study, we searched for the effects of age and smoking on performance, intelligence, personality and self-estimated health and wellness in about 3800 draftees. We found that the positive effect of age on performance and intelligence was stronger in RhD-positive soldiers, while the negative effect of smoking on performance and intelligence was of similar size regardless of the RhD phenotype. The effect of age on four Cattell's personality factors, i.e., dominance (E, radicalism (Q(1, self-sentiment integration (Q(3, and ergic tension (Q(4, and on Cloninger's factor reward dependency (RD was stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects, while the effect of smoking on the number of viral and bacterial diseases was about three times stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: RhD phenotype modulates the influence not only of latent toxoplasmosis, but also of at least two other potentially detrimental factors, age and smoking, on human behavior and physiology. The negative effect of smoking on health (estimated on the basis of the self-rated number of common viral and bacterial diseases in the past year was much stronger in RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. It is critically needed to confirm the differences in health response to smoking between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by objective medical examination in
Hollander, Ilyssa E; Bell, Nicole S; Phillips, Margaret; Amoroso, Paul J; MacFarling, Les
Alcohol abuse is a major concern in the US military since the use of alcohol is associated with a myriad of adverse outcomes that can affect both individual and collective health and performance of soldiers...
Collaborative Research and Support of Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center Defense Women's Health Research Program Projects Relationships Between a Female Soldier's Military Occupational Specialty (MHOS) and Birth Outcomes
... and spontaneous abortion, small for gestational age, and preterm birth. This investigation found that pregnant soldiers who reside in the barracks demonstrated an unplanned pregnancy rate of 77.9 percent...
Telch, Michael J.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Rosenfield, David; Lee, Han Joo; Reijntjes, Albert; Ferrell, Robert E.; Hariri, Ahmad R.
Exposure to war zone stressors is common, yet only a minority of soldiers experience clinically meaningful disturbance in psychological function. Identification of biomarkers that predict vulnerability to war zone stressors is critical for developing more effective treatment and prevention
Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.
Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.
sports associated with leanness such as gymnastics or wrestling are more likely to engage in unhealthy weight loss behaviors than athletes involved...effects of stress mediators: Central role of the brain . Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 8(4), 367-381. McNulty, P. A. (1997). Prevalence and
I Wu) V) Z I4-’C 4-"(D 4I- 0 i0 0. D WWI f InV G)o < IC. Ix.-C fi c L > 0mI: a CLIf yC W 4 CMZ Z C 0) a :3 ) CF) I (o l-U) zoI )1(( ) U)C x I Cy...Air Force S 0 Navy 0 Marines a- 0 Coast Guard -m 7. In what year did you last separate from active duty? -m 1 1 9 9 - ®Exampe: -( ® ) This example
Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David
We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...
... observation, including participation in service-sponsored sports, recreational, and training activities. (ii... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). 728.23... Components, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, Navy and Marine Corps Officer Candidate Programs, and National...
Wallace, P A; Nyameasem, J K; Adu-Aboagye, G A; Affedzie-Obresi, S; Nkegbe, E K; Karbo, N; Murray, F; Leschen, W; Maquart, P -O
In order to assess the impact of larval meal on guinea fowl, six iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets were fed to day-old-keets ad libitum till 8 weeks of age. Water was also freely provided. The fishmeal (FM) component of the experimental diets was replaced with black soldier fly larval meal (BSFLM) in the following percentage ratios of 0-100%. Results showed that body weight gain significantly (P 0.05) ME intake and faecal output as well as weight changes of the keets. Digestibility of dry matter and energy were not affected (P > 0.05) by the differences in diet. Organ and haematopoietic integrity were assured regardless of the protein types used as well as levels of inclusion. The results suggest that the replacement of fishmeal with BSFLM in so far as the economics of production is concerned could result in reduced feed cost for starter guinea keet judging from diets that contained 60-100% BSFLM.
USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO MICROCLIMATE COOLING USED BY THE AIR SOLDIER DRESSED AT MOPP 4 IN AN...2012 2. REPORT TYPE 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Physiological Responses to Microclimate Cooling Used By the Air Soldier 5b. GRANT... Microclimate Cooling System MCG HI – Air Warrior Microclimate Cooling Garment Used in High Cooling Configuration MCG LO - Air Warrior Microclimate
several decades on such issues as racial integra- tion, abortion, the service of gays in the military, gen- der roles, etc., have each migrated in their...Foreword, as the values of Ameri- can society have changed in the past, in most cases, e.g., racial integration, abortion, smoking as a health issue, the... prejudice , the DoD is rightly saying to all soldiers and their leaders that they must accommodate gay soldiers without prejudice regarding their
selected criterion tasks. Sit-up testing primarily assesses endurance of the abdominal (core) musculature . Of the criterion tasks, core endurance...McChord, WA from May 5-16, 2014 (Cohort Alpha) and at Ft. Carson, CO December 8-19, 2014 (Cohorts Bravo & Charlie). A total of 149 active duty Soldiers...KS in June 2015. Collection was split between the two sites in order to recruit the necessary sample size. A total of 339 active duty Soldiers (181
Cheng, Jack Y K; Chiu, Sam L H; Lo, Irene M C
In order to foster sustainable management of food waste, innovations in food waste valorization technologies are crucial. Black soldier fly (BSF) bioconversion is an emerging technology that can turn food waste into high-protein fish feed through the use of BSF larvae. The conventional method of BSF bioconversion is to feed BSF larvae with food waste directly without any moisture adjustment. However, it was reported that difficulty has been experienced in the separation of the residue (larval excreta and undigested material) from the insect biomass due to excessive moisture. In addition to the residue separation problem, the moisture content of the food waste may also affect the growth and survival aspects of BSF larvae. This study aims to determine the most suitable moisture content of food waste that can improve residue separation as well as evaluate the effects of the moisture content of food waste on larval growth and survival. In this study, pre-consumer and post-consumer food waste with different moisture content (70%, 75% and 80%) was fed to BSF larvae in a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor. The results show that the residue can be effectively separated from the insect biomass by sieving using a 2.36mm sieve, for both types of food waste at 70% and 75% moisture content. However, sieving of the residue was not feasible for food waste at 80% moisture content. On the other hand, reduced moisture content of food waste was found to slow down larval growth. Hence, there is a trade-off between the sieving efficiency of the residue and the larval growth rate. Furthermore, the larval survival rate was not affected by the moisture content of food waste. A high larval survival rate of at least 95% was achieved using a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor for all treatment groups. The study provides valuable insights for the waste management industry on understanding the effects of moisture content when employing BSF bioconversion for food waste recycling
rata .121 For example, a Reserve who performs the equivalent of five years of active duty, will receive one-fourth the retired pay of his active duty...4,225 per month.124 But because reserve-retirement benefits are based on pro rata years of service, this officer’s years of service for retirement...purposes are 3,146 retirement points divided by 360.125 This results in 8.74 years pro rata years of service.126 His retirement benefits thus are
Scheffrahn, R H; Bourguignon, T; Bordereau, C; Hernandez-Aguilar, R A; Oelze, V M; Dieguez, P; Šobotnik, J; Pascual-Garrido, A
Previous observations have noted that in some species of higher termites the soldier caste lacks pigmented particles in its gut and, instead, is fed worker saliva that imparts a whitish coloration to the abdomen. In order to investigate the occurrence of this trait more thoroughly, we surveyed a broad diversity of termite specimens and taxonomic descriptions from the Old World subfamilies Apicotermitinae, Cubitermitinae, Foraminitermitinae, Macrotermitinae, and Termitinae. We identified 38 genera that have this "white-gutted" soldier (WGS) trait. No termite soldiers from the New World were found to possess a WGS caste. Externally, the WGS is characterized by a uniformly pale abdomen, hyaline gut, and proportionally smaller body-to-head volume ratio compared with their "dark-gutted" soldier (DGS) counterparts found in most termitid genera. The WGS is a fully formed soldier that, unlike soldiers in other higher termite taxa, has a small, narrow, and decompartmentalized digestive tube that lacks particulate food contents. The presumed saliva-nourished WGS have various forms of simplified gut morphologies that have evolved at least six times within the higher termites.
Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.
Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation
Millner, Alexander J; Ursano, Robert J; Hwang, Irving; King, Andrew J; Naifeh, James A; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Stein, Murray B; Kessler, Ronald C; Nock, Matthew K
The current report presents data on lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation and nonfatal attempts as reported by the large representative sample of U.S. Army soldiers who participated in the Consolidated All-Army Survey of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (N = 29,982). We also examine associations of key Army career characteristics with these outcomes. Prevalence estimates for lifetime suicide ideation are 12.7% among men and 20.1% among women, and for lifetime suicide attempts are 2.5% and 5.1%, respectively. Retrospective age-of-onset reports suggest that 53.4%-70% of these outcomes had preenlistment onsets. Results revealed that, for both men and women, being in the Regular Army, compared with being in the National Guard or Army Reserve, and being in an enlisted rank, compared with being an officer, is associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviors and that this elevated risk is present both before and after joining the Army. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.
Millner, Alexander J; Ursano, Robert J; Hwang, Irving; J King, Andrew; Naifeh, James A; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Stein, Murray B; Kessler, Ronald C; Nock, Matthew K
We report on associations of retrospectively reported temporally prior mental disorders and Army career characteristics with subsequent first onset of suicidal behaviors in a large, representative sample of US Army soldiers who participated in the Consolidated All-Army Survey of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (N = 29,982). Results reveal that among men and women, all self-reported lifetime disorders measured (some assessed with screening scales) are associated with subsequent onset of suicide ideation. Among men, three disorders characterized by agitation and impulsiveness (intermittent explosive disorder, panic disorder, and substance disorders) predict the transition from suicide ideation to attempt. For both men and women, being in the Regular Army (vs. National Guard or Army Reserve) predicts suicide attempts in the total sample. For men, a history of deployment and junior rank are predictors of suicide attempts after adjusting for preenlistment disorders but not accounting for pre- and postenlistment disorders, suggesting that postenlistment disorders account for some of the increased suicide risk among these career characteristics. Overall, these results highlight associations between mental disorders and suicidal behaviors, but underscore limitations predicting which people with ideation attempt suicide. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.
Neuner, Frank; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schauer-Kaiser, Elisabeth; Odenwald, Michael; Elbert, Thomas; Ertl, Verena
Phenomena of spirit possession have been documented in many cultures. Some authors have argued that spirit possession is a type of psychopathology, and should be included as a category in diagnostic manuals of mental disorders. However, there are hardly any quantitative studies that report the prevalence of spirit possession on a population level and that provide evidence for its validity as a psychopathological entity. In an epidemiological study that was carried out in 2007 and 2008 with N = 1113 youths and young adults aged between 12 and 25 years in war-affected regions of Northern Uganda we examined the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of cen, a local variant of spirit possession. Randomly selected participants were interviewed using a scale of cen, measures of psychopathology (PTSD and depression) as well as indicators of functional outcome on different levels, including suicide risk, daily activities, perceived discrimination, physical complaints and aggression. We found that cen was more common among former child soldiers then among subjects without a history of abduction. Cen was related to extreme levels of traumatic events and uniquely predicted functional outcome even when the effects of PTSD and depression were controlled for. Our findings show that a long-lasting war that is accompanied by the proliferation of spiritual and magical beliefs and propaganda can lead to high levels of harmful spirit possession. In addition, we provide evidence for the incremental validity of spirit possession as a trauma-related psychological disorder in this context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Treadaway, Harry H.
The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…
Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial
Whalley, Lawrence J; Staff, Roger T; Fox, Helen C; Murray, Alison D
Cognitive reserve is a hypothetical concept introduced to explain discrepancies between severity of clinical dementia syndromes and the extent of dementia pathology. We examined cognitive reserve in a research programme that followed up a non-clinical sample born in 1921 or 1936 and IQ-tested age 11 years in 1932 or 1947. Structural MRI exams were acquired in about 50% of the sample from whom a subsample were recruited into an additional fMRI study. Here, we summarise findings from seven inter-related studies. These support an understanding of cognitive reserve as a balance between positive life course activity-driven experiences and the negative effects of brain pathologies including cerebrovascular disease and total and regional brain volume loss. Hypothesised structural equation models illustrate the relative causal effects of these positive and negative contributions. Cognitive reserve is considered in the context of choice of interventions to prevent dementia and the opposing effects of cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer like brain appearances. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))
In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.
IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth
IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may
Rydstedt, Leif W; Osterberg, Johan
The purpose of this study was to assess personality traits, psychological fitness, and hardiness among conscript soldiers volunteering for international missions (n = 146), by comparing them with conscripts from the same year class and unit who did not apply for international missions (n = 275). The sample consisted of all mandatory enlisted soldiers assigned to a supply and maintenance regiment. There were no demographic differences between the groups. The volunteers reported greater stress tolerance, concern for others, extraversion, and self-confidence than the non-volunteers. There were no differences between the groups in orderliness, temper instability, or independence. Volunteers repeatedly reported greater psychological fitness for military missions and greater hardiness over the period of military service compared to the non-volunteers.
Nelson, L J; Cool, L G; Forschler, B T; Haverty, M I
Soldier defense secretions from samples of Reticulitermes collected in California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, and Georgia were characterized and correlated with cuticular hydrocarbon phenotypes. Twenty-seven cuticular hydrocarbon phenotypes have been defined, and soldier defense secretion (SDS) phenotypes have been described for 25 of these. Forty-five terpenoid compounds were found, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and a few diterpenes. The monoterpenes include (-)-alpha-pinene, (-)-beta-pinene, (-)-camphene, myrcene, (Z)- and (E)-ocimene, and (-)-limonene. The major sesquiterpenes produced are (+)-gamma-cadinene, (+)-gamma-cadinene aldehyde, (-)-germacrene A, germacrene B, gamma-himachalene, and beta-bisabolene. Some SDS phenotypes pair with more than one cuticular hydrocarbon phenotype; however, with two exceptions, each hydrocarbon phenotype is associated with only one SDS phenotype. These chemical characterizations lend support to the conclusion that there are numerous undescribed species of Reticulitermes in North America.
make arrangements with hotels or motels to support the large influx, especially in the absence of a national emerger.ey auch as the Presidential 100K...experienced in the past decades, and more especially during the Vietnam timeframe, has begun to « bate somewhat but the direct cost of retired individuals
Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael
Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...
Submaximal Invasive Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing iCPET in AD Soldiers presented at/published to American College of Cardiology’s 661h Annual...disclaimer statement for research involving animals . as required by AFMAN 40-401 IP : " The experiments reported herein were conducted according to the...principles set forth in the National Institute of Health Publication No. 80-23, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the Animal
Full Text Available Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a sheep and goat stable. Light traps operated from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am, during four consecutive nights. Leishmania infection in sand flies was assessed using a fast real-time PCR assay. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers were also investigated. In total, 24,606 sand flies belonging to 25 species were identified. Males (n = 12,683 predominated over females (n = 11,923. Sand flies were present during all months, being more numerous in March (n = 1,691 and April 2013 (n = 3,324. Lutzomyia choti (72.9% was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia longispina (13.8%, Lutzomyia complexa (5.3%, representing together >90% of the sand flies collected. Forty cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded among soldiers from January 2012 to December 2014. Leishmania isolates were obtained from eight patients and were all characterized as Leishmania braziliensis. Soldiers and anyone overnighting in Atlantic rainforest remnants should adopt preventative measures such as the use of repellents on bare skin or clothes and insecticide-treated tents.
October 1, 2015, Fort Detrick, MD Presented at National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Symposium at American Psychiatric Association...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-2-0094 TITLE: Prazosin Augmentation of Outpatient Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders in Active Duty Soldiers with...Seattle, WA 98108 REPORT DATE: October 2015 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick
presidents have been precluded from emulating Washington’s example entirely, and most citizens will not become the archetype citizen- soldier of the...military force in the country’s counter-terrorism efforts. The literature on civil-military relations raises several important questions that...Global War on Terror provides the environmental context for the present study. Literature from the field of civil-military relations provides the
MMC is sending and/or receiving information through multiple sensory systems (e.g., seeing text information that is also presented auditorily). In...have shown that the decay of information in visual working memory can be gradual. Further, the capacity for storing visual images is larger compared...to auditory working memory . Therefore, the larger working memory storage, in addition to the chunking of information, might explain the Soldiers
.... The commentators represented Rural Development employees who work with the Multi-Family Housing Direct... their annual over-inflated tax bills and assessments. As a result, rent income funding that could be..., as rents cannot be raised to an amount that will cover all current and future reserve expenses...
Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob
This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Millions of soldiers around the world represent one of the most vulnerable populations regarding exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. The programs for HIV prevention remain the most viable approach to reducing the spread of HIV infection. Very few studies have tested the effectiveness of HIV preventive interventions undertaken in military population. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of educational film to transfer knowledge about HIV infection to soldiers. Methods. We performed a quasi-experimental study among 102 soldiers of the Serbian Armed Forces. The experimental intervention consisted of the HIV knowledge pre-questionnaire, watching a film on HIV knowledge, then the post-HIV knowledge questionnaire. The results of pre-and post-HIV knowledge questionnaires were compared. Results. There were 23 questions in the test. The average total score on the questionnaire before watching the film was 18.23 and after watching it was 20.14, which was statistically significant difference (p < 0.001. Conclusions. The results of the study show that viewing a film on HIV infection is an effective method of transferring knowledge about HIV to the Serbian military population.
Guan, Ling; Zou, Yi; Yang, Yi-Ling
To provide a set of the self-help and mutual-aid treatment with moxibustion to deal with myofasicial pain syndrome (MPS) of the back for the military soldiers. Fifty-eight cases were randomly devided into a moxibustion group (30 cases) and a plaster application group (28 cases). In the moxibustion group, the suspended moxibustion was applied to Yanglingquan (GB 34) for 15 min. The moxibustion massage device was used to massage the pain area. Under the physician's guides, the self-help or mutual-aid treatment was adopted. In the plaster application group, Goupi Gao (a black plaster used in TCM) was used on the local pain area. The treatment was given once every day in either group, lasting for 5 days. The clinical symptom scale, clinical physical sign scale, functional disturbance scale, functional disturbance index, comprehensive economic benefit and the others were adopted to analyze and compare the clinical efficacies between the two groups. Both moxibustion and the plaster application achieved a certain efficacy on MPS of the back in the soldiers and either of them received the obvious improvements in the clinical symptoms, physical signs and functional disturbance (P military soldiers. It reduces the conventional medical cost and the military medical expenditure. This therapeutic approach is suitable to be promoted in the military.
Christie, Candice J; Scott, Patricia A
This study assessed the metabolic responses of South African soldiers marching at different speeds and carrying varying loads. The main objective was to establish the physiological cost of a range of speed/load combinations to identify the energy requirements to meet a diversity of march objectives. Thirty male soldiers marched on a treadmill for 6 minutes with varying combinations of speed and load, established through numerous pilot studies and in consultation with military personnel. The four speeds were 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5 km x (-1), combined with the four loads of 20, 35, 50, and 65 kg, totaling 16 combinations. Each participant completed eight of the 16 conditions, during which the participants wore standardized military gear and were attached to a portable ergospirometer (the Metamax, Cortex, Leipzig, Germany) for the duration of the march. Based on the responses, five discrete categories of speed/load combinations were identified. These combinations were categorized as nominal ( 80% of VO(2max)), with each categorization incorporating diverse combinations of speed and load. The findings demonstrate that the interplay between marching speed and backpack load plays a crucial role in ensuring that similar metabolic demands are maintained at a bearable level to meet specific military circumstances, thus reducing the likelihood of injuries and the early onset of fatigue and ensuring that the soldiers are combat ready on arrival at their destination.
Biggs, Quinn M; Fullerton, Carol S; McCarroll, James E; Liu, Xian; Wang, Leming; Dacuyan, Nicole M; Zatzick, Douglas F; Ursano, Robert J
U.S. Army mortuary affairs (MA) soldiers experience stressors of deployment and exposure to the dead, increasing risk for post-traumatic stress and depression. This study examines Troop Education for Army Morale, a postdeployment early intervention based on Psychological First Aid. MA soldiers (N = 126) were randomized to intervention or comparison groups 1-month postdeployment. Intervention sessions were held at 2, 3, 4, and 7 months. Assessments of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and quality of life (QOL) were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 10 months for both groups. At baseline, 25.0% of the total sample had probable PTSD (17-item PTSD Checklist M = 35.4, SD = 16.9) and 23.6% had probable depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale M = 7.8, SD = 6.9). Over 10 months, PTSD and depression symptoms decreased and QOL improved for the total sample. At study conclusion, intervention and comparison groups were not different. Intervention group males showed a transient symptom increase at 2 to 3 months. Males attended fewer intervention sessions than females. Lower attendance was associated with more symptoms and lower QOL. Higher attendance was associated with greater intervention benefits. Findings highlight the need for better understanding postdeployment interventions and facilitating attendance. Further intervention for MA soldiers is indicated. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.