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Sample records for reserve carbohydrates fatty

  1. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49 g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18 g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22 g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78 g/L with a high yield of 0.21 g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Carbohydrate Reserves And Metal Accumulation Of The Nile Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the carbohydrate reserves and metal accumulation of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus after exposure to sublethal concentrations of heavy metals such as copper, lead and zinc for a 12-week period, using static renewable toxicity tests. The concentrations of the metals accumulated in the tissue ...

  3. Phosphorous Nutritional Level, Carbohydrate Reserves and Flower Quality in Olives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Erel

    Full Text Available The olive tree is generally characterized by relatively low final fruit set consequential to a significant rate of undeveloped pistils, pistil abortion, and flower and fruitlet abscission. These processes are acknowledged to be governed by competition for resources between the developing vegetative and reproductive organs. To study the role of phosphorus (P nutritional level on reproductive development, trees were grown under four levels of P for three years in large containers. Phosphorus nutritional level was positively related to rate of reproductive bud break, inflorescence weight, rate of hermaphrodite flowers, pistil weight, fruitlet persistence, fruit set and the consequential total number of fruits. The positive impact of P nutrition on the productivity parameters was not related to carbohydrate reserves or to carbohydrate transport to the developing inflorescence. Phosphorous deficient trees showed significant impairment of assimilation rate, and yet, carbohydrates were accumulated in inflorescences at levels comparable to or higher than trees receiving high P. In contrast to female reproductive organs, pollen viability was consistently higher in P deficient trees, possibly due to the enhanced carbohydrate availability. Overall, the positive effect of P on female reproductive development was found to be independent of the total carbohydrate availability. Hence, P is speculated to have a direct influence on reproductive processes.

  4. Synthesis and emulsifying properties of carbohydrate fatty acid esters produced from Agave tequilana fructans by enzymatic acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Godoy, Leticia; Arrizon, Javier; Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Plou, Francisco J; Sandoval, Georgina

    2016-08-01

    Carbohydrate fatty acid esters are non-ionic surfactants with a broad spectrum of applications. These molecules are generally synthesized using short carbohydrates or linear fructans; however in this research carbohydrate fatty acid esters were produced for the first time with branched fructans from Agave tequilana. Using immobilized lipases we successfully acylated A. tequilana fructans with vinyl laurate, obtaining products with different degrees of polymerization (DP). Lipozyme 435 was the most efficient lipase to catalyze the transesterification reaction. HPLC and ESI-MS analysis proved the presence of a mixture of acylated products as a result of the chemical complexity of fructans in the A. tequilana. The ESI-MS spectra showed a molecular mass shift between 183 and 366g/mol for fructooligosaccharides with a DP lower than 6, which indicated the presence of Agave fructans that had been mono- and diacylated with lauric acid. The carbohydrate fatty acid esters (CFAE) obtained showed good emulsifying properties in W/O emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of disturbance regime on carbohydrate reserves in meadow plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeček, Štěpán; Bartušková, Alena; Bartoš, Michael; Altman, Jan; de Bello, Francesco; Doležal, Jiří; Latzel, Vít; Lanta, V.; Lepš, J.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, plv123 (2015), s. 1-16 ISSN 2041-2851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963; GA ČR GAP505/12/1296; GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Carbohydrates * management * meadow Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.079, year: 2015

  6. Accumulation of reserve carbohydrate by rumen protozoa and bacteria in competition for glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Bethany L; Diese, Leanne E; Firkins, Jeffrey L; Hackmann, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if rumen protozoa could form large amounts of reserve carbohydrate compared to the amounts formed by bacteria when competing for glucose in batch cultures. We separated large protozoa and small bacteria from rumen fluid by filtration and centrifugation, recombined equal protein masses of each group into one mixture, and subsequently harvested (reseparated) these groups at intervals after glucose dosing. This method allowed us to monitor reserve carbohydrate accumulation of protozoa and bacteria individually. When mixtures were dosed with a moderate concentration of glucose (4.62 or 5 mM) (n = 2 each), protozoa accumulated large amounts of reserve carbohydrate; 58.7% (standard error of the mean [SEM], 2.2%) glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate at time of peak reserve carbohydrate concentrations. Only 1.7% (SEM, 2.2%) was recovered in bacterial reserve carbohydrate, which was less than that for protozoa (P protozoa can sequester sugar away from bacteria by accumulating reserve carbohydrate, giving protozoa a competitive advantage and stabilizing fermentation in the rumen. Similar experiments could be used to investigate the importance of starch sequestration. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. The effect of carbohydrate and fat variation in euenergetic diets on postabsorptive free fatty acid release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Ruiter, AFC; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    Diet composition and energy content modulate free fatty acid (FFA) release. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of euenergetic variations in dietary carbohydrate and fat content on postabsorptive FFA release. The rate of appearance (R-a) of palmitate was measured by

  8. Perinatal changes in myocardial supply and flux of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and ketone bodies in lambs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelds, B; Gratama, JWC; Knoester, H; Takens, J; Smid, GB; Aarnoudse, JG; Heymans, HSA; Kuipers, JRG

    No information is available on perinatal changes in myocardial metabolism in vivo. We measured myocardial supply and flux of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and ketone bodies in chronically instrumented fetal, newborn (1-4 days), and juvenile (7 wk) lambs, by measuring aorta-coronary sinus concentration

  9. Carbohydrate metabolism during prolonged exercise and recovery: interactions between pyruvate dehydrogenase, fatty acids, and amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtzakis, Marina; Saltin, B.; Graham, T.

    2006-01-01

    During prolonged exercise, carbohydrate oxidation may result from decreased pyruvate production and increased fatty acid supply and ultimately lead to reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. Pyruvate also interacts with the amino acids alanine, glutamine, and glutamate, whereby the decline...... amino acid taken up during exercise and recovery. Alanine and glutamine were also associated...... with pyruvate metabolism, and they comprised 68% of total amino-acid release during exercise and recovery. Thus reduced pyruvate production was primarily associated with reduced carbohydrate oxidation, whereas the greatest production of pyruvate was related to glutamate, glutamine, and alanine metabolism...

  10. ANALYSIS OF RICIN TOXIN PREPARATIONS FOR CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID ABUNDANCE AND ISOTOPE RATIO INFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Colburn, Heather A.; Moran, James J.; Melville, Angela M.

    2009-12-01

    This report describes method development and preliminary evaluation for analyzing castor samples for signatures of purifying ricin. Ricin purification from the source castor seeds is essentially a problem of protein purification using common biochemical methods. Indications of protein purification will likely manifest themselves as removal of the non-protein fractions of the seed. Two major, non-protein, types of biochemical constituents in the seed are the castor oil and various carbohydrates. The oil comprises roughly half the seed weight while the carbohydrate component comprises roughly half of the remaining “mash” left after oil and hull removal. Different castor oil and carbohydrate components can serve as indicators of specific toxin processing steps. Ricinoleic acid is a relatively unique fatty acid in nature and is the most abundant component of castor oil. The loss of ricinoleic acid indicates a step to remove oil from the seeds. The relative amounts of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-like compounds, including arabinose, xylose, myo-inositol fucose, rhamnose, glucosamine and mannose detected in the sample can also indicate specific processing steps. For instance, the differential loss of arabinose relative to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine indicates enrichment for the protein fraction of the seed using protein precipitation. The methods developed in this project center on fatty acid and carbohydrate extraction from castor samples followed by derivatization to permit analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Method descriptions herein include: the source and preparation of castor materials used for method evaluation, the equipment and description of procedure required for chemical derivatization, and the instrument parameters used in the analysis. Two types of derivatization methods describe analysis of carbohydrates and one procedure for analysis of fatty acids. Two types of GC-MS analysis is included in the method development, one

  11. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this ...

  12. Soluble Sugars as the Carbohydrate Reserve for CAM in Pineapple Leaves 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnal, Nancy Wieland; Black, Clanton C.

    1989-01-01

    Neutral ethanol-soluble sugar pools serve as carbohydrate reserves for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) leaves. Levels of neutral soluble sugars and glucans fluctuated reciprocally with concentrations of malic acid. Hexose loss from neutral soluble-sugar pools was sufficient to account for malic acid accumulation with about 95% of the required hexose accounted for by turnover of fructose and glucose pools. Hexose loss from starch or starch plus lower molecular weight glucan pools was insufficient to account for nocturnal accumulation of malic acid. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of pyrophosphate:6-phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) at 15°C was about 16 times higher than the mean maximum rate of glycolysis that occurred to support malic acid accumulation in pineapple leaves at night and 12 times higher than the mean maximum rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of ATP-PFK at 15°C was about 70% of the activity required to account for the mean maximal rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools if turnover were completely via glycolysis, and marginally sufficient to account for mean maximal rates of acidification. Therefore, at low night temperatures conducive to CAM and under subsaturating substrate concentrations, PPi-PFK activity, but not ATP-PFK activity, would be sufficient to support the rate of glycolytic carbohydrate processing required for acid accumulation. These data for pineapple establish that there are at least two types of CAM plants with respect to the nature of the carbohydrate reserve utilized to support nighttime CO2 accumulation. The data further indicate that the glycolytic carbohydrate processing that supports acidification proceeds in different subcellular compartments in plants utilizing different carbohydrate reserves. PMID:16666775

  13. The association of substituting carbohydrates with total fat and different types of fatty acids with mortality and weight change among diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campmans-Kuijpers, Marjo J; Sluijs, Ivonne; Nöthlings, Ute; Freisling, Heinz; Overvad, Kim; Boeing, Heiner; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sieri, Sabina; Johansson, Ingegerd; Winkvist, Anna; Katzke, Verena A; Kuehn, Tilman; Nilsson, Peter M; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Spijkerman, Annemieke M; Arriola, Larraitz; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Barricarte, Aurelio; May, Anne M; Beulens, Joline W

    2016-10-01

    Substitution of carbohydrates with fat in a diet for type 2 diabetes patients is still debated. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary carbohydrate intake and isocaloric substitution with (i) total fat, (ii) saturated fatty acids (SFA), (iii) mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and (iv) poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality risk and 5-year weight change in patients with type 2 diabetes. The study included 6192 patients with type 2 diabetes from 15 cohorts of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Dietary intake was assessed at recruitment with country-specific food-frequency questionnaires. Cox and linear regression were used to estimate the associations with (CVD) mortality and weight change, adjusting for confounders and using different methods to adjust for energy intake. After a mean follow-up of 9.2 y ± SD 2.3 y, 791 (13%) participants had died, of which 268 (4%) due to CVD. Substituting 10 g or 5 energy% of carbohydrates by total fat was associated with a higher all-cause mortality risk (HR 1.07 [1.02-1.13]), or SFAs (HR 1.25 [1.11-1.40]) and a lower risk when replaced by MUFAs (HR 0.89 [0.77-1.02]). When carbohydrates were substituted with SFAs (HR 1.22 [1.00-1.49]) or PUFAs (HR 1.29 [1.02-1.63]) CVD mortality risk increased. The 5-year weight was lower when carbohydrates were substituted with total fat or MUFAs. These results were consistent over different energy adjustment methods. In diabetes patients, substitution of carbohydrates with SFAs was associated with a higher (CVD) mortality risk and substitution by total fat was associated with a higher all-cause mortality risk. Substitution of carbohydrates with MUFAs may be associated with lower mortality risk and weight reduction. Instead of promoting replacement of carbohydrates by total fat, dietary guideline should continue focusing on replacement by fat-subtypes; especially SFAs by MUFAs

  14. Role of carbohydrate reserves in yield production of intensively cultivated oil olive (Olea europaea L.) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Avni, Avishai; Lavee, Shimon; Zipori, Isaac; Yeselson, Yelena; Schaffer, Arthur A; Riov, Joseph; Dag, Arnon

    2011-05-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) has a very high tendency for year-to-year deviation in yield (alternate bearing), which has a negative economic impact on the olive oil industry. Among possible reasons for alternate bearing, depletion of stored carbohydrates (CHO) during the On-year (high yield) has often been mentioned. The objective of the present study was to verify the role of CHO reserves, as a cause or effect, in the alternate bearing of intensively cultivated olives. A monthly survey of soluble sugar and starch concentrations in the leaves, branches, bark and roots of On- and Off-trees (cv. Barnea) was carried out during a complete reproductive cycle from November 2005 to October 2006. Carbohydrate concentration in the sapwood was determined in January, as well as an estimate of whole-tree biomass. The trunk and limbs possess the largest portion of CHO reserves. The influence of reduced fruit load on CHO reserves was also investigated. Starch, mannitol and sucrose concentrations increased from December to March in all tissues, and then declined along with fruit development. Leaves, branches and bark have a significant role in CHO storage, whereas roots accumulated the lowest CHO concentrations. However, fluctuations in reserve content suggested considerable involvement of roots in the CHO budget. Nevertheless, there were no meaningful differences in the annual pattern of CHO concentration between On- and Off-trees. Even a 75-100% reduction in fruit number brought about only a minor, sluggish increase in CHO content, though this was more pronounced in the roots. Carbohydrate reserves were not depleted, even under maximum demands for fruit and oil production. It is concluded that in olives, the status of CHO reserves is not a yield determinant. However, they may play a significant role in the olive's survival strategy, ensuring tree recovery in the unpredictable semiarid Mediterranean environment. This suggests that CHO reserves in olive act like an active sink

  15. Studies on effective atomic number, electron density and kerma for some fatty acids and carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manohara, S.R.; Hanagodimath, S.M.; Gerward, Leif

    2008-01-01

    The effective atomic number, Z(eff), the effective electron density, N-el, and kerma have been calculated for some fatty acids and carbohydrates for photon interaction in the extended energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV using an accurate database of photon-interaction cross sections and the Win......XCom program. The significant variation of Z(eff) and N-el is due to the variations in the dominance of different interaction processes in different energy regions. The maximum values of Z(eff) and N-el are found in the low-energy range, where photoelectric absorption is the main interaction process....... The minimum values of Z(eff) and N-el are found at intermediate energies, typically 0.05 MeV atomic number of the bio-molecule. Wherever possible, the calculations are compared with experimental results. A comparison...

  16. The antimicrobial efficacy and structure activity relationship of novel carbohydrate fatty acid derivatives against Listeria spp. and food spoilage microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobmann, Patricia; Smith, Aoife; Dunne, Julie; Henehan, Gary; Bourke, Paula

    2009-01-15

    Novel mono-substituted carbohydrate fatty acid (CFA) esters and ethers were investigated for their antibacterial activity against a range of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria focussing on Listeria monocytogenes. Carbohydrate derivatives with structural differences enable comparative studies on the structure/activity relationship for antimicrobial efficacy and mechanism of action. The antimicrobial efficacy of the synthesized compounds was compared with commercially available compounds such as monolaurin and monocaprylin, as well as the pure free fatty acids, lauric acid and caprylic acid, which have proven antimicrobial activity. Compound efficacy was compared using an absorbance based broth microdilution assay to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), increase in lag phase and decrease in maximum growth rate. Among the carbohydrate derivatives synthesized, lauric ether of methyl alpha-d-glucopyranoside and lauric ester of methyl alpha-d-mannopyranoside showed the highest growth-inhibitory effect with MIC values of 0.04 mM, comparable to monolaurin. CFA derivatives were generally more active against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria. The analysis of both ester and ether fatty acid derivatives of the same carbohydrate, in tandem with alpha and beta configuration of the carbohydrate moiety suggest that the carbohydrate moiety is involved in the antimicrobial activity of the fatty acid derivatives and that the nature of the bond also has a significant effect on efficacy, which requires further investigation. This class of CFA derivatives has great potential for developing antibacterial agents relevant to the food industry, particularly for control of Listeria or other Gram-positive pathogens.

  17. Hepatic fatty acid biosynthesis is more responsive to protein than carbohydrate in rainbow trout during acute stimulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Weiwei; Panserat, Stéphane; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Terrier, Frédéric; Plagnes-Juan, Elisabeth; Seiliez, Iban; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    The link between dietary carbohydrate/protein and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) remains debatable in carnivorous fish. We aimed to evaluate and compare the response of hepatic lipogenic gene expression to dietary carbohydrate intake/glucose and dietary protein intake/amino acids (AAs) during acute stimulations using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. For the in vivo trial, three different diets and a controlled-feeding method were employed to supply fixed amount of dietary protein or carbohydrate in a single meal; for the in vitro trial, primary hepatocytes were stimulated with a low or high level of glucose (3 mM or 20 mM) and a low or high level of AAs (one-fold or four-fold concentrated AAs). In vitro data showed that a high level of AAs upregulated the expression of enzymes involved in DNL [fatty acid synthase (FAS) and ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)], lipid bioconversion [elongation of very long chain fatty acids like-5 (Elovl5), Elovl2, Δ6 fatty acyl desaturase (D6D) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1)], NADPH production [glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and malic enzyme (ME)], and transcriptional factor sterol regulatory element binding protein 1-like, while a high level of glucose only elevated the expression of ME. Data in trout liver also showed that high dietary protein intake induced higher lipogenic gene expression (FAS, ACLY, and Elovl2) regardless of dietary carbohydrate intake, while high carbohydrate intake markedly suppressed the expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and Elovl5. Overall, we conclude that, unlike rodents or humans, hepatic fatty acid biosynthetic gene expression in rainbow trout is more responsive to dietary protein intake/AAs than dietary carbohydrate intake/glucose during acute stimulations. This discrepancy probably represents one important physiological and metabolic difference between carnivores and omnivores. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Characterization of fat metabolism in the fatty liver caused by a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet: A study under equal energy conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Yuka; Shiroya, Yoko; Yamauchi, Hideki; Kitamura, Hiromi; Minato, Kumiko

    2017-05-20

    The pathology of fatty liver due to increased percentage of calories derived from fat without increased overall caloric intake is largely unclear. In this study, we aimed to characterize fat metabolism in rats with fatty liver resulting from consumption of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HFLC) diet without increased caloric intake. Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the control (Con) and HFLC groups, and rats were fed the corresponding diets ad libitum. Significant decreases in food intake per gram body weight were observed in the HFLC group compared with that in the Con group. Thus, there were no significant differences in body weights or caloric intake per gram body weight between the two groups. Marked progressive fat accumulation was observed in the livers of rats in the HFLC group, accompanied by suppression of de novo lipogenesis (DNL)-related proteins in the liver and increased leptin concentrations in the blood. In addition, electron microscopic observations revealed that many lipid droplets had accumulated within the hepatocytes, and mitochondrial numbers were reduced in the hepatocytes of rats in the HFLC group. Our findings confirmed that consumption of the HFLC diet induced fatty liver, even without increased caloric intake. Furthermore, DNL was not likely to be a crucial factor inducing fatty liver with standard energy intake. Instead, ultrastructural abnormalities found in mitochondria, which may cause a decline in β-oxidation, could contribute to the development of fatty liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Gimenez da Silva-Santi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD and high-fat diet (HFD modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets, and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1, ∆-6 desaturase (D6D, elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1 was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid (n-6/n-3 ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD.

  20. Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Santi, Lorena Gimenez; Antunes, Marina Masetto; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Carbonera, Fabiana; Masi, Laureane Nunes; Curi, Rui; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa

    2016-10-29

    Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and high-fat diet (HFD) modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA) composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets), and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), ∆-6 desaturase (D6D), elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO) production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ( n -6/ n -3) ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA) composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD.

  1. Successful Colonization of Lodgepole Pine Trees by Mountain Pine Beetle Increased Monoterpene Production and Exhausted Carbohydrate Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Marla; Hussain, Altaf; Cale, Jonathan A; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2018-02-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests have experienced severe mortality from mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North America for the last several years. Although the mechanisms by which beetles kill host trees are unclear, they are likely linked to pine defense monoterpenes that are synthesized from carbohydrate reserves. However, how carbohydrates and monoterpenes interact in response to MPB colonization is unknown. Understanding this relationship could help to elucidate how pines succumb to bark beetle attack. We compared concentrations of individual and total monoterpenes and carbohydrates in the phloem of healthy pine trees with those naturally colonized by MPB. Trees attacked by MPB had nearly 300% more monoterpenes and 40% less carbohydrates. Total monoterpene concentrations were most strongly associated with the concentration of sugars in the phloem. These results suggest that bark beetle colonization likely depletes carbohydrate reserves by increasing the production of carbon-rich monoterpenes, and other carbon-based secondary compounds. Bark beetle attacks also reduce water transport causing the disruption of carbon transport between tree foliage and roots, which restricts carbon assimilation. Reduction in carbohydrate reserves likely contributes to tree mortality.

  2. Metabolism and fatty acid profile in fat and lean rainbow trout lines fed with vegetable oil: effect of carbohydrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Sam Kamalam

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L and the fat (F line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1% for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPARγ was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies.

  3. Effects of Watering and Fertilization on Carbohydrate Reserves in Sugar Maple Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; John R. Donnelly; Boyd W. Post

    1978-01-01

    Sugar maple seedlings, grown under three nutrient and three moisture levels, were analyzed after three growing seasons for starch and ethanol-soluble sugars. Analytical procedures are detailed in the appendix. Fertilization did not affect carbohydrate levels in stems or roots. Water stress caused a significant reduction in the amount of carbohydrates in stems and roots...

  4. Production of hydrogen, ethanol and volatile fatty acids from the seaweed carbohydrate mannitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Jacob, Amita; Herrmann, Christiane; Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Murphy, Jerry D

    2015-10-01

    Fermentative hydrogen from seaweed is a potential biofuel of the future. Mannitol, which is a typical carbohydrate component of seaweed, was used as a substrate for hydrogen fermentation. The theoretical specific hydrogen yield (SHY) of mannitol was calculated as 5 mol H2/mol mannitol (615.4 mL H2/g mannitol) for acetic acid pathway, 3 mol H2/mol mannitol (369.2 mL H2/g mannitol) for butyric acid pathway and 1 mol H2/mol mannitol (123.1 mL H2/g mannitol) for lactic acid and ethanol pathways. An optimal SHY of 1.82 mol H2/mol mannitol (224.2 mL H2/g mannitol) was obtained by heat pre-treated anaerobic digestion sludge under an initial pH of 8.0, NH4Cl concentration of 25 mM, NaCl concentration of 50mM and mannitol concentration of 10 g/L. The overall energy conversion efficiency achieved was 96.1%. The energy was contained in the end products, hydrogen (17.2%), butyric acid (38.3%) and ethanol (34.2%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of abandonment and plant classification on carbohydrate reserves of meadow plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeček, Štěpán; Lanta, Vojtěch; Klimešová, Jitka; Doležal, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2010), s. 243-251 ISSN 1435-8603 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/06/0723 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : carbohydrates * meadow * abandonment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.409, year: 2010

  6. Esterification of free fatty acids in biodiesel production with sulphonated pyrolysed carbohydrate catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The pre-treatment of free fatty acids in oils and fats in biodiesel production is of pivotal importance, and esterification in acidic medium must be done prior to basic transesterification of glycerides. The free fatty acids may be converted over an acidic catalyst of sulphonated pyrolysed...

  7. Depletion of carbohydrate reserves limits nitrate uptake during early regrowth in Lolium perenne L.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guo, Q.; Turnbull, M.; Song, J.; Roche, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Späth, J.; Jameson, P. E.; Love, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 7 (2017), s. 1569-1583 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06613S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate * Carbon * Cytokinin * Fructan * Lolium perenne * Nitrate transporter (NRT) * Nitrate uptake * Nitrogen * Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) * Perennial ryegrass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  8. Production performance and milk fatty acids profile in grazing dairy cows offered ground corn or liquid molasses as the sole supplemental nonstructural carbohydrate source

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of corn meal or liquid molasses fed as the sole supplemental nonstructural carbohydrate source on milk yield and composition, milk fatty acids, and N use efficiency in grazing dairy cows. Ten multiparous organically-certified Jersey cows averagi...

  9. Effect of different forage species supplemented with two carbohydrate sources on short and medium chain fatty acids in sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piredda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sixty four Sarda dairy sheep fed with diets based on fresh forage were allocated to eight groups to evaluate the effect of corn or beet pulp based supplementation on milk fatty acid composition. Four forage species were compared: annual ryegrass (RY, Lolium rigidum Gaudin, sulla (SU, Hedysarum coronarium L., burr medic (BM, Medicago polymorpha L., and garland, a daisy forb, (CH, Chrysanthemum coronarium L.. The supplements were iso-nitrogenous but differed in carbohydrate composition consisting either of 60% (DM of corn (concentrate C or 40% sugar beet pulp (concentrate BP. The supplementation was iso-energetic (500 and 530 g/d, respectively. Overall during winter period (growing stage of the forages SU and RY groups showed higher levels of atherogenicity index and C16:0. In winter period BP outperformed C for palmitic acid. In spring AI showed a trend similar to that of winter. Moreover C concentrate gave a better level of AI and myristic acid than BP. This study confirms that forage species and, to a lesser extent, carbohydrate source in the supplement markedly affect mediumchain FA profile and hence atherogenicity index in sheep milk.

  10. The involvement of carbohydrate reserves in hydrogen photoproduction by the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chochois, V.

    2009-09-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is able to produce hydrogen, using water as an electron donor, and sunlight as an energy source. Although this property offers interesting biotechnological perspectives, a major limitation is related to the sensitivity of hydrogenase to oxygen which is produced by photosynthesis. It had been previously shown that in conditions of sulfur deprivation, C. reinhardtii is able to produce hydrogen during several days (Melis et an. 2000). During this process, two pathways, one direct depending on photosystem II (PSII) activity and the other involving only the PSI, are involved, starch reserves being supposed to play a role in both of these pathways. The purpose of this phD thesis was to elucidate the mechanisms linking starch catabolism to the hydrogen photoproduction process. Firstly, the analysis of mutants affected in starch biosynthesis (sta6 and sta7) showed that if starch reserves are essential to the functioning of the indirect pathway, they are not involved in the direct one. Secondly, in order to identify metabolic steps and regulatory processes involved in starch breakdown, we developed a genetic approach based on the search of mutants affected in starch reserves mobilization. Eight mutant (std1 to std8) diversely affected in their ability to degrade starch after an accumulation phase have been isolated from an insertional mutant library of 15,000 clones. One of these mutants, std1, is affected in a kinase related to the DYRK family (dual-specificity tyrosine regulated serine threonine kinase). Although the targets of this putative kinase remain to be identified, the analysis of the granule bound proteome displayed profound alterations in the expression profile of starch phosphorylases, potentially involved in starch breakdown. STD1 represents the first starch catabolism regulator identified to date in plants. (author)

  11. Time‐course of Tomato Whole‐plant Respiration and Fruit and Stem Growth During Prolonged Darkness in Relation to Carbohydrate Reserves

    OpenAIRE

    GARY, C.; BALDET, P.; BERTIN, N.; DEVAUX, C.; TCHAMITCHIAN, M.; RAYMOND, P.

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the relevance of a simple carbon balance model (Seginer et al., 1994, Scientia Horticulturae 60: 55–80) in source‐limiting conditions, the dynamics of growth, respiration and carbohydrate reserves of tomato plants were observed in prolonged darkness. Four days prior to the experiments, plants were exposed to high or low light levels and CO2 concentrations. The concentration of carbohydrates in vegetative organs was 30–50 % lower in plants that were exposed to low carbon assimil...

  12. Reserve carbohydrates and lipids from the seeds of four tropical tree species with different sensitivity to desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Iura de Oliveira Mello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of water content for the conservation and storage of seeds, and the involvement of soluble carbohydrates and lipids for embryo development, a comparative study was carried out among the seeds of Inga vera (ingá, Eugenia uniflora (pitanga, both classified as recalcitrant, and Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood and Erythrina speciosa (mulungu, considered as orthodox seeds. Low concentrations of cyclitols (0.3-0.5%, raffinose family oligosaccharides (ca. 0.05% and unsaturated fatty acids (0-19% were found in the seeds of ingá and pitanga, while larger amounts of cyclitols (2-3% and raffinose (4.6-13% were found in brazilwood and mulungu, respectively. These results, in addition to higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (53-71% in orthodox seeds, suggested that sugars and lipids played important role in water movement, protecting the embryo cell membranes against injuries during dehydration.Os compostos de reserva das sementes, além de suprirem energia para o desenvolvimento embrionário, desempenham importantes funções relacionadas à proteção celular contra secagem e congelamento. Considerando a importância do teor de água para a conservação e para o armazenamento de sementes de espécies arbóreas e o envolvimento dos carboidratos solúveis e de lipídios nesses processos, foi realizada uma análise comparativa desses compostos em sementes de Inga vera (ingá e Eugenia uniflora (pitanga, consideradas recalcitrantes, e em Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil e Erythrina speciosa (mulungu, com comportamento ortodoxo. Baixas concentrações de ciclitóis (0,3-0,5%, de oligossacarídeos da série da rafinose (0,05% e de ácidos graxos insaturados (0-19% foram encontradas em sementes de ingá e pitanga, enquanto maiores quantidades de ciclitóis (2-3% e de rafinose (4,6-13% foram encontradas nas sementes de pau-brasil e mulungu, respectivamente. Estes resultados, juntamente com as altas proporções de

  13. Cold-season patterns of reserve and soluble carbohydrates in sugar maple and ice-damaged trees of two age classes following drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. L. Wong; K. L. Baggett; A. H. Rye

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects of summer drought on the composition and profiles of cold-season reserve and soluble carbohydrates in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees (50-100 years old or ~200 years old) in which the crowns were nondamaged or damaged by the 1998 ice storm. The overall cold season reserve...

  14. Soluble Sugars as the Carbohydrate Reserve for CAM in Pineapple Leaves : Implications for the Role of Pyrophosphate:6-Phosphofructokinase in Glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnal, N W; Black, C C

    1989-05-01

    Neutral ethanol-soluble sugar pools serve as carbohydrate reserves for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) leaves. Levels of neutral soluble sugars and glucans fluctuated reciprocally with concentrations of malic acid. Hexose loss from neutral soluble-sugar pools was sufficient to account for malic acid accumulation with about 95% of the required hexose accounted for by turnover of fructose and glucose pools. Hexose loss from starch or starch plus lower molecular weight glucan pools was insufficient to account for nocturnal accumulation of malic acid. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of pyrophosphate:6-phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) at 15 degrees C was about 16 times higher than the mean maximum rate of glycolysis that occurred to support malic acid accumulation in pineapple leaves at night and 12 times higher than the mean maximum rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of ATP-PFK at 15 degrees C was about 70% of the activity required to account for the mean maximal rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools if turnover were completely via glycolysis, and marginally sufficient to account for mean maximal rates of acidification. Therefore, at low night temperatures conducive to CAM and under subsaturating substrate concentrations, PPi-PFK activity, but not ATP-PFK activity, would be sufficient to support the rate of glycolytic carbohydrate processing required for acid accumulation. These data for pineapple establish that there are at least two types of CAM plants with respect to the nature of the carbohydrate reserve utilized to support nighttime CO(2) accumulation. The data further indicate that the glycolytic carbohydrate processing that supports acidification proceeds in different subcellular compartments in plants utilizing different carbohydrate reserves.

  15. Shifts in dietary carbohydrate-lipid exposure regulate expression of the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-associated gene PNPLA3/adiponutrin in mouse liver and HepG2 human liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lei; Ito, Kyoko; Huang, Kuan-Hsun; Sae-tan, Sudathip; Lambert, Joshua D; Ross, A Catharine

    2014-10-01

    Patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3, adiponutrin) has been identified as a modifier of lipid metabolism. To better understand the physiological role of PNPLA3/adiponutrin, we have investigated its regulation in intact mice and human hepatocytes under various nutritional/metabolic conditions. PNPLA3 gene expression was determined by real-time PCR in liver of C57BL/6 mice after dietary treatments and in HepG2 cells exposed to various nutritional/metabolic stimuli. Intracellular lipid content was determined in HepG2 cells after siRNA-mediated knockdown of PNPLA3. In vivo, mice fed a high-carbohydrate (HC) liquid diet had elevated hepatic lipid content, and PNPLA3 mRNA and protein expression, compared to chow-fed mice. Elevated expression was completely abrogated by addition of unsaturated lipid emulsion to the HC diet. By contrast, in mice with high-fat diet-induced steatosis, Pnpla3 expression did not differ compared to low-fat fed mice. In HepG2 cells, Pnpla3 expression was reversibly suppressed by glucose depletion and increased by glucose refeeding, but unchanged by addition of insulin and glucagon. Several unsaturated fatty acids each significantly decreased Pnpla3 mRNA, similar to lipid emulsion in vivo. However, Pnpla3 knockdown in HepG2 cells did not alter total lipid content in high glucose- or oleic acid-treated cells. Our results provide evidence that PNPLA3 expression is an early signal/signature of carbohydrate-induced lipogenesis, but its expression is not associated with steatosis per se. Under lipogenic conditions due to high-carbohydrate feeding, certain unsaturated fatty acids can effectively suppress both lipogenesis and PNPLA3 expression, both in vivo and in a hepatocyte cell line. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of top pruning on stem carbohydrates reserves and foliar 14CO2 assimilation in mulberry trees during autumn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Tadaaki

    1984-01-01

    Removal of shoot tops from mulberry plants in autumn hastened the accumulation of starch in the stems even though photosynthesis in the remaining uppermost leaves was supressed. The proportion of the amount of 14 CO 2 assimilate taken into the veins and the contents of foliar carbohydrates and protein were not affected by pruning. (author)

  17. Regulation of the reserve carbohydrate metabolism by alkaline pH and calcium in Neurospora crassa reveals a possible cross-regulation of both signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, Stela; Cupertino, Fernanda Barbosa; Ambrosio, Daniela Luz; Bertolini, Maria Célia

    2017-06-09

    Glycogen and trehalose are storage carbohydrates and their levels in microorganisms vary according to environmental conditions. In Neurospora crassa, alkaline pH stress highly influences glycogen levels, and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the response to pH stress also involves the calcineurin signaling pathway mediated by the Crz1 transcription factor. Recently, in yeast, pH stress response genes were identified as targets of Crz1 including genes involved in glycogen and trehalose metabolism. In this work, we present evidence that in N. crassa the glycogen and trehalose metabolism is modulated by alkaline pH and calcium stresses. We demonstrated that the pH signaling pathway in N. crassa controls the accumulation of the reserve carbohydrates glycogen and trehalose via the PAC-3 transcription factor, which is the central regulator of the signaling pathway. The protein binds to the promoters of most of the genes encoding enzymes of glycogen and trehalose metabolism and regulates their expression. We also demonstrated that the reserve carbohydrate levels and gene expression are both modulated under calcium stress and that the response to calcium stress may involve the concerted action of PAC-3. Calcium activates growth of the Δpac-3 strain and influences its glycogen and trehalose accumulation. In addition, calcium stress differently regulates glycogen and trehalose metabolism in the mutant strain compared to the wild-type strain. While glycogen levels are decreased in both strains, the trehalose levels are significantly increased in the wild-type strain and not affected by calcium in the mutant strain when compared to mycelium not exposed to calcium. We previously reported the role of PAC-3 as a transcription factor involved in glycogen metabolism regulation by controlling the expression of the gsn gene, which encodes an enzyme of glycogen synthesis. In this work, we extended the investigation by studying in greater detail the effects of pH on the metabolism of the

  18. Dietary long-chain fatty acids and carbohydrate biomarker evaluation in a controlled feeding study in participants from the Women's Health Initiative cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Ying; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Vitolins, Mara Z; Prentice, Ross L; Lampe, Johanna W

    2017-06-01

    Background: Biomarkers of macronutrient intake are lacking. Controlled human feeding studies that preserve the normal variation in nutrient and food consumption are necessary for the development and validation of robust nutritional biomarkers. Objective: We aimed to assess the utility of serum phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) as biomarkers of dietary intakes of fatty acids, total fat, and carbohydrate. Design: We used an individualized controlled feeding study in which 153 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) were provided with a 2-wk controlled diet that mimicked each individual's habitual food intake. A total of 41 PLFAs were measured with the use of gas chromatography in end-of-feeding-period fasting serum samples and expressed in both relative and absolute concentrations. R 2 values (percentages of variation explained) from linear regressions of (ln-transformed) consumed fatty acids (individual, groups, and broad categories) on (ln-transformed) corresponding measures of serum PLFAs alone and together with selected participant-related variables (age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, season of study participation, education level, and estimated energy intake from doubly labeled water) were used for evaluation against established urinary recovery biomarkers of energy and protein intake as benchmarks. Models to predict intakes of other nutrients were also explored. Results: Intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid achieved the benchmark of R 2 > 36% with or without covariates. When all 41 serum PLFAs and participant-related covariates were initially included in the model for selection, cross-validated R 2 achieved >36% for consumed total carbohydrate (grams per day), total saturated fatty acids (SFAs), percentage of energy from SFAs, and total trans fatty acids with serum PLFAs in both relative and absolute concentrations. Conclusions: Serum PLFA biomarkers perform similarly to established energy and protein urinary

  19. Treatment with Ginger Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Fatty Liver and Hypertriglyceridemia in Rats: Modulation of the Hepatic Carbohydrate Response Element-Binding Protein-Mediated Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanqing Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginger has been demonstrated to improve lipid derangements. However, its underlying triglyceride-lowering mechanisms remain unclear. Fructose overconsumption is associated with increase in hepatic de novo lipogenesis, thereby resulting in lipid derangements. Here we found that coadministration of the alcoholic extract of ginger (50 mg/kg/day, oral gavage, once daily over 5 weeks reversed liquid fructose-induced increase in plasma triglyceride and glucose concentrations and hepatic triglyceride content in rats. Plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration was also decreased. Attenuation of the increased vacuolization and Oil Red O staining area was evident on histological examination of liver in ginger-treated rats. However, ginger treatment did not affect chow intake and body weight. Further, ginger treatment suppressed fructose-stimulated overexpression of carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP at the mRNA and protein levels in the liver. Consequently, hepatic expression of the ChREBP-targeted lipogenic genes responsible for fatty acid biosynthesis was also downregulated. In contrast, expression of neither peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR- alpha and its downstream genes, nor PPAR-gamma and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c was altered. Thus the present findings suggest that in rats, amelioration of fructose-induced fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia by ginger treatment involves modulation of the hepatic ChREBP-mediated pathway.

  20. Chemotaxis toward carbohydrates and peptides by mixed ruminal protozoa when fed, fasted, or incubated with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, H L; Karnati, S K R; Lyons, M A; Dehority, B A; Firkins, J L

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well-characterized chemotaxis and migratory behavior between the dorsal and ventral locations of the rumen by isotrichids, we hypothesized that chemotaxis toward soluble nutrients maintains entodiniomorphid protozoa in the particulate fraction. The objectives of these experiments were to compare the dose-responsive chemotaxis (1) toward different glucose concentrations when ruminal samples were harvested from fed versus fasted cows; (2) toward increasing concentrations of glucose compared with xylose when protozoa were harvested from a fed cow; (3) toward peptides of bacterial, protozoal, and soy origin; and (4) toward glucose when mixed ruminal protozoa were previously incubated for 0, 3, or 6h in the presence of emulsified polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; Liposyn II, Hospira, Lake Forest, IL). In experiment 1, isotrichid protozoa decreased chemotaxis toward increasing glucose concentration when cows were fasted. Entodiniomorphids exhibited chemotaxis to similar concentrations of glucose as did isotrichids, but to a lesser magnitude of response. In experiment 2, xylose was chemotactic to both groups. Xylose might draw fibrolytic entodiniomorphid protozoa toward newly ingested feed. In contrast, even though isotrichids should not use xylose as an energy source, they were highly chemoattracted to xylose. In experiment 3, entodiniomorphids were not selectively chemoattracted toward bacterial or protozoal peptides compared with soy peptides. In experiment 4, despite isotrichid populations decreasing in abundance with increasing time of incubation in PUFA, chemotaxis to glucose remained unchanged. In contrast, entodiniomorphids recovered chemotaxis to glucose with increased time of PUFA incubation. Current results support isotrichid chemotaxis to sugars but also our hypothesis that a more moderate chemotaxis toward glucose and peptides explains how they swim in the fluid but pass from the rumen with the potentially digestible fraction of

  1. Effects of a Low-Calorie, Low-Carbohydrate Soy Containing Diet on Systemic Inflammation Among Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Parallel Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kani, Ali Hashemi; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Adibi, Peyman; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2017-09-01

    Few studies have focused on the effects of a soy containing diet on inflammation and serum leptin level among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, we aimed to determine the effects of such a diet in patients with NAFLD. Forty-five patients with NAFLD participated in this parallel randomized clinical trial for 8 weeks. Patients were randomly allocated to these 3 groups: 1) a low-calorie diet, 2) low-calorie low-carbohydrate diet, and 3) low-calorie low-carbohydrate soy containing diet. Low-calorie low-carbohydrate soy containing diet reduced fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum insulin level significantly compared to other 2 groups (-11.6±2.8 vs. -6.3±1.7 and -3.1±1.0 mg/dl for FBS; and -5.1±1.2  vs. -1.2±0.3 and -1.7±0.5 mg/dl for serum insulin level). Serum hs-CRP level was also reduced significantly following low-calorie low-carbohydrate soy containing diet (-0.8±0.1 vs. -0.1±0.06 and -0.1±0.06 mg/dl). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were reduced significantly. Changes in leptin level tended to be different among 3 groups. After trial, 5 patients in each intervention group did not have NAFLD. From 6 patients in grade 2 at the beginning only 1 patient remained and others moved to grade 1. Low-calorie low-carbohydrate soy containing diet could reduce glycemic indices, hs CRP, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a significant level in patients with NAFLD. However, these effects were dependent on baseline weight and further studies are needed to clarify the effect of such interventions in subjects with different BMI categories. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. A comprehensive study on energy absorption and exposure buildup factors for some essential amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates in the energy range 0.015-15 MeV up to 40 mean free path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Ozdemir, Yueksel

    2011-01-01

    The gamma ray energy absorption (EABF) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) have been calculated for some essential amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path). The five parameter geometric progression (G-P) fitting approximation has been used to calculate both EABF and EBF. Variations of EABF and EBF with incident photon energy, penetration depth and weight fraction of elements have been studied. While the significant variations in EABF and EBF for amino acids and fatty acids have been observed at the intermediate energy region where Compton scattering is the main photon interaction process, the values of EABF and EBF appear to be almost the same for all carbohydrates in the continuous energy region. It has been observed that the fatty acids have the largest EABF and EBF at 0.08 and 0.1 MeV, respectively, whereas the maximum values of EABF and EBF have been observed for aminoacids and carbohydrates at 0.1 MeV. At the fixed energy of 1.5 MeV, the variation of EABF with penetration depth appears to be independent of the variations in chemical composition of the amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates. Significant variations were also observed between EABF and EBF which may be due to the variations in chemical composition of the given materials.

  3. Diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Heinz F; Hammer, Johann

    2012-09-01

    This article will focus on the role of the colon in the pathogenesis of diarrhea in carbohydrate malabsorption or physiologically incomplete absorption of carbohydrates, and on the most common manifestation of carbohydrate malabsorption, lactose malabsorption. In addition, incomplete fructose absorption, the role of carbohydrate malabsorption in other malabsorptive diseases, and congenital defects that lead to malabsorption will be covered. The article concludes with a section on diagnostic tools to evaluate carbohydrate malabsorption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  5. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Understanding Carbohydrates How much and what type of carbohydrate foods ... glucose levels in your target range. Explore: Understanding Carbohydrates Glycemic Index and Diabetes Learn about the glycemic ...

  6. Long-term effect of carbohydrate reserves on growth and reproduction of Prosopis denudans (Fabaceae): implications for conservation of woody perennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Alejandra E.; Agüero, Paola R.; Ravetta, Damián; González-Paleo, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis denudans, an extreme xerophyte shrub, is consumed by ungulates and threatened by firewood gathering, because it is one of the preferred species used by Mapuche indigenous people of Patagonia. In a scenario of uncontrolled use of vegetation, it is very difficult to develop a conservation plan that jointly protects natural resources and its users. We performed a field experiment to assess the impact of defoliation on growth, reproduction and stores of a wild population of P. denudans. We imposed four levels of defoliation (removal of 100, 66, 33 and 0% of leaves) and evaluated the short- and long-term (3 years) effects of this disturbance. Seasonal changes in shoot carbohydrates suggested that they support leaf-flush and blooming. Severely defoliated individuals also used root reserves to support growth and leaf-flush after clipping. Vegetative growth was not affected by defoliation history. Leaf mass area increased after the initial clipping, suggesting the development of structural defenses. The depletion of root reserves at the end of the first year affected inflorescence production the following spring. We conclude that P. denudans shrubs could lose up to one-third of their green tissues without affecting growth or inflorescence production. The removal of a higher proportion of leaves will diminish stores, which in turn, will reduce or completely prevent blooming and, therefore, fruit production the following seasons. Very few studies integrate conservation and plant physiology, and we are not aware, so far, of any work dealing with long-term plant carbon economy of a long-lived perennial shrub as an applied tool in conservation. These results might help the development of management strategies that consider both the use and the conservation of wild populations of P. denudans. PMID:27293747

  7. Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Randomized to a Higher-Complex Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet Manifest Lower Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance, Inflammation, Glucose, and Free Fatty Acids: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L; Van Pelt, Rachael E; Anderson, Molly A; Reece, Melanie S; Reynolds, Regina M; de la Houssaye, Becky A; Heerwagen, Margaret; Donahoo, William T; Daniels, Linda J; Chartier-Logan, Catherine; Janssen, Rachel C; Friedman, Jacob E; Barbour, Linda A

    2016-01-01

    Diet therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has focused on carbohydrate restriction but is poorly substantiated. In this pilot randomized clinical trial, we challenged the conventional low-carbohydrate/higher-fat (LC/CONV) diet, hypothesizing that a higher-complex carbohydrate/lower-fat (CHOICE) diet would improve maternal insulin resistance (IR), adipose tissue (AT) lipolysis, and infant adiposity. At 31 weeks, 12 diet-controlled overweight/obese women with GDM were randomized to an isocaloric LC/CONV (40% carbohydrate/45% fat/15% protein; n = 6) or CHOICE (60%/25%/15%; n = 6) diet. All meals were provided. AT was biopsied at 37 weeks. After ∼7 weeks, fasting glucose (P = 0.03) and free fatty acids (P = 0.06) decreased on CHOICE, whereas fasting glucose increased on LC/CONV (P = 0.03). Insulin suppression of AT lipolysis was improved on CHOICE versus LC/CONV (56 vs. 31%, P = 0.005), consistent with improved IR. AT expression of multiple proinflammatory genes was lower on CHOICE (P diet may improve maternal IR and infant adiposity, challenging recommendations for a LC/CONV diet. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  9. Preoperative carbohydrate load and intraoperatively infused omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids positively impact nosocomial morbidity after coronary artery bypass grafting: a double-blind controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feguri, Gibran Roder; de Lima, Paulo Ruiz Lúcio; de Cerqueira Borges, Danilo; Toledo, Laura Ramos; Batista, Larissa Nadaf; E Silva, Thaís Carvalho; Segri, Neuber José; de Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo

    2017-04-20

    A strategy of limited preoperative fasting, with carbohydrate (CHO) loading and intraoperative infusion of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA), has seldom been tried in cardiovascular surgery. Brief fasting, followed by CHO intake 2 h before anesthesia, may improve recovery from CABG procedures and lower perioperative vasoactive drug requirements. Infusion of ω-3 PUFA may reduce occurrences of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) and shorten hospital stays. The aim of this study was to assess morbidity (especially POAF) in ICU patients after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)/cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in combination, if preoperative fasts are curtailed in favor of CHO loading, and ω-3 PUFA are infused intraoperatively. Fifty-seven patients undergoing CABG were randomly assigned to receive 12.5% maltodextrin (200 ml, 2 h before anesthesia), without infusing ω-3 PUFA (CHO, n = 14); water (200 ml, 2 h before anesthesia), without infusing ω-3 PUFA (controls, n = 14); 12.5% maltodextrin (200 ml, 2 h before anesthesia) plus intraoperative ω-3 PUFA (0.2 mcg/kg) (CHO + W3, n = 15); or water (200 ml, 2 h before anesthesia) plus intraoperative ω-3 PUFA (0.2 mcg/kg) (W3, n = 14). Perioperative clinical variables and mortality were analyzed, examining the incidence of POAF, as well as the need for inotropic vasoactive drugs during surgery and in ICU. Two deaths occurred (3.5%), but there were no instances of bronchoaspiration and mediastinitis. Neither ICU stays nor total postoperative stays differed by group (P > 0.05). Patients given preoperative CHO loads (CHO and CHO + W3 groups) experienced fewer instances of hospital infection (RR = 0.29, 95%CI 0.09-0.94; P = 0.023) and were less reliant on vasoactive amines during surgery (RR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.94; P = 0.020). Similarly, the number of patients requiring vasoactive drugs while recovering in ICU differed significantly by group (P = 0

  10. Carbohydrate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  11. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  12. Carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Sungjin; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Blixt, Klas Ola

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray-based technol......In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray......-based technology has been widely employed for rapid analysis of the glycan binding properties of lectins and antibodies, the quantitative measurements of glycan-protein interactions, detection of cells and pathogens, identification of disease-related anti-glycan antibodies for diagnosis, and fast assessment...

  13. Carbohydrate malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Nordgaard-Andersen, I; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies in small series of healthy adults have suggested that parallel measurement of hydrogen and methane resulting from gut fermentation may improve the precision of quantitative estimates of carbohydrate malabsorption. Systematic, controlled studies of the role of simultaneous hydrogen...

  14. Carbohydrate reserves in the facilitator cushion plant Laretia acaulis suggest carbon limitation at high elevation and no negative effects of beneficiary plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Lino, Mary Carolina; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Zotz, Gerhard; Bader, Maaike Y

    2017-04-01

    The elevational range of the alpine cushion plant Laretia acaulis (Apiaceae) comprises a cold upper extreme and a dry lower extreme. For this species, we predict reduced growth and increased non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations (i.e. carbon sink limitation) at both elevational extremes. In a facilitative interaction, these cushions harbor other plant species (beneficiaries). Such interactions appear to reduce reproduction in other cushion species, but not in L. acaulis. However, vegetative effects may be more important in this long-lived species and may be stronger under marginal conditions. We studied growth and NSC concentrations in leaves and stems of L. acaulis collected from cushions along its full elevational range in the Andes of Central Chile. NSC concentrations were lowest and cushions were smaller and much less abundant at the highest elevation. At the lowest elevation, NSC concentrations and cushion sizes were similar to those of intermediate elevations but cushions were somewhat less abundant. NSC concentrations and growth did not change with beneficiary cover at any elevation. Lower NSC concentrations at the upper extreme contradict the sink-limitation hypothesis and may indicate that a lack of warmth is not limiting growth at high-elevation. At the lower extreme, carbon gain and growth do not appear more limiting than at intermediate elevations. The lower population density at both extremes suggests that the regeneration niche exerts important limitations to this species' distribution. The lack of an effect of beneficiaries on reproduction and vegetative performance suggests that the interaction between L. acaulis and its beneficiaries is probably commensalistic.

  15. Effect of aerobic exercise and low carbohydrate diet on pre-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal women and middle aged men--the role of gut microbiota composition: study protocol for the AELC randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu Yi; Lu, Da Jiang; Du, Xia Ming; Sun, Jian Qin; Ge, Jun; Wang, Ren Wei; Wang, Ru; Zou, Jun; Xu, Chang; Ren, Jie; Wen, Xin Fei; Liu, Yang; Cheng, Shu Mei; Tan, Xiao; Pekkala, Satu; Munukka, Eveliina; Wiklund, Petri; Chen, Yan Qiu; Gu, Qing; Xia, Zheng Chang; Liu, Jun Jun; Liu, Wen Bin; Chen, Xue Bo; Zhang, Yi Min; Li, Rui; Borra, Ronald J H; Yao, Jia Xin; Chen, Pei Jie; Cheng, Sulin

    2014-01-17

    Pre-diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are associated with an unhealthy lifestyle and pose extremely high costs to the healthcare system. In this study, we aim to explore whether individualized aerobic exercise (AEx) and low carbohydrate diet (LCh) intervention affect hepatic fat content (HFC) in pre-diabetes via modification of gut microbiota composition and other post-interventional effects. A 6-month randomized intervention with 6-month follow-up is conducted from January 2013 to December 2015. The target sample size for intervention is 200 postmenopausal women and middle-aged men aged 50-65 year-old with pre-diabetes and NAFLD. The qualified subjects are randomized into 4 groups with 50 subjects in each group: 1 = AEx, 2 = LCh, 3 = AEx + LCh, and 4 = control. In addition, two age-matched reference groups (5 = pre-diabetes without NAFLD (n = 50) and 6 = Healthy without pre-diabetes or NAFLD (n = 50)) are included. The exercise program consists of progressive and variable aerobic exercise (intensity of 60 to 75% of initial fitness level, 3-5 times/week and 30-60 min/time). The diet program includes dietary consultation plus supplementation with a special lunch meal (40% of total energy intake/day) which aims to reduce the amount of carbohydrate consumption (30%). The control and reference groups are advised to maintain their habitual habits during the intervention. The primary outcome measures are HFC, serum metabolomics and gut microbiota composition. The secondary outcome measures include body composition and cytokines. In addition, socio-psychological aspects, social support, physical activity and diet will be performed by means of questionnaire and interview. Specific individualized exercise and diet intervention in this study offers a more efficient approach for liver fat reduction and diabetes prevention via modification of gut microbiota composition. Besides, the study explores the importance of

  16. One-step synthesis of carbohydrate esters as antibacterial and antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFindee, Madher N; Zhang, Qian; Subedi, Yagya Prasad; Shrestha, Jaya P; Kawasaki, Yukie; Grilley, Michelle; Takemoto, Jon Y; Chang, Cheng-Wei Tom

    2018-02-01

    Carbohydrate esters are biodegradable, and the degraded adducts are naturally occurring carbohydrates and fatty acids which are environmentally friendly and non-toxic to human. A simple one-step regioselective acylation of mono-carbohydrates has been developed that leads to the synthesis of a wide range of carbohydrate esters. Screening of these acylated carbohydrates revealed that several compounds were active against a panel of bacteria and fungi, including Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum. Unlike prior studies on carbohydrate esters that focus only on antibacterial applications, our compounds are found to be active against both bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, the synthetic methodology is suitable to scale-up production for a variety of acylated carbohydrates. The identified lead compound, MAN014, can be used as an antimicrobial in applications such as food processing and preservation and for treatment of bacterial and fungal diseases in animals and plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Food carbohydrate chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wrolstad, R. E

    2012-01-01

    .... Now in Food Carbohydrate Chemistry, author Wrolstad emphasizes the application of carbohydrate chemistry to understanding the chemistry, physical and functional properties of food carbohydrates...

  18. Adaptation to a high protein, carbohydrate-free diet induces a marked reduction of fatty acid synthesis and lipogenic enzymes in rat adipose tissue that is rapidly reverted by a balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, S M R C; Moura, M A F; Kawashita, N H; Festuccia, W T L; Garófalo, M A R; Kettelhut, I C; Migliorini, R H

    2005-06-01

    We have previously shown that in vivo lipogenesis is markedly reduced in liver, carcass, and in 4 different depots of adipose tissue of rats adapted to a high protein, carbohydrate-free (HP) diet. In the present work, we investigate the activity of enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the epididymal adipose tissue (EPI) of rats adapted to an HP diet before and 12 h after a balanced diet was introduced. Rats fed an HP diet for 15 days showed a 60% reduction of EPI fatty acid synthesis in vivo that was accompanied by 45%-55% decreases in the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, ATP-citrate lyase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme. Reversion to a balanced diet for 12 h resulted in a normalization of in vivo EPI lipogenesis, and in a restoration of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity to levels that did not differ significantly from control values. The activities of ATP-citrate lyase and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex increased to about 75%-86% of control values, but the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme remained unchanged 12 h after diet reversion. The data indicate that in rats, the adjustment of adipose tissue lipogenic activity is an important component of the metabolic adaptation to different nutritional conditions.

  19. Influence of different cultivation methods on carbohydrate and lipid compositions and digestibility of energy of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    of carbohydrates and fatty acids of fruits and vegetables. The objective was to investigate the influence of organic and conventional cultivation systems on the carbohydrate and fatty acid composition and digestibility of the energy of apple, carrot, kale, pea, potato, and rape seed oil. RESULTS: Carbohydrate...

  20. Adverse effects on insulin secretion of replacing saturated fat with refined carbohydrate but not with monounsaturated fat: A randomized controlled trial in centrally obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lin F; Vethakkan, Shireene R; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Sanders, Thomas A B; Teng, Kim-Tiu

    Current dietary guidelines recommend the replacement of saturated fatty acids (SAFAs) with carbohydrates or monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) based on evidence on lipid profile alone, the chronic effects of the mentioned replacements on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity are however unclear. To assess the chronic effects of the substitution of refined carbohydrate or MUFA for SAFA on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in centrally obese subjects. Using a crossover design, randomized controlled trial in abdominally overweight men and women, we compared the effects of substitution of 7% energy as carbohydrate or MUFA for SAFA for a period of 6 weeks each. Fasting and postprandial blood samples in response to corresponding SAFA, carbohydrate, or MUFA-enriched meal-challenges were collected after 6 weeks on each diet treatment for the assessment of outcomes. As expected, postprandial nonesterified fatty acid suppression and elevation of C-peptide, insulin and glucose secretion were the greatest with high-carbohydrate (CARB) meal. Interestingly, CARB meal attenuated postprandial insulin secretion corrected for glucose response; however, the insulin sensitivity and disposition index were not affected. SAFA and MUFA had similar effects on all markers except for fasting glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide concentrations, which increased after MUFA but not SAFA when compared with CARB. In conclusion, a 6-week lower-fat/higher-carbohydrate (increased by 7% refined carbohydrate) diet may have greater adverse effect on insulin secretion corrected for glucose compared with isocaloric higher-fat diets. In contrast, exchanging MUFA for SAFA at 7% energy had no appreciable adverse impact on insulin secretion. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system (enzymes) ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. ...

  2. Adipose tissue and liver metabolic responses to different levels of dietary carbohydrates in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Marta; Todorčević, Marijana; Fontanillas, Ramón; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Navarro, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzes the effects of replacing dietary lipids by carbohydrates and carbohydrates by fiber on gilthead sea bream growth, as well as lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue and liver over the course of a 15-week feeding trial. Six different diets were formulated and fish were classified into two experimental groups sharing one diet. In the first group (LS), fish were fed four diets where lipids were reduced (23%-17%) by increasing carbohydrates (12%-28%) and, the second group (SF) consisted on three diets where the amount of carbohydrates (28%-11%) was exchanged at expenses of fiber (1%-18%). Differences in growth were not observed; nevertheless, the hepatosomatic index was positively related to dietary starch levels, apparently not due to enhanced hepatic lipogenesis, partly supported by unchanged G6PDH expression. In the LS group, lipogenic activity of adipose tissue was stimulated with low-lipid/high-carbohydrate diets by up-regulating G6PDH expression and a tendency to increase FAS, and promoted carbohydrate utilization versus fatty acid oxidation by modulating the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα and PPARβ expression. In the SF group, PPARs and LXRα increased parallel to fiber levels in adipose tissue. Furthermore, an adaptation of hepatic GK to dietary starch inclusion was observed in both groups; however, the lack of effects on G6Pase expression indicated that gluconeogenesis was not nutritionally regulated under the conditions examined. Overall, metabolic adaptations directed to an efficient use of dietary carbohydrates are present in gilthead sea bream, supporting the possibility of increasing carbohydrate or fiber content in diets for aquaculture sustainability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbohydrates for fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dietmar

    2006-01-01

    Biomass accumulated by the photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide is the only renewable carbon source, and hence, the only renewable raw material for the chemical industry. Carbohydrates are the main constituents of biomass and occur as cell wall and storage carbohydrates, transportation carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Cellulose, hemicelluloses and starch in particular as well as pectin, inulin and saccharose to a smaller extent are the most abundant carbohydrates. Glucose is the most important monosaccharide and monomer of polysaccharides in natural carbohydrates. Thus, it is the most abundant organic compound on earth. Production of pulp from wood cellulose, applications of starch for paper making as well as uses of glucose and saccharose for fermentation are the most important chemical and technical uses of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates used as fermentation feedstock are essential for the chemical industry. Their importance is steadily growing due to the increasing implementation of biotechnological processes.

  4. Effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen production and fermentation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    Organic waste from municipalities, food waste and agro-industrial residues are ideal feedstocks for use in biological conversion processes in biorefinery chains, representing biodegradable materials containing a series of substances belonging to the three main groups of the organic matter: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation may assume a central role in the biorefinery concept, representing an up-front treatment for organic waste capable of hydrolysing complex organics and producing biohydrogen. This research study was aimed at evaluating the effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and carbon-fate. Biogas and hydrogen productions were linearly correlated to carbohydrate content of substrates while proteins and lipids failed to produce significant contributions. Chemical composition also produced effects on the final products of dark fermentation. Acetic and butyric acids were the main fermentation products, with their ratio proving to correlate with carbohydrate and protein content. The results obtained in this research study enhance the understanding of data variability on hydrogen yields from organic waste. Detailed information on waste composition and chemical characterisation are essential to clearly identify the potential performances of the dark fermentation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  6. JTP-103237, a monoacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibitor, prevents fatty liver and suppresses both triglyceride synthesis and de novo lipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Okuma

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: In the present study, JTP-103237 prevented carbohydrate-induced fatty liver and suppressed both TG synthesis and de novo lipogenesis, suggesting MGAT inhibitor may prevent carbohydrate-induced metabolic disorders, including NAFLD, obesity and diabetes.

  7. Parasite Carbohydrate Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaurigue, Jonnel A; Seeberger, Peter H

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is an efficient means of combating infectious disease burden globally. However, routine vaccines for the world's major human parasitic diseases do not yet exist. Vaccines based on carbohydrate antigens are a viable option for parasite vaccine development, given the proven success of carbohydrate vaccines to combat bacterial infections. We will review the key components of carbohydrate vaccines that have remained largely consistent since their inception, and the success of bacterial carbohydrate vaccines. We will then explore the latest developments for both traditional and non-traditional carbohydrate vaccine approaches for three of the world's major protozoan parasitic diseases-malaria, toxoplasmosis, and leishmaniasis. The traditional prophylactic carbohydrate vaccine strategy is being explored for malaria. However, given that parasite disease biology is complex and often arises from host immune responses to parasite antigens, carbohydrate vaccines against deleterious immune responses in host-parasite interactions are also being explored. In particular, the highly abundant glycosylphosphatidylinositol molecules specific for Plasmodium, Toxoplasma , and Leishmania spp. are considered exploitable antigens for this non-traditional vaccine approach. Discussion will revolve around the application of these protozoan carbohydrate antigens for vaccines currently in preclinical development.

  8. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  9. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging

  10. CARBOHYDRATE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WHICH BIND TO CARBOHYDRATE BINDING RECEPTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases.......Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases....

  11. Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietitian or diabetes educator can help you learn what foods to eat, how much to eat, and when ... enter a type of food and find out what nutrients the food contains, including carbohydrates. Try visiting these sites: www. ...

  12. Applied carbohydrate counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lovely; Khandelwal, Deepak; Kalra, Sanjay

    2017-09-01

    Carbohydrate counting or "carb counting" is a meal planning technique for persons with diabetes for managing blood glucose levels by tracking the grams of carbohydrate consumed at meals. With better patient education and awareness, carb counting has become an important step in diabetes management. People with all types of diabetes can be benefited with this approach via improved glycaemic control and quality of life. In the first part of this review basic principles of carbohydrate counting, its application in clinical practice and exchange lists pertaining primarily to South Asian populations have been discussed. Advanced carb counting involving equations which help in better understanding of insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio and insulin dose adjustment are also included in this review.

  13. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  14. Learning about Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called starches. Starches include grain products, such as bread, crackers, pasta, and rice. As with simple sugars, some complex carbohydrate foods are better choices than others. Refined (say: ree-FIND) grains, such ...

  15. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Carbohydrates and Sugar KidsHealth / For Parents / Carbohydrates and Sugar ... carbohidratos, el azúcar y su hijo What Are Carbohydrates? Carbohydrates are the body's most important and readily ...

  16. Saturated Fats Compared With Unsaturated Fats and Sources of Carbohydrates in Relation to Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Hruby, Adela; Bernstein, Adam M; Ley, Sylvia H; Wang, Dong D; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Sampson, Laura; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2015-10-06

    The associations between dietary saturated fats and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) remain controversial, but few studies have compared saturated with unsaturated fats and sources of carbohydrates in relation to CHD risk. This study sought to investigate associations of saturated fats compared with unsaturated fats and different sources of carbohydrates in relation to CHD risk. We followed 84,628 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1980 to 2010), and 42,908 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1986 to 2010) who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire every 4 years. During 24 to 30 years of follow-up, we documented 7,667 incident cases of CHD. Higher intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and carbohydrates from whole grains were significantly associated with a lower risk of CHD comparing the highest with lowest quintile for PUFAs (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73 to 0.88; p trend carbohydrates from whole grains (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83 to 0.98; p trend = 0.003). In contrast, carbohydrates from refined starches/added sugars were positively associated with a risk of CHD (HR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.21; p trend = 0.04). Replacing 5% of energy intake from saturated fats with equivalent energy intake from PUFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids, or carbohydrates from whole grains was associated with a 25%, 15%, and 9% lower risk of CHD, respectively (PUFAs, HR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.67 to 0.84; p carbohydrates from whole grains, HR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.85 to 0.98; p = 0.01). Replacing saturated fats with carbohydrates from refined starches/added sugars was not significantly associated with CHD risk (p > 0.10). Our findings indicate that unsaturated fats, especially PUFAs, and/or high-quality carbohydrates can be used to replace saturated fats to reduce CHD risk. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier

  17. The clinical impact of carbohydrate malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Malabsorption of carbohydrates such as fructose, lactose or sorbitol can often be detected among patients suffering from so-called non specific abdominal complaints. Sometimes the differential diagnosis may be difficult. So far successful treatment consists of dietary interventions only. Nevertheless, many questions are remaining still unanswered. Copyright © 2011 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Evidence of efficacy and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorletti, Eleonora; Byrne, Christopher D

    2018-03-22

    For many years it has been known that high doses of long chain omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. Over the last three decades, there has also been a wealth of in vitro and in vivo data that has accumulated to suggest that long chain omega-3 fatty acid treatment might be beneficial to decrease liver triacylglycerol. Several biological mechanisms have been identified that support this hypothesis; notably, it has been shown that long chain omega-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect: a) on bioactive metabolites involved in inflammatory pathways, and b) on alteration of nuclear transcription factor activities such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), involved in inflammatory pathways and liver lipid metabolism. Since the pathogenesis of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) begins with the accumulation of liver lipid and progresses with inflammation and then several years later with development of fibrosis; it has been thought in patients with NAFLD omega-3 fatty acid treatment would be beneficial in treating liver lipid and possibly also in ameliorating inflammation. Meta-analyses (of predominantly dietary studies and small trials) have tended to support the assertion that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in decreasing liver lipid, but recent randomised controlled trials have produced conflicting data. These trials have suggested that omega-3 fatty acid might be beneficial in decreasing liver triglyceride (docosahexanoic acid also possibly being more effective than eicosapentanoic acid) but not in decreasing other features of steatohepatitis (or liver fibrosis). The purpose of this review is to discuss recent evidence regarding biological mechanisms by which long chain omega-3 fatty acids might act to ameliorate liver disease in NAFLD; to consider the recent evidence from randomised

  19. Unsaturated fatty acids protect trophoblast cells from saturated fatty acid-induced autophagy defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye-Ji; Ahn, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Jongdae; Lee, Joon H; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    Dysregulated serum fatty acids are associated with a lipotoxic placental environment, which contributes to increased pregnancy complications via altered trophoblast invasion. However, the role of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in trophoblastic autophagy has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure of saturated fatty acids interferes with the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts. Saturated fatty acids (but not unsaturated fatty acids) inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Furthermore, when the trophoblast cells were exposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids counteracted the effects of saturated fatty acids by increasing degradation of autophagic vacuoles. Saturated fatty acids reduced the levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while unsaturated fatty acids maintained their levels. In conclusion, saturated fatty acids induced decreased trophoblast invasion, of which autophagy dysfunction plays a major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Who is the carbohydrate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Enrique Cuevas Mestanza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry is a complex science that studies biomolecules and their interactions in metabolic pathways in living beings. Due to the large amount of contents against the short period to apply them, only expositive classes are not enough to arouse the interest of students and solve questions. In this perspective, is very important to develop new educational tools to improve the understanding of these contents. “Who is the carbohydrate?” It is a didactic game created to review the structural and functional relationship of carbohydrates. Based on the classic “Guess who?” The objective of the player or group is to first find out the opponent's carbohydrate name.

  1. Carbohydrate and exercise performance: the role of multiple transportable carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2010-07-01

    Carbohydrate feeding has been shown to be ergogenic, but recently substantial advances have been made in optimizing the guidelines for carbohydrate intake during prolonged exercise. It was found that limitations to carbohydrate oxidation were in the absorptive process most likely because of a saturation of carbohydrate transporters. By using a combination of carbohydrates that use different intestinal transporters for absorption it was shown that carbohydrate delivery and oxidation could be increased. Studies demonstrated increases in exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates of up to 65% of glucose: fructose compared with glucose only. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates reach values of 1.75 g/min whereas previously it was thought that 1 g/min was the absolute maximum. The increased carbohydrate oxidation with multiple transportable carbohydrates was accompanied by increased fluid delivery and improved oxidation efficiency, and thus the likelihood of gastrointestinal distress may be diminished. Studies also demonstrated reduced fatigue and improved exercise performance with multiple transportable carbohydrates compared with a single carbohydrate. Multiple transportable carbohydrates, ingested at high rates, can be beneficial during endurance sports in which the duration of exercise is 3 h or more.

  2. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    with the production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were....... The synthesis of these by the cycloaddition of ethylene to furanic compounds, followed by dehydrative aromatization, was demonstrated in good yields, using a strong Brønsted acidic catalyst, WOx/ZrO2. As both ethylene and furanics can be derived from carbohydrates by known processes, this constitutes...

  3. Carbohydrate conjugation through microwave-assisted functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes using perfluorophenyl azides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Na; Shimpi, Manishkumar R; Ramström, Olof; Yan, Mingdi

    2015-03-20

    Carbohydrate-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were synthesized using microwave-assisted reaction of perfluorophenyl azide with the nanotubes. The results showed that microwave radiation provides a rapid and effective means to covalently attach carbohydrates to SWNTs, producing carbohydrate-SWNT conjugates for biorecognition. The carbohydrate-functionalized SWNTs were furthermore shown to interact specifically with cognate carbohydrate-specific proteins (lectins), resulting in predicted recognition patterns. The carbohydrate-presenting SWNTs constitute a new platform for sensitive protein- or cell recognition, which pave the way for glycoconjugated carbon nanomaterials in biorecognition applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutraceutical and pharmacological implications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallela, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparing the responses of rumen ciliate protozoa and bacteria to excess carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, César R V; Lana, Rogério de Paula; Tao, Junyi; Hackmann, Timothy J

    2017-06-01

    When given excess carbohydrate, certain microbial species respond by storing energy (synthesizing reserve carbohydrate), but other species respond by dissipating the energy as heat (spilling energy). To determine the importance of these responses in the rumen microbial community, this study quantified the responses of mixed ciliate protozoa vs bacteria to glucose. We hypothesized that ciliates would direct more glucose to synthesis of reserve carbohydrate (and less to energy spilling) than would bacteria. Ciliates and bacteria were isolated from rumen fluid using filtration and centrifugation, resuspended in nitrogen-free buffer to limit growth, and dosed with 5 mM glucose. Compared with bacteria, ciliates consumed glucose >3-fold faster and synthesized reserve carbohydrate 4-fold faster. They incorporated 53% of glucose carbon into reserve carbohydrate-nearly double the value (27%) for bacteria. Energy spilling was not detected for ciliates, as all heat production (104%) was accounted by synthesis of reserve carbohydrate and endogenous metabolism. For bacteria, reserve carbohydrate and endogenous metabolism accounted for only 68% of heat production, and spilling was detected within 11 min of dosing glucose. These results suggest that ciliates alter the course of ruminal carbohydrate metabolism by outcompeting bacteria for excess carbohydrate, maximizing reserve carbohydrate synthesis, and minimizing energy spilling. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Carbohydrate intake and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, R.M.; Seidell, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly worldwide and the importance of considering the role of diet in the prevention and treatment of obesity is widely acknowledged. This paper reviews data on the effects of dietary carbohydrates on body fatness. Does the composition of the diet as related

  7. Comparative fermentation of insoluble carbohydrates in an in vitro human feces model spiked with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Anne; van Zanten, Gabriella C.; Jensen, Susanne L.

    2013-01-01

    by each insoluble carbohydrate resulting in a clear decrease in the ratio of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Notably, all carbohydrates tested appeared to block the formation of the potentially harmful branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) fermentation products, but supported lactobacilli growth and increase...

  8. Sensorial and fatty acid profile of ice cream manufactured with milk of crossbred cows fed palm oil and coconut fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, S A S; Madrona, G S; Visentainer, J V; Bonafe, E G; Carvalho, C B; Roche, P M; Prado, I N

    2014-11-01

    This work was carried out to study the nutritional quality of milk of cows fed palm oil (PAL) or coconut fat (COC), and the use of that milk as raw material for ice cream production. Three treatments were tested with 23 healthy cows: control (CON), PAL, and COC. The milk was collected at d 21 and 36 of the experimental diet. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrates) and fatty acid composition were evaluated on milk and ice cream, and sensorial analysis, color (lightness, green/red, and blue/yellow), overrun, and texture were evaluated on the ice cream. Fatty acids present in milk and ice cream were determined by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis results showed that the ice cream acceptability index was above 70%. No difference was observed for proximate composition in milk and ice cream. Chromatographic analysis showed an increase in saturated fatty acid concentration in CON and lower levels in PAL; polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration was higher in PAL and lower in CON, in milk and ice cream; monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk was higher in PAL and lower in CON but no difference was found in ice cream. Comparing n-3 content in milk and ice cream, we observed that PAL had higher levels than CON and COC. The results indicate that it is feasible to add sources of fat to the animal feed for fatty acid composition modulation of milk and ice cream. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fatty Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Interactions Pill Identifier Commonly searched drugs Aspirin Metformin Warfarin Tramadol Lactulose Ranitidine News & Commentary Recent News ... Rarely, fat accumulates in the liver during late pregnancy. This disorder, called fatty liver of pregnancy or ...

  10. Carbohydrate CuAAC click chemistry for therapy and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Peng; Zeng, Ya-Li; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Field, Robert A; Chen, Guo-Rong

    2016-06-24

    Carbohydrates are important as signaling molecules and for cellular recognition events, therefore offering scope for the development of carbohydrate-mimetic diagnostics and drug candidates. As a consequence, the construction of carbohydrate-based bioactive compounds and sensors has become an active research area. While the advent of click chemistry has greatly accelerated the progress of medicinal chemistry and chemical biology, recent literature has seen an extensive use of such approaches to construct functionally diverse carbohydrate derivatives. Here we summarize some of the progress, covering the period 2010 to mid-2015, in Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition CuAAC "click chemistry" of carbohydrate derivatives, in the context of potential therapeutic and diagnostic tool development. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of clipping frequency on reserve carbohydrates and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing the frequency of clipping over a 12 week period resulted in decreasing root and stubble weight at the end of the 12 week period. During the regrowth period, following the clipping treatment, the aerial dry matter production was found to increase with the more lenient treatments. Keywords: weights|dry ...

  12. Reserve carbohydrates metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, J; Parrou, J L

    2001-01-01

    Glycogen and trehalose are the two glucose stores of yeast cells. The large variations in the cell content of these two compounds in response to different environmental changes indicate that their metabolism is controlled by complex regulatory systems. In this review we present information on the regulation of the activity of the enzymes implicated in the pathways of synthesis and degradation of glycogen and trehalose as well as on the transcriptional control of the genes encoding them. cAMP and the protein kinases Snf1 and Pho85 appear as major actors in this regulation. From a metabolic point of view, glucose-6-phosphate seems the major effector in the net synthesis of glycogen and trehalose. We discuss also the implication of the recently elucidated TOR-dependent nutrient signalling pathway in the control of the yeast glucose stores and its integration in growth and cell division. The unexpected roles of glycogen and trehalose found in the control of glycolytic flux, stress responses and energy stores for the budding process, demonstrate that their presence confers survival and reproductive advantages to the cell. The findings discussed provide for the first time a teleonomic value for the presence of two different glucose stores in the yeast cell.

  13. Crystallographic studies of carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefrey, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The monosaccharides which constitute the monomer units of many important industrial and biological macromolecules are well represented among the 2000 crystal structures of the carbohydrate class 45 of the Cambridge Structural Database. There are few examples of crystal structure analyses of the corresponding acids, but many of their calcium salts and calcium salt complexes. With the exception of the disaccharides and cyclodextrins, the oligosaccharides are not well represented, with less than ten trisaccharides, one tetrasaccharide and one hexasaccharide-iodide complex. Two important conformational factors are the Hassel-Ottar effect and the anomeric effect, both of which have been studied using crystallographic data. Hydrogen bonding is ubiquitous in carbohydrate crystals and generally involves all the hydroxyls as both donors and acceptors, and some of the ring and glycosidic oxygens as acceptors. These hydrogen bonds tend to form finite or infinite chains. In hydrates, these chains are linked through the water molecules to form networks. Cyclic hydrogen-bond systems are observed in the cyclodextrins. Long-chain alkylated carbohydrates provide a large class of thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals and some non-ionic surfactants which have been shown to be useful for membrane-protein solubilization and crystallization. (orig.)

  14. Force fields and scoring functions for carbohydrate simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiuming; Chen, Zhaoqiang; Cossins, Benjamin P; Xu, Zhijian; Shao, Qiang; Ding, Kai; Zhu, Weiliang; Shi, Jiye

    2015-01-12

    Carbohydrate dynamics plays a vital role in many biological processes, but we are not currently able to probe this with experimental approaches. The highly flexible nature of carbohydrate structures differs in many aspects from other biomolecules, posing significant challenges for studies employing computational simulation. Over past decades, computational study of carbohydrates has been focused on the development of structure prediction methods, force field optimization, molecular dynamics simulation, and scoring functions for carbohydrate-protein interactions. Advances in carbohydrate force fields and scoring functions can be largely attributed to enhanced computational algorithms, application of quantum mechanics, and the increasing number of experimental structures determined by X-ray and NMR techniques. The conformational analysis of carbohydrates is challengeable and has gone into intensive study in elucidating the anomeric, the exo-anomeric, and the gauche effects. Here, we review the issues associated with carbohydrate force fields and scoring functions, which will have a broad application in the field of carbohydrate-based drug design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary carbohydrates, components of energy balance, and associated health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harry A; Gonzalez, Javier T; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2017-10-01

    The role of dietary carbohydrates in the development of obesity and associated metabolic dysfunction has recently been questioned. Within the last decade, the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition carried out a comprehensive evaluation of the role of dietary carbohydrates in human health. The current review aims to complement and extend this report by providing specific consideration of the effects of the component parts of energy balance, their interactions, and their culmination on energy storage and health. PubMed was searched for all published trials that had a minimum follow-up period of 3 months and were designed to manipulate dietary carbohydrate intake, irrespective of resultant differences in absolute carbohydrate dose (grams per day). Dietary carbohydrate manipulation has little effect on the individual components of energy balance that have been assessed. However, the role of dietary carbohydrates in influencing physical activity has yet to be assessed using gold-standard measurement tools. Moreover, adherence to a diet of modified carbohydrate content has not been found to result in a consistent pattern of changes in weight or indirect measures of metabolic health. However, certain markers of cardiovascular disease risk (ie, blood triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) may respond positively to a reduction in dietary carbohydrates. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. High-glycemic index carbohydrates abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Qin; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Fjære, Even

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is known to attenuate diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in rodents. Here we aimed to investigate whether different carbohydrate sources modulated the antiobesity effects of fish oil. By feeding C57BL/6J mice isocaloric high...... metabolic effects of fish oil by demonstrating that high-GI carbohydrates attenuate the antiobesity effects of fish oil....

  17. Kiwifruit, carbohydrate availability, and the glycemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, John A

    2013-01-01

    An appreciable proportion, about 10%, of the dry weight of kiwifruit consists of primary cell walls. About 80% of dry matter is available carbohydrate consisting of glucose, fructose, and sucrose, and about 10% is digestible protein. The cell wall component, being nonstarch polysaccharide, is undigested in the stomach and small intestine, so the component increases in relative concentration in the gut lumen where its physicochemical properties may be important in modulating carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Released from the constraint of fruit structure, the dietary fiber swells to four times its original volume during in vitro digestion. When the digested remnants are allowed to settle into a packed but uncompressed state, as in the gut, they reduce the rate of glucose diffusion by about 40% and profoundly reduce digesta mixing, especially in the presence of a low background of soluble viscous polysaccharide. An in vitro estimation of the glycemic index (GI) of carbohydrate in kiwifruit, and in vivo estimates show the carbohydrate to be of low GI. On a whole fruit basis because of the high water content of kiwifruit, a 100g kiwifruit would be equivalent to about 5g (1 teaspoon) of glucose in its effect on blood glucose; thus, kiwifruit have low glycemic impact and are suitable for those with diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  19. Heat capacity changes in carbohydrates and protein-carbohydrate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavelas, Eneas A; García-Hernández, Enrique

    2009-05-13

    Carbohydrates are crucial for living cells, playing myriads of functional roles that range from being structural or energy-storage devices to molecular labels that, through non-covalent interaction with proteins, impart exquisite selectivity in processes such as molecular trafficking and cellular recognition. The molecular bases that govern the recognition between carbohydrates and proteins have not been fully understood yet. In the present study, we have obtained a surface-area-based model for the formation heat capacity of protein-carbohydrate complexes, which includes separate terms for the contributions of the two molecular types. The carbohydrate model, which was calibrated using carbohydrate dissolution data, indicates that the heat capacity contribution of a given group surface depends on its position in the saccharide molecule, a picture that is consistent with previous experimental and theoretical studies showing that the high abundance of hydroxy groups in carbohydrates yields particular solvation properties. This model was used to estimate the carbohydrate's contribution in the formation of a protein-carbohydrate complex, which in turn was used to obtain the heat capacity change associated with the protein's binding site. The model is able to account for protein-carbohydrate complexes that cannot be explained using a previous model that only considered the overall contribution of polar and apolar groups, while allowing a more detailed dissection of the elementary contributions that give rise to the formation heat capacity effects of these adducts.

  20. Issues in Nutrition: Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources. Many artificial sweeteners contain no kilocalories in the amounts typically used. Sugar alcohols may have a laxative effect when consumed in large amounts. Glycemic index and glycemic load are measurements that help quantify serum glucose response after ingestion of particular foods. These measurements may be affected by the combination of foods consumed in a given meal, and the glycemic index may vary among individuals eating the same meal. Eating foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent development of type 2 diabetes. There is no definitive evidence to recommend low-carbohydrate diets over low-fat diets for long-term weight loss; they are equally effective. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  1. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  2. Degradation properties of protein and carbohydrate during sludge anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Anqi

    2015-09-01

    Degradation of protein and carbohydrate is vital for sludge anaerobic digestion performance. However, few studies focused on degradation properties of protein and carbohydrate. This study investigated detailed degradation properties of sludge protein and carbohydrate in order to gain insight into organics removal during anaerobic digestion. Results showed that carbohydrate was more efficiently degraded than protein and was degraded prior to protein. The final removal efficiencies of carbohydrate and protein were 49.7% and 32.2%, respectively. The first 3 days were a lag phase for protein degradation since rapid carbohydrate degradation in this phase led to repression of protease formation. Kinetics results showed that, after initial lag phase, protein degradation followed the first-order kinetic with rate constants of 0.0197 and 0.0018 d(-1) during later rapid degradation phase and slow degradation phase, respectively. Carbohydrate degradation also followed the first-order kinetics with a rate constant of 0.007 d(-1) after initial quick degradation phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of carbohydrates in rainwater from the southeastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaugh, Katherine M; Byrd, Jade N; Avery, G Brooks; Mead, Ralph N; Willey, Joan D; Kieber, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Carbohydrates have been widely reported in atmospheric aerosols, but have not previously been quantified in rainwater. We have identified and quantified a series of 11 specific compounds including monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose and pinitol), disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, dulcitol and mannitol) and the anhydrosaccharide levoglucosan. Rainwater analyzed in this study includes 52 distinct precipitation events in Wilmington, NC between June 2011 and October 2012. Our analysis indicates carbohydrates typically contribute carbohydrates reached as high as 5.8 μM, with glucose and sucrose typically being the predominant species. The distribution of carbohydrates exhibited a distinct seasonal pattern, with higher concentrations of most carbohydrates, especially sucrose, in spring and summer, driven primarily by increased biogenic inputs during the growing season. Concentrations of carbohydrates were an order of magnitude higher in storms of terrestrial origin compared to marine events, further supporting a terrestrial biogenic origin of most species. Sequential sampling of Hurricane Irene showed significant quantities of carbohydrates present at the end of the storm when air mass back trajectories traversed over land. The highest level of levoglucosan, a compound associated with biomass burning, was detected in rain with an air mass back trajectory that traveled over a region affected by wildfires. When compared to aerosol concentrations reported by others, the sugar concentrations in rain demonstrate wet deposition is an important removal mechanism of this water-soluble and bioavailable fraction of atmospheric particulate organic matter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical absorption of irradiated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, A.A.; Tiliks, Yu.E.

    1994-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of γ-irradiated carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, and starch) and their aqueous solutions were studied. The comparison of the data obtained with the determination of the concentrations of molecular and radical products of radiolysis allows the absorption bands with maxima at 250 and 310 nm to be assigned to the radicals trapped in the irradiated carbohydrates

  5. Synthesis of chiral dopants based on carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Toru; Koyama, Tetsuo; Yasutake, Mikio; Hatano, Ken; Matsuoka, Koji

    2014-07-01

    Chiral dopants based on carbohydrates for nematic liquid crystals were synthesized from D-glucose, and their helical twisting power (HTP) values were evaluated. The chiral dopants induced helices in the host nematic liquid crystals. An acetyl derivative having an ether-type glycosidic linkage between carbohydrate and a mesogenic moiety showed the highest HTP value of 10.4 μm(-1), while an acetyl derivative having an anomeric ester-type linkage did not show any HTP. It was surprising that this molecule had no HTP despite the presence of chirality in the molecule. A relationship between HTP and specific rotation was not observed in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influência da poda de renovação e controle da ferrugem nas reservas de carboidratos e produção de pessegueiro precoce Influence of the renewal pruning and control of the rust in the carbohydrate reserves and production of precocious peach tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Campos de Araujo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou verificar a influência da poda de renovação e controle da ferrugem nas reservas de carboidratos não-estruturados em ramos e raízes do pessegueiro cultivar Flordaprince, bem como o possível efeito na produção e qualidade dos frutos. O trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da ESALQ-USP, em Piracicaba. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em sete blocos ao acaso, constando de três tratamentos, sendo cada parcela constituída de quatro plantas. O tratamento 1 consistiu na realização da poda de renovação que foi executada 45 dias após a colheita, no mês de outubro de 2003. No tratamento 2, não se realizou a poda de renovação, e foi feito o controle da ferrugem. No tratamento 3, não foi realizada a poda de renovação, tampouco o controle da ferrugem, ocasionando desfolha antecipada. Os dados foram submetidos às análises de variância e à comparação das médias, pelo teste de Tukey. O espaçamento utilizado foi de 3,0 por 1,2 m, correspondendo a 2.777 plantas ha-1. As plantas foram conduzidas em sistema de líder central e receberam as práticas culturais normalmente utilizadas. Foram coletadas amostras de raízes e ramos que foram secos, moídos e submetidos à análise de laboratório para verificação dos teores de carboidratos não-estruturados. Ocorre flutuação na concentração de carboidratos solúveis nas raízes e nos ramos de acordo com a época da coleta, sendo que os teores de carboidratos solúveis nas raízes são sempre superiores àqueles encontrados nos ramos. O tratamento 2 apresentou maior produção de frutos e maior número de frutos por planta. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos nos aspectos qualitativos dos frutos, como diâmetro, comprimento, coloração e teor de sólidos solúveis.This work aimed to verify the influence of the renewal pruning and control of the rust in the reserves of non structured carbohydrates in branches and cultivar peach tree

  8. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.

    2016-11-22

    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  9. Photoswitchable carbohydrate-based fluorosurfactants as tuneable ice recrystallization inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Madeleine K; Hu, Yingxue; Poisson, Jessica S; Pottage, Matthew J; Ben, Robert N; Wilkinson, Brendan L

    2017-02-01

    Cryopreservation is an important technique employed for the storage and preservation of biological tissues and cells. The limited effectiveness and significant toxicity of conventionally-used cryoprotectants, such as DMSO, have prompted efforts toward the rational design of less toxic alternatives, including carbohydrate-based surfactants. In this paper, we report the modular synthesis and ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity of a library of variably substituted, carbohydrate-based fluorosurfactants. Carbohydrate-based fluorosurfactants possessed a variable mono- or disaccharide head group appended to a hydrophobic fluoroalkyl-substituted azobenzene tail group. Light-addressable fluorosurfactants displayed weak-to-moderate IRI activity that could be tuned through selection of carbohydrate head group, position of the trifluoroalkyl group on the azobenzene ring, and isomeric state of the azobenzene tail fragment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of carbohydrate intake on de novo lipogenesis in human adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chascione, C.; Elwyn, D.H.; Davila, M.; Gil, K.M.; Askanazi, J.; Kinney, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of synthesis, from [ 14 C]glucose, of fatty acids (de novo lipogenesis) and glycerol (triglyceride synthesis) were measured in biopsies of adipose tissue from nutritionally depleted patients given low- or high-carbohydrate intravenous nutrition. Simultaneously, energy expenditure and whole-body lipogenesis were measured by indirect calorimetry. Rates of whole-body lipogenesis were zero on the low-carbohydrate diet and averaged 1.6 g·kg -1 ·day -1 on the high-carbohydrate diet. In vitro rates of triglyceride synthesis increased 3-fold going from the low to the high intake; rates of fatty acid synthesis increased ∼80-fold. In vitro, lipogenesis accounted for <0.1% of triglyceride synthesis on the low intake and 4% on the high intake. On the high-carbohydrate intake, in vitro rates of triglyceride synthesis accounted for 61% of the rates of unidirectional triglyceride synthesis measured by indirect calorimetry. In vitro rates of lipogenesis accounted for 7% of whole-body lipogenesis. Discrepancies between in vitro rates of fatty acid synthesis from glucose, compared with acetate and citrate, as reported by others, suggest that in depleted patients on hypercaloric high-carbohydrate diets, adipose tissue may account for up to 40% of whole-body lipogenesis

  11. Methodological challenges in carbohydrate analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Hall

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates can provide up to 80% of the dry matter in animal diets, yet their specific evaluation for research and diet formulation is only now becoming a focus in the animal sciences. Partitioning of dietary carbohydrates for nutritional purposes should reflect differences in digestion and fermentation characteristics and effects on animal performance. Key challenges to designating nutritionally important carbohydrate fractions include classifying the carbohydrates in terms of nutritional characteristics, and selecting analytical methods that describe the desired fraction. The relative lack of information on digestion characteristics of various carbohydrates and their interactions with other fractions in diets means that fractions will not soon be perfectly established. Developing a system of carbohydrate analysis that could be used across animal species could enhance the utility of analyses and amount of data we can obtain on dietary effects of carbohydrates. Based on quantities present in diets and apparent effects on animal performance, some nutritionally important classes of carbohydrates that may be valuable to measure include sugars, starch, fructans, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber. Essential to selection of methods for these fractions is agreement on precisely what carbohydrates should be included in each. Each of these fractions has analyses that could potentially be used to measure them, but most of the available methods have weaknesses that must be evaluated to see if they are fatal and the assay is unusable, or if the assay still may be made workable. Factors we must consider as we seek to analyze carbohydrates to describe diets: Does the assay accurately measure the desired fraction? Is the assay for research, regulatory, or field use (affects considerations of acceptable costs and throughput? What are acceptable accuracy and variability of measures? Is the assay robust (enhances accuracy of values? For some carbohydrates, we

  12. Decarbonylation and dehydrogenation of carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mark A.; Klaeren, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    Carbohydrates, especially aldose or ketose sugars, including those whose carbonyl group is masked by hemi-acetal or hemi-ketal formation, are decarbonylated by heating the feed carbohydrate together with a transition metal complex in a suitable solvent. Also, primary alcohols, including sugar alditols are simultaneously dehydrogenated and decarbonylated by heating a mixture of rhodium and ruthenium complexes and the alcohol and optionally a hydrogen acceptor in an acceptable solvent. Such defarbonylation and/or dehydrogenation of sugars provides a convenient procedure for the synthesis of certain carbohydrates and may provide a means for the conversion of biomass into useful products.

  13. Curcumin improves alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chang; Ma, Jingfan; Zhong, Qionghong; Zhao, Mengyuan; Hu, Tianxing; Chen, Tong; Qiu, Longxin; Wen, Longping

    2017-08-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is a threat to human health. It has been long known that abstinence from alcohol is the most effective therapy, other effective therapies are not available for the treatment in humans. Curcumin has a great potential for anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, but the effect on metabolic reconstruction remains little known. Here we performed metabolomic analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and explored ethanol pathogenic insight as well as curcumin action pattern. We identified seventy-one metabolites in mouse liver. Carbohydrates and lipids were characteristic categories. Pathway analysis results revealed that ethanol-induced pathways including biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis and pentose and glucuronate interconversions were suppressed by curcumin. Additionally, ethanol enhanced galactose metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and pyruvate metabolism were inhibited in mice fed ethanol diet plus curcumin. Stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were disease biomarkers and therapical biomarkers. These results reflect the landscape of hepatic metabolism regulation. Our findings illustrate ethanol pathological pathway and metabolic mechanism of curcumin therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Facultative thermogenesis induced by carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Christensen, N J

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the obligatory thermogenesis due to processing and storage, carbohydrate ingestion is accompanied by a facultative thermogenesis mediated by catecholamines via beta-adrenoceptors. The anatomical origin of facultative thermogenesis has hitherto not been determined. The possible...

  15. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  16. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plans and Diabetes Diabetes Center Weight and Diabetes Eating Out When Your Child Has Diabetes Carbohydrates and Sugar Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? Eating Out When You Have Diabetes Meal Plans: What Kids ...

  17. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  18. Racemic carbohydrates - fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senning, Alexander Erich Eugen

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Abstracts Service has developed unsound practices in the naming and handling of simple carbohydrates such as aldopentoses 1, aldohexoses 2, and ketohexoses 3. Typically, the common name glucose is sometimes, inappropriately, interpreted as meaning DL-glucose DL-2d. Thus, a considerable...... number of CA names and registry numbers have been created for non-existing racemic carbohydrates and linked to irrelevant references which, moreover, in many cases cannot be retrieved by the SciFinder Scholar program....

  19. Validation of lignocellulosic biomass carbohydrates determination via acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengfei; Runge, Troy M

    2014-11-04

    This work studied the two-step acid hydrolysis for determining carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass. Estimation of sugar loss based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards or analysis of sugar derivatives was investigated. Four model substrates (starch, holocellulose, filter paper and cotton) and three levels of acid/material ratios (7.8, 10.3 and 15.4, v/w) were studied to demonstrate the range of test artifacts. The method for carbohydrates estimation based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards having the most satisfactory carbohydrate recovery and relative standard deviation. Raw material and the acid/material ratio both had significant effect on carbohydrate hydrolysis, suggesting the acid to have impacts beyond a catalyst in the hydrolysis. Following optimal procedures, we were able to reach a carbohydrate recovery of 96% with a relative standard deviation less than 3%. The carbohydrates recovery lower than 100% was likely due to the incomplete hydrolysis of substrates, which was supported by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fatty Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, A.; Digiovandomenico, V.; Digiovandomenico, E.; Genovesi, N.; Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report their experience with the combined use of US and CT in the study of diffuse and subtotal fatty infiltration of the liver. An apparent disagreement was initially found between the two examinations in the study of fatty infiltration. Fifty-five patients were studied with US and CT of the upper abdomen, as suggested by clinics. US showed normal liver echogenicity in 30 patients and diffuse increased echogenicity (bright liver) in 25 cases. In 5 patients with bright liver, US demonstrated a solitary hypoechoic area, appearing as a 'skip area', in the quadrate lobe. In 2 patients with bright liver, the hypoechoic area was seen in the right lobe and exhibited no typical US features of 'Skip area'. Bright liver was quantified by measuring CT density of both liver and spleen. The relative attenuation values of spleen and liver were compared on plain and enhanced CT scans. In 5 cases with a hypoechoic area in the right lobe, CT findings were suggestive of hemangioma. A good correlation was found between broght liver and CT attenuation values, which decrease with increasing fat content of the liver. Moreover, CT attenuation values confirmed US findings in the study of typical 'skip area', by demonstrating normal density - which suggests that CT can characterize normal tissue in atypical 'skip area'

  1. Complexes of natural carbohydrates with metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, Yurii E; Garnovskii, Alexander D; Zhdanov, Yu A

    1998-01-01

    Data on the interaction of natural carbohydrates (mono-, oligo-, and poly-saccharides, amino sugars, and natural organic acids of carbohydrate origin) with metal cations are surveyed and described systematically. The structural diversity of carbohydrate metal complexes, caused by some specific features of carbohydrates as ligands, is demonstrated. The influence of complex formation on the chemical properties of carbohydrates is discussed. It is shown that the formation of metal complexes plays an important role in the configurational and conformational analysis of carbohydrates. The practical significance of the coordination interaction in the series of carbohydrate ligands is demonstrated. The bibliography includes 571 references.

  2. Does caffeine alter muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Terry E; Battram, Danielle S; Dela, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, has been studied for decades as a putative ergogenic aid. In the past 2 decades, the information has overwhelmingly demonstrated that it indeed is a powerful ergogenic aid, and frequently theories have been proposed that this is due to alterations in fat...... and carbohydrate metabolism. While caffeine certainly mobilizes fatty acids from adipose tissue, rarely have measures of the respiratory exchange ratio indicated an increase in fat oxidation. However, this is a difficult measure to perform accurately during exercise, and small changes could be physiologically...... and increased (p caffeine were to increase (p caffeine has ergogenic effects as a result of enhanced fat oxidation...

  3. Seasonal dynamics and age of stemwood nonstructural carbohydrates in temperate forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Richardson; Mariah S. Carbone; Trevor F. Keenan; Claudia I. Czimczik; David Y. Hollinger; Paula Murakami; Paul G. Schaberg; Xiaomei. Xu

    2013-01-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrate reserves support tree metabolism and growth when current photosynthates are insufficient, offering resilience in times of stress. We monitored stemwood nonstructural carbohydrate (starch and sugars) concentrations of the dominant tree species at three sites in the northeastern United States. We estimated the mean age of the starch and sugars...

  4. Radiorespirometric study of carbohydrate metabolism in childhood liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DaCosta, H.; Shreeve, W.W.; Merchant, S.

    1976-01-01

    The need for a suitable parameter to evaluate patients with chronic liver disease has been felt for some time, especially in order to judge the response to surgical shunts and the influence of certain drugs and diets on the liver. Since the liver is a major organ for carbohydrate metabolism, it was decided to analyze the in vivo oxidation of such substrates as glucose and galactose labeled with 14 C. Moderately advanced ''Indian childhood cirrhosis'' and idiopathic fatty hepatic infiltration were selected to represent diffuse chronic liver disease. Oral administration of 14 C-U-glucose or 14 C-1-galactose was followed by analyses of 14 CO 2 in breath by liquid scintillation counting. Conversion of 14 C-glucose to 14 CO 2 was accelerated by both diseases. On the other hand, oxidation of 14 C-galactose was slowed in fatty infiltration and was markedly subnormal in Indian childhood cirrhosis

  5. CARBOHYDRATE MALABSORPTION SYNDROME IN CHILDREN WITH VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Meskina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteric viruses (mainly rotaviruses are the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in infants. One  of the  pathophysiologic mechanisms in rotaviral gastroenteritis is the  reduction of the  surface  activity of enterocyte disaccharidases  and  osmotic  diarrhea. Aim: To determine the clinical significance of metabolic activity of intestinal microbiota in the formation of the osmotic component of viral diarrhea in children of various ages. Materials and methods: The study involved 139 children aged  from 1 month  to 14 years admitted to the hospital in the first 24 to 72 hours of moderate-degree  viral gastroenteritis.  Rotaviral infection was the most prevalent  (90%. Viral etiology was confirmed  by the  reaction  of indirect hemagglutination and multiplex real-time PCR (in feces. Total carbohydrate content in the feces was measured and fecal microflora was investigated by two methods: bacteriological and gas liquid chromatography with the determination of short-chain fatty acids. Results: The mean carbohydrate content in the feces of children below 1.5 years of age was higher than  that  in older children (p = 0.014. There was an inverse correlation between the concentration of rotaviral antigens  and carbohydrate   contents (r = -0,43, p < 0.05 and the production of acetic and propionic acids (R = -0,35, p < 0.01. The carbohydrate content in acute stage of the disease was linearly associated with time to normalization of the stool (r = +0,47, p < 0.01. Previous acute  respiratory or intestinal  infections within 2 months (odds ratio [OR], 14.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.86–51.53, previous  hospitalizations  (OR = 14.17; 95% CI 2.74–74.32 and  past  history of intestinal dysfunction (OR 5.68; 95% CI 1.67–19.76 were predictive of severe  carbohydrate malabsorption in children below 1.5 years of age. Conclusion: The lack of microbiota functional activity (assessed by production of short

  6. Carbohydrate digestion in Lutzomyia longipalpis' larvae (Diptera - Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Vladimir F; Moreira, Bruno H; Moraes, Caroline S; Pereira, Marcos H; Genta, Fernando A; Gontijo, Nelder F

    2012-10-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the principal species of phlebotomine incriminated as vector of Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. Despite its importance as vector, almost nothing related to the larval biology, especially about its digestive system has been published. The objective of the present study was to obtain an overview of carbohydrate digestion by the larvae. Taking in account that phlebotomine larvae live in the soil rich in decaying materials and microorganisms we searched principally for enzymes capable to hydrolyze carbohydrates present in this kind of substrate. The principal carbohydrases encountered in the midgut were partially characterized. One of them is a α-amylase present in the anterior midgut. It is probably involved with the digestion of glycogen, the reserve carbohydrate of fungi. Two other especially active enzymes were present in the posterior midgut, a membrane bound α-glucosidase and a membrane bound trehalase. The first, complete the digestion of glycogen and the other probably acts in the digestion of trehalose, a carbohydrate usually encountered in microorganisms undergoing hydric stress. In a screening done with the use of p-nitrophenyl-derived substrates other less active enzymes were also observed in the midgut. A general view of carbohydrate digestion in L. longipalpis was presented. Our results indicate that soil microorganisms appear to be the main source of nutrients for the larvae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiolysis of carbohydrates and of carbohydrate-containing foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.; Adam, S.; Delincee, H.; Jakubick, V.

    1978-01-01

    Toxicological evaluation of irradiated foodstuffs requires knowledge of radiation-induced chemical changes. A review of the literature reveals much information on the radiation chemistry of pure substances, e.g., dilute solutions of individual carbohydrates. Much less is known about the interactions of food constituents during irradiation. In an effort to remedy this situation, radiation effects on various compounds have been studied in systems of increasing complexity. In one approach, gas chromatography was used to investigate the radiolysis of tehalose in pure solution and in the presence of amino acids or proteins. In another approach, radiation-induced aggregation of proteins and of [ 14 C]tryptophan with proteins was studied in the absence and presence of carbohydrates (trehalose, starch), emulsified sunfower oil, and a mixture of carbohydrates and emulsified sunflower oil

  8. Influence of various carbohydrate sources on postprandial glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations in obese cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Ueda, K; Lee, P; Oda, H; Ishioka, K; Sako, T

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate is an important source of energy, which can significantly affect postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels in cats. In healthy animals, this is not a big concern; however, in obese and diabetic animals, this is an important detail. In the present study, the impact of four different carbohydrate sources (glucose, maltose, corn starch, and trehalose) on short-term post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations was investigated with four obese cats. Each of the carbohydrate sources was added to a commercial wet food diet for feeding the animals. A significant difference was observed in postprandial glucose, insulin, and NEFA area under the curve (AUC) values between each carbohydrate source in obese cats. Furthermore, glucose and maltose induced the highest postprandial glucose and insulin AUC values, whereas trehalose induced the lowest postprandial glucose and insulin AUC value amongst all carbohydrate sources, respectively, in obese cats. However, trehalose has a higher risk of inducing side effects, such as diarrhea, as compared to other carbohydrate sources. As such, different carbohydrate sources appear to have a very significant impact on post-prandial glycemia and subsequent insulin requirement levels in obese cats. These results might be useful when selecting a prescription diet for obese or diabetic cats. In addition, maltose appears to be capable of inducing experimentally evoked postprandial hyperglycemia in obese cats, which may serve as a good tool for use to check the impact and effectiveness of newly developed oral hypoglycemic drugs or supplements for cats in future experiments.

  9. Association between rice, bread, and noodle intake and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Japanese middle-aged men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Ryoko; Kimura, Takeshi; Enomoto, Ayaka; Yanoshita, Kaede; Saito, Aki; Kobayashi, Satomi; Masuda, Katsunori; Iida, Kaoruko

    2017-12-01

    Prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through lifestyle modification is an important public health issue. Carbohydrate intake from soft drinks has received particular interest. Owing to differences in dietary habits, however, major contributors to the intake of dietary carbohydrates, such as rice, bread, and noodles, might have more influence on NAFLD prevalence in East Asian countries than consumption of soft drinks. We examined the relationship of the intake of rice, bread, and noodles, as well as overall carbohydrate intake, with NAFLD prevalence in middle-aged Japanese. This is a cross-sectional study of 977 men and 1467 women aged 40-69 y. Dietary information was obtained using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on the following criteria: presence of steatosis on abdominal ultrasound, alcohol intake Consumption of carbohydrates and rice was positively associated with NAFLD prevalence in middle-aged Japanese women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  11. Aminooxylated Carbohydrates: Synthesis and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Carlo; Daskhan, Gour Chand; Fiore, Michele; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Roy, René; Renaudet, Olivier

    2017-08-09

    Among other classes of biomolecules, carbohydrates and glycoconjugates are widely involved in numerous biological functions. In addition to addressing the related synthetic challenges, glycochemists have invested intense efforts in providing access to structures that can be used to study, activate, or inhibit these biological processes. Over the past few decades, aminooxylated carbohydrates have been found to be key building blocks for achieving these goals. This review provides the first in-depth overview covering several aspects related to the syntheses and applications of aminooxylated carbohydrates. After a brief introduction to oxime bonds and their relative stabilities compared to related C═N functions, synthetic aspects of oxime ligation and methodologies for introducing the aminooxy functionality onto both glycofuranosyls and glycopyranosyls are described. The subsequent section focuses on biological applications involving aminooxylated carbohydrates as components for the construcion of diverse architectures. Mimetics of natural structures represent useful tools for better understanding the features that drive carbohydrate-receptor interaction, their biological output and they also represent interesting structures with improved stability and tunable properties. In the next section, multivalent structures such as glycoclusters and glycodendrimers obtained through oxime ligation are described in terms of synthetic design and their biological applications such as immunomodulators. The second-to-last section discusses miscellaneous applications of oxime-based glycoconjugates, such as enantioselective catalysis and glycosylated oligonucleotides, and conclusions and perspectives are provided in the last section.

  12. Elevated body mass index and fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marović Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obesity and overweight, expressed by elevated Body Mass Index (BMI, result from excessive consumption of fatty food and carbohydrates above the body needs. The fat from the blood, through free fatty acids, is taken directly into the liver. Objective The aim of this study was to examine correlation among the accepted ultrasonography findings of the fatty liver and the normal ultrasonography findings and the elevated average level of BMI and those with normal BMI in examinees in one investigation. All was done aimed at proving that the BMI is one of the direct factors of the increased occurence of fatty liver. METHOD The method of the investigation consisted of anthropometric measuring of height and weight on the basis of which there were established BMI values. Consequently, the examinees were divided in two groups: one with normal BMI (under 24.9 kg/m2 and the other with increased BMI (over 25 kg/m2. Fatty liver was diagnosed when the liver of the examinees was observed by ultrasonography. Thus there were given subgroups of the examinees, one with the findings of fatty liver and the second with a normal finding, without changes. After that, the obtained results were statistically analysed. Results It was found that the average level of BMI in the examinees was by two units higher in the subgroup with ultrasonography findings of fatty liver than the average value of BMI in the subgroup with the normal ultrasonography findings of the liver. The difference was tested by the Student's t-test and a significant difference was found. The difference in frequencies of the appearance of the finding of fatty liver in the subgroups was tested by χ2-test. A statistically significant difference was found in frequencies of the appearance of fatty liver in the subgroup with the increased value of BMI. Conclusion The increased BMI, which is represented by overweight and obesity, is one of the direct risk factors which cause fatty liver, checked by

  13. ω-3 Fatty acids reverse lipotoxity through induction of autophagy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Xu, Chengfu; Yan, Tianlian; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ω-3 fatty acids on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease concerning hepatocyte lipid accumulation as well as apoptosis induced by free fatty acids (FFAs) and to explore the underlying mechanism involving autophagy. Hepatocytes were incubated with a mixture of free fatty acids (FFAs) to mimic in vitro lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, presented by lipid accumulation and cellular apoptosis. Chemical inhibitor or inducer of autophagy and genetic deficit cells, as well as ω-3 fatty acids were used as intervention. The autophagic role of ω-3 fatty acids was investigated using Western blot and immunofluorescence. The underlying mechanism of ω-3 fatty acids involving autophagy was preliminarily explored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. FFAs induce lipid accumulation and apoptosis in hepatocytes. Inhibition or genetic defect of autophagy increases lipid accumulation induced by FFA, whereas induction acts inversely. ω-3 Fatty acids reduced lipid accumulation and inhibited apoptosis induced by FFA. ω-3 Fatty acids induced autophagy by downregulating stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression in hepatocytes. ω-3 Fatty acids exert protective effects on hepatocytes against lipotoxicity through induction of autophagy, as demonstrated by inhibition of lipid accumulation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of feeding a carbohydrate-free diet on the growth and metabolism of preruminant kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, S; Kameoka, K

    1976-07-01

    1. Experiments were done using 8-d-old kids to determine the metabolic effect of feeding a carbohydrate-free diet, and the effects of supplementation of this diet with a small amount of glycerol, sodium propionate or glucose. 2. The experimental (carbohydrate-deficient) diets permitted growth nearly equal to that with the control diet (cow's milk). The kids given the experimental diets generally had lower levels of blood glucose than those given the control diet. 3. With all experimental diets there were increases in the concentrations of plasma lipid and total liver lipid and a decrease in the concentration of liver glycogen; supplementation of the carbohydrate-free diet with glycerol, sodium propionate or glucose had no additional effect on these values. 4. The ingestion of cow's milk produced hyperglycaemia 2 h after feeding, while in kids given the carbohydrate-free diet there was no increase in blood glucose level. The concentration of plasma free fatty acids in the kids given the carbohydrate-free diet was higher than that in control animals 24 h after feeding, suggesting that the kids given the experimental diet preferentially utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.

  15. Interactions of polyphenols with carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobek, Lidija

    2015-05-15

    Polyphenols are secondary metabolites in plants, investigated intensively because of their potential positive effects on human health. Their bioavailability and mechanism of positive effects have been studied, in vitro and in vivo. Lately, a high number of studies takes into account the interactions of polyphenols with compounds present in foods, like carbohydrates, proteins or lipids, because these food constituents can have significant effects on the activity of phenolic compounds. This paper reviews the interactions between phenolic compounds and lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and their impact on polyphenol activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    for the understanding of glycosylation in cancer. For anti-viral therapy in AIDS, inhibitors of glycosylation enzymes are very promising as their mode of action may preclude evolvement of resistent HIV substrains, which seems to be a common problem with the reverse transcriptase inhibitors presently used. Successful...... therapy with glycosylation enzyme inhibitors will, however, require the development of more specific and less toxic compounds. If carbohydrate antigens can elicit a neutralizing immune response in vivo, the possibility exists that carbohydrate neoantigens can be utilized in the construction of a vaccine...

  17. Carbohydrate inhibitors of cholera toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vajinder; Turnbull, W Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Cholera is a diarrheal disease caused by a protein toxin released by Vibrio cholera in the host's intestine. The toxin enters intestinal epithelial cells after binding to specific carbohydrates on the cell surface. Over recent years, considerable effort has been invested in developing inhibitors of toxin adhesion that mimic the carbohydrate ligand, with particular emphasis on exploiting the multivalency of the toxin to enhance activity. In this review we introduce the structural features of the toxin that have guided the design of diverse inhibitors and summarise recent developments in the field.

  18. Effects of dietary carbohydrates sources on lipids compositions in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifang; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Yao, Chunfeng; Li, Huitao

    2009-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm ± 0.09 mm; initial weight: 3.42 g ± 0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly ( P starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly ( P starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly ( P starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.

  19. Fatty acid detection during food consumption and digestion: Associations with ingestive behavior and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jessica E; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Keast, Russell S J

    2011-07-01

    The inability of humans to adequately regulate fat consumption is a salient contributor to the development of obesity. The macronutrients, fat, protein and carbohydrate, within foods are detected at various stages of consumption, during which their digestive products, fatty acids, amino acids and sugars, interact with chemosensory cells within the oral epithelium (taste receptor cells) and gastrointestinal (GI) tract (enteroendocrine cells). This chemoreception initiates functional responses, including taste perception, peptide secretion and alterations in GI motility, that play an important role in liking of food, appetite regulation and satiety. This review will summarize the available evidence relating to the oral and GI regulation of fat intake and how chemoreception at both locations is associated with digestive behavior, satiety and weight regulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by dietary carbohydrate levels and lipid sources in gilthead sea bream juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Firmino-Diógenes, Alexandre; Larroquet, Laurence; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-07-01

    The long-term effects on growth performance, body composition, plasma metabolites, liver and intestine glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed in gilthead sea bream juveniles fed diets without carbohydrates (CH-) or carbohydrate-enriched (20 % gelatinised starch, CH+) combined with two lipid sources (fish oil; or vegetable oil (VO)). No differences in growth performance among treatments were observed. Carbohydrate intake was associated with increased hepatic transcripts of glucokinase but not of 6-phosphofructokinase. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was down-regulated by carbohydrate intake, whereas, unexpectedly, glucose 6-phosphatase was up-regulated. Lipogenic enzyme activities (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase) and ∆6 fatty acyl desaturase (FADS2) transcripts were increased in liver of fish fed CH+ diets, supporting an enhanced potential for lipogenesis and long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. Despite the lower hepatic cholesterol content in CH+ groups, no influence on the expression of genes related to cholesterol efflux (ATP-binding cassette G5) and biosynthesis (lanosterol 14 α-demethylase, cytochrome P450 51 cytochrome P450 51 (CYP51A1); 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase) was recorded at the hepatic level. At the intestinal level, however, induction of CYP51A1 transcripts by carbohydrate intake was recorded. Dietary VO led to decreased plasma phospholipid and cholesterol concentrations but not on the transcripts of proteins involved in phospholipid biosynthesis (glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) and cholesterol metabolism at intestinal and hepatic levels. Hepatic and muscular fatty acid profiles reflected that of diets, despite the up-regulation of FADS2 transcripts. Overall, this study demonstrated that dietary carbohydrates mainly affected carbohydrate metabolism, lipogenesis and LC-PUFA biosynthesis, whereas effects of dietary lipid source were mostly related with tissue fatty acid composition

  1. Some seasonal carbohydrate fluctuations in coppiced rootstocks of Platanus occidentalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, M.R.; Steinbeck, K.

    Carbohydrate concentrations were determined in 11-year-old rootstocks of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) which had been coppiced on one- or two-year rotations for the preceding eight years. Sixty rootstocks were destructively sampled periodically between September 1976 and April 1977. Root starch concentrations declined erratically from 21 percent of dry weight in autumn to 14 percent by late April. Sugar levels rose from 1.5 percent in autumn to 5 percent in winter and declined to 3 percent in spring. Considerable variation in root starch levels from tree to tree was observed, and differences in starch and sugar concentrations between rootstocks coppiced on an annual or biannual basis were unimportant. These data suggest that while differences in above-ground biomass yields encountered in short rotation coppice forestry are not due to differences in rootstocks carbohydrate concentrations, the total quantity of reserve carbohydrate stored in a root system is probably a controlling factor for sprout regrowth potential.

  2. Separation of carbohydrates using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Liang, Tu; Li, Zhenyu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Ke, Yanxiong; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2013-09-20

    A strategy was developed to rapidly evaluate chromatographic properties of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) columns for separating carbohydrates. Seven HILIC columns (Silica, Diol, TSK Amide-80, XAmide, Click Maltose, Click β-CD, and Click TE-Cys columns) were evaluated by using three monosaccharide and seven disaccharides as probes. The influence of column temperature on the peak shape and tautomerization of carbohydrates, as well as column selectivity were investigated. The influence of surface charge property on the retention was also studied by using glucose, glucuronic acid, and glucosamine, which indicated that buffer salt concentration and pH value in mobile phase was necessary to control the ionic interactions between ionic carbohydrates and HILIC columns. According to evaluation results, the XAmide column was selected as an example to establish experimental schemes for separation of complex mixtures of oligosaccharide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Triglycerides, fatty acids, sterols, mono- and disaccharides and sugar alcohols in human milk and current types of infant formula milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; vanBeusekom, CM; Nijeboer, HJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    Objective: To investigate differences in the fatty acid composition, sterols, minor carbohydrates and sugar alcohols between human and formula milk. Design: We analyzed the concentrations of triglycerides, sterols, di- and monosaccharides and sugar alcohols, as well as the fatty acid composition of

  4. Carbohydrate-Aromatic Interactions in Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kieran L; Bartlett, Gail J; Diehl, Roger C; Agirre, Jon; Gallagher, Timothy; Kiessling, Laura L; Woolfson, Derek N

    2015-12-09

    Protein-carbohydrate interactions play pivotal roles in health and disease. However, defining and manipulating these interactions has been hindered by an incomplete understanding of the underlying fundamental forces. To elucidate common and discriminating features in carbohydrate recognition, we have analyzed quantitatively X-ray crystal structures of proteins with noncovalently bound carbohydrates. Within the carbohydrate-binding pockets, aliphatic hydrophobic residues are disfavored, whereas aromatic side chains are enriched. The greatest preference is for tryptophan with an increased prevalence of 9-fold. Variations in the spatial orientation of amino acids around different monosaccharides indicate specific carbohydrate C-H bonds interact preferentially with aromatic residues. These preferences are consistent with the electronic properties of both the carbohydrate C-H bonds and the aromatic residues. Those carbohydrates that present patches of electropositive saccharide C-H bonds engage more often in CH-π interactions involving electron-rich aromatic partners. These electronic effects are also manifested when carbohydrate-aromatic interactions are monitored in solution: NMR analysis indicates that indole favorably binds to electron-poor C-H bonds of model carbohydrates, and a clear linear free energy relationships with substituted indoles supports the importance of complementary electronic effects in driving protein-carbohydrate interactions. Together, our data indicate that electrostatic and electronic complementarity between carbohydrates and aromatic residues play key roles in driving protein-carbohydrate complexation. Moreover, these weak noncovalent interactions influence which saccharide residues bind to proteins, and how they are positioned within carbohydrate-binding sites.

  5. Lignocentric analysis of a carbohydrate-producing lignocellulosic biorefinery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narron, Robert H; Han, Qiang; Park, Sunkyu; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan

    2017-10-01

    A biologically-based lignocellulosic biorefinery process for obtaining carbohydrates from raw biomass was investigated across six diverse biomasses (three hardwoods & three nonwoods) for the purpose of decoding lignin's influence on sugar production. Acknowledging that lignin could positively alter the economics of an entire process if valorized appropriately, we sought to correlate the chemical properties of lignin within the process to the traditional metrics associated with carbohydrate production-cellulolytic digestibility and total sugar recovery. Based on raw carbohydrate, enzymatic recovery ranged from 40 to 64% w/w and total recovery ranged from 70 to 87% w/w. Using nitrobenzene oxidation to quantify non-condensed lignin structures, it was found that raw hardwoods bearing increasing non-condensed S/V ratios (2.5-5.1) render increasing total carbohydrate recovery from hardwood biomasses. This finding indicates that the chemical structure of hardwood lignin influences the investigated biorefinery process' ability to generate carbohydrates from a given raw hardwood feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Arne; Meinert Larsen, Thomas; Harper, Angela

    The Atkins diet books have sold more than 45 million copies over 40 years, and in the obesity epidemic this diet and accompanying Atkins food products are popular. The diet claims to be effective at producing weight loss despite ad-libitum consumption of fatty meat, butter, and other high-fat dairy products, restricting only the intake of carbohydrates to under 30 g a day. Low-carbohydrate diets have been regarded as fad diets, but recent research questions this view. A systematic review of low-carbohydrate diets found that the weight loss achieved is associated with the duration of the diet and restriction of energy intake, but not with restriction of carbohydrates. Two groups have reported longer-term randomised studies that compared instruction in the low-carbohydrate diet with a low-fat calorie-reduced diet in obese patients (N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 2082-90; Ann Intern Med 2004; 140: 778-85). Both trials showed better weight loss on the low-carbohydrate diet after 6 months, but no difference after 12 months. WHERE NEXT?: The apparent paradox that ad-libitum intake of high-fat foods produces weight loss might be due to severe restriction of carbohydrate depleting glycogen stores, leading to excretion of bound water, the ketogenic nature of the diet being appetite suppressing, the high protein-content being highly satiating and reducing spontaneous food intake, or limited food choices leading to decreased energy intake. Long-term studies are needed to measure changes in nutritional status and body composition during the low-carbohydrate diet, and to assess fasting and postprandial cardiovascular risk factors and adverse effects. Without that information, low-carbohydrate diets cannot be recommended.

  7. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde...

  8. Dissolved carbohydrate in the central Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhople, V.M.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Seawater samples (161), collected from 8 depths (0 to 1000 m) at 21 stations were analysed for total dissolved carbohydrate. Dissolved carbohydrate concentrations varied from 0.072 to 1.15 mg.l-1. Carbohydrate concentrations did not decrease...

  9. Carbohydrate Microarray on Glass: a Tool for Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Giesbers, M.; Visser, G.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Beek, van T.A.

    2007-01-01

    A simple method to immobilize carbohydrates on a glass surface to obtain a carbohydrate microarray is described. The array was used to study carbohydrate-lectin interactions. The glass surface was modified with aldehyde terminated linker groups of various chain lengths. Coupling of carbohydrates

  10. Cell surface carbohydrates as prognostic markers in human carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Tumour development is usually associated with changes in cell surface carbohydrates. These are often divided into changes related to terminal carbohydrate structures, which include incomplete synthesis and modification of normally existing carbohydrates, and changes in the carbohydrate core struc...

  11. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-01-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion. PMID:27184288

  12. Fat Depots, Free Fatty Acids, and Dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon O. Ebbert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Body fat deposition and excess free fatty acid (FFA metabolism contribute to dyslipidemia and the adverse health consequences of obesity. Individuals with upper body obesity have impaired functioning of adipocytes, the primary fatty acid storage site. Excess visceral fat is strongly associated with impaired suppression of FFA release in response to insulin, as well as with hypertriglyceridemia and low concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol. High FFA concentrations can induce insulin resistance in muscle and liver. Furthermore, failure of hyperinsulinemia to normally suppress FFA is associated with impaired carbohydrate oxidation and muscle glucose storage, reduced hepatic insulin clearance and elevated triglycerides. Understanding the impact of body fat distribution on FFA metabolism and dyslipidemia is critical for determining the link between overweight and obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. In the current review, we will explore the relationship between adipose tissue, body fat depots, and FFA metabolism.

  13. Does prior acute exercise affect postexercise substrate oxidation in response to a high carbohydrate meal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickey Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of a mixed meal increases postprandial carbohydrate utilization and decreases fat oxidation. On the other hand, acute endurance exercise increases fat oxidation and decreases carbohydrate utilization during the post-exercise recovery period. It is possible that the resulting post-exercise increase in circulating nonesterified fatty acids could attenuate the ability of ingested carbohydrate to inhibit lipid oxidation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior exercise attenuates the usual meal-induced decline in lipid oxidation. Methods Six healthy, physically active young subjects (x age = 26.3 years, 4 males, 2 females completed three treatments in random order after a ~10 h fast: (a Exercise/Carbohydrate (Ex/CHO – subjects completed a bout of exercise at 70% VO2peak (targeted net energy cost of 400 kcals, followed by consumption of a carbohydrate-rich meal; (b Exercise/Placebo (Ex/Placebo – subjects completed an identical bout of exercise followed by consumption of a placebo; and (c No Exercise/Carbohydrate (NoEx/CHO – subjects sat quietly rather than exercising and then consumed the carbohydrate-rich meal. Blood samples were obtained before and during the postprandial period to determine plasma glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Respiratory gas exchange measures were used to estimate rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Results Plasma NEFA were approximately two-fold higher immediately following the two exercise conditions compared to the no-exercise condition, while meal consumption significantly increased insulin and glucose in both Ex/CHO and NoEx/CHO. NEFA concentrations fell rapidly during the 2-h postprandial period, but remained higher compared to the NoEx/CHO treatment. Carbohydrate oxidation increased rapidly and fat oxidation decreased in response to the meal, with no differences in the rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation during recovery between the Ex

  14. Hydrophobicity of carbohydrates and related hydroxy compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttersack, Christoph

    2017-06-29

    The hydrophobic interaction of carbohydrates and other hydroxy compounds with a C18-modified silica gel column was measured with pure water as eluent, thereby expanding the range of measurements already published. The interaction is augmented by structure strengthening salts and decreasing temperature. Although the interaction of the solute with the hydrophobic interface is expected to only imperfectly reflect its state in aqueous bulk solution, the retention can be correlated to hydration numbers calculated from molecular mechanics studies given in the literature. No correlation can be established towards published hydration numbers obtained by physical methods (isentropic compressibility, O-17 NMR relaxation, terahertz spectroscopy, and viscosity). The hydrophobicity is discussed with respect to the chemical structure. It increases with the fraction and size of hydrophobic molecular surface regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  16. Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is fatty liver disease? Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Fatty liver disease is a condition in which fat builds up ...

  17. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-30

    Changes of plant cell wall carbohydrate structures occurring during the process to make suitable compost for growth of Agaricus bisporus are unknown. In this paper, composition and carbohydrate structures in compost samples collected during composting and mycelium growth were analyzed. Furthermore, different extracts of compost samples were prepared with water, 1M and 4M alkali and analyzed. At the beginning of composting, 34% and after 16 days of mycelium growth 27% of dry matter was carbohydrates. Carbohydrate composition analysis showed that mainly cellulose and poorly substituted xylan chains with similar amounts and ratios of xylan building blocks were present in all phases studied. Nevertheless, xylan solubility increased 20% over the period of mycelium growth indicating partial degradation of xylan backbone. Apparently, degradation of carbohydrates occurred over the process studied by both bacteria and fungi, mainly having an effect on xylan-chain length and solubility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Serotonin, carbohydrates, and atypical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, S E

    1992-01-01

    At least three categories of atypical depression have been described. The hysteroid dysphoria is characterized by repeated episodes of depressed mood in response to feeling rejected, and a craving for sweets and chocolate. Two other issues are characterized by a cyclical occurrence of changes of mood and appetite, i.e., the late luteal phase dysphoric disorder (DSM-III-R, appendix), or "the premenstrual syndrome" (PMS), and the major depression with seasonal pattern (DSM-III-R), or seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The reactive mood changes are frequently accompanied by features as hypersomnia, lethargy and increased appetite, particularly with a preference for carbohydrates. Central serotonin pathways participate in the regulation of mood and behavioural impulsivity, and modulate eating patterns qualitatively and quantitatively. Depressives with PMS og SAD benefit, in general, from treatments with serotonin potentiating drugs, suggesting that brain serotonin plays a role in the pathophysiology. Ingestion of carbohydrates increases the plasma ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids in man and animal, and the serotonin synthesis in the rat brain. Based on these findings it has been suggested that the excessive carbohydrate intake by patients with PMS and SAD reflects a self-medication that temporarily relieves the vegetative symptoms via an increased central serotonergic activity.

  19. The human small intestinal microbiota is driven by rapid uptake and conversion of simple carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetendal, Erwin G; Raes, Jeroen; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus

    2012-01-01

    samples from a single individual indicated that Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium sp. and high G+C organisms are most abundant in the small intestine. The compositions of these populations fluctuated in time and correlated to the short-chain fatty acids profiles that were determined...... in parallel. Comparative functional analysis with fecal metagenomes identified functions that are overrepresented in the small intestine, including simple carbohydrate transport phosphotransferase systems (PTS), central metabolism and biotin production. Moreover, metatranscriptome analysis supported high...... level in-situ expression of PTS and carbohydrate metabolic genes, especially those belonging to Streptococcus sp. Overall, our findings suggest that rapid uptake and fermentation of available carbohydrates contribute to maintaining the microbiota in the human small intestine....

  20. Dietary carbohydrate and lipid source affect cholesterol metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Larroquet, Laurence; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2015-10-28

    Plant feedstuffs (PF) are rich in carbohydrates, which may interact with lipid metabolism. Thus, when considering dietary replacement of fishery by-products with PF, knowledge is needed on how dietary lipid source (LS) and carbohydrates affect lipid metabolism and other metabolic pathways. For that purpose, a 73-d growth trial was performed with European sea bass juveniles (IBW 74 g) fed four diets differing in LS (fish oil (FO) or a blend of vegetable oils (VO)) and carbohydrate content (0 % (CH-) or 20 % (CH+) gelatinised starch). At the end of the trial no differences among diets were observed on growth and feed utilisation. Protein efficiency ratio was, however, higher in the CH+ groups. Muscle and liver fatty acid profiles reflected the dietary LS. Dietary carbohydrate promoted higher plasma cholesterol and phospholipids (PL), whole-body and hepatic (mainly 16 : 0) lipids and increased muscular and hepatic glycogen. Except for PL, which were higher in the FO groups, no major alterations between FO and VO groups were observed on plasma metabolites (glucose, TAG, cholesterol, PL), liver and muscle glycogen, and lipid and cholesterol contents. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme - lipogenesis-related enzymes - increased with carbohydrate intake. Hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was up-regulated with carbohydrate (HMGCR and CYP3A27) and VO (HMGCR and CYP51A1) intake. No dietary regulation of long-chain PUFA biosynthesis at the transcriptional level was observed. Overall, very few interactions between dietary carbohydrates and LS were observed. However, important insights on the direct relation between dietary carbohydrate and the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in European sea bass were demonstrated.

  1. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  3. Effect of partitioning the nonfiber carbohydrate fraction and neutral detergent fiber method on digestibility of carbohydrates by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbe, A W; Faulkner, M J; Weiss, W P

    2017-08-01

    Many nutrition models rely on summative equations to estimate feed and diet energy concentrations. These models partition feed into nutrient fractions and multiply the fractions by their estimated true digestibility, and the digestible mass provided by each fraction is then summed and converted to an energy value. Nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) is used in many models. Although it behaves as a nutritionally uniform fraction, it is a heterogeneous mixture of components. To reduce the heterogeneity, we partitioned NFC into starch and residual organic matter (ROM), which is calculated as 100 - CP - LCFA - ash - starch - NDF, where crude protein (CP), long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), ash, starch, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) are a percentage of DM. However, the true digestibility of ROM is unknown, and because NDF is contaminated with both ash and CP, those components are subtracted twice. The effect of ash and CP contamination of NDF on in vivo digestibility of NDF and ROM was evaluated using data from 2 total-collection digestibility experiments using lactating dairy cows. Digestibility of NDF was greater when it was corrected for ash and CP than without correction. Conversely, ROM apparent digestibility decreased when NDF was corrected for contamination. Although correcting for contamination statistically increased NDF digestibility, the effect was small; the average increase was 3.4%. The decrease in ROM digestibility was 7.4%. True digestibility of ROM is needed to incorporate ROM into summative equations. Data from multiple digestibility experiments (38 diets) using dairy cows were collated, and ROM concentrations were regressed on concentration of digestible ROM (ROM was calculated without adjusting for ash and CP contamination). The estimated true digestibility coefficient of ROM was 0.96 (SE = 0.021), and metabolic fecal ROM was 3.43 g/100 g of dry matter intake (SE = 0.30). Using a smaller data set (7 diets), estimated true digestibility of ROM when calculated

  4. Differential effects of high-carbohydrate and high-fat diets on hepatic lipogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Damiano, Fabrizio; Siculella, Luisa; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic fatty acid synthesis is influenced by several nutritional and hormonal factors. In this study, we have investigated the effects of distinct experimental diets enriched in carbohydrate or in fat on hepatic lipogenesis. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups and fed distinct experimental diets enriched in carbohydrates (70% w/w) or in fat (20 and 35% w/w). Activity and expression of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase were analyzed through the study with assessments at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Liver lipids and plasma levels of lipids, glucose, and insulin were assayed in parallel. Whereas the high-carbohydrate diet moderately stimulated hepatic lipogenesis, a strong inhibition of this anabolic pathway was found in animals fed high-fat diets. This inhibition was time-dependent and concentration-dependent. Moreover, whereas the high-carbohydrate diet induced an increase in plasma triglycerides, the high-fat diets determined an accumulation of triglycerides in liver. An increase in the plasmatic levels of glucose and insulin was observed in all cases. The excess of sucrose in the diet is converted into fat that is distributed by bloodstream in the organism in the form of circulating triglycerides. On the other hand, a high amount of dietary fat caused a strong inhibition of lipogenesis and a concomitant increase in the level of hepatic lipids, thereby highlighting, in these conditions, the role of liver as a reservoir of exogenous fat.

  5. The colon in carbohydrate malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtug, K; Clausen, M R; Hove, H

    1992-01-01

    Short-chain (C2-C6) fatty acids (SCFA) are the major anions in colonic contents and the result of anaerobic fermentation of mainly saccharides. The effects and regulation of saccharide fermentation were studied in vitro and in vivo. In vitro faecal incubation was used to study the effects of lact...

  6. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal coupled with carbohydrate production by five microalgae cultures cultivated in biogas slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fen; Wang, Zhi; Zhouyang, Siyu; Li, Heng; Xie, Youping; Wang, Yuanpeng; Zheng, Yanmei; Li, Qingbiao

    2016-12-01

    In this study, five microalgae strains were cultured for their ability to survive in biogas slurry, remove nitrogen resources and accumulate carbohydrates. It was proved that five microalgae strains adapted in biogas slurry well without ammonia inhibition. Among them, Chlorella vulgaris ESP-6 showed the best performance on carbohydrate accumulation, giving the highest carbohydrate content of 61.5% in biogas slurry and the highest ammonia removal efficiency and rate of 96.3% and 91.7mg/L/d respectively in biogas slurry with phosphorus and magnesium added. Additionally, the absence of phosphorus and magnesium that can be adverse for biomass accumulation resulted in earlier timing of carbohydrate accumulation and magnesium was firstly recognized and proved as the influence factor for carbohydrate accumulation. Microalgae that cultured in biogas slurry accumulated more carbohydrate in cell, making biogas slurry more suitable medium for the improvement of carbohydrate content, thus can be regarded as a new strategy to accumulate carbohydrate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbohydrate intake and insulin requirement in children, adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: A multicenter comparison to type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuing, Nicole; Thon, Angelika; Konrad, Katja; Bauer, Maria; Karsten, Claudia; Meissner, Thomas; Seufert, Jochen; Schönau, Eckhard; Schöfl, Christof; Woelfle, Joachim; Holl, Reinhard W

    2015-08-01

    In cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD), energy needs differ from type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes, and endogenous insulin secretion is not totally absent. We analyzed whether daily carbohydrate intake, its diurnal distribution and insulin requirement per 11 g of carbohydrate differ between CFRD and T1D. Anonymized data of 223 CFRD and 36,780 T1D patients aged from 10 to Carbohydrate intake and insulin requirement were analyzed using multivariable regression modeling with adjustment for age and sex. Moreover, carbohydrate intake was compared to the respective recommendations (CFRD: energy intake 130% of general population with 45% carbohydrates; T1D: carbohydrate intake 50% of total energy). After demographic adjustment, carbohydrate intake (238 ± 4 vs. 191 ± 1 g/d, p carbohydrate (1.15 ± 0.06 vs. 1.70 ± 0.01 IU/d, p carbohydrate intake and T1D patients 60% [51; 71] of age- and gender-specific recommended intake (p carbohydrate intake below healthy peers (79% [58; 100] and 62% [52; 74], p carbohydrates was comparable between groups. In pediatric and young adult patients, carbohydrate intake and insulin requirement differ clearly between CFRD and T1D. However, both CFRD and T1D patients seem to restrict carbohydrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Total n-3 fatty acid and SFA intakes in relation to insulin resistance in a Canadian First Nation at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Catherine; Propsting, Sarah L; Daniel, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The present study sought to investigate the associations of total n-3 fatty acid and SFA intakes with insulin resistance in a Canadian First Nation sample at risk for type 2 diabetes. Fasting values for glucose and insulin were used to estimate insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Intakes of n-3 fatty acids and SFA were computed from dietary food and drink data obtained using 3 d food records. Associations between HOMA-IR and dietary n-3 and SFA consumption were tested using linear regression models accounting for age, sex, community, education, physical activity, waist circumference, fibre, protein and carbohydrate intakes, and HDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations. Rural Okanagan region of British Columbia, Canada. On-reserve First Nation individuals (Interior Salishan) aged 18 years and over, recruited for community-based diabetes screening and determined to be normoglycaemic (n 126). HOMA-IR was negatively associated with dietary n-3 fatty acid intake (β = -0·22; 95 % CI -0·39, -0·04; P = 0·016) and positively associated with dietary SFA intake (β = 0·34; 95 % CI 0·15, 0·53; P = 0·0 0 1). Intake of dietary n-3 fatty acids may be protective against whereas SFA intake may promote insulin resistance in this high-risk Canadian First Nation sample. Reduced dietary SFA intake and greater n-3 fatty acid intake may assist the prevention of glycaemic disease among First Nations peoples. More rigorous, controlled trials are required to test whether dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in natural or supplement-based form might reduce diabetes risk in high-risk aboriginal groups.

  9. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Adronie; Hesta, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus. PMID:29140289

  10. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adronie Verbrugghe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  11. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Adronie; Hesta, Myriam

    2017-11-15

    The domestic cat's wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat's metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat's health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  12. A systematic study of chemogenomics of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiangyong; Luo, Fang; Chen, Lirong; Yuan, Gu; Xu, Xiaojie

    2014-03-04

    Chemogenomics focuses on the interactions between biologically active molecules and protein targets for drug discovery. Carbohydrates are the most abundant compounds in natural products. Compared with other drugs, the carbohydrate drugs show weaker side effects. Searching for multi-target carbohydrate drugs can be regarded as a solution to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. In this work, we collected 60 344 carbohydrates from the Universal Natural Products Database (UNPD) and explored the chemical space of carbohydrates by principal component analysis. We found that there is a large quantity of potential lead compounds among carbohydrates. Then we explored the potential of carbohydrates in drug discovery by using a network-based multi-target computational approach. All carbohydrates were docked to 2389 target proteins. The most potential carbohydrates for drug discovery and their indications were predicted based on a docking score-weighted prediction model. We also explored the interactions between carbohydrates and target proteins to find the pathological networks, potential drug candidates and new indications.

  13. Structural Characterization and Bacterial Degradation of Marine Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    marine phytoplankton. J. Fish . Res. Bd. Canada 18(6): 1001-1016. Pimenta, P. F. P., S. J. Turco, M. J. McConville, P. G. Lawyer, P. V. Perkins and D. L...and inulin (McIntyre and Vogel, 1991). Other than these examples, however, few chemical shift tables of free reducing neutral carbohydrates, and...are reported to accumulate starch (Lee, 1980), inulin , and 3 possibly laminarin (Painter, 1983) as energy reserves. The appearance of the spectrum is

  14. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whole grains and refined grains. Whole grains are foods like whole wheat bread, brown rice, whole cornmeal, and oatmeal. They offer ... brown-looking bread are not necessarily whole grain breads. Refined grains mean that the food company has removed some of the grain — ...

  15. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... added sugar. These include: Candy Cookies, cakes, and pastries Regular (non-diet) carbonated beverages, such as soda ... quinoa Refined grains, such as those found in pastries, white bread, crackers, and white rice also contain ...

  16. Seasonal carbohydrate dynamics and growth in Douglas-fir trees experiencing chronic, fungal-mediated reduction in functional leaf area

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. J. Saffell; F. C. Meinzer; D. R. Woodruff; D. C. Shaw; S. L. Voelker; B. Lachenbruch; K. Falk

    2014-01-01

    Stored non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) could play an important role in tree survival in the face of a changing climate and associated stress-related mortality. We explored the effects of the stomata-blocking and defoliating fungal disease called Swiss needle cast on Douglas-fir carbohydrate reserves and growth to evaluate the extent to which NSCs can be mobilized...

  17. [Carbohydrates synthesized by the spirulines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillet, M

    1975-01-01

    Carbohydrates roughly constitute 15 p. 100 of the dry matter of Sirulina. They are extracted after complete delipidation, by successive exhaustions: first with ethanol of decreasing title, then with cold water slightly acidified by chlorhydric acid in order to drain out the calcium of the phytate; then by neutral boiling water; at last by alkaline or acidic warm solutions. After neutralization, suitable defecation and concentration, carbohydrates are either purified by a slow cristalization or hydrolyzed and analysed by usual techniques of chromatography on paper or on column of borated resins. Glucose, levulose, sucrose, glycerol and several polyols are so detected. They are in small amounts and of little nutritional interest. There is no trehalose. The carbohydrate storage products are mainly a glucosan and a rhamnosan, both containing glucosamine. There is about 2 p. 100 of the glucosan and 10 p. 100 of the rhamnosan, the composition of which are, in molar ratio: (see text). More or less phosphated cyclitols constitute, together with a small amount of glycogen, the rest of the metabolisable part. The cell-walls which could not be perfectly purified were degraded either by HC1 or by enzymes (pronase, neuraminidase). So have been found glucosamine and muramic acid, associated with peptides rich in glycine, serine, alanine, glutamic acid. These results joined to the presence, formerly signaled, of a rhamnosan, reveal a relationship between Spirulina and some Gram(+) bacteria. It is a fact that the celle-walls of Spirulina actually, though weakly, take the Gram coloration. To conclude, Spirulina presents some alimental interest.

  18. Fatty liver disease induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate: Novel insight from transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai Tse, William Ka; Li, Jing Woei; Kwan Tse, Anna Chung; Chan, Ting Fung; Hin Ho, Jeff Cheuk; Sun Wu, Rudolf Shiu; Chu Wong, Chris Kong; Lai, Keng Po

    2016-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a hepato-toxicant and potential non-genotoxic carcinogen, was widely used in industrial and commercial products. Recent studies have revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of PFOS in the environment and in humans worldwide. The widespread contamination of PFOS in human serum raised concerns about its long-term toxic effects and its potential risks to human health. Using fatty liver mutant foie gras (fgr(-/-))/transport protein particle complex 11 (trappc11(-/-)) and PFOS-exposed wild-type zebrafish embryos as the study model, together with RNA sequencing and comparative transcriptomic analysis, we identified 499 and 1414 differential expressed genes (DEGs) in PFOS-exposed wild-type and trappc11 mutant zebrafish, respectively. Also, the gene ontology analysis on common deregulated genes was found to be associated with different metabolic processes such as the carbohydrate metabolic process, glycerol ether metabolic process, mannose biosynthetic process, de novo' (Guanosine diphosphate) GDP-l-fucose biosynthetic process, GDP-mannose metabolic process and galactose metabolic process. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis further highlighted that these deregulated gene clusters are closely related to hepatitis, inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis of liver cells, suggesting that PFOS can cause liver pathogenesis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in zebrafish. The transcriptomic alterations revealed may serve as biomarkers for the hepatotoxic effect of PFOS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bixin activates PPARα and improves obesity-induced abnormalities of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kato, Sota; Kim, Young-Il; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Taimatsu, Aki; Egawa, Kahori; Kang, Min-Sook; Hiramatsu, Takuro; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Uemura, Taku; Hirai, Shizuka; Kobayashi, Misato; Horio, Fumihiko; Kawada, Teruo

    2012-12-05

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates the expression of the genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. PPARα activators induce fatty acid oxidation in the liver, thereby improving lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in obese mice. In this study, the dietary cis-carotenoids bixin and norbixin, which are commonly used in the food coloring industry, were found to activate PPARα by luciferase reporter assays using GAL4/PPARα chimeric and full-length PPARα systems. Treatment with bixin and norbixin induced the mRNA expression of PPARα target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in PPARα-expressing HepG2 hepatocytes. In obese KK-Ay mice, bixin treatment suppressed the development of hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. In the livers of bixin-treated mice, the mRNA levels of PPARα target genes related to fatty acid oxidation were up-regulated. Moreover, bixin treatment also improved obesity-induced dysfunctions of carbohydrate metabolism, such as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypoadiponectinemia. Glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test revealed that glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in KK-Ay obese mice were attenuated by the treatment with bixin. These results indicate that bixin acts as a food-derived agonist of PPARα, and bixin treatment is useful for the management of obesity-induced metabolic dysfunctions in mice.

  20. Hexachlorophene induced alterations in brain carbohydrate metabolism of Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendra, W; Rao, P V; Suhasini, N; Sailaja, P

    1992-12-01

    Effect of repeated oral administration of hexachlorophene (HCP) on glycolytic and oxidative pathways was studied in the rat brain. The rats were divided into three batches of six in each batch. The first batch was treated with paralytic dose (60 mg.kg-1.day-1) of HCP for 7 days. The second batch of animals was treated with sublethal dose (18 mg.kg-1.day-1) for 7 days. The third batch of animals was served as the age matched controls which received vehicle (corn oil) only. The glycolytic and oxidative metabolism of carbohydrates was significantly inhibited in the brain of rat during HCP treatment and the inhibition was more pronounced in paralytic dose treatment as compared to sublethal dose treatment. The inhibition of NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase coupled with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase indicates reduced generation of NADPH2 and pentoses for the synthesis of fatty acids and nucleotides.

  1. Carbohydrate clearance receptors in transfusion medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    are especially important to enhance size and reduce glomerular filtration loss. Carbohydrates are, however, also ligands for a large number of carbohydrate-binding lectins exposed to the circulatory system that serve as scavenger receptors for the innate immune system, or have more specific roles in targeting......Complex carbohydrates play important functions for circulation of proteins and cells. They provide protective shields and refraction from non-specific interactions with negative charges from sialic acids to enhance circulatory half-life. For recombinant protein therapeutics carbohydrates...

  2. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  3. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P. H.; Pereira Arias, A. M.; Ackermans, M. T.; Endert, E.; Pijl, H.; Kuipers, F.; Meijer, A. J.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  4. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other

  5. Diagnosis of fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Shuichi; Nagamine, Takeaki; Takagi, Hitoshi

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostic values of various ultrasonographic findings were evaluated from fatty infiltration ratio calculated by liver specimens in 42 patients. The ratio of the CT number of liver to those of spleen were also compared with fatty infiltration ratio in 11 patients. Fatty bandless sign one plus (perirenal bright echo between the liver and the right kidney is masked partially) or more and the fatty score 3 (it is calculated by several ultrasonographic findings) and the less than 0.90 of the ratio of CT number of liver to those of spleen were useful for diagnosis of fatty liver, the sensitivity was 100%, 87.5%, 85.7% and the accuracy was 78.1%, 81.8%, 81.8% respectively. It was considered that these criteria were suitable in screening study of fatty liver. (author)

  6. Valorizing guava (Psidium guajava L.) seeds through germination-induced carbohydrate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Cheng Xian; Chang, Ying Ping

    2017-06-01

    Guava seeds are produced as a waste product by the guava processing industry. Their high carbohydrate contents may suit the carbohydrate needs of the feed sector but their high dietary fiber content limits their feed value. The feed values of fruit seeds can be improved through germination, which involves the mobilization of nutrients through seed enzymes and alters the seed carbohydrate composition. The changes of selected carbohydrates in guava ( Psidium guajava L.) seeds brought by germination to those in red bean ( Vigna angularis ) and winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) were compared. The contents of soluble carbohydrates, digestible starch, resistant starch and cellulose in the seeds were determined. The radial diffusion method was used to detect carbohydrate-degrading enzymes in the seed extracts. Guava seeds were rich in cellulose (402.2 mg/g), which decreased progressively during germination, probably through the action of cellulase. Winter wheat contained the highest starch content (412.2 mg/g) and also distinct quantities of α-amylase and cellulase. The starch contents of all the seeds decreased, but the soluble carbohydrate contents in red beans and guava seeds increased significantly by the end of germination, suggesting the transient oversupply of reserve metabolites. The content of hydrolyzed polysaccharides increased in the germinated seeds with detectable amounts of cellulose-degrading enzymes present, indicating improved value as feed. Further research is warranted to explore the potential of guava seeds as a source of low-cost animal feed supplements.

  7. Different allocation of carbohydrates and phenolics in dehydrated leaves of triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hura, Tomasz; Dziurka, Michał; Hura, Katarzyna; Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Dziurka, Kinga

    2016-09-01

    Carbohydrates are used in plant growth processes, osmotic regulation and secondary metabolism. A study of the allocation of carbohydrates to a target set of metabolites during triticale acclimation to soil drought was performed. The study included a semi-dwarf cultivar 'Woltario' and a long-stemmed cultivar 'Moderato', differing in the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus under optimum growth conditions. Differences were found in the quantitative and qualitative composition of individual carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, depending on the developmental stage and water availability. Soluble carbohydrates in the semi-dwarf 'Woltario' cv. under soil drought were utilized for synthesis of starch, soluble phenolic compounds and an accumulation of cell wall carbohydrates. In the typical 'Moderato' cv., soluble carbohydrates were primarily used for the synthesis of phenolic compounds that were then incorporated into cell wall structures. Increased content of cell wall-bound phenolics in 'Moderato' cv. improved the cell wall tightness and reduced the rate of leaf water loss. In 'Woltario' cv., the increase in cell osmotic potential due to an enhanced concentration of carbohydrates and proline was insufficient to slow down the rate of leaf water loss. The mechanism of cell wall tightening in response to leaf desiccation may be the main key in the process of triticale acclimation to soil drought. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of attenuation cross-sections of some fatty acids in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-18

    Jun 18, 2016 ... found to be higher at low energy for carbohydrates and fatty acids as studied by Manohara et al [12]. Manjunathaguru and Umesh [13] computed the electron density (Neff) of amino acids using the new matrix me- thod. Recently, mass attenuation coefficients for a few medicinal plants were measured by ...

  9. Measurement of attenuation cross-sections of some fatty acids in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-18

    Jun 18, 2016 ... Biologically important systems such as carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids and proteins are the building blocks of human body and other living systems. These complex biomolecules are necessary for the body to function and are responsi- ble for various physiological functions inside the living system.

  10. The relation of saturated fatty acids with low-grade inflammation and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Nunez, Begona; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2016-01-01

    The mantra that dietary (saturated) fat must be minimized to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has dominated nutritional guidelines for decades. Parallel to decreasing intakes of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA), there have been increases in carbohydrate and sugar intakes, overweight,

  11. One strike against low-carbohydrate diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is intense controversy over whether low-carbohydrate or low-fat diets are more efficacious for weight management. Using precise methodology, Hall et al. (2015) demonstrated that a low-carbohydrate diet promoted greater fat oxidation than an isocaloric low-fat diet but, in contrast to popular s...

  12. Carbohydrate epitopes on Haemonchus contortus antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D.; van Leeuwen, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of infective larvae and adults of the trichostrongylid Haemonchus contortus were studied for the presence of carbohydrate moieties. Several different lectin-binding sites were demonstrated in both stages using a panel of nine lectins. The carbohydrate specificity of the lectins used

  13. Total dissolved carbohydrate in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    Total dissolved carbohydrate varied from 4.37-15 mg l-1 and 3.71-15.95 mg l-1 in the surface and bottom samples respectively. Highest concentration of carbohydrate was observed at station 1 which decreased downward upto Station 6 which showed...

  14. Determining a carbohydrate profile for Hansenula polymorpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of the levels of carbohydrates in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha required the development of new analytical procedures. Existing fractionation and analytical methods were adapted to deal with the problems involved with the lysis of whole cells. Using these new procedures, the complete carbohydrate profiles of H. polymorpha and selected mutant strains were determined and shown to correlate favourably with previously published results.

  15. Wood adhesives containing proteins and carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there has been resurgent interest in using biopolymers as sustainable and environmentally friendly ingredients in wood adhesive formulations. Among them, proteins and carbohydrates are the most commonly used. In this chapter, an overview is given of protein-based and carbohydrate-...

  16. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5 ′ -monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results

  17. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Joong-Won, E-mail: jshin@govst.edu [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States); Bernstein, Elliot R., E-mail: erb@lamar.colostate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  18. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5'-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C-C and C-O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  19. Characterization of carbohydrate fractions and fermentation quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of adding fast-sile (FS), previous fermented juice (PFJ), sucrose (S) or fast-sile + sucrose (FS + S) on the fermentation characteristics and carbohydrates fractions of alfalfa silages by the Cornell net carbohydrates and proteins systems (CNCPS). Silages quality were well ...

  20. The importance of nitrogen and carbohydrate storage for plant growth of the alpine herb Veratrum album

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleijn, David; Treier, Urs; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether nitrogen (N) and carbohydrates reserves allow Veratrum album, an alpine forb, to start spring growth earlier than the neighbouring vegetation and to survive unpredictable disturbances resulting in loss of above-ground biomass.Seasonal dynamics of plant reserves, soil N...

  1. A functional carbohydrate chip platform for analysis of carbohydrate-protein interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Chang Sup; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2010-01-01

    A carbohydrate chip based on glass or other transparent surfaces has been suggested as a potential tool for high-throughput analysis of carbohydrate-protein interactions. Here we proposed a facile, efficient, and cost-effective method whereby diverse carbohydrate types are modified in a single step and directly immobilized onto a glass surface, with retention of functional orientation. We modified various types of carbohydrates by reductive amination, in which reducing sugar groups were coupled with 4-(2-aminoethyl)aniline, which has di-amine groups at both ends. The modified carbohydrates were covalently attached to an amino-reactive NHS-activated glass surface by formation of stable amide bonds. This proposed method was applied for efficient construction of a carbohydrate microarray to analyze carbohydrate-protein interactions. The carbohydrate chip prepared using our method can be successfully used in diverse biomimetic studies of carbohydrates, including carbohydrate-biomolecule interactions, and carbohydrate sensor chip or microarray development for diagnosis and screening.

  2. Low-carbohydrate diets: an update on current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Davis, Nichola J

    2009-10-01

    The diabetes and obesity epidemics have stimulated research to assess the benefits and potential risks of low-carbohydrate diets. Carbohydrate comprises less than 45% of calories in carbohydrate-restricted diets, but very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets may restrict carbohydrate to 20 g initially with variability in the carbohydrate level subsequently. Some research suggests that low-carbohydrate diets may achieve better early weight loss than comparison diets higher in carbohydrate. Studies of up to 1 year suggest that weight loss on low-carbohydrate diet is comparable with fat-restricted diets with higher carbohydrate content. Limited research has been conducted to evaluate low-carbohydrate diets in managing type 2 diabetes. Although science continues to advance in this field, current research suggests that low-carbohydrate diets can be a viable option for achieving weight loss and may have beneficial effects on glycemic control, triglyceride levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in some patients.

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  4. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also, chlor...

  5. Structural biology of antibody recognition of carbohydrate epitopes and potential uses for targeted cancer immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingjan, Tamir; Spendlove, Ian; Durrant, Lindy G; Scott, Andrew M; Yuriev, Elizabeth; Ramsland, Paul A

    2015-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies represent the most successful class of biopharmaceuticals for the treatment of cancer. Mechanisms of action of therapeutic antibodies are very diverse and reflect their ability to engage in antibody-dependent effector mechanisms, internalize to deliver cytotoxic payloads, and display direct effects on cells by lysis or by modulating the biological pathways of their target antigens. Importantly, one of the universal changes in cancer is glycosylation and carbohydrate-binding antibodies can be produced to selectively recognize tumor cells over normal tissues. A promising group of cell surface antibody targets consists of carbohydrates presented as glycolipids or glycoproteins. In this review, we outline the basic principles of antibody-based targeting of carbohydrate antigens in cancer. We also present a detailed structural view of antibody recognition and the conformational properties of a series of related tissue-blood group (Lewis) carbohydrates that are being pursued as potential targets of cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The phenol-sulfuric acid method is a simple and rapid colorimetric method to determine total carbohydrates in a sample. The method detects virtually all classes of carbohydrates, including mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Although the method detects almost all carbohydrates, the absorptivity of the different carbohydrates varies. Thus, unless a sample is known to contain only one carbohydrate, the results must be expressed arbitrarily in terms of one carbohydrate.

  7. Nutritional composition and fatty acids profile in cocoa beans and chocolates with different geographical origin and processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Moreno, M; Torrescasana, E; Salas-Salvadó, J; Blanch, C

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional composition and fatty acids (FA) profile were determined in cocoa and chocolates of different geographical origin and subject to different processing conditions. Cocoa butter was the major nutrient in cocoa beans and carbohydrates were the most important in chocolates. Cocoa composition and FA profile varied depending on geographical origin whilst in chocolates only carbohydrates and fat content varied significantly due to the effect of origin and no significant effect was observed for processing conditions. Both for cocoa and chocolates differences in FA profile were mainly explained as an effect of the geographical origin, and were not due to processing conditions in chocolate. For cocoa, differences in FA profile were found in C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C17:1 and C18:0 whilst for chocolates only differences were found in C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2. For all samples, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2 were quantitatively the most important FA. Ecuadorian chocolate showed a healthier FA profile having higher amounts of unsaturated FA and lower amounts of saturated FA than Ghanaian chocolate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro fermentation of carbohydrates by porcine faecal inocula and their influence on Salmonella Typhimurium growth in batch culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Peláez, Sandra; Gibson, Glenn R; Martín-Orúe, Susana M; Klinder, Annett; Rastall, Robert A; La Ragione, Roberto M; Woodward, Martin J; Costabile, Adele

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of fermentable carbohydrates on the activity of porcine microbiota and survival of Salmonella Typhimurium in a batch culture system simulating the porcine hindgut. The carbohydrates tested were xylooligosaccharides, a mixture of fructooligosaccharides/inulin (FIN), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), gentiooligosaccharides (GEO) and lactulose (LAC). These ingredients stimulated the growth of selected Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species in pure cultures. In batch cultures, the carbohydrates influenced some fermentation parameters. For example, GEO and FIN significantly increased lactic acids compared with the control (no added carbohydrate). With the exception of LAC, the test carbohydrates increased the production of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and modified SCFA profiles. Quantitative analysis of bacterial populations by FISH revealed increased counts of the Bifidobacterium group compared with control and, with exception of FOS, increased Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Weissella spp. counts. Salmonella numbers were the lowest during the fermentation of LAC. This work has looked at carbohydrate metabolism by porcine microbiota in a pH-controlled batch fermentation system. It provides an initial model to analyse interactions with pathogens.

  9. Characterizing carbohydrate-protein interactions by NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, Carole A.; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between proteins and soluble carbohydrates and/or surface displayed glycans are central to countless recognition, attachment and signaling events in biology. The physical chemical features associated with these binding events vary considerably, depending on the biological system of interest. For example, carbohydrate-protein interactions can be stoichiometric or multivalent, the protein receptors can be monomeric or oligomeric, and the specificity of recognition can be highly stringent or rather promiscuous. Equilibrium dissociation constants for carbohydrate binding are known to vary from micromolar to millimolar, with weak interactions being far more prevalent; and individual carbohydrate binding sites can be truly symmetrical or merely homologous, and hence, the affinities of individual sites within a single protein can vary, as can the order of binding. Several factors, including the weak affinities with which glycans bind their protein receptors, the dynamic nature of the glycans themselves, and the non-equivalent interactions among oligomeric carbohydrate receptors, have made NMR an especially powerful tool for studying and defining carbohydrate-protein interactions. Here we describe those NMR approaches that have proven to be the most robust in characterizing these systems, and explain what type of information can (or cannot) be obtained from each. Our goal is to provide to the reader the information necessary for selecting the correct experiment or sets of experiments to characterize their carbohydrate-protein interaction of interest. PMID:23784792

  10. Effects of frying oils' fatty acids profile on the formation of polar lipids components and their retention in French fries over deep-frying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodan; Li, Jinwei; Wang, Yong; Cao, Peirang; Liu, Yuanfa

    2017-12-15

    The effects of frying oils' fatty acids profile on the formation of polar components and their retention in French fries and corresponding deep-fried oils were investigated in the present study, using oils with different fatty acids composition. Our analysis showed that the total polar compounds (TPCs) content in French fries was only slightly lower than that in deep-fried oils, indicating that there was no significant difference considering the amounts of TPCs in French fries and deep-fried oils. Our further analysis showed that different polar components in TPCs distributed differently in deep-fried oils and oils extracted from French fries. Specifically, the level of oligomeric and dimeric triacylglycerols was higher in French fries while oxidized triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols content was higher in deep-fried oils. The different retention of TPCs components in French fries may be explained by their interactions with carbohydrates, which are shown to enhance with the increase of hydrophobic property. Chemometric analysis showed that no correlation between the polar compounds level and saturated fatty acids profile was observed. Meanwhile, the polar compounds content was highly correlated with the formation of trans-C18:1, and a highly positive association between polar compounds and C18:2 content was also observed in palm oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds: chemical diversity and potential economic uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. S Mayworm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contents of proteins, carbohydrates and oil of seeds of 57 individuals of Vochysiaceae, involving one species of Callisthene, six of Qualea, one of Salvertia and eight of Vochysia were determined. The main nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds are proteins (20% in average and oils (21. 6%. Mean of carbohydrate contents was 5. 8%. Callisthene showed the lowest protein content (16. 9%, while Q. cordata was the species with the highest content (30% in average. The contents of ethanol soluble carbohydrates were much higher than those of water soluble carbohydrates. Oil contents lay above 20% for most species (30. 4% in V. pygmaea and V. pyramidalis seeds. The predominant fatty acids are lauric (Q. grandiflora, oleic (Qualea and Salvertia or acids with longer carbon chains (Salvertia and a group of Vochysia species. The distribution of Vochysiaceae fatty acids suggests for seeds of some species an exploitation as food sources (predominance of oleic acid, for other species an alternative to cocoa butter (high contents or predominance of stearic acid or the production of lubricants, surfactants, detergents, cosmetics and plastic (predominance of acids with C20 or C22 chains or biodiesel (predominance of monounsaturated acids. The possibility of exploitation of Vochysiaceae products in a cultivation regimen and in extractive reserves is discussed.Teores de proteínas, carboidratos solúveis e óleos de sementes de 57 indivíduos de Vochysiaceae, compreendendo uma espécie de Callisthene, seis de Qualea, uma de Salvertia e oito de Vochysia foram determinados. As principais reservas de sementes de Vochysiaceae são proteínas (20% em média e óleos (21, 6%. A média dos teores de carboidratos foi de 5, 8%. Callisthene apresentou o mais baixo teor de proteínas (16, 9%, enquanto Q. cordata foi a espécie com o mais elevado teor (30% em média. Teores de carboidratos solúveis em etanol foram muito superiores aos solúveis em água. Os teores de

  12. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyoto, Nimas M S; Zhu, Mingming; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-11-01

    Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates was studied using bench-scale bioreactors. The cultures with biochar additions were placed in 100ml reactors and incubated at 35°C and pH 5 for hydrogen production. The residual cultures were then used for methane production, incubated at 35°C and pH 7. Daily yields of hydrogen and methane and weekly yield of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were measured. The hydrogen and methane production potentials, rate and lag phases of the two phases were analysed using the Gompertz model. The results showed that biochar addition increased the maximum production rates of hydrogen by 32.5% and methane 41.6%, improved hydrogen yield by 31.0% and methane 10.0%, and shortened the lag phases in the two phases by 36.0% and 41.0%, respectively. Biochar addition also enhanced VFA generation during hydrogen production and VFA degradation in methane production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F.

    2002-01-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use

  15. Trans Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  16. Integration of Sweet Taste and Metabolism Determines Carbohydrate Reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Maria Geraldine; Babbs, Richard Keith; Patel, Barkha; Fobbs, Wambura; Kroemer, Nils B; Garcia, Elizabeth; Yeomans, Martin R; Small, Dana M

    2017-08-21

    Post-ingestive signals related to nutrient metabolism are thought to be the primary drivers of reinforcement potency of energy sources. Here, in a series of neuroimaging and indirect calorimetry human studies, we examine the relative roles of caloric load and perceived sweetness in driving metabolic, perceptual, and brain responses to sugared beverages. Whereas caloric load was manipulated using the tasteless carbohydrate maltodextrin, sweetness levels were manipulated using the non-nutritive sweetener sucralose. By formulating beverages that contain different amounts of maltodextrin+sucralose, we demonstrate a non-linear association between caloric load, metabolic response, and reinforcement potency, which is driven in part by the extent to which sweetness is proportional to caloric load. In particular, we show that (1) lower-calorie beverages can produce greater metabolic response and condition greater brain response and liking than higher-calorie beverages and (2) when sweetness is proportional to caloric load, greater metabolic responses are observed. These results demonstrate a non-linear association between caloric load and reward and describe an unanticipated role for sweet taste in regulating carbohydrate metabolism, revealing a novel mechanism by which sugar-sweetened beverages influence physiological responses to carbohydrate ingestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure-activity relationships in carbohydrates revealed by their hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, Laura; Busch, Sebastian; McLain, Sylvia E; Pardo, Luis Carlos; Bruni, Fabio; Ricci, Maria Antonietta

    2017-06-01

    One of the more intriguing aspects of carbohydrate chemistry is that despite having very similar molecular structures, sugars have very different properties. For instance, there is a sensible difference in sweet taste between glucose and trehalose, even though trehalose is a disaccharide that comprised two glucose units, suggesting a different ability of these two carbohydrates to bind to sweet receptors. Here we have looked at the hydration of specific sites and at the three-dimensional configuration of water molecules around three carbohydrates (glucose, cellobiose, and trehalose), combining neutron diffraction data with computer modelling. Results indicate that identical chemical groups can have radically different hydration patterns depending on their location on a given molecule. These differences can be linked with the specific activity of glucose, cellobiose, and trehalose as a sweet substance, as building block of cellulose fiber, and as a bioprotective agent, respectively. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Recent Advances in Bionanomaterials" Guest Editors: Dr. Marie-Louise Saboungi and Dr. Samuel D. Bader. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A carbohydrate-antioxidant hybrid polymer reduces oxidative damage in spermatozoa and enhances fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Craig; Maldjian, André; Da Costa, Daniel; Rullay, Attvinder K; Haddleton, David M; St John, Justin; Penny, Paul; Noble, Raymond C; Cameron, Neil R; Davis, Benjamin G

    2005-10-01

    Gamete-gamete interactions are critically modulated by carbohydrate-protein interactions that rely on the carbohydrate-selective recognition of polyvalent carbohydrate structures. A galactose-binding protein has been identified in mammalian spermatozoa that has similarity to the well-characterized hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor. With the aim of exploiting the ability of this class of proteins to bind and internalize macromolecules displaying galactose, we designed hybrid carbohydrate-antioxidant polymers to deliver antioxidant vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) to porcine spermatozoa. Treatment of sperm cells with one hybrid polymer in particular produced large increases in intracellular sperm levels of alpha-tocopherol and greatly reduced endogenous fatty acid degradation under oxidative stress. The polymer-treated spermatozoa had enhanced physiological properties and longer half-lives, which resulted in enhanced fertilization rates. Our results indicate that hybrid polymer delivery systems can prolong the functional viability of mammalian spermatozoa and improve fertility rates, and that our functionally guided optimization strategy can be applied to the discovery of active glycoconjugate ligands.

  19. Metabolic Effects of the Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood "Villains" of Human Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During very low carbohydrate intake, the regulated and controlled production of ketone bodies causes a harmless physiological state known as dietary ketosis. Ketone bodies flow from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues (e.g., brain for use as a fuel; this spares glucose metabolism via a mechanism similar to the sparing of glucose by oxidation of fatty acids as an alternative fuel. In comparison with glucose, the ketone bodies are actually a very good respiratory fuel. Indeed, there is no clear requirement for dietary carbohydrates for human adults. Interestingly, the effects of ketone body metabolism suggest that mild ketosis may offer therapeutic potential in a variety of different common and rare disease states. Also, the recent landmark study showed that a very-low-carbohydrate diet resulted in a significant reduction in fat mass and a concomitant increase in lean body mass in normal-weight men. Contrary to popular belief, insulin is not needed for glucose uptake and utilization in man. Finally, both muscle fat and carbohydrate burn in an amino acid flame.

  20. Relationship of the Reported Intakes of Fat and Fatty Acids to Body Weight in US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Conrad, Zach; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-04-28

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categories (1) for the US adult population and, (2) by sociodemographic groups. Reported dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and What We Eat in America (WWEIA) surveys in the years 2005-2012 were analyzed. Overall, we found that the reported intake of carbohydrate, protein, total fat, total saturated fat (as well as long-chain saturated fatty acids 14:0-18:0), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were positively associated with BMI; while lauric acid (a medium-chain saturated fatty acid, 12:0) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (as well as all individual PUFAs) were not associated with BMI. Non-Hispanic black individuals demonstrated a negative association between BMI and energy intake and a positive association between total PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and BMI. Individuals with less than a high school education showed a negative association between BMI and DHA. Mexican-Americans reported intakes with no association between BMI and energy, any macronutrient, or individual fatty acids. These findings support those of experimental studies demonstrating fatty acid-dependent associations between dietary fatty acid composition and body weight. Notably, we observed divergent results for some sociodemographic groups which warrant further investigation.

  1. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 3. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium Ferricyanide. Sangeeta Pandita Saral Baweja. Classroom Volume 21 Issue 3 March 2016 pp 285-288 ...

  2. Carbohydrates in pig nutrition - Recent advances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Ingerslev, Anne Krog

    2016-01-01

    monomers. This approach divides carbohydrates into 3 main groups, sugars (DP1–2), oligosaccharides (DP3–9), and polysaccharides (DP ≥ 10), the latter being further divided into starch (α-1:4,1,6-D-glucans) and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP). Dietary fiber (DF) recently has been defined as carbohydrate...... polymers with 3 and more monomeric units plus lignin, which are not hydrolyzed by the endogenous enzymes in the small intestine of humans. This physiologically based definition is broader than what classically has been considered fiber in animal nutrition and delimitates carbohydrates according...... to their potential for digestion by endogenous enzymes. Carbohydrates are the principal substrates for energy metabolism but also exert a number of other effects throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The starch structure as well as type and levels of DF influence, to a varying degree, the rate of starch digestion...

  3. Conversion of carbohydrates to levulinic acid esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of converting carbohydrates into levulinic acid, a platform chemical for many chemical end products. More specifically the invention relates to a method for converting carbohydrates such as mono-, di- or polysaccharides, obtained from for example biomass...... production into a suitable levulinic acid ester in the presence of a zeolite or zeotype catalyst and a suitable alcohol, and the ester may be further converted into levulinic acid if desired....

  4. Structural and functional group transformations of carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    D.Sc. (Chemistry) The aim of this study was to develop new methodology for the transformation of unsaturated carbohydrates utilising organometallic compounds. The first half of the study was directed toward developing a general synthesis of complex allyltins and in determining their application to carbon-carbon bond formation. It was decided to utilise carbohydrate substrates in this regard to develop a novel method of producing glycosides...

  5. Characterization and carbohydrate specificity of pradimicin S

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Dogo-Isonagie, Cajetan I.; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Balzarini, Jan; Bewley, Carole A.

    2012-01-01

    The pradimicin family of antibiotics is attracting attention due to its anti-infective properties and as a model for understanding the requirements for carbohydrate recognition by small molecules. Members of the pradimicin family are unique among natural products in their ability to bind sugars in a Ca2+-dependent manner, but the oligomerization to insoluble aggregates that occurs upon Ca2+ binding has prevented detailed characterization of their carbohydrate specificity and biologically rele...

  6. Molecular simulations of carbohydrates and protein-carbohydrate interactions: motivation, issues and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Elisa; Woods, Robert J

    2010-08-01

    The characterization of the 3D structure of oligosaccharides, their conjugates and analogs is particularly challenging for traditional experimental methods. Molecular simulation methods provide a basis for interpreting sparse experimental data and for independently predicting conformational and dynamic properties of glycans. Here, we summarize and analyze the issues associated with modeling carbohydrates, with a detailed discussion of four of the most recently developed carbohydrate force fields, reviewed in terms of applicability to natural glycans, carbohydrate-protein complexes and the emerging area of glycomimetic drugs. In addition, we discuss prospectives and new applications of carbohydrate modeling in drug discovery.

  7. Carbohydrates as T-cell antigens with implications in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lina; Middleton, Dustin R; Wantuch, Paeton L; Ozdilek, Ahmet; Avci, Fikri Y

    2016-10-01

    Glycosylation is arguably the most ubiquitous post-translational modification on proteins in microbial and mammalian cells. During the past few years, there has been intensive research demonstrating that carbohydrates, either in pure forms or in conjunction with proteins or lipids, evoke and modulate adaptive immune responses. We now know that carbohydrates can be directly recognized by T cells or participate in T-cell stimulation as components of T-cell epitopes. T-cell recognition of carbohydrate antigens takes place via their presentation by major histocompatibility complex pathways on antigen-presenting cells. In this review, we summarize studies on carbohydrates as T-cell antigens modulating adaptive immune responses. Through discussion of glycan-containing antigens, such as glycoproteins, glycolipids, zwitterionic polysaccharides and carbohydrate-based glycoconjugate vaccines, we will illustrate the key molecular and cellular interactions between carbohydrate antigens and T cells and the implications of these interactions in health and disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Implications of impaired ketogenesis in fatty acid oxidation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olpin, Simon Edward

    2004-03-01

    Long-chain fatty acids are important sources of respiratory fuel for many tissues and during fasting the rate of hepatic production of ketone bodies is markedly increased. Many extra hepatic tissues utilize ketone bodies in the fasted state with the advantage that glucose is "spared" for more vital tissues like the brain. This glucose sparing effect of ketones is especially important in infants where there is a high proportional glucose utilization in cerebral tissue. The first reported inherited defect affecting fatty acid oxidation was described in 1973 and to date about 15 separate disorders have been described. Although individually rare, cumulatively fatty acid oxidation defects are relatively common, have major consequences for affected individuals and their families, and carry significant health care implications. The major biochemical consequence of fatty acid oxidation defects is an inability of extra hepatic tissues to utilize fatty acids as an energy source with absent or limited hepatic capacity to generate ketones. Clinically patients usually present in infancy with acute life-threatening hypoketotic hypoglycaemia, liver disease, hyperammonaemia and cerebral oedema, with or without cardiac involvement, usually following a period of catabolic stress. Chronically there may be muscle involvement with hypotonia or exercise intolerance with or without cardiomyopathy. Treatment is generally by the avoidance of fasting, frequent carbohydrate rich feeds and for long-chain defects, the replacement of long-chain dietary fats with medium-chain formulae. Novel approaches to treatment include the use of d,l-3-hydoxybutyrate or heptanoate as an alternative energy source.

  9. Dietary Carbohydrates and Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Shulman, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) affect a large number of children throughout the world. Carbohydrates (which provide the majority of calories consumed in the Western diet) have been implicated both as culprits for the etiology of symptoms and as potential therapeutic agents (e.g., fiber) in childhood FGIDs. In this review, we detail how carbohydrate malabsorption may cause gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., bloating) via the physiologic effects of both increased osmotic activity and increased gas production from bacterial fermentation. Several factors may play a role, including: (1) the amount of carbohydrate ingested; (2) whether ingestion is accompanied by a meal or other food; (3) the rate of gastric emptying (how quickly the meal enters the small intestine); (4) small intestinal transit time (the time it takes for a meal to enter the large intestine after first entering the small intestine); (5) whether the meal contains bacteria with enzymes capable of breaking down the carbohydrate; (6) colonic bacterial adaptation to one's diet, and (7) host factors such as the presence or absence of visceral hypersensitivity. By detailing controlled and uncontrolled trials, we describe how there is a general lack of strong evidence supporting restriction of individual carbohydrates (e.g., lactose, fructose) for childhood FGIDs. We review emerging evidence suggesting that a more comprehensive restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) may be effective. Finally, we review how soluble fiber (a complex carbohydrate) supplementation via randomized controlled intervention trials in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders has demonstrated efficacy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.

  11. Comparison of diarrhea induced by ingestion of fructooligosaccharide Idolax and disaccharide lactulose: role of osmolarity versus fermentation of malabsorbed carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, M R; Jørgensen, J; Mortensen, P B

    1998-12-01

    Whether carbohydrate malabsorption causes diarrhea probably depends on the balance between the osmotic force of the carbohydrate and the compensatory capacity of the colon to dispose of the carbohydrate by bacterial fermentation. The present study evaluated the specific role of the osmolarity by comparing the severity of diarrhea after ingestion of two nonabsorbable carbohydrates, the fructooligosaccharide Idolax and the disaccharide lactulose. Both carbohydrates are readily fermented by the colonic flora but differ in osmolarity, the osmotic force being twice as high for lactulose as for Idolax. Twelve subjects were given increasing doses (0, 20, 40, 80, 160 g/d) of Idolax and lactulose in a crossover design. Every dose level was administered for three days with intervals of one week. Stools were collected on the third day to determine 24-hr volume, concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, L- and D-lactate, residues of Idolax or lactulose, sodium, potassium, pH, osmolarity, and in vitro productions of organic acids. Measured by short-chain fatty acid and lactate formation in a fecal incubation system, the fermentation of Idolax and lactulose was identical and very rapid compared with a range of reference carbohydrates. A laxative effect of both Idolax and lactulose was demonstrated. The increment in fecal volume as a function of the dose administered was twice as high for lactulose (slope of the regression line = 7.3, r = 0.64, Pdiarrhea is proportional to the osmotic force of the malabsorbed saccharide, even though all or the majority of the saccharide is degraded by colonic bacteria. The capacity to modify the diarrhea varies considerably from person to person and is associated with colonic saccharide disposal, whereas the variation in response to isosmolar amounts of different saccharides is small within the same individual.

  12. In silico evidence for gluconeogenesis from fatty acids in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kaleta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The question whether fatty acids can be converted into glucose in humans has a long standing tradition in biochemistry, and the expected answer is "No". Using recent advances in Systems Biology in the form of large-scale metabolic reconstructions, we reassessed this question by performing a global investigation of a genome-scale human metabolic network, which had been reconstructed on the basis of experimental results. By elementary flux pattern analysis, we found numerous pathways on which gluconeogenesis from fatty acids is feasible in humans. On these pathways, four moles of acetyl-CoA are converted into one mole of glucose and two moles of CO₂. Analyzing the detected pathways in detail we found that their energetic requirements potentially limit their capacity. This study has many other biochemical implications: effect of starvation, sports physiology, practically carbohydrate-free diets of inuit, as well as survival of hibernating animals and embryos of egg-laying animals. Moreover, the energetic loss associated to the usage of gluconeogenesis from fatty acids can help explain the efficiency of carbohydrate reduced and ketogenic diets such as the Atkins diet.

  13. In Silico Evidence for Gluconeogenesis from Fatty Acids in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Christoph; de Figueiredo, Luís F.; Werner, Sarah; Guthke, Reinhard; Ristow, Michael; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The question whether fatty acids can be converted into glucose in humans has a long standing tradition in biochemistry, and the expected answer is “No”. Using recent advances in Systems Biology in the form of large-scale metabolic reconstructions, we reassessed this question by performing a global investigation of a genome-scale human metabolic network, which had been reconstructed on the basis of experimental results. By elementary flux pattern analysis, we found numerous pathways on which gluconeogenesis from fatty acids is feasible in humans. On these pathways, four moles of acetyl-CoA are converted into one mole of glucose and two moles of CO2. Analyzing the detected pathways in detail we found that their energetic requirements potentially limit their capacity. This study has many other biochemical implications: effect of starvation, sports physiology, practically carbohydrate-free diets of inuit, as well as survival of hibernating animals and embryos of egg-laying animals. Moreover, the energetic loss associated to the usage of gluconeogenesis from fatty acids can help explain the efficiency of carbohydrate reduced and ketogenic diets such as the Atkins diet. PMID:21814506

  14. Antidiabetic effects of SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin in type 2 diabetic mice fed diets containing different carbohydrate contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Atsuo; Takasu, Toshiyuki

    2018-03-15

    Daily intake of carbohydrates differs among individual patients with type 2 diabetes. Here, we investigated whether or not dietary carbohydrate content affects the efficacy of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor ipragliflozin in type 2 diabetic mice. Diabetic mice were fed a regular (50% kcal), high (75% kcal)-, or low (25% kcal)-carbohydrate diet. Ipragliflozin was orally administered once a day for 4 weeks. In all groups, mice exhibited characteristics of type 2 diabetes, including hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and obesity. Hyperglycemia was more severe in the high-carbohydrate diet group and milder in the low-carbohydrate diet group than in the regular diet group. In all diabetic mice, ipragliflozin significantly increased urinary glucose excretion and improved hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, obesity, and nephropathy. Although these antidiabetic effects of ipragliflozin were more marked in the high-carbohydrate diet group (which showed more severe hyperglycemia) than in the other two groups, no significant differences in effective dose or degree of response were observed among the three groups. The antidiabetic effects of ipragliflozin were not greatly affected by dietary carbohydrate content, suggesting that ipragliflozin may have similar efficacy for patients with type 2 diabetes regardless of carbohydrate intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  16. The influence of carbohydrate consumption on glycemic control in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Akueson, Cecelia E; Ronneby, Helle; Rytter, Ane; Andersen, Jens R; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2017-05-01

    To study the influence of the quantity and the quality of carbohydrate consumption on glycemic control in early pregnancy among women with type 1 diabetes. A retrospective study of 107 women with type 1 diabetes who completed 1-3days of diet recording before first antenatal visit, as a part of routine care. The total daily carbohydrate consumption from the major sources (e.g. bread, potatoes, rice, pasta, dairy products, fruits, candy) was calculated. A dietician estimated the overall glycemic index score (scale 0-7). At least two days of diet recording were available in 75% of the 107 women at mean 64 (SD±14) gestational days. The quantity of carbohydrate consumption from major sources was 180 (±51)g/day. HbA1c was positively associated with the quantity of carbohydrate consumption (β=0.41; 95% CI 0.13-0.70, P=0.005), corresponding to an increase of 0.4% in HbA1c per 100g carbohydrates consumed daily, when adjusted for insulin dose/bodyweight and use of insulin pump treatment. The median (IQR) glycemic index score was 2 (0-3). An adjusted association between HbA1c and glycemic index score was not demonstrated. The women using carbohydrate counting daily (45%) had lower HbA1c compared to the remaining women (6.4 (±0.5) vs. 6.8 (±0.9)% (47±6 vs. 51±10mmol/mol), P=0.01). HbA1c in early pregnancy was positively associated with the quantity of carbohydrate consumption regardless of insulin treatment. Carbohydrate counting is probably important for glycemic control in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Histo-blood group carbohydrates as facilitators for infection by Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infect millions of people around the world. It occupies a niche in the human gastrointestinal tract characterized by high expression of a repertoire of carbohydrates. ABO and Lewis histo-blood group systems are controlled by genes coding for functional glycosyltransferases which synthesize great diversity of related fucosylated carbohydrate in different tissues, including gastrointestinal mucosa, and exocrine secretions. The structural diversity of histo-blood group carbohydrates is highly complex and depends on epistatic interactions among gene-encoding glycosyltransferases. The histo-blood group glycosyltransferases act in the glycosylation of proteins and lipids in the human gastrointestinal tract allowing the expression of a variety of potential receptors in which H. pylori can adhere. These oligosaccharide molecules are part of the gastrointestinal repertoire of carbohydrates which act as potential receptors for microorganisms, including H. pylori. This Gram-negative bacillus is one of the main causes of the gastrointestinal diseases such as chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer, and cancer of stomach. Previous reports showed that some H. pylori strains use carbohydrates as receptors to adhere to the gastric and duodenal mucosa. Since some histo-blood group carbohydrates are highly expressed in one but not in others histo-blood group phenotypes it has pointed out that quantitative differences among them influence the susceptibility to diseases caused by H. pylori. Additionally, some experiments using animal model are helping us to understand how this bacillus explore histo-blood group carbohydrates as potential receptors, offering possibility to explore new strategies of management of infection, disease treatment, and prevention. This text highlights the importance of structural diversity of ABO and Lewis histo-blood group carbohydrates as facilitators for H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonalcoholic fatty liver and the severity of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasevic, I; Orlic, L; Poropat, G; Jakopcic, I; Stimac, D; Klanac, A; Carovic, F; Milic, S

    2017-03-01

    To explore the effect of nonalcoholic fatty liver as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome on the severity of acute pancreatitis. We hypothesized that patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver would have a more severe form of acute pancreatitis. We retrospectively analyzed 822 patients hospitalized with acute pancreatitis. We diagnosed acute pancreatitis and determined its severity according the revised Atlanta classification criteria from 2012. We assessed nonalcoholic fatty liver with computed tomography. There were 198 (24.1%) patients out of 822 analyzed who had nonalcoholic fatty liver. Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver had statistically higher incidence of moderately severe (35.4% vs. 14.6%; p=0.02) and severe acute pancreatitis (20.7% vs. 9.6%; pacute pancreatitis and nonalcoholic fatty liver (OR 2.13, 95%CI 1.236-3.689). Compared to patients without nonalcoholic fatty liver, patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver had a higher death rate, however not statistically significant (5.6% vs. 4.3%; p=NS). Presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver at admission can indicate a higher risk for developing more severe forms of acute pancreatitis and could be used as an additional prognostic tool. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  20. [Abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism in acromegaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagetti, Betina; Obiols, Gabriel; Valladares, Silvia; Arnez, Lorena; Dalama, Belén; Mesa, Jordi

    2013-11-16

    Carbohydrate metabolism (CHM) is impaired in over 50% of acromegalic patients. Natural history of acromegaly and treatment modalities may impact in a different way on CHM. We assessed CHM alterations in acromegaly and their relationship with clinical features and treatment options. Retrospective study with 55 patients with acromegaly. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), tumor size, insulin growth factor type 1 (IGF-1) levels and the presence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or diabetes mellitus (DM) were analyzed before and after surgery or medical treatment. There were 30 men and 25 women. Mean age was 50 ± 17 years and mean BMI was 27.9 ± 3.8 Kg/m(2). Impaired CHM was found in 50.9% (n = 28) (DM in 27% and IFG in 24%). In diabetic patients, we found no differences in age, sex, BMI and IGF-1 levels between IFG/DM and patients without CHM impairment. However, IFG/DM patients had macroadenomas more commonly. In diabetic patients, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased after surgery from 7.6 to 6.7% and after somatostatin analogues from 7.1 to 6.6%; in patients on pegvisomant we observed a significant reduction of HbA1c: from 9.8 to 5.6% (P < .005). Furthermore, only in the pegvisomant group, insulin and/or oral agents had to be lowered. Up to 50% of patients with active acromegaly have CHM impairment which correlates with tumor size. Only pegvisomant is associated with significant improvement in glycemic control and a reduction in hypoglycemic treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Against the stream: relevance of gluconeogenesis from fatty acids for natives of the arctic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schuster

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. The question whether even-chain fatty acids can be converted into glucose has a long-standing tradition in biochemistry. Since the glyoxylate shunt is absent from mammals, the question has been considered to be solved. It is of particular relevance for understanding the metabolic state of natives of the arctic regions due to the very high fat content of their traditional diet only containing negligible amounts of carbohydrates. Methods & Results. Using an in silico approach, we discovered several hitherto unknown routes in human metabolism that allow the conversion of even-chain fatty acids into carbohydrates in humans. These pathways proceed via ketogenesis over the intermediate of acetone and produce the gluconeogenic precursor pyruvate. While these pathways can make a contribution to glucose production during times of limited carbohydrate supply, we found that their capacity might be limited due to a high demand in reducing equivalents in acetone degradation. Considering the traditional diet of natives of the arctic regions, the detected pathways are not only important in order to improve carbohydrate supply, but moreover reduce the amount of protein that needs to be used for gluconeogenesis. Conclusion. In summary, our study sheds new light on our understanding of the metabolic state of natives from the arctic regions on their traditional diet. Moreover, they provide an avenue for new analyses that can reveal how humans have adapted metabolically to a practically carbohydrate-free diet.

  2. Effects of silicon deficiency on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in the diatom Cyclotella cryptica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that silicon deficiency induces lipid accumulation in certain diatom species. The nature of the lipids produced under these conditions was not investigated, however, and the biochemical mechanisms which underlie this phenomenon were not determined. Research was carried out in order to increase our knowledge concerning the aspects of lipid accumulation in diatoms. The first phase of this project indicated that the diatoms C. cryptica, Cylindrotheca fusiformis, and Thalassiosira pseudonana accumulated storage lipids when grown under silicon-limiting conditions. The ratio of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids to polyunsaturated fatty acids in C. cryptica cells increased markedly after 24 hours of silicon deficiency. Tracer experiments with [ 14 C]bicarbonate suggested that lipid accumulation in silicon-limited C. cryptica cells was due to two distinct processes: (1) an increase in the amount of newly photoassimilated carbon partitioned into lipids, and (2) a slow conversion of non-lipid compounds (carbohydrates and presumably proteins) into lipids

  3. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical...

  4. Functional interaction analysis of GM1-related carbohydrates and Vibrio cholerae toxins using carbohydrate microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Sup; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2012-08-07

    The development of analytical tools is important for understanding the infection mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria or viruses. In the present work, a functional carbohydrate microarray combined with a fluorescence immunoassay was developed to analyze the interactions of Vibrio cholerae toxin (ctx) proteins and GM1-related carbohydrates. Ctx proteins were loaded onto the surface-immobilized GM1 pentasaccharide and six related carbohydrates, and their binding affinities were detected immunologically. The analysis of the ctx-carbohydrate interactions revealed that the intrinsic selectivity of ctx was GM1 pentasaccharide ≫ GM2 tetrasaccharide > asialo GM1 tetrasaccharide ≥ GM3trisaccharide, indicating that a two-finger grip formation and the terminal monosaccharides play important roles in the ctx-GM1 interaction. In addition, whole cholera toxin (ctxAB(5)) had a stricter substrate specificity and a stronger binding affinity than only the cholera toxin B subunit (ctxB). On the basis of the quantitative analysis, the carbohydrate microarray showed the sensitivity of detection of the ctxAB(5)-GM1 interaction with a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 2 ng mL(-1) (23 pM), which is comparable to other reported high sensitivity assay tools. In addition, the carbohydrate microarray successfully detected the actual toxin directly secreted from V. cholerae, without showing cross-reactivity to other bacteria. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the functional carbohydrate microarray is suitable for analyzing toxin protein-carbohydrate interactions and can be applied as a biosensor for toxin detection.

  5. Analysis of Carbohydrate-Carbohydrate Interactions Using Sugar-Functionalized Silicon Nanoparticles for Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chian-Hui; Hütter, Julia; Hsu, Chien-Wei; Tanaka, Hidenori; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; De Cola, Luisa; Lepenies, Bernd; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-01-13

    Protein-carbohydrate binding depends on multivalent ligand display that is even more important for low affinity carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions. Detection and analysis of these low affinity multivalent binding events are technically challenging. We describe the synthesis of dual-fluorescent sugar-capped silicon nanoparticles that proved to be an attractive tool for the analysis of low affinity interactions. These ultrasmall NPs with sizes of around 4 nm can be used for NMR quantification of coupled sugars. The silicon nanoparticles are employed to measure the interaction between the cancer-associated glycosphingolipids GM3 and Gg3 and the associated kD value by surface plasmon resonance experiments. Cell binding studies, to investigate the biological relevance of these carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions, also benefit from these fluorescent sugar-capped nanoparticles.

  6. Response of C57Bl/6 mice to a carbohydrate-free diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghjid Saihan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High fat feeding in rodents generally leads to obesity and insulin resistance whereas in humans this is only seen if dietary carbohydrate is also high, the result of the anabolic effect of poor regulation of glucose and insulin. A previous study of C57Bl/6 mice (Kennedy AR, et al.: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab (2007 262 E1724-1739 appeared to show the kind of beneficial effects of calorie restriction that is seen in humans but that diet was unusually low in protein (5%. In the current study, we tested a zero-carbohydrate diet that had a higher protein content (20%. Mice on the zero-carbohydrate diet, despite similar caloric intake, consistently gained more weight than animals consuming standard chow, attaining a dramatic difference by week 16 (46.1 ± 1.38 g vs. 30.4 ± 1.00 g for the chow group. Consistent with the obese phenotype, experimental mice had fatty livers and hearts as well as large fat deposits in the abdomino-pelvic cavity, and showed impaired glucose clearance after intraperitoneal injection. In sum, the response of mice to a carbohydrate-free diet was greater weight gain and metabolic disruptions in distinction to the response in humans where low carbohydrate diets cause greater weight loss than isocaloric controls. The results suggest that rodent models of obesity may be most valuable in the understanding of how metabolic mechanisms can work in ways different from the effect in humans.

  7. Differential effects of two fermentable carbohydrates on central appetite regulation and body composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Arora

    Full Text Available Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice.Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w inulin or 10% (w/w β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR, colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI, respectively, PYY (peptide YY concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β-Glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state.Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-Glucan appears to suppress neuronal activity in the hypothalamic appetite centers. Differential

  8. Differential Effects of Two Fermentable Carbohydrates on Central Appetite Regulation and Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Glenn R.; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Swann, Jonathan R.; Deaville, Eddie R.; Sleeth, Michele L.; Thomas, E. Louise; Holmes, Elaine; Bell, Jimmy D.; Frost, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan) exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w) fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w) inulin or 10% (w/w) β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI), respectively, PYY (peptide YY) concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β- glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state. Conclusions/Significance Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-glucan appears to suppress neuronal

  9. Carbohydrates and T cells: A sweet twosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Fikri Y.; Li, Xiangming; Tsuji, Moriya; Kasper, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates as T cell-activating antigens have been generating significant interest. For many years, carbohydrates were thought of as T-independent antigens, however, more recent research had demonstrated that mono- or oligosaccharides glycosidically-linked to peptides can be recognized by T cells. T cell recognition of these glycopeptides depends on the structure of both peptide and glycan portions of the antigen. Subsequently, it was discovered that natural killer T cells recognized glycolipids when presented by the antigen presenting molecule CD1d. A transformative insight into glycan-recognition by T cells occurred when zwitterionic polysaccharides were discovered to bind to and be presented by MHCII to CD4+ T cells. Based on this latter observation, the role that carbohydrate epitopes generated from glycoconjugate vaccines had in activating helper T cells was explored and it was found that these epitopes are presented to specific carbohydrate recognizing T cells through a unique mechanism. Here we review the key interactions between carbohydrate antigens and the adaptive immune system at the molecular, cellular and systems levels exploring the significant biological implications in health and disease. PMID:23757291

  10. Effect of corn silage harvest maturity and concentrate type on milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Tewoldebrhan, T.A.; Zom, R.L.G.; Cone, J.W.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The variation in maturity at harvest during grain filling has a major effect on the carbohydrate composition (starch:NDF ratio) and fatty acid (FA) content of corn silages, and can alter the FA composition of milk fat in dairy cows. This study evaluated the effect of silage corn (cv. Atrium)

  11. Excessive Refined Carbohydrates and Scarce Micronutrients Intakes Increase Inflammatory Mediators and Insulin Resistance in Prepubertal and Pubertal Obese Children Independently of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardia López-Alarcón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low-grade inflammation is the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Because physiologic insulin resistance occurs at puberty, obese pubertal children are at higher risk for insulin resistance. Excessive diets in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats are risk factors for insulin resistance, but calcium, magnesium, vitamin-D, and the omega-3 fatty acids likely protect against inflammation and insulin resistance. Objective. To analyze interactions among dietary saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of inflammation and insulin resistance in a sample of prepubertal and pubertal children. Methods. A sample of 229 children from Mexico City was analyzed in a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements, 24 h recall questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained. Serum insulin, glucose, calcium, magnesium, 25-OHD3, C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and erythrocytes fatty acids were measured. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were used for analysis. Results. While mean macronutrients intake was excessive, micronutrients intake was deficient (P<0.01. Inflammation determinants were central obesity and magnesium-deficient diets. Determinants of insulin resistance were carbohydrates intake and circulating magnesium and adiponectin. Conclusions. Magnesium-deficient diets are determinants of inflammation, while high intake of refined carbohydrates is a risk factor for insulin resistance, independently of central adiposity.

  12. Regulation of skeletal muscle insulin action in relation to dietary fatty acids and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Louise Dalgas

    -body level compared with men. After consuming a hypercaloric fat-rich diet (80 E%) enriched in unsaturated fatty acids for three days, reduced insulin stimulated whole-body (20%) and skeletal muscle glucose uptake (28%) were observed in men compared with a isocaloric control diet. After consuming a fat......-rich diet enriched in long-chain saturated fatty acids, whole body insulin sensitivity (19%) and insulin stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle (24%) were also reduced, whereas no changes was observed after a diet enriched in medium-chain saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates. These findings show...... in skeletal muscle could rather be ascribed to attenuated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma surface membrane after the unsaturated (23%) and long-chain saturated fatty acid diet (26%) compared with the control diet (52%)(investigated in rats). Furthermore, the present data suggest that mechanisms regulating...

  13. Boronic acids for fluorescence imaging of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Zhai, Wenlei; Fossey, John S; James, Tony D

    2016-02-28

    "Fluorescence imaging" is a particularly exciting and rapidly developing area of research; the annual number of publications in the area has increased ten-fold over the last decade. The rapid increase of interest in fluorescence imaging will necessitate the development of an increasing number of molecular receptors and binding agents in order to meet the demand in this rapidly expanding area. Carbohydrate biomarkers are particularly important targets for fluorescence imaging given their pivotal role in numerous important biological events, including the development and progression of many diseases. Therefore, the development of new fluorescent receptors and binding agents for carbohydrates is and will be increasing in demand. This review highlights the development of fluorescence imaging agents based on boronic acids a particularly promising class of receptors given their strong and selective binding with carbohydrates in aqueous media.

  14. Investigation of Carbohydrate Recognition via Computer Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin R. Johnson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate recognition by proteins, such as lectins and other (biomolecules, can be essential for many biological functions. Recently, interest has arisen due to potential protein and drug design and future bioengineering applications. A quantitative measurement of carbohydrate-protein interaction is thus important for the full characterization of sugar recognition. We focus on the aspect of utilizing computer simulations and biophysical models to evaluate the strength and specificity of carbohydrate recognition in this review. With increasing computational resources, better algorithms and refined modeling parameters, using state-of-the-art supercomputers to calculate the strength of the interaction between molecules has become increasingly mainstream. We review the current state of this technique and its successful applications for studying protein-sugar interactions in recent years.

  15. Dietary fatty acids alter mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    type and relative amount of fatty acids that make up the membrane. Naturally, the phospholipid fatty acyl profiles of biological membranes vary dramatically across species2,3. For instance, the phospholpid fatty acid profiles of cellular membranes in yeasts are different from those in flies and those of mouse are different from ...

  16. Carbohydrate-based vaccines for oncotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meng-Man; Wang, Yong-Shi; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2018-03-07

    Cancer is still one of the most serious threats to human worldwide. Aberrant patterns of glycosylation on the surface of cancer cells, which are correlated with various cancer development stages, can differentiate the abnormal tissues from the healthy ones. Therefore, tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) represent the desired targets for cancer immunotherapy. However, these carbohydrate antigens may not able to evoke powerful immune response to combat with cancer for their poor immunogenicity and immunotolerance. Different approaches have been developed to address these problems. In this review, we want to summarize the latest advances in TACAs based anticancer vaccines. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Carbocyclic Carbohydrate Mimics as Potential Glycosidase Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanefjord, Mette; Lundt, Inge

    It has been proven that aminocyclopentanols having the aminogroup adjacent to a carbon sidechain could be potential anomer-selective glycosidase inhibitors [1]. A successful pathway for synthesising mimics to L-carbohydrates 2, by introducing nitrogen to the C6 position in compound 1, has been...... developed in our group. A similar strategy has been used for synthesising mimics of D-carbohydrates. The α,β-unsaturated lactone 3 was cyclised to compound 4 which was further transformed into 5. The nitrogen functionality in compound 7 is introduced by an Overman rearrangement of 6 and the hydroxyl...

  18. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which fat ...

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  20. Cognitive reserve in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A M; Stern, Y

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.

  1. Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1981-03-26

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  2. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus: biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus. We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  3. Dietary intakes, attitudes toward carbohydrates of postmenopausal women following low carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Donna M; Collins, Courtney B; Hutchins, Andrea M

    2009-01-01

    Middle-aged women have the highest levels of obesity and comprise the largest group of dieters. Few investigators have examined how women apply weight-loss diet principles in an unsupervised setting. Dietary intakes and attitudes toward carbohydrates were examined in women who were self-reported low carbohydrate dieters (SRLCDs); these intakes and attitudes were compared with those of women who were following their normal diet (non-dieters [NDs]). A convenience sample of 29 postmenopausal women aged 45 to 65 was recruited. Data were obtained by interview, questionnaire, and direct anthropometric measurement. Descriptive statistics, chi-square analysis, and analysis of variance were used to compare groups. Although total energy and protein intakes were similar, SRLCDs consumed significantly more fat and less carbohydrate (expressed as a percentage of total energy) and more cholesterol and less fibre than did NDs. Both groups had unfavourable attitudes toward carbohydrates. The SRLCDs ate more fat than recommended. Women who are considering following a low carbohydrate diet need to know the nutritional risks of unbalanced self-designed low carbohydrate diets. Negative attitudes toward carbohydrates were not confined to dieters. Nutrition education is necessary to help consumers understand basic nutrition principles and to be more skeptical of fad diets.

  4. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of carbohydrate metabolism and transport in Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Gänzle, Michael G

    2018-05-02

    Lactobacilli derive metabolic energy mainly from carbohydrate fermentation. Homofermentative and heterofermentative lactobacilli exhibit characteristic differences in carbohydrate transport and regulation of metabolism, however, enzymes for carbohydrate transport in heterofermentative lactobacilli are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify carbohydrate active enzymes in the L. reuteri strains LTH2584, LTH5448, TMW1.656, TMW1.112, 100-23, mlc3, and lpuph by phenotypic analysis and comparative genomics. Sourdough and intestinal isolates of L. reuteri displayed no difference in the number and type of carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded in the genome. Predicted sugar transporters encoded by genomes of L. reuteri strains were secondary carriers and most belong to the major facilitator superfamily. The quantification of gene expression during growth in sourdough and in chemically defined media corresponded to the predicted function of the transporters MalT, ScrT and LacS as carriers for maltose, sucrose, and lactose or raffinose, respectively. The genotype for sugar utilization matched the fermentation profile of 39 sugars for L. reuteri strains, and indicated preference for maltose, sucrose, raffinose and (iso)-malto-oligosaccharides, which are available in sourdough and in the upper intestine of rodents. Pentose utilization in L. reuteri species was strain-specific but independent of the origin or phylogenetic position of isolates. Two glycosyl hydrolases, licheninase (EC 3.2.1.73) and endo-1, 4-β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.89) were identified based on conserved domains. In conclusion, the study identified the lack of PTS systems, preference for secondary carriers for carbohydrate transport, and absence of carbon catabolite repression as characteristic features of the carbohydrate metabolism in the heterofermentative L. reuteri. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Low-carbohydrate-diet score and metabolic syndrome: An epidemiologic study among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Fatemeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Adibi, Peyman; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiologic studies linking carbohydrate consumption and risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) are limited. The association between low-carbohydrate-diet score and MetS has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate low-carbohydrate-diet score in relation to MetS among a group of Iranian women. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 442 Iranian female teachers >20 y of age. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated, dish-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/International Diabetes Federation definition guidelines. The prevalence of MetS in the lowest and highest quintile of low-carbohydrate-diet score was 17.5% and 18.8%, respectively (P = 0.97). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between extreme quartiles low-carbohydrate-diet score and MetS (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-2.28). After controlling for age, energy intake, and other potential confounders, low-carbohydrate-diet score was not significantly associated with MetS. A significant association was observed between this score and abnormal fasting plasma glucose. We failed to find a significant relationship between this score and other components of MetS. Diets with lower amounts of carbohydrate and higher contents of fat and protein were not significantly associated with the risk for MetS in a cross-sectional study with a group of Iranian women. More longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2015-01-15

    In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against tested tumor cell lines, mainly on human glioma cells (U251) and human ovarian cancer cells with a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (NCI-ADR/RES). In addition, the fatty methyl benzylamide derived from ricinoleic acid (with the fatty acid obtained from castor oil, a renewable resource) showed a high selectivity with potent growth inhibition and cell death for the glioma cell line-the most aggressive CNS cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A universal protocol for photochemical covalent immobilization of intact carbohydrates for the preparation of carbohydrate microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huibin; Zhang, Yiming; Yuan, Xun; Chen, Yi; Yan, Mingdi

    2011-01-19

    A universal photochemical method has been established for the immobilization of intact carbohydrates and their analogues, and for the fabrication of carbohydrate microarrays. The method features the use of perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA)-modified substrates and the photochemical reaction of surface azido groups with printed carbohydrates. Various aldoses, ketoses, nonreducing sugars such as alditols, and their derivatives can be directly arrayed on the PFPA-modified chips. The lectin-recognition ability of arrayed mannose, glucose, and their oligo- and polysaccharides were confirmed using surface plasmon resonance imaging and laser-induced fluorescence imaging.

  8. A Universal Protocol for Photochemical Covalent Immobilization of Intact Carbohydrates for the Preparation of Carbohydrate Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huibin; Zhang, Yiming; Yuan, Xun; Chen, Yi; Yan, Mingdi

    2010-01-01

    A universal photochemical method has been established for the immobilization of intact carbohydrates and their analogues, and for the fabrication of carbohydrate microarrays. The method features the use of perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA)-modified substrates and the photochemical reaction of surface azido groups with printed carbohydrates. Various aldoses, ketoses, non-reducing sugars such as alditols and their derivatives can be directly arrayed on the PFPA-modified chips. The lectin-recognition ability of arrayed mannose, glucose and their oligo- and polysaccharides were confirmed using surface plasmon resonance imaging and laser-induced fluorescence imaging. PMID:21138274

  9. Ten years of CAZypedia: a living encyclopedia of carbohydrate-active enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-12-01

    CAZypedia was initiated in 2007 to create a comprehensive, living encyclopedia of the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and associated carbohydrate-binding modules involved in the synthesis, modification and degradation of complex carbohydrates. CAZypedia is closely connected with the actively curated CAZy database, which provides a sequence-based foundation for the biochemical, mechanistic and structural characterization of these diverse proteins. Now celebrating its 10th anniversary online, CAZypedia is a successful example of dynamic, community-driven and expert-based biocuration. CAZypedia is an open-access resource available at URL http://www.cazypedia.org. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates of mezcal Agave (Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dick).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel-Cuello, Christian; Juárez-Flores, Bertha Irene; Aguirre-Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel

    2008-07-23

    Fructans are the reserve carbohydrates in Agave spp. plants. In mezcal factories, fructans undergoes thermal hydrolysis to release fructose and glucose, which are the basis to produce this spirit. Carbohydrate content determines the yield of the final product, which depends on plant organ, ripeness stage, and thermal hydrolysis. Thus, a qualitative and quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates was conducted in raw and hydrolyzed juices extracted from Agave salmiana stems and leaves under three ripeness stages. By high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), fructose, glucose, sucrose, xylose, and maltose were identified in agave juice. Only the plant fraction with hydrolysis interaction was found to be significant in the glucose concentration plant. Interactions of the fraction with hydrolysis and ripeness with hydrolysis were statistically significant in fructose concentration. Fructose concentration rose considerably with hydrolysis, but only in juice extracted from ripe agave stems (early mature and castrated). This increase was statistically significant only with acid hydrolysis.

  11. Linking microalgae and cyanobacteria culture conditions and key-enzymes for carbohydrate accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Cristina; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae are regarded as a potential biomass source for biofuel purposes. With regard to bioethanol production, microalgae seem to overcome traditional substrate drawbacks. Enzymatic activities are responsible for carbon allocation and hence for carbohydrate profiles. Enzyme activities may be manipulated by metabolic engineering; however, this goal may also be achieved by controlling environmental conditions of the culture system. We outline the key-enzymes as well as the main operational conditions applied to microalgae growth (inorganic nutrient supplementation, irradiance and temperature) that affect carbohydrate synthesis on microalgae and cyanobacteria. Normally, harsh conditions are needed for such a goal and thus, arrested microalgae growth may occur. Potential strategies to avoid arrested growth, while enhancing carbohydrate accumulation, were also pointed out in this review. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MBTH: A novel approach to rapid, spectrophotometric quantitation of total algal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wychen, Stefanie; Long, William; Black, Stuart K; Laurens, Lieve M L

    2017-02-01

    A high-throughput and robust application of the 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) method was developed for carbohydrate determination in microalgae. The traditional phenol-sulfuric acid method to quantify carbohydrates is strongly affected by algal biochemical components and exhibits a highly variable response to microalgal monosaccharides. We present a novel use of the MBTH method to accurately quantify carbohydrates in hydrolyzate after acid hydrolysis of algal biomass, without a need for neutralization. The MBTH method demonstrated consistent and sensitive quantitation of algae-specific monosaccharides down to 5 μg mL -1 without interference from other algae acidic hydrolyzate components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation and...

  14. Phakopsora euvitis Causes Unusual Damage to Leaves and Modifies Carbohydrate Metabolism in Grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Nogueira Júnior

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Asian grapevine rust (Phakopsora euvitis is a serious disease, which causes severe leaf necrosis and early plant defoliation. These symptoms are unusual for a strict biotrophic pathogen. This work was performed to quantify the effects of P. euvitis on photosynthesis, carbohydrates, and biomass accumulation of grapevine. The reduction in photosynthetic efficiency of the green leaf tissue surrounding the lesions was quantified using the virtual lesion concept (β parameter. Gas exchange and responses of CO2 assimilation to increasing intercellular CO2 concentration were analyzed. Histopathological analyses and quantification of starch were also performed on diseased leaves. Biomass and carbohydrate accumulation were quantified in different organs of diseased and healthy plants. Rust reduced the photosynthetic rate, and β was estimated at 5.78, indicating a large virtual lesion. Mesophyll conductance, maximum rubisco carboxylation rate, and regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate dependent on electron transport rate were reduced, causing diffusive and biochemical limitations to photosynthesis. Hypertrophy, chloroplast degeneration of mesophyll cells, and starch accumulation in cells close to lesions were observed. Root carbohydrate concentration was reduced, even at low rust severity. Asian grapevine rust dramatically reduced photosynthesis and altered the dynamics of production and accumulation of carbohydrates, unlike strict biotrophic pathogens. The reduction in carbohydrate reserves in roots would support polyetic damage on grapevine, caused by a polycyclic disease.

  15. Carbohydrate supplementation during prolonged cycling exercise spares muscle glycogen but does not affect intramyocellular lipid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Boon, Hanneke; Gijsen, Annemie P; Stegen, Jos H C H; Kuipers, Harm; van Loon, Luc J C

    2007-07-01

    Using contemporary stable-isotope methodology and fluorescence microscopy, we assessed the impact of carbohydrate supplementation on whole-body and fiber-type-specific intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG) and glycogen use during prolonged endurance exercise. Ten endurance-trained male subjects were studied twice during 3 h of cycling at 63 +/- 4% of maximal O(2) uptake with either glucose ingestion (CHO trial; 0.7 g CHO kg(-1) h(-1)) or without (CON placebo trial; water only). Continuous infusions with [U-(13)C] palmitate and [6,6-(2)H(2)] glucose were applied to quantify plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and glucose oxidation rates and to estimate intramyocellular lipid and glycogen use. Before and after exercise, muscle biopsy samples were taken to quantify fiber-type-specific IMTG and glycogen content. Plasma glucose rate of appearance (R (a)) and carbohydrate oxidation rates were substantially greater in the CHO vs CON trial. Carbohydrate supplementation resulted in a lower muscle glycogen use during the first hour of exercise in the CHO vs CON trial, resulting in a 38 +/- 19 and 57 +/- 22% decreased utilization in type I and II muscle-fiber glycogen content, respectively. In the CHO trial, both plasma FFA R (a) and subsequent plasma FFA concentrations were lower, resulting in a 34 +/- 12% reduction in plasma FFA oxidation rates during exercise (P glycogen use during the initial stages of exercise in endurance-trained men.

  16. Anxiety and aggression associated with the fermentation of carbohydrates in the hindgut of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanstock, T L; Clayton, E H; Li, K M; Mallet, P E

    2004-09-15

    Lactic acid accumulation in the caecum and colon resulting from the fermentation of carbohydrates can lead to deleterious effects in ruminant and monogastric animals, including humans. In the present study, we examined the behavioural effects of two types of commonly consumed foods: soluble and fermentable carbohydrates (FCs). Thirty-six male Wistar rats were fed either a commercial rat and mouse chow, a soluble carbohydrate (SC)-based diet or an FC-based diet. Social interaction, anxiety, aggression and locomotor activity were examined by employing a social interaction test and a light/dark emergence test, while physical parameters of hindgut fermentation were examined after sacrifice, either 3 or 21 h after feeding. Results showed that anxiety (spending less time in the light compartment during the light/dark emergence test) and aggression (increased fighting during the social interaction test) were increased following raised concentrations of fermentation end products, such as lactic acid and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the caecum of rats. These associations occurred regardless of dopamine and 5-HT concentrations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and provide evidence supporting a general effect of FCs on behaviour. Possible mechanisms of action along with similarities between a rat and human model of acidosis are discussed.

  17. Effects of carbohydrate and chromium ingestion during intermittent high-intensity exercise to fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J M; Welsh, R S; Alerson, N A

    2000-12-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that addition of chromium (Cr) to a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink would enhance the reported benefits of carbohydrate on exercise capacity during intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. Eight physically active men performed 3 exercise trials while ingesting 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO), CHO plus chromium picolinate (400 mg) (CHO + Cr+3), or placebo (P) using a double-blind, counterbalanced design. Each trial consisted of 5 3 15 min bouts of shuttle running (walk, sprint, and run at 95 and 55% of estimated VáO2max, separated by 3-min rest). This was followed by a fatigue test (running alternating 20-m lengths at 55 and 95% of estimated VáO2 until fatigue). During the standardized shuttle running, blood glucose was higher with both CHO and CHO + Cr+3 than P. Plasma free fatty acid was higher in P than both CHO and CHO + Cr+3 at 75 min of exercise and at fatigue. In the fatigue test, subjects ran longer with both CHO and CHO + Cr+3 than P. The data confirm an ergogenic benefit of ingesting CHO during exercise designed to imitate sports like basketball, soccer, and hockey, but do not support the hypothesis that the addition of Cr would enhance this effect.

  18. Occurrence and Biocatalytic Potential of Carbohydrate Oxidases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellemond, van E.W.; Leferink, N.G.H.; Heuts, D.P.H.M.; Fraaije, M.W.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrate oxidases are found in all kingdoms of life but are mostly found in fungi. Their natural role is not always clear. Usage of molecular oxygen as electron acceptor is not a logical choice when the enzyme is part of a catabolic pathway. This chapter provides an overview of the occurrence

  19. Carbohydrate Chemistry from Fischer to Now

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    men, are the carbohydrates, produced by plants. Green leaves produce glucose using atmospheric carbon dioxide and water with the help of chlorophyll and sunlight. ... the important milestones in the development of organic chemistry. This was preceded by the discovery of phenyl hydrazine by. Fischer in 1875. It is now ...

  20. STICS: surface-tethered iterative carbohydrate synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; Ranade, Sneha C; Li, Aixiao; Parlato, M Cristina; Sims, Charles R; Shulga, Olga V; Stine, Keith J; Demchenko, Alexei V

    2009-04-14

    A new surface-tethered iterative carbohydrate synthesis (STICS) technology is presented in which a surface functionalized 'stick' made of chemically stable high surface area porous gold allows one to perform cost efficient and simple synthesis of oligosaccharide chains; at the end of the synthesis, the oligosaccharide can be cleaved off and the stick reused for subsequent syntheses.

  1. Carbohydrate metabolism in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... In order to clarify carbohydrate content and enzymes activities involved in sugar metabolism in tomato seedling leaves and yield and fruit quality under low night temperature and subsequent recovery, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Liaoyuanduoli) were grown in different climatic controlled-.

  2. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. eCamarosaf, was determined for three growing seasons. Plant growth and fruit production patterns were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high ...

  3. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umukoro

    1977-09-09

    Sep 9, 1977 ... 1Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), EEA Famaillá, Argentina. 2Department of Plant Sciences, University of California Davis, CA, USA. Accepted 17 October, 2012. The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa. Duch.) nursery ...

  4. The carbohydrate moiety of house dust allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, J.H.; Berrens, L.; Young, E.

    1965-01-01

    Purified house dust allergen has been found to contain monosaccharides of plant and animal origin, and has been partially fractionated by DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography. The carbohydrate is highly branched, suffering little attack during periodate oxidation. Furanose configuration for a

  5. Profiling of carbohydrate polymers in biotechnology using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of carbohydrate polymers is very demanding and challenging because of the similar physical and chemical properties they possess. Enzymatic hydrolysis is employed to cleave the polymers. The use of enzymes in analytical chemistry requires an analytical system that has on-line capability, is fast, ...

  6. Carbohydrate Chemistry from Fischer to Now

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    field of natural products chemistry is presented with appro- ..... of the group classified as modified monosaccharides. Its. N-acetyl derivative is the sole constituent of the polysaccharide, chitin, which occurs in the shell of the lobster, the cockroach ..... One of the earliest carbohydrate-based drugs to be used in clinical practice ...

  7. Characterization of carbohydrate fractions and fermentation quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of adding fast-sile (FS), previous fermented .... DM: Dry matter, WSC: water soluble carbohydrate, NDF: neutral detergent fiber, ADF: acid detergent fiber, ADL: acid detergent lignin, C: ..... ment, which included starch, cell wall and so on (Ohyama.

  8. Nutrient and carbohydrate partitioning in sorghum stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.M.; Hons, F.M.; McBee, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] stover has been demonstrated to be a potential biomass energy source. Complete aboveground crop removal, however, can result in soil degradation. Differential dry matter, nutrient, and carbohydrate partitioning by sorghum cultivars may allow management strategies that return certain parts to the field while removing other portions for alternative uses, such as energy production. A field study was conducted to determine N,P,K, nonstructural carbohydrate, cellulose hemicellulose, and lignin distributions in stover of three diverse sorghum cultivars of differing harvest indices. Determinations were based on total vegetative biomass; total blades; total stalks; and upper middle, and lower blades and stalks. Concentrations of N and P were higher in blades than stalks and generally declines from upper to lower stover parts. Large carbohydrate and lignin concentration differences were observed on the basis of cultivar and stover part. Greater nutrient partitioning to the upper third of the intermediate and forage-type sorghum stovers was observed as compared to the conventional grain cultivar. Stover carbohydrates for all cultivars were mainly contained in the lower two-thirds of the stalk fraction. A system was proposed for returning upper stover portion to soil, while removing remaining portions for alternative uses

  9. Carbohydrates and gibberellins relationship in potato tuberization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčíková, H.; Mašková, P.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mašek, T.; Lipavská, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, JUL (2017), s. 53-63 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate distribution * Gibberellin * Photoautotrophic cultivation * Potato * Tuberization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  10. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    and yellow colour appears. Initial colour remains but fades. Orange colour appears. Yellow colour appears. Carbohydrates. Monosaccharide. Disaccharide. + Alkaline ferricyanide (shake for 5 minutes). Colour disappears. Colour does not disappear. Put the test tube in boiling water for 10 seconds. Put the test tube in boiling.

  11. Particulate carbohydrates in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Nandakumar, K.; Venkat, K.

    Particulate matter collected from 77 water samples over a 3000 m water column was analyzed for particulate carbohydrates (PCHO). PCHO in the surface waters ranged from 43 to 143 mu g.l-1, and below 250 m it was 16.PCHO showed large variations at all...

  12. Carbohydrate secretion by phototrophic communities in tidal sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winder, B.; Staats, N.; Stal, L.J.; Paterson, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Two different benthic phototrophic communities on tidal flats were investigated for their carbohydrate content and distribution. Carbohydrates were analysed as two operationally defined fractions, related to the difficulty of extraction from the sediment matrix. Water-soluble (colloidal) and EDTA-

  13. Carbohydrate intake considerations for young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montfort-Steiger, Veronica; Williams, Craig A

    2007-09-01

    Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes. Key pointsAthletic girls show lower carbohydrate intakes compared to boys.Substrate oxidation during exercise appears to be maturity related, fat being the preferred fuel for oxidation in younger athletic children.Children appear to have lower endogenous but greater exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during exercise.Carbohydrate intake during exercise appears to show no additional performance improvement in young athletes. Perhaps fat intake or a combination of both nutrients may be a better approach for nutrient supplementation during exercise

  14. Simultaneous determination of amino acids and carbohydrates in culture media of Clostridium thermocellum by valve-switching ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Yun; Yang, Haiyan; Ji, Chengshuai; Cui, He; Zhu, Xinshu; Du, Juan; Gao, Jun

    2013-10-10

    An improved method for the simultaneous determination of 20 amino acids and 7 carbohydrates using one-valve switching after injection, ion chromatography, and integrated pulsed amperometric detection is proposed. The resolution of the amino acids and carbohydrates in the cation trap column was investigated. In addition, parameters including flow liquid type, flow rate, concentration, and valve-switch timing were optimized. The method is time-saving, effective, and accurate for the simultaneous separation of amino acids and carbohydrates, with a mean correlation coefficient of >0.99 and repeatability of 0.5-4.6% for eight replicates. The method was successfully applied in the analysis of amino acids and carbohydrates in aseptic media and in extracellular culture media of three phenotypes of Clostridium thermocellum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of varying carbohydrate levels on the uptake and translocation of 32P in Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, G.; Steinke, T.D.

    1979-01-01

    The uptake and subsequent translocation of 32 P among root, crown and leaf tissues of Eragrostis curvula were investigated in plants with varying carbohydrate levels. Plants were depleted of carbohydrates by being subjected to 3 days of continuous darkness and by defoliation. Plant roots were introduced to nutrient solutions containing 32 P, at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 21 days after the depletion treatments. Initially, plants depleted of carbohydrates absorbed and translocated less 32 P than the controls. Subsequently, uptake and translocation increased probably to restore the pools of phosphate to levels prior to the depletion treatments. Increased 32 P uptake and translocation were related to an adequate supply of reserve carbohydrates [af

  16. Effect of a milling pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates in brewer's spent grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Piritta; Faulds, Craig B; Sibakov, Juhani; Holopainen, Ulla; Poutanen, Kaisa; Buchert, Johanna

    2012-07-01

    Millions of tonnes of brewer's spent grain (BSG) are annually produced worldwide as a by-product of the brewing industry. BSG has the potential to be a valuable source of food, chemicals and energy if cost-efficient fractionation methods can be developed. A 2-fold improvement in carbohydrate solubilisation could be achieved through the introduction of a milling step prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Course and fine milled fractions were characterized by particle size distribution and light microscopy. Fine milling decreased particle size down to the micron level and this in turn improved the carbohydrate solubility yield by a multi-enzyme mixture from 23% up to 45%. Carbohydrate solubilisation could be further increased through the supplementation of this enzyme preparation with additional cellulases. The physical degradation caused by the milling also liberated soluble carbohydrates without the requirement of any enzymatic treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hyper-Assembly of Self-Assembled Glycoclusters Mediated by Specific Carbohydrate-Carbohydrate Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gengwei; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Yanaka, Saeko; Sato, Sota; Fujita, Makoto; Kato, Koichi

    2017-05-04

    Hybridization of a self-assembled, spherical complex with oligosaccharides containing Lewis X, a functional trisaccharide displayed on various cell surfaces, yielded well-defined glycoclusters. The self-assembled glycoclusters exhibited homophilic hyper-assembly in aqueous solution in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner through specific carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions, offering a structural scaffold for functional biomimetic systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Pyrrolic tripodal receptors for carbohydrates. Role of functional groups and binding geometry on carbohydrate recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciarini, Martina; Nativi, Cristina; Norcini, Martina; Staderini, Samuele; Francesconi, Oscar; Roelens, Stefano

    2011-02-21

    The contribution from several H-bonding groups and the impact of geometric requirements on the binding ability of benzene-based tripodal receptors toward carbohydrates have been investigated by measuring the affinity of a set of structures toward octyl β-D-glucopyranoside, selected as a representative monosaccharide. The results reported in the present study demonstrate that a judicious choice of correct geometry and appropriate functional groups is critical to achieve the complementary hydrogen bonding interactions required for an effective carbohydrate recognition.

  19. Chemoselective Reactions for the Synthesis of Glycoconjugates from Unprotected Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Klaus; Martos Maldonado, Manuel Cristo; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Glycobiology is the comprehensive biological investigation of carbohydrates. The study of the role and function of complex carbohydrates often requires the attachment of carbohydrates to surfaces, their tagging with fluorophores, or their conversion into natural or non-natural glycoconjugates......, such as glycopeptides or glycolipids. Glycobiology and its “omics”, glycomics, require easy and robust chemical methods for the construction of these glycoconjugates. This review gives an overview of the rapidly expanding field of chemical reactions that selectively convert unprotected carbohydrates...

  20. Evaluation of colour temperatures in the cultivation of Dunaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata in the production of lipids and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón-Suriano, Salim Gabriel; Ortega-Clemente, Luis Alfredo; Curiel-Ramírez, Sergio; Jiménez-García, María Isabel; Pérez-Legaspi, Ignacio Alejandro; Robledo-Narváez, Paula Natalia

    2017-07-25

    The production of biofuels from microalgae is a promising and sustainable alternative. Its production is determined by the content of lipids and carbohydrates, which is different for each microalgae species and is affected by environmental factors, being lighting one of the principal determining their biochemical composition. The colour temperature (electromagnetic radiation and light spectrum) is a determining factor for the production of lipids and carbohydrates in microalgae. The aim of this assay was to evaluate the effect of three colour temperatures (6500, 10,000 and 20,000 °K) on the biomass (cel mL -1 ), biomass production and productivity (g L -1 and g L -1  day -1 ), lipid and carbohydrate content (%), lipid and carbohydrate production and productivity (mg L -1 and mg L -1  day -1 ), composition and content of fatty acids (%) in two microalgae species: Dunaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata. The highest cell density was observed for N. oculata in stationary phase in the control (83.93 × 106 cel mL -1 ). However, higher lipid content was obtained in D. salina in stationary phase at 10,000 °K (80%), while N. oculata showed 67% at 6500 °K. The highest carbohydrate content was 25% in stationary phase for D. salina at 20,000 °K. Regarding the production of lipids, D. salina reached a maximum of 523 mg L -1 in exponential phase at 6500 and 10,000 °K. The highest carbohydrate production was 38 mg L -1 for D. salina in exponential phase at 20,000 °K. In both microalgae, 15 different fatty acids were identified; the most abundant was palmitic acid with 35.8% for N. oculata in stationary phase at 10,000 °K, while D. salina showed 67% of polyunsaturated fatty acids in exponential phase at 6500 °K. In conclusion, the ideal colour temperature for microalgae culture to obtain biofuels should be based on the biomolecule of interest, being necessary to individually evaluate for each species.

  1. Genetic variation in genes of the fatty acid synthesis pathway and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campa, Daniele; McKay, James; Sinilnikova, Olga

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is the major enzyme of lipogenesis. It catalyzes the NADPH-dependent condensation of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA to produce palmitic acid. Transcription of the FAS gene is controlled synergistically by the transcription factors ChREBP (carbohydrate response element-bindin...... and by subgroups of age, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use or BMI. On the other hand, we found that two SNPs in FASN were associated with BMI....

  2. Dietary Composition Independent of Weight Loss in the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Eslamparast, Tannaz; Tandon, Puneeta; Raman, Maitreyi

    2017-01-01

    Poor dietary composition is an important factor in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The majority of NAFLD patients follow diets with overconsumption of simple carbohydrates, total and saturated fat, with reduced intake of dietary fiber and omega-3 rich foods. Although lifestyle modifications including weight loss and exercise remain the keystone of NAFLD management, modifying dietary composition with or without a calorie-restricted diet may also be a feasible and ...

  3. The satiety effects of intragastric macronutrient infusions in fatty and lean Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, C A; Greenwood, M R; Vasselli, J R

    1983-09-01

    To evaluate satiety in the hyperphagic, genetically obese Zucker "fatty" (fafa) rat, food-deprived fatty and lean (FaFa) control rats were given equicaloric intragastric infusions consisting largely of fat, carbohydrate, or protein. Relative to distilled water infusion, these infusions resulted in immediate reductions of food intake in both fatty and lean rats allowed to feed 20 min post-infusion. Cumulative food intakes remained reduced throughout the 2 hr period of observation. Thus, despite its hyperphagia, the fatty rat is responsive to the satiating effect of infused nutrients. However, the relative satiating effectiveness of the macronutrient infusions differed for the two genotypes. In lean rats, the different macronutrient infusions resulted in equivalent reductions of feeding. In contrast, in fatty rats, fat was the least satiating and protein was the most satiating macronutrient. Moreover, compared to lean rats, fatty rats displayed less initial suppression of feeding after fat infusion and greater overall suppression after protein infusion. These effects are consistent with the long-term feeding behavior of the fatty rat for the different macronutrients and may be related to pre- and postabsorptive metabolic alterations that have been documented in this animal.

  4. Nutritional intake, body composition, plasma lipids and fat-soluble vitamins, red blood cell fatty acid profile and behaviour of Omani school children

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ghannami, Samia

    2016-01-01

    Background: \\ud The traditional Omani diet of dates, milk, rice, brown bread, fish and vegetables has undergone considerable change, now resembling a Western diet that is high in calories, high glycaemic index carbohydrates, total fat and saturated, trans and omega 6 fatty acids, and low in omega-3 fatty acids and essential micronutrients. The available data on daily food intake and its impact on micro- and macro-nutrients are scanty in the Arab world. Obtaining these data is especially impor...

  5. Marine carbohydrates of wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Prasad N; Gomathi, Thandapani; Vinodhini, P Angelin; Nasreen, K

    2014-01-01

    Our natural heritage (rivers, seas, and oceans) has been exploited, mistreated, and contaminated because of industrialization, globalization, population growth, urbanization with increased wealth, and more extravagant lifestyles. The scenario gets worse when the effluents or contaminants are discharged directly. So wastewater treatment is a very important and necessary in nowadays to purify wastewater before it enters a body of natural water, or it is applied to the land, or it is reused. Various methods are available for treating wastewater but with many disadvantages. Recently, numerous approaches have been studied for the development of cheaper and more effective technologies, both to decrease the amount of wastewater produced and to improve the quality of the treated effluent. Biosorption is an emerging technology, which uses natural materials as adsorbents for wastewater treatment. Low-cost adsorbents of polysaccharide-based materials obtained from marine, such as chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar, and carrageenan, are acting as rescue for wastewater treatment. This chapter reviews the treatment of wastewater up to the present time using marine polysaccharides and its derivatives. Special attention is paid to the advantages of the natural adsorbents, which are a wonderful gift for human survival. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of stereochemistry on carbohydrate hydration in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Saskia Alexandra

    1992-01-01

    Although-carbohydrates are widely used, not much is known about the stereochemical aspects of hydration of carbohydrates. For D-aldohexoses, for example, there are eight different stereoisomers. Just how the hydroxy topology of a carbohydrate molecule influences the hydration behaviour in water is

  7. Interactions of carbohydrates and proteins by fluorophore-assisted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A sensitive, specific, and rapid method for the detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions is demonstrated by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). The procedure is simple and the cost is low. The advantage of this method is that carbohydrate-protein interactions can be easily displayed by FACE, ...

  8. Medium-term carbohydrate tolerance improves and then ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It has been reported that carbohydrate metabolism does not deteriorate in pregnancy in the African, an observation at variance with general teaching. Objective: To determine the effect of pregnancy on medium term carbohydrate metabolism. Methods: Medium term carbohydrate metabolism was evaluated in ...

  9. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591

  10. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  11. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  12. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  13. Bacterial fatty acid metabolism in modern antibiotic discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial fatty acid synthesis is essential for many pathogens and different from the mammalian counterpart. These features make bacterial fatty acid synthesis a desirable target for antibiotic discovery. The structural divergence of the conserved enzymes and the presence of different isozymes catalyzing the same reactions in the pathway make bacterial fatty acid synthesis a narrow spectrum target rather than the traditional broad spectrum target. Furthermore, bacterial fatty acid synthesis inhibitors are single-targeting, rather than multi-targeting like traditional monotherapeutic, broad-spectrum antibiotics. The single-targeting nature of bacterial fatty acid synthesis inhibitors makes overcoming fast-developing, target-based resistance a necessary consideration for antibiotic development. Target-based resistance can be overcome through multi-targeting inhibitors, a cocktail of single-targeting inhibitors, or by making the single targeting inhibitor sufficiently high affinity through a pathogen selective approach such that target-based mutants are still susceptible to therapeutic concentrations of drug. Many of the pathogens requiring new antibiotic treatment options encode for essential bacterial fatty acid synthesis enzymes. This review will evaluate the most promising targets in bacterial fatty acid metabolism for antibiotic therapeutics development and review the potential and challenges in advancing each of these targets to the clinic and circumventing target-based resistance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Lipids edited by Russell E. Bishop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Therapeutic potential of carbohydrates as regulators of macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Mimmi L E; Scanlan, Eoin M; Lavelle, Ed C

    2017-12-15

    It is well established for a broad range of disease states, including cancer and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, that pathogenesis is bolstered by polarisation of macrophages towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype, known as M2. As these innate immune cells are relatively long-lived, their re-polarisation to pro-inflammatory, phagocytic and bactericidal "classically activated" M1 macrophages is an attractive therapeutic approach. On the other hand, there are scenarios where the resolving inflammation, wound healing and tissue remodelling properties of M2 macrophages are beneficial - for example the successful introduction of biomedical implants. Although there are numerous endogenous and exogenous factors that have an impact on the macrophage polarisation spectrum, this review will focus specifically on prominent macrophage-modulating carbohydrate motifs with a view towards highlighting structure-function relationships and therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  16. Carbohydrates and the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Due to its scale and its important role in maintaining health, the gut microbiota can be considered as a 'new organ' inside the human body. Many complex carbohydrates are degraded and fermented by the human gut microbiota in the large intestine to both yield basic energy salvage and impact gut health through produced metabolites. This review will focus on the gut microbes and microbial mechanisms responsible for polysaccharides degradation and fermentation in the large intestine. Gut microbes and bacterial metabolites impact the host at many levels, including modulation of inflammation, and glucose and lipid metabolisms. A complex relationship occurs in the intestine between the human gut microbiota, diet and the host. Research on carbohydrates and gut microbiota composition and functionality is fast developing and will open opportunities for prevention and treatment of obesity, diabetes and other related metabolic disorders through manipulation of the gut ecosystem.

  17. Functionalized carbon nanomaterials derived from carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesan, Dinesh; Eswaramoorthy, Muthusamy

    2010-02-01

    A tremendous growth in the field of carbon nanomaterials has led to the emergence of carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, mesoporous carbon and more recently graphene. Some of these materials have found applications in electronics, sensors, catalysis, drug delivery, composites, and so forth. The high temperatures and hydrocarbon precursors involved in their synthesis usually yield highly inert graphitic surfaces. As some of the applications require functionalization of their inert graphitic surface with groups like -COOH, -OH, and -NH(2), treatment of these materials in oxidizing agents and concentrated acids become inevitable. More recent works have involved using precursors like carbohydrates to produce carbon nanostructures rich in functional groups in a single-step under hydrothermal conditions. These carbon nanostructures have already found many applications in composites, drug delivery, materials synthesis, and Li ion batteries. The review aims to highlight some of the recent developments in the application of carbohydrate derived carbon nanostructures and also provide an outlook of their future prospects.

  18. Selected nondigestible carbohydrates and prebiotics support the growth of probiotic fish bacteria mono-cultures in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurangwa, E; Laranja, J L; Van Houdt, R; Delaedt, Y; Geraylou, Z; Van de Wiele, T; Van Loo, J; Van Craeyveld, V; Courtin, C M; Delcour, J A; Ollevier, F

    2009-03-01

    To search for nondigestible but fermentable (NDF) carbohydrates and prebiotics with a potency to promote the growth of selected bacteria in vitro. The growth of three reference bacteria strains Bacillus subtilis LMG 7135(T), Carnobacterium piscicola LMG 9839, Lactobacillus plantarum LMG 9211 and one candidate probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis was investigated over a minimum period of 48 h in the presence of beta-glucan, xylo-oligosaccharide, arabinoxylo-oligosaccharide, inulin, oligofructose and glucose. Besides the capability to grow on inulin and oligofructose containing media, a distinct high growth in beta-glucan based substrates and a low growth in (arabino)xylooligosaccharide containing media were evident for most bacteria tested. With the exception of B. subtilis and L. plantarum, other bacteria grew equally well or even better on different substrates than on glucose. The fermentation of studied carbohydrates by these micro-organisms was dominated by the production of acetic acid as the main short chain fatty acid. Selected bacteria are able to ferment and grow on NDF and prebiotic carbohydrates but in a substrate dependent manner. This study delivers a first screening of which NDF or prebiotic carbohydrates are the most promising for aquaculture feed supplementations.

  19. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  20. Ultrasound assessment of gastric volume in children after drinking carbohydrate-containing fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, I-K; Kim, H-J; Lee, J-H; Kim, E-H; Kim, J-T; Kim, H-S

    2016-04-01

    Gastric ultrasound is a valid tool for non-invasive assessment of the nature and volume of gastric contents in adults and children. Perioperative fasting guidelines recommend oral carbohydrates up to 2 h before elective surgery. We evaluated gastric volume in children using ultrasound before and after drinking carbohydrate fluids before surgery. Paediatric patients younger than 18 yr old undergoing elective surgery were enrolled. Initial ultrasound assessment of gastric volume was performed after fasting for 8 h. Two hours before surgery, patients were given carbohydrate drinks: 15 ml kg(-1) for patients younger than 3 yr old and 10 ml kg(-1) for those more than 3 yr old. Before induction of general anaesthesia, the gastric volume was reassessed. Parental satisfaction scores (0=totally satisfied, 10=totally dissatisfied) and complications were recorded. Of the 86 enrolled patients, 79 completed the study; three refused to ingest the requested volume, and surgery was delayed for more than 2 h in four patients. The mean (sd) of the initial and second ultrasound measurements were 2.09 (0.97) and 1.85 (0.94) cm(2), respectively (P=0.01; mean difference 0.24 cm(2), 95% confidence interval 0.06-0.43). The median (interquartile range) satisfaction score was 2.4 (0-6). Two instances of postoperative vomiting and one instance of postoperative nausea occurred. Carbohydrate fluids ingested 2 h before surgery reduced the gastric volume and did not cause serious complications in paediatric patients. Parents were satisfied with the preoperative carbohydrate drink. Children may benefit from drinking carbohydrate fluids up to 2 h before elective surgery. cris.nih.go.kr (KCT0001546). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Macronutrients; Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes

    Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Institute of Medicine has developed a new approach to establish Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs...

  2. A rapid stereoselective synthesis of fluorinated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, M.J.; Neeser, J-R.; Hall, L.D.; Pate, B.D.

    1983-01-01

    Acetyl hypofluorite has been added to six unsaturated carbohydrates which contain the vinyl ether moiety. All reactions were rapid (less than 5 min.) at -78 degrees C and gave, with one exception, high yields of isomerically pure products. The hypofluorite was shown to add exclusively in a cis mode and with a strong preference for a particular 'face' of the double bond. As well as the syntheses, NMR data and preferred conformations for the fluorinated products are also discussed

  3. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an e...

  4. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Engineering fatty acid biosynthesis in microalgae for sustainable biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatti, Jillian L; Michaud, Jennifer; Burkart, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biodiesel and other liquid fuels due to their fast growth rate, high lipid yields, and ability to grow in a broad range of environments. However, many microalgae achieve maximal lipid yields only under stress conditions hindering growth and providing compositions not ideal for biofuel applications. Metabolic engineering of algal fatty acid biosynthesis promises to create strains capable of economically producing fungible and sustainable biofuels. The algal fatty acid biosynthetic pathway has been deduced by homology to bacterial and plant systems, and much of our understanding is gleaned from basic studies in these systems. However, successful engineering of lipid metabolism in algae will necessitate a thorough characterization of the algal fatty acid synthase (FAS) including protein-protein interactions and regulation. This review describes recent efforts to engineer fatty acid biosynthesis toward optimizing microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis and validation of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lütteke, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The article summarizes the information that is gained from and the errors that are found in carbohydrate structures in the Protein Data Bank. Validation tools that can locate these errors are described. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbohydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein–carbohydrate interactions. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein–carbohydrate complexes. Unfortunately, many carbohydrate moieties in the PDB contain inconsistencies or errors. This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures

  7. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Pedro L Mangabeira

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health.

  8. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Methods Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Results Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. Conclusions The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health.

  9. Development of hepatocellular cancer induced by long term low fat-high carbohydrate diet in a NAFLD/NASH mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessitore, Alessandra; Mastroiaco, Valentina; Vetuschi, Antonella; Sferra, Roberta; Pompili, Simona; Cicciarelli, Germana; Barnabei, Remo; Capece, Daria; Zazzeroni, Francesca; Capalbo, Carlo; Alesse, Edoardo

    2017-08-08

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease. It can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and, in a percentage of cases, to hepatocarcinogenesis. The strong incidence in western countries of obesity and metabolic syndrome, whose NAFLD is the hepatic expression, is thought to be correlated to consumption of diets characterized by processed food and sweet beverages. Previous studies described high-fat diet-induced liver tumors. Conversely, the involvement of low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet in the progression of liver disease or cancer initiation has not been described yet. Here we show for the first time hepatic cancer formation in low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet fed NAFLD/NASH mouse model. Animals were long term high-fat, low-fat/high-carbohydrate or standard diet fed. We observed progressive liver damage in low-fat/high-carbohydrate and high-fat animals after 12 and, more, 18 months. Tumors were detected in 20% and 50% of high-fat diet fed mice after 12 and 18 months and, interestingly, in 30% of low-fat/high-carbohydrate fed animals after 18 months. No tumors were detected in standard diet fed mice. Global increase of hepatic interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and hepatocyte growth factor was detected in low-fat/high-carbohydrate and high-fat with respect to standard diet fed mice as well as in tumor with respect to non-tumor bearing mice. A panel of 15 microRNAs was analyzed: some of them revealed differential expression in low-fat/high-carbohydrate with respect to high-fat diet fed groups and in tumors. Data here shown provide the first evidence of the involvement of low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet in hepatic damage leading to tumorigenesis.

  10. Submergence Causes Similar Carbohydrate Starvation but Faster Post-Stress Recovery than Darkness in Alternanthera philoxeroides Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qi Ye

    Full Text Available Carbon assimilation by submerged plants is greatly reduced due to low light levels. It is hypothesized that submergence reduces carbohydrate contents and that plants recover from submergence in the same way as darkness-treated plants. To test this hypothesis, the responses of plants to submergence and darkness were studied and compared. Plants of a submergence-tolerant species, Alternanthera philoxeroides, were exposed to well drained and illuminated conditions, complete submergence conditions or darkness conditions followed by a recovery growth period in a controlled experiment. The biomass maintenance and accumulation, carbohydrate content dynamics and respiration rate in the plants were assessed to quantify the carbohydrate utilization rate and regrowth. The submerged plants maintained higher chlorophyll contents, more green leaf tissue and more biomass; recovered more quickly; and accumulated more carbohydrates and biomass than darkness-treated plants. The respiration rate was continuously reduced in the same pattern under both stress conditions but was maintained at a significantly lower level in the submerged plants; the total soluble sugar and total fructan contents were decreased at approximately the same rate of decrease, reaching similar low levels, in the two stress treatments. The A. philoxeroides plants were more tolerant of submergence than darkness. The faster recovery of desubmerged plants could not be explained by the similar carbohydrate contents at the start of recovery. Other types of carbon reserves besides carbohydrates or other mechanisms such as higher post-stress photosynthetic performance might be involved.

  11. Submergence Causes Similar Carbohydrate Starvation but Faster Post-Stress Recovery than Darkness in Alternanthera philoxeroides Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiao Qi; Meng, Jin Liu; Zeng, Bo; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Ye Yi; Zhang, Xiao Ping

    2016-01-01

    Carbon assimilation by submerged plants is greatly reduced due to low light levels. It is hypothesized that submergence reduces carbohydrate contents and that plants recover from submergence in the same way as darkness-treated plants. To test this hypothesis, the responses of plants to submergence and darkness were studied and compared. Plants of a submergence-tolerant species, Alternanthera philoxeroides, were exposed to well drained and illuminated conditions, complete submergence conditions or darkness conditions followed by a recovery growth period in a controlled experiment. The biomass maintenance and accumulation, carbohydrate content dynamics and respiration rate in the plants were assessed to quantify the carbohydrate utilization rate and regrowth. The submerged plants maintained higher chlorophyll contents, more green leaf tissue and more biomass; recovered more quickly; and accumulated more carbohydrates and biomass than darkness-treated plants. The respiration rate was continuously reduced in the same pattern under both stress conditions but was maintained at a significantly lower level in the submerged plants; the total soluble sugar and total fructan contents were decreased at approximately the same rate of decrease, reaching similar low levels, in the two stress treatments. The A. philoxeroides plants were more tolerant of submergence than darkness. The faster recovery of desubmerged plants could not be explained by the similar carbohydrate contents at the start of recovery. Other types of carbon reserves besides carbohydrates or other mechanisms such as higher post-stress photosynthetic performance might be involved.

  12. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  13. Natural versus commercial carbohydrate supplementation and endurance running performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Too Brandon W

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the metabolic, performance and gastrointestinal (GI effects of supplementation with a natural food product (raisins compared to a commercial product (sport chews. Methods Eleven male (29.3 ± 7.9 yrs; mean and SD runners completed three randomized trials (raisins, chews and water only separated by seven days. Each trial consisted of 80-min (75%VO2max treadmill running followed by a 5-km time trial (TT. Heart rate (HR, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, blood lactate, serum free fatty acids (FFA, glycerol and insulin, plasma glucose and creatine kinase, GI symptoms and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded every 20-min. We employed a within-subject two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA for repeated measures with a Fisher’s post hoc analysis to determine significant differences. Results VO2, HR, lactate, glycerol and RPE did not differ due to treatment. Average plasma glucose was maintained at resting levels (5.3 ± 0.4 mmol·L-1 during the sub-maximal exercise bout (5.9 ± 0.6, 5.7 ± 0.6 and 5.5 ± 0.5 mmol·L-1 for chews, raisins and water respectively, and was significantly higher with chews than water only. RER and % of non-protein macronutrient oxidation derived from carbohydrate was highest with chews, followed by raisins and water was the lowest (74.4 ± 6.4, 70.0 ± 7.0 and 65.1 ± 8.7% for chews, raisins and water respectively during the sub-maximal exercise period. Serum FFA was higher in the water treatment versus both raisins and chews at 80 min of sub-maximal exercise. Serum insulin was higher with the chews than both raisins and water (5.1 ± 2.0, 3.1 ± 0.8, 1.9 ± 0.6 uU·ml-1 for chews, raisins and water respectively. Plasma creatine kinase, corrected for baseline values, for the last 40 min of the sub-maximal exercise bout, was higher with raisins compared to other treatments. The TT was faster for both carbohydrate supplements (20.6

  14. Balancing of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate intake in a predatory beetle following hibernation, and consequences for lipid restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreika, Norbertas; Madsen, Natalia E L; Jensen, Kim; Toft, Søren

    2016-05-01

    Carnivorous animals are known to balance their consumption of lipid and protein, and recent studies indicate that some mammalian carnivores also regulate their intake of carbohydrate. We investigated macronutrient balancing and lipid restoration following hibernation in the ground beetle Anchomenus dorsalis, hypothesizing that carbohydrates might be important energy sources upon hibernation when predator lipid stores are exhausted and prey are equally lean. We recorded the consumption of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate over nine days following hibernation, as the beetles foraged to refill their lipid stores. Each beetle was given the opportunity to regulate consumption from two semi-artificial foods differing in the proportion of two of the three macronutrients, while the third macronutrient was kept constant. When analyzing consumption of the three macronutrients on an energetic basis, it became apparent that the beetles regulated lipid and carbohydrate energy interchangeably and balanced the combined energy intake from the two macronutrients against protein intake. Restoration of lipid stores was independent of the availability of any specific macronutrient. However, the energetic consumption required to refill lipid stores was higher when a low proportion of lipids was ingested, suggesting that lipids were readily converted into lipid stores while there were energetic costs associated with converting carbohydrate and protein into stored lipids. Our experiment demonstrates that carbohydrates are consumed and regulated as a non-protein energy source by A. dorsalis despite an expectedly low occurrence of carbohydrates in their natural diet. Perhaps carbohydrates are in fact an overlooked supplementary energy source in the diet of carnivorous arthropods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. What happens to soil ecological properties when conservation reserve program land is disturbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year, expiring Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contracts results in the conversion of restored CRP land back to croplands, potentially reversing multiple ecological benefits including C sequestration potential and microbial biodiversity. We evaluated microbial community composition (fatty ac...

  16. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  17. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick-Melin, A J; Kalinski, M I; Kelly, K R

    2009-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a rapidly emerging chronic liver disease and is reported to affect up to 70-80% of overweight and obese individuals. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver diseases that range from simple hepatic steatosis, to a more severe and treatment resistant stage......) are not only implicated in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, but are also related to NAFLD. Such inflammatory mechanisms are fundamental in the progression of NAFLD toward higher risk cirrhotic states. This review outlines the leading theories of pathogenesis of NAFLD and highlights...

  18. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick-Melin, A J; Kalinski, M I; Kelly, K R

    2009-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a rapidly emerging chronic liver disease and is reported to affect up to 70-80% of overweight and obese individuals. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver diseases that range from simple hepatic steatosis, to a more severe and treatment resistant stage...... that features steatosis plus inflammation, termed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may in turn progress to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and sub-acute liver failure. Thus, NAFLD and its subsequent complications create a significant health burden, and currently there is no effective treatment strategy...

  19. The long underestimated carbonyl function of carbohydrates – an organocatalyzed shot into carbohydrate chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrwald, R

    2015-09-21

    The aggressive and strong development of organocatalysis provides several protocols for the convenient utilization of the carbonyl function of unprotected carbohydrates in C-C-bond formation processes. These amine-catalyzed mechanisms enable multiple cascade-protocols for the synthesis of a wide range of carbohydrate-derived compound classes. Several, only slightly different protocols, have been developed for the application of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in the stereoselective chain-elongation of unprotected carbohydrates and the synthesis of highly functionalized C-glycosides of defined configuration. In addition, C-glycosides can also be accessed by amine-catalyzed reactions with methyl ketones. By a one-pot cascade reaction of isocyanides with unprotected aldoses and amino acids access to defined configured glycopeptide mimetics is achieved. Depending on the reaction conditions different origins to control the installation of configuration during the bond-formation process were observed.

  20. Antioxidant activity and profile fatty acids of jabuticaba seeds (Myrciaria cauliflora berg)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, Neuza; Bruna Jorge Bertanha; Moreno Luzia, Debora Maria

    2011-01-01

    Numerous natural compounds found in fruits, grains and vegetables have antioxidant activity. This work aimed to characterize jabuticaba seeds (Myrciaria cauliflora berg) by proximate composition, antioxidant activity and fatty acids profile of their extracted oil. To obtain the extract, the dehydrated and triturated seeds were extracted with ethyl alcohol for 30 min, at a proportion of 1:3 of seeds: ethyl alcohol, under continuous agitation, at room temperature. Afterwards, the mixture was filtered and the supernatant dehydrated at 40 Celsius degrade aiming to determine, by direct weighing, the extracts dry matter yield. According to the results, the jabuticaba seeds are an important source of total carbohydrates, and also presented relevant antioxidant activity. In the jabuticaba seeds oil, a significant percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids stood out, with linoleic and α-linolenic being the main component, essentials fatty acids.

  1. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinon, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Long-term dietary habits play a crucial role in creating a host-specific gut microbiota community in humans. Despite the many publications about the effects of carbohydrates (prebiotic fibers), the impact of dietary fats, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), on the gut microbiota is less well defined. The few studies completed in adults showed some common changes in the gut microbiota after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. In particular, a decrease in Faecalibacterium, often associated with an increase in the Bacteroidetes and butyrate-producing bacteria belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family, has been observed. Coincidentally, a dysbiosis of these taxa is found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Omega-3 PUFAs can exert a positive action by reverting the microbiota composition in these diseases, and increase the production of anti-inflammatory compounds, like short-chain fatty acids. In addition, accumulating evidence in animal model studies indicates that the interplay between gut microbiota, omega-3 fatty acids, and immunity helps to maintain the intestinal wall integrity and interacts with host immune cells. Finally, human and animal studies have highlighted the ability of omega-3 PUFAs to influence the gut–brain axis, acting through gut microbiota composition. From these findings, the importance of the omega-3 connection to the microbiota emerges, encouraging further studies. PMID:29215589

  2. NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Chistova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome that represents a totality of interrelated carbohydrate metabolism and lipid disorders, as well as a mechanism regulating arterial tension and endothelium function is one of the critical issues in pediatrics. In recent years, children with metabolic syndrome are increasingly diagnosed with liver injuries symptoms that are associated with a fatty transformation of the liver [1–3]. In this case, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, a liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome is diagnosed. The diagnosis is confirmed in the absence of alcohol abuse in the past medical history, virus and autoimmune liver disease markers, elimination of toxic and drug influence, as wells as disorders of copper and iron exchange in the patient’s system. One of the key risk factors for developing NAFLD in children is overeating and reduced physical activities. It was believed in the past that NAFLD is relatively benign, however, there is evidence in current literature that this is a pathological condition that may develop and result in extreme fibrotic alterations in the liver parenchymatous tissue all the way to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma [4]. Early-stage identification and timely launch of therapy for NAFLD in children represents one of the most important objectives in modern healthcare. Key words: metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, children, steatohepatosis. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(6:68-72

  3. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Costantini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term dietary habits play a crucial role in creating a host-specific gut microbiota community in humans. Despite the many publications about the effects of carbohydrates (prebiotic fibers, the impact of dietary fats, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, on the gut microbiota is less well defined. The few studies completed in adults showed some common changes in the gut microbiota after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. In particular, a decrease in Faecalibacterium, often associated with an increase in the Bacteroidetes and butyrate-producing bacteria belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family, has been observed. Coincidentally, a dysbiosis of these taxa is found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Omega-3 PUFAs can exert a positive action by reverting the microbiota composition in these diseases, and increase the production of anti-inflammatory compounds, like short-chain fatty acids. In addition, accumulating evidence in animal model studies indicates that the interplay between gut microbiota, omega-3 fatty acids, and immunity helps to maintain the intestinal wall integrity and interacts with host immune cells. Finally, human and animal studies have highlighted the ability of omega-3 PUFAs to influence the gut–brain axis, acting through gut microbiota composition. From these findings, the importance of the omega-3 connection to the microbiota emerges, encouraging further studies.

  4. Multivalent interaction based carbohydrate biosensors for signal amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Chalagalla, Srinivas; Li, Tiehai; Sun, Xue-long; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Peng; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2010-01-01

    Multivalent interaction between boronic acids immobilized on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor surface and the carbohydrates modified Au - nanoparticle (AuNP) has been demonstrated for the development of a sensitive carbohydrate biosensor. Briefly, a boronic acid - containing polymer (boropolymer) as multivalent carbohydrate receptor was oriented immobilized on the cysteamine coated electrode through isourea bond formation. Carbohydrates were conjugated to AuNPs to generate a multivalent carbohydrates moiety to amplify the response signal. Thus, the binding of the carbohydrate conjugated AuNPs to the boropolymer surface are multivalent which could simultaneously increase the binding affinity and specificity. We systematically studied the binding between five carbohydrate conjugated AuNPs and the boropolymer. Our studies show that the associate constant (Ka) was in the order of fucose carbohydrate analytes. Furthermore, the multivalent binding between carbohydrates and boronic acids are reversible and allow the regeneration of boropolymer surface by using 1M acetic acid so as to sequentially capture and release the carbohydrate analytes. PMID:20863680

  5. Discovery and design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Laura; Araújo, Ana C; Bini, Davide; Gabrielli, Luca; Russo, Laura; Shaikh, Nasrin

    2010-08-01

    Till now, the importance of carbohydrates has been underscored, if compared with the two other major classes of biopolymers such as oligonucleotides and proteins. Recent advances in glycobiology and glycochemistry have imparted a strong interest in the study of this enormous family of biomolecules. Carbohydrates have been shown to be implicated in recognition processes, such as cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix adhesion and cell-intruder recognition phenomena. In addition, carbohydrates are recognized as differentiation markers and as antigenic determinants. Due to their relevant biological role, carbohydrates are promising candidates for drug design and disease treatment. However, the growing number of human disorders known as congenital disorders of glycosylation that are being identified as resulting from abnormalities in glycan structures and protein glycosylation strongly indicates that a fast development of glycobiology, glycochemistry and glycomedicine is highly desirable. The topics give an overview of different approaches that have been used to date for the design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics; this includes the use of native synthetic carbohydrates, the use of carbohydrate mimics designed on the basis of their native counterpart, the use of carbohydrates as scaffolds and finally the design of glyco-fused therapeutics, one of the most recent approaches. The review covers mainly literature that has appeared since 2000, except for a few papers cited for historical reasons. The reader will gain an overview of the current strategies applied to the design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics; in particular, the advantages/disadvantages of different approaches are highlighted. The topic is presented in a general, basic manner and will hopefully be a useful resource for all readers who are not familiar with it. In addition, in order to stress the potentialities of carbohydrates, several examples of carbohydrate-based marketed therapeutics are given

  6. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.

  7. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  8. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  9. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  10. Peroxidized unsaturated fatty acids stimulate Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Akiko; Ueda, Shinichiro

    2013-05-30

    Although unsaturated fatty acids are assumed to be protective against inflammatory disorders that include a pathway involving Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation, they might actually be toxic because of their high susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Here we studied the effects of peroxidized unsaturated fatty acids on the TLR4-nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway in endothelial cells. Confluent cultured endothelial cells from bovine aorta were incubated for 1h with fatty acids integrated into phosphatidylcholine vesicles. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phosphatidylcholine vesicles without fatty acids were also applied as a positive control or a control for fatty acid groups, respectively. Activation of TLR4 and downstream signaling was assessed by membrane fractionation and Western blotting or immunofluorescent staining. In the same way as LPS, application of sufficiently peroxidized unsaturated fatty acids like oleic acid or docosahexaenoic acid, acutely caused TLR4 translocation to caveolae/raft membranes, leading to activation of NF-κB signaling in endothelial cells. In contrast, saturated fatty acids did not show such effects. Applying well-peroxidized unsaturated fatty acids, but not saturated fatty acids, acutely activates the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acid is essential for the acute activation of TLR4 by the fatty acids that follow the same pathway as the activation by LPS. Unsaturated fatty acids have been assumed to be protective against inflammatory disorders, and drugs containing unsaturated fatty acids are now developed and provided. Our result suggests that, for inflammatory disorders involving TLR4 signaling, using unsaturated fatty acids as anti-inflammatory drugs may cause contrary effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ensiling characteristics, structural and nonstructural carbohydrate composition and enzymatic digestibility of Napier grass ensiled with additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta, Seare T; Yuan, XianJun; Li, Junfeng; Shao, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Ensiling characteristics, structural and nonstructural carbohydrate composition and enzymatic digestibility (ED) of Napier grass silage was examined. Napier grass ensiled with no additive control, 0.2% formic acid, 0.4% molasses, and 0.3% fibrolytic enzyme for, 7, 30, 60 and 90days. Additives increased lactic acid, soluble carbohydrate and decreased all of lignocellulosic contents except acid detergent lignin and pH than control. The highest value of nonstructural carbohydrate and large reduction in lignocellulosic contents was observed in formic acid and fibrolytic enzyme silage respectively. The content of glucose and fructose showed rapid drop in the first 7days of ensilage. Ensilage decreased lignocellulosic contents and increased ED compared to fresh material. The ED of formic acid and molasses silage was significantly higher than control and fibrolytic enzyme silages in all tested days. In summery the ensiling quality structural and nonstructural carbohydrate and ED value of mature Napier grass silage improved through additives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Third Exposure to a Reduced Carbohydrate Meal Lowers Evening Postprandial Insulin and GIP Responses and HOMA-IR Estimate of Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Ju; Borer, Katarina T

    2016-01-01

    Postprandial hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease mortality. Postprandial hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia also occur in metabolically healthy subjects consuming high-carbohydrate diets particularly after evening meals and when carbohydrate loads follow acute exercise. We hypothesized the involvement of dietary carbohydrate load, especially when timed after exercise, and mediation by the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) in this phenomenon, as this incretin promotes insulin secretion after carbohydrate intake in insulin-sensitive, but not in insulin-resistant states. Four groups of eight metabolically healthy weight-matched postmenopausal women were provided with three isocaloric meals (a pre-trial meal and two meals during the trial day) containing either 30% or 60% carbohydrate, with and without two-hours of moderate-intensity exercise before the last two meals. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, GIP, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFAs), and D-3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were measured during 4-h postprandial periods and 3-h exercise periods, and their areas under the curve (AUCs) were analyzed by mixed-model ANOVA, and insulin resistance during fasting and meal tolerance tests within each diet was estimated using homeostasis-model assessment (HOMA-IR). The third low-carbohydrate meal, but not the high-carbohydrate meal, reduced: (1) evening insulin AUC by 39% without exercise and by 31% after exercise; (2) GIP AUC by 48% without exercise and by 45% after exercise, and (3) evening insulin resistance by 37% without exercise and by 24% after exercise. Pre-meal exercise did not alter insulin-, GIP- and HOMA-IR- lowering effects of low-carbohydrate diet, but exacerbated evening hyperglycemia. Evening postprandial insulin and GIP responses and insulin resistance declined by over 30% after three meals that limited daily carbohydrate intake to

  13. Third Exposure to a Reduced Carbohydrate Meal Lowers Evening Postprandial Insulin and GIP Responses and HOMA-IR Estimate of Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Ju; Borer, Katarina T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Postprandial hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease mortality. Postprandial hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia also occur in metabolically healthy subjects consuming high-carbohydrate diets particularly after evening meals and when carbohydrate loads follow acute exercise. We hypothesized the involvement of dietary carbohydrate load, especially when timed after exercise, and mediation by the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) in this phenomenon, as this incretin promotes insulin secretion after carbohydrate intake in insulin-sensitive, but not in insulin-resistant states. Methods Four groups of eight metabolically healthy weight-matched postmenopausal women were provided with three isocaloric meals (a pre-trial meal and two meals during the trial day) containing either 30% or 60% carbohydrate, with and without two-hours of moderate-intensity exercise before the last two meals. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, GIP, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFAs), and D-3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were measured during 4-h postprandial periods and 3-h exercise periods, and their areas under the curve (AUCs) were analyzed by mixed-model ANOVA, and insulin resistance during fasting and meal tolerance tests within each diet was estimated using homeostasis-model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results The third low-carbohydrate meal, but not the high-carbohydrate meal, reduced: (1) evening insulin AUC by 39% without exercise and by 31% after exercise; (2) GIP AUC by 48% without exercise and by 45% after exercise, and (3) evening insulin resistance by 37% without exercise and by 24% after exercise. Pre-meal exercise did not alter insulin-, GIP- and HOMA-IR- lowering effects of low-carbohydrate diet, but exacerbated evening hyperglycemia. Conclusions Evening postprandial insulin and GIP responses and insulin resistance declined by over 30% after three meals

  14. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbohydrate pools in phloem and xylem of two alpine timberline conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, A; Pirkebner, D; Oberhuber, W

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies on non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) reserves in trees focused on xylem NSC reserves, while still little is known about changes in phloem carbohydrate pools, where NSC charging might be significantly different. To gain insight on NSC dynamics in xylem and phloem, we monitored NSC concentrations in stems and roots of Pinus cembra (L.) and Larix decidua (Mill.) growing at the alpine timberline throughout 2011. Species-specific differences affected tree phenology and carbon allocation during the course of the year. After a delayed start in spring, NSC concentrations in L. decidua were significantly higher in all sampled tissues from August until the end of growing season. In both species, NSC concentrations were five to seven times higher in phloem than that in xylem. However, significant correlations between xylem and phloem starch content found for both species indicate a close linkage between long-term carbon reserves in both tissues. In L. decidua also, free sugar concentrations in xylem and phloem were significantly correlated throughout the year, while a lack of correlation between xylem and phloem free sugar pools in P. cembra indicate a decline of phloem soluble carbohydrate pools during periods of high sink demand.

  15. The Mediterranean diet improves hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Marno C; Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Thodis, Tania; Ward, Glenn; Trost, Nicholas; Hofferberth, Sophie; O'Dea, Kerin; Desmond, Paul V; Johnson, Nathan A; Wilson, Andrew M

    2013-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects up to 30% of the population and signifies increased risk of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Therapies are limited. Weight loss is of benefit but is difficult to maintain. We aimed at examining the effect of the Mediterranean diet (MD), a diet high in monounsaturated fatty acids, on steatosis and insulin sensitivity, using gold standard techniques. Twelve non-diabetic subjects (6 Females/6 Males) with biopsy-proven NAFLD were recruited for a randomised, cross-over 6-week dietary intervention study. All subjects undertook both the MD and a control diet, a low fat-high carbohydrate diet (LF/HCD), in random order with a 6-week wash-out period in- between. Insulin sensitivity was determined with a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study and hepatic steatosis was assessed with localized magnetic resonance (1)H spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). At baseline, subjects were abdominally obese with elevated fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, ALT, and GGT. Insulin sensitivity at baseline was low (M=2.7 ± 1.0 mg/kg/min(-1)). Mean weight loss was not different between the two diets (p=0.22). There was a significant relative reduction in hepatic steatosis after the MD compared with the LF/HCD: 39 ± 4% versus 7 ± 3%, as measured by (1)H-MRS (p=0.012). Insulin sensitivity improved with the MD, whereas after the LF/HCD there was no change (p=0.03 between diets). Even without weight loss, MD reduces liver steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity in an insulin-resistant population with NAFLD, compared to current dietary advice. This diet should be further investigated in subjects with NAFLD. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  17. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III.

    1994-01-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group's discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15

  18. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has been introduced as a marker of excessive alcohol intake. The present study was undertaken in order to measure the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to assess arteriovenous kinetics...... of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in liver and kidney. METHODS/RESULTS: The median value of serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin was 16.0 U/l in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 41), and this value was not significantly different from that of a normal control group (median 17.4 U/l, n = 55, ns......). Carbohydrate deficient transferrin was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis and high current alcohol intake than in abstaining patients (20 vs. 14 U/l, p 50 g/day) had a significantly higher carbohydrate deficient transferrin...

  19. [Hypertrophy and coronary reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, W; Scheler, S

    2008-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.

  20. Study on fatty acids composition of lipid class in fish oil, proximate analysis and calorie value of kijar in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 14.00 This aim of this research was to determine fatty acids and raw proximate composition and calorie value of fish Kijar in Iran. The fatty acids and proximate composition Kijar was determined. The established AOAC (Association of Official Agricultural Chemist, USA methods were followed for composition bio chemical of fish. Mean moisture, fat, protein, ash, carbohydrate contents and calorie value of raw fish were 70.81%, 5.88%, 17.80%, 3.41%, 2.1% and 132.52 kcal, respectively. Among fatty acids, palmitic acid was a major fatty acid while stearic acid was the other major constituent. Unsaturated monoenoic fatty acids (oleic and palmitoleic acids were major constituents. Important unsaturated fatty acids such as EPA and DHA, were also identified. percentage composition of fatty acids in the lipid classes of oil of Saurida undosquamis which the saturated fatty acids ranges from 58% to 72.14%. Palmitic acid is predominant and its composition ranges 38.64% to 48.98% while stearic acid ranges from 11.35% to 19.50%. Among unsaturated fatty acids, monoenoic are the major fatty acids. Oleic acid ranges from 12.15% to 27.48%. It is concluded that fish kijar found as health seafood for Iranian southern peoples form point of view of nutritional values and valuable fatty acids. Therefore it is recommended people put this fish in diet basket and it consumed three times in the week. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  1. Carbohydrate intake and cardiometabolic risk factors in high BMI African American children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Lindsay S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between intakes of subgroups of energy-providing carbohydrate, and markers of cardiometabolic risk factors in high BMI African American (AA children. A cross sectional analysis was performed on data from a sample of 9-11 year old children (n = 95 with BMI greater than the 85th percentile. Fasting hematological and biochemical values for selected markers of cardiometabolic risk factors were related to intakes of carbohydrates and sugars. After adjusting for gender, pubertal stage and waist circumference, multivariate regression analysis showed that higher intakes of carbohydrate (with fat and protein held constant were associated with higher plasma concentrations of triglycerides (TG, VLDL-C, IDL-C, and worse insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR. After dividing carbohydrate into non-sugar versus sugar fractions, sugars were significantly related to higher TG, VLDL-C, IDL-C, lower adipocyte fatty acid insulin sensitivity (ISI-FFA, and was closely associated with increased HOMA-IR. Similar trends were observed for sugars classified as added sugars, and for sugars included in beverages. Further dividing sugar according to the food group from which it was consumed showed that consuming more sugar from the candy/soda food group was highly significantly associated with increased TG, VLDL-C, IDL-C and closely associated with increased HOMA-IR. Sugars consumed in all fruit-containing foods were significantly associated with lower ISI-FFA. Sugars consumed as fruit beverages was significantly associated with VLDL-C, IDL-C and ISI-FFA whereas sugars consumed as fresh, dried and preserved fruits did not show significant associations with these markers. Sugars consumed from in all dairy foods were significantly associated with higher TG, VLDL-C and IDL-C, and with significantly lower HDL-C and ISI-FFA. These effects were associated with sugars consumed

  2. Exploiting Uniformly13C-Labeled Carbohydrates for Probing Carbohydrate-Protein Interactions by NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Gustav; Anderson, Taigh; Oscarson, Stefan; Gronenborn, Angela M

    2017-05-03

    NMR of a uniformly 13 C-labeled carbohydrate was used to elucidate the atomic details of a sugar-protein complex. The structure of the 13 C-labeled Manα(1-2)Manα(1-2)ManαOMe trisaccharide ligand, when bound to cyanovirin-N (CV-N), was characterized and revealed that in the complex the glycosidic linkage torsion angles between the two reducing-end mannoses are different from the free trisaccharide. Distances within the carbohydrate were employed for conformational analysis, and NOE-based distance mapping between sugar and protein revealed that Manα(1-2)Manα(1-2)ManαOMe is bound more intimately with its two reducing-end mannoses into the domain A binding site of CV-N than with the nonreducing end unit. Taking advantage of the 13 C spectral dispersion of 13 C-labeled carbohydrates in isotope-filtered experiments is a versatile means for a simultaneous mapping of the binding interactions on both, the carbohydrate and the protein.

  3. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut.

  4. Carbohydrate modified polysiloxanes, 3 - Solution properties of carbohydrate-polysiloxane conjugates in toluene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Katja; Jonas, Gerd; Stadler, Reimund

    2001-01-01

    High molecular weight poly(hydromethyl-co-dimethyl) siloxanes containing 0.6 and 3 mol-% of Si-H units are polar functionalized by the addition of various mono-, di- and oligosaccharides. Due to the hydrogen bond interaction between the carbohydrate moieties, the solution properties are strongly

  5. Choline-Deficient-Diet-Induced Fatty Liver Is a Metastasis-Resistant Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Miki; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Matsumoto, Takuro; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-07-01

    Fatty liver disease is increasing in the developed and developing world. Liver metastasis from malignant lymphoma in the fatty liver is poorly understood. In a previous report, we developed color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment (TME) of the murine EL4-RFP malignant lymphoma during metastasis, including the lung. In the present report, we investigated the potential and microenvironment of the fatty liver induced by a choline-deficient diet as a metastatic site in this mouse lymphoma model. C57BL/6-GFP transgenic mice were fed with a choline-deficient diet in order to establish a fatty liver model. EL4-RFP cells were injected in the spleen of normal mice and fatty-liver mice. Metastases in mice with fatty liver or normal liver were imaged with the Olympus SZX7 microscope and the Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope. Metastases of EL4-RFP were observed in the liver, ascites and bone marrow. Primary tumors were imaged in the spleen at the injection site. The fewest metastases were observed in the fatty liver. In addition, the fewest cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were observed in the fatty liver. The relative metastatic resistance of the fatty liver may be due to the reduced number of CAFs in the fatty livers. The mechanism of the effect of the choline-deficient diet is discussed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Topical electrophilic nitro-fatty acids potentiate cutaneous inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Alicia R; Carey, Cara D; Killeen, Meaghan E; Salvatore, Sonia R; Ferris, Laura K; Freeman, Bruce A; Schopfer, Francisco J; Falo, Louis D

    2018-02-01

    Endogenous electrophilic fatty acids mediate anti-inflammatory responses by modulating metabolic and inflammatory signal transduction and gene expression. Nitro-fatty acids and other electrophilic fatty acids may thus be useful for the prevention and treatment of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory skin disorders. In this regard, subcutaneous (SC) injections of nitro oleic acid (OA-NO 2 ), an exemplary nitro-fatty acid, inhibit skin inflammation in a model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Given the nitration of unsaturated fatty acids during metabolic and inflammatory processes and the growing use of fatty acids in topical formulations, we sought to further study the effect of nitro-fatty acids on cutaneous inflammation. To accomplish this, the effect of topically applied OA-NO 2 on skin inflammation was evaluated using established murine models of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). In contrast to the effects of subcutaneously injected OA-NO 2 , topical OA-NO 2 potentiated hapten-dependent inflammation inducing a sustained neutrophil-dependent inflammatory response characterized by psoriasiform histological features, increased angiogenesis, and an inflammatory infiltrate that included neutrophils, inflammatory monocytes, and γδ T cells. Consistent with these results, HPLC-MS/MS analysis of skin from psoriasis patients displayed a 56% increase in nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-NO 2 ) levels in lesional skin compared to non-lesional skin. These results suggest that nitro-fatty acids in the skin microenvironment are products of cutaneous inflammatory responses and, in high local concentrations, may exacerbate inflammatory skin diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Supplementation with antioxidant-rich extra virgin olive oil prevents hepatic oxidative stress and reduction of desaturation capacity in mice fed a high-fat diet: Effects on fatty acid composition in liver and extrahepatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Angel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Marambio, Macarena; Espinosa, Alejandra; Mayer, Susana; Romero, Nalda; Barrera M Sc, Cynthia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in mice on the reduction of desaturase and antioxidant enzymatic activities in liver, concomitantly with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) profiles in liver and extrahepatic tissues induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male mice C57 BL/6 J were fed with a control diet (CD; 10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or an HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 wk. Animals were supplemented with 100 mg/d EVOO with different antioxidant contents (EVOO I, II, and III). After the intervention, blood and several tissues were analyzed. Dietary supplementation with EVOO with the highest antioxidant content and antioxidant capacity (EVOO III) significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and the plasmatic metabolic alterations caused by HFD and produced a normalization of oxidative stress-related parameters, desaturase activities, and LCPUFA content in tissues. Data suggest that dietary supplementation with EVOO III may prevent oxidative stress and reduction of biosynthesis and accretion of ω-3 LCPUFA in the liver of HFD-fed mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbohydrate Recognition by Boronolectins, Small Molecules, and Lectins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shan; Cheng, Yunfeng; Reid, Suazette; Li, Minyong; Wang, Binghe

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrates are known to mediate a large number of biological and pathological events. Small and macromolecules capable of carbohydrate recognition have great potentials as research tools, diagnostics, vectors for targeted delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents, and therapeutic agents. However, this potential is far from being realized. One key issue is the difficulty in the development of “binders” capable of specific recognition of carbohydrates of biological relevance. This review discusses systematically the general approaches that are available in developing carbohydrate sensors and “binders/receptors,” and their applications. The focus is on discoveries during the last five years. PMID:19291708

  9. Growth and metabolic characteristics of oleaginous microalgal isolates from Nilgiri biosphere Reserve of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Kalaiselvi; Radha Krishnan, Preethi; Nagaiah, Srimeena; Kuppusamy, Senthil; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Rajadorai, Jude Sudhagar; Nellaiappan Olaganathan, Gopal; Dananjeyan, Balachandar

    2018-01-03

    Renewable energy for sustainable development is a subject of a worldwide debate since continuous utilization of non-renewable energy sources has a drastic impact on the environment and economy; a search for alternative energy resources is indispensable. Microalgae are promising and potential alternate energy resources for biodiesel production. Thus, our efforts were focused on surveying the natural diversity of microalgae for the production of biodiesel. The present study aimed at identification, isolation, and characterization of oleaginous microalgae from shola forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR), the biodiversity hot spot of India, where the microalgal diversity has not yet been systematically investigated. Overall the higher biomass yield, higher lipid accumulation and thermotolerance observed in the isolated microalgal strains have been found to be the desirable traits for the efficient biodiesel production. Species composition and diversity analysis yielded ten potential microalgal isolates belonging to Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae classes. The chlorophytes exhibited higher growth rate, maximum biomass yield, and higher lipid accumulation than Cyanophyceae. Among the chlorophytes, the best performing strains were identified and represented by Acutodesmus dissociatus (TGA1), Chlorella sp. (TGA2), Chlamydomonadales sp. (TGA3) and Hindakia tetrachotoma (PGA1). The Chlamydomonadales sp. recorded with the highest growth rate, lipid accumulation and biomass yield of 0.28 ± 0.03 day -1 (μ exp ), 29.7 ± 0.69% and 134.17 ± 16.87 mg L -1  day -1 , respectively. It was also found to grow well at various temperatures, viz., 25 °C, 35 °C, and 45 °C, indicating its suitability for open pond cultivation. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis of stationary phase cultures of selected four algal strains by tandem mass spectrograph showed C16:0, C18:1 and C18:3 as dominant fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production. All the three

  10. Lifestyle predictors of obese and non-obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Joo Hee; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Seung Min; Cho, Yong Kyun; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Hang Lak; Lee, Oh Young; Choi, Ho Soon; Yoon, Byung Chul

    2017-08-30

    Most people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are obese, and they usually eat more while being less physically active as compared to healthy individuals. However, little is known about the lifestyle patterns of non-obese or obese patients with NAFLD. The aim of this study was to investigate nutrition components and behavioral differences between non-obese and obese patients with NAFLD. This is a cross-sectional study comprising of 209 patients. Nutritional components and physical activity status were compared in obese and non-obese subjects with NAFLD against healthy controls. Dietary intake was assessed using the 5-day food diary. Physical activity was measured using the protocol of Korea Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Total and regional body composition analysis was conducted using anthropometry and tetrapolar multi-frequency bio-impedance. Visceral adipose tissue, total abdominal adipose tissue, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue as well as liver fat were measured using abdomen tomography. Non-obese subjects with NAFLD had higher levels of ALT, AST, GGT, triglyceride, fasting glucose; higher carbohydrate energy ratio; higher visceral fat area, subcutaneous area, body muscle mass, fat free mass and body fat compared to subjects without NAFLD. Subjects with obesity and NAFLD had higher ALT, AST, visceral fat, fasting glucose and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance), and less moderate-level physical activity compared to those with obesity who do not have NAFLD. Obese subjects with NAFLD also had higher blood pressure, visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, body fat, body fat percent and GGT compared to non-obese subjects with NAFLD. In multivariate analysis, carbohydrate energy ratio and physical activity less than moderate-level (<2 h/week) were predictors of NAFLD in non-obese subjects independent of the visceral fat, body muscle index, total energy intake, age and sex. Physical activity less than moderate

  11. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB. Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms or catalysts cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq + 7 H2O (l à 12 H2 (g + 6 CO2 (g (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456. Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from proton exchange membrane fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  12. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  13. Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Hanhineva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic b-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  14. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  15. Adding Fish Oil to Whey Protein, Leucine, and Carbohydrate Over a Six-Week Supplementation Period Attenuates Muscle Soreness Following Eccentric Exercise in Competitive Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Jordan D; Donnelly, Chris; Walshe, Ian H; MacKinley, Elizabeth E; Dick, James; Galloway, Stuart D R; Tipton, Kevin D; Witard, Oliver C

    2018-01-01

    Soccer players often experience eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage given the physical demands of soccer match-play. Since long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) enhance muscle sensitivity to protein supplementation, dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil-derived n-3PUFA, protein, and carbohydrate may promote exercise recovery. This study examined the influence of adding n-3PUFA to a whey protein, leucine, and carbohydrate containing beverage over a six-week supplementation period on physiological markers of recovery measured over three days following eccentric exercise. Competitive soccer players were assigned to one of three conditions (2 × 200 mL): a fish oil supplement beverage (FO; n = 10) that contained n-3PUFA (1100 mg DHA/EPA-approximately 550 mg DHA, 550 mg EPA), whey protein (15 g), leucine (1.8 g), and carbohydrate (20 g); a protein supplement beverage (PRO; n = 10) that contained whey protein (15 g), leucine (1.8 g), and carbohydrate (20 g); and a carbohydrate supplement beverage (CHO; n = 10) that contained carbohydrate (24 g). Eccentric exercise consisted of unilateral knee extension/flexion contractions on both legs separately. Maximal force production was impaired by 22% during the 72-hour recovery period following eccentric exercise (p soccer performance, or blood c-reactive protein concentrations were observed between groups. In conclusion, the addition of n-3PUFA to a beverage containing whey protein, leucine, and carbohydrate ameliorates the increase in muscle soreness and blood concentrations of creatine kinase following eccentric exercise in competitive soccer players.

  16. Organotin-catalyzed highly regioselective thiocarbonylation of nonprotected carbohydrates and synthesis of deoxy carbohydrates in a minimum number of steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Wataru; Tanigawa, Satoko; Takemoto, Yuki; Yoshimatsu, Hirofumi; Onomura, Osamu

    2012-04-16

    Nonprotected carbohydrates: The catalytic regioselective thiocarbonylation of carbohydrates by using organotin dichloride under mild conditions was demonstrated. The reaction afforded various deoxy saccharides in high yields and excellent regioselectivity in a minimum number of steps. The regioselectivity of the thiocarbonylation is attributed to the intrinsic character of the carbohydrates based on the stereorelationship of their hydroxy groups (see scheme). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. PARP1-mediated PPARα poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation suppresses fatty acid oxidation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Du, Meng; Tan, Xin; Yang, Ling; Li, Xiangrao; Jiang, Yuhan; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Fengxiao; Zhu, Feng; Cheng, Min; Yang, Qinglin; Yu, Liqing; Wang, Lin; Huang, Dan; Huang, Kai

    2017-05-01

    PARP1 is a key mediator of cellular stress responses and critical in multiple physiological and pathophysiological processes of cells. However, whether it is involved in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains elusive. We analysed PARP1 activity in the liver of mice on a high fat diet (HFD), and samples from NAFLD patients. Gain- or loss-of-function approaches were used to investigate the roles and mechanisms of hepatic PARP1 in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PARP1 is activated in fatty liver of HFD-fed mice. Pharmacological or genetic manipulations of PARP1 are sufficient to alter the HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Mechanistically we identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) as a substrate of PARP1-mediated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. This poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PPARα inhibits its recruitment to target gene promoters and its interaction with SIRT1, a key regulator of PPARα signaling, resulting in suppression of fatty acid oxidation upregulation induced by fatty acids. Moreover, we show that PARP1 is a transcriptional repressor of PPARα gene in human hepatocytes, and its activation suppresses the ligand (fenofibrate)-induced PPARα transactivation and target gene expression. Importantly we demonstrate that liver biopsies of NAFLD patients display robust increases in PARP activity and PPARα poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation levels. Our data indicate that PARP1 is activated in fatty liver, which prevents maximal activation of fatty acid oxidation by suppressing PPARα signaling. Pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 may alleviate PPARα suppression and therefore have therapeutic potential for NAFLD. PARP1 is activated in the non-alcoholic fatty liver of mice and patients. Inhibition of PARP1 activation alleviates lipid accumulation and inflammation in fatty liver of mice. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  19. Assessment of different carbohydrates as exogenous carbon source in cultivation of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Érika Cristina; Franco, Telma Teixeira; Wagner, Roger; Jacob-Lopes, Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    Glucose is the substrate most widely used as exogenous carbon source for heterotrophic cultivation of cyanobacteria. Due to limited information about the use of different carbohydrates as carbon sources to support cyanobacterial heterotrophic metabolism, the objective of this work was to evaluate different monosaccharides (arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose and xylose), disaccharides (lactose, maltose, sucrose and trehalose) and polysaccharides (carboxymethylcellulose, cassava starch, Hi-maize(®), maltodextrin Corn Globe 1805(®) and xylan) as exogenous carbon source for heterotrophic culture of cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. The batch cultivation using fructose as organic carbon source resulted in the highest (p carbon source with the highest (p carbohydrate with major potential to produce biomass (1,072.8 mg(biomass)/L/day) and lipids (160.8 mg(lipids)/L/day). Qualitatively, the fatty acid profiles of the lipid extract from Phormidium sp. showed predominance of saturated chains for the cultures grown with most of the carbon sources, with the exception of the ones grown with xylose and maltodextrin.

  20. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bock, K; Derave, W; Eijnde, B O

    2008-01-01

    program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak Vo(2)) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydrate-fed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized diet [65 percent of total energy intake (En) from carbohydrates, 20%En fat, 15%En protein]. Before and after...... similarly increased between F and CHO. Fatty acid binding protein (FABPm) content increased significantly in F (P = 0.007). Intramyocellular triglyceride content (IMCL) remained unchanged in both groups. After training, pre-exercise glycogen content was higher in CHO (545 +/- 19 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0.......02), but not in F (434 +/- 32 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0.23). For a given initial glycogen content, F blunted exercise-induced glycogen breakdown when compared with CHO (P = 0.04). Neither IMCL breakdown (P = 0.23) nor fat oxidation rates during exercise were altered by training. Thus short-term training elicits similar...

  1. Convergence of carbohydrate-biased intake targets in caged worker honeybees fed different protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaye, Solomon Z; Pirk, Christian W W; Crewe, Robin M; Nicolson, Susan W

    2010-10-01

    The nutritional needs of bees are supplied by nectar carbohydrates and by protein and other nutrients in pollen but little is known of how bees achieve nutritional balance. Using newly emerged caged worker honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata), we investigated whether bees maintain their intake target when confined to pairs of imbalanced complementary diets varying in protein to carbohydrate (P:C) ratio. Diets were formulated using three protein sources [casein, royal jelly or Feed-Bee (a natural pollen substitute)] and sucrose. Within each protein type, honeybees switched between complementary diets and converged on the same P:C intake target. However, this target differed between protein types: P:C ratios were 1:12, 1:14 and 1:11 on casein, royal jelly and Feed-Bee diets, respectively. Except for an early peak in protein consumption on royal jelly diets, these strongly convergent ratios remained constant over the 14 day experiment. This is probably due to the absence of brood, reflected in relatively stable values measured for haemolymph protein concentration and hypopharyngeal gland activation in bees on Feed-Bee diets. Performance of caged workers was also assessed in terms of survival and ovarian activation. Survival was highest on casein diets and lowest on Feed-Bee diets but ovarian activation was highest on royal jelly diets and lowest on casein diets. This may be due to additional components in Feed-Bee and royal jelly (e.g. fatty acids), which are needed to activate the ovaries but also reduce survival. Nutrient intake of broodless workers is directly related to their own physiological requirements, and the strong carbohydrate bias may reflect the high metabolic rate of honeybees even under resting conditions.

  2. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  3. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-14

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  4. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B.; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a

  5. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  6. Genetics of nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppala, Jharna; Siddapuram, Siva Prasad; Akka, Jyothy; Munshi, Anjana

    2013-01-20

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the world today. Its incidence in adults and children is rising rapidly due to the ongoing epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Hence, it has become a global public health issue. Environmental factors have been found to play a major role in the etiology of NAFLD, especially for genetically susceptible populations. Among these, one of the most important factors is junk food, especially the typical "Western-style" diet rich in simple carbohydrates, saturated fat, and highly processed food materials. Genetic predisposition to NAFLD does occur; however, a precise definition of genetic factors responsible for NAFLD is still lacking. Specific variants of different genes have been shown to present a risk for NAFLD. Genetic studies might be helpful in the management of the disease by developing novel treatment strategies based on individual's genotype. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The acute impact of the intake of four types of bread on satiety and blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglyceride and acylated ghrelin. A randomized controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, S; Seletto, M; Choc, A; Ponzo, V; Lezo, A; Demagistris, A; Evangelista, A; Ciccone, G; Bertolino, M; Cassader, M; Gambino, R

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare the effects of four different breads (one commercial par-baked wheat bread, three sourdough breads prepared with commercial wheat flour, organic wheat flour, organic einkorn flour) in 16 healthy subjects. The primary outcome of this randomized cross-over trial was evaluating intra-individual changes in glycemic areas-under-the-curve (AUCs) after 50g carbohydrate portions of each bread; secondary outcomes were changes in insulin, fatty free acids (FFA), triglyceride, acylated ghrelin and satiety AUCs. Blood samples and satiety ratings were collected every 30-min for 2-h after the consumption of each bread. The einkorn flour showed the lowest amylase activity, the commercial flour the highest; commercial bread had the highest carbohydrate content and the lowest dietary fiber content. Glucose AUCs were significantly lower after the consumption of sourdough breads made with organic (12,754±1433mg/dL×h) and einkorn flour (12,216±1210mg/dL×h), with respect to the commercial bread (13,849±2193mg/dL×h). Insulin AUCs decreased after the consumption of all sourdough breads when compared to commercial bread. FFA and triglyceride AUCs did not differ by kind of breads. Median ghrelin AUC was significantly lower and satiety higher after the einkorn bread (3710pg/mL×h; 3225±2414, respectively) than after commercial bread consumption (4140pg/mL×h; 1706±1766, respectively), but not with other sourdough breads. In conclusion, the use of sourdough may improve the nutritional features of breads; einkorn bread induced the least disturbance in carbohydrate homeostasis and the greater satiety. If confirmed by further research, these results might have implications in the approach towards chronic dysmetabolic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF STRAWBERRY TRANSPLANTS FROM RIO GRANDE DO SUL AND IMPORTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARINE COCCO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Obtaining high yields in strawberry crop requires the use of transplants with high sanitary and physiological quality. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the origin of strawberry transplants on quality, carbohydrate content and subsequent development and field production. Treatments covered four transplant origins: Argentina, Chile, Chuí (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and São Francisco de Paula (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and two cultivars (Camarosa and Camino Real in experimental design of randomized blocks with four replicates, conducted between April and December 2010. Carbohydrate content in crown and roots was evaluated, as well as the growth and development of transplants and plant yield. Regardless of cultivar and origin of transplants, crown diameter values exceeding 8 mm were considered the minimum standard internationally established. Transplants propagated in Chui showed 100% mortality 20 days after planting, while losses were not recorded in Argentina and Chile transplants. Camarosa transplants from Chile showed the highest content of total soluble sugars in reserve organs, while higher starch content was obtained in Argentinean transplants. The high carbohydrate content in reserve organs in Argentina and Chile transplants led to greater fruit production.

  9. The use of carbohydrates during exercise as an ergogenic aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2013-11-01

    Carbohydrate and fat are the two primary fuel sources oxidized by skeletal muscle tissue during prolonged (endurance-type) exercise. The relative contribution of these fuel sources largely depends on the exercise intensity and duration, with a greater contribution from carbohydrate as exercise intensity is increased. Consequently, endurance performance and endurance capacity are largely dictated by endogenous carbohydrate availability. As such, improving carbohydrate availability during prolonged exercise through carbohydrate ingestion has dominated the field of sports nutrition research. As a result, it has been well-established that carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged (>2 h) moderate-to-high intensity exercise can significantly improve endurance performance. Although the precise mechanism(s) responsible for the ergogenic effects are still unclear, they are likely related to the sparing of skeletal muscle glycogen, prevention of liver glycogen depletion and subsequent development of hypoglycemia, and/or allowing high rates of carbohydrate oxidation. Currently, for prolonged exercise lasting 2-3 h, athletes are advised to ingest carbohydrates at a rate of 60 g·h⁻¹ (~1.0-1.1 g·min⁻¹) to allow for maximal exogenous glucose oxidation rates. However, well-trained endurance athletes competing longer than 2.5 h can metabolize carbohydrate up to 90 g·h⁻¹ (~1.5-1.8 g·min⁻¹) provided that multiple transportable carbohydrates are ingested (e.g. 1.2 g·min⁻¹ glucose plus 0.6 g·min⁻¹ of fructose). Surprisingly, small amounts of carbohydrate ingestion during exercise may also enhance the performance of shorter (45-60 min), more intense (>75 % peak oxygen uptake; VO(₂peak)) exercise bouts, despite the fact that endogenous carbohydrate stores are unlikely to be limiting. The mechanism(s) responsible for such ergogenic properties of carbohydrate ingestion during short, more intense exercise bouts has been suggested to reside in the central nervous

  10. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  11. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... and their associated fatty acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources: Capric...

  12. ORGANIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE TO REDUCED PREOPERATIVE FASTING TIME, WITH A CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN ENRICHED SOLUTION; A RANDOMIZED TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Gagheggi Ravanini, Guilherme; Portari Filho, Pedro Eder; Abrantes Luna, Renato; Almeida de Oliveira, Vinicius

    2015-08-01

    this study aims to assess the organic inflammatory response of the video laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with abbreviation of the preoperative fasting to 2h using a carbohydrate and protein enriched solution. this is a randomized, prospective study with patients divided into the following 2 groups: group A, conventional fasting and group B, 2h abbreviated fasting with oral ingestion of a carbohydrate and protein solution. Serum glucose, insulin, interleukin 1, and TNF-α were mesasured before ingestion of the solution, during induction of anesthesia, and 4 h after the end of surgery. thirty-eight patients completed the study without presenting pulmonary complications associated with bronchoaspiration. The postoperative HOMA-IR variance was greater in group A (p = 0.001). the abbreviation of preoperative fasting for 2 h, using carbohydrate and protein enriched solutions, is safe, reduces insulin resistance, and does not increase the risk of bronchoaspiration. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Bacterial carbohydrate structure database 3: principles and realization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toukach, Philip V

    2011-01-24

    Bacterial carbohydrate structure database (BCSDB) is an open-access project that collects primary publication data on carbohydrate structures originating from bacteria, their biological properties, bibliographic and taxonomic annotations, NMR spectra, etc. Almost complete coverage and outstanding data consistency are achieved. BCSDB version 3 and the principles lying behind it, including glycan description language, are reported.

  14. Effects of spermidine, proline and carbohydrate sources on somatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of spermidine, proline and carbohydrate sources on somatic embryogenesis from main root transverse thin cell layers of Vietnamese ginseng ( Panax ... To further optimize a culture medium for induction of embryo formation of P. vietnamensis, three carbohydrate sources (sucrose, glucose and fructose) at 10 to 60 ...

  15. Effects of Different Sources of Non-Fibrous Carbohydrate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.taimouri

    fibre carbohydrate .... Non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) was calculated as: ..... Food Res. 35, 99-112. O'Doherty, J.V., Maher, P.F. & Crosby, T.F., 1997. The performance of pregnant ewes and their progeny when offered grass silage, maize silage or ...

  16. Identification of carbohydrate anomers using ion mobility-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, J; Hahm, H S; Seeberger, P H; Pagel, K

    2015-10-08

    Carbohydrates are ubiquitous biological polymers that are important in a broad range of biological processes. However, owing to their branched structures and the presence of stereogenic centres at each glycosidic linkage between monomers, carbohydrates are harder to characterize than are peptides and oligonucleotides. Methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to characterize glycosidic linkages, but this technique requires milligram amounts of material and cannot detect small amounts of coexisting isomers. Mass spectrometry, on the other hand, can provide information on carbohydrate composition and connectivity for even small amounts of sample, but it cannot be used to distinguish between stereoisomers. Here, we demonstrate that ion mobility-mass spectrometry--a method that separates molecules according to their mass, charge, size, and shape--can unambiguously identify carbohydrate linkage-isomers and stereoisomers. We analysed six synthetic carbohydrate isomers that differ in composition, connectivity, or configuration. Our data show that coexisting carbohydrate isomers can be identified, and relative concentrations of the minor isomer as low as 0.1 per cent can be detected. In addition, the analysis is rapid, and requires no derivatization and only small amounts of sample. These results indicate that ion mobility-mass spectrometry is an effective tool for the analysis of complex carbohydrates. This method could have an impact on the field of carbohydrate synthesis similar to that of the advent of high-performance liquid chromatography on the field of peptide assembly in the late 1970s.

  17. Determination of carbohydrate and β-carotene content of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the soluble carbohydrate and β-carotene content of some selected vegetables which include sorrel (Hibiscus subdariffa), carrot (Daucus carota) and Moringa (Moringa oleifera).Soluble carbohydrate was determined by Anthrone method Spectrophotometry at wavelength of 620nm.

  18. Carbohydrates in the waters of ponds of Ramanthuruthu Island, Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Kumaran, S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Stephen, R.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    Particulate and dissolved carbohydrates in 4 ponds of the Ramanthuruthu Island (9 degrees 58.5'N lat. and 76 degrees 15.4'E long.) were studied for 1 yr (1978-79). Particulate carbohydrate concentration varied from 0.2 to 2 mg/l. Dissolved...

  19. Multivalent carbohydrate inhibitors of bacterial lectins and toxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, O.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria and their toxins often carry proteins on their surface binding to specific components of tissue cells or the extracellular matrix. In many cases the components are carbohydrate structures. The adhesion of these carbohydrate-binding proteins, named lectins, to human glycoconjugates is a

  20. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistu, T.; Sterck, F.J.; Fetene, M.; Bongers, F.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC

  1. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity

  2. Distribution of dissolved carbohydrates and uronic acids in a tropical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbohydrates including uronic acids are among the active components of dissolved organic carbon, and play an important role in biogeochemical cycling of organic carbon in marine environments. In order to understand their distribution, concentrations of total dissolved carbohydrate (TCHO), dissolved polysaccharide ...

  3. Mixed drink increased carbohydrate oxidation but not performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    It is well-established that consuming exogenous carbohydrate during prolonged physical activity improves performance.[1,2] The role of exogenous carbohydrate intake is hypothesised to provide additional substrate for oxidation[3] specifically influencing performance by decreasing endogenous liver glycogen utilisation ...

  4. Mixed drink increased carbohydrate oxidation but not performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... improvement in 40 km time trial time between an isocaloric GP-only or a GP and fructose drink, and no differences in any of the measured variables other than exogenous carbohydrate oxidation at 90 minutes during the pre-time trial steady state ride. Keywords: multiple carbohydrate, cycling, endurance, glucose, fructose ...

  5. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  6. Characterization of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of experimental parameters like pH, temperature and substrate concentration on the activity of the immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary ... of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α-amylase in this study show that immobilization had no significant effect on the enzyme and compared to kinetic ...

  7. PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS EVALUATED BY SEMIAUTOMATIC TECHNIQUE IN VITRO IN THE RUMINANT FEEDS WITH DIFFERENT CARBOHYDRATE SOURCES IN THE ROUGHAGES RATE Producción de Ácidos Grasos Volátiles Evaluados por la Técnica Semiautomática in vitro en Los Alimentos para Rumiantes en Adicción de Fuentes de Carboidratos em la porcion volumosa PRODUÇÃO DE ÁCIDOS GRAXOS VOLÁTEIS, AVALIADA PELA TÉCNICA SEMIAUTOMÁTICA IN VITRO, NA DIETA DE RUMINANTES COM DIFERENTES FONTES DE CARBOIDRATOS NA FRAÇÃO VOLUMOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto de Camargo Wascheck

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of carbohydrates sources (dent corn or flint corn or citrus pulp addition to forages (corn silage, sorghum silage + silage of corn residue, elephant grass, sugarcane, silage of corn residue was measured, through volatile fatty acids (VFA’s production at the time of incubation of 2, 6, 12 e 24 hours. A completely randomized design in split plot with the time factor in the subplots Was used. The averages gas productions were treated by the France parameters. The acetate was VFA of larger production. It observed high and positive correlation between all of VFA’s of the present study.

    KEY WORDS: Acetate, by-product, citrus pulp.
    A efectúan de fuentes del carbohidratos (maíz de la mella o maíz del pedernal o pulpa del cítrico la suma a los forrajes (el forraje conservado en silo de maíz, forraje conservado en silo del sorgo + el forraje conservado en silo de residuo de maíz, césped del elefante, el cana-de-azúcar, el forraje conservado en silo de residuo de maíz era moderado, a través de los ácidos grasos volátiles la producción. Los promedios gasean que las producciones fueron tratadas por los parámetros de Francia. El acetato era VFA de producción más grande. Observó la correlación alta y positiva entre todos de VFA del estudio presente. Avaliou-se o efeito da adição ou não de fontes de carboidratos (milho dentado ou milho duro ou polpa de citros a forragens (silagem de milho, silagem de sorgo + silagem de resíduo de milho, capim-elefante, cana-de-açúcar, silagem de resíduo de milho sem adição das fontes de carboidratos, pela técnica in vitro semiautomática de produção de gases em função da produção de ácidos graxos voláteis (AGVs nos tempos de incubação de 2, 6, 12 e 24 horas. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em parcelas subdivididas com o fator tempo nas subparcelas. As médias da produção de gases foram tratadas pelos parâmetros de France. O acetato foi

  8. The Effect of Preoperative Oral Carbohydrate Solution Intake on Patient Comfort: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakar, Emel; Yilmaz, Emel; Çakar, Ekrem; Baydur, Hakan

    2017-12-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate loading on the preoperative discomforts and postoperative complications of patients undergoing elective thyroidectomy. A randomized controlled clinical trial. Ninety patients scheduled for thyroidectomy were divided into three groups: (1) those receiving a carbohydrate-rich drink (CHD), (2) those receiving an overnight 5% glucose intravenous infusion, and (3) those fasting from midnight. The preoperative discomforts and postoperative complications of patients were evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The patients' vital signs and blood glucose levels were measured perioperatively. In the preoperative assessment, hunger, thirst, mouth dryness, chill, and headache adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and duration of the operation were all found to be significantly higher in the glucose and fasting groups than the CHD group (P hunger, thirst, dry mouth, fatigue and headache) and early postoperative complications (vomiting and pain). Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of intermediate thermal hydrolysis on the degradation kinetics of carbohydrates in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shana, A; Ouki, S; Asaadi, M; Pearce, P; Mancini, G

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results, from laboratory-scale investigations, on the impact of intermediate thermal hydrolysis process (ITHP) on already digested sludge in general, and sludge carbohydrate content degradation process efficiency in particular. The ITHP performance data were compared with the performance of established conventional thermal hydrolysis process (THP). The degradation of sludge carbohydrates as a result of thermal pre-treatment and anaerobic digestion followed the first order kinetics. The overall sludge organic matter degradation kinetics rate constants indicated that the use of THP as an intermediate digestion step can enhance the already digested sludge organic matter degradation; further reducing the sludge mass and increasing its conversion to biogas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Constructing the electricity-carbohydrate-hydrogen cycle for a sustainability revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y-H Percival; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2012-06-01

    In this opinion, we suggest the electricity-carbohydrate-hydrogen (ECHo) cycle which bridges primary energies and secondary energies. Carbohydrates are sources of food, feed, liquid biofuels, and renewable materials and are a high-density hydrogen carrier and electricity storage compounds (e.g. >3000 Wh/kg). One element of this ECHo cycle can be converted to another reversibly and efficiently depending on resource availability, needs and costs. This cycle not only supplements current and future primary energy utilization systems for facilitating electricity and hydrogen storage and enhancing secondary energy conversion efficiencies, but also addresses such sustainability challenges as transportation fuel production, CO(2) utilization, fresh water conservation, and maintenance of a small closed ecosystem in emergency situations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Miraculous low carbohydrate or carbophobic diets: evidence-based nursing perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado Dones, María José; Fraile Villar, María Isabel; Juárez Bonilla, Mónica; Moreno González, Cristina; Martín Rodríguez, María

    2016-01-01

    Given the obesity epidemic in Western society today, as well as its influence on population's health as a risk factor for the most pressing health problems, diet treatment to control overweight ought to be considered as a priority in the specialized and primary health nursing care. A review of some supposedly miraculous diets, based on drastic reduction of consumed carbohydrates, as well as the available scientific evidence show that such diets pose a health hazard besides being ineffective to control excess weight in the short- and long-term. The negative consequences of a reduction of the percentage of consumed carbohydrates, thus resulting in an increase of proteins in the diet are set forth. Besides, suitable recommendations for patients to get loss weight are presented in an effective and safe manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Attenuation measurements in solutions of some carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagandeep; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), maltose monohydrate (C 12 H 22 O 11 ·H 2 O), and sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1,173, and 1,332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm 3 ) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form

  13. Attenuation Measurements in Solutions of Some Carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagandeep; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), maltose monohydrate (C 12 H 22 O 11 .H 2 O), and sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173, and 1332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm 3 ) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form

  14. Malabsorption of carbohydrate foods by urban blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, I; Walker, A R; Naik, I; Riedel, L; Daya, B; de Beer, M

    1991-12-07

    Prevalences of non-infective bowel diseases are very low in South African urban blacks compared with the white population. In seeking elucidation, using breath hydrogen measurements in series of black and white subjects, small-bowel transit time was determined, and the malabsorption of maize, wheat, and rice investigated. Median transit times in both ethnic groups were similar. Rice was fully, but wheat incompletely absorbed by both groups. Maize, the staple food of blacks, was incompletely absorbed by them, although completely absorbed by the white subjects. Carbohydrate consumption is high in the black population (60-65% of total energy intake). It is probable that in blacks, despite their now eating a low-fibre diet, an expected increase in large-bowel diseases has been inhibited in part by the protective mechanism of fermentation of malabsorbed maize and wheat.

  15. Arabinogalactan proteins: focus on carbohydrate active enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eKnoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant-microbe interaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their function. Numerous studies using monoclonal antibodies that recognize different AGP glycan epitopes have shown the appearance of a slightly altered AGP glycan in a specific stage of development in plant cells. Therefore, it is anticipated that the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycan is tightly regulated during development. Until recently, however, little was known about the enzymes involved in the metabolism of AGP glycans. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org/ involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycans, and we discuss the biological role of these enzymes in plant development.

  16. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  17. Tuning the position of head groups by surfactant design in mixed micelles of cationic and carbohydrate surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saikat; Oldham, Edward Davis; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Knutson, Barbara L; Rankin, Stephen E

    2018-02-15

    Emerging applications of carbohydrate/cationic surfactant mixtures require not only synergistic mixing, but also accessible sugar headgroups at the exterior of micelles. A previous study showed that the glucoside headgroups of octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside aggregate at the interior of mixed micelles with equimolar cetyltrimethylammonium bromide rather than mixing with trimethylammonium groups at the corona. The current study tests the hypothesis that structural characteristics of the surfactants (the relative lengths of the alkyl tails and the type of linker) can be tuned to shift the carbohydrate groups to micelle surfaces. The structural arrangement of 30 mM equimolar mixed micelle solutions in D 2 O is investigated using NMR. The dynamics in different regions are probed using 1 H spin-lattice (T 1 ) and spin-spin (T 2 ) relaxation measurements, and relative positioning by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY). Additional micellar properties are determined using solvatochromic fluorescent probes. Matching surfactant alkyl tail lengths is found ineffective at "pushing out" the carbohydrate headgroups due to a large mismatch in interactions between the headgroups and D 2 O. However, inserting a novel polar triazole group between the carbohydrate head group and the hydrophobic tail (e.g. in n-octyl-β-d-xylopyranoside) using click chemistry is able to "pull out" the carbohydrate, thus giving accessible sugar moieties at the surface of mixed micelles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Structure of a streptococcal adhesion carbohydrate receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassels, F.J.; Fales, H.M.; London, J.; Carlson, R.W.; van Halbeek, H.

    1990-01-01

    Interactions between complementary protein and carbohydrate structures on different genera of human oral bacteria have been implicated in the formation of dental plaque. The carbohydrate receptor on Streptococcus sanguis H1 that is specific for the adhesion on Capnocytophaga ochracea ATCC 33596 has been isolated from the streptococcal cell wall, purified, and structurally characterized. The hexasaccharide repeating unit of the polysaccharide was purified by reverse-phase, amino-bonded silica, and gel permeation high performance liquid chromatography. Earlier studies established that the repeating unit was a hexasaccharide composed of rhamnose, galactose, and glucose in the ration of 2:3:1, respectively. In the present study, determination of absolute configuration by gas chromatography of the trimethylsilyl (+)-2-butyl glycosides revealed that the rhamnose residues were of the L configuration while the hexoses were all D. 252Californium plasma desorption mass spectrometry of the native, the acetylated and the reduced and acetylated hexasaccharide determined that the molecular mass of the native hexasaccharide was 959, and that the 2 rhamnose residues were linked to each other at the nonreducing terminus of the linear molecule. Methylation analysis revealed the positions of the glycosidic linkages in the hexasaccharide and showed that a galactose residue was present at the reducing end. The structural characterization of the hexasaccharide was completed by one and two dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Complete 1H and 13C assignments for each glycosyl residue were established by two-dimensional (1H,1H) correlation spectroscopy, homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn, and (13C,1H) correlation experiments. The configurations of the glycosidic linkages were inferred from the chemical shifts and coupling constants of the anomeric 1H and 13C resonances

  19. Boronate affinity saccharide electrophoresis: a novel carbohydrate analysis tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Thomas R; Springall, Jeremy S; Rogalle, Damien; Masumoto, Naoko; Ching Li, Hung; D'Hooge, François; Perera, Semali P; Jenkins, A Toby A; James, Tony D; Fossey, John S; van den Elsen, Jean M H

    2008-11-01

    The incorporation of specialised carbohydrate affinity ligand methacrylamido phenylboronic acid in polyacrylamide gels for fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis greatly improved the effective separation of saccharides that show similar mobilities in standard electrophoresis. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using methacrylamido phenylboronic acid in low loading (typically 0.5-1% dry weight) was unequivocally shown to alter retention of labelled saccharides depending on their boronate affinity. While conventional fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis of 2-aminoacridone labelled glucose oligomers showed an inverted parabolic migration, an undesired trait of small oligosaccharides labelled with this neutral fluorophore, boron affinity saccharide electrophoresis separation of these carbohydrates completely restored their predicted running order, based on their charge/mass ratio, and resulted in improved separation of the analyte saccharides. These results exemplify boron affinity saccharide electrophoresis as an important new technique for analysing carbohydrates and sugar-containing molecules.

  20. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Marilyn G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. Methods R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100 media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Results Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L−1, 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L−1 h−1 as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass. Lipid production was low (15–19% lipid in biomass with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L−1, with 49% lipid in the biomass and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L−1, with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Conclusions Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed

  1. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Marilyn G; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttilä, Merja; Ruohonen, Laura

    2012-05-30

    Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100) media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L(-1), 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L(-1) h(-1)) as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass). Lipid production was low (15-19% lipid in biomass) with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass) when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L(-1), with 49% lipid in the biomass) and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L(-1), with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass) cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed carbohydrates than from glucose or xylose. Although high biomass and lipid

  2. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier - Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    The production of hydrogen by purple bacteria or microalgae are difficult to scale up due to low energy concentration insolation (e.g., ~200 W/m2...Cycle Assessment Of Biodiesel Production From Microalgae . Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009, 43, 6475–6481. 28. Logan, B.E.; Regan, J.M. Microbial fuel...sustainable production , high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density

  3. Association between pancreatitis and fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatitis is a common digestive disease with a high mortality rate. Clinical physicians often encounter patients with pancreatitis and fatty liver disease. This article investigates the association between pancreatitis and fatty liver disease from the aspects of the prevalence of fatty liver disease in patients with pancreatitis, the influence of fatty liver disease on the prognosis of pancreatitis, and pancreatitis induced by acute fatty liver disease during pregnancy.

  4. Quantitative analysis of fatty-acid-based biofuels produced by wild-type and genetically engineered cyanobacteria by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenna; Zhao, Hui; Lu, Xuefeng; Wang, Cong; Yang, Menglong; Bai, Fali

    2011-11-11

    Simple and rapid quantitative determination of fatty-acid-based biofuels is greatly important for the study of genetic engineering progress for biofuels production by microalgae. Ideal biofuels produced from biological systems should be chemically similar to petroleum, like fatty-acid-based molecules including free fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols and fatty alkanes. This study founded a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simultaneous quantification of seven free fatty acids, nine fatty acid methyl esters, five fatty acid ethyl esters, five fatty alcohols and three fatty alkanes produced by wild-type Synechocystis PCC 6803 and its genetically engineered strain. Data obtained from GC-MS analyses were quantified using internal standard peak area comparisons. The linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and precision (RSD) of the method were evaluated. The results demonstrated that fatty-acid-based biofuels can be directly determined by GC-MS without derivation. Therefore, rapid and reliable quantitative analysis of fatty-acid-based biofuels produced by wild-type and genetically engineered cyanobacteria can be achieved using the GC-MS method founded in this work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Particulate carbohydrate in the euphotic zone of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N; De; Shirodkar, P.V.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Particulate matter collected from the Bay of Bengal was analysed for carbohydrate and chlorophyll a. The distribution of chlorophyll a was different from that of carbohydrate. Chlorophyll a increased from north to south, whereas carbohydrate levels...

  6. Carbohydrate-enriched cyanobacterial biomass as feedstock for bio-methane production through anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion performance using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of Arthrospira platensis was studied. The carbohydrate enrichment was achieved after the cultivation of A. platensis under phosphorus limitation conditions. Three biomass compositions (60%, 40% and 20% carbohydrates content) ...

  7. Effects of isocaloric carbohydrate vs. carbohydrate-protein supplements on cycling time to exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kristy L; Coburn, Jared W; Beam, William C; Brown, Lee E

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO) and carbohydrate-protein (CHO-Pro) supplements on time to exhaustion. Eleven moderately aerobically fit adults (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max= 48.3 ± 6.5 ml·kg·min) performed a maximal cycle ergometer test for the determination of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. At least 72 hours later, the participants performed a time-to-exhaustion test at a power output equivalent to the power output when subjects were at 75% of their V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. Either the CHO or the CHO-Pro supplement was administered at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after this test. After 3 hours of recovery and supplement ingestion, a second time-to-exhaustion test was performed. This testing protocol was repeated for the third visit, but the supplement not given during the second visit was administered. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in time to exhaustion after isocaloric CHO (pretest 22.4 ± 2.84 minutes, posttest 25.4 ± 4.45 minutes) and CHO-Pro (pretest 22.3 ± 3.46 minutes, posttest 24.0 ± 5.08 minutes) supplementation. Carbohydrate and CHO-Pro ingestion after exercise appear to have similar effects on short-term recovery.

  8. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2012-01-01

    be described. An outline of the events to be explored is shown in Fig. 1. Understanding the nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of dietary fatty acids is key to understanding the etiology, as well as prevention, of critically important human diseases including CVD and cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidemiological modifiers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Focus on high-risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonardo, Amedeo; Bellentani, Stefano; Argo, Curtis K; Ballestri, Stefano; Byrne, Christopher D; Caldwell, Stephen H; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Grieco, Antonio; Machado, Mariana V; Miele, Luca; Targher, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    An improved understanding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease epidemiology would lead to identification of individuals at high risk of developing chronic liver disease and extra-hepatic complications, thus contributing to more effective case finding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among selected groups. We aimed to illustrate the epidemiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in high-risk groups, which were identified based on existing literature. To this end, PubMed was searched to retrieve original articles published until May 2015 using relevant and pertinent keywords "nonalcoholic fatty liver disease" and "diabetes", "obesity", "hyperlipidaemia", "familial heterozygous hypobetalipoproteinaemia", "hypertension", "metabolic syndrome", "ethnicity", "family history" or "genetic polymorphisms". We found that age, sex and ethnicity are major physiological modifiers of the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, along with belonging to "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease families" and carrying risk alleles for selected genetic polymorphisms. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, mixed hyperlipidaemia and hypocholesterolaemia due to familial hypobetalipoproteinaemia are the major metabolic modifiers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease risk. Compared with these metabolic conditions, however, arterial hypertension appears to carry a relatively more modest risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A better understanding of the epidemiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease may result in a more liberal policy of case finding among high-risk groups. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrated reactive absorption process for synthesis of fatty esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Anton Alexandru; Bildea, Costin Sorin

    2011-01-01

    Reactive separations using green catalysts offer great opportunities for manufacturing fatty esters, involved in specialty chemicals and biodiesel production. Integrating reaction and separation into one unit provides key benefits such as: simplified operation, no waste, reduced capital investment and low operating costs. This work presents a novel heat-integrated reactive absorption process that eliminates all conventional catalyst related operations, efficiently uses the raw materials and equipment, and considerably reduces the energy requirements for biodiesel production--85% lower as compared to the base case. Rigorous simulations based on experimental results were carried out using Aspen Plus and Dynamics. Despite the high degree of integration, the process is well controllable using an efficient control structure proposed in this work. The main results are provided for a plant producing 10 ktpy fatty acid methyl esters from methanol and waste vegetable oil with high free fatty acids content, using sulfated zirconia as solid acid catalyst. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrate availability does not provide sufficient energy for prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion during high-intensity exercise can therefore enhance performance.- For exercise lasting 1 to 2.5 hours, athletes are advised to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour.- Well-trained endurance athletes competing for longer than 2.5 hours at high intensity can metabolise up to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour, provided that a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested.- Athletes participating in intermittent or team sports are advised to follow the same strategies but the timing of carbohydrate intake depends on the type of sport.- If top performance is required again within 24 hours after strenuous exercise, the advice is to supplement endogenous carbohydrate supplies quickly within the first few hours post-exercise by ingesting large amounts of carbohydrate (1.2 g/kg/h) or a lower amount of carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg/h) with a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h).

  12. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, E.; Galgani, J.; Morales, I.; Salazar, G.; Uauy, R.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of changes in dietary fatty acid composition on macronutrient oxidation were studied on controls and 6 obese women, 30-45 years old. Anthropometry, body composition, physical activity, continuous indirect calorimetry (200 min), plasma fatty acids, serum insulin and glucose were measured. The study was performed using a crossover design: baseline and three-period 2wk each: canola oil supplementation, washout and sunflower oil supplementation. Subjects were provided with commercially available oil (1 L/wk) either canola or sunflower during the corresponding period. Oil treatment produced significant modifications of plasma fatty acid profile, according to the type of oil consumed. In both groups, most of the fat provided was oxidised (ratio oxidised/intake: 79-102%) in the two dietary regimes, no differences were found between groups. Controls however, had a higher fat oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) with sunflower compared to canola treatment. Changes in plasma polyunsaturated/saturated ratio (P/S) from canola to sunflower treatment were not associated to fat oxidation. Changes in plasma n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment showed a positive association with fat oxidation in controls (r=0. 72) and a negative association in obese (r=-0.79). Carbohydrate oxidation was on average 20-29% of CHO intake. Glucose oxidation was not associated to n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment, but it was inversely correlated to PIS ratio changes in both groups. With sunflower treatment obese showed a higher CHO oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) associated to a greater insulin response compared to controls. This study showed that the type of oil can induce differences in substrate oxidation. Canola oil intake could be stimulated based on its smaller insulin response in subjects predisposed to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. (author)

  13. Impact of water stress on growth reserves and re-growth of Themeda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... carbohydrates (TNCC) and water-soluble protein (WSPC) as growth reserves after defoliation were determined in the indigenous C4 semi-arid grass species Themeda triandra during three growth stages (vegetative, piping and reproductive) and in three plant parts (roots, stubble and leaves). Four water stress treatments ...

  14. The effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J D; Vasey, F B; Valeriano, J

    2006-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have become popular as weight loss techniques. These diets are high in protein, saturated fats, and omega-6 fatty acids. They also lead to a ketogenic state. These factors could lead to increased bone turnover. This study was designed to see whether a low-carbohydrate diet would lead to increased bone turnover in humans. Thirty patients (15 study subjects and 15 controls) were recruited for this 3-month study. The 15 patients on the diet were instructed to consume less than 20 g of carbohydrates per day for the 1st month and then less than 40 g per day for months 2 and 3. Control subjects had no restrictions on their diet. The primary end point was urinary N-telopeptide (UNTx) at 3 months. Secondary end points included UNTx at 1 month, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) at 1 month, bone turnover ratio (BSAP/UNTx) at 1 month, and weight loss. The mean UNTx in the study subjects increased by 1.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) +/-22.8] compared with an increase of 1.9 (95% CI +/-17.6) in the controls at 3 months (p=0.86). The mean UNTx decreased by 2.2 (95% CI +/-27.2) and 3.1 (95% CI +/-17.6) at 1 month in the dieters and controls, respectively (p=0.36). The mean BSAP decreased by 0.53 (95% CI +/-2.96) in the dieters and increased by 0.34 (95% CI +/-2.92) in the controls at 1 month (p=0.27). The bone turnover ratio increased by 0.08 (95% CI +/-0.81) in the dieters and by 0.05 (95% CI +/- 0.27) in the controls at 1 month (p=0.78). The dieters lost 6.39 kg versus 1.05 kg for the controls at 3 months (p=0.0008). Although the patients on the low-carbohydrate diet did lose significantly more weight than the controls did, the diet did not increase bone turnover markers compared with controls at any time point. Further, there was no significant change in the bone turnover ratio compared with controls.

  15. Differential Effects of Carbohydrates on Arabidopsis Pollen Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsche, Jörg; García Fernández, José M; Stabentheiner, Edith; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Roitsch, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Pollen germination as a crucial process in plant development strongly depends on the accessibility of carbon as energy source. Carbohydrates, however, function not only as a primary energy source, but also as important signaling components. In a comprehensive study, we analyzed various aspects of the impact of 32 different sugars on in vitro germination of Arabidopsis pollen comprising about 150 variations of individual sugars and combinations. Twenty-six structurally different mono-, di- and oligosaccharides, and sugar analogs were initially tested for their ability to support pollen germination. Whereas several di- and oligosaccharides supported pollen germination, hexoses such as glucose, fructose and mannose did not support and even considerably inhibited pollen germination when added to germination-supporting medium. Complementary experiments using glucose analogs with varying functional features, the hexokinase inhibitor mannoheptulose and the glucose-insensitive hexokinase-deficient Arabidopsis mutant gin2-1 suggested that mannose- and glucose-mediated inhibition of sucrose-supported pollen germination depends partially on hexokinase signaling. The results suggest that, in addition to their role as energy source, sugars act as signaling molecules differentially regulating the complex process of pollen germination depending on their structural properties. Thus, a sugar-dependent multilayer regulation of Arabidopsis pollen germination is supported, which makes this approach a valuable experimental system for future studies addressing sugar sensing and signaling. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Carbohydrate-related enzymes of important Phytophthora plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Henk; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; de Vries, Ronald P

    2014-11-01

    Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZymes) form particularly interesting targets to study in plant pathogens. Despite the fact that many CAZymes are pathogenicity factors, oomycete CAZymes have received significantly less attention than effectors in the literature. Here we present an analysis of the CAZymes present in the Phytophthora infestans, Ph. ramorum, Ph. sojae and Pythium ultimum genomes compared to growth of these species on a range of different carbon sources. Growth on these carbon sources indicates that the size of enzyme families involved in degradation of cell-wall related substrates like cellulose, xylan and pectin is not always a good predictor of growth on these substrates. While a capacity to degrade xylan and cellulose exists the products are not fully saccharified and used as a carbon source. The Phytophthora genomes encode larger CAZyme sets when compared to Py. ultimum, and encode putative cutinases, GH12 xyloglucanases and GH10 xylanases that are missing in the Py. ultimum genome. Phytophthora spp. also encode a larger number of enzyme families and genes involved in pectin degradation. No loss or gain of complete enzyme families was found between the Phytophthora genomes, but there are some marked differences in the size of some enzyme families. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of carbohydrates on the isolation of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, A; Futagawa-Endo, Y; Dicks, L M T

    2011-04-01

      To determine the influence of carbohydrates on enrichment isolation of lactic acid bacteria from different niches.   Lactic acid bacteria in three traditional fermented products in southern Africa (amasi, mahewu and tshwala) and in three fresh samples (two flowers and a fruit) were enrichment cultured in media supplemented with 13 different carbohydrates. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria was determined by PCR-denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis. Carbohydrates used in enrichment media had a big impact on the isolation of lactic acid bacteria from fermented products. Depending on the carbohydrates tested, the number of species detected ranged from one to four in amasi, one to five in mahewu and one to three in tshwala. Fructose and mannitol selected for relatively higher numbers of lactic acid bacteria in fermented products. Specific relationships between substrates and lactic acid bacteria have been noted. On the other hand, small influences were found among carbohydrates tested in flowers and fruit.   Carbohydrates have a big impact on the isolation of a variety of lactic acid bacteria in fermented food.   This is the first study that reports the influence of carbohydrates on the enrichment of lactic acid bacteria. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. WURCS 2.0 Update To Encapsulate Ambiguous Carbohydrate Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Masaaki; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Aoki, Nobuyuki P; Yamada, Issaku; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2017-04-24

    Accurate representation of structural ambiguity is important for storing carbohydrate structures containing varying levels of ambiguity in the literature and databases. Although many representations for carbohydrates have been developed in the past, a generalized but discrete representation format did not exist. We had previously developed the Web3 Unique Representation of Carbohydrate Structures (WURCS) in an attempt to define a generalizable and unique linear representation for carbohydrate structures. However, it lacked sufficient rules to uniquely describe ambiguous structures. In this work, we updated WURCS to handle such ambiguous monosaccharide structures. In particular, to handle structural ambiguity around (potential) carbonyl groups incidental to the carbohydrate analysis, we defined a representation of backbone carbons containing atomic-level ambiguity. As a result, we show that WURCS 2.0 can represent a wider variety of carbohydrate structures containing ambiguous monosaccharides, such as those whose ring closure is undefined or whose anomeric information is only known. This new format provides a representation of carbohydrates that was not possible before, and it is currently being used by the International Glycan Structure Repository GlyTouCan.

  19. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warda, Alicja K; Siezen, Roland J; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Nierop Groot, Masja N; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed.

  20. Assessing Bacterial Interactions Using Carbohydrate-Based Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Flannery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates play a crucial role in host-microorganism interactions and many host glycoconjugates are receptors or co-receptors for microbial binding. Host glycosylation varies with species and location in the body, and this contributes to species specificity and tropism of commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, bacterial glycosylation is often the first bacterial molecular species encountered and responded to by the host system. Accordingly, characterising and identifying the exact structures involved in these critical interactions is an important priority in deciphering microbial pathogenesis. Carbohydrate-based microarray platforms have been an underused tool for screening bacterial interactions with specific carbohydrate structures, but they are growing in popularity in recent years. In this review, we discuss carbohydrate-based microarrays that have been profiled with whole bacteria, recombinantly expressed adhesins or serum antibodies. Three main types of carbohydrate-based microarray platform are considered; (i conventional carbohydrate or glycan microarrays; (ii whole mucin microarrays; and (iii microarrays constructed from bacterial polysaccharides or their components. Determining the nature of the interactions between bacteria and host can help clarify the molecular mechanisms of carbohydrate-mediated interactions in microbial pathogenesis, infectious disease and host immune response and may lead to new strategies to boost therapeutic treatments.

  1. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja K Warda

    Full Text Available We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed.

  2. Magnesium Intake, Quality of Carbohydrates, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Results From Three U.S. Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Adela; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Manson, JoAnn E; Willett, Walter C; McKeown, Nicola M; Hu, Frank B

    2017-12-01

    Magnesium intake is inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in many observational studies, but few have assessed this association in the context of the carbohydrate quality of the diet. We hypothesized that higher magnesium intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, especially in the context of a poor carbohydrate-quality diet characterized by low cereal fiber or high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL). In the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1984-2012, n = 69,176), NHS2 (1991-2013, n = 91,471), and the Health Professionals' Follow-Up Study (1986-2012, n = 42,096), dietary intake was assessed from food frequency questionnaires every 4 years. Type 2 diabetes was ascertained by biennial and supplementary questionnaires. We calculated multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) of magnesium intake and incident diabetes, adjusted for age, BMI, family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, GL, energy intake, alcohol, cereal fiber, polyunsaturated fats, trans fatty acids, and processed meat, and we considered the joint associations of magnesium and carbohydrate quality on diabetes risk. We documented 17,130 incident cases of type 2 diabetes over 28 years of follow-up. In pooled analyses across the three cohorts, those with the highest magnesium intake had 15% lower risk of type 2 diabetes compared with those with the lowest intake (pooled multivariate HR in quintile 5 vs. 1: 0.85 [95% CI 0.80-0.91], P magnesium intake was more strongly associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes among participants with high GI or low cereal fiber than among those with low GI or high cereal fiber (both P interaction magnesium intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, especially in the context of lower carbohydrate-quality diets. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J

    1994-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well......-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAb) on frozen and paraffin-embedded normal salivary gland tissue from 22 parotid, 14 submandibular, six sublingual, and 13 labial glands to elucidate the simple mucin-type glycosylation pattern in relation to cyto- and histodifferentiation. The investigated carbohydrate structures...

  4. Cerebral carbohydrate cost of physical exertion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Dawson, Ellen A

    2004-01-01

    Above a certain level of cerebral activation the brain increases its uptake of glucose more than that of O(2), i.e., the cerebral metabolic ratio of O(2)/(glucose + 12 lactate) decreases. This study quantified such surplus brain uptake of carbohydrate relative to O(2) in eight healthy males who...... to exhaustion (15.8 +/- 1.7 min; P carbohydrate was not substantiated...... and, consequently, exhaustive exercise involves a brain surplus carbohydrate uptake of a magnitude comparable with its glycogen content....

  5. PREPARATION OF CHEMICALLY WELL-DEFINED CARBOHYDRATE DENDRIMER CONJUGATES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    . Subsequently, the immunomodulating substance is also bound in a chemoselective manner, to give a dendrimer conjugate with a well-defined structure and connectivity and containing a precise, pre-determined ratio of carbohydrate to immunomodulating substance. The invention also relates to novel dendrimer......A method for the synthesis of dendrimer conjugates having a well-defined chemical structure, comprising one or more carbohydrate moieties and one or more immunomodulating substances coupled to a dendrimer, is presented. First, the carbohydrate is bound to the dendrimer in a chemoselective manner...

  6. [Soil carbohydrates: their determination methods and indication functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Hongtu; He, Hongbo; Zheng, Lichen; Wang, Ge

    2006-08-01

    Soil carbohydrates are the important component of soil organic matter, and play an important role in soil aggregation formation. Their hydrolysis methods involve sulfur acid (H2SO4), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) hydrolysis, and their determination methods include colorimetry, gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) , high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD). This paper summarized the methods of carbohydrates' hydrolysis, purification and detection, with focus on the derived methods of GLC, and briefly introduced the indication functions of carbohydrates in soil organic matter turnover.

  7. Effect of γ-irradiated carbohydrates on isolated synaptic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaler, G.V.; Lyskova, T.I.; Shadyro, O.I.; Samoilenko, S.G.; Edimecheva, I.P.; Aksentsev, S.L.; Konev, S.V.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of γ-irradiated solutions of carbohydrates, mainly glucose, upon Na + , K + -ATPase and lipid peroxidation in rat brain synaptosomal membranes was studied. The membrane damage by irradiated glucose was enhanced in the presence of Fe 2+ and was diminished when a free-radical scavenger (BHT) or metal chelators (EDTA, EGTA) were present. It is suggested that a key element in the free-radical membrane damage by irradiated carbohydrates is an Fe 2+ -complex of some species of the radiolysis products. Participation of radiotoxins of carbohydrate origin in radiogbiological effects is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation for elucidating the type II FAS pathways in other bacteria (White et al., 2005). However, fatty acid biosynthesis is more diverse in the phylum Actinobacteria: Mycobacterium, possess both FAS systems while Streptomyces species have only the multi-enzyme FAS II system and Corynebacterium species exclusively FAS I. In this review we present an overview of the genome organization, biochemical properties and physiological relevance of the two FAS systems in the three genera of actinomycetes mentioned above. We also address in detail the biochemical and structural properties of the acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCases) that catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis in actinomycetes, and discuss the molecular bases of their substrate specificity and the structure-based identification of new ACCase inhibitors with anti-mycobacterial properties. PMID:21204864

  9. A new method for rapid determination of carbohydrate and total carbon concentrations using UV spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A

    2013-09-12

    A new UV spectrophotometry based method for determining the concentration and carbon content of carbohydrate solution was developed. This method depends on the inherent UV absorption potential of hydrolysis byproducts of carbohydrates formed by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid (furfural derivatives). The proposed method is a major improvement over the widely used Phenol-Sulfuric Acid method developed by DuBois, Gilles, Hamilton, Rebers, and Smith (1956). In the old method, furfural is allowed to develop color by reaction with phenol and its concentration is detected by visible light absorption. Here we present a method that eliminates the coloration step and avoids the health and environmental hazards associated with phenol use. In addition, avoidance of this step was shown to improve measurement accuracy while significantly reducing waiting time prior to light absorption reading. The carbohydrates for which concentrations and carbon content can be reliably estimated with this new rapid Sulfuric Acid-UV technique include: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides with very high molecular weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of carbohydrate polymers as corrosion inhibitors for metal substrates in different media: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoren, Saviour A; Eduok, Ubong M

    2016-04-20

    Naturally occurring polysaccharides are biopolymers existing as products of biochemical processes in living systems. A wide variety of them have been employed for various material applications; as binders, coatings, drug delivery, corrosion inhibitors etc. This review describes the application of some green and benign carbohydrate biopolymers and their derivatives for inhibition of metal corrosion. Their modes and mechanisms of protection have also been described as directly related to their macromolecular weights, chemical composition and their unique molecular and electronic structures. For instance, cellulose and chitosan possess free amine and hydroxyl groups capable of metal ion chelation and their lone pairs of electrons are readily utilized for coordinate bonding at the metal/solution interface. Some of the carbohydrate polymers reviewed in this work are either pure or modified forms; their grafted systems and nanoparticle composites with multitude potentials for metal protection applications have also been highlighted. Few inhibitors grafted to introduce more compact structures with polar groups capable of increasing the total energy of the surface have also been mentioned. Exudate gums, carboxymethyl and hydroxyethyl cellulose, starch, pectin and pectates, substituted/modified chitosans, carrageenan, dextrin/cyclodextrins and alginates have been elaborately reviewed, including the effects of halide additives on their anticorrosion performances. Aspects of computational/theoretical approach to corrosion monitoring have been recommended for future studies. This non-experimental approach to corrosion could foster a better understanding of the corrosion inhibition processes by correlating actual inhibition mechanisms with molecular structures of these carbohydrate polymers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment guidance of carbohydrate counting method in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Michelle R; Ambrosio, Ana Cristina T; Nery, Marcia; Aquino, Rita de Cássia; Queiroz, Marcia S

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the application of the method of carbohydrate counting performed by 21 patients with type 2 diabetes, 1 year later attending a guidance course. Participants answered a questionnaire to assess patients' adhesion to carbohydrate counting as well as to identify habit changes and the method's applicability, and values of glycated hemoglobin were also analyzed. Most participants (76%) were females, and 25% of them had obesity degree III. There was a statistically significant decrease in glycated hemoglobin from 8.42±0.02% to 7.66±0.01% comparing values before and after counseling. We observed that although patients stated that the method was difficult they understood that carbohydrate counting could allow them make choices and have more freedom in their meals; we also verified if they understood accurately how to replace some foods used regularly in their diets and most patients correctly chose replacements for the groups of bread (76%), beans (67%) and noodles (67%). We concluded that participation in the course led to improved blood glucose control with a significant reduction of glycated hemoglobin, better understanding of food groups and the adoption of healthier eating habits. Copyright © 2013 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of photographic educational materials for carbohydrate counting training of adolescents with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servilha Gandolfo, Adriana; Vasconcelos Bastos, Débora; Jabur Makluf, Bruna Abreu; de Cassya Lopes Neri, Lenycia; Diaz Savoldelli, Roberta; Della Manna, Thais; Damiani, Durval; Archanjo Ferraro, Alexandre

    2014-02-01

    Carbohydrate counting (CHC) is ack - nowledged by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) as an important tool. To assess the efficacy of photographic educational materials to train adolescents with DM to perform CHC. 76 adolescents were randomly divided into two groups of CHC orientation: by means of photographic materials (Photo) or by a list of foods (List). One month afterwards, the participants were contacted via telephone to answer questions on CHC to reinforce the training (Quiz). Two days after taking the quiz, required the participants to visit an experimental kitchen to observe food portions in natura and to respond to a questionnaire on the weights in grams or carbohydrate equivalents of these portions. Statistical significance was established at p intervention. After the intervention, the Photo group achieved a significantly higher hit difference on the CHC assessment test than the List group (Photo: 2.5 vs List: 1.0; p = 0.03). The photographic educational material was more effective in helping adolescents with DM understand and learn to perform carbohydrate counting. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Minor amounts of plasma medium-chain fatty acids and no improved time trial performance after consuming lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Nybo, L.; Xu, Xuebing

    2003-01-01

    :0 was detected in the plasma lipid classes, but the amount of phospholipid fatty acids was significantly higher after CHO+MLM compared with CHO intake. The lacking time trial improvement after intake of medium-chain fatty acids might be due to no available 8:0 in the systemic circulation. A higher level......Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) have a potential glycogen-saving effect during exercise due to rapid hydrolysis and oxidation. However, studies comparing intake of carbohydrates (CHO) plus 80-90 g MCT with intake of CHO alone have revealed different results. The present study tested performance......% of maximum 02 uptake during which they ingested CHO or CHO plus specific structured triacylglycerols. Immediately after the constant-load cycling, the subjects performed a time trial of similar to50-min duration. Breath and blood samples were obtained regularly during the experiment. Fatty acid composition...

  14. Carbohydrate degrading polypeptide and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagt, Cornelis Maria Jacobus; Schooneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Roubos, Johannes Andries; Los, Alrik Pieter

    2015-10-20

    The invention relates to a polypeptide having carbohydrate material degrading activity which comprises the amino acid sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 or SEQ ID NO: 4, or a variant polypeptide or variant polynucleotide thereof, wherein the variant polypeptide has at least 96% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or the variant polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide that has at least 96% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2. The invention features the full length coding sequence of the novel gene as well as the amino acid sequence of the full-length functional protein and functional equivalents of the gene or the amino acid sequence. The invention also relates to methods for using the polypeptide in industrial processes. Also included in the invention are cells transformed with a polynucleotide according to the invention suitable for producing these proteins.

  15. Cationized Carbohydrate Gas-Phase Fragmentation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bythell, Benjamin J.; Abutokaikah, Maha T.; Wagoner, Ashley R.; Guan, Shanshan; Rabus, Jordan M.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the fragmentation chemistry of cationized carbohydrates using a combination of tandem mass spectrometry, regioselective labeling, and computational methods. Our model system is D-lactose. Barriers to the fundamental glyosidic bond cleavage reactions, neutral loss pathways, and structurally informative cross-ring cleavages are investigated. The most energetically favorable conformations of cationized D-lactose were found to be similar. In agreement with the literature, larger group I cations result in structures with increased cation coordination number which require greater collision energy to dissociate. In contrast with earlier proposals, the B n -Y m fragmentation pathways of both protonated and sodium-cationized analytes proceed via protonation of the glycosidic oxygen with concerted glycosidic bond cleavage. Additionally, for the sodiated congeners our calculations support sodiated 1,6-anhydrogalactose B n ion structures, unlike the preceding literature. This affects the subsequent propensity of formation and prediction of B n /Y m branching ratio. The nature of the anomeric center (α/β) affects the relative energies of these processes, but not the overall ranking. Low-energy cross-ring cleavages are observed for the metal-cationized analytes with a retro-aldol mechanism producing the 0,2 A 2 ion from the sodiated forms . Theory and experiment support the importance of consecutive fragmentation processes, particularly for the protonated congeners at higher collision energies.

  16. Application of radiation degraded carbohydrates for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshu, F.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation degraded carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carageenan, cellulose, pectin, etc. were applied for plant cultivation. Chitosan (poly-β -D-glucosamine) was easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress on plants, phytoalexins induction, etc. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin also induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisafin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisafin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. The hot water and ethanol extracts from EFB and sugar cane bagasse were increased by irradiation. These extracts promoted the growth of plants and suppressed the damage on barley with salt and Zn stress. The results show that the degraded polysaccharides by radiation have the potential to induce various biological activities and the products can be use for agricultural and medical fields

  17. Low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet alters small peripheral artery reactivity in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Jordi; Kones, Richard; Ferré, Raimon; Plana, Núria; Girona, Josefa; Aragonés, Gemma; Ibarretxe, Daiana; Heras, Mercedes; Masana, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Low carbohydrate diets have become increasingly popular for weight loss. Although they may improve some metabolic markers, particularly in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) or metabolic syndrome (MS), their net effect on vascular function remains unclear. Evaluate the relation between dietary macronutrient composition and the small artery reactive hyperaemia index (saRHI), a marker of small artery vascular function, in a cohort of MS patients. This cross-sectional study included 160 MS patients. Diet was evaluated by a 3-day food-intake register and reduced to a novel low-carbohydrate diet score (LCDS). Physical examination, demographic, biochemical and anthropometry parameters were recorded, and saRHI was measured in each patient. Individuals in the lowest LCDS quartile (Q1; 45% carbohydrate, 19% protein, 31% fat) had higher saRHI values than those in the top quartile (Q4; 30% carbohydrate, 25% protein, 43% fat) (1.84±0.42 vs. 1.55±0.25, P=.012). These results were similar in T2D patients (Q1=1.779±0.311 vs. Q4=1.618±0.352, P=.011) and also in all of the MS components, except for low HDLc. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that individuals in the highest LCDS quartile, that is, consuming less carbohydrates, had a significantly negative coefficient of saRHI which was independent of confounders (HR: -0.747; 95%CI: 0.201, 0.882; P=.029). These data suggest that a dietary pattern characterized by a low amount of carbohydrate, but reciprocally higher amounts of fat and protein, is associated with poorer vascular reactivity in patients with MS and T2D. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. [Evolution of type 2 diabetes and carbohydrate intolerance following bariatric surgery in a Mexican mestizo population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Avilés, Eva; Espinosa-González, Omar; Amado-Galván, Mónica; Maydón-González, Hernán; Sepúlveda-Guerrero, Elisa; Zerrweck-López, Carlos

    Bariatric surgery continues to be the best treatment for weight loss and control of obesity related comorbidities. Gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy have demonstrated to be the most effective surgeries, but this has not been established in a Mexican (non-American) population. To analyse the improvement in type 2 diabetes mellitus and carbohydrate intolerance in obese patients after bariatric surgery. A retrospective analysis was performed on the data collected prospectively between 2013 and 2015 on every obese patient with diabetes and carbohydrate intolerance submitted for bariatric surgery. Analysis was performed at baseline, and at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, and included metabolic, clinical, lipid, and anthropometrical parameters. A peri-operative and morbidity and mortality analysis was also performed. Remission rates for patients with diabetes were also established. The analysis included 73 patients, 46 with diabetes and 27 with carbohydrate intolerance. Sixty-two patients were female with a mean age of 42 years. Baseline glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin were 123±34mg/dl and 6.8±1.6%, and at 12 months they were 90.1±8mg/dl and 5.4±0.3%, respectively. Diabetes remission was observed in 68.7% of patients, including 9.3% with partial remission and 21.8% with an improvement. There was also a significant improvement in all metabolic and non-metabolic parameters. Bariatric surgery safely improves the metabolic status of patients with diabetes mellitus or carbohydrate intolerance during the first year, inducing high rates of complete remission. It has also shown a significant improvement on blood pressure, lipid, and anthropometric parameters during the first year of follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Pogozelski, Wendy K; Astrup, Arne; Bernstein, Richard K; Fine, Eugene J; Westman, Eric C; Accurso, Anthony; Frassetto, Lynda; Gower, Barbara A; McFarlane, Samy I; Nielsen, Jörgen Vesti; Krarup, Thure; Saslow, Laura; Roth, Karl S; Vernon, Mary C; Volek, Jeff S; Wilshire, Gilbert B; Dahlqvist, Annika; Sundberg, Ralf; Childers, Ann; Morrison, Katharine; Manninen, Anssi H; Dashti, Hussain M; Wood, Richard J; Wortman, Jay; Worm, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    The inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk, or general health and the persistent reports of some serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications, in combination with the continued success of low-carbohydrate diets in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome without significant side effects, point to the need for a reappraisal of dietary guidelines. The benefits of carbohydrate restriction in diabetes are immediate and well documented. Concerns about the efficacy and safety are long term and conjectural rather than data driven. Dietary carbohydrate restriction reliably reduces high blood glucose, does not require weight loss (although is still best for weight loss), and leads to the reduction or elimination of medication. It has never shown side effects comparable with those seen in many drugs. Here we present 12 points of evidence supporting the use of low-carbohydrate diets as the first approach to treating type 2 diabetes and as the most effective adjunct to pharmacology in type 1. They represent the best-documented, least controversial results. The insistence on long-term randomized controlled trials as the only kind of data that will be accepted is without precedent in science. The seriousness of diabetes requires that we evaluate all of the evidence that is available. The 12 points are sufficiently compelling that we feel that the burden of proof rests with those who are opposed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CARBOHYDRATE-BASED CELL ADHESION: ANALYSIS OF SPHEROID FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Vieira Macedo Grinet

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are vast constituents of cell surfaces and in many systems where cell adhesion plays a critical role, carbohydrate binding proteins have been shown to bind to cell surface carbohydrates and participate in cell-cell interactions. Jurkat cells are suspension cells that grow in clumps and have 20.7 (± 2.2 hours of population doubling time (PDT. In this experiment, Jurkat cells are studied to compare the effects of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA lectin, and Maackia amurensis (MAA lectin, for clumping and spheroid formation studies, as well as carbohydrate analog solutions in ethanol (C2H6O Ac4ManNAc, and Ac5ManNTGc for concentration effect studies.

  1. Influence of soil drought stress on photosynthesis, carbohydrates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    grown 1-year-old potted. M.9EMLA apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) (after growing for 6 weeks) were subjected to drought stress by withholding water for an additional six-week period. The photosynthesis, carbohydrates ...

  2. β-thalassemia minor, carbohydrate malabsorption and histamine intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnedl, Wolfgang J.; Schenk, Michael; Lackner, Sonja; Holasek, Sandra J.; Mangge, Harald

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: β-thalassemia minor is characterized by reduced β-haemoglobin chain synthesis and sometimes mild anaemia, although carriers of β-thalassemia minorare usually clinically asymptomatic.Nonspecific abdominal complaints may be caused by gastrointestinal carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose and fructose) and/or malabsorption of biogenic amines (histamine), or proteins (gluten). Objectives: We report on two patients with β-thalassemia minor suffering nonspecific abdominal symptoms due to a carbohydrate and histamine malabsorption. Design/methods: The diagnosis of β-thalassemia minorwas done with peripheral blood smear and cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Carbohydrate malabsorption was diagnosed with hydrogen breath tests and, histamine intolerance (HIT) with a serum diamine oxidase value malabsorption in these two patients with β-thalassemia minor were treated successfully with an individually-tailored diet free of symptom causing carbohydrates and histamine. PMID:29046748

  3. Chiral reagents in glycosylation and modification of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yuan; Blaszczyk, Stephanie A; Xiao, Guozhi; Tang, Weiping

    2018-02-05

    Carbohydrates play a significant role in numerous biological events, and the chemical synthesis of carbohydrates is vital for further studies to understand their various biological functions. Due to the structural complexity of carbohydrates, the stereoselective formation of glycosidic linkages and the site-selective modification of hydroxyl groups are very challenging and at the same time extremely important. In recent years, the rapid development of chiral reagents including both chiral auxiliaries and chiral catalysts has significantly improved the stereoselectivity for glycosylation reactions and the site-selectivity for the modification of carbohydrates. These new tools will greatly facilitate the efficient synthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates. In this tutorial review, we will summarize these advances and highlight the most recent examples.

  4. Recent Progress in Chemical and Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthana, Saddam; Cao, Hongzhi; Chen, Xi

    2011-01-01

    Summary The important roles that carbohydrates play in biological processes and their potential application in diagnosis, therapeutics, and vaccine development have made them attractive synthetic targets. Despite ongoing challenges, tremendous progresses have been made in recent years for the synthesis of carbohydrates. The chemical glycosylation methods have become more sophisticated and the synthesis of oligosaccharides has become more predictable. Simplified one-pot glycosylation strategy and automated synthesis are increasingly used to obtain biologically important glycans. On the other hand, chemoenzymatic synthesis continues to be a powerful alternative for obtaining complex carbohydrates. This review highlights recent progress in chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates with a particular focus on the methods developed for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, glycolipids, and glycosylated natural products. PMID:19833544

  5. Hydrolysis of Brewers' Spent Grain by Carbohydrate Degrading Enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forssell, P.; Kontkanen, H.; Schols, H.A.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Eijsink, V.G.H.; Treimo, J.; Robertson, J.A.; Waldron, K.W.; Faulds, C.B.; Buchert, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this work four commercial cellulase-hemicellulase mixtures with different activity profiles were used for solubilization of carbohydrates from brewers' spent grain (BSG). After the enzyme treatment, both the solubilised fraction and the unhydrolysed residue were characterized. Treatment with

  6. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate parenteral nutrition (PN) may potentially reverse liver disease in long-term PN-dependent infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Husby, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is a complication of long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). Removal of lipids may reverse PNAC but compromises the energy to ensure infant growth. The purpose of this study was to test whether a low-fat, high-carbohydrate PN regimen......, which prevents and reverses PNAC in adults, could do the same in infants. This regimen could potentially avoid the problem of diminished energy input after removing nutritional lipids. METHODS: Infants developing PNAC over a 2-year period were started on a low-fat PN regimen with calories primarily from...... carbohydrates. The fat-free PN, containing 314 kJ/ml, was provided 5-6 times a week and fat, including essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, 1-2 times a week. Enteral feeding was continued according to individual tolerance. RESULTS: The study included 10 infants with short bowel syndrome (six...

  7. [The carbohydrate metabolic end products of trematodes parasitic in cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burenina, E A

    2000-01-01

    The trematodes Eurytrema pancreaticum and Calicophoron ijimai during the incubation in vitro assimilated glucose from the incubation medium and utilized the endogenous glycogen. Final products of the carbohydrate metabolism in the calicophorones were lactic, acatic, propionic, isobutyric and alpha-methylbutyric acids; in the eurytremes they were lactic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric, alpha-methylbutyric, valerianic and capronic acids. The effect of anthelminthic preparations on the carbohydrate metabolism and its final products was investigated.

  8. Alterations in peripheral fatty acid composition in bipolar and unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, Gustavo; Versace, Amelia; Metherel, Adam H; Monsalve-Castro, Luz A; Phillips, Mary L; Bazinet, Richard P; Andreazza, Ana C

    2018-06-01

    Lipid metabolism has been shown to play an important role in unipolar and bipolar depression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate levels of fatty acids in patients with unipolar (MDD) and bipolar depression (BDD) in comparison to patients with bipolar disorder in euthymia (BDE) and non-psychiatric controls. Levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were assessed in serum of (87) patients with BD (31 euthymic, 22 depressive) or MDD (34) and (31) non-psychiatric controls through GC-FID. No significant difference in total levels of PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids), SFAs (saturated fatty acids), MUFAs (monounsaturated fatty acids) and total fatty acids were found between groups. Our results demonstrated higher levels AA: EPA and AA: EPA+DHA in patients with BDD. Additionally, we observed that overall omega-6 present a positive correlation with illness duration in patients with BDD and AA: EPA ratio positively associated with illness duration in MDD group. Depression severity was positively associated with AA: EPA+DHA ratio in all participants. Together, our results support the relevance for the balance of omega-3 and omega-6 in BDD. Also, our results suggest a potential subset of stage-related lipid biomarkers that further studies are needed to help clarify the dynamics of lipid alteration in BD and MDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of a land-locked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) population as a potential genetic resource with a focus on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, M B; Olsen, R E; Solstorm, D; Skulstad, O F; Tocher, D R

    2016-03-01

    The natural food for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in freshwater has relatively lower levels of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) than found in prey for post-smolt salmon in seawater. Land-locked salmon such as the Gullspång population feed exclusively on freshwater type lipids during its entire life cycle, a successful adaptation derived from divergent evolution. Studying land-locked populations may provide insights into the molecular and genetic control mechanisms that determine and regulate n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis and retention in Atlantic salmon. A two factorial study was performed comparing land-locked and farmed salmon parr fed diets formulated with fish or rapeseed oil for 8 weeks. The land-locked parr had higher capacity to synthesise n-3 LC-PUFA as indicated by higher expression and activity of desaturase and elongase enzymes. The data suggested that the land-locked salmon had reduced sensitivity to dietary fatty acid composition and that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) did not appear to suppress expression of LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes or activity of the biosynthesis pathway, probably an evolutionary adaptation to a natural diet lower in DHA. Increased biosynthetic activity did not translate to enhanced n-3 LC-PUFA contents in the flesh and diet was the only factor affecting this parameter. Additionally, high lipogenic and glycolytic potentials were found in land-locked salmon, together with decreased lipolysis which in turn could indicate increased use of carbohydrates as an energy source and a sparing of lipid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Glucose, amino acids and fatty acids directly regulate ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas of goldfish (Carassius auratus) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Canosa, Luis Fabián; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-04-01

    Ghrelin and nesfatin-1 are two peptidyl hormones primarily involved in food intake regulation. We previously reported that the amount of dietary carbohydrates, protein and lipids modulates the expression of these peptides in goldfish in vivo. In the present work, we aimed to characterize the effects of single nutrients on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas. First, immunolocalization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in goldfish hepatopancreas cells was studied by immunohistochemistry. Second, the effects of 2 and 4hour-long exposures of cultured intestine and hepatopancreas sections to glucose, l-tryptophan, oleic acid, linolenic acid (LNA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 gene and protein expression were studied. Co-localization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the cytoplasm of goldfish hepatocytes was found. Exposure to glucose led to an upregulation of preproghrelin and a downregulation of nucb2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine. l-Tryptophan mainly decreased the expression of both peptides in the intestine and hepatopancreas. Fatty acids, in general, downregulated NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine, but only the longer and highly unsaturated fatty acids inhibited preproghrelin. EPA exposure led to a decrease in preproghrelin, and an increase in nucb2/nesfatin-1 expression in hepatopancreas after 2h. These results show that macronutrients exert a dose- and time-dependent, direct regulation of ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas, and suggest a role for these hormones in the digestive process and nutrient metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lifestyle Modification through Dietary Intervention: Health Promotion of Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Khoshbaten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is more common worldwide and no certain treatment apart from lifestyle modification has been established yet. Available data consistently show that energy intake is significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than in individuals with no evidence of fatty liver. Changing nutritional behaviors seems to be the primary approach for treatment, simultaneously addressing all the clinical and biochemical defects. This study was aimed to examine the effects of two different composition of low energy diet (diet I vs. diet II on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.Methods: In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, 44 ultrasonography-proven overweight non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients were divided into two groups and received two low-energy diets (-500 kcal less than energy requirement individually inc. diet I (Carbohydrate: Fat: Protein: 55:25:20 and diet II (Carbohydrate: Fat: Protein: 40:40:20 for six weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical measures as well as liver enzymes were assessed after 12 hours fasting.Results: After diet I and diet II, weight decreased significantly (%1.82 and %2.45, respectively. Liver enzymes and echogenicity decreased significantly by both diet I and diet II. Mean of triglyceride concentration decreased (%18.09 after diet II (P=0.023, while there was no significant change after diet I. Significant correlations were found between changes in aspartate aminotransferase with triglyceride and LDL-C diet I.Conclusion: Low energy diets can decrease liver enzymes regardless of their composition, while diet II seems to be more effective than diet I in reduction of weight and triglyceride level.

  12. Identification of carbohydrates as the major carbon sink of the marine microalga Isochrysis zhangjiangensis (Haptophyta) and optimization of its productivity by nitrogen manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Tao; Yao, Chang-Hong; Ai, Jiang-Ning; Cao, Xu-Peng; Xue, Song; Wang, Wei-liang

    2014-11-01

    Microalgae represent a potential feedstock for biofuel production. During cultivation under nitrogen-depleted conditions, carbohydrates, rather than neutral lipids, were the major carbon sink of the marine microalga Isochrysis zhangjiangensis (Haptophyta). Carbohydrates reached maximum levels of 21.2 pg cell(-1) on day 5, which was an increase of more than 7-fold from day 1, while neutral lipids simultaneously increased 1.9-fold from 4.0 to 7.6 pg cell(-1) during the ten-day nitrogen-depleted cultivation. The carbohydrate productivity of I. zhangjiangensis was improved by optimization of the nitrate supply mode. The maximum carbohydrate concentration was 0.95 g L(-1) under batch cultivation, with an initial nitrogen concentration of 31.0 mg L(-1), which was 2.4-fold greater than that achieved under nitrogen-depleted conditions. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the accumulated carbohydrate in I. zhangjiangensis was composed of glucose. These results show that I. zhangjiangensis represents an ideal carbohydrate-enriched bioresource for biofuel production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbohydrate phenotyping of human and animal milk glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Anki; Kacskovics, Imre; Breimer, Michael E; Hammarström, Lennart; Holgersson, Jan

    2005-03-01

    Breast-milk has a well-known anti-microbial effect, which is in part due to the many different carbohydrate structures expressed. This renders it a position as a potential therapeutic for treatment of infection by different pathogens, thus avoiding the drawbacks of many antibiotics. The plethora of carbohydrate epitopes in breast-milk is known to differ between species, with human milk expressing the most complex one. We have investigated the expression of protein-bound carbohydrate epitopes in milk from man, cow, goat, sheep, pig, horse, dromedary and rabbit. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and the presence of carbohydrate epitopes on milk proteins were analysed by Western blotting using different lectins and carbohydrate-specific antibodies. We show that ABH, Lewis (Le)x, sialyl-Lex, Lea, sialyl-Lea and Leb carbohydrate epitopes are expressed mainly on man, pig and horse milk proteins. The blood group precursor structure H type 1 is expressed in all species investigated, while only pig, dromedary and rabbit milk proteins carry H type 2 epitopes. These epitopes are receptors for Helicobacter pylori (Leb and sialyl-Lex), enteropathogenic (H type 1, Lea and Lex) and enterotoxic Escherichia coli (heat-stable toxin; H type 1 and 2), and Campylobacter jejuni (H type 2). Thus, milk from these animals or their genetically modified descendants could have a therapeutic effect by inhibiting pathogen colonization and infection.

  14. A carbohydrate-anion recognition system in aprotic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bo; Dong, Hai; Ramström, Olof

    2014-05-01

    A carbohydrate-anion recognition system in nonpolar solvents is reported, in which complexes form at the B-faces of β-D-pyranosides with H1-, H3-, and H5-cis patterns similar to carbohydrate-π interactions. The complexation effect was evaluated for a range of carbohydrate structures; it resulted in either 1:1 carbohydrate-anion complexes, or 1:2 complex formation depending on the protection pattern of the carbohydrate. The interaction was also evaluated with different anions and solvents. In both cases it resulted in significant binding differences. The results indicate that complexation originates from van der Waals interactions or weak CH⋅⋅⋅A(-) hydrogen bonds between the binding partners and is related to electron-withdrawing groups of the carbohydrates as well as increased hydrogen-bond-accepting capability of the anions. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  15. Computational carbohydrate chemistry: what theoretical methods can tell us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Computational methods have had a long history of application to carbohydrate systems and their development in this regard is discussed. The conformational analysis of carbohydrates differs in several ways from that of other biomolecules. Many glycans appear to exhibit numerous conformations coexisting in solution at room temperature and a conformational analysis of a carbohydrate must address both spatial and temporal properties. When solution nuclear magnetic resonance data are used for comparison, the simulation must give rise to ensemble-averaged properties. In contrast, when comparing to experimental data obtained from crystal structures a simulation of a crystal lattice, rather than of an isolated molecule, is appropriate. Molecular dynamics simulations are well suited for such condensed phase modeling. Interactions between carbohydrates and other biological macromolecules are also amenable to computational approaches. Having obtained a three-dimensional structure of the receptor protein, it is possible to model with accuracy the conformation of the carbohydrate in the complex. An example of the application of free energy perturbation simulations to the prediction of carbohydrate-protein binding energies is presented. PMID:9579797

  16. Carbohydrate-based vaccine adjuvants - discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Qiu, Liying; Wang, Xiaoli; Zou, Xiaopeng; Lu, Mengji; Yin, Jian

    2015-10-01

    The addition of a suitable adjuvant to a vaccine can generate significant effective adaptive immune responses. There is an urgent need for the development of novel po7tent and safe adjuvants for human vaccines. Carbohydrate molecules are promising adjuvants for human vaccines due to their high biocompatibility and good tolerability in vivo. The present review covers a few promising carbohydrate-based adjuvants, lipopolysaccharide, trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate, QS-21 and inulin as examples, which have been extensively studied in human vaccines in a number of preclinical and clinical studies. The authors discuss the current status, applications and strategies of development of each adjuvant and different adjuvant formulation systems. This information gives insight regarding the exciting prospect in the field of carbohydrate-based adjuvant research. Carbohydrate-based adjuvants are promising candidates as an alternative to the Alum salts for human vaccines development. Furthermore, combining two or more adjuvants in one formulation is one of the effective strategies in adjuvant development. However, further research efforts are needed to study and develop novel adjuvants systems, which can be more stable, potent and safe. The development of synthetic carbohydrate chemistry can improve the study of carbohydrate-based adjuvants.

  17. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas, E-mail: tke@uams.edu [Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute and Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.

  19. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses

  20. Signal Amplification by Glyco-qPCR for Ultrasensitive Detection of Carbohydrates: Applications in Glycobiology**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seok Joon; Lee, Kyung Bok; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Masuko, Sayaka; Ly, Mellisa; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Tiny amounts of carbohydrates (ca. 1 zmol) can be detected quantitatively by a real-time method based on the conjugation of carbohydrates with DNA markers (see picture). The proposed method (glyco-qPCR) provides uniform, ultrasensitive detection of carbohydrates, which can be applied to glycobiology, as well as carbohydrate-based drug discovery. PMID:23073897

  1. Cause of impaired carbohydrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldes, J.; Megyesi, K.; Koranyi, L.

    1984-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism (HT) affects glucose metabolism in various ways. The role of insulin, glucagon and growth-hormone (GH) was determined. After glucose loading the insulin response is weaker in HT than in euthyroid subjects. Enhanced degradation of insulin has been reported. It is suggested that in HT the serum insulin concentration declines at a slightly accelerated rate. In HT the deranged carbohydrate metabolism might be a consequence of altered tissue sensitivity to insulin. To elucidate this problem insulin receptors on erythrocytes obtained from hyperthyroid women were investigated. The maximal specific binding of 125 I-insulin to RBC of hyperthyroid patients was decreased and the analysis refers to a decreased receptor concentration in RBC. The nature of glucagon secretion and its influence on glucose metabolism in HT was investigated. The basal plasma glucagon is elevated in hyperthyroid patients. The suppression of glucagon secretion induced by an oral glucose loading was of significantly lesser degree in hyperthyroid patients than in controls. Applying the erythrocyte receptor assay a decreased specific binding of 125 I-glucagon to RBC of hyperthyroid patients has been found and data indicate a significantly less glucagon receptor concentration in thyrotoxicosis. Physiological elevations of serum GH levels led to a significant impairment of glucose metabolism. Beside the GH-RH and somatostatin, the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system participates in the regulation of GH secretion too. It has been demonstrated that after administration of the dopamine agonist l-dopa the GH response was weaker in HT than in controls. This indicates that in thyrotoxicosis the GH secretion can not be stimulated in such a degree as in euthyroidism. (author)

  2. Modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds, methods of making the same and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Richard A; Pawlak, Joel J; Salam, Abdus; El-Tahlawy, Khaled Fathy

    2015-03-10

    Compositions of matter are provided that include chitosan and a modified carbohydrate. The modified carbohydrate includes a carbohydrate component and a cross linking agent. The modified carbohydrate has increased carboxyl content as compared to an unmodified counterpart carbohydrate. A carboxyl group of the modified carbohydrate is covalently bonded with an amino group of chitosan. The compositions of matter provided herein may include cross linked starch citrate-chitosan and cross linked hemicellulose citrate-chitosan, including foams thereof. These compositions yield excellent absorbency and metal chelation properties. Methods of making cross linked modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds are also provided.

  3. Rate controlling steps in fatty acid oxidation by unloaded rodent soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T P; Schluter, M D; Grindeland, R E; Moran, M M; Baer, L A; Wade, C E

    2002-07-01

    In response to decreased usage skeletal muscle undergoes an adaptive reductive remodeling due to the decrease in tension on the weight bearing components of the musculo-skeletal system. Accompanying a shift in fiber type is an increased reliance of carbohydrate metabolism and decreased reliance on fat for energy. These responses have been found with both space flight and ground based models of disuse atrophy including the chronically adapted rodent hind limb suspended (HLS) rat (1, 4-7, 10, 11). In addition, after space flight, the ability of soleus muscle homogenates to oxidize palmitate is decreased. We have previously shown that expression of the mRNA of enzymes involved in beta-oxidation is reduced in the soleus muscle of HLS rats. At the same time mRNA expression of enzymes involved in glycolysis was increased. This study extends these observations to address the question of whether the decrease in beta-oxidation is caused by a reduction in the capacity of the pathway to oxidize fat or the regulation is effected before fatty acids enter the mitochondria, i.e. the reduced capacity of the fatty acid oxidation pathway is because less fat is available for oxidation. The two key steps involved in fatty acid uptake into the cells are lipoprotein lipase and the transport of the free fatty acids produced by lipoprotein lipase into the cell via the carnitine acyltransferase system.

  4. Toxocara canis: Larvicidal activity of fatty acid amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Santos, Taís; D'Oca, Caroline da Ros Montes; Mata-Santos, Hílton Antônio; Fenalti, Juliana; Pinto, Nitza; Coelho, Tatiane; Berne, Maria Elisabeth; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; D'Oca, Marcelo Gonçalves Montes; Scaini, Carlos James

    2016-02-01

    Considering the therapeutic potential of fatty acid amides, the present study aimed to evaluate their in vitro activity against Toxocara canis larvae and their cytotoxicity for the first time. Linoleylpyrrolidilamide was the most potent, with a minimal larvicidal concentration (MLC) of 0.05 mg/mL and 27% cytotoxicity against murine peritoneal macrophages C57BL/6 mice, as assessed by the MTT assay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your baby gets most ... you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important family of building ...

  6. Acute fatty liver in pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Peters, W.H.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2002-01-01

    When confronted with liver abnormalities during the third trimester of pregnancy, one should consider acute fatty liver of pregnancy. The differential diagnosis with (pre-)eclampsia and HELLP syndrome is sometimes difficult. In these cases a liver biopsy is helpful though rarely performed during

  7. Multivariate analysis of fatty acid and biochemical constitutes of seaweeds to characterize their potential as bioresource for biofuel and fine chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Kumar, Manoj; Mishra, Girish; Sahoo, Dinabandhu

    2017-02-01

    In the present study bio prospecting of thirty seaweeds from Indian coasts was analyzed for their biochemical components including pigments, fatty acid and ash content. Multivariate analysis of biochemical components and fatty acids was done using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) to manifest chemotaxonomic relationship among various seaweeds. The overall analysis suggests that these seaweeds have multi-functional properties and can be utilized as promising bioresource for proteins, lipids, pigments and carbohydrates for the food/feed and biofuel industry. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  9. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty ac...

  10. Effects of Carbohydrate Source on Genetic Competence in Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Zachary D.; Son, Minjun; Rosa-Alberty, Ariana E.; Zeng, Lin; Ahn, Sang-Joon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The capacity to internalize and catabolize carbohydrates is essential for dental caries pathogens to persist and cause disease. The expression of many virulence-related attributes by Streptococcus mutans, an organism strongly associated with human dental caries, is influenced by the peptide signaling pathways that control genetic competence. Here, we demonstrate a relationship between the efficiency of competence signaling and carbohydrate source. A significant increase in the activity of the promoters for comX, comS, and comYA after exposure to competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) was observed in cells growing on fructose, maltose, sucrose, or trehalose as the primary carbohydrate source, compared to cells growing on glucose. However, only cells grown in the presence of trehalose or sucrose displayed a significant increase in transformation frequency. Notably, even low concentrations of these carbohydrates in the presence of excess glucose could enhance the expression of comX, encoding a sigma factor needed for competence, and the effects on competence were dependent on the cognate sugar:phosphotransferase permease for each carbohydrate. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter fusions, we observed that growth in fructose or trehalose resulted in a greater proportion of the population activating expression of comX and comS, encoding the precursor of comX-inducing peptide (XIP), after addition of CSP, than growth in glucose. Thus, the source of carbohydrate significantly impacts the stochastic behaviors that regulate subpopulation responses to CSP, which can induce competence in S. mutans. IMPORTANCE The signaling pathways that regulate development of genetic competence in Streptococcus mutans are intimately intertwined with the pathogenic potential of the organism, impacting biofilm formation, stress tolerance, and expression of known virulence determinants. Induction of the gene for the master regulator of competence, ComX, by competence

  11. Is there a role for carbohydrate restriction in the treatment and prevention of cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement Rainer J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last years, evidence has accumulated suggesting that by systematically reducing the amount of dietary carbohydrates (CHOs one could suppress, or at least delay, the emergence of cancer, and that proliferation of already existing tumor cells could be slowed down. This hypothesis is supported by the association between modern chronic diseases like the metabolic syndrome and the risk of developing or dying from cancer. CHOs or glucose, to which more complex carbohydrates are ultimately digested, can have direct and indirect effects on tumor cell proliferation: first, contrary to normal cells, most malignant cells depend on steady glucose availability in the blood for their energy and biomass generating demands and are not able to metabolize significant amounts of fatty acids or ketone bodies due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Second, high insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 levels resulting from chronic ingestion of CHO-rich Western diet meals, can directly promote tumor cell proliferation via the insulin/IGF1 signaling pathway. Third, ketone bodies that are elevated when insulin and blood glucose levels are low, have been found to negatively affect proliferation of different malignant cells in vitro or not to be usable by tumor cells for metabolic demands, and a multitude of mouse models have shown anti-tumorigenic properties of very low CHO ketogenic diets. In addition, many cancer patients exhibit an altered glucose metabolism characterized by insulin resistance and may profit from an increased protein and fat intake. In this review, we address the possible beneficial effects of low CHO diets on cancer prevention and treatment. Emphasis will be placed on the role of insulin and IGF1 signaling in tumorigenesis as well as altered dietary needs of cancer patients.

  12. Interaction of decreased arterial PO2 and exercise on carbohydrate metabolism in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinker, B A; Wilson, R D; Wasserman, D H

    1995-09-01

    To determine the mechanism by which low arterial PO2 (PaO2) affects muscle carbohydrate (CHO) metabolism during exercise, dogs inhaled gas consisting of 0.21 (NO; n = 6) or 0.11 (LO; n = 6) inspired oxygen fraction (FIO2) during rest and 150 min of moderate treadmill exercise. Limb arteriovenous difference and isotopic ([3H]- and [14C]glucose) methods were used to assess muscle carbohydrate metabolism: PaO2 was reduced by approximately 50% in LO vs. NO, but limb O2 uptake was similar. Glucose disappearance was increased during rest (13 +/- 2 vs. 19 +/- 1 mumol.kg-1.min-1) and exercise (23 +/- 4 vs. 36 +/- 6 mumol.kg-1.min-1 at 150 min) in LO vs. NO, but arterial glucose was unchanged because hepatic glucose production was increased similarly. Limb glucose and pyruvate oxidation (derived from vein [14C]lactate specific activity) rates were elevated about twofold during rest and exercise in LO vs. NO. Estimated limb glycogenolysis increased at rest (21 +/- 9 vs. 96 +/- 23 mumol/min) and during exercise (70 +/- 21 vs. 184 +/- 41 mumol/min at 150 min) in LO vs. NO. The %CO2 and %lactate from glucose in LO were about twofold the values in NO in rest and exercise. The %CO2 from pyruvate was greater and free fatty acid levels were lower, suggesting reduced fat metabolism in LO. Arterial lactate and pyruvate levels were elevated during rest and the initial 30 min of exercise, even though net limb outputs were no greater. Lactate-to-pyruvate ratios and pH were similar in LO and NO during exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Calabrò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, sugar-cane fibre (SCF, beet pulp (BP, wheat bran (WB, fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulin, yeast cell wall (YCW, ground psyllium seed (PS, pea hulls (PH. All substrates were incubated at 39°C under anaerobic conditions with faeces collected from dogs as microbial inoculum. Gas production of fermenting cultures was recorded and after 48 h, pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA and organic matter disappearance (OMD were determined. The results confirm high fermentation by dog faecal bacteria of FOS and inulin that produced high amounts of propionate and that underwent very rapid fermentation. Three substrates (SCF, CMC and PC were not able to support bacterial growth, with low gas and SCFA production, and high BCFA formation. PH and BP showed moderate OMD and SCFA production. Wheat bran B underwent rapid fermentation and generated a high proportion of butyrate. PS underwent slow fermentation with delayed gas production, supporting a high formation of SCFA, with an adequate amount of butyrate for bacterial growth while YCW, which showed a delayed fermentation, gave moderate SCFA production. The fermentation characteristics of PS and YCW suggest their potential use in promoting a more distal fermentation on intestinal tract.

  14. Facile total synthesis of (-)-(5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide from carbohydrate, a mosquito oviposition attractant pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saibal; Mishra, Anand Kumar; Kumar, Ashish; Al Ghamdi, Ahamad Al Khazim; Yadav, Jhillu Singh

    2012-09-01

    Total synthesis of (-)-(5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide, a major component of mosquito oviposition attractant pheromones is reported. The key synthetic steps involve epoxide opening by lithiated salt of ethylpropionate and acid catalysed lactonization. The total synthesis was achieved in 11 linear steps staring from a readily available carbohydrate δ-gluconolactone in 18% overall yield making it simple, practical and elegant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Does a lower carbohydrate protein substitute impact on blood phenylalanine control, growth and appetite in children with PKU?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokmen-Ozel, Hulya; Ferguson, Carol; Evans, Sharon; Daly, Anne; MacDonald, Anita

    2011-01-01

    In children with phenylketonuria (PKU), it is possible that high carbohydrate protein substitutes may adversely affect blood phenylalanine control. We evaluated if a low carbohydrate, 'ready-to-drink' protein substitute would impact on short term blood phenylalanine control, weight and appetite in children with PKU aged 3-10 years. This was a 3-part, 5-week randomised, controlled, crossover study in which two different carbohydrate/protein-equivalent ratios in protein substitute [control protein substitute (CPS) median 1:1; trial protein substitute (TPS) 0.5:1] were compared. The effects on feeding behaviour, weight change and phenylalanine concentrations were studied. Fourteen children (12 boys; median age 6.3 y, range 3 to 9.7 y) with PKU on diet were recruited from 2 treatment centres. Phenylalanine control did not deteriorate with TPS and remained unchanged between pre-study and CPS (p = 0.783). No statistical differences were noted in energy intake between the two study parts. Any changes in weight were similar between the two groups and there was limited change in feeding behaviour. This study suggests that the carbohydrate/protein-equivalent ratio of protein substitutes can be reduced to 0.5:1 with no loss of blood phenylalanine control or adverse effect on weight gain in children with PKU. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Increasing the carbohydrate storage capacity of plants by engineering a glycogen-like polymer pool in the cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicke, Simona; Seung, David; Egli, Barbara; Devers, Emanuel A; Streb, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    Global demand for higher crop yields and for more efficient utilization of agricultural products will grow over the next decades. Here, we present a new concept for boosting the carbohydrate content of plants, by channeling photosynthetically fixed carbon into a newly engineered glucose polymer pool. We transiently expressed the starch/glycogen synthases from either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Cyanidioschyzon merolae, together with the starch branching enzyme from C. merolae, in the cytosol of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. This effectively built a UDP-glucose-dependent glycogen biosynthesis pathway. Glycogen synthesis was observed with Transmission Electron Microscopy, and the polymer structure was further analyzed. Within three days of enzyme expression, glycogen content of the leaf was 5-10 times higher than the starch levels of the control. Further, the leaves produced less starch and sucrose, which are normally the carbohydrate end-products of photosynthesis. We conclude that after enzyme expression, the newly fixed carbohydrates were routed into the new glycogen sink and trapped. Our approach allows carbohydrates to be efficiently stored in a new subcellular compartment, thus increasing the value of vegetative crop tissues for biofuel production or animal feed. The method also opens new potential for increasing the sink strength of heterotrophic tissues. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pentoses and light intensity increase the growth and carbohydrate production and alter the protein profile of Chlorella minutissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, B C B; Cassuriaga, A P A; Morais, M G; Costa, J A V

    2017-08-01

    High concentrations of carbon, which is considered a necessary element, are required for microalgal growth. Therefore, the identification of alternative carbon sources available in large quantities is increasingly important. This study evaluated the effects of light variation and pentose addition on the carbohydrate content and protein profile of Chlorella minutissima grown in a raceway photobioreactor. The kinetic parameters, carbohydrate content, and protein profile of Chlorella minutissima and its theoretical potential for ethanol production were estimated. The highest cellular concentrations were obtained with a light intensity of 33.75µmol.m -2 .s -1 . Arabinose addition combined with a light intensity of 33.75µmol.m -2 .s -1 increased the carbohydrate content by 53.8% and theoretically produced 39.1mL·100g -1 ethanol. All of the assays showed that a lower light availability altered the protein profile. The luminous intensity affects xylose and arabinose assimilation and augments the carbohydrate content in C. minutissima, making this microalga appropriate for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of carbohydrates from industrial waste of corn starch production using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomoki; Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Teramoto, Yoshikuni; Azuma, Jun-ichi

    2010-10-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was applied for production of carbohydrates mainly consisting of arabinoxylan from corn pericarp which is an industrial waste of corn starch production by using hot compressed water as a solvent. The solubilization rate increased with increase in heating temperature and reached 75.2% at 220 °C. The main extracted materials were carbohydrates consist of glucose, xylose and arabinose indicating solubilization of starch and hemicellulose, while residues were composed of cellulose. Four independent variables (heating temperature, come-up time, heating time and solid to liquid ratio) were optimized for maximizing the carbohydrates yield using the response surface methodology including fractional factorial design, the path of steepest ascent and central composite design. The optimized condition was as follows; heating temperature 176.5 °C, come-up time 2 min, heating time 16 min and solid to liquid ratio 1/20 (g/mL), respectively. The maximal yield attained 70.8% of carbohydrates with predominant production of xylo-oligosaccharides. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fuel selection in Wistar rats exposed to cold: shivering thermogenesis diverts fatty acids from re-esterification to oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Eric; Haman, François; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2009-09-01

    This study characterizes the effects of shivering thermogenesis on metabolic fuel selection in Wistar rats. Because lipids account for most of the heat produced, we have investigated: (1) whether the rate of appearance of non-esterified fatty acids (R(a) NEFAs) is stimulated by shivering, (2) whether mono-unsaturated (oleate) and saturated fatty acids (palmitate) are affected similarly, and (3) whether the partitioning between fatty acid oxidation and re-esterification is altered by cold exposure. Fuel oxidation was measured by indirect calorimetry and fatty acid mobilization by continuous infusion of 9,10-[(3)H]oleate and 1-[(14)C]palmitate. During steady-state cold exposure, results show that total heat production is unequally shared by the oxidation of lipids (52% of metabolic rate), carbohydrates (35%) and proteins (13%), and that the same fuel selection pattern is observed at all shivering intensities. All previous research shows that mammals stimulate R(a) NEFA to support exercise or shivering. In contrast, results reveal that the R(a) NEFA of the rat remains constant during cold exposure (55 micromol kg(1) min(1)). No preferential use of mono-unsaturated over saturated fatty acids could be demonstrated. The rat decreases its rate of fatty acid re-esterification from 48.4 +/- 6.4 to 19.6 +/- 6.3 micromol kg(1) min(1) to provide energy to shivering muscles. This study is the first to show that mammals do not only increase fatty acid availability for oxidation by stimulating R(a) NEFA. Reallocation of fatty acids from re-esterification to oxidation is a novel, alternative strategy used by the rat to support shivering.

  20. Carbohydrate Supplementation Influences Serum Cytokines after Exercise under Hypoxic Conditions

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    Aline Venticinque Caris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise performed at the hypoxia equivalent of an altitude of 4200 m is associated with elevated inflammatory mediators and changes in the Th1/Th2 response. By contrast, supplementation with carbohydrates has an anti-inflammatory effect when exercise is performed under normoxic conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of carbohydrate supplementation on cytokines and cellular damage markers after exercise under hypoxic conditions at a simulated altitude of 4200 m. Methods: Seven adult male volunteers who exercised for 60 min at an intensity of 50% VO2Peak were randomly evaluated under three distinct conditions; normoxia, hypoxia and hypoxia + carbohydrate supplementation. Blood samples were collected at rest, at the end of exercise and after 60 min of recovery. To evaluate hypoxia + carbohydrate supplementation, volunteers received a solution of 6% carbohydrate (maltodextrin or a placebo (strawberry-flavored Crystal Light®; Kraft Foods, Northfield, IL, USA every 20 min during exercise and recovery. Statistical analyses comprised analysis of variance, with a one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey post hoc test with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: Under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, there was a significant increase in the concentration of IL-6 after exercise and after recovery compared to at rest (p < 0.05, while in the hypoxia + carbohydrate group, there was a significant increase in the concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α after exercise compared to at rest (p < 0.05. Furthermore, under this condition, TNF-α, IL-2 and the balance of IL-2/IL-4 were increased after recovery compared to at rest (p < 0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that carbohydrate supplementation modified the IL-6 and TNF-α serum concentrations and shifted the IL-2/IL-4 balance towards Th1 in response without glycemic, glutaminemia and cell damage effects.